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Sample records for experimental rabbit atherosclerotic

  1. Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Bojic, Lazar A.; McLaren, David G.; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F.; Johns, Douglas G.; Castro-Perez, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome. PMID:25517033

  2. In vivo determination of arterial collagen synthesis in atherosclerotic rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Opsahl, W.P.; DeLuca, D.J.; Ehrhart, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    Collagen and non-collagen protein synthesis rates were determined in vivo in tissues from rabbits fed a control or atherogenic diet supplemented with 2% peanut oil and 0.25% cholesterol for 4 months. Rabbits received a bolus intravenous injection of L-(/sup 3/H)-proline (1.0 mCi/kg) and unlabeled L-proline (7 mmoles/kg) in 0.9% NaCl. Plasma proline specific activity decreased only 20% over 5 hr and was similar to the specific activity of free proline in tissues. Thoracic aortas from atherosclerotic rabbits exhibited raised plaques covering at least 75% of the surface. Thoracic intima plus a portion of the media (TIM) was separated from the remaining media plus adventitia (TMA). Dry delipidated weight, total collagen content, and collagen as a percent of dry weight were increased significantly in the TIM of atherosclerotic rabbits. Collagen synthesis rates and collagen synthesis as a percent of total protein synthesis were likewise increased both in the TIM and in the abdominal aortas. No differences from controls either in collagen content or collagen synthesis rates were observed in the TMA, lung or skin. These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that formation of atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increased rates of collagen synthesis. Furthermore, as previously observed with incubations in vitro, collagen synthesis was elevated to a greater extent than noncollagen protein synthesis in atherosclerotic aortas from rabbits fed cholesterol plus peanut oil.

  3. Inadequate dietary magnesium intake increases atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    King, Jennifer L.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.; Erdman, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and serum Mg levels to be inversely correlated with the development of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that low levels of Mg would promote atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits (4 months old, n = 22) were fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.12% (−Mg), 0.27% (control), or 0.43% (+Mg) Mg for 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks and were assayed for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein, serum Mg, and erythrocyte Mg. Aortas from −Mg had significantly more plaque, with an intima thickness 42% greater than control and 36% greater than +Mg. Serum cholesterol levels rose over time, and at 8 weeks, −Mg had the highest and +Mg the lowest total and non-HDL cholesterol and TG levels, although these results did not reach significance. Over time, serum Mg levels increased, and erythrocyte Mg levels decreased. C-reactive protein significantly increased in all groups at 4 and 6 weeks but returned to baseline levels by 8 weeks. This study supports the hypothesis that inadequate intake of Mg results in an increase in atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits. PMID:19555816

  4. Amelioration by catalpol of atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang-yue; Zhang, Dai-juan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of catalpol administration on atherosclerosis. Atherogenesis was induced by a high-cholesterol chow in male New Zealand White rabbits that were randomly assigned to receive atorvastatin (5 mg/kg/day), catalpol (5 mg/kg/day), or vehicle by oral gavage for 12 weeks. The rabbits were sacrificed after 12 weeks, and the thoracic aorta and serum were collected for further pathological and molecular biological analysis. Catalpol administration resulted in significantly attenuated atherosclerotic lesions. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were remarkably reduced, and high-density lipid cholesterol was elevated in the catalpol-treated group. Catalpol reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the serum, as well as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase, matrix metalloproteinases-9, and nuclear factor-κB protein65 in the aortic arch. In addition, catalpol treatment reduced the lipid peroxidation levels, while elevating antioxidant capacity. Catolpol pretreatment inhibited the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB protein in oxygenized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated EA.hy926 cells. Furthermore, catolpol pretreatment activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and upregulated the expression of its downstream antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase. In summary, catalpol attenuated atherosclerotic lesions by the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress status in a rabbit atherosclerotic model and enhanced the antioxidant capacity in oxygenized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated EA.hy926 cells. These results suggest that catalpol may be used to prevent and attenuate atherosclerosis

  5. Plaque Rupture and Thrombosis: the Value of the Atherosclerotic Rabbit Model in Defining the Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Abela, Oliver G; Ahsan, Chowdhury H; Alreefi, Fadi; Salehi, Negar; Baig, Imran; Janoudi, Abed; Abela, George S

