Science.gov

Sample records for experimental protocol development

  1. Development of an experimental apparatus and protocol for determining antimicrobial activities of gaseous plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    There is a growing interest in the use of naturally-occurring antimicrobial agents such as plant essential oils (EOs) to inhibit the growth of hazardous and spoilage microorganisms in foods. Gaseous EOs (EO gases) have many potential applications in the food industry, including use as antimicrobial agents in food packaging materials and sanitizing agents for foods and food-contact surfaces, and in food processing environments. Despite the potentially beneficial applications of EO gases, there is no standard method to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. Thus, the present study was aimed at developing an experimental apparatus and protocol to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of EO gases against microorganisms. A sealed experimental apparatus was constructed for simultaneous evaluation of antimicrobial activities of EO gases at different concentrations without creating concentration gradients. A differential medium was then evaluated in which a color change allowed for the determination of growth of glucose-fermenting microorganisms. Lastly, an experimental protocol for the assessment of MIC and MLC values of EO gases was developed, and these values were determined for 31 EO gases against Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. Results showed that cinnamon bark EO gas had the lowest MIC (0.0391 μl/ml), followed by thyme-thymol EO gas (0.0781 μl/ml), oregano EO gas (0.3125 μl/ml), peppermint EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml), and thyme-linalool EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml). The order of the MLC values of the EO gases against the E. coli O157:H7 was thyme-thymol (0.0781 μl/ml)experimental apparatus and protocol enable rapid and accurate determination of the MIC and MLC values of EO gases and perhaps other types of gaseous antimicrobial agents. PMID:26350124

  2. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  3. The Promises and Challenges of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Schizophrenia: Development of an Initial Experimental Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Moitra, Ethan; Ellenberg, Stacy; Armey, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and other psychotic-spectrum disorders, are a major cause of disability worldwide. Although efficacious pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have been developed for treating patients with schizophrenia, relapse rates are high and long-term recovery remains elusive for many individuals. Furthermore, little is still known about the underlying mechanisms of these illnesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the contextual factors that contribute to psychosis so that they can be better targeted in future interventions. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a dynamic procedure that permits the measurement of variables in natural settings in real-time through the use of brief assessments delivered via mobile electronic devices (i.e., smartphones). One advantage of EMA is that it is less subject to retrospective memory biases and highly sensitive to fluctuating environmental factors. In the current article, we describe the research-to-date using EMA to better understand fluctuating symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and potential applications to treatment. In addition, we describe a novel EMA protocol that we have been employing to study the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia following a hospital discharge. We also report the lessons we have learned thus far using EMA methods in this challenging clinical population. PMID:26689969

  4. Development and Validation of Experimental Protocols for Use of Cardinal Models for Prediction of Microorganism Growth in Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Pinon, Anthony; Zwietering, Marcel; Perrier, Louise; Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Leporq, Benoît; Mettler, Eric; Thuault, Dominique; Coroller, Louis; Stahl, Valérie; Vialette, Michèle

    2004-01-01

    An experimental protocol to validate secondary-model application to foods was suggested. Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella were observed in various food categories, such as meat, dairy, egg, or seafood products. The secondary model validated in this study was based on the gamma concept, in which the environmental factors temperature, pH, and water activity (aw) were introduced as individual terms with microbe-dependent parameters, and the effect of foodstuffs on the growth rates of these species was described with a food- and microbe-dependent parameter. This food-oriented approach was carried out by challenge testing, generally at 15 and 10°C for L. monocytogenes, E. coli, B. cereus, and Salmonella and at 25 and 20°C for C. perfringens. About 222 kinetics in foods were generated. The results were compared to simulations generated by existing software, such as PMP. The bias factor was also calculated. The methodology to obtain a food-dependent parameter (fitting step) and therefore to compare results given by models with new independent data (validation step) is discussed in regard to its food safety application. The proposed methods were used within the French national program of predictive microbiology, Sym′Previus, to include challenge test results in the database and to obtain predictive models designed for microbial growth in food products. PMID:14766591

  5. Treatment protocol development

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, C.; Gavin, P.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes research performed at the WSU College of Veterinary Medicine in which a large animal model was developed and used to study the effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on normal and neoplastic canine brain tissue. The studies were performed using borocaptate sodium (BSH) and epithermal neutrons and had two major foci: biodistribution of BSH in animals with spontaneously occurring brain tumors; and effects of BNCT in normal and neoplastic brain tissue.

  6. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we give additional arguments in favor of the point of view that the violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities is not due to a mysterious non locality of nature. We concentrate on an intimate relation between a protocol of a random experiment and a probabilistic model which is used to describe it. We discuss in a simple way differences between attributive joint probability distributions and generalized joint probability distributions of outcomes from distant experiments which depend on how the pairing of these outcomes is defined. We analyze in detail experimental protocols implied by local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models and show that they are incompatible with the protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. We discuss also the meaning of "free will", differences between quantum and classical filters, contextuality of Kolmogorov models, contextuality of quantum theory (QT) and show how this contextuality has to be taken into account in probabilistic models trying to explain in an intuitive way the predictions of QT. The long range imperfect correlations between the clicks of distant detectors can be explained by partially preserved correlations between the signals created by a source. These correlations can only be preserved if the clicks are produced in a local and deterministic way depending on intrinsic parameters describing signals and measuring devices in the moment of the measurement. If an act of a measurement was irreducibly random they would be destroyed. It seems to indicate that QT may be in fact emerging from some underlying more detailed theory of physical phenomena. If this was a case then there is a chance to find in time series of experimental data some fine structures not predicted by QT. This would be a major discovery because it would not only prove that QT does not provide a complete description of individual physical systems but it would prove that it is not predictably complete.

  7. Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

  8. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  9. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  10. Experimental eavesdropping attack against Ekert's protocol based on Wigner's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.; Castelletto, S.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Rastello, M. L.

    2003-09-01

    We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.

  11. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota. PMID:26210759

  12. Experimental protocols and preparations to study respiratory long term facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mateika, Jason H.; Sandhu, Kulraj S.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory long-term facilitation is a form of neuronal plasticity that is induced following exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Long-term facilitation is characterized by a progressive increase in respiratory motor output during normoxic periods that separate hypoxic episodes and by a sustained elevation in respiratory activity for up to 90 min after exposure to intermittent hypoxia. This phenomenon is associated with increases in phrenic, hypoglossal or carotid sinus nerve inspiratory-modulated discharge. The examination of long-term facilitation has been steadily ongoing for approximately 3 decades. During this period of time a variety of animal models (e.g. cats, rats and humans), experimental preparations and intermittent hypoxia protocols have been used to study long-term facilitation. This review is designed to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the models, preparations and protocols that have been used to study LTF over the past 30 years. The review is divided into two primary sections. Initially, the models and protocols used to study LTF in animals other than humans will be discussed, followed by a section specifically focused on human studies. Each section will begin with a discussion of various factors that must be considered when selecting an experimental preparation and intermittent hypoxia protocol to examine LTF. Model and protocol design recommendations will follow, with the goal of presenting a prevailing model and protocol that will ultimately ensure standardized comparisons across studies. PMID:21292044

  13. In silico simulations of experimental protocols for cardiac modeling.

    PubMed

    Carro, Jesus; Rodriguez, Jose Felix; Pueyo, Esther

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model of the AP involves the sum of different transmembrane ionic currents and the balance of intracellular ionic concentrations. To each ionic current corresponds an equation involving several effects. There are a number of model parameters that must be identified using specific experimental protocols in which the effects are considered as independent. However, when the model complexity grows, the interaction between effects becomes increasingly important. Therefore, model parameters identified considering the different effects as independent might be misleading. In this work, a novel methodology consisting in performing in silico simulations of the experimental protocol and then comparing experimental and simulated outcomes is proposed for parameter model identification and validation. The potential of the methodology is demonstrated by validating voltage-dependent L-type calcium current (ICaL) inactivation in recently proposed human ventricular AP models with different formulations. Our results show large differences between ICaL inactivation as calculated from the model equation and ICaL inactivation from the in silico simulations due to the interaction between effects and/or to the experimental protocol. Our results suggest that, when proposing any new model formulation, consistency between such formulation and the corresponding experimental data that is aimed at being reproduced needs to be first verified considering all involved factors. PMID:25571288

  14. Avian study protocols and wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

  15. Advanced Crystallographic Data Collection Protocols for Experimental Phasing.

    PubMed

    Finke, Aaron D; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Vonrhein, Clemens; Wang, Meitian; Bricogne, Gérard; Oliéric, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Experimental phasing by single- or multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD or MAD) has become the most popular method of de novo macromolecular structure determination. Continuous advances at third-generation synchrotron sources have enabled the deployment of rapid data collection protocols that are capable of recording SAD or MAD data sets. However, procedural simplifications driven by the pursuit of high throughput have led to a loss of sophistication in data collection strategies, adversely affecting measurement accuracy from the viewpoint of anomalous phasing. In this chapter, we detail optimized strategies for collecting high-quality data for experimental phasing, with particular emphasis on minimizing errors from radiation damage as well as from the instrument. This chapter also emphasizes data processing for "on-the-fly" decision-making during data collection, a critical process when data quality depends directly on information gathered while at the synchrotron. PMID:26227043

  16. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  17. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  18. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  19. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  20. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF MODELING PROTOCOLS FOR USE IN DETERMINING SEDIMENT TMDLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling protocols for use in determining sediment TMDLs are being developed to provide the Office of Water, Regions and the States with assistance in determining TMDLs for sediment impaired water bodies. These protocols will supplement the protocols developed by the Office of W...

  2. Experimental multiplexing protocol to encrypt messages of any length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredy Barrera, John; Vélez, Alejandro; Torroba, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    As optical systems are diffraction limited, it is not possible to encrypt in a single step texts containing a large amount of characters. We overcome this situation by separately encrypting several characters, along with a multiplexing procedure to obtain an encrypted keyboard. The experimental application is performed in a joint transform correlator architecture and using digital holography. We combine the different characters into a keyboard encrypted with a single phase mask together with a selection-position key that gives the right sequence to recover safe encrypted messages. The multiplexing operation we suggest is advantageous in the sense that the technique enables processing of messages that otherwise the optical system could not process in a single step. We also employ a repositioning technique to prevent both the natural background noise over recovered characters and the possible cross talk. The lack of any single key avoids the correct message recovery. Experimental results are presented to show the feasibility of our proposal, representing an actual application of the optical encrypting protocols.

  3. A Design Protocol to Develop Radiology Dashboards

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The main objective of this descriptive and development research was to introduce a design protocol to develop radiology dashboards. Material and methods: The first step was to determine key performance indicators for radiology department. The second step was to determine required infrastructure for implementation of radiology dashboards. Infrastructure was extracted from both data and technology perspectives. The third step was to determine main features of the radiology dashboards. The fourth step was to determine the key criteria for evaluating the dashboards. In all these steps, non-probability sampling methods including convenience and purposive were employed and sample size determined based on a persuasion model. Results: Results showed that there are 92 KPIs, 10 main features for designing dashboards and 53 key criteria for dashboards evaluation. As well as, a Prototype of radiology management dashboards in four aspects including services, clients, personnel and cost-income were implemented and evaluated. Applying such dashboards could help managers to enhance performance, productivity and quality of services in radiology department. PMID:25568585

  4. Protocol Development | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. Letter of Intent (LOI) Process The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. DCP will solicit Letters of Intent from investigators who want to conduct clinical trials with specific agents. |

  5. Obtaining single cells: analysis and evaluation of an experimental protocol by means of a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Standaert, A R; Geeraerd, A H; Bernaerts, K; Francois, K; Devlieghere, F; Debevere, J; Van Impe, J F

    2005-04-15

    The research presented in this paper analyses a newly developed experimental protocol for isolating single cells by constructing a simulation model of the process. The protocol involves sequential 50% dilutions of a cell suspension in a microtiter plate, so that eventually, wells are obtained containing exactly one cell. The aim of this modelling study is (i) to gain insight in the governing mechanisms of the dilution process, (ii) to confirm experimental findings and (iii) to enable the prediction of an average outcome for future experiments. The model construction process is presented chronologically. The initial basic model simulates the experiment as a sequence of binomial processes, using Monte Carlo techniques. Statistical analysis of the results shows that aggregational factors need to be taken into account in the form of a lognormal distribution. Several issues involved in this adaptation are discussed. To fully account for cell aggregation in the dilution process, a cell clumping algorithm is built into the simulation model. Simulation data from the resulting model show similar statistical characteristics as the experimental data and yield reliable prediction intervals for the available experimental data. The simulation model is a useful tool to support experimental findings and predict the outcome of future experiments. Even more importantly, this study emphasises the importance of careful statistical analysis in single cell research. The impact of stochastic effects is considerably amplified at the low cell concentrations involved and needs to be taken into account in any modelling effort. PMID:15854692

  6. An experimental test of the capture-restraint protocol for estimating the acute stress response.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, Jesse J; Norris, D Ryan; Newman, Amy E M

    2013-01-01

    Stress-induced increases in glucocorticoids (GCs) modulate behavior and are key in directing energy reserves. The capture-restraint protocol was developed to experimentally stimulate and quantify the magnitude of the acute stress response by comparing baseline GC levels with those collected after restraining a subject for a period of time, typically 30 min. This protocol has been used extensively in the field and lab, yet few studies have investigated whether it parallels hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation under natural acute stressors. We examined the hypothesis that acute stress from the capture-restraint protocol accurately mimics the adrenocortical response induced by a natural acute stressor. Using wild-caught rock pigeons Columba livia in a repeated-measures design, we compared plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations at baseline, after exposure to acute capture-restraint (30 min in a cloth bag), after tethering in a harness (30 min), and after a real but nonlethal attack by a predatory raptor. As found in previous studies, the capture-restraint treatment significantly increased CORT levels of pigeons compared with baseline. However, we also found that when pigeons were exposed to an attack by a raptor, their CORT levels were more than twice as high compared with the capture-restraint treatment. Our results provide evidence that an authentic acute stressor can activate the HPA axis to a greater extent than the capture-restraint protocol and also suggest that real predation attempts can have a significant effect on acute stress levels of wild birds. PMID:23434787

  7. Critical Casimir forces in a magnetic system: An experimental protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Cardozo, David; Jacquin, Hugo; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.

    2014-11-01

    We numerically test an experimentally realizable method for the extraction of the critical Casimir force based on its thermodynamic definition as the derivative of the excess free energy with respect to system size. Free energy differences are estimated for different system sizes by integrating the order parameter along an isotherm. The method could be developed for experiments on magnetic systems and could give access to the critical Casimir force for any universality class. By choosing an applied field that opposes magnetic ordering at the boundaries, the Casimir force is found to increase by an order of magnitude over zero-field results.

  8. Clinicians as Communication Partners: Developing a Mediated Discourse Elicitation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development and piloting of a mediated discourse elicitation protocol. Grounded in situated theories of communication and informed by mediated discourse analysis, this protocol selectively samples familiar discourse types in a manner designed to preserve interactional aspects of communication. Critically, the mediated…

  9. A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.

    2001-05-24

    We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2

  10. Alternative experimental protocol to demonstrate the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph (PBR) have recently proven an important new theorem in the foundations of quantum mechanics [Pusey , Nature Phys.1745-247310.1038/nphys2309 8, 475 (2012)]. Here we propose alternative experimental protocols which lead to the PBR result for a special case and a weaker PBR-like result generally. Alternative experimental protocols support the assumption of measurement independence required for the PBR theorem.

  11. Development of a novel protocol for generating flavivirus reporter particles.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Igor Velado; Okamoto, Natsumi; Ito, Aki; Fukuda, Miki; Someya, Azusa; Nishino, Yosii; Sasaki, Nobuya; Maeda, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a growing public and animal health concern worldwide. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies for the infection are urgently required. Recently, viral reverse genetic systems have been developed and applied to clinical WNV virology. We developed a protocol for generating reporter virus particles (RVPs) of WNV with the aim of overcoming two major problems associated with conventional protocols, the difficulty in generating RVPs due to the specific skills required for handling RNAs, and the potential for environmental contamination by antibiotic-resistant genes encoded within the genome RNA of the RVPs. By using the proposed protocol, cells were established in which the RVP genome RNA is replicated constitutively and does not encode any antibiotic-resistant genes, and used as the cell supply for RVP genome RNA. Generation of the WNV RVPs requires only the simple transfection of the expression vectors for the viral structural proteins into the cells. Therefore, no RNA handling is required in this protocol. The WNV RVP yield obtained using this protocol was similar that obtained using the conventional protocol. According to these results, the newly developed protocol appears to be a good alternative for the generation of WNV RVPs, particularly for clinical applications. PMID:25116200

  12. Latency correction of event-related potentials between different experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrate, I.; Chavarriaga, R.; Montesano, L.; Minguez, J.; Millán, JdR

    2014-06-01

    Objective. A fundamental issue in EEG event-related potentials (ERPs) studies is the amount of data required to have an accurate ERP model. This also impacts the time required to train a classifier for a brain-computer interface (BCI). This issue is mainly due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio and the large fluctuations of the EEG caused by several sources of variability. One of these sources is directly related to the experimental protocol or application designed, and may affect the amplitude or latency of ERPs. This usually prevents BCI classifiers from generalizing among different experimental protocols. In this paper, we analyze the effect of the amplitude and the latency variations among different experimental protocols based on the same type of ERP. Approach. We present a method to analyze and compensate for the latency variations in BCI applications. The algorithm has been tested on two widely used ERPs (P300 and observation error potentials), in three experimental protocols in each case. We report the ERP analysis and single-trial classification. Main results. The results obtained show that the designed experimental protocols significantly affect the latency of the recorded potentials but not the amplitudes. Significance. These results show how the use of latency-corrected data can be used to generalize the BCIs, reducing the calibration time when facing a new experimental protocol.

  13. An experimental protocol for maternal pulmonary exposure in developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Petra; Lund, Søren P; Kristiansen, Gitte; Andersen, Ole; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Hougaard, Karin S

    2011-03-01

    To establish a protocol for studying effects of pulmonary exposure in developmental toxicity studies, the effects of intratracheal sham instillation under short-term isoflurane anaesthesia were evaluated with a protocol including multiple instillations during gestation. Twelve time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac) were anaesthetized with isoflurane and intratracheally instilled with saline containing 10% bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on gestation days 8, 11, 15 and 18. In addition, the early effects of the procedure were assessed in naive female mice. Control animals were not handled. Dams were followed until weaning, and the offspring were observed from birth to sexual maturation. The cell composition of BAL was examined in the females early after treatment (3 days) and in the dams at weaning (25 days). DNA damage in BAL and liver cells was determined by the comet assay. The procedure did not affect gestation or viability, growth and sexual maturation of the offspring. Lung markers of inflammation and DNA damage were comparable in control and treated dams. Livers of the anaesthetized and instilled females, dams and their offspring displayed no induction of DNA damage. Intratracheal instillation under isoflurane anaesthesia did not induce observable effects in pregnant mice or their offspring. We suggest that this procedure can be used as a means of exposure through the airways in studies of developmental toxicity. PMID:21118354

  14. Experimental protocol for packaging and encrypting multiple data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredy Barrera, John; Trejos, Sorayda; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel single optical packaging and encryption (SOPE) procedure for multiple inputs. This procedure is based on a merging of a 2f scheme with a digital holographic technique to achieve efficient handling of multiple data. Through the 2f system with a random phase mask attached in its input plane, and the holographic technique, we obtain each processed input. A posteriori filtering and repositioning protocol on each hologram followed by an addition of all processed data, allows storing these data to form a single package. The final package is digitally multiplied by a second random phase mask acting as an encryption mask. In this way, the final user receives only one encrypted information unit and a single key, instead of a conventional multiple-image collecting method and several keys. Processing of individual images is cast into an optimization problem. The proposed optimization aims to simplify the handling and recovery of images while packing all of them into a single unit. The decoding process does not have the usual cross-talk or noise problems involved in other methods, as filtering and repositioning precedes the encryption step. All data are recovered in just one step at the same time by applying a simple Fourier transform operation and the decoding key. The proposed protocol takes advantage of optical processing and the versatility of the digital format. Experiments have been conducted using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. An application is subsequently demonstrated to illustrate the feasibility of the SOPE procedure.

  15. Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: Protocol Development and Initial Outcome Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellard, Kristen K.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The Unified Protocol (UP) is a transdiagnostic, emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment developed to be applicable across the emotional disorders. The UP consists of 4 core modules: increasing emotional awareness, facilitating flexibility in appraisals, identifying and preventing behavioral and emotional avoidance, and situational and…

  16. New experimental protocols for tensile testing of abdominal aortic analogues.

    PubMed

    Bailly, L; Deplano, V; Lemercier, A; Boiron, O; Meyer, C

    2014-06-01

    This work proposes an in vitro tensile testing protocol that is able to characterize abdominal aortic (AA) analogues under physiologically inspired mechanical loadings. Kinematic parameters are defined in agreement with in vivo measurements of aortic dynamics. A specific focus is given to the choice of the applied loading rates, deriving from the knowledge of aortic Peterson modulus and blood pressure variations from diastolic to systolic instants. The influence of physiological elongation rates has been tested on both porcine AAs and a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) material used to elaborate AA analogues. The diastolic and systolic elongation rates estimates vary between orders of magnitude O(10(-2)) and O(10(-1))s(-1). Negligible differences are obtained when comparing stress-elongation responses between both physiological elongation rates. In contrast, a noticeable stiffening of the TPU mechanical response is observed compared to that obtained under the common low traction rate of O(10(-3))s(-1). This work shows how relevant physiological elongation rates can be evaluated as a function of age, gender and pathological context. PMID:24613685

  17. Kilovoltage x-ray dosimetry—an experimental comparison between different dosimetry protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenschöld, Per Munck af; Nilsson, Per; Knöös, Tommy

    2008-08-01

    Kilovoltage dosimetry protocols by the IAEA (TRS-277 and TRS-398), DIN (6809), IPEMB (with addendum), AAPM (TG-61) and NCS (report 10) were compared experimentally in four clinical beams. The beams had acceleration potentials of 30, 80, 120 and 200 kV, with half-value layers ranging from 0.6 mm Al to 1 mm Cu. Dosimetric measurements were performed and data were collected under reference conditions as stipulated within each separate protocol under investigation. The Monte Carlo method was used to derive backscatter factors for the actual x-ray machine. In general, the agreement of the dosimetric data at the surface of a full-scatter water phantom obtained using the guidelines of the various protocols was fairly good, i.e. within 1 2%. However, the in-air calibration method using the IPEMB and AAPM TG-61 protocols yielded an absorbed dose about 7% lower than the IAEA TRS-398 protocol in the 120 kV beam. By replacing the backscatter factors given in the protocols with Monte Carlo calculated backscatter factors, the convergence between the protocols improved (within 4%). The internal consistency obtained for protocols supporting more than one geometry for dosimetry under reference conditions was better than 0.2% for the DIN protocol (120 kV beam), 2 3% for the AAPM TG-61 (120 and 200 kV beams) and about 2% for the IPEMB protocol (200 kV beam). The present study shows that the current-supported dosimetry protocols in the kilovoltage range were in fairly good agreement, and there were only a few exceptions of clinical significance.

  18. Experimental Investigation on Transmission Control Protocol Throughput Behavior in Optical Fiber Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tego, Edion; Matera, Francesco; del Buono, Donato

    2016-03-01

    This article describes an experimental investigation on the behavior of transmission control protocol in throughput measurements to be used in the verification of the service-level agreement between the Internet service provider and user in terms of line capacity for ultra-broadband access networks typical of fiber-to-the-x architectures. It is experimentally shown different conditions in high bandwidth-delay product links where the estimation of the line capacity based on a single transmission control protocol session results are unreliable. Simple equations reported in this work, and experimentally verified, point out the conditions in terms of packet loss, time delay, and line capacity, that allow consideration of the reliability of the measurement carried out with a single transmission control protocol session test by adopting a suitable measurement time duration.

  19. Engineering Platform and Experimental Protocol for Design and Evaluation of a Neurally-controlled Powered Transfemoral Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Ming; Harper, Stephen; Lee, Michael; Huang, He

    2014-01-01

    To enable intuitive operation of powered artificial legs, an interface between user and prosthesis that can recognize the user's movement intent is desired. A novel neural-machine interface (NMI) based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion developed in our previous study has demonstrated a great potential to accurately identify the intended movement of transfemoral amputees. However, this interface has not yet been integrated with a powered prosthetic leg for true neural control. This study aimed to report (1) a flexible platform to implement and optimize neural control of powered lower limb prosthesis and (2) an experimental setup and protocol to evaluate neural prosthesis control on patients with lower limb amputations. First a platform based on a PC and a visual programming environment were developed to implement the prosthesis control algorithms, including NMI training algorithm, NMI online testing algorithm, and intrinsic control algorithm. To demonstrate the function of this platform, in this study the NMI based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion was hierarchically integrated with intrinsic control of a prototypical transfemoral prosthesis. One patient with a unilateral transfemoral amputation was recruited to evaluate our implemented neural controller when performing activities, such as standing, level-ground walking, ramp ascent, and ramp descent continuously in the laboratory. A novel experimental setup and protocol were developed in order to test the new prosthesis control safely and efficiently. The presented proof-of-concept platform and experimental setup and protocol could aid the future development and application of neurally-controlled powered artificial legs. PMID:25079449

  20. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE REACTIVITY TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test protocol to determine the gross chemical composition of waste materials has been developed for use at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Included is a field test kit, flow diagrams, a descriptive manual and a mixing device to observe the effects of mixing two hazardous wa...

  1. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  2. CCT WG8 CMC Review Protocols: Development and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouse, G. F.; Ballico, M.; Bojkovski, J.; de Groot, M.; Liedberg, H. G.; Pokhodun, A. I.