    2016-06-01

    Persistent inflammation and mechanical injury associated with cholesterol crystal accretion within atherosclerotic plaques typically precedes plaque disruption (rupture and/or erosion) and thrombosis-often the terminal events of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. To elucidate the mechanisms of these events, the atherosclerotic rabbit model provides a unique and powerful tool that facilitates studies of atherogenesis starting with plaque buildup to eventual disruption. Examination of human coronary arteries obtained from patients who died with myocardial infarction demonstrates evidence of cholesterol crystals perforating the plaque cap and intimal surface of the arterial wall that can lead to rupture. These observations were made possible by omitting ethanol, an avid lipid solvent, from the tissue processing steps. Importantly, the atherosclerotic rabbit model exhibits a similar pathology of cholesterol crystals perforating the intimal surface as seen in ruptured human plaques. Local and systemic inflammatory responses in the model are also similar to those observed in humans. The strong parallel between the rabbit and human pathology validates the atherosclerotic rabbit model as a predictor of human pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Thus, the atherosclerotic rabbit model can be used with confidence to evaluate diagnostic imaging and efficacy of novel anti-atherosclerotic therapy. PMID:27091328

  6. Evaluation of the Effect of Andrographolide on Atherosclerotic Rabbits Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil; Hussain, Saba F.; Mulok, Tengku Z.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated significant associations between atherosclerosis and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). We had investigated the effect of andrographolide (AND) on atherosclerosis induced by Pg in rabbits. For experimental purpose, we separated thirty male white New Zealand rabbits into 5 groups. Group 1 received standard food pellets; Groups 2–5 were orally challenged with Pg; Group 3 received atorvastatin (AV, 5 mg/kg), and Groups 4-5 received 10 and 20 mg/kg of AND, respectively, over 12 weeks. Groups treated with AND showed significant decrease in TC, TG, and LDL levels (P < 0.05) and significant increase in HDL level in the serum of rabbits. Furthermore, the treated groups (G3–G5) exhibited reductions in interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as compared to atherogenicgroup (G2). The histological results showed that the thickening of atherosclerotic plaques were less significant in treated groups (G3–G5) compared with atherogenicgroup (G2). Also, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining decreased within the plaques of atherogenicgroup (G2), while it was increased in treated groups (G3–G5). Lastly, groups treated with AV and AND (G3–G5) showed significant reduction of CD36 expression (P < 0.05) compared to atherogenicgroup (G2). These results substantially proved that AND contain antiatherogenic activity. PMID:25215291

  7. Modeling of Experimental Atherosclerotic Plaque Delamination.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiaochang; Chen, Xin; Deng, Xiaomin; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    A cohesive zone model (CZM) approach is applied to simulate atherosclerotic plaque delamination experiments in mouse abdominal aorta specimens. A three-dimensional finite element model is developed for the experiments. The aortic wall is treated as a fiber-reinforced, highly deformable, incompressible material, and the Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) model is adopted for the aortic bulk material behavior. Cohesive elements are placed along the plaque-media interface along which delamination occurs. The 3D specimen geometry is created based on images from the experiments and certain simplifying approximations. A set of HGO and CZM parameter values is determined based on values suggested in the literature and through matching simulation predictions of the load vs. load-point displacement curve with experimental measurements for one loading-delamination-unloading cycle. Using this set of parameter values, simulation predictions for four other loading-delamination-unloading cycles are obtained, which show good agreement with experimental measurements. The findings of the current study demonstrate the applicability of the CZM approach in arterial tissue failure simulations. PMID:26101030

  8. Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque development in myocardial infarction-prone rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Alex C. T.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Smith, Michael S. D.; Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Hewko, Mark D.; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Kohlenberg, Elicia K.; Schattka, Bernie; Shiomi, Masashi; Stolow, Albert; Sowa, Michael G.

    2010-03-01

    Label-free imaging of bulk arterial tissue is demonstrated using a multimodal nonlinear optical microscope based on a photonic crystal fiber and a single femtosecond oscillator operating at 800 nm. Colocalized imaging of extracellular elastin fibers, fibrillar collagen, and lipid-rich structures within aortic tissue obtained from atherosclerosis-prone myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits is demonstrated through two-photon excited fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, respectively. These images are shown to differentiate healthy arterial wall, early atherosclerotic lesions, and advanced plaques. Clear pathological changes are observed in the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall and correlated with progression of atherosclerotic disease as represented by the age of the WHHLMI rabbits.