    2008-06-01

    The primary objectives of the Consultative Committee on Thermometry Working Group 8 (CCT WG8) are to establish and maintain lists of service categories, to agree on detailed technical review criteria of submitted calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs), and, where necessary, to develop rules for the preparation of CMC entries. One of the main tasks of CCT WG8 is the creation of harmonized CMC review protocols for thermometry and humidity that are scientifically based. The work of CCT WG8 is performed by the Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Working Group on Thermometry chairpersons and invited technical experts. The CCT WG8 develops practical, pragmatic guidelines for CMC reviews that let the CMC review process proceed according to a set of objective numerical criteria and specified technical evidence to reduce the possibility of disagreement. The CCT WG8 CMC review protocols are designed so that CMC reviews are scientifically based and not designed to bluntly increase uncertainties. The CMC review protocols currently developed and accepted by CCT WG8 cover International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) fixed-point cells, ITS-90 calibration temperature subranges for standard platinum resistance thermometers, industrial thermometers, radiation thermometry, and humidity. This article describes the methods used by the CCT WG8 committee to create the review protocols.

  3. Protocol development, treatment fidelity, adherence to treatment, and quality control.

    PubMed

    Persch, Andrew C; Page, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy leaders have emphasized the importance of intervention effectiveness research. The CONSORT and TREND checklists have been suggested as useful tools for reporting the results of randomized and nonrandomized studies, respectively. Despite such recommendations, research protocols and reports continue to underutilize the available tools, a situation reflecting limited resources for and experience with the conduct of effectiveness research. To address this issue, and using the CONSORT statement to structure the analysis, this article discusses strategies for optimization of protocol development, treatment fidelity, adherence to treatment, and quality control. We recommend several approaches to increase the quality of research throughout these various processes. Examples of implementation from our laboratory provide evidence of the utility of these strategies. PMID:23433268

  4. Protocol Development, Treatment Fidelity, Adherence to Treatment, and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy leaders have emphasized the importance of intervention effectiveness research. The CONSORT and TREND checklists have been suggested as useful tools for reporting the results of randomized and nonrandomized studies, respectively. Despite such recommendations, research protocols and reports continue to underutilize the available tools, a situation reflecting limited resources for and experience with the conduct of effectiveness research. To address this issue, and using the CONSORT statement to structure the analysis, this article discusses strategies for optimization of protocol development, treatment fidelity, adherence to treatment, and quality control. We recommend several approaches to increase the quality of research throughout these various processes. Examples of implementation from our laboratory provide evidence of the utility of these strategies. PMID:23433268

  5. SIMULATING THE GROWTH OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE EXPLANTS IN A PERMEATION BIOREACTOR TO AID IN EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL DESIGN

    PubMed Central

    Ficklin, Timothy P.; Davol, Andrew; Klisch, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a cartilage growth finite element model (CGFEM) was developed to solve non-homogeneous and time-dependent growth boundary value problems [1, 2]. The CGFEM allows distinct stress constitutive equations and growth laws for the major components of the solid matrix, collagens and proteoglycans. The objective of the current work was to simulate in vitro growth of articular cartilage explants in a steady-state permeation bioreactor in order to obtain results that aid experimental design. The steady-state permeation protocol induces different types of mechanical stimuli: when the specimen is initially homogeneous it directly induces homogeneous permeation velocities and indirectly induces non-homogeneous solid matrix shear stresses; consequently, the steady-state permeation protocol is a good candidate for exploring two competing hypotheses for the growth laws. The analysis protocols were implemented through the alternating interaction of the two CGFEM components: poroelastic FEA using ABAQUS and a finite element growth routine using MATLAB. The CGFEM simulated 12 days of growth for immature bovine articular cartilage explants subjected to two competing hypotheses for the growth laws: one that is triggered by permeation velocity and the other by maximum shear stress. The results provide predictions for geometric, biomechanical, and biochemical parameters of grown tissue specimens that may be experimentally measured and, consequently, suggest key biomechanical measures to analyze as pilot experiments are performed. The combined approach of CGFEM analysis and pilot experiments may lead to the refinement of actual experimental protocols and a better understanding of in vitro growth of articular cartilage. PMID:19275437

  6. Cheating and Anti-Cheating in Gossip-Based Protocol: An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanchun; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Nan

    During recent years, there has been a rapid growth in deployment of gossip-based protocol in many multicast applications. In a typical gossip-based protocol, each node acts as dual roles of receiver and sender, independently exchanging data with its neighbors to facilitate scalability and resilience. However, most of previous work in this literature seldom considered cheating issue of end users, which is also very important in face of the fact that the mutual cooperation inherently determines overall system performance. In this paper, we investigate the dishonest behaviors in decentralized gossip-based protocol through extensive experimental study. Our original contributions come in two-fold: In the first part of cheating study, we analytically discuss two typical cheating strategies, that is, intentionally increasing subscription requests and untruthfully calculating forwarding probability, and further evaluate their negative impacts. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to defending cheating behaviors in gossip-based protocol. In the second part of anti-cheating study, we propose a receiver-driven measurement mechanism, which evaluates individual forwarding traffic from the perspective of receivers and thus identifies cheating nodes with high incoming/outgoing ratio. Furthermore, we extend our mechanism by introducing reliable factor to further improve its accuracy. The experiments under various conditions show that it performs quite well in case of serious cheating and achieves considerable performance in other cases.

  7. Developing a protocol for an educational software competition.

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, T.; Johnson, L.

    2001-01-01

    This project developed a protocol for the inaugural Instructional Software Competition of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA). The evaluation instrument was derived from the Guidelines for the Design of Educational Software developed by the ANSI-accredited Standards Committee for Dental Informatics. Eleven judges were calibrated in a conference call and rated a total of 30 submissions using a 66-question instrument. The maximum score was 204 points. The mean score of WWW-based programs was 106.7 points, and of CD-ROM-based programs 109.5 points. The summative review of the judging process identified several potential improvements, such as distinguishing between standalone programs and educational support material; increasing the number of answer choices on rating scales; differential weighting of criteria; and a more discriminative approach to judging formative and summative evaluations. We plan to improve the protocol by supporting the process through a Web-based application; calibrating judges with an online handbook; improving and adapting the rating instrument itself; using at least three judges for each program; and conducting a measurement study. PMID:11825257

  8. Tendencies in the development of utilization protocols, seminar report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveri, A.

    1983-07-01

    The open system interconnections model (OSI) structured approach to specify protocols is discussed. A stratification in seven levels characterizes the architecture of the system. Transfer level protocol characterization of utilization protocols in the OSI model, data flow control, and presentation and application levels are described.

  9. Experimental Internet Environment Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.

    1998-01-01

    Geographically distributed project teams need an Internet based collaborative work environment or "Intranet." The Virtual Research Center (VRC) is an experimental Intranet server that combines several services such as desktop conferencing, file archives, on-line publishing, and security. Using the World Wide Web (WWW) as a shared space paradigm, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) presents users with images of a lunar colony. Each project has a wing of the colony and each wing has a conference room, library, laboratory, and mail station. In FY95, the VRC development team proved the feasibility of this shared space concept by building a prototype using a Netscape commerce server and several public domain programs. Successful demonstrations of the prototype resulted in approval for a second phase. Phase 2, documented by this report, will produce a seamlessly integrated environment by introducing new technologies such as Java and Adobe Web Links to replace less efficient interface software.

  10. Experimental quantum networking protocols via four-qubit hyperentangled Dicke states.

    PubMed

    Chiuri, A; Greganti, C; Paternostro, M; Vallone, G; Mataloni, P

    2012-10-26

    We report the experimental demonstration of two quantum networking protocols, namely quantum 1→3 telecloning and open-destination teleportation, implemented using a four-qubit register whose state is encoded in a high-quality two-photon hyperentangled Dicke state. The state resource is characterized using criteria based on multipartite entanglement witnesses. We explore the characteristic entanglement-sharing structure of a Dicke state by implementing high-fidelity projections of the four-qubit resource onto lower-dimensional states. Our work demonstrates for the first time the usefulness of Dicke states for quantum information processing. PMID:23215188

  11. Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP) to Optimize Individual Neurocognitive Hypothesis Testing: A BCI-Inspired Dynamic Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Gaëtan; Lecaignard, Françoise; Otman, Anatole; Maby, Emmanuel; Mattout, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    The relatively young field of Brain-Computer Interfaces has promoted the use of electrophysiology and neuroimaging in real-time. In the meantime, cognitive neuroscience studies, which make extensive use of functional exploration techniques, have evolved toward model-based experiments and fine hypothesis testing protocols. Although these two developments are mostly unrelated, we argue that, brought together, they may trigger an important shift in the way experimental paradigms are being designed, which should prove fruitful to both endeavors. This change simply consists in using real-time neuroimaging in order to optimize advanced neurocognitive hypothesis testing. We refer to this new approach as the instantiation of an Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP). As opposed to classical (static) experimental protocols, ASAP implements online model comparison, enabling the optimization of design parameters (e.g., stimuli) during the course of data acquisition. This follows the well-known principle of sequential hypothesis testing. What is radically new, however, is our ability to perform online processing of the huge amount of complex data that brain imaging techniques provide. This is all the more relevant at a time when physiological and psychological processes are beginning to be approached using more realistic, generative models which may be difficult to tease apart empirically. Based upon Bayesian inference, ASAP proposes a generic and principled way to optimize experimental design adaptively. In this perspective paper, we summarize the main steps in ASAP. Using synthetic data we illustrate its superiority in selecting the right perceptual model compared to a classical design. Finally, we briefly discuss its future potential for basic and clinical neuroscience as well as some remaining challenges. PMID:27458364

  12. Effects of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Loud, Rita LaRosa; O'Connell, Jill; Glover, Scott; O'Connell, Jason; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of four resistance training protocols on upper body strength and muscular endurance development in children. Untrained children trained twice per week for 8 weeks, using general conditioning exercises and different upper-body conditioning protocols. Results indicated that higher-repetition training protocols enhanced…

  13. Development and implementation of treadmill exercise testing protocols in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Christopher B; Abrazado, Marlon; Legg, Daniel; Kesten, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Background: Because treadmill exercise testing is more representative of daily activity than cycle testing, we developed treadmill protocols to be used in various clinical settings as part of a two-year, multicenter, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) trial evaluating the effect of tiotropium on exercise. Methods: We enrolled 519 COPD patients aged 64.6 ± 8.3 years with a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 1.25 ± 0.42 L, 44.3% ± 11.9% predicted. The patients performed symptom-limited treadmill tests where work rate (Ẇ) was increased linearly using speed and grade adjustments every minute. On two subsequent visits, they performed constant Ẇ tests to exhaustion at 90% of maximum Ẇ from the incremental test. Results: Mean incremental test duration was 522 ± 172 seconds (range 20–890), maximum work rate 66 ± 34 watts. For the first and second constant Ẇ tests, both at 61 ± 33 watts, mean endurance times were 317 ± 61 seconds and 341 ± 184 seconds, respectively. The mean of two tests had an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.85 (P < 0.001). During the second constant Ẇ test, 88.2% of subjects stopped exercise because of breathing discomfort; 87.1% for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Stage II, 88.5% for GOLD Stage III, and 90.2% for GOLD Stage IV. Conclusion: The symptom-limited incremental and constant work treadmill protocol was well tolerated and appeared to be representative of the physiologic limitations of COPD. PMID:21103404

  14. Improving protocol design feasibility to drive drug development economics and performance.

    PubMed

    Getz, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    Protocol design complexity has increased substantially during the past decade and this in turn has adversely impacted drug development economics and performance. This article reviews the results of two major Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development studies quantifying the direct cost of conducting less essential and unnecessary protocol procedures and of implementing amendments to protocol designs. Indirect costs including personnel time, work load and cycle time delays associated with complex protocol designs are also discussed. The author concludes with an overview of steps that research sponsors are taking to improve protocol design feasibility. PMID:24823665

  15. Improving Protocol Design Feasibility to Drive Drug Development Economics and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Protocol design complexity has increased substantially during the past decade and this in turn has adversely impacted drug development economics and performance. This article reviews the results of two major Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development studies quantifying the direct cost of conducting less essential and unnecessary protocol procedures and of implementing amendments to protocol designs. Indirect costs including personnel time, work load and cycle time delays associated with complex protocol designs are also discussed. The author concludes with an overview of steps that research sponsors are taking to improve protocol design feasibility. PMID:24823665

  16. Development of a Protocol for Predicting Bacterial Resistance to Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Laura; Amézquita, Alejandro; McClure, Peter; Stewart, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Regulations dealing with microbicides in Europe and the United States are evolving and now require data on the risk of the development of resistance in organisms targeted by microbicidal products. There is no standard protocol to assess the risk of the development of resistance to microbicidal formulations. This study aimed to validate the use of changes in microbicide and antibiotic susceptibility as initial markers for predicting microbicide resistance and cross-resistance to antibiotics. Three industrial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and 14028S) were exposed to a shampoo, a mouthwash, eye makeup remover, and the microbicides contained within these formulations (chlorhexidine digluconate [CHG] and benzalkonium chloride [BZC]) under realistic, in-use conditions. Baseline and postexposure data were compared. No significant increases in the MIC or the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were observed for any strain after exposure to the three formulations. Increases as high as 100-fold in the MICs and MBCs of CHG and BZC for SL1344 and 14028S were observed but were unstable. Changes in antibiotic susceptibility were not clinically significant. The use of MICs and MBCs combined with antibiotic susceptibility profiling and stability testing generated reproducible data that allowed for an initial prediction of the development of resistance to microbicides. These approaches measure characteristics that are directly relevant to the concern over resistance and cross-resistance development following the use of microbicides. These are low-cost, high-throughput techniques, allowing manufacturers to provide to regulatory bodies, promptly and efficiently, data supporting an early assessment of the risk of resistance development. PMID:25636848

  17. Development of a protocol for predicting bacterial resistance to microbicides.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Laura; Amézquita, Alejandro; McClure, Peter; Stewart, Sara; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2015-04-01

    Regulations dealing with microbicides in Europe and the United States are evolving and now require data on the risk of the development of resistance in organisms targeted by microbicidal products. There is no standard protocol to assess the risk of the development of resistance to microbicidal formulations. This study aimed to validate the use of changes in microbicide and antibiotic susceptibility as initial markers for predicting microbicide resistance and cross-resistance to antibiotics. Three industrial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and 14028S) were exposed to a shampoo, a mouthwash, eye makeup remover, and the microbicides contained within these formulations (chlorhexidine digluconate [CHG] and benzalkonium chloride [BZC]) under realistic, in-use conditions. Baseline and postexposure data were compared. No significant increases in the MIC or the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were observed for any strain after exposure to the three formulations. Increases as high as 100-fold in the MICs and MBCs of CHG and BZC for SL1344 and 14028S were observed but were unstable. Changes in antibiotic susceptibility were not clinically significant. The use of MICs and MBCs combined with antibiotic susceptibility profiling and stability testing generated reproducible data that allowed for an initial prediction of the development of resistance to microbicides. These approaches measure characteristics that are directly relevant to the concern over resistance and cross-resistance development following the use of microbicides. These are low-cost, high-throughput techniques, allowing manufacturers to provide to regulatory bodies, promptly and efficiently, data supporting an early assessment of the risk of resistance development. PMID:25636848

  18. The water maze paradigm in experimental studies of chronic cognitive disorders: Theory, protocols, analysis, and inference.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Minesh; Xu, Josie; Sakic, Boris

    2016-09-01

    An instrumental step in assessing the validity of animal models of chronic cognitive disorders is to document disease-related deficits in learning/memory capacity. The water maze (WM) is a popular paradigm because of its low cost, relatively simple protocol and short procedure time. Despite being broadly accepted as a spatial learning task, inference of generalized, bona fide "cognitive" dysfunction can be challenging because task accomplishment is also reliant on non-cognitive processes. We review theoretical background, testing procedures, confounding factors, as well as approaches to data analysis and interpretation. We also describe an extended protocol that has proven useful in detecting early performance deficits in murine models of neuropsychiatric lupus and Alzheimer's disease. Lastly, we highlight the need for standardization of inferential criteria on "cognitive" dysfunction in experimental rodents and exclusion of preparations of a limited scientific merit. A deeper appreciation for the multifactorial nature of performance in WM may also help to reveal other deficits that herald the onset of neurodegenerative brain disorders. PMID:27229758

  19. Development of an improved vaccine evaluation protocol to compare the efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Diel, Diego G; Susta, Leonardo; Lucio-Decanini, Eduardo; Yu, Qingzhong; Brown, Corrie C; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-03-01

    While there is typically 100% survivability in birds challenged with vNDV under experimental conditions, either with vaccines formulated with a strain homologous or heterologous (different genotype) to the challenge virus, vaccine deficiencies are often noted in the field. We have developed an improved and more stringent protocol to experimentally evaluate live NDV vaccines, and showed for the first time under experimental conditions that a statistically significant reduction in mortality can be detected with genotype matched vaccines. Using both vaccine evaluation protocols (traditional and improved), birds were challenged with a vNDV of genotype XIII and the efficacy of live heterologous (genotype II) and homologous (genotype XIII) NDV vaccines was compared. Under traditional vaccination conditions there were no differences in survival upon challenge, but the homologous vaccine induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific to the challenge virus. With the more stringent challenge system (multiple vaccine doses and early challenge with high titers of vNDV), the birds administered the homologous vaccine had superior humoral responses, reduced clinical signs, and reduced mortality levels than those vaccinated with the heterologous vaccine. These results provide basis for the implementation of more sensitive methods to evaluate vaccine efficacy. PMID:25511007

  20. Developing a notebook protocol for the high school chemistry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Roselyn I.

    The focus of this project is to increase science literacy in high school students using a protocol that emphasizes writing. A protocol or lesson sequence comprises a code of behavior to encourage learning through reflection, writing, and self-assessment. A basic protocol may have a sequence of writing elements or tasks which checks for prior knowledge, looks at lesson standards, studies content, and summarizes learning. Using the protocol, students will demonstrate evidence of their learning through writing. The project will identify a progression of tasks which enable students to master content and express mastery through writing. The student's interactive notebook will record evidence of their learning. Several styles of writing and reporting tasks will be explored using the notebook. Students will help implement and identify tasks that demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of science content.

  1. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. The filter element for this system has a non-standard cross-section with a length-to-width ratio (LW) of 6.6. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE.Given the engineering constraints in designing spacecraft life support systems, it is anticipated that non-industry standard filters will be required in future designs. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters. These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing

  2. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Vijayakumar, R.; Agui, Juan H.

    2014-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High- Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. Over the years, the service life of these filters has been re-evaluated based on limited post-flight tests of returned filters and risk factors. On earth, a well designed and installed HEPA filter will last for several years, e.g. in industrial and research clean room applications. Test methods for evaluating these filters are being developed on the basis of established test protocols used by the industry and the military. This paper will discuss the test methods adopted and test results on prototypes of the ISS filters. The results will assist in establishing whether the service life can be extended for these filters. Results from unused filters that have been in storage will also be presented to ascertain the shelf life and performance deterioration, if any and determine if the shelf life may be extended.

  3. Developing and implementing computerized protocols for standardization of clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Morris, A H

    2000-03-01

    Humans have only a limited ability to incorporate information in decision making. In certain situations, the mismatch between this limitation and the availability of extensive information contributes to the varying performance and high error rate of clinical decision makers. Variation in clinical practice is due in part to clinicians' poor compliance with guidelines and recommended therapies. The use of decision-support tools is a response to both the information revolution and poor compliance. Computerized protocols used to deliver decision support can be configured to contain much more detail than textual guidelines or paper-based flow diagrams. Such protocols can generate patient-specific instructions for therapy that can be carried out with little interclinician variability; however, clinicians must be willing to modify personal styles of clinical management. Protocols need not be perfect. Several defensible and reasonable approaches are available for clinical problems. However, one of these reasonable approaches must be chosen and incorporated into the protocol to promote consistent clinical decisions. This reasoning is the basis of an explicit method of decision support that allows the rigorous evaluation of interventions, including use of the protocols themselves. Computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation and management of intravenous fluid and hemodynamic factors in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome provide case studies for this discussion. PMID:10691588

  4. Developments in Assisting Countries in Implementing the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Cain, Ronald A.; Kovacic, Don N.; Apt, Kenneth E.; VanSickle, Matthew

    2010-08-11

    In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began assisting selected non-nuclear weapon states in planning and preparing for implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Additional Protocol (AP). Since then, the AP international implementation program has contributed to the substantial progress made by Vietnam, Thailand, Iraq, and Malaysia in preparing for entry-into-force of the AP. An overall engagement plan has been developed with components designed to train government AP implementing agencies, inform policy makers, conduct outreach to industry and universities, make AP reporting software available and useful, and plan a detailed approach for implementing the declaration and complementary access provisions of the AP. DOE recently began collaborating with Indonesia, which has already entered the AP into force, requiring a second method of engagement somewhat different from that taken with countries that have not entered the AP into force. The AP international implementation program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program, is working more closely with DOE’s International Nonproliferation Export Control Program to ensure countries are aware of and prepared to implement the export/import provisions of the AP. As the AP implementation program matures and helps move countries closer to entry-into-force or improved AP implementation, it is identifying characteristics of a country’s “end-state” that indicate that DOE assistance is no longer required. The U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification require the Administration to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states. DOE’s AP international implementation program is a significant part of these measures. This paper describes recent developments to increase the scope and effectiveness of the program.

  5. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  6. The Development of Protocol Materials. Acquiring Teacher Competencies: Reports and Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, B. Othanel; Orlosky, Donald E.

    The development of protocol materials from the standpoint of the developer is discussed in this article. Emphasis is placed on the selection of concepts, analysis of concepts, utility of concepts, and issues about the development and use of protocol materials. A three-item bibliography is included. (MJM)

  7. Robust Optimization of Biological Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Patrick; Davis, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    When conducting high-throughput biological experiments, it is often necessary to develop a protocol that is both inexpensive and robust. Standard approaches are either not cost-effective or arrive at an optimized protocol that is sensitive to experimental variations. We show here a novel approach that directly minimizes the cost of the protocol while ensuring the protocol is robust to experimental variation. Our approach uses a risk-averse conditional value-at-risk criterion in a robust parameter design framework. We demonstrate this approach on a polymerase chain reaction protocol and show that our improved protocol is less expensive than the standard protocol and more robust than a protocol optimized without consideration of experimental variation. PMID:26417115

  8. Lumbar discectomy: developing and implementing a day surgery protocol.

    PubMed

    Doerksen, Kathy; Dusik-Sharpe, Jodi

    2003-09-01

    In some centres, patients who require a lumbar discectomy are successfully discharged the day of surgery. With the ongoing pressure to provide safe care for patients within certain bed limitations, this option was considered. Using a continuous quality improvement method, a prospective review of patients undergoing a single-level lumbar discectomy was monitored. Based on pre-set criteria, patients were included or excluded in the day surgery protocol and both groups were monitored. A large component of nursing education was provided for all patients, and will be highlighted. Data retrieved for both groups included demographics, length of operation, length in recovery room, length of hospital stay required, and the re-admission rate. There were 47 patients monitored over 11 months. Of the 34 patients entered in the protocol, seven required an overnight length of stay. The reasons for the extended length admission will be described. Of the 13 patients excluded from the protocol, one did not require an overnight stay. Following review of the data, the criteria for inclusion of patients into the protocol has been altered and patients can safely proceed with day surgery for lumbar discectomy. PMID:14618998

  9. Protocols development for security and privacy of radio frequency identification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagha, Fatin

    There are benefits to adopting radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, although there are methods of attack that can compromise the system. This research determined how that may happen and what possible solutions can keep that from happening. Protocols were developed to implement better security. In addition, new topologies were developed to handle the problems of the key management. Previously proposed protocols focused on providing mutual authentication and privacy between readers and tags. However, those protocols are still vulnerable to be attacked. These protocols were analyzed and the disadvantages shown for each one. Previous works assumed that the channels between readers and the servers were secure. In the proposed protocols, a compromised reader is considered along with how to prevent tags from being read by that reader. The new protocols provide mutual authentication between readers and tags and, at the same time, remove the compromised reader from the system. Three protocols are proposed. In the first protocol, a mutual authentication is achieved and a compromised reader is not allowed in the network. In the second protocol, the number of times a reader contacts the server is reduced. The third protocol provides authentication and privacy between tags and readers using a trusted third party. The developed topology is implemented using python language and simulates work to check the efficiency regarding the processing time. The three protocols are implemented by writing codes in C language and then compiling them in MSP430. IAR Embedded workbench is used, which is an integrated development environment with the C/C++ compiler to generate a faster code and to debug the microcontroller. In summary, the goal of this research is to find solutions for the problems on previously proposed protocols, handle a compromised reader, and solve key management problems.

  10. How to design in situ studies: an evaluation of experimental protocols

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hye; Kim, Hae-Young; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Designing in situ models for caries research is a demanding procedure, as both clinical and laboratory parameters need to be incorporated in a single study. This study aimed to construct an informative guideline for planning in situ models relevant to preexisting caries studies. Materials and Methods An electronic literature search of the PubMed database was performed. A total 191 of full articles written in English were included and data were extracted from materials and methods. Multiple variables were analyzed in relation to the publication types, participant characteristics, specimen and appliance factors, and other conditions. Frequencies and percentages were displayed to summarize the data and the Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess a statistical significance (p < 0.05). Results There were many parameters commonly included in the majority of in situ models such as inclusion criteria, sample sizes, sample allocation methods, tooth types, intraoral appliance types, sterilization methods, study periods, outcome measures, experimental interventions, etc. Interrelationships existed between the main research topics and some parameters (outcome measures and sample allocation methods) among the evaluated articles. Conclusions It will be possible to establish standardized in situ protocols according to the research topics. Furthermore, data collaboration from comparable studies would be enhanced by homogeneous study designs. PMID:25110639

  11. Multicenter Evaluation of Geometric Accuracy of MRI Protocols Used in Experimental Stroke.

    PubMed

    Milidonis, Xenios; Lennen, Ross J; Jansen, Maurits A; Mueller, Susanne; Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Holmes, William M; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R; Marshall, Ian

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that multicenter preclinical stroke studies should be carried out to improve translation from bench to bedside, but the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners routinely used in experimental stroke has not yet been evaluated. We aimed to assess and compare geometric accuracy of preclinical scanners and examine the longitudinal stability of one scanner using a simple quality assurance (QA) protocol. Six 7 Tesla animal scanners across six different preclinical imaging centers throughout Europe were used to scan a small structural phantom and estimate linear scaling errors in all orthogonal directions and volumetric errors. Between-scanner imaging consisted of a standard sequence and each center's preferred sequence for the assessment of infarct size in rat models of stroke. The standard sequence was also used to evaluate the drift in accuracy of the worst performing scanner over a period of six months following basic gradient calibration. Scaling and volumetric errors using the standard sequence were less variable than corresponding errors using different stroke sequences. The errors for one scanner, estimated using the standard sequence, were very high (above 4% scaling errors for each orthogonal direction, 18.73% volumetric error). Calibration of the gradient coils in this system reduced scaling errors to within ±1.0%; these remained stable during the subsequent 6-month assessment. In conclusion, despite decades of use in experimental studies, preclinical MRI still suffers from poor and variable geometric accuracy, influenced by the use of miscalibrated systems and various types of sequences for the same purpose. For effective pooling of data in multicenter studies, centers should adopt standardized procedures for system QA and in vivo imaging. PMID:27603704

  12. Hydrogen engine development: Experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, P.

    1996-10-01

    In the continuing development of a hydrogen fueled IC engine optimized for application to a generator set or hybrid vehicle, experiments were performed at Sandia National Laboratories on two engine configurations. The intent is to maximize thermal efficiency while complying with strict emissions standards. The initial investigation was conducted utilizing a spark ignited 0.491 liter single cylinder Onan engine and has progressed to a spark ignited 0.850 liter modified for single cylinder operation Perkins engine. Both combustion chamber geometries were {open_quotes}pancake{close_quotes} shaped and achieved a compression ratio of 14:1. The engines were operated under premixed conditions. The results demonstrate that both engines can comply with the California Air Resources Board`s proposed Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle standards for NO{sub x} during operation at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The Onan engine achieved an indicated thermal efficiency of 43% at 1800 RPM, as determined by integration of the pressure-volume relationships. Initial experiments with the larger displacement Perkins engine have realized a gain, relative to the Onan engine, in indicated thermal efficiency of 2% at 1800 RPM, and 15% at 1200 RPM.

  13. Combining Wireless Sensor Networks and Groundwater Transport Models: Protocol and Model Development in a Simulative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K.; Urteaga, I.; Han, Q.; Porta, L.; Jayasumana, A.; Illangasekare, T.

    2007-12-01

    , and protocols necessary for a closed-loop simulation online, combining work across multiple disciplines. This simulation environment will expedite software development and a large-scale experimental aquifer will be used for further validation of the techniques. The results presented here address: setup of a WSN simulator which cooperates with transport models, development of fault detection techniques into the WSN routing protocol which are particular to this application, and planned steps in building a transport model capable of working in the WSN context.

  14. The Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition Device on Cell Cultures (PADDOCC) in vitro system: design and experimental protocol.

    PubMed

    Hein, Stephanie; Bur, Michael; Kolb, Tobias; Muellinger, Bernhard; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2010-08-01

    The development of aerosol medicines typically involves numerous tests on animals, due to the lack of adequate in vitro models. A new in vitro method for testing pharmaceutical aerosol formulations on cell cultures was developed, consisting of an aerosolisation unit fitting a commercial dry powder inhaler (HandiHaler(c), Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany), an air-flow control unit (Akita(c), Activaero, Germany) and a custom-made sedimentation chamber. This chamber holds three Snapwell(c) inserts with monolayers of pulmonary epithelial cells. The whole set-up, referred to as the Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition Device On Cell Cultures (PADDOCC) system, aims to mimic the complete process of aerosol drug delivery, encompassing aerosol generation, aerosol deposition onto pulmonary epithelial cells and subsequent drug transport across this biological barrier, to facilitate the investigation of new aerosol formulations in the early stages of development. We describe here, the development of the design and the protocol for this device. By testing aerosol formulations of budesonide and salbutamol sulphate, respectively, reproducible deposition of aerosol particles on, and the integrity of, the pulmonary cell monolayer could be demonstrated. PMID:20822321

  15. Defining standardized protocols for determining the efficacy of a postmilking teat disinfectant following experimental exposure of teats to mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schukken, Y H; Rauch, B J; Morelli, J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to define standardized protocols for determining the efficacy of a postmilking teat disinfectant following experimental exposure of teats to both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The standardized protocols describe the selection of cows and herds and define the critical points in performing experimental exposure, performing bacterial culture, evaluating the culture results, and finally performing statistical analyses and reporting of the results. The protocols define both negative control and positive control trials. For negative control trials, the protocol states that an efficacy of reducing new intramammary infections (IMI) of at least 40% is required for a teat disinfectant to be considered effective. For positive control trials, noninferiority to a control disinfectant with a published efficacy of reducing new IMI of at least 70% is required. Sample sizes for both negative and positive control trials are calculated. Positive control trials are expected to require a large trial size. Statistical analysis methods are defined and, in the proposed methods, the rate of IMI may be analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. The efficacy of the test product can be evaluated while controlling for important covariates and confounders in the trial. Finally, standards for reporting are defined and reporting considerations are discussed. The use of the defined protocol is shown through presentation of the results of a recent trial of a test product against a negative control. PMID:23415529

  16. Development of a new DNA extraction protocol for PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Ghodousi, Arash; Arash, Ghodousi A; Vatani, S; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Omrani, Maryam; Fooladi, A; Fooladi, Aa; Khosaravi, A; Khosaravi, Ad; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-03-01

    A modified pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol was developed and applied to clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to reduce the cost of using lyticase. This protocol reduces the expense of PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as it removes the use of lyticase during the spheroplast formation from these bacteria. PMID:22783461

  17. Development of a new DNA extraction protocol for PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Arash, Ghodousi A; Vatani, S; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Omrani, Maryam; Fooladi, AA; Khosaravi, AD; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    A modified pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol was developed and applied to clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to reduce the cost of using lyticase. This protocol reduces the expense of PFGE typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as it removes the use of lyticase during the spheroplast formation from these bacteria. PMID:22783461

  18. Development and Initial Validation of the Computerized Evaluation Protocol of Interactions in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klavina, Aija

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the development of the Computerized Evaluation Protocol of Interactions in Physical Education, a data collection program for multiple interaction behavior measures in elementary inclusive physical education settings. The theoretical and empirical base for the Computerized Evaluation Protocol of…

  19. Development and evaluation of multispecies test protocols for assessing chemical toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Suter, G.W. II; Blaylock, B.G.

    1985-06-01

    Toxicity testing is a well-recognized tool to assist in evaluating the hazards of chemicals to individual biological species. Multispecies toxicity tests, however, are now well developed. Three test systems were examined: the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis for N-fixation, soil microbial populations, and algal multispecies interactions. Test protocols were to be developed and tested using several different chemicals. Test protocols for the legume-Rhizobium and soil microorganisms systems were developed and are presented. The algal multispecies system will require more research, and thus no protocol was recommended at this time. Separate abstracts were prepared for each test system. (ACR)

  20. (abstract) Experimental Results From Internetworking Data Applications Over Various Wireless Networks Using a Single Flexible Error Control Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanai, T.; Kramer, M.; McAuley, A. J.; Nowack, S.; Pinck, D. S.; Ramirez, G.; Stewart, I.; Tohme, H.; Tong, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes results from several wireless field trials in New Jersey, California, and Colorado, conducted jointly by researchers at Bellcore, JPL, and US West over the course of 1993 and 1994. During these trials, applications communicated over multiple wireless networks including satellite, low power PCS, high power cellular, packet data, and the wireline Public Switched Telecommunications Network (PSTN). Key goals included 1) designing data applications and an API suited to mobile users, 2) investigating internetworking issues, 3) characterizing wireless networks under various field conditions, and 4) comparing the performance of different protocol mechanisms over the diverse networks and applications. We describe experimental results for different protocol mechanisms and parameters, such as acknowledgment schemes and packet sizes. We show the need for powerful error control mechanisms such as selective acknowledgements and combining data from multiple transmissions. We highlight the possibility of a common protocol for all wireless networks, from micro-cellular PCS to satellite networks.

  1. Histology of Testicular Biopsies Obtained for an Experimental Fertility Preservation Protocol in Boys with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietzak, Eugene J.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Tasian, Sarah K.; Brinster, Ralph L.; Carlson, Claire; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Kolon, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cryopreservation of testicular tissue with subsequent re-implantation after therapy has fertility perseveration potential for pre-pubertal boys with childhood cancer. We present the histology and the feasibility of testicular tissue procurement for this novel approach. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of boys at significant risk for treatment-associated gonadotoxicity who were eligible for an experimental research protocol between 2008 and 2011. Open testicular biopsy was performed while they were anesthetized for another treatment related procedure. Half of the specimen was reserved for cryopreservation, while the other half was used for research purposes. Semi-thin sections of the biopsy specimens were evaluated for histological features and compared to age-adjusted reference values. Results Of the 34 boys who underwent biopsy between March 2008 and October 2011, 29 had solid tumors and 5 underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for benign disease. Of these, 27 had adequate tissue for histologic analysis. The median age of the boys was 8.7 years (IQR=2.2 – 11.5 years). All children had either normal (81.5%) or increased (18.5%) numbers of normal germ cells per tubules for their age. However, 18.5% (5/27) of boys had no evidence of Adult dark (Ad) spermatogonia, and 56% (9/16) of boys had no evidence of primary spermatocytes on biopsy, that would be expected for their age norms. These findings are suggestive of abnormal germ cell maturation. Conclusion The preliminary histologic findings of abnormal spermatogenesis maturation in testes of pre-pubertal boys with cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:26032139

  2. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Weng, C.K.; Lindsay, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  3. Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Weng, C.K. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lindsay, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

  4. Application Level Protocol Development for Library and Information Science Applications. Volume 1: Service Definition. Volume 2: Protocol Specification. Report No. TG.1.5; TG.50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, James S.; And Others

    This two-volume document specifies a protocol that was developed using the Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), which provides a framework for communications within a heterogeneous network environment. The protocol implements the features necessary for bibliographic searching, record maintenance, and mail transfer between…

  5. Investigation into the experimental protocols required to determine maximum residue limits (MRLs) in honey.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Richard J; Heinrich, Katharina; Dickinson, Michael; Wilkins, Selwyn; Roelofs, Victoria; Murray, Alistair; Kay, Jack F; Sharman, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    There is current debate within the EU, and internationally, on how withdrawal periods and maximum residue limits (MRLs) may be set for honey production. Whilst comprehensive EU guidelines exist for calculating the withdrawal times of veterinary medicines in most food-producing species, the analytical variables to be studied for bees/honey are not well defined. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate and understand the factors, for example sampling variability, that is important in the development of a harmonized protocol that can be used to generate the robust scientific data necessary to assist risk assessors in proposing MRLs for honey. Ten bee colonies were treated in the spring with a model compound (ciprofloxacin). One hive was used to study intra-hive variation in residue concentrations and the other nine were used in an inter-hive study over a 41-week sampling period. All samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The highest mean concentration from nine hives used in the inter-hive study was 4627 µg/kg eight days (D8) after treatment. The concentration of ciprofloxacin declined to an average concentration of 1756 µg/kg at D30 and 733 µg/kg at D283 (over-winter sample). A generalized additive model was used to fit a smooth curve for trend estimation. For some individual hives the concentration of ciprofloxacin increased slightly at the later sampling time-points. Consequently it was not possible to interpolate, with confidence, a finite withdrawal period for ciprofloxacin at theoretical MRLs between 25 and 500 µg/kg. The observed variation in concentration of ciprofloxacin between hives indicates that the validity of the EU guideline for bees/honey, which requires five samples from five hives to calculate a withdrawal period, may require revision. PMID:22851368

  6. Experimental comparison between one-decoy and two-decoy implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum cryptography protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Youn-Chang; Kim, Yong-Su; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The decoy-state method allows the use of weak coherent pulses in quantum cryptography, and to date, various strategies for the decoy state have been proposed. Here, we experimentally compare the secret key generation rates between the one-decoy and two-decoy implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol through a 3.1-km optical fiber at 780 nm. Once the parameters of the experimental setup are optimized for the maximal secret key generation rate for each implementation, it is found that the two-decoy implementation outperforms the one-decoy implementation.

  7. Development of a standard documentation protocol for communicating exposure models.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Altenpohl, A; Fait, G; Fransman, W; Paini, A; Radovnikovic, A; Simon-Cornu, M; Suciu, N; Verdonck, F

    2016-10-15

    An important step in building a computational model is its documentation; a comprehensive and structured documentation can improve the model applicability and transparency in science/research and for regulatory purposes. This is particularly crucial and challenging for environmental and/or human exposure models that aim to establish quantitative relationships between personal exposure levels and their determinants. Exposure models simulate the transport and fate of a contaminant from the source to the receptor and may involve a large set of entities (e.g. all the media the contaminants may pass though). Such complex models are difficult to be described in a comprehensive, unambiguous and accessible way. Bad communication of assumptions, theory, structure and/or parameterization can lead to lack of confidence by the user and it may be source of errors. The goal of this paper is to propose a standard documentation protocol (SDP) for exposure models, i.e. a generic format and a standard structure by which all exposure models could be documented. For this purpose, a CEN (European Committee for Standardisation) workshop was set up with objective to agree on minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be provided on exposure models documentation along with guidelines for the structure and presentation of the information. The resulting CEN workshop agreement (CWA) was expected to facilitate a more rigorous formulation of exposure models description and the understanding by users. This paper intends to describe the process followed for defining the SDP, the standardisation approach, as well as the main components of the SDP resulting from a wide consultation of interested stakeholders. The main outcome is a CEN CWA which establishes terms and definitions for exposure models and their elements, specifies minimum requirements for the amount and type of information to be documented, and proposes a structure for communicating the documentation to different

  8. A Tribolium castaneum whole-embryo culture protocol for studying the molecular mechanisms and morphogenetic movements involved in insect development.

    PubMed

    Macaya, Constanza C; Saavedra, Patricio E; Cepeda, Rodrigo E; Nuñez, Viviana A; Sarrazin, Andres F

    2016-01-01

    The development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is more representative of arthropods than the evolutionarily derived fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Thus, Tribolium is becoming an emerging organism model for studying the evolution of the mechanisms that control embryonic development in arthropods. In this regard, diverse genetic and molecular tools are currently available for Tribolium, as well as imaging and embryonic techniques. Recently, we developed a method for culturing embryos in order to study specific stages during Tribolium development. In this report, we present a detailed and "easy-to-follow" protocol for embryo handling and dissection, extending the use of whole-embryo culture to functional analysis by performing in vivo pharmacological manipulations. This experimental accessibility allowed us to study the relevance of microtubules in axis elongation, using nocodazole and taxol drugs to interfere with microtubule networks, followed by length measurement analysis. Additionally, we demonstrated that embryo handling had no effect on the development of Tribolium embryos, and we checked viability after dissection and bisection and during incubation using propidium iodide. The embryo culture protocol we describe here can be applied to study diverse developmental processes in Tribolium. We expect that this protocol can be adapted and applied to other arthropods. PMID:26739999

  9. Development of a Clinical Protocol for Home Hospice Care for Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-geol

    2005-01-01

    As the Korean government's recognition of the importance of hospice service grows, the government has initiated a variety of hospice services in Korea. Each hospice organization has shown a significant difference in its health care delivery methods, constitution and care content. Developing a clinical protocol is essential for establishing standardized hospice services. A preliminary protocol was drawn up by examining the records of terminal patients (n=541) in a home hospice organization while elucidating the health problems as well as classifying them through the Home Health Care Classification (HHCC), and by reviewing the relevant nursing interventions and medical treatments in the literature concerning the clinical protocols. Korea's leading hospice specialty groups participated in four rounds of content validity verification processes in order to establish a protocol. A guideline was developed through a team approach, integrating the opinions of doctors, nurses, ministers, volunteers, patients' families, nutritionists and pharmacists. Eighteen health problems and a total of 223 interventions (173 major treatments and nursing interventions, and 50 optional interventions) were included in the final clinical protocol. This study is expected to contribute to the overall qualitative improvement of home hospice care and the subsequent shortening of documentation time. Evaluation tools and a regulatory feedback system need to be developed in order to maintain consistent evaluation procedures based on the continuous promotion and use of the protocol. PMID:15744800

  10. Development of an eco-protocol for seaweed chlorophylls extraction and possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armeli Minicante, S.; Ambrosi, E.; Back, M.; Barichello, J.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Trave, E.

    2016-07-01

    Seaweeds are a reserve of natural dyes (chlorophylls a, b and c), characterized by low cost and easy supply, without potential environmental load in terms of land subtraction, and also complying with the requirements of an efficient waste management policy. In particular, the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida is a species largely present in the Venice Lagoon area, and for it a removal strategy is actually mandatory. In this paper, we set-up an eco-protocol for the best extraction and preparation procedures of the pigment, with the aim of finding an easy and affordable method for chlorophyll c extraction, exploring at the same time the possibility of using these algae within local sustainable management integrated strategies, among which the possible use of chlorophylls as a dye source in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. Experimental results suggest that the developed protocols are useful to optimize the chlorophyll c extraction, as shown by optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. The DSSCs built with the chlorophyll extracted by the proposed eco-protocol exhibit solar energy conversion efficiencies are similar to those obtained following extraction protocols with larger environmental impacts.

  11. Treatment protocol development for disinfesting legumes using radio frequency energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an urgent need to develop technically effective and environmentally sound phytosanitary and quarantine treatments for the legume industry to replace chemical fumigation. The goal of this study was to develop practical non-chemical treatments for postharvest disinfestations of legumes using ...

  12. Field validation of protocols developed to evaluate in-line mastitis detection systems.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, C; Dela Rue, B T; Eastwood, C R

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on a field validation of previously developed protocols for evaluating the performance of in-line mastitis-detection systems. The protocols outlined 2 requirements of these systems: (1) to detect cows with clinical mastitis (CM) promptly and accurately to enable timely and appropriate treatment and (2) to identify cows with high somatic cell count (SCC) to manage bulk milk SCC levels. Gold standard measures, evaluation tests, performance measures, and performance targets were proposed. The current study validated the protocols on commercial dairy farms with automated in-line mastitis-detection systems using both electrical conductivity (EC) and SCC sensor systems that both monitor at whole-udder level. The protocol for requirement 1 was applied on 3 commercial farms. For requirement 2, the protocol was applied on 6 farms; 3 of them had low bulk milk SCC (128×10(3) cells/mL) and were the same farms as used for field evaluation of requirement 1. Three farms with high bulk milk SCC (270×10(3) cells/mL) were additionally enrolled. The field evaluation methodology and results were presented at a workshop including representation from 7 international suppliers of in-line mastitis-detection systems. Feedback was sought on the acceptance of standardized performance evaluation protocols and recommended refinements to the protocols. Although the methodology for requirement 1 was relatively labor intensive and required organizational skills over an extended period, no major issues were encountered during the field validation of both protocols. The validation, thus, proved the protocols to be practical. Also, no changes to the data collection process were recommended by the technology supplier representatives. However, 4 recommendations were made to refine the protocols: inclusion of an additional analysis that ignores small (low-density) clot observations in the definition of CM, extension of the time window from 4 to 5 milkings for timely alerts for CM

  13. Final report for the protocol extensions for ATM Security Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.; Pierson, L.G.; Brenkosh, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    This is the summary report for the Protocol Extensions for Asynchronous Transfer Mode project, funded under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. During this one-year effort, techniques were examined for integrating security enhancements within standard ATM protocols, and mechanisms were developed to validate these techniques and to provide a basic set of ATM security assurances. Based on our experience during this project, recommendations were presented to the ATM Forum (a world-wide consortium of ATM product developers, service providers, and users) to assist with the development of security-related enhancements to their ATM specifications. As a result of this project, Sandia has taken a leading role in the formation of the ATM Forum`s Security Working Group, and has gained valuable alliances and leading-edge experience with emerging ATM security technologies and protocols.

  14. Influence of experimental protocol on response rate and repeatability of mechanical threshold testing in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L.K.; Murrell, J.C.; van Klink, E.G.M.; Whay, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical threshold (MT) testing is widely used to measure nociceptive thresholds. However, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the response rate and repeatability (collectively termed ‘efficacy’) of MT testing protocols. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the efficacy of a protocol using a hand-held algometer to measure MTs (N) in healthy dogs (n = 12) was affected by varying (1) the area over which force was applied (tip diameter), (2) rate of force application, (3) position of dog during testing, and (4) anatomical site of testing. The effect of these factors on MT and the impact of individual dog effects on both efficacy and MT were also investigated. Overall, 3175/3888 tests (82%) resulted in a measurable response. The response rate was reduced by using wider tip diameters, testing at the tibia, and testing when the dog was lying down (compared to sitting upright). Wider tips were associated with higher, more variable MTs (mean ± standard deviation) with values of 4.18 ± 2.55 N for 2 mm diameter tips, 5.54 ± 3.33 for those of 4 mm, and 7.59 ± 4.73 for 8 mm tips. Individual dog effects had the most significant impact on efficacy and MT. The findings indicate that tip diameter, dog position, and anatomical site may affect both protocol efficacy and MTs, and should be taken into account when comparing different studies and in designing protocols to measure MTs in dogs. The predominant effect of the individual dog over other factors indicates that between-subject differences should always be accounted for in future studies. PMID:25744801

  15. Thermal Treatment Protocol Development and Scale-up

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of thermal treatments requires a sequential approach consisting of laboratory tests to identify one or more heat treatment technologies that can be used for a specific commodity to control target quarantine pests without adversely affecting commodity quality or shelf life. Small scale t...

  16. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Objective. While promising, electroencephaloraphy based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) are barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users’ motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach. We performed two experiments. The first consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a standard BCI training protocol for the acquisition of non-BCI related skills in a BCI-free context, which enabled us to rule out the possible impact of BCIs on the training outcome. Thus, participants (N = 54) were asked to perform simple motor tasks. The second experiment was aimed at measuring the correlations between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. The ten best and ten worst performers of the first study were recruited for an MI-BCI experiment during which they had to learn to perform two MI tasks. We also assessed users’ spatial ability and pre-training μ rhythm amplitude, as both have been related to MI-BCI performance in the literature. Main results. Around 17% of the participants were unable to learn to perform the motor tasks, which is close to the BCI illiteracy rate. This suggests that standard training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching. No correlation was found between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. However, spatial ability played an important role in MI-BCI performance. In addition, once the spatial ability covariable had been controlled for, using an ANCOVA, it appeared that participants who faced difficulty during the first experiment improved during the second while the others did not. Significance. These studies suggest that (1) standard MI-BCI training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching, (2) spatial ability is confirmed as impacting on MI-BCI performance, and (3) when faced

  17. Developing the wasp: Wareing attitudes toward science protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wareing, Carol

    Affective development has long since been cited as one of the main components of scientific literacy. According to Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia, attitudes, emotions, and values that are manifested as preferred choices, appreciations, and interests comprise the affective domain. Such attitudes, emotions, and values are neither immutable nor necessarily transferable from one discipline to the next. In an effort to identify and measure scientific affect and to later assess its impact on achievement, the author set out to develop and validate an attitude instrument in the form of a Likert-type scale. Following test construction, reliability was calculated according to several split-half methods, using a sample of 806 students in grades 4 through 12. The result was a most satisfactory reliability range of 0.91-0.94.

  18. Protocols for Developing Novel Chikungunya Virus DNA Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chung, Christopher; Ugen, Kenneth E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Weiner, David B; Muthumani, Kar

    2016-01-01

    To date, there have been several million infections by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted emerging pathogen that is considered to be taxonomically an Old World RNA virus. Although original CHIKV outbreaks were restricted to India, East Asian countries, Northern Italy, and France, a recent sharp rise had been identified in 41 countries or territories in the Caribbean, Central America, South America, and North America. A total of 1,012,347 suspected and 22,579 laboratory-confirmed CHIKV cases have been reported from these areas, which signals an increasing risk to the US mainland. Unlike past epidemics that were usually associated with Ae. aegypti transmission, the Caribbean outbreak was associated with Ae. albopictus transmission as the principal mosquito vector. In addition, the substantial increase in the number of deaths during this epidemic, as well as incidence of neurologic disease, suggests that CHIKV may have become more virulent. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available for CHIKV or its associated disease pathologies. Therefore, development of new vaccines and therapies that could confer immunity and/or treat clinical symptoms of CHIKV is greatly desired. This chapter describes the use of entirely cutting edge technologies/methodologies developed by our group for the development and evaluation of novel DNA vaccines against CHIKV. PMID:27233283

  19. Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

  20. Using a Participatory Four-Step Protocol to Develop Culturally Targeted Cancer Education Brochures

    PubMed Central

    Kulukulualani, Manny; Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn U.