  9. Regression of atherosclerotic lesions by high density lipoprotein plasma fraction in the cholesterol-fed rabbit.

    PubMed

    Badimon, J J; Badimon, L; Fuster, V

    1990-04-01

    The effects of homologous plasma HDL and VHDL fractions on established atherosclerotic lesions were studied in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the animals a 0.5% cholesterol-rich diet for 60 d (group 1). Another group of animals were maintained on the same diet for 90 d (group 2). A third group was also fed the same diet for 90 d but received 50 mg HDL-VHDL protein per wk (isolated from normolipemic rabbit plasma) during the last 30 d (group 3). Aortic atherosclerotic involvement at the completion of the study was 34 +/- 4% in group 1, 38.8 +/- 5% in group 2, and 17.8 +/- 4% in group 3 (P less than 0.005). Aortic lipid deposition was also significantly reduced in group 3 compared with group 1 (studied at only 60 d) and group 2. This is the first in vivo, prospective evidence of the antiatherogenic effect of HDL-VHDL against preexisting atherosclerosis. Our results showed that HDL plasma fractions were able to induce regression of established aortic fatty streaks and lipid deposits. Our results suggest that it may be possible not only to inhibit progression but even to reduce established atherosclerotic lesions by HDL administration. PMID:2318976

  10. Regression of atherosclerotic lesions by high density lipoprotein plasma fraction in the cholesterol-fed rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Badimon, J J; Badimon, L; Fuster, V

    1990-01-01

    The effects of homologous plasma HDL and VHDL fractions on established atherosclerotic lesions were studied in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the animals a 0.5% cholesterol-rich diet for 60 d (group 1). Another group of animals were maintained on the same diet for 90 d (group 2). A third group was also fed the same diet for 90 d but received 50 mg HDL-VHDL protein per wk (isolated from normolipemic rabbit plasma) during the last 30 d (group 3). Aortic atherosclerotic involvement at the completion of the study was 34 +/- 4% in group 1, 38.8 +/- 5% in group 2, and 17.8 +/- 4% in group 3 (P less than 0.005). Aortic lipid deposition was also significantly reduced in group 3 compared with group 1 (studied at only 60 d) and group 2. This is the first in vivo, prospective evidence of the antiatherogenic effect of HDL-VHDL against preexisting atherosclerosis. Our results showed that HDL plasma fractions were able to induce regression of established aortic fatty streaks and lipid deposits. Our results suggest that it may be possible not only to inhibit progression but even to reduce established atherosclerotic lesions by HDL administration. Images PMID:2318976

  11. Development of Advanced Atherosclerotic Plaque by Injection of Inflammatory Proteins in a Rabbit Iliac Artery Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Sun; Lee, Seul-Gee; Oh, Jaewon; Park, Se-Il; Hong, Sung-Yu; Kim, Sehoon; Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Appropriate animal models of atherosclerotic plaque are crucial to investigating the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, as well as for the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of vascular devices. We aimed to develop a novel animal model that would be suitable for the study of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Materials and Methods Atherosclerotic plaque was induced in 24 iliac arteries from 12 rabbits by combining a high cholesterol diet, endothelial denudation, and injection into the vessel wall with either saline (n=5), olive oil (n=6), or inflammatory proteins [n=13, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) n=8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α n=5] using a Cricket™ Micro-infusion catheter. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to detect plaque characteristics after 4 weeks, and all tissues were harvested for histological evaluation. Results Advanced plaque was more frequently observed in the group injected with inflammatory proteins. Macrophage infiltration was present to a higher degree in the HMGB1 and TNF-α groups, compared to the oil or saline group (82.1±5.1% and 94.6±2.2% compared to 49.6±14.0% and 46.5±9.6%, p-value<0.001), using RAM11 antibody staining. On OCT, lipid rich plaques were more frequently detected in the inflammatory protein group [saline group: 2/5 (40%), oil group: 3/5 (50%), HMGB1 group: 6/8 (75%), and TNF-α group: 5/5 (100%)]. Conclusion These data indicate that this rabbit model of atherosclerotic lesion formation via direct injection of pro-inflammatory proteins into the vessel wall is useful for in vivo studies investigating atherosclerosis. PMID:27401639