    2010-01-01

    Native Hawaiians have a high cancer burden, but few culturally targeted cancer education brochures exist. The authors followed a participatory four-step protocol, involving more than 200 health providers and clients, to develop and test culturally targeted brochures on skin, oral, cervical, prostate, and testicular cancers. The final products featured Hawaiian faces, scenes, words, and activities. They proved more attractive than existing materials, in particular to younger Hawaiians, and posttests suggested good comprehension of intended messages. This protocol may have application in other communities that want to develop brochures that are attractive, acceptable, readable, and useful to minority clients and their providers. PMID:18353907

  1. Development of Experimental Vaccines Against Liver Flukes.

    PubMed

    Yap, Huan Yong; Smooker, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of experimental vaccines have been developed against liver flukes in the past. However, there has yet to be the development of a commercial livestock vaccine. Reasons for this may be multiple, and include the lack of identification of the best antigen(s), or the immune response induced by those antigens not being appropriate in either magnitude or polarity (and therefore not protective). Cathepsin proteases are the major component of the excretory/secretory (ES) material of liver flukes in all stages of their life cycle in the definitive host and are the primary antigens of interest for the vaccine development in many studies. Hence, this chapter presents the methodologies of using cathepsin proteases as targeted antigens in recombinant protein and DNA vaccine development to engender protective immune responses against fasciolosis.First, the experimental vaccines developed in the past and the criteria of an effective vaccine for fasciolosis are briefly reviewed. Then flowcharts for recombinant protein vaccine and DNA vaccine development are presented, followed by the detailed materials and methodologies. PMID:27076295

  2. The development of protocols to cover clinical care in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Duwel, C M; Kruijssen, H A

    1995-01-01

    PROCAS (PRofiles Of CAre System) is one of the AIM projects whose objectives are to improve the quality and efficiency of medical treatment. These will be realised in establishing a methodology for defining and developing what are termed "Profiles of Care". These are sets of options for clinicians which are meant to create acceptable ways of managing patients with similar conditions and which represent good clinical practice. Moreover, a prototype system will be realised by the application of informatics and telematics, to enhance the provision of efficient and effective care in both hospitals and outpatient departments. Because of the retrospective nature of the ICD-9-CM system for the classification of cardiological patients, a draft for a Prospective Patient Data Model, which involves the assessment of somatic, psychosocial, environmental and demographic axes, is being presented. This multi-axial evaluation allows for the generation of the smallest unit of diagnostic-therapeutic procedures, based on the definition of the patient's health problem; that is: the patient-orientated diagnosis or the appropriate indication. PMID:10163708

  3. Androgen supplementation during aging: development of a physiologically appropriate protocol.

    PubMed

    Urbanski, Henryk F; Sorwell, Krystina G; Garyfallou, Vasilios T; Garten, Jamie; Weiss, Alison; Renner, Laurie; Neuringer, Martha; Kohama, Steven G

    2014-04-01

    Men show an age-related decline in the circulating levels of testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Consequently, there is interest in developing androgen supplementation paradigms for old men that replicate the hormone profiles of young adults. In the present study, we used old (21-26 years old) male rhesus monkeys as a model to examine the efficacy of an androgen supplementation paradigm that comprised oral T administration (12 mg/kg body weight, dissolved in sesame oil/chocolate) in the evening, and two oral DHEA administrations, 3 hr apart (0.04 mg/kg body weight, dissolved in sesame oil/chocolate) in the morning. After 5 days of repeated hormone supplementation, serial blood samples were remotely collected from each animal hourly across the 24-hr day, and assayed for cortisol, DHEAS, T, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2). Following androgen supplementation, T levels were significantly elevated and this was associated with a more sustained nocturnal elevation of T's primary bioactive metabolites, DHT and E1 and E2. Plasma DHEAS levels were also significantly elevated after androgen supplementation; DHEAS levels rose in the early morning and gradually declined during the course of the day, closely mimicking the profiles observed in young adults (7-12 years old); in contrast, cortisol levels were unaltered by the supplementation. Together the data demonstrate a non-invasive androgen supplementation paradigm that restores youthful circulating androgen levels in old male primates. Because this paradigm preserves the natural circulating circadian hormone patterns, we predict that it will produce fewer adverse side effects, such as perturbed sleep or cognitive impairment. PMID:24134213

  4. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    PubMed

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs. PMID:26062288

  5. Experimentally Manipulated Bias in School Psychologists' Scoring of WISC-III Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; Taylor, Amy N.

    Experimenter bias effects were experimentally manipulated in a sample of 97 school psychologists scoring 3 subscales (Similarity, Vocabulary, and Comprehension) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III). First year (n=29), interns (n=42), and experienced (n=26) psychologists were randomly assigned to either a bias or…

  6. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  7. Development of a new welfare assessment protocol for practical application in long-term dog shelters.

    PubMed

    Barnard, S; Pedernera, C; Candeloro, L; Ferri, N; Velarde, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2016-01-01

    In many European shelters, dogs may spend many years confined. A poor environment and inappropriate management may lead to a low quality of life. The absence of harmonised European regulatory frameworks defining the minimum requirements for shelter facilities makes the definition of welfare standards for kennelled dogs challenging. Here, a new protocol was developed and tested to help identify the main welfare issues for shelter dogs. Twenty-six indicators were identified including management, resource and animal based measures. Accuracy and interobserver reliability were checked between four assessors. The protocol was applied in 29 shelters (n=1308 dogs) in six European countries. Overall prevalence of poor health conditions was below 10%. Test-retest reliability and validity of the protocol were investigated with encouraging results. A logistic regression was carried out to assess the potential of the protocol as a tool to identify welfare hazards in shelter environments. Inappropriate space allowance, for example, was found to be a risk factor potentially affecting the animal's cleanliness, skin condition and body condition. The protocol was designed to be concise and easy to implement. Systematic data collection could help identify welfare problems that are likely to arise in certain shelter designs and thus determine improvement in animal care standards. PMID:26612859

  8. Experimental demonstration of interference avoidance protocol (transmission scheduling) in O-CDMA networks.

    PubMed

    Saghari, Poorya; Kamath, P; Arbab, Vahid R; Haghi, Mahta; Willner, Alan E; Bannister, Joe A; Touch, Joe D

    2007-12-10

    We experimentally demonstrate a transmission scheduling algorithm to avoid congestion collapse in O-CDMA networks. Our result shows that transmission scheduling increases the performance of the system by orders of magnitude. PMID:19550934

  9. Generating PDS Possibility and Practicality Thinking Using a Case and Protocol Tool to Enhance PDS Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Hoppey, David

    2013-01-01

    An important feature of professional development school (PDS) work is encouraging collaborative reflective dialogue that guides a partnership toward actualizing the possibilities for and mission of a PDS. This article provides a case "illustration" of a fictitious, exemplary PDS and a "protocol" that in combination can be used by PDSs interested…

  10. REGIONAL METHODS INITIATIVE: DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE RIVER BIOASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS (LRBP) FOR BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing the Large River Bioassessment Protocol (LRBP) for assessment of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. This multi-habitat method is currently being used in support of a REMAP project for probabilistic assessment of large rivers in USEPA Region 5. Six rivers, r...

  11. 76 FR 60503 - Guidance for Industry on Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Federal Register of February 3, 2011 (76 FR 6143), FDA published the notice of availability for a draft... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Target Animal Safety and... guidance for industry ( 215) entitled ``Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development...

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE RIVER BIOASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS (LR-BPS) FOR BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN EPA REGION 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-wadeable rivers have been largely overlooked by bioassessment programs because of sampling difficulties and a lack of appropriate methods and biological indicators. We are in the process of developing a Large River Bioassessment Protocol (LR-BP) for sampling macroinvertebrat...

  14. Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice: Development of a Standardized Clinical Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempster, Gail B.; Gerratt, Bruce R.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Hillman, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents the development of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) following a consensus conference on perceptual voice quality measurement sponsored by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's Special Interest Division 3, Voice and Voice Disorders. The CAPE-V protocol and recording form were…

  15. Development and Use of an Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Lois A.; Weitzman, Lauren M.; Mountain, Lisa M.; Nelson, Kris L.; Oakley, Danielle R.; Smith, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Counseling centers have been challenged to effectively treat the growing number of college students who struggle with disordered eating. In response to this critical issue, an Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Protocol (EDATP) was developed to assist clinical disposition in the counseling center setting and identify treatment guidelines…

  16. [The Development of a Care Protocol for Postoperative Pressure Sore Prevention].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hui-Ling; Wang, Fang; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne

    2015-12-01

    Pressure sores are a common complication caused by long periods of bed rest following major surgery. These sores may increase patient postoperative pain, increase the risk of infections, lengthen the pe-riod of hospitalization, and increase the duration and costs of nursing care. Therefore, maintaining the skin integrity of surgical patients is an important responsibility for operating room nurses and an indicator of nursing care quality. While pressure-sore risk assessment tools and interoperative strategies are available and used in foreign countries, there has been little related research conducted in Taiwan. After examining the relevant literature and considering the current postoperative pressure sore situation in Taiwan, the author developed a postoperative pressure sore care protocol as a reference for clinical staff. Protocol procedures include major breakthrough developments in areas such as post-survey risk assessment for pressure ulcers, pressure ulcer prevention strategies that take surgery-related risk factors into consideration, extra care and protection measures for surgical supine patients, and post-pressure sores. The developed postoperative pressure sore protocol may be incorporated into surgical care procedures during the post-surgical care period in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of post-surgery pressure ulcers. Furthermore, the developed protocol offers the potential to improve and strengthen the quality of surgical care in terms of both healthcare and post-surgical care. PMID:26645449

  17. Development and Use of Fluorescent Antibody and qPCR Protocols for the Electrostatic Spore Trap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluorescent antibody (FA) and qPCR protocols were evaluated for the newly developed aerobiological sampler (Ionic Spore Trap), which depends upon electrostatic deposition of particulates onto a 25 mm aluminum disk (stub). This device was originally designed for assessment of captured particulates by...

  18. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a FAP Protocol: Brief Relationship Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Gareth; Kohlenberg, Robert J.; Tsai, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a brief Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) protocol that will facilitate reliable implementation of FAP interventions, thus supporting research on FAP process and outcome. The treatment was a four-session individual therapy for clients who were interested in improving their relationship with their…

  19. Development of a dynamic quality assurance testing protocol for multisite clinical trial DCE-CT accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, B.; Keller, H.; Jaffray, D.; Coolens, C.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Credentialing can have an impact on whether or not a clinical trial produces useful quality data that is comparable between various institutions and scanners. With the recent increase of dynamic contrast enhanced-computed tomography (DCE-CT) usage as a companion biomarker in clinical trials, effective quality assurance, and control methods are required to ensure there is minimal deviation in the results between different scanners and protocols at various institutions. This paper attempts to address this problem by utilizing a dynamic flow imaging phantom to develop and evaluate a DCE-CT quality assurance (QA) protocol.Methods: A previously designed flow phantom, capable of producing predictable and reproducible time concentration curves from contrast injection was fully validated and then utilized to design a DCE-CT QA protocol. The QA protocol involved a set of quantitative metrics including injected and total mass error, as well as goodness of fit comparison to the known truth concentration curves. An additional region of interest (ROI) sensitivity analysis was also developed to provide additional details on intrascanner variability and determine appropriate ROI sizes for quantitative analysis. Both the QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis were utilized to test variations in DCE-CT results using different imaging parameters (tube voltage and current) as well as alternate reconstruction methods and imaging techniques. The developed QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis was then applied at three institutions that were part of clinical trial involving DCE-CT and results were compared.Results: The inherent specificity of robustness of the phantom was determined through calculation of the total intraday variability and determined to be less than 2.2 ± 1.1% (total calculated output contrast mass error) with a goodness of fit (R{sup 2}) of greater than 0.99 ± 0.0035 (n= 10). The DCE-CT QA protocol was capable of detecting significant deviations from

  20. Development of simple and efficient protocol for isolation of plasmids from mycobacteria using zirconia beads.

    PubMed

    Madiraju, M V; Qin, M H; Rajagopalan, M

    2000-01-01

    A two-step protocol has been developed for isolation of plasmids from recombinant mycobacteria via Escherichia coli. First either mycobacterial primary transformants or propagated cultures were lysed in a mini-bead beater using zirconia beads and the lysate thus obtained was used to transform E. coli recA mutant cells. Secondly, plasmid DNA was isolated from recombinant E. coli cells and analysed. Bead beating times of 2 min for Mycobacterium smegmatis, a rapid grower, and 4 min for M. bovis BCG, a slow grower, were found to be optimal for recovery of plasmid DNA. This protocol was also amenable to other mycobacterial species such as M. avium, M. fortuitum and M. tuberculosis H37Ra. Plasmid recovery from the recombinant M. bovis BCG using this protocol is approximately 300-fold higher than that reported for the electroduction method. PMID:10728558

  1. Development of our TAVI protocol for emergency initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Cleland, A; Bainbridge, D; Jones, P M; Chu, M W A; Kiaii, B

    2015-01-01

    All transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) cases are done in our hybrid operating room with a multidisciplinary team and a primed cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit on pump stand-by. We decided that we would resuscitate all patients undergoing a TAVI procedure via a transfemoral, transapical or transaortic approach, if required. Perfusion plays an essential role in providing rescue CPB for patient salvage when catastrophic complications occur. To coordinate the multidisciplinary effort, we have developed a written safety checklist that assigns a pre-determined role for team members for the rapid sequence initiation of CPB. Although many TAVI patients are not candidates for conventional aortic valve replacements, we feel strongly that rescue CPB should be offered to all TAVI patients to allow the correction of potentially reversible complications. This protocol is included in every surgical "Time Out" involving a TAVI procedure (Figure 1). The protocol has led to rapid and safe CPB initiation in less than five minutes of cardiac arrest. It has also led to a coordinated and consistent team, with pre-specified roles and improved communication. We discuss a case series of four TAVI patients who required emergent use of CPB. The first few cases did not have a written protocol. The experience from these cases led to the development of our protocol. We identified a lack of coordination, wasted movements, unnecessary delayed resuscitation and overall chaos, each of which was targeted for correction with the protocol. We will discuss the merits of the protocol in two recent TAVI cases which required emergent CPB. PMID:25143415

  2. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, M; Latrach, R; Sassi, L; Darghouth, M A

    2012-08-01

    We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation. PMID:22910672

  3. Model testing, prediction and experimental protocols in neuroscience: a case study.

    PubMed

    Datteri, Edoardo; Laudisa, Federico

    2012-09-01

    In their theoretical and experimental reflections on the capacities and behaviours of living systems, neuroscientists often formulate generalizations about the behaviour of neural circuits. These generalizations are highly idealized, as they omit reference to the myriads of conditions that could perturb the behaviour of the modelled system in real-world settings. This article analyses an experimental investigation of the behaviour of place cells in the rat hippocampus, in which highly idealized generalizations were tested by comparing predictions flowing from them with real-world experimental results. The aim of the article is to identify (1) under what conditions even single prediction failures regarding the behaviour of single cells sufficed to reject highly idealized generalizations, and (2) under what conditions prima facie counter-examples were deemed to be irrelevant to the testing of highly idealized generalizations. The results of this analysis may contribute to understanding how idealized models are tested experimentally in neuroscience and used to make reliable predictions concerning living systems in real-world settings. PMID:22627322

  4. Development of a geometrically accurate imaging protocol at 3 Tesla MRI for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; MacFadden, D.; Damyanovich, A. Z.; Rieker, M.; Stainsby, J.; Bernstein, M.; Jaffray, D. A.; Mikulis, D.; Ménard, C.

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a geometrically accurate imaging protocol at 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning. In order to achieve this purpose, a methodology is developed to investigate the geometric accuracy and stability of 3 T MRI for SRS in phantom and patient evaluations. Forty patients were enrolled on a prospective clinical trial. After frame placement prior to SRS, each patient underwent 3 T MRI after 1.5 T MRI and CT. MR imaging protocols included a T1-weighted gradient echo sequence and a T2-weighted spin echo sequence. Phantom imaging was performed on 3 T prior to patient imaging using the same set-up and imaging protocols. Geometric accuracy in patients and phantoms yielded comparable results for external fiducial reference deviations and internal landmarks between 3 T and 1.5 T MRI (mean <=0.6 mm; standard deviation <=0.3 mm). Mean stereotactic reference deviations between phantoms and patients correlated well (T1: R = 0.79; T2: R = 0.84). Statistical process control analysis on phantom QA data demonstrated the stability of our SRS imaging protocols, where the geometric accuracy of the 3 T SRS imaging protocol is operating within the appropriate tolerance. Our data provide evidence supporting the spatial validity of 3 T MRI for targeting SRS under imaging conditions investigated. We have developed a systematic approach to achieve confidence on the geometric integrity of a given imaging system/technique for clinical integration in SRS application.

  5. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate.

    PubMed

    Conte, Nicolau; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Andrade, Cleverton Roberto de; Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6) or saline solution (CTL; n = 6). After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design. PMID:27556684

  6. Experimental developments towards an ITER thermography diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, R.; Brichard, B.; Escourbiac, F.; Gardarein, J. L.; Hernandez, D.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.; Serra, J. J.; Badie, J. M.; van Ierschot, S.; Jouve, M.; Martinez, S.; Ooms, H.; Pocheau, C.; Rauber, X.; Sans, J. L.; Scheer, E.; Berghmans, F.; Decréton, M.

    2007-06-01

    In the course of the development of a concept for a spectrally resolving thermography diagnostic for the ITER divertor using optical fibres experimental development work has been carried out in three different areas. Firstly ZrF4 fibres and hollow fibres (silica capillaries with internal AG/AgJ coating) were tested in a Co60 irradiation facility under γ irradiation up to doses of 5 kGy and 27 kGy, respectively. The ZrF4 fibres suffered more radiation induced degradation (>1 db/m) then the hollow fibres (0-0.4 db/m). Secondly multi-colour pyroreflectometry is being developed towards tokamak applicability. The emissivity and temperature of tungsten samples were measured in the range of 700-1500 °C. The angular working range for off normal observation of the method was 20-30°. The working distance of the method has been be increased from cm to the m range. Finally, encouraging preliminary results have been obtained concerning the application of pulsed and modulated active thermography.

  7. Development of a decision support system to predict physicians' rehabilitation protocols for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M; Alshraideh, Mohammad A; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M; Salah, Imad K; Holm, Margo B; Otom, Ali H

    2012-09-01

    To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee OA were entered into the MDSS. Demographic variables in the model were age and sex. Clinical variables entered into the model were height, weight, BMI, affected side, severity of knee OA, and severity of pain. All patients in the study received one of three treatment protocols for patients with knee OA: (a) hot packs, followed by electrotherapy and exercise, (b) ice packs, followed by ultrasound and exercise and (c) exercise alone. The resilient back propagation artificial neural network algorithm was used, with a ten-fold cross-validation. It was estimated that the MDSS is able to accurately predict the treatment prescribed by the physician for 87% of the patients. We developed an artificial neural network-based decision support system that can viably aid physicians in determining which treatment protocol would best match the anthropometric and clinical characteristics of patients with knee OA. PMID:22508428

  8. Alternative protocol to initiate high-frequency oscillatory ventilation: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Karmrodt, Jens; David, Matthias; Yuan, Shying; Markstaller, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to study the effects of a novel lung volume optimization procedure (LVOP) using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) upon gas exchange, the transpulmonary pressure (TPP), and hemodynamics in a porcine model of surfactant depletion. Methods With institutional review board approval, the hemodynamics, blood gas analysis, TPP, and pulmonary shunt fraction were obtained in six anesthetized pigs before and after saline lung lavage. Measurements were acquired during pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) prior to and after lung damage, and during a LVOP with HFOV. The LVOP comprised a recruitment maneuver with a continuous distending pressure (CDP) of 45 mbar for 2.5 minutes, and a stepwise decrease of the CDP (5 mbar every 5 minute) from 45 to 20 mbar. The TPP level was identified during the decrease in CDP, which assured a change of the PaO2/FIO2 ratio < 25% compared with maximum lung recruitment at CDP of 45 mbar (CDP45). Data are presented as the median (25th–75th percentile); differences between measurements are determined by Friedman repeated-measures analysis on ranks and multiple comparisons (Tukey's test). The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased from 99.1 (56.2–128) Torr at PCV post-lavage to 621 (619.4–660.3) Torr at CDP45 (CDP45) (P < 0.031). The pulmonary shunt fraction decreased from 51.8% (49–55%) at PCV post-lavage to 1.03% (0.4–3%) at CDP45 (P < 0.05). The cardiac output and stroke volume decreased at CDP45 (P < 0.05) compared with PCV, whereas the heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and intrathoracic blood volume remained unchanged. A TPP of 25.5 (17–32) mbar was required to preserve a difference in PaO2/FIO2 ratio < 25% related to CDP45; this TPP was achieved at a CDP of 35 (25–40) mbar. Conclusion This HFOV protocol is easy to perform, and allows a fast determination of an adequate TPP level that preserves oxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, as a measure of

  9. Development of a treatment protocol for Puerto Rican adolescents with suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Torres-Dávila, Paloma; Spirito, Anthony; Polanco, Norka; Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents in Puerto Rico are at an increased risk for suicide attempts, though evidence-based treatments specifically for this group have not been tested. The current study was designed to develop and pilot test a culturally sensitive, manualized outpatient treatment for Puerto Rican adolescents who have experienced a suicidal crisis. The study was divided into phases. Phase 1 consisted of developing a socio-cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidal behavior. Phase 2 tested the treatment protocol in an open trial with 11 (6 male and 5 female) Puerto Rican adolescents. Active treatment had an approximate duration of 3-6 months. An initial assessment, process measures, and posttreatment assessment were completed with each participant to measure treatment feasibility as well as suicidality, symptoms, and risk factors. Participants were very satisfied with treatment and reported relevant clinical benefits. The retention rate was 73% (8 out of 11). For those who completed the treatment protocol, the goal of reducing further suicide risk was achieved; 2 showed reliable clinical changes in suicidal ideation, while 6 maintained low levels during treatment. All treatment completers had either a partial or total remission of their pretreatment diagnosis and half had reliable improvements in at least 1 risk factor. A theory-driven treatment protocol was developed according to patient's needs, but further research is needed to continue its development and to explore its efficacy. PMID:26928136

  10. The development of a protocol for post-mortem management of Ebola virus disease in the setting of developed countries.

    PubMed

    Leditschke, Jodie; Rose, Toby; Cordner, Stephen; Woodford, Noel; Pollanen, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The management of the recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic continues to pose currently insuperable challenges to health care providers in the resource-deprived countries of West Africa. In an age where air travel facilitates rapid movement of people between countries and continents, there is an urgent requirement for health systems around the globe to develop management strategies and protocols in the event that EVD cases are suspected or confirmed. Departments of forensic pathology play an important, and underestimated, role in public health service delivery, particularly at times of novel infectious disease emergence. This role can include disease identification, characterization, and notification, as well as close engagement with agencies responsible for disease surveillance and treatment provision. A mass outbreak of EVD in the Western world is considered highly unlikely; however, there is clear responsibility on departments of forensic pathology to develop protocols for rapid assessment of sporadic or suspected cases while ensuring the health and safety of mortuary and pathology personnel. The Ontario Forensic Pathology Service and the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine have collaborated on the development of a protocol for management of EVD cases presenting at a scene or in the mortuary. It is hoped that this trans-national, inter-departmental exercise will serve as a model for future co-operative endeavors. The protocol has been distributed to forensic pathology departments around Australia and may be modified to accommodate local resource capabilities. PMID:25616524

  11. Development and validation of a PulseNet standardized protocol for subtyping isolates of Cronobacter species.

    PubMed

    Brengi, Silvina P; O'Brien, Stephen B; Pichel, Mariana; Iversen, Carol; Arduino, Matthew; Binsztein, Norma; Jensen, Bette; Pagotto, Franco; Ribot, Efrain M; Stephan, Roger; Cernela, Nicole; Cooper, Kara; Fanning, Séamus

    2012-09-01

    Cronobacter (formerly known as Enterobacter sakazakii) is a genus comprising seven species regarded as opportunistic pathogens that can be found in a wide variety of environments and foods, including powdered infant formula (PIF). Cronobacter sakazakii, the major species of this genus, has been epidemiologically linked to cases of bacteremia, meningitis in neonates, and necrotizing enterocolitis, and contaminated PIF has been identified as an important source of infection. Robust and reproducible subtyping methods are required to aid in the detection and investigation, of foodborne outbreaks. In this study, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol was developed and validated for subtyping Cronobacter species. It was derived from an existing modified PulseNet protocol, wherein XbaI and SpeI were the primary and secondary restriction enzymes used, generating an average of 14.7 and 20.3 bands, respectively. The PFGE method developed was both reproducible and discriminatory for subtyping Cronobacter species. PMID:22891917

  12. Development of a CELSS Experimental Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Wang, X.; Yin, Y.; Feng, H.; Ai, W.; Liu, X.; Qin, L.

    A CELSS Experimental Facility was developed two years ago. It contains a volume of about 40.0 m3 and a cultivating area of about 8.4 m2; its interior atmospheric parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide concentration, total pressure, lighting intensity, photoperiod, water content in the growing-matrix, CO2-added accumulative amount, O2-released accumulative amount and ethylene concentration are all controlled and logged automatically and effectively; its growing system consists of two rows of racks along its left-and-right sides separately, each side holds two upper-and-lower layers, and the vertical distance of each growing bed can be adjusted automatically and independently; lighting sources consist of both red (95%) and blue (5%) light-emitting diodes (LED), and the average lighting intensity of each lamp bank at 20-cm distance position under it, reaches to 255.0 μmol m-2 s-1. After that, demonstrating tests were carried out and were finally followed by growing lettuce in the facility. The results showed that all subsystems operated well and all parameters were controlled automatically and efficiently. The lettuce plants in the system could grow much well. Successful development of this system laid a necessary foundation for future larger-scale studies on CELSS integration technique.

  13. Experimental investigation into Quaternary badland geomorphic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanin-Grubin, Milica; Kuhn, Nikolaus; Yair, Aaron; Bryan, Rorke; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    to the flood planes of the Red Deer River system. Only a very pronounced contrast between winter weathering and drier summers would generate a colluvium and thus change slope hydrology. In the Zin Valley the development of a thick colluvium at the foot of the slopes has increased infiltration capacity, reducing runoff and sediment yield into the floodplain. Here, only an increase in rainfall magnitude would improve runoff continuity and induce the erosion of the colluvium. This would in turn reduce infiltration capacity and thus initiate a positive feedback on runoff and sediment yield into the Zin River. Overall, Holocene climate change appears to be insufficient to change the geomorphic development in both badlands. However, this stability is achieved not despite of climate, but because of the specific history of geomorphic development. In addition, the combination of erosion and weathering experiments with numerical modeling demonstrates the versatility of Experimental Geomorphology in landscape evolution studies.