  12. Antioxidants attenuate atherosclerotic plaque development in a balloon-denuded and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Leborgne, Laurent; Fournadjiev, Jana; Pakala, Rajbabu; Dilcher, Christian; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Hellinga, David; Seaborn, Rufus; O'Tio, Fermin; Waksman, Ron

    2003-03-01

    Background: Oxidation of lipoproteins is considered to be a key contributor to atherogenesis. Antioxidants are potential antiatherogenic agents because they can inhibit lipoprotein oxidation. Radiation has been shown to increase oxidative stress leading to increased atherogenesis. This study is designed to test the potential of antioxidants to inhibit atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-denuded and -radiated rabbits. Methods and Results: Two groups of New Zealand white rabbits (n=36) were fed with 1% cholesterol diet (control diet) or with 1% cholesterol diet containing a mixture of various antioxidants for 1 week. Iliac arteries in all the animals were balloon denuded and continued to fed with 0.15% cholesterol diet or 0.15% cholesterol diet containing antioxidants (antioxidant diet). Four weeks after balloon denudation one iliac artery in 12 animals from each group was radiated and all the animals were continued to be fed with the same diet. Four weeks after radiation animals were sacrificed and morphometric analysis of iliac arteries (n=12) in nonradiated and radiated animals were performed. Plaque area (PA) in the rabbits that were fed with cholesterol diet is 0.2{+-}0.12 mm{sup 2}, and it is increased by 2.75-fold (P<.05) in the radiated arteries of animals fed with cholesterol diet. Plaque area in the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the one in the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Similarly, plaque area in radiated arteries of the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Conclusion: Antioxidants significantly attenuate atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-injured and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  13. Percutaneous arterial gene transfer in a rabbit model. Efficiency in normal and balloon-dilated atherosclerotic arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, G; Gal, D; Takeshita, S; Nikol, S; Weir, L; Isner, J M

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of using an exclusively percutaneous strategy to deliver foreign DNA to normal and balloon-dilated atherosclerotic arteries was studied by analysis of transfection efficiency in a rabbit model. A total of 22 external iliac arteries from 22 rabbits (10 normal and 12 atherosclerotic) were transfected with a solution of luciferase expression vector plasmid and liposome, using a dual balloon-catheter system. Analysis of the transfected segments revealed luciferase activity in 10 of the 22 arteries (4/10 normal vs 6/12 balloon-injured atherosclerotic, P = NS); no activity could be detected in the contralateral limb arterial segments used as controls. Luciferase activity levels in successfully transfected segments measured 4.10 +/- 1.19 (m +/- SEM) Turner light units (TLU), with 3.03 +/- 1.16 TLU found in normals vs 4.81 +/- 1.87 TLU in balloon-injured atherosclerotic arteries (P = NS). In situ hybridization of successfully transfected atherosclerotic sections showed expression of the luciferase gene mRNA from rare cells (less than 1/1,000) limited to the neointimal lesion. Thus, expression of new genetic material may be achieved in both normal and balloon-dilated atherosclerotic arteries following an exclusively percutaneous approach. The low efficiency of the current delivery strategy, however, represents a potential limitation that must be improved if this strategy is to be applied as a therapeutic approach to human vascular disease. Images PMID:1387886

  14. Acute and chronic complications of laser angioplasty: vascular wall damage and formation of aneurysms in the atherosclerotic rabbit.