  14. Protocols for vaginal inoculation and sample collection in the experimental mouse model of Candida vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Yano, Junko; Fidel, Paul L

    2011-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida species, is a fungal infection of the lower female genital tract that affects approximately 75% of otherwise healthy women during their reproductive years. Predisposing factors include antibiotic usage, uncontrolled diabetes and disturbance in reproductive hormone levels due to pregnancy, oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapies. Recurrent VVC (RVVC), defined as three or more episodes per year, affects a separate 5 to 8% of women with no predisposing factors. An experimental mouse model of VVC has been established and used to study the pathogenesis and mucosal host response to Candida. This model has also been employed to test potential antifungal therapies in vivo. The model requires that the animals be maintained in a state of pseudoestrus for optimal Candida colonization/infection. Under such conditions, inoculated animals will have detectable vaginal fungal burden for weeks to months. Past studies show an extremely high parallel between the animal model and human infection relative to immunological and physiological properties. Differences, however, include a lack of Candida as normal vaginal flora and a neutral vaginal pH in the mice. Here, we demonstrate a series of key methods in the mouse vaginitis model that include vaginal inoculation, rapid collection of vaginal specimens, assessment of vaginal fungal burden, and tissue preparations for cellular extraction/isolation. This is followed by representative results for constituents of vaginal lavage fluid, fungal burden, and draining lymph node leukocyte yields. With the use of anesthetics, lavage samples can be collected at multiple time points on the same mice for longitudinal evaluation of infection/colonization. Furthermore, this model requires no immunosuppressive agents to initiate infection, allowing immunological studies under defined host conditions. Finally, the model and each technique introduced here could potentially give rise to use of

  15. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, P.

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  16. Development of a Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Goldstein, Clark M.; Wright, Lauren R.; Barlow, David H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development and initial trial of a treatment for adolescents that targets negative emotionality and associated psychological difficulties, particularly anxiety and depressive disorders, as a more singular entity by utilizing an approach rooted in both emotion science and theory. The rationale for such an approach is based upon the perceived need for novel treatment approaches that target commonalities in emotional disorder symptom presentation and their intervention. Utilizing the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders originally developed for adults (Barlow, Allen & Choate, 2004), we conducted a multiple-baseline design study of a slightly modified version of this protocol with three adolescents presenting an array of anxiety and depression symptoms. Adolescent participants in this preliminary investigation evidenced symptom reductions across disorders at post-treatment, with greater improvements noted at a six-month follow-up. Based on these findings and research regarding the association between emotion science and developmental psychopathology, we detail a more extensive set of modifications to the protocol, undertaken in preparation for a subsequent open-trial investigation of the revised treatment. PMID:19617930

  17. Distributional assumptions in food and feed commodities- development of fit-for-purpose sampling protocols.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Claudia; Esbensen, Kim H

    2015-01-01

    Material heterogeneity influences the effectiveness of sampling procedures. Most sampling guidelines used for assessment of food and/or feed commodities are based on classical statistical distribution requirements, the normal, binomial, and Poisson distributions-and almost universally rely on the assumption of randomness. However, this is unrealistic. The scientific food and feed community recognizes a strong preponderance of non random distribution within commodity lots, which should be a more realistic prerequisite for definition of effective sampling protocols. Nevertheless, these heterogeneity issues are overlooked as the prime focus is often placed only on financial, time, equipment, and personnel constraints instead of mandating acquisition of documented representative samples under realistic heterogeneity conditions. This study shows how the principles promulgated in the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and practically tested over 60 years provide an effective framework for dealing with the complete set of adverse aspects of both compositional and distributional heterogeneity (material sampling errors), as well as with the errors incurred by the sampling process itself. The results of an empirical European Union study on genetically modified soybean heterogeneity, Kernel Lot Distribution Assessment are summarized, as they have a strong bearing on the issue of proper sampling protocol development. TOS principles apply universally in the food and feed realm and must therefore be considered the only basis for development of valid sampling protocols free from distributional constraints. PMID:25806601

  18. Plasmid purification by phenol extraction from guanidinium thiocyanate solution: development of an automated protocol.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J A; Favreau, M B

    1991-05-01

    We have developed a novel plasmid isolation procedure and have adapted it for use on an automated nucleic acid extraction instrument. The protocol is based on the finding that phenol extraction of a 1 M guanidinium thiocyanate solution at pH 4.5 efficiently removes genomic DNA from the aqueous phase, while supercoiled plasmid DNA is retained in the aqueous phase. S1 nuclease digestion of the removed genomic DNA shows that it has been denatured, which presumably confers solubility in the organic phase. The complete automated protocol for plasmid isolation involves pretreatment of bacterial cells successively with lysozyme, RNase A, and proteinase K. Following these digestions, the solution is extracted twice with a phenol/chloroform/water mixture and once with chloroform. Purified plasmid is then collected by isopropanol precipitation. The purified plasmid is essentially free of genomic DNA, RNA, and protein and is a suitable substrate for DNA sequencing and other applications requiring highly pure supercoiled plasmid. PMID:1713749

  19. The development of a mentalization-based outcomes and research protocol for an adolescent inpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Carla; Williams, Laurel L; Ha, Carolyn; Baumgardner, Jenny; Michonski, Jared; Seals, Robert; Patel, Amee B; Bleiberg, Efrain; Fonagy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a theory-driven assessment and research protocol at the Adolescent Treatment Program of The Menninger Clinic. First, the theoretical framework behind a mentalization-based model for assessment and treatment is described. Next, the process whereby measures were selected to operationalize key components of the mentalization-based model is discussed, including a brief discussion of each measure and assessment procedure. The next section describes the clinical and research use of the data collected. Here, the authors describe how outcomes assessment information is integrated into the clinical decision-making process, and they outline the research questions they aim to answer through the assessment protocol. The authors conclude with a section on the challenges, pitfalls, and future directions of the project. PMID:20025427

  20. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS FOR TESTING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SURFACE WASHING AGENTS AND OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION AGENTS AND SPILLS OF OPPORTUNITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project concerns the need by the program office to develop reproducible protocols for testing the effectiveness of surface washing agents and bioremediation products, and to devise a protocol for testing a remediation strategy in the event of a spill of opportunity. The bior...

  2. Establishment of a novel experimental protocol for drug-induced seizure liability screening based on a locomotor activity assay in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Naoteru; Deguchi, Jiro; Yamashita, Akihito; Miyawaki, Izuru; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    As drug-induced seizures have severe impact on drug development, evaluating seizure induction potential of candidate drugs at the early stages of drug discovery is important. A novel assay system using zebrafish has attracted interest as a high throughput toxicological in vivo assay system, and we tried to establish an experimental method for drug-induced seizure liability on the basis of locomotor activity in zebrafish. We monitored locomotor activity at high-speed movement (> 20 mm/sec) for 60 min immediately after exposure, and assessed seizure liability potential in some drugs using locomotor activity. However this experimental procedure was not sufficient for predicting seizures because the potential of several drugs with demonstrated seizure potential in mammals was not detected. We, therefore, added other parameters for locomotor activity such as extending exposure time or conducting flashlight stimulation (10 Hz) which is a known seizure induction stimulus, and these additional parameters improved seizure potential detection in some drugs. The validation study using the improved methodology was used to assess 52 commercially available drugs, and the prediction rate was approximately 70%. The experimental protocol established in this present study is considered useful for seizure potential screening during early stages of drug discovery. PMID:25056783

  3. Near "real" time magnetic resonance images as a monitoring system for interstitial laser therapy: experimental protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Dan J.; Farahani, Keyvan; Soudant, Jacques; Zwarun, Andrew A.; Lufkin, Robert B.

    1992-06-01

    The failure rate of cancer treatment remains unacceptably high, still being a leading cause of mortality in adults and children despite major advances over the past 50 years in the fields of surgery, radiation therapy and, more recently, chemo and immunotherapy. Surgical access to some deep tumors of the head and neck and other areas often require extensive dissections with residual functional and cosmetic deformities. Repeated treatment is not possible after maximum dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still limited by its systemic toxicity. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial laser therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a monitoring system for laser-tissue interactions. Interstitial laser therapy (ILT) via fiberoptics allow laser energy to be delivered directly into deeper tissues. However, this concept will become clinically useful only when noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible monitoring methods are developed to measure energy delivery to tissues. MRI has numerous advantages in evaluating the irreversible effects of laser treatment in tissues, since laser energy includes changes not only in the thermal motions of hydrogen protons within the tissue, but also in the distribution and mobility of water and lipids. These techniques should greatly improve the use of ILT in combination with MRI to allow treatment of deeper, more difficult to reach tumors of head and neck and other anatomical areas with a single needle stick.

  4. The Controlled Cortical Impact Model of Experimental Brain Trauma: Overview, Research Applications, and Protocol.

    PubMed

    Osier, Nicole; Dixon, C Edward

    2016-01-01

    Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a commonly used and highly regarded model of brain trauma that uses a pneumatically or electromagnetically controlled piston to induce reproducible and well-controlled injury. The CCI model was originally used in ferrets and it has since been scaled for use in many other species. This chapter will describe the historical development of the CCI model, compare and contrast the pneumatic and electromagnetic models, and summarize key short- and long-term consequences of TBI that have been gleaned using this model. In accordance with the recent efforts to promote high-quality evidence through the reporting of common data elements (CDEs), relevant study details-that should be reported in CCI studies-will be noted. PMID:27604719

  5. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  6. The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Methods and analyses Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case–control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. Ethics and dissemination The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since

  7. The role of pheromonal responses in rodent behavior: future directions for the development of laboratory protocols.

    PubMed

    Bind, Rebecca H; Minney, Sarah M; Rosenfeld, SaraJane; Hallock, Robert M

    2013-03-01

    Pheromones--chemical signals that can elicit responses in a conspecific--are important in intraspecies communication. Information conveyed by pheromones includes the location of an animal, the presence of food or a threat, sexual attraction, courtship, and dam-pup interactions. These chemical messages remain intact and volatile even when animals, such as rodents, are housed in laboratories rather than their natural environment. Laboratory protocols, such as the cage cleaning and sanitation processes, as well as general housing conditions can alter a rodent's normal production of pheromones in both amount and type and thus may affect behavior. In addition, some procedures induce the release of alarm pheromones that subsequently alter the behavior of other rodents. To prevent pheromonal interference and stress-induced pheromonal release in their research subjects, experimenters should assess current laboratory protocols regarding cage cleaning processes, housing designs, and behavioral assays. Here we discuss how the most commonly used laboratory procedures can alter pheromonal signaling and cause confounding effects. PMID:23562094

  8. Analysis of simultaneous MEG and intracranial LFP recordings during Deep Brain Stimulation: a protocol and experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Oswal, Ashwini; Jha, Ashwani; Neal, Spencer; Reid, Alphonso; Bradbury, David; Aston, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Foltynie, Tom; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Litvak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for several neurological and psychiatric disorders. In order to gain insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS and to advance future therapies a better understanding of the effects of DBS on large-scale brain networks is required. New method In this paper, we describe an experimental protocol and analysis pipeline for simultaneously performing DBS and intracranial local field potential (LFP) recordings at a target brain region during concurrent magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement. Firstly we describe a phantom setup that allowed us to precisely characterise the MEG artefacts that occurred during DBS at clinical settings. Results Using the phantom recordings we demonstrate that with MEG beamforming it is possible to recover oscillatory activity synchronised to a reference channel, despite the presence of high amplitude artefacts evoked by DBS. Finally, we highlight the applicability of these methods by illustrating in a single patient with Parkinson's disease (PD), that changes in cortical-subthalamic nucleus coupling can be induced by DBS. Comparison with existing approaches To our knowledge this paper provides the first technical description of a recording and analysis pipeline for combining simultaneous cortical recordings using MEG, with intracranial LFP recordings of a target brain nucleus during DBS. PMID:26698227

  9. N-Terminal Enrichment: Developing a Protocol to Detect Specific Proteolytic Fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhang, Qibin; Petritis, Brianne O.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-12-01

    Proteolytic processing events are essential to physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and host responses, as well as regulating proteins in cancer; therefore, there is a significant need to develop robust approaches for characterizing such events. The current mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics techniques employs a “bottom-up” strategy, which does not allow for identification of different proteolytic proteins since the strategy measures all the small peptides from any given protein. The aim of this development is to enable the effective identification of specific proteolytic fragments. The protocol utilizes an acetylation reaction to block the N-termini of a protein, as well as any lysine residues. Following digestion, N-terminal peptides are enriched by removing peptides that contain free amines, using amine-reactive silica-bond succinic anhydride beads. The resulting enriched sample has one N-terminal peptide per protein, which reduces sample complexity and allows for increased analytical sensitivity compared to global proteomics.1 We initially compared the peptide identification and efficiency of blocking lysine using acetic anhydride (a 42 Da modification) or propionic anhydride (a 56 Da modification) in our protocol. Both chemical reactions resulted in comparable peptide identifications and *95 percent efficiency for blocking lysine residues. However, the use of propionic anhydride allowed us to distinguish in vivo acetylated peptides from chemically-tagged peptides.2 In an initial experiment using mouse plasma, we were able to identify *300 unique N-termini peptides, as well as many known cleavage sites. This protocol holds potential for uncovering new information related to proteolytic pathways, which will assist our understanding about cancer biology and efforts to identify potential biomarkers for various diseases.

  10. N-Terminal Enrichment: Developing a Protocol to Detect Specific Proteolytic Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhang, Qibin; Petritis, Brianne O.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Proteolytic processing events are essential to physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and host responses, as well as regulating proteins in cancer; therefore, there is a significant need to develop robust approaches for characterizing such events. The current mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics techniques employs a “bottom-up” strategy, which does not allow for identification of different proteolytic proteins since the strategy measures all the small peptides from any given protein. The aim of this development is to enable the effective identification of specific proteolytic fragments. The protocol utilizes an acetylation reaction to block the N-termini of a protein, as well as any lysine residues. Following digestion, N-terminal peptides are enriched by removing peptides that contain free amines, using amine-reactive silica-bond succinic anhydride beads. The resulting enriched sample has one N-terminal peptide per protein, which reduces sample complexity and allows for increased analytical sensitivity compared to global proteomics.1 We initially compared the peptide identification and efficiency of blocking lysine using acetic anhydride (a 42 Da modification) or propionic anhydride (a 56 Da modification) in our protocol. Both chemical reactions resulted in comparable peptide identifications and ∼95 percent efficiency for blocking lysine residues. However, the use of propionic anhydride allowed us to distinguish in vivo acetylated peptides from chemically-tagged peptides.2 In an initial experiment using mouse plasma, we were able to identify >300 unique N-termini peptides, as well as many known cleavage sites. This protocol holds potential for uncovering new information related to proteolytic pathways, which will assist our understanding about cancer biology and efforts to identify potential biomarkers for various diseases. PMID:19949699

  11. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY TESTING OF SELECTED BENTHIC AND EPIBENTHIC ORGANISMS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEDIMENT QUALITY TEST PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment contamination has resulted in the need to develop an appropriate suite of toxicity tests to assess ecotoxicological impacts on estuarine ecosystems. Existing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols recommend a number of test organisms, including amphipods, polych...

  12. Women and Development: Three Experimental Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clason, Carla

    1975-01-01

    A review of three experimental projects implemented by Unesco in the late 1960's to improve the status and equal educational opportunities of women includes: (1) Upper Volta, education for rural women; (2) Nepal, training primary school teachers; and (3) Chile, access of women to technical education. (LH)

  13. Development and implementation of thermal signature testing protocol of auxiliary power unit (APU) and diesel tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Chelsea L.; Bourne, Stefanie M.; Rowley, Matthew J.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2004-04-01

    Thermal signature may be one of the defining factors in determining the applicability of fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) technology in military applications. Thermal characterization is important for military applications given that identification and detection may be accomplished through observation of its thermal signature. The operating modes and power takeoff operations of a vehicle will likely determine the thermal profile. The objective of our study was to develop and implement a protocol for quantifying the thermal characteristics of a methanol fuel cell and an idling tractor engine under representative characteristic operations. APU thermal characteristics are a special case for which standardized testing procedures do not presently exist. A customized testing protocol was developed and applied that is specific to an APU-equipped vehicle. Initial testing was conducted on the methanol APU-equipped Freightliner tractor using a high-performance radiometric infrared system. The APU profile calls for a series of infrared images to be collected at three different viewing angles and two different elevations under various loads. The diesel engine was studied in a similar fashion using seven different viewing angles and two different elevations. Raw data collected according to the newly developed methodology provided the opportunity for computer analysis and thermal profiling of both the fuel cell and the diesel engine.

  14. Nasa's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; Scheuger, A.; Race, M.

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  15. NASA's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; Scheuger, A.; Race, M.

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  16. Development of a data entry auditing protocol and quality assurance for a tissue bank database.

    PubMed

    Khushi, Matloob; Carpenter, Jane E; Balleine, Rosemary L; Clarke, Christine L

    2012-03-01

    Human transcription error is an acknowledged risk when extracting information from paper records for entry into a database. For a tissue bank, it is critical that accurate data are provided to researchers with approved access to tissue bank material. The challenges of tissue bank data collection include manual extraction of data from complex medical reports that are accessed from a number of sources and that differ in style and layout. As a quality assurance measure, the Breast Cancer Tissue Bank (http:\\\\www.abctb.org.au) has implemented an auditing protocol and in order to efficiently execute the process, has developed an open source database plug-in tool (eAuditor) to assist in auditing of data held in our tissue bank database. Using eAuditor, we have identified that human entry errors range from 0.01% when entering donor's clinical follow-up details, to 0.53% when entering pathological details, highlighting the importance of an audit protocol tool such as eAuditor in a tissue bank database. eAuditor was developed and tested on the Caisis open source clinical-research database; however, it can be integrated in other databases where similar functionality is required. PMID:21331789

  17. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging of the heart ex situ: development of technical protocols.

    PubMed

    Bruguier, C; Egger, C; Vallée, J P; Grimm, J; Boulanger, X; Jackowski, C; Mangin, P; Grabherr, S

    2015-05-01

    Postmortem MRI (PMMR) examinations are seldom performed in legal medicine due to long examination times, unfamiliarity with the technique, and high costs. Furthermore, it is difficult to obtain access to an MRI device used for patients in clinical settings to image an entire human body. An alternative is available: ex situ organ examination. To our knowledge, there is no standardized protocol that includes ex situ organ preparation and scanning parameters for postmortem MRI. Thus, our objective was to develop a standard procedure for ex situ heart PMMR examinations. We also tested the oily contrast agent Angiofil® commonly used for PMCT angiography, for its applicability in MRI. We worked with a 3 Tesla MRI device and 32-channel head coils. Twelve porcine hearts were used to test different materials to find the best way to prepare and place organs in the device and to test scanning parameters. For coronary MR angiography, we tested different mixtures of Angiofil® and different injection materials. In a second step, 17 human hearts were examined to test the procedure and its applicability to human organs. We established two standardized protocols: one for preparation of the heart and another for scanning parameters based on experience in clinical practice. The established protocols enabled a standardized technical procedure with comparable radiological images, allowing for easy radiological reading. The performance of coronary MR angiography enabled detailed coronary assessment and revealed the utility of Angiofil® as a contrast agent for PMMR. Our simple, reproducible method for performing heart examinations ex situ yields high quality images and visualization of the coronary arteries. PMID:25108450

  18. Dissemination of CBTI to the Non-Sleep Specialist: Protocol Development and Training Issues

    PubMed Central

    Manber, Rachel; Carney, Colleen; Edinger, Jack; Epstein, Dana; Friedman, Leah; Haynes, Patricia L.; Karlin, Bradley E.; Pigeon, Wilfred; Siebern, Allison T.; Trockel, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI). A significant barrier to wide dissemination of CBTI is the lack of qualified practitioners. We describe challenges and decisions made when developing a CBTI dissemination program in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The program targets mental health clinicians from different disciplines (psychiatry, psychology, social work, and nursing) with varying familiarity and experience with general principles of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT). We explain the scope of training (how much to teach about the science of sleep, comorbid sleep disorders, other medical and mental health comorbidities, and hypnotic-dependent insomnia), discuss adaptation of CBTI to address the unique challenges posed by comorbid insomnia, and describe decisions made about the strategy of training (principles, structure and materials developed/recommended). Among these decisions is the question of how to balance the structure and flexibility of the treatment protocol. We developed a case conceptualization-driven approach and provide a general session-by-session outline. Training licensed therapists who already have many professional obligations required that the training be completed in a relatively short time with minimal disruptions to training participants' routine work responsibilities. These “real-life” constraints shaped the development of this competency-based, yet pragmatic training program. We conclude with a description of preliminary lessons learned from the initial wave of training and propose future directions for research and dissemination. Citation: Manber R; Carney C; Edinger J; Epstein D; Friedman L; Haynes PL; Karlin BE; Pigeon W; Siebern AT; Trockel M. Dissemination of CBTI to the non-sleep specialist: protocol development and training issues. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):209-218. PMID:22505869

  19. [Development of sarcocystosis in experimentally infected calves].

    PubMed

    Nevole, M; Koudela, B; Lukesová, D; Svobodová, V

    1985-01-01

    In seven calves we studied experimental invasions by sporocysts of the Sarcocystis cruzi (S. bovicanis) species, isolated from faeces of dingo dogs. Out of clinical changes, an increase in body temperature to 39.6 to 40.5 degrees C is characteristic in the fourth to the eighth week of disease, relaxed attitude of animals, progressive thinning down, anaemia of mucous membranes, diarrhoea and total dehydration. The post-mortem examination completes this observation with generalized hyperplasia of lymphatic nodes to haemorrhagic lymphadenitis and small petechial haematomata on serous coats, particularly on epicardium. Schizonts in the endothelium of capillaries in various organs were evaluated as specific lesions, demonstrated within 26 days from invasion in one calf. From 46 days after invasion we found muscular cysts in three other calves. The titres of sera in all experimental calves obtained with the NFR method are also evaluated as specific. Invaded calves died gradually between the 26th and 59th day, control calves were slaughtered and no sarcocysts were found. PMID:3918381

  20. Metal-silicate Partitioning at High Pressure and Temperature: Experimental Methods and a Protocol to Suppress Highly Siderophile Element Inclusions.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Neil R; Brenan, James M; Fei, Yingwei

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of the primitive upper mantle (PUM) composition reveal a depletion in many of the siderophile (iron-loving) elements, thought to result from their extraction to the core during terrestrial accretion. Experiments to investigate the partitioning of these elements between metal and silicate melts suggest that the PUM composition is best matched if metal-silicate equilibrium occurred at high pressures and temperatures, in a deep magma ocean environment. The behavior of the most highly siderophile elements (HSEs) during this process however, has remained enigmatic. Silicate run-products from HSE solubility experiments are commonly contaminated by dispersed metal inclusions that hinder the measurement of element concentrations in the melt. The resulting uncertainty over the true solubility and metal-silicate partitioning of these elements has made it difficult to predict their expected depletion in PUM. Recently, several studies have employed changes to the experimental design used for high pressure and temperature solubility experiments in order to suppress the formation of metal inclusions. The addition of Au (Re, Os, Ir, Ru experiments) or elemental Si (Pt experiments) to the sample acts to alter either the geometry or rate of sample reduction respectively, in order to avoid transient metal oversaturation of the silicate melt. This contribution outlines procedures for using the piston-cylinder and multi-anvil apparatus to conduct solubility and metal-silicate partitioning experiments respectively. A protocol is also described for the synthesis of uncontaminated run-products from HSE solubility experiments in which the oxygen fugacity is similar to that during terrestrial core-formation. Time-resolved LA-ICP-MS spectra are presented as evidence for the absence of metal-inclusions in run-products from earlier studies, and also confirm that the technique may be extended to investigate Ru. Examples are also given of how these data may be applied. PMID:26132380

  1. Development of an Optimised Application Protocol For Sonophoretic Transdermal Delivery of a Model Hydrophilic Drug

    PubMed Central

    Sarheed, Omar; Abdul Rasool, Bazigha K

    2011-01-01

    It has now been known for over a decade that low frequency ultrasound can be used to effectively enhance transdermal drug penetration - an approach termed sonophoresis. Mechanistically, acoustic cavitation results in the creation of defects in the stratum corneum that allow accelerated absorption of topically applied molecules. The aim of this study was to develop an optimised sonophoresis protocol for studying transdermal drug delivery in vitro. To this end, caffeine was selected as a model hydrophilic drug while porcine skin was used as a model barrier. Following acoustic validation, 20kHz ultrasound was applied for different durations (range: 5 s to 10 min) using three different modes (10%, 33% or 100% duty cycles) and two distinct sonication procedures (either before or concurrent with drug deposition). Each ultrasonic protocol was assessed in terms of its heating and caffeine flux-enhancing effects. It was found that the best regimen was a concurrent 5 min, pulsed (10% duty cycle) beam of SATA intensity 0.37 W/cm2. A key insight was that in the case of pulsed beams of 10% duty cycle, sonication concurrent with drug deposition was superior to sonication prior to drug deposition and potential mechanisms for this are discussed. PMID:21629673

  2. Developing an Anti-Xa-Based Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients with Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Mardis, B Andrew; Mardis, Caitlin R; Huber, Michelle R; New, James P; Meadows, Holly B; Cook, Jennifer L; Toole, J Matthew; Uber, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the complexities associated with anticoagulation in temporary percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) recipients, a lack of standardization exists in their management. This retrospective analysis evaluates current anticoagulation practices at a single center with the aim of identifying an optimal anticoagulation strategy and protocol. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on pVAD implanted (CentriMag (Thoratec; Pleasanton, CA) / TandemHeart (CardiacAssist; Pittsburgh, PA) or Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA)), with each group individually analyzed for bleeding and thrombotic complications. Patients in the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort were subdivided based on the anticoagulation monitoring strategy (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or antifactor Xa unfractionated heparin (anti-Xa) values). In the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort, there were five patients with anticoagulation titrated based on anti-Xa values; one patient developed a device thrombosis and a major bleed, whereas another patient experienced major bleeding. Eight patients received an Impella pVAD. Seven total major bleeds in three patients and no thrombotic events were detected. Based on distinct differences between the devices, anti-Xa values, and outcomes, two protocols were created to guide anticoagulation adjustments. However, anticoagulation in patients who require pVAD support is complex with constantly evolving anticoagulation goals. The ideal level of anticoagulation should be individually determined using several coagulation laboratory parameters in concert with hemodynamic changes in the patient's clinical status, the device, and the device cannulation. PMID:26273933

  3. Development of a protocol for the identification of tospoviruses and thrips species in individual thrips.

    PubMed

    Seepiban, Channarong; Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

    2015-09-15

    A protocol for identifying tospovirus and thrips species in an individual thrips sample was successfully developed. First, an individual thrips was soaked in an RNA stabilization solution to preserve protein and nucleic acids and ground in a carbonate buffer containing 0.2% sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. Initially, the thrips extracts were screened for tospovirus infection by dot blot analysis using antibodies to nucleocapsid (N) proteins of tospoviruses. Thrips extracts with positive results by dot blot analysis were further subjected to RNA extraction. Next, tospovirus species were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using species-specific primers for the N genes of four tospoviruses known to occur in Thailand, including Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV) and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV). The residual genomic DNA in the thrips RNA extract was used as a template to identify thrips species by PCR with species-specific primers to the internal transcribed spacer 2 regions of the rRNA of Ceratothripoides claratris, Frankliniella intonsa, Scirtothrips dorsalis and Thrips palmi. This protocol was initially validated against laboratory-reared thrips and then used to determine the occurrence of viruliferous thrips species collected from tomato, pepper, watermelon and cucumber fields in Thailand. PMID:26141731

  4. Development of a first-contact protocol to guide assessment of adult patients in rehabilitation services networks

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Mariana A. P.; Ferreira, Fabiane R.; César, Cibele C.; Furtado, Sheyla R. C.; Coster, Wendy J.; Mancini, Marisa C.; Sampaio, Rosana F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the development of the Protocol for Identification of Problems for Rehabilitation (PLPR), a tool to standardize collection of functional information based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Development of the protocol: The PLPR was developed for use during the initial contact with adult patients within a public network of rehabilitation services. Steps to develop the protocol included: survey of the ICF codes most used by clinical professionals; compilation of data from functional instruments; development and pilot testing of a preliminary version in the service settings; discussion with professionals and development of the final version. The final version includes: user identification; social and health information; brief functional description (BFD); summary of the BFD; and PLPR results. Further testing of the final version will be conducted. Conclusions: The protocol standardizes the first contact between the user and the rehabilitation service. Systematic use of the protocol could also help to create a functional database that would allow comparisons between rehabilitation services and countries over time. PMID:26786075

  5. Current experimental activities for solid breeder development

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Roux, N.; Watanabe, H.