    PubMed

    Lee, G; Ikeda, R M; Theis, J H; Chan, M C; Stobbe, D; Ogata, C; Kumagai, A; Mason, D T

    1984-01-15

    Acute and chronic vascular responses to laser exposure in atherosclerotic rabbits were studied. In 7 rabbits fed an atherogenic diet for 3 to 5 months before the study to induce aortic atherosclerosis, a flexible quartz fiber, 400 micron core diameter, attached to an argon ion laser was passed anterogradely or retrogradely to the atherosclerotic ascending aorta. The laser was turned on using power intensities of 1 to 2 W for 3 seconds. After laser treatment, the aortas were studied acutely in 3 rabbits and chronically in 4 rabbits after recovery for 1 to 14 days. In 2 rabbits studied acutely, the argon laser produced a vaporized crater within the atherosclerotic plaque at the endothelial surface; however, in 1 there was also vascular damage extending deep into the medial layer. In addition, aortic aneurysm with muscular wall damage occurred in 2 of the 4 animals studied chronically. Thus, vascular complications may arise when catheter laser angioplasty is randomly applied without visualizing specific plaque targets or without using safe dose increments of power intensities and durations of exposure. This study suggests caution in the clinical use of intensive phototherapy to cardiovascular lesions and stresses the need for further understanding of laser vascular consequences before application of laser angioplasty in patients. PMID:6695725

  15. Ultrastructural changes in atherosclerotic plaques following the instillation of airborne particulate matter into the lungs of rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Tranfield, Erin M; van Eeden, Stephan F; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Hogg, James C; Walker, David C

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have established that cardiovascular events account for the greatest number of air pollution-related deaths. However, the underlying structural changes are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in the ultrastructure of atherosclerotic plaques in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits following the instillation of ambient particulate matter air pollution (particles smaller than 10 μm in diameter) into the lungs. METHODS: WHHL rabbits (n=8) exposed to 5 mg of ambient particles (Environmental Health Centre – 1993 [EHC-93]; suspended in saline and instilled in the airway) twice per week for four weeks were compared with control WHHL rabbits (n=8) treated with saline alone. RESULTS: All abdominal aortic plaques were examined using light and electron microscopy, which showed the following: increased accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells immediately below the endothelial plaque surface (P=0.04); increased contact between these foam cells and the dense subendothelial extracellular matrix (P<0.005) with reduction (P<0.0001) and fragmentation (P<0.0001) of this matrix; and emigration of macrophage-derived foam cells from the plaques in exposed rabbits. In addition, immunohistochemistry verified the presence of type IV collagen in the thickened extracellular matrix material subtending the endothelium. CONCLUSIONS: The ultrastructure of atherosclerotic plaques in EHC-93-instilled rabbits differed from the ultrastructure observed in rabbits that did not receive EHC-93. These ultrastructural differences are consistent with greater endothelial instability in the plaques of atherosclerosis-prone rabbits. PMID:20847974

  16. Apoptosis does not mediate macrophage depletion in rabbit atherosclerotic plaques after dietary lipid lowering.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Wim; Croons, Valerie; Herman, Arnold G; De Meyer, Guido R Y

    2009-08-01

    Unstable atherosclerotic plaques are characterized by a thin fibrous cap that contains few smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and numerous foam cells of macrophage origin. Previously we and others demonstrated that macrophages disappear from atherosclerotic plaques after dietary lipid lowering. However, it remains unclear whether loss of macrophages after lipid lowering occurs via increased apoptosis, decreased macrophage replication and/or recruitment, or via a combination of both. Rabbits were fed a diet supplemented with cholesterol (0.3%) for 24 weeks followed by a normal diet for 4, 12, or 24 weeks. After 24 weeks of cholesterol supplement, plaques showed apoptosis in both macrophages and SMCs, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling. Cell replication (Ki-67 immunolabeling) was predominantly present in macrophages. After 24 weeks of cholesterol withdrawal, the thickness and areas of the plaques were unchanged. Nevertheless, plaques showed a considerable loss of macrophages. This event was associated with a reduced immunoreactivity for vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the endothelial cells starting 4 weeks after cholesterol withdrawal. Apoptosis did not increase after lipid lowering but showed a steady decline. Apart from decreased VCAM-1 expression, a strong decrease in Ki-67 immunolabeling was observed after 12 weeks of cholesterol withdrawal. Our findings suggest that loss of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques after dietary lipid lowering is not related to induction of macrophage apoptosis but mainly a consequence of impaired monocyte recruitment followed by decreased macrophage replication. This information is essential for understanding the effects of aggressive lipid lowering on plaque stability. PMID:19723077