    1988-01-01

    The current data base for ceramic breeder materials does not exhibit any negative features as regards to thermophysical, mechanical, and irradiation behavior. All candidate materials show excellent stability for irradiation testing to 3% burnup. In-situ tritium recovery tests show very low tritium inventories for all candidates. Theoretical models are being developed to accurately predict real time release rates. Fabrication of kilogram quantities of materials has been achieved and technology is available for further scale-up.

  6. Developing a nursing protocol for over-the-counter medications in high school.

    PubMed

    Awbrey, Lucinda Mejdell; Juarez, Sandra M

    2003-02-01

    Management of medications in school is one of the critical roles that school nurses carry out in the school setting. In recent years, parents have come to question the medication procedures that school districts follow. Parents question why a physician's order is required for school personnel to provide over-the-counter (OTC) medications to their child at school. How do school districts balance the safety of students with the needs of parents wanting their children to have access to OTC medications at school? Following legal guidelines helps to reduce the risk for school nurses. Through the development and utilization of Nursing Standardized Protocols, high school nurses are able to provide nonprescription analgesics for specific common student complaints such as noninjury headaches and dysmenorrhea. On the basis of nursing knowledge and judgment, school nurses provide this service, which results in students returning to class quickly, feeling better, and being ready to learn. PMID:12562220

  7. A protocol for safe anasthesia for cleft lip and palate surgery in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hodges, S C; Hodges, A M

    2000-05-01

    A project to perform surgical correction of cleft lips and palates was carried out in Uganda in 1998. Twenty centres were visited and 336 cleft lips and 41 cleft palates were repaired. The age of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 60 years. Many of the centres visited were remote and lacked even the most basic equipment. Patients were anasthetised using ketamine, ether or halothane according to a protocol that we developed. There was no anasthetic mortality and only one case of significant morbidity. We report our experience and discuss recommendations regarding the provision of anasthesia in remote circumstances based on our outcome. An additional benefit of the project was that we provided training to local medical personnel in anasthesia and surgery for cleft lips and palates. PMID:10792134

  8. Development of a monitoring protocol to enhance mentoring in the IRIS REU site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, M.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Colella, H.

    2013-12-01

    Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) sites pair interns with scientists expected to oversee and guide an intern's scientific research, and assist in the development of skills, knowledge, and connections that will enhance the intern's professional and personal growth. This aspect of REU sites is generally recognized as a powerful, yet complicated, component that has a strong influence on the overall success of the intern's experience. Evaluations indicate that the quality and consistency of mentoring in REU sites can be highly variable. Traditional strategies to influence mentorship generally include reading lists or short trainings at the beginning of the summer. The efficacy of these approaches is questionable. As a result many REU Site facilitators are deeply interested in the question 'How can REU programs challenge scientists to raise their participation to the level of (truly) mentoring?' The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) REU site is developing a 13-item rubric measuring research skills, and a protocol of training and intern-mentor meetings to discuss progress. The goal of the intervention is to both increase the extent to which the mentoring relationship is centered on the intern, and to enable interns and mentors to feel more effective monitoring interns' personal/professional growth. This intervention was piloted in 2011, refined, and fully implemented in 2012. During the initial week of the program, interns assess their skills, complete the rubric independently, and discuss the completed rubric with their mentor. Midway through the summer interns and mentors each review the rubric and assess the intern's skills. The intern-mentor pairs then meet to collaborate and complete the rubric together. Finally, in the last week of the program, interns and mentors independently assess the intern's skills and complete the rubric, and the pairs again meet to discuss and negotiate these independent assessments. Survey data from 2012

  9. Thoracic dual energy CT: acquisition protocols, current applications and future developments.

    PubMed

    Ohana, M; Jeung, M Y; Labani, A; El Ghannudi, S; Roy, C

    2014-11-01

    Thanks to a simultaneous acquisition at high and low kilovoltage, dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can achieve material-based decomposition (iodine, water, calcium, etc.) and reconstruct images at different energy levels (40 to 140keV). Post-processing uses this potential to maximise iodine detection, which elicits demonstrated added value for chest imaging in acute and chronic embolic diseases (increases the quality of the examination and identifies perfusion defects), follow-up of aortic endografts and detection of contrast uptake in oncology. In CT angiography, these unique features are taken advantage of to reduce the iodine load by more than half. This review article aims to set out the physical basis for the technology, the acquisition and post-processing protocols used, its proven advantages in chest pathologies, and to present future developments. PMID:24780370

  10. Dual sensory loss: development of a dual sensory loss protocol and design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual sensory loss (DSL) has a negative impact on health and wellbeing and its prevalence is expected to increase due to demographic aging. However, specialized care or rehabilitation programs for DSL are scarce. Until now, low vision rehabilitation does not sufficiently target concurrent impairments in vision and hearing. This study aims to 1) develop a DSL protocol (for occupational therapists working in low vision rehabilitation) which focuses on optimal use of the senses and teaches DSL patients and their communication partners to use effective communication strategies, and 2) describe the multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol. Methods/design To develop a DSL protocol, literature was reviewed and content was discussed with professionals in eye/ear care (interviews/focus groups) and DSL patients (interviews). A pilot study was conducted to test and confirm the DSL protocol. In addition, a two-armed international multi-center RCT will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the DSL protocol compared to waiting list controls, in 124 patients in low vision rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands and Belgium. Discussion This study provides a treatment protocol for rehabilitation of DSL within low vision rehabilitation, which aims to be a valuable addition to the general low vision rehabilitation care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) identifier: NTR2843 PMID:23941667

  11. Second development of scientific experimental satellite image and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xianfang; Liu Dechang; Huang Shutao

    1996-07-01

    In order to enlarge application range of scientific experimental satellite image, second development research has been done. The paper recommends how to transform from scientific experimental satellite image format into digital data format; how to process the transformed data, enhance and extract image information. Finally, the application of the processed image to in-situ leaching sandstone uranium deposit is described. Good results have been achieved, indicating the second development and application of the scientific experimental satellite image have great potentialities and prospects.

  12. The rate of force development scaling factor (RFD-SF): protocol, reliability, and muscle comparisons.

    PubMed

    Bellumori, Maria; Jaric, Slobodan; Knight, Christopher A

    2011-07-01

    Performing a set of isometric muscular contractions to varied amplitudes with instructions to generate force most rapidly reveals a strong linear relationship between peak forces (PF) achieved and corresponding peak rates of force development (RFD). The slope of this relationship, termed the RFD scaling factor (RFD-SF), quantifies the extent to which RFD scales with contraction amplitude. Such scaling allows relative invariance in the time required to reach PF regardless of contraction size. Considering the increasing use of this relationship to study quickness and consequences of slowness in older adults and movement disorders, our purpose was to further develop the protocol to measure RFD-SF. Fifteen adults (19-28 years) performed 125 rapid isometric contractions to a variety of force levels in elbow extensors, index finger abductors, and knee extensors, on 2 days. Data were used to determine (1) how the number of pulses affects computation of the RFD-SF, (2) day-to-day reliability of the RFD-SF, and (3) the nature of RFD-SF differences between diverse muscle groups. While sensitive to the number of pulses used in its computation (P<.05), RFD-SF was reliable when computed with >50 pulses (ICC>.7) and more so with 100-125 pulses (ICC=.8-.92). Despite differences in size and function across muscles, RFD-SF was generally similar (i.e., only 8.5% greater in elbow extensors than in index finger abductors and knee extensors; P=.049). Results support this protocol as a reliable means to assess how RFD scales with PF in rapid isometric contractions as well as a simple, non-invasive probe into neuromuscular health. PMID:21656219

  13. Development of Next Generation Energy Audit Protocols for the Rapid and Advanced Analysis of Building Energy Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Christopher Ahlvin

    Current building energy auditing techniques are outdated and lack targeted, actionable information. These analyses only use one year's worth of monthly electricity and gas bills to define energy conservation and efficiency measures. These limited data sets cannot provide robust, directed energy reduction recommendations. The need is apparent for an overhaul of existing energy audit protocols to utilize all data that is available from the building's utility provider, installed energy management system (EMS), and sub-metering devices. This thesis analyzed the current state-of-the-art in energy audits, generated a next generation energy audit protocol, and conducted both audits types on four case study buildings to find out what additional information can be obtained from additional data sources and increased data gathering resolutions. Energy data from each case study building were collected using a variety of means including utility meters, whole building energy meters, EMS systems, and sub-metering devices. In addition to conducting an energy analysis for each case study building using the current and next generation energy audit protocols, two building energy models were created using the programs eQuest and EnergyPlus. The current and next generation energy audit protocol results were compared to one another upon completion. The results show that using the current audit protocols, only variations in season are apparent. Results from the developed next generation energy audit protocols show that in addition to seasonal variations, building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) schedules, occupancy schedules, baseline and peak energy demand levels, and malfunctioning equipment can be found. This new protocol may also be used to quickly generate accurate building models because of the increased resolution that yields scheduling information. The developed next generation energy auditing protocol is scalable and can work for many building types across the

  14. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  15. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  16. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. Methods We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2) protocols. Results The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. Conclusions The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically

  17. Potential Heating Effect in the Gravid Uterus by Using 3-T MR Imaging Protocols: Experimental Study in Miniature Pigs.

    PubMed

    Cannie, Mieke M; De Keyzer, Frederik; Van Laere, Sigrid; Leus, Astrid; de Mey, Johan; Fourneau, Catherine; De Ridder, Filip; Van Cauteren, Toon; Willekens, Inneke; Jani, Jacques C

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine the changes in temperature within the gravid miniature pig uterus during magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3 T. Materials and Methods The study received ethics committee approval for animal experimentation. Fiber-optic temperature sensors were inserted into the fetal brain, abdomen, bladder, and amniotic fluid of miniature pigs (second trimester, n = 2; third trimester, n = 2). In the first trimester (n = 2), the sensors were inserted only into the amniotic fluid (three sacs per miniature pig, for a total of six sacs). Imaging was performed with a 3-T MR imager by using different imaging protocols in a random order for animal, each lasting approximately 15 minutes. The first regimen consisted of common sequences used for human fetal MR examination, including normal specific absorption rate (SAR). The second regimen consisted of five low-SAR sequences, for which three gradient-echo sequences were interspersed with two diffusion-weighted imaging series. Finally, a high-SAR regimen maximized the radiofrequency energy deposition (constrained by the 2-W per kilogram of body weight SAR limitations) by using five single-shot turbo spin-echo sequences. Differences in temperature increases between the three regimens and between the three trimesters were evaluated by using one-way analysis of variance. The maximum cumulative temperature increase over 1 hour was also evaluated. Results Low-SAR regimens resulted in the lowest temperature increase (mean ± standard deviation, -0.03°C ± 0.20), normal regimens resulted in an intermediate increase (0.31°C ± 0.21), and high-SAR regimens resulted in the highest increase (0.56°C ± 0.20) (P < .0001). Mean temperature increase in the third trimester was 0.38°C ± 0.27, with no significant differences compared with the first (0.23°C ± 0.27) and second (0.25°C ± 0.32) trimesters (P = .07). The cumulative temperature increase over 1-hour imaging time with high SAR can reach 2.5°C. Conclusion In pregnant

  18. Innovative approach for increasing physical activity among breast cancer survivors: protocol for Project MOVE, a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Clark, Marianne I; Bottorff, Joan L; Toxopeus, Renee; Campbell, Kristin L; Eves, Neil D; Ellard, Susan L; Gotay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a cost-effective and non-pharmaceutical strategy that can help mitigate the physical and psychological health challenges associated with breast cancer survivorship. However, up to 70% of women breast cancer survivors are not meeting minimum recommended physical activity guidelines. Project MOVE is an innovative approach to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors through the use of Action Grants, a combination of microgrants (small amounts of money awarded to groups of individuals to support a physical activity initiative) and financial incentives. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of Project MOVE. Method and analysis A quasi-experimental pre–post design will be used. Twelve groups of 8–12 adult women who are breast cancer survivors (N=132) were recruited for the study via face-to-face meetings with breast cancer-related stakeholders, local print and radio media, social media, and pamphlets and posters at community organisations and medical clinics. Each group submitted a microgrant application outlining their proposed physical activity initiative. Successful applicants were determined by a grant review panel and informed of a financial incentive on meeting their physical activity goals. An evaluation of feasibility will be guided by the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and assessed through focus groups, interviews and project-related reports. Physical activity will be assessed through accelerometry and by self-report. Quality of life, motivation to exercise and social connection will also be assessed through self-report. Assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia's Behavioural Research Ethics Board (#H14-02502) and has been funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (project number #702913). Study findings

  19. Dissemination of CBTI to the non-sleep specialist: protocol development and training issues.

    PubMed

    Manber, Rachel; Carney, Colleen; Edinger, Jack; Epstein, Dana; Friedman, Leah; Haynes, Patricia L; Karlin, Bradley E; Pigeon, Wilfred; Siebern, Allison T; Trockel, Mickey

    2012-04-15

    Strong evidence supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI). A significant barrier to wide dissemination of CBTI is the lack of qualified practitioners. We describe challenges and decisions made when developing a CBTI dissemination program in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The program targets mental health clinicians from different disciplines (psychiatry, psychology, social work, and nursing) with varying familiarity and experience with general principles of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT). We explain the scope of training (how much to teach about the science of sleep, comorbid sleep disorders, other medical and mental health comorbidities, and hypnotic-dependent insomnia), discuss adaptation of CBTI to address the unique challenges posed by comorbid insomnia, and describe decisions made about the strategy of training (principles, structure and materials developed/recommended). Among these decisions is the question of how to balance the structure and flexibility of the treatment protocol. We developed a case conceptualization-driven approach and provide a general session-by-session outline. Training licensed therapists who already have many professional obligations required that the training be completed in a relatively short time with minimal disruptions to training participants' routine work responsibilities. These "real-life" constraints shaped the development of this competency-based, yet pragmatic training program. We conclude with a description of preliminary lessons learned from the initial wave of training and propose future directions for research and dissemination. PMID:22505869

  20. Development of Monitoring & Verification Technology (MVT) for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Instrumentation and Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian

    2008-09-29

    The objective of this CRADA is to further develop the Multiple Elemental Soil Analysis (MESA) system, based on inelastic neutron scattering technology that was originally developed by Dr. Lucian Wielopolski at BNL. The scope of this CRADA will center on the quantification and monitoring of non-destructive in situ carbon loading in soils to evaluate land application emission reduction activities. To accomplish this objective, the CRADA will center on three main joint activities as described below: A. To further develop and characterize a prototype, field deployable MESA system for static and scanning purposes. B. To develop applicable protocols for agricultural land applications; system validation and field sampling schemes. C. To implement field experiments for independent systems validation, verification, and acceptance by third parties for use in the market segment and commercialization. The technical approach involves a system for monitoring characteristic gamma rays emitted from carbon nuclei stimulated by inelastic neutron scattering from a carbon nucleus. The system consists of a neutron generator emitting fast, 14 MeV, neutrons, shielding materials, and a detection system with nuclear electronics for data acquisition. Following standard system calibration, the results are produced immediately at the end of the counting period.

  1. Development of a protocol to quantify local bone adaptation over space and time: Quantification of reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongtao; Boudiffa, Maya; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Viceconti, Marco

    2016-07-01

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) scanning of small rodents is a powerful method for longitudinal monitoring of bone adaptation. However, the life-time bone growth in small rodents makes it a challenge to quantify local bone adaptation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol, which can take into account large bone growth, to quantify local bone adaptations over space and time. The entire right tibiae of eight 14-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were consecutively scanned four times in an in vivo µCT scanner using a nominal isotropic image voxel size of 10.4µm. The repeated scan image datasets were aligned to the corresponding baseline (first) scan image dataset using rigid registration. 80% of tibia length (starting from the endpoint of the proximal growth plate) was selected as the volume of interest and partitioned into 40 regions along the tibial long axis (10 divisions) and in the cross-section (4 sectors). The bone mineral content (BMC) was used to quantify bone adaptation and was calculated in each region. All local BMCs have precision errors (PE%CV) of less than 3.5% (24 out of 40 regions have PE%CV of less than 2%), least significant changes (LSCs) of less than 3.8%, and 38 out of 40 regions have intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of over 0.8. The proposed protocol allows to quantify local bone adaptations over an entire tibia in longitudinal studies, with a high reproducibility, an essential requirement to reduce the number of animals to achieve the necessary statistical power. PMID:27262181

  2. The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol: A Tool for Teacher-Research Collaboration and Professional Development. Educational Practice Report 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; Echevarria, Jana

    A project to develop an explicit model of sheltered instruction that teachers can use to improve the academic success of their limited-English-proficient (LEP) students is described, focusing on the development of an observation tool for use in the study. The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) provides concrete examples of the…

  3. Development of a Decision Support System to Predict Physicians' Rehabilitation Protocols for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M.; Alshraideh, Mohammad A.; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M.; Salah, Imad K.; Holm, Margo B.; Otom, Ali H.

    2012-01-01

    To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee…

  4. Development of Research-Based Protocol Aligned to Predict High Levels of Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Gary; Grigsby, Bettye; Vesey, Winona

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a research-based teacher selection protocol. The protocol is intended to offer school district hiring authorities a tool to identify teacher candidates with the behaviors expected to predict effective teaching. It is hypothesized that a particular series of research-based interview questions focusing on teaching behaviors in…

  5. Protocols and participatory democracy in a 'North-South' product development partnership.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    Global product development partnerships (PDPs) for new health technologies have become an increasingly important part of the science and development landscape over the past two decades. Polarised positions are adopted by those scrutinising the power and governance of these public-private formations; on the one hand, they are seen as successful social technology innovations, on the other as regressive and imperialistic regimes of neo-colonialism. Answering recent calls for research to examine the actors, governance, context and dynamics of PDPs, this article presents a sociological case study of one particular partnership, the Microbicides Development Programme (MDP). Interviews were conducted with a cross-section of programme staff in the UK and Zambia, and discourses analysed through a Foucauldian lens of governmentality. This article suggests that two tools of government were central to MDP's cohesiveness: institutional discourses of participatory democracy and capacity building and scientific protocols. Through these material-semiotic tools, the scientific community, junior operational researchers and the funder were successfully enrolled into the programme and governed by a central body based in the UK. This article draws on Nikolas Rose's work to discuss these socio-scientific discourses as technologies of government, and provides a non-dualistic account of power and governance in a North-South PDP. PMID:22384948

  6. Practical way to develop 10-color flow cytometry protocols for the clinical laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárnok, Attila; Bocsi, Jozsef

    2010-02-01

    The latest development of commercial routine flow cytometers (FCM) is that they are equipped with three (blue, red, violet) or more lasers and many PMT detectors. Nowadays routine clinical instruments are capable of detecting 10 or more fluorescence colors simultaneously. Thereby, presenting opportunities for getting detailed information on the single cell level for cytomics and systems biology for improve diagnostics and monitoring of patients. The University Leipzig, Germany) recently started a cluster of excellence to study the molecular background of life style and environment associated diseases, enrolling 25000 individuals (LIFE). To this end the most comprehensive FCM protocol has to be developed for this study. We aimed to optimize fluorochrome and antibody combinations to the characteristics of the instrument for successful 10-color FCM. Systematic review of issues related to sampling, preparation, instrument settings, spillover and compensation matrix, reagent performance, and general principles of panel construction was performed. 10-color FCM enables for increased accuracy in cell subpopulation identification, the ability to obtain detailed information from blood specimens, improved laboratory efficiency, and the means to consistently detect major and rare cell populations. Careful attention to details of instrument and reagent performance allows for the development of panels suitable for screening of samples from healthy and diseased donors. The characteristics of this technique are particularly well suited for the analysis of broad human population cohorts and have the potential to reach the everyday practice in a standardized way for the clinical laboratory.

  7. Developing consistent Landsat data sets for large area applications: the MRLC 2001 protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Huang, C.; Yang, L.; Homer, C.; Larson, C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major efforts in large area land cover mapping over the last two decades was the completion of two U.S. National Land Cover Data sets (NLCD), developed with nominal 1992 and 2001 Landsat imagery under the auspices of the MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. Following the successful generation of NLCD 1992, a second generation MRLC initiative was launched with two primary goals: (1) to develop a consistent Landsat imagery data set for the U.S. and (2) to develop a second generation National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2001). One of the key enhancements was the formulation of an image preprocessing protocol and implementation of a consistent image processing method. The core data set of the NLCD 2001 database consists of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images. This letter details the procedures for processing the original ETM+ images and more recent scenes added to the database. NLCD 2001 products include Anderson Level II land cover classes, percent tree canopy, and percent urban imperviousness at 30-m resolution derived from Landsat imagery. The products are freely available for download to the general public from the MRLC Consortium Web site at http://www.mrlc.gov.

  8. Development and implementation of explicit computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation can be perceived as a treatment with a very narrow therapeutic window, i.e., highly efficient but with considerable side effects if not used properly and in a timely manner. Protocols and guidelines have been designed to make mechanical ventilation safer and protective for the lung. However, variable effects and low compliance with use of written protocols have been reported repeatedly. Use of explicit computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation might very soon become a "must." Several closed loop systems are already on the market, and preliminary studies are showing promising results in providing patients with good quality ventilation and eventually weaning them faster from the ventilator. The present paper defines explicit computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation, describes how these protocols are designed, and reports the ones that are available on the market for children. PMID:22189095

  9. Space Network Time Distribution and Synchronization Protocol Development for Mars Proximity Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Mills, David

    2010-01-01

    Time distribution and synchronization in deep space network are challenging due to long propagation delays, spacecraft movements, and relativistic effects. Further, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) designed for terrestrial networks may not work properly in space. In this work, we consider the time distribution protocol based on time message exchanges similar to Network Time Protocol (NTP). We present the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) algorithm that can work with the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Data Link Protocol. The PITS algorithm provides faster time synchronization via two-way time transfer over proximity links, improves scalability as the number of spacecraft increase, lowers storage space requirement for collecting time samples, and is robust against packet loss and duplication which underlying protocol mechanisms provide.

  10. The effect of repeated laser stimuli to ink-marked skin on skin temperature—recommendations for a safe experimental protocol in humans

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Victoria J.; Catley, Mark J.; Grabherr, Luzia; Mazzola, Francesca; Shohag, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nd:YAP laser is widely used to investigate the nociceptive and pain systems, generating perpetual and laser-evoked neurophysiological responses. A major procedural concern for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli in experimental research is the risk of skin damage. The absorption of Nd:YAP laser stimuli is greater in darker skin, or in pale skin that has been darkened with ink, prompting some ethics boards to refuse approval to experimenters wishing to track stimulus location by marking the skin with ink. Some research questions, however, require laser stimuli to be delivered at particular locations or within particular zones, a requirement that is very difficult to achieve if marking the skin is not possible. We thoroughly searched the literature for experimental evidence and protocol recommendations for safe delivery of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over marked skin, but found nothing. Methods. We designed an experimental protocol to define safe parameters for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over skin that has been marked with black dots, and used thermal imaging to assess the safety of the procedure at the forearm and the back. Results. Using thermal imaging and repeated laser stimulation to ink-marked skin, we demonstrated that skin temperature did not increase progressively across the course of the experiment, and that the small change in temperature seen at the forearm was reversed during the rest periods between blocks. Furthermore, no participant experienced skin damage due to the procedure. Conclusion. This protocol offers parameters for safe, confident and effective experimentation using repeated Nd:YAP laser on skin marked with ink, thus paving the way for investigations that depend on it. PMID:26793428

  11. The effect of repeated laser stimuli to ink-marked skin on skin temperature-recommendations for a safe experimental protocol in humans.

    PubMed

    Madden, Victoria J; Catley, Mark J; Grabherr, Luzia; Mazzola, Francesca; Shohag, Mohammad; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nd:YAP laser is widely used to investigate the nociceptive and pain systems, generating perpetual and laser-evoked neurophysiological responses. A major procedural concern for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli in experimental research is the risk of skin damage. The absorption of Nd:YAP laser stimuli is greater in darker skin, or in pale skin that has been darkened with ink, prompting some ethics boards to refuse approval to experimenters wishing to track stimulus location by marking the skin with ink. Some research questions, however, require laser stimuli to be delivered at particular locations or within particular zones, a requirement that is very difficult to achieve if marking the skin is not possible. We thoroughly searched the literature for experimental evidence and protocol recommendations for safe delivery of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over marked skin, but found nothing. Methods. We designed an experimental protocol to define safe parameters for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over skin that has been marked with black dots, and used thermal imaging to assess the safety of the procedure at the forearm and the back. Results. Using thermal imaging and repeated laser stimulation to ink-marked skin, we demonstrated that skin temperature did not increase progressively across the course of the experiment, and that the small change in temperature seen at the forearm was reversed during the rest periods between blocks. Furthermore, no participant experienced skin damage due to the procedure. Conclusion. This protocol offers parameters for safe, confident and effective experimentation using repeated Nd:YAP laser on skin marked with ink, thus paving the way for investigations that depend on it. PMID:26793428

  12. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  13. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    PubMed Central

    Beran, David; Yudkin, John S; de Courten, Maximilian

    2006-01-01

    Background In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews. Methods The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access draws on the principles of Rapid Assessment Protocols which have been developed and implemented in several different areas. This protocol was adapted through a thorough literature review on diabetes, chronic condition management and medicine supply in developing countries. A visit to three countries in sub-Saharan Africa and meetings with different experts in the field of diabetes helped refine the questionnaires. Following the development of the questionnaires these were tested with various people familiar with diabetes and/or healthcare in developing countries. The Protocol was piloted in Mozambique then refined and had two further iterations in Zambia and Mali. Translations of questionnaires were made into local languages when necessary, with back translation to ensure precision. Results In each country the protocol was implemented in 3 areas – the capital city, a large urban centre and a predominantly rural area and their respective surroundings. Interviews were carried out by local teams trained on how to use the tool. Data was then collected and entered into a database for analysis. Conclusion The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access was developed to provide a situational analysis of Type 1 diabetes, in order to make recommendations to the national Ministries of Health and Diabetes Associations. It provided valuable information on patients' access to insulin, syringes, monitoring and care. It was thus able to sketch a picture of the health care system with regards to its ability to care for people with diabetes

  14. Development of patient decision support tools for motor neuron disease using stakeholder consultation: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hogden, Anne; Greenfield, David; Caga, Jashelle; Cai, Xiongcai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Motor neuron disease (MND) is a terminal, progressive, multisystem disorder. Well-timed decisions are key to effective symptom management. To date, there are few published decision support tools, also known as decision aids, to guide patients in making ongoing choices for symptom management and quality of life. This protocol is to develop and validate decision support tools for patients and families to use in conjunction with health professionals in MND multidisciplinary care. The tools will inform patients and families of the benefits and risks of each option, as well as the consequences of accepting or declining treatment. Methods and analysis The study is being conducted from June 2015 to May 2016, using a modified Delphi process. A 2-stage, 7-step process will be used to develop the tools, based on existing literature and stakeholder feedback. The first stage will be to develop the decision support tools, while the second stage will be to validate both the tools and the process used to develop them. Participants will form expert panels, to provide feedback on which the development and validation of the tools will be based. Participants will be drawn from patients with MND, family carers and health professionals, support association workers, peak body representatives, and MND and patient decision-making researchers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by Macquarie University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC), approval number 5201500658. Knowledge translation will be conducted via publications, seminar and conference presentations to patients and families, health professionals and researchers. PMID:27053272

  15. Development of Analytical Protocols For Organics and Isotopes Analysis on the 2009 MARS Science Laboratory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory, under development for launch in 2009, is designed explore and quantitatively asses a local region on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life. Its ambitious goals are to (1) assess the past or present biological potential of the target environment, (2) to characterize the geology and geochemistry at the MSL landing site, and (3) to investigate planetary processes that influence habitability. The planned capabilities of the rover payload will enable a comprehensive search for organic molecules, a determination of definitive mineralogy of sampled rocks and fines, chemical and isotopic analysis of both atmospheric and solid samples, and precision isotope measurements of several volatile elements. A range of contact and remote surface and subsurface survey tools will establish context for these measurements and will facilitate sample identification and selection. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of MSL addresses several of the mission's core measurement goals. It includes a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer. These instruments will be designed to analyze either atmospheric samples or gases extracted from solid phase samples such as rocks and fines. We will describe the range of measurement protocols under development and study by the SAM engineering and science teams for use on the surface of Mars.

  16. Craniosacral therapy for migraine: Protocol development for an exploratory controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mann, John D; Faurot, Keturah R; Wilkinson, Laurel; Curtis, Peter; Coeytaux, Remy R; Suchindran, Chirayath; Gaylord, Susan A

    2008-01-01

    study after giving consent. Conclusion This report endorses the feasibility of undertaking a rigorous randomized clinical trial of CST for migraine using a standardized CST protocol and an innovative control protocol developed for the study. Subjects are able and willing to complete detailed headache diaries during an 8-week baseline period, with few dropouts during the study period, indicating the acceptability of both interventions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00665236 PMID:18541041

  17. Some recent theoretical and experimental developments in fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, H.; Eftis, J.; Hones, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental developments in four distinct areas of fracture mechanics research are described. These are as follows: experimental comparisons of different nonlinear fracture toughness measures, including the nonlinear energy, R curve, COD and J integral methods; the singular elastic crack-tip stress and displacement equations and the validity of the proposition of their general adequacy as indicated, for example, by the biaxially loaded infinite sheet with a flat crack; the thermodynamic nature of surface energy induced by propagating cracks in relation to a general continuum thermodynamic description of brittle fracture; and analytical and experimental aspects of Mode II fracture, with experimental data for certain aluminum, steel and titanium alloys.

  18. A range finding protocol to support design for transcriptomics experimentation: examples of in-vitro and in-vivo murine UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Oskar; Rodenburg, Wendy; van Oostrom, Conny T; Jonker, Martijs J; de Jong, Mark; Dekker, Rob J; Rauwerda, Han; Ensink, Wim A; de Vries, Annemieke; Breit, Timo M

    2014-01-01

    In transcriptomics research, design for experimentation by carefully considering biological, technological, practical and statistical aspects is very important, because the experimental design space is essentially limitless. Usually, the ranges of variable biological parameters of the design space are based on common practices and in turn on phenotypic endpoints. However, specific sub-cellular processes might only be partially reflected by phenotypic endpoints or outside the associated parameter range. Here, we provide a generic protocol for range finding in design for transcriptomics experimentation based on small-scale gene-expression experiments to help in the search for the right location in the design space by analyzing the activity of already known genes of relevant molecular mechanisms. Two examples illustrate the applicability: in-vitro UV-C exposure of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in-vivo UV-B exposure of mouse skin. Our pragmatic approach is based on: framing a specific biological question and associated gene-set, performing a wide-ranged experiment without replication, eliminating potentially non-relevant genes, and determining the experimental 'sweet spot' by gene-set enrichment plus dose-response correlation analysis. Examination of many cellular processes that are related to UV response, such as DNA repair and cell-cycle arrest, revealed that basically each cellular (sub-) process is active at its own specific spot(s) in the experimental design space. Hence, the use of range finding, based on an affordable protocol like this, enables researchers to conveniently identify the 'sweet spot' for their cellular process of interest in an experimental design space and might have far-reaching implications for experimental standardization. PMID:24823911

  19. Normal development and experimental embryology: Edmund Beecher Wilson and Amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Lowe, James W E

    2016-06-01

    This paper concerns the concept of normal development, and how it is enacted in experimental procedures. To that end, I use an historical case study to assess the three ways in which normal development is and has been produced, used, and interpreted in the practice of experimental biology. I argue that each of these approaches involves different processes of abstraction, which manage biological variation differently. I then document the way in which Edmund Beecher Wilson, a key contributor to late-nineteenth century experimental embryology, approached the study of normal development and show that his work does not fit any of the three established categories in the taxonomy. On the basis of this new case study, I present a new interpretation of normal development as a methodological norm which operates as a technical condition in various experimental systems. I close by suggesting the questions, and ways of investigating developmental biology, that are opened up by this perspective. PMID:27054569

  20. Education and Cognitive Development: The Evidence from Experimental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Donald; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reports the results of a series of experimental studies and a sociodemographic survey designed to determine the relative influence of age and educational experience in the development of cognitive skills as manifested in formal, psychological experiments. (CM)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A RATIONALLY BASED DESIGN PROTOCOL FOR THE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT DISINFECTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A protocol is demonstrated for the design and evaluation of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems based on a mathematical model. The disinfection model incorporates the system's physical dimensions, the residence time distribution of the reactor and dispersion characteristics, th...

  2. The development of the cell cryopreservation protocol with controlled rate thawing.

    PubMed

    Gurina, Tatyana M; Pakhomov, Alexandr V; Polyakova, Anna L; Legach, Evgeniy I; Bozhok, Galyna A

    2016-06-01

    Thawing in the water bath is often considered as a standard procedure. The thermal history of samples thawed in this way is poorly controlled, but cryopreservation and banking of cell-based products require standardization, automation and safety of all the technological stages including thawing. The programmable freezers allow implementation of the controlled cooling as well as the controlled thawing. As the cell damage occurs during the phase transformation that takes place in the cryoprotectant medium in the process of freezing-thawing, the choice of warming rates within the temperature intervals of transformations is very important. The goal of the study was to investigate the influence of warming rates within the intervals of the phase transformations in the DMSO-based cryoprotectant medium on the cell recovery and to develop a cryopreservation protocol with controlled cooling and warming rates. The temperature intervals of phase transformations such as melting of the eutectic mixture of the cryoprotectant solution (MEMCS), melting of the eutectic salt solution (MESS), melting of the main ice mass (MMIM), recrystallization before MEMCS, recrystallization before MESS and recrystallization before MMIM were determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. The biological experiments were performed on the rat testicular interstitial cells (TIC). The highest levels of the cell recovery and metabolic activity after cryopreservation were obtained using the protocol with the high (20 °C/min) warming rate in the temperature intervals of crystallization of the eutectics as well as recrystallizations and the low (1 °C/min) warming rate in the temperature intervals of melting of the eutectics as well as MMIM. The total cell recovery was 65.3 ± 2.1 %, the recovery of the 3-beta-HSD-positive (Leydig) cells was 82.9 ± 1.8 %, the MTT staining was 32.5 ± 0.9 % versus 42.1 ± 1.7 %; 57.4 ± 2.1 % and 24.0 ± 1.1 % respectively, when compared to the thawing in

  3. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach.

    PubMed

    Julie, E Golden; Selvi, S Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes. PMID:26881269

  4. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Julie, E. Golden; Selvi, S. Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes. PMID:26881269

  5. Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria. PMID:23422471

  6. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  7. 76 FR 6143 - Draft Guidance for Industry on “Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on ``Target Animal Safety and... guidance for industry ( 215) entitled ``Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and... for review by the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation...

  8. Using the "Knowledge Quartet" to Quantify Mathematical Knowledge in Teaching: The Development of a Protocol for Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined trainee teachers' mathematical knowledge in teaching (MKiT) over their final year in a US Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme. This paper reports on an exploratory methodological approach taken to use the "Knowledge Quartet" to quantify MKiT through the development of a new protocol to code trainees' teaching of…

  9. Organic and Isotope Measurement Protocols under Development for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is under development by NASA with several international partners for launch in 2009. MSL is designed to quantitatively explore a local region on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl). The goals of MSL are to (1) assess the past or present biological potential of the target environment, (2) to characterize its geology and geochemistry, (3) to study planetary processes that influence habitability, and (4) to characterize the surface radiation. The last substantial search for organic molecules on the surface of Mars was with the Viking Landers in 1976 [Biemann, et al., 19771. In that mission, no organics were detected in near surface fines and presently a more comprehensive search is required to understand the potential of that planet to support life. While the Mars Exploration Rovers are able to identify mineralogical signatures of aqueous alteration, they are not equipped to search for organics. The planned capabilities of the MSL rover payload will enable a search for a wide range of organic molecules in both solid samples of rocks and fines and atmospheric samples. MSL will also provide a determination of definitive mineralogy of the solid samples and precision isotope measurements of several volatile elements. Contact and remote surface and subsurface survey tools will establish context for Analytical Laboratory measurements and will facilitate sample selection. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of MSL addresses several of the mission's core measurement goals. SAM includes a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer. We will describe the range of measurement protocols under development and test for SAM and the relationship of our planned measurements to outstanding issues of martian habitability.

  10. In situ patch-clamp recordings from Merkel cells in rat whisker hair follicles, an experimental protocol for studying tactile transduction in tactile-end organs.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Cha, Myeounghoon; Gu, Jianguo G

    2015-01-01

    Mammals use tactile end-organs to perform sensory tasks such as environmental exploration, social interaction, and tactile discrimination. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tactile transduction in tactile end-organs remain poorly understood. The patch-clamp recording technique may be the most valuable approach for detecting and studying tactile transduction in tactile end-organs, but it is technically challenging because tactile transduction elements in an end-organ are normally inaccessible by patch-clamp recording electrodes. Here we describe an in situ patch-clamp recording protocol for the study of tactile transduction in Merkel cells of rat whisker hair follicles, one of the most sensitive tactile end-organs in mammals. This technique offers an opportunity to explore the identities and properties of ion channels that are involved in tactile transduction in whisker hair follicles, and it may also lend a useful tool for researchers to study other tactile end-organs. The experimental protocol describes procedures for 1) tissue dissection and whisker hair follicle preparation, 2) device setup and steps for performing patch-clamp recordings from Merkel cells in a whisker hair follicle, 3) methods of delivering mechanical stimuli, and 4) intra-follicle microinjection for receptor knockdown in whisker hair follicles. The main procedures in this protocol, from tissue preparation to whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, can be completed in a few hours. PMID:25907165

  11. Development of an Ex Vivo Protocol to Model Bone Fracture in Laying Hens Resulting from Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Michael J.; Wilkins, Lindsay J.; Millburn, Georgina; Thorpe, Katherine; Tarlton, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the keel bone, a bone extending ventrally from the sternum, are a serious health and welfare problem in free range laying hens. Recent findings suggest that a major cause of keel damage within extensive systems is collisions with internal housing structures, though investigative efforts have been hindered by difficulties in examining mechanisms and likely influencing factors at the moment of fracture. The objectives of this study were to develop an ex vivo impact protocol to model bone fracture in hens caused by collision, to assess impact and bird-related factors influencing fracture occurrence and severity, and to identify correlations of mechanical and structural properties between different skeletal sites. We induced keel bone fractures in euthanized hens using a drop-weight impact tester able to generate a range of impact energies, producing fractures that replicate those commonly found in commercial settings. The results demonstrated that impact energies of a similar order to those expected in normal housing were able to produce fractures, and that greater collision energies resulted in an increased likelihood of fractures and of greater severity. Relationships were also seen with keel’s lateral surface bone mineral density, and the peak reactive force (strength) at the base of the manubrial spine. Correlations were also identified between the keel and long bones with respect to both strength and bone mineral density. This is the first study able to relate impact and bone characteristics with keel bone fracture at the moment of collision. Greater understanding of these relationships will provide means to reduce levels of breakage and severity in commercial systems. PMID:23785487

  12. Theoretical and experimental design of site-specific applicators and heating protocols for interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyreus, Per Daniel; Nau, William H.; Wu, Alex; Diederich, Chris J.

    2003-06-01

    Theoretical and experimental approaches were used to develop and evaluate site-specific designs of internally cooled direct coupled (ICDC) and catheter-cooled (CC) ultrasound applicators for thermal coagulation of disease in the prostate, liver, brain, and uterus. The diameter of an interstitial applicator can influence its clinical practicality and effectiveness as well as application site. One purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of larger ultrasound transducers and the inherent increase in applicator size could be justified by potentially producing larger lesion diameters. A second purpose was to explore how the response of tissue acoustic attenuation to heating effects lesion size and preferred applicator configuration. Four applicator configurations and sizes were studied using ex vivo tissue experiments in liver and beef and using acoustic and biothermal simulations. Transmission attenuation measurements showed a 6 to 8 fold increase in baseline tissue attenution inside interstitial ultrasound lesions. Formation of these high attenuation zones in lesions reduced potential lesion size. Larger applicators produced lesions with radial penetration depths superior to their smaller counterparts at power levels in the 20-40W /cm range. The higher cooling rates along the outer surface of the larger diameter applicators due to their greater surface area was a dominant factor in increasing lesion size. The higher cooling rates pushed the maximum temperature farther from the applicator surface and reduced the formation of high acoustic attenuation tissue zones. Acoustic and biothermal simulations matched the experimental data well and were applied to model these applicators within sites of clinical interest such as prostate, uterine fibroid, brain, and normal liver. Lesions of 3.9 to 4.7cm diameter were predicted for moderately perfused tissues such as prostate and fibroid and 2.8 to 3.2cm for highly perfused tissues such as normal liver. Feedback

  13. Animal experimentation: a rational approach towards drug development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Singh, P N; Mishra, B

    2000-06-01

    Man's observation of animals as objects of study undoubtedly began in prehistoric times. The first recorded attempt involving the use of live animals for research was by Ersistratis in Alexandria in 300 B.C. Animal investigation has clearly made possible the enormous advances in drug development in this century. A cursory review of any modern text book of pharmacology or medicine will attest the many drugs currently available to benefit mankind in the struggle to eradicate and control diseases. The main purpose of this article is to describe some of the experimental work on animals which contributed to the discovery and development of drugs benefiting human beings and other animal species. Since animal experimentation has occupied a focal position in all the research leading to useful drugs, one will appreciate that it will be necessary to limit the discussion to certain aspects of this broad and interesting topic. With this in mind, an attempt is made to relate briefly the nature of animal investigations which were instrumental in the development of major classes of drugs. Some attention has also been focused on legislation's on animal experimentation of some developed countries with emphasis on India and to views on animal experimentation. We hope this article will stimulate the minds of the scientists for a rational debate on the future of animal experimentation. PMID:11116523

  14. Experimental Induction of Paromomycin Resistance in Antimony-Resistant Strains of L. donovani: Outcome Dependent on In Vitro Selection Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Vasundhra; Kuypers, Kristel; Shaw, Craig D.; Lonchamp, Julien; Salotra, Poonam; Carter, Katharine; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Paromomycin (PMM) has recently been introduced for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Although no clinical resistance has yet been reported, proactive vigilance should be warranted. The present in vitro study compared the outcome and stability of experimental PMM-resistance induction on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Cloned antimony-resistant L. donovani field isolates from India and Nepal were exposed to stepwise increasing concentrations of PMM (up to 500 µM), either as promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes. One resulting resistant strain was cloned and checked for stability of resistance by drug-free in vitro passage as promastigotes for 20 weeks or a single in vivo passage in the golden hamster. Resistance selection in promastigotes took about 25 weeks to reach the maximal 97 µM inclusion level that did not affect normal growth. Comparison of the IC50 values between the parent and the selected strains revealed a 9 to 11-fold resistance for the Indian and 3 to 5-fold for the Nepalese strains whereby the resistant phenotype was also maintained at the level of the amastigote. Applying PMM pressure to intracellular amastigotes produced resistance after just two selection cycles (IC50 = 199 µM) compared to the parent strain (IC50 = 45 µM). In the amastigote-induced strains/clones, lower PMM susceptibilities were seen only in amastigotes and not at all in promastigotes. This resistance phenotype remained stable after serial in vitro passage as promastigote for 20 weeks and after a single in vivo passage in the hamster. This study clearly demonstrates that a different PMM-resistance phenotype is obtained whether drug selection is applied to promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes. These findings may have important relevance to resistance mechanism investigations and the likelihood of resistance development and detection in the field. PMID:22666513

  15. Interprofessional curriculum development achieves results: Initial evidence from a dementia-care protocol.

    PubMed

    Annear, Michael James; Goldberg, Lynette R; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the outcomes of a five-day, protocol-based interprofessional education (IPE) initiative to prepare undergraduate medical, nursing, and paramedic students for collaborative work with adults with dementia. Clinical placements provided a structured and supervised IPE experience for 127 students in two Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) in Hobart, Australia, during 2013 and 2014. The IPE activity was based on a seven-step protocol formulated by an interprofessional team of educators and aged care practitioners that revolved around collaborative assessments of adults with complex health needs. This article describes the IPE protocol and presents the results of a pre- and post-placement attitude questionnaire and knowledge quiz administered to evaluate student attitudes towards IPE and knowledge of dementia. Data suggest that a five-day, supervised, and protocol-based IPE experience in a dementia-care setting can inculcate positive changes in student attitudes about collaborative practice and may encourage dementia-related learning outcomes. PMID:27029913

  16. Development of an electrotransformation protocol for genetic manipulation of Clostridium pasteurianum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reducing the production cost of, and increasing revenues from, industrial biofuels will greatly facilitate their proliferation and co-integration with fossil fuels. The cost of feedstock is the largest cost in most fermentation bioprocesses and therefore represents an important target for cost reduction. Meanwhile, the biorefinery concept advocates revenue growth through complete utilization of by-products generated during biofuel production. Taken together, the production of biofuels from low-cost crude glycerol, available in oversupply as a by-product of bioethanol production, in the form of thin stillage, and biodiesel production, embodies a remarkable opportunity to advance affordable biofuel development. However, few bacterial species possess the natural capacity to convert glycerol as a sole source of carbon and energy into value-added bioproducts. Of particular interest is the anaerobe Clostridium pasteurianum, the only microorganism known to convert glycerol alone directly into butanol, which currently holds immense promise as a high-energy biofuel and bulk chemical. Unfortunately, genetic and metabolic engineering of C. pasteurianum has been fundamentally impeded due to lack of an efficient method for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) transfer. Results This work reports the development of an electrotransformation protocol permitting high-level DNA transfer to C. pasteurianum ATCC 6013 together with accompanying selection markers and vector components. The CpaAI restriction-modification system was found to be a major barrier to DNA delivery into C. pasteurianum which we overcame by in vivo methylation of the recognition site (5’-CGCG-3’) using the M.FnuDII methyltransferase. With proper selection of the replication origin and antibiotic-resistance marker, we initially electroporated methylated DNA into C. pasteurianum at a low efficiency of 2.4 × 101 transformants μg-1 DNA by utilizing conditions common to other clostridial electroporations

  17. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Supena, E D J; Suharsono, S; Jacobsen, E; Custers, J B M

    2006-02-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in pepper. The critical factors of the protocol are: selection of flower buds with more than 50% late unicellular microspores, a 1 day 4 degrees C pretreatment of the buds, followed by culture of the anthers in double-layer medium system for 1 week at 9 degrees C and thereafter at 28 degrees C in continuous darkness. The medium contained Nitsch components and 2% maltose, with 1% activated charcoal in the solid under layer and 2.5 muM zeatin and 5 muM indole-3-acetic acid in the liquid upper layer. All the ten genotypes of hot pepper tested, responded to this protocol. The best genotypes produced four to seven plants per original flower bud. This protocol can be used as a potential tool for producing doubled haploid plants for hot pepper breeding. PMID:16172897

  18. Development of an exercise testing protocol for patients with a lower limb amputation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vestering, Myrthe M; Schoppen, Tanneke; Dekker, Rienk; Wempe, Johan; Geertzen, Jan H B

    2005-09-01

    Due to a decrease in physical activity, lower limb amputees experience a decline in physical fitness. This causes problems in walking with a prosthesis because energy expenditure in walking with a prosthesis is much higher than in walking with two sound legs. Exercise training may therefore increase the functional walking ability of these patients. To generate a safe and effective aerobic training program, exercise testing of amputees is recommended. The objectives of this study were to develop a maximal exercise testing protocol for lower limb amputees and to compare two different testing methods: combined arm-leg ergometry and arm ergometry. The protocols were tested in five amputee patients. Combined ergometry elicited a higher oxygen uptake and heart rate than arm ergometry. Electrocardiography during combined ergometry was easier to read. Combined ergometry was judged most comfortable by the amputees. The exercise testing protocol was useful in lower limb amputees to determine their maximal aerobic capacity and their main exercise limitation. Future exercise training programs may be based on this testing protocol. Combined arm-leg ergometry is appropriate for unilateral amputees without significant claudication of the remaining leg. Continuous arm ergometry is suitable for unilateral amputees with significant claudication of the remaining limb or bilateral amputees. PMID:16046917

  19. Gold nanomolecules: Developing synthetic protocols, characterization and investigating the ligand effects on structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmala, Praneeth Reddy

    The term "Nano" in chemistry refers to particles/molecules in the size range 1 to 100 nm. Gold nanoparticles were used in ancient times in making decorative glass as they produce vibrant, size dependent, colors upon interaction with light. Gold is a preferred choice of metal for the synthesis of nanoparticles mainly due to its inertness to atmospheric conditions and most chemicals. Gold thiolate nanomolecules, which is the primary focus of this dissertation research, are chemical molecules with a fixed number of gold atoms and organo-thiolate ligands. They are of the form Aux(SR)y and possess molecule-like properties as a result of distinctive quantum confinement effects occurring at the nanoscale size. The optical and electronic properties of these molecules change as a function of "x" and "y" in the formulation Aux(SR) y. The stability of these nanomolecules can be attributed due in part to their symmetrical geometry as evidenced by the X-ray crystallography. Recent research in the field has focused on exploiting the size-dependent properties of gold nanomolecules in applications like nano-electronics, biological sensing and catalysis. But much of the hindrance to these advances come from the lack of established protocols to synthesize monodisperse nanomolecules in high yields. Brust-schiffrin protocol for the synthesis of nanomolecules yields stable products in a two-phase system which can be dried and re-dispersed without affecting the stability. But the protocol has a major drawback of producing a polydisperse mixture of different sizes of nanomolecules. A major portion of my dissertation focuses on addressing this issue of polydispersity of products. In this regard, I have investigated the one-phase synthesis protocol for synthesis of gold-thiolate nanomolecules wherein the gold salt and the capping ligands are essentially dissolved in a single solvent system. This protocol is peculiar in that it yields various sizes which are otherwise not observed.

  20. Developing an Experimental Model of Vascular Toxicity in Embryonic Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing an Experimental Model of Vascular Toxicity in Embryonic Zebrafish Tamara Tal, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA Background: There are tens of thousands of chemicals that have yet to be fully evaluated for their toxicity by validated in vivo testing ...

  1. Examining Study Attrition: Implications for Experimental Research on Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubitskey, Beth W.; Vath, Richard J.; Johnson, Heather J.; Fishman, Barry J.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Park, Gina J.

    2012-01-01

    As teacher professional development research includes more experimental designs, new challenges arise. We examine the threat of participant attrition as an example of the types of problems researchers face. Counter-intuitively, higher levels of recruitment effort were related to higher dropout rates among teachers. We also found that teachers left…

  2. Integrated Computational and Experimental Protocol for Understanding Rh(III) Speciation in Hydrochloric and Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, Alex C.; Boele, Cherilynn A.; Bennett, Kevin T.; Clark, Sue B.; Wall, Nathalie; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has investigated the complex speciation of Rh(III) in hydrochloric and nitric acid media, as a function of acid concentration. This has relevance to the separation and isolation of Rh(III) from dissolved spent nuclear fuel, which is an emergent and attractive alternative source of platinum group metals, relative to traditional mining efforts.

  3. Development and application of an assessment protocol for monitoring watery quality using benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.H.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H.; Waller, W.T.

    1995-12-31

    The inability to accurately assess water quality using benthic macroinvertebrate communities, due to invalid sampling regimes and tenuous assessment endpoints, has led to confusion among the scientific community and the public as to the condition of the nation`s surface waters. Identifying a suite of reliable indicators (metrics) and a statistically valid sampling strategy should be a priority. In 1990, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol (RBP) to provide guidance in this area. However, several of these metrics have come under scrutiny of late. Excessive variability and redundancy of information have been the major criticisms. This study statistically evaluates the RBP metrics for their overall usefulness as indicators of water quality, using previously compiled data from a reference stream in the ecoregion in which the study site is contained. Endpoints with a high degree of variability and/or an inability to generate unique and pertinent information were not included in the assessment protocol. In addition, power analysis was conducted on these metrics to determine the number of samples necessary to detect differences at ecologically relevant values. The metrics which met the criteria of low variability and the ability to provide unique and pertinent information were then applied to three small urban streams to assess the condition of these systems. It is the contention that only when a proven assessment protocol is employed, like the one presented here, can benthic macroinvertebrates reliably be used to evaluate water quality.

  4. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    PubMed Central

    Beirn, Lisa A.; Wang, Ruying; Clarke, Bruce B.

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli), although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen. PMID:26339538

  5. Recent developments in experimental animal models of Henipavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Rockx, Barry

    2014-07-01

    Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses (genus Henipavirus (HNV; family Paramyxoviridae) are emerging zoonotic agents that can cause severe respiratory distress and acute encephalitis in humans. Given the lack of effective therapeutics and vaccines for human use, these viruses are considered as public health concerns. Several experimental animal models of HNV infection have been developed in recent years. Here, we review the current status of four of the most promising experimental animal models (mice, hamsters, ferrets, and African green monkeys) and their suitability for modeling the clinical disease, transmission, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment for HNV infection in humans. PMID:24488776

  6. Development of experimental systems for material sciences under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanii, Jun; Obi, Shinzo; Kamimiyata, Yotsuo; Ajimine, Akio

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Space Experiment Program of the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, three experimental systems (G452, G453, G454) have been developed for materials science studies under microgravity by the NEC Corporation. These systems are to be flown as Get Away Special payloads for studying the feasibility of producing new materials. Together with the experimental modules carrying the hardware specific to the experiment, the three systems all comprise standard subsystems consisting of a power supply, sequence controller, temperature controller, data recorder, and video recorder.

  7. Recent Developments in the CONRAD Code regarding Experimental Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Kopecky, S.; Litaize, O.; Noguère, G.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Volev, K.

    2013-03-01

    The CONRAD code is an object-oriented software tool developed at CEA Cadarache since 2005 to deal with problems arising during the evaluation process (data assimilation and analysis, physical modelling, propagation of uncertainties…). This paper will present recent developments concerning the experimental corrections, which are required when a neutron resonance shape analysis is performed. Several experimental aspects are detailed in this work: the possibility to use spectra in energy as well as in time, the implementation of both analytical (Chi-Square) and Monte-Carlo resolution functions, the sample homogeneity corrections using log-normal distributions. Each development aspect is illustrated with several examples and comparisons with other resonance analysis codes (SAMMY, REFIT).

  8. Hypnosis and Guided Imagery Treatment for Gastrointestinal Disorders: Experience With Scripted Protocols Developed at the University of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Palsson, Olafur S; van Tilburg, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Completely scripted treatment courses for verbatim interventions are uncommon in the field of clinical hypnosis. This approach was adopted for by a North Carolina research team for treating gastrointestinal disorders 20 years ago and has been used in hypnosis treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative colitis, as well as in guided imagery treatment for functional abdominal pain. Treatment with these scripted protocols is delivered in a fixed series of sessions over a 2- or 3-month period. They have been found efficacious for improving bowel symptoms in several clinical trials, even in patients who have been entirely unresponsive to medical treatment. Response rates in clinical trials have ranged from 53% to 94%, and the therapeutic benefits have been shown to be well maintained at 6-, 10-, or 12-month follow-ups in different studies. This article describes the development and research on these protocols and summarizes the advantages and limitations of this fully scripted treatment approach. PMID:26046714

  9. Development of a Protocol to Test Proprioceptive Utilization as a Predictor for Sensorimotor Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Caldwell, E. E.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oddsson, L. I. E.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight show significant inter-subject variations in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment because of their innate sensory weighting. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. We hypothesize participant's ability to utilize individual sensory information (vision, proprioception and vestibular) influences adaptation in sensorimotor performance after space flight. The goal of this study is to develop a reliable protocol to test proprioceptive utilization in a functional postural control task. Subjects "stand" in a supine position while strapped to a backpack frame holding a friction-free device using air-bearings that allow the subject to move freely in the frontal plane, similar to when in upright standing. The frame is attached to a pneumatic cylinder, which can provide different levels of a gravity-like force that the subject must balance against to remain "upright". The supine posture with eyes closed ensures reduced vestibular and visual contribution to postural control suggesting somatosensory and/or non-otolith vestibular inputs will provide relevant information for maintaining balance control in this task. This setup is called the gravity bed. Fourteen healthy subjects carried out three trials each with eyes open alternated with eyes closed, "standing" on their dominant leg in the gravity bed environment while loaded with 60 percent of their body weight. Subjects were instructed to: "use your sense of sway about the ankle and pressure changes under the foot to maintain balance." Maximum length of a trial was 45 seconds. A force plate underneath the foot recorded forces and moments during the trial and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached on the backpack's frame near the center of mass of the subject recorded upper body postural

  10. The Development of the Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Boisseau, Christina L.; Farchione, Todd J.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Ellard, Kristen K.; Barlow, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed description of treatment utilizing the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment, is presented using a clinical case example treated during the most current phase of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of the UP. The implementation of the UP in its current, modular version is illustrated. A working case conceptualization is presented from the perspective of the UP drawing from theory and research that underlies current transdiagnostic approaches to treatment and consistent with recent dimensional classification proposals (Brown & Barlow, in press). Treatment is illustrated module-by-module describing how the principles of the UP were applied in the presented case. PMID:23997572

  11. Theoretical and experimental development of 10 and 35 GHz rectennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Tae-Whan; Chang, Kai

    1992-06-01

    A 35 GHz rectenna has been developed with 39 percent conversion efficiency. The rectenna uses a microstrip dipole antenna and a commercially available mixer diode. Over 60 percent conversion efficiency was demonstrated using this diode at 10 GHz. A theoretical analysis was derived to predict the performance of the rectenna. The analysis is a useful tool for device and circuit design. The theoretical and experimental results should have many applications in microwave power transmission and detection.

  12. Development of an acquisition protocol and a segmentation algortihm for wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Kristians; Castañeda, Benjamín; Miranda, César; Lavarello, Roberto; Llanos, Alejandro

    2010-03-01

    We developed a protocol for the acquisition of digital images and an algorithm for a color-based automatic segmentation of cutaneous lesions of Leishmaniasis. The protocol for image acquisition provides control over the working environment to manipulate brightness, lighting and undesirable shadows on the injury using indirect lighting. Also, this protocol was used to accurately calculate the area of the lesion expressed in mm2 even in curved surfaces by combining the information from two consecutive images. Different color spaces were analyzed and compared using ROC curves in order to determine the color layer with the highest contrast between the background and the wound. The proposed algorithm is composed of three stages: (1) Location of the wound determined by threshold and mathematical morphology techniques to the H layer of the HSV color space, (2) Determination of the boundaries of the wound by analyzing the color characteristics in the YIQ space based on masks (for the wound and the background) estimated from the first stage, and (3) Refinement of the calculations obtained on the previous stages by using the discrete dynamic contours algorithm. The segmented regions obtained with the algorithm were compared with manual segmentations made by a medical specialist. Broadly speaking, our results support that color provides useful information during segmentation and measurement of wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Results from ten images showed 99% specificity, 89% sensitivity, and 98% accuracy.

  13. Large-scale hydrological simulations using the soil water assessment tool, protocol development, and application in the danube basin.

    PubMed

    Pagliero, Liliana; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Willems, Patrick; Diels, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive of the European Union requires member states to achieve good ecological status of all water bodies. A harmonized pan-European assessment of water resources availability and quality, as affected by various management options, is necessary for a successful implementation of European environmental legislation. In this context, we developed a methodology to predict surface water flow at the pan-European scale using available datasets. Among the hydrological models available, the Soil Water Assessment Tool was selected because its characteristics make it suitable for large-scale applications with limited data requirements. This paper presents the results for the Danube pilot basin. The Danube Basin is one of the largest European watersheds, covering approximately 803,000 km and portions of 14 countries. The modeling data used included land use and management information, a detailed soil parameters map, and high-resolution climate data. The Danube Basin was divided into 4663 subwatersheds of an average size of 179 km. A modeling protocol is proposed to cope with the problems of hydrological regionalization from gauged to ungauged watersheds and overparameterization and identifiability, which are usually present during calibration. The protocol involves a cluster analysis for the determination of hydrological regions and multiobjective calibration using a combination of manual and automated calibration. The proposed protocol was successfully implemented, with the modeled discharges capturing well the overall hydrological behavior of the basin. PMID:25602548

  14. Development of a versatile user-friendly IBA experimental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Reliable performance of the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques is based on the accurate geometry of the experimental setup, employment of the reliable nuclear data and implementation of dedicated analysis software for each of the IBA techniques. It has already been shown that geometrical imperfections lead to significant uncertainties in quantifications of IBA measurements. To minimize these uncertainties, a user-friendly experimental chamber with a heuristic sample positioning system for IBA analysis was recently developed in the Van de Graaff laboratory in Tehran. This system enhances IBA capabilities and in particular Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) techniques. The newly developed sample manipulator provides the possibility of both controlling the tilt angle of the sample and analyzing samples with different thicknesses. Moreover, a reasonable number of samples can be loaded in the sample wheel. A comparison of the measured cross section data of the 16O(d,p1)17O reaction with the data reported in the literature confirms the performance and capability of the newly developed experimental chamber.

  15. Development of the University of Delaware Experimental Watershed Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnini, J. L.; Kauffman, G. J.; Corrozi, M.; Bower, J.

    2001-05-01

    In 2000, a team of University of Delaware undergraduate and graduate students developed the University of Delaware Experimental Watershed Project with a grant from the Delaware Water Resources Center. The University of Delaware (UD) is a land- and sea-grant institution in Newark, Delaware and is perched along the Atlantic seaboard's fall line. A critical mass of UD faculty and students in water resources and related disciplines are interested in the development of an experimental watershed on campus to provide (1) interdisciplinary undergraduate, graduate and faculty research opportunities, and (2) an outdoor education laboratory. Using GIS and field reconnaissance techniques, the three students delineated two small experimental watershed regions respectively located in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain provinces of the White Clay Creek Wild and Scenic River Valley on the UD campus. The Piedmont watershed drains 416 acres of the northern area of campus while the Coastal Plain watershed drains 896 acres including the central and southern sections of campus. The students then developed an ArcView GIS atlas integrating geology, soils, topography, land use, and impervious cover layers with a rating system for water quality and habitat characteristics to issue a "report-card" assessing each watershed's overall health. The White Clay Creek Wild and Scenic River Valley is an ideal on campus location for an outdoor education and research laboratory because of its manageable scale, the diversity of its characteristic land uses and physical environment, and above all its accessibility for students, faculty, researchers, and the public.

  16. Development of a magnetic resonance imaging protocol to visualize encapsulated contrast agent markers in prostate brachytherapy recipients: initial patient experience

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tze Yee; Wang, Jihong; Bathala, Tharakeswara; Szklaruk, Janio; Pugh, Thomas J.; Mahmood, Usama; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Frank, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computed tomography (CT)-based prostate post-implant dosimetry allows for definitive seed localization but is associated with high interobserver variation in prostate contouring. Currently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based post-implant dosimetry allows for accurate anatomical delineation but is limited due to inconsistent seed localization. Encapsulated contrast agent markers were previously proposed to overcome the seed localization limitation on MRI images by placing hyperintense markers adjacent to hypointense seeds. The aim of this study was to assess the appearance of these markers in prostatic tissue, and develop an MRI protocol to enable marker visualization. Material and methods We acquired MRI scans in prostate implant patients (n = 10) on day 0 (day of implant) and day 30 (month after implant). Before implantation of the markers, the routine post-implant MRI protocol included a 3D T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequence with which markers and seeds could not be clearly visualized. To visualize the MRI markers, a 3D fast radiofrequency-spoiled gradient-recalled echo (FSPGR) sequence was evaluated for marker and seed visibility, as well as prostate boundary definitions. Results The 3D FSPGR sequence allowed for the visualization of markers in the prostate, enabling the distinction of signal voids as seeds versus needle tracks. The updated post-implant MRI protocol consists of this 3D FSPGR scan and an optional 3D T2-weighted FSE scan. The optional 3D T2-weighted FSE sequence may be employed to better visualize intraprostatic detail. We also described the observed image artifacts, including seed susceptibility, marker chemical shift, partial volume averaging, motion, and wraparound artifacts. Conclusions We have demonstrated an MRI protocol for use with hyperintense encapsulated contrast agent markers to assist in the identification of hypointense seeds. PMID:27504133

  17. Sublingual Buprenorphine/Naloxone for Chronic Pain in At-Risk Patients: Development and Pilot Test of a Clinical Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Andrew; Cruciani, Ricardo A.; Strain, Eric C; Cleland, Charles M.; Joseph, Herman; Magura, Stephen; Marsch, Lisa A; McNicholas, Laura F; Savage, Seddon R; Sundaram, Arun; Portenoy, Russell K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) is approved for addiction treatment and may be useful for pain management, particularly in opioid-treated pain patients with nonadherence behaviors. The transition of opioid-treated pain patients to buprenorphine carries the risk of precipitated withdrawal and increased pain. This study convened pain and addiction specialists to develop and pilot a clinical protocol for safe transitioning to Bup/Nx. Design The protocol was revised three times based on outside expert review and pilot study observations. The pilot was conducted with a prospective cohort of 12 patients with moderate to severe chronic pain, who were receiving long-term opioid therapy with any full μ-agonist drug, and had exhibited one or more aberrant drug-related behaviors. Patients were followed up for 3 to 6 months with the expectation that they would experience few adverse events and report lower pain severity. Results The three patients on the highest baseline opioid dose (equivalent to 303–450 mg of oral morphine) and the three on the lowest doses (≤20 mg) had early adverse events (AEs) when switched to Bup/Nx and did not complete the trial. Of the remaining six, one withdrew due to AEs; one responded well, then withdrew; and four completed a three-month trial. A mixed effects model controlling for dropouts found that average and worst pain significantly decreased after the switch to Bup/Nx (both p < .01). Conclusion Based on this experience, the protocol recommends Bup/Nx for pain only when baseline opioid doses are within bounds that reduce AEs at transition and incorporates dose flexibility to further reduce risks. This protocol warrants further testing. PMID:23264315

  18. Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper. PMID:25387534

  19. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  20. The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

    1998-01-01

    Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

  1. Experimental investigation of a thermionic converter with developed surface electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, J.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Adrian, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    A thermionic converter with developed planar electrode surfaces is designed and tested. One of the electrodes has concentric circular grooves cut into its surface, while the other electrode surface is smooth. The grooves are 0.5 mm deep and 0.5 mm wide, having lands that are 1.0 mm wide. The experimental setup is flexible so that either the smooth or developed surface electrode can be operated as the emitter, with the other operating as the collector. The I-V characteristics and power output are compared for the two electrode arrangements. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Development of a standardised human in vitro digestion protocol based on macronutrient digestion using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hollebeeck, Sylvie; Borlon, Florianne; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Rogez, Hervé

    2013-06-01

    Bioaccessibility studies should be taken into account when evaluating the physiological effects of ingested compounds at the intestine level. Several in vitro digestion protocols have been described, with a wide range of experimental conditions but no optimised protocol exists. In order to fill in this gap, we evaluated the influence of three continuous factors (pH, incubation time, and enzyme concentrations), in the range of values found in literature, on the digestion of standard macronutrients (starch, albumin, triolein) alone or in mixture. Three central composite designs, using response surface methodology, were employed to model the three abiotic steps of pre-colonic digestion. A validated in vitro digestion was eventually set up for the salivary step (pH 6.9, 5 min, 3.9 units α-amylase/ml), the gastric step (pH 2, 90 min, 71.2 units pepsin/ml), and the abiotic duodenal step (pH 7, 150 min, 9.2mg pancreatin and 55.2mg bile extract/ml). PMID:23411328

  3. A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

  4. Development of a practical spatial-spectral analysis protocol for breast histopathology using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Pounder, F Nell; Reddy, Rohith K; Bhargava, Rohit

    2016-06-23

    Breast cancer screening provides sensitive tumor identification, but low specificity implies that a vast majority of biopsies are not ultimately diagnosed as cancer. Automated techniques to evaluate biopsies can prevent errors, reduce pathologist workload and provide objective analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging provides both molecular signatures and spatial information that may be applicable for pathology. Here, we utilize both the spectral and spatial information to develop a combined classifier that provides rapid tissue assessment. First, we evaluated the potential of IR imaging to provide a diagnosis using spectral data alone. While highly accurate histologic [epithelium, stroma] recognition could be achieved, the same was not possible for disease [cancer, no-cancer] due to the diversity of spectral signals. Hence, we employed spatial data, developing and evaluating increasingly complex models, to detect cancers. Sub-mm tumors could be very confidently predicted as indicated by the quantitative measurement of accuracy via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The developed protocol was validated with a small set and statistical performance used to develop a model that predicts study design for a large scale, definitive validation. The results of evaluation on different instruments, at higher noise levels, under a coarser spectral resolution and two sampling modes [transmission and transflection], indicate that the protocol is highly accurate under a variety of conditions. The study paves the way to validating IR imaging for rapid breast tumor detection, its statistical validation and potential directions for optimization of the speed and sampling for clinical deployment. PMID:27095431

  5. Understanding controls on biotic assemblages and ecological status in Zambian rivers for the development of sustainable monitoring protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael; Gibbins, Chris; Lowe, Steven; Dallas, Helen; Taylor, Jonathan; Lang, Pauline; Saili, Kothelani; Sichingabula, Henry; Murphy, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The water resources of Zambia are likely to experience increasing multiple pressures in the future as a result of very high predicted population growth, industrial development, land use change, and potentially, altered regional rainfall patterns. It is well known that rivers in tropical regions typically have a rich biodiversity, controlled in part by inter-annual variability in climate and discharge, and in part by local catchment conditions. However, till recently little country-wide work had had been carried out on the biota of Zambian rivers, and little was therefore known about the ecological status, or degree of catchment alteration of many of the rivers. To underpin sustainable water management, protocols have been developed to assess the ecological status of Zambian rivers. This paper describes the development of the protocols and their application to provide the first extensive assessment of the ecological status of rivers in the country. The protocols were designed to be simple, and hence rapid, easy and relatively inexpensive to apply. Status scores were derived for individual sites using sensitivity weightings from 3 major groups (macrophytes, diatoms and macroinvertebrates). The general approach was based on schemes used successfully elsewhere, with species and family sensitivity weightings modified so as be appropriate to Zambia. Modifications were based on a survey of 140 Zambian rivers, incorporating data on species distributions, physical habitat conditions and water quality. Analysis of historical data suggests that established Freshwater Ecoregions reflect hydro-climatic variability across Zambia. Survey data indicate that most of the spatial variation in biological assemblages across the country reflects these same hydro-climatic gradients, in addition to hydrochemical differences linked to geology. Site status scores suggest that rivers are generally in good health, although exceptions occur in some large urban areas and a small number of

  6. A Self-Regulation eHealth Intervention to Increase Healthy Behavior Through General Practice: Protocol and Systematic Development

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Oenema, Anke; Crombez, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An increased consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. An increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake may also prevent body weight gain, and therefore indirectly affect type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insufficient physical activity (PA) has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Consequently, effective interventions that promote PA and FV intake in a large number of people are required. Objective To describe the systematic development of an eHealth intervention, MyPlan 1.0, for increasing FV intake and PA. Methods The intervention was developed following the six steps of the intervention mapping (IM) protocol. Decisions during steps were based upon available literature, focus group interviews, and pilot studies. Results Based on needs assessment (Step 1), it was decided to focus on fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity levels of adults. Based on self-regulation and the health action process approach model, motivational (eg, risk awareness) and volitional (eg, action planning) determinants were selected and crossed with performance objectives into a matrix with change objectives (Step 2). Behavioral change strategies (eg, goal setting, problem solving, and implementation intentions) were selected (Step 3). Tablet computers were chosen for delivery of the eHealth program in general practice (Step 4). To facilitate implementation of the intervention in general practice, GPs were involved in focus group interviews (Step 5). Finally, the planning of the evaluation of the intervention (Step 6) is briefly described. Conclusions Using the IM protocol ensures that a theory- and evidence-based intervention protocol is developed. If the intervention is found to be effective, a dynamic eHealth program for the promotion of healthy lifestyles could be available for use in general

  7. Developing Quality Indicators and Auditing Protocols from Formal Guideline Models: Knowledge Representation and Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Advani, Aneel; Goldstein, Mary; Shahar, Yuval; Musen, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Automated quality assessment of clinician actions and patient outcomes is a central problem in guideline- or standards-based medical care. In this paper we describe a model representation and algorithm for deriving structured quality indicators and auditing protocols from formalized specifications of guidelines used in decision support systems. We apply the model and algorithm to the assessment of physician concordance with a guideline knowledge model for hypertension used in a decision-support system. The properties of our solution include the ability to derive automatically (1) context-specific and (2) case-mix-adjusted quality indicators that (3) can model global or local levels of detail about the guideline (4) parameterized by defining the reliability of each indicator or element of the guideline. PMID:14728124

  8. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments conducted at room and elevated temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-place calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  9. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments performed at room temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-placed calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  10. Development and optimization of a biopreparedness protocol for extracting and detecting avian influenza virus in broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Simona; Falcone, Emiliana; Knutsson, Rickard; Vaccari, Gabriele; De Medici, Dario; Di Trani, Livia

    2013-09-01

    Detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry meat is hampered by the lack of an efficient analytical method able to extract and concentrate viral RNA prior to PCR. In this study we developed a method for extracting and detecting AIV from poultry meat by a previously standardized 1-step real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR) assay. In addition, a new process control, represented by feline calicivirus (FCV), was included in the original protocol, to evaluate all analytical steps from sample preparation to the detection phase. The detection limit was below 1×10(-1) TCID50 of AIV per sample, and the quantification limit corresponded to 1×10(1) TCID50 of AIV per sample. Moreover, the addition of 1×10(2) TCID50/sample of FCV did not affect the quantification and detection limit of the reaction. These results show that the developed assay is suitable for detecting small amounts of AIV in poultry meat. In addition, the developed biopreparedness protocol can be applied to detect AIV in legal or illegal imported broiler chicken meat. The availability of a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method based on molecular identification of AIV in poultry meat provides an important tool in the prevention of AIV circulation. PMID:23971811