  17. Heterogeneous distribution of a diffusional tracer in the aortic wall of normal and atherosclerotic rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, H.; Tomoike, H.; Nakamura, M. )

    1990-08-01

    Tracer distribution as an index of nutritional support across the thoracic and abdominal aortas in rabbits in the presence or absence of atherosclerotic lesions was evaluated using ({sup 14}C)antipyrine, a metabolically inert, diffusible indicator. Intimal plaques were produced by endothelial balloon denudation of the thoracic aorta and a 1% cholesterol diet. After a steady intravenous infusion of 200 microCi of ({sup 14}C)antipyrine for 60 seconds, thoracic and abdominal aortas and the heart were excised, and autoradiograms of 20-microns-thick sections were quantified, using microcomputer-aided densitometry. Regional radioactivity and regional diffusional support, as an index of nutritional flow estimated from the timed collections of arterial blood, was 367 and 421 nCi.g-1 (82 and 106 ml.min-1.100 g-1) in thoracic aortic media of the normal and atherosclerotic rabbits, respectively. Radioactivity at the thickened intima was 179 nCi.g-1 (p less than 0.01 versus media). The gruel was noted at a deeper site within the thickened intima, and diffusional support here was 110 nCi.g-1 (p less than 0.01 versus an average radioactivity at the thickened intima). After ligating the intercostal arteries, regional tracer distribution in the media beneath the fibrofatty lesion, but not the plaque-free intima, was reduced to 46%. Thus, in the presence of advanced intimal thickening, the heterogeneous distribution of diffusional flow is prominent across the vessel wall, and abluminal routes are crucial to meet the increased demands of nutritional requirements.

  18. Validating a bimodal intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) catheter for atherosclerotic plaque detection in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Abran, Maxime; Stähli, Barbara E.; Merlet, Nolwenn; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Mélanie; Rhéaume, Eric; Busseuil, David; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Lesage, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is characterized by atherosclerotic plaque formation. Despite impressive advances in intravascular imaging modalities, in vivo molecular plaque characterization remains challenging, and different multimodality imaging systems have been proposed. We validated an engineered bimodal intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) / near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging catheter in vivo using a balloon injury atherosclerosis rabbit model. Rabbit aortas and right iliac arteries were scanned in vivo after indocyanine green (ICG) injection, and compared to corresponding ex vivo fluorescence and white light images. Areas of ICG accumulation were colocalized with macroscopic atherosclerotic plaque formation. In vivo imaging was performed with the bimodal catheter integrating ICG-induced fluorescence signals into cross-sectional IVUS imaging. In vivo ICG accumulation corresponded to ex vivo fluorescence signal intensity and IVUS identified plaques. PMID:26504648

  19. Effects of stent design and serum cholesterol level on the restenosis rate in atherosclerotic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, R; Harasaki, H; Sutton, C; Emoto, H; Kambic, H; Hollman, J

    1993-11-01

    We investigated the effect of serum cholesterol level and stent design on the restenosis rate within the stent after balloon angioplasty and stent implantation using atherosclerotic rabbits. Two types of nickel/titanium stents with gaps (open stent) and without gaps (closed stent) between the wire coils were implanted into the aorta of the rabbits 10 weeks after atherosclerosis had been induced using a standard high cholesterol diet and balloon abrasion. Each rabbit had an open stent and a closed stent implanted into the infrarenal abdominal aorta. Between these two stents a control segment of the aorta was treated with angioplasty alone. The animals were divided into two groups according to the diet protocol as follows: in group I (n = 9) a high cholesterol diet was stopped after stent implantation; in group II (n = 10) a high cholesterol diet was maintained after stent implantation. Digital subtraction angiograms were obtained every 4 weeks for up to 24 weeks and the narrowest diameter of the arterial segments within each stent and in the segment between stents was measured. The diameter narrowing within the closed stent was greater in the high cholesterol group compared with the low cholesterol group: 12 weeks (2.57 +/- 0.09 mm in group I vs 2.14 +/- 0.15 mm in group II, mean +/- S.E., p < 0.05); 16 weeks (2.55 +/- 0.09 mm vs 2.14 +/- 0.12 mm, p < 0.05); 20 weeks (2.59 +/- 0.06 mm vs 1.98 +/- 0.12 mm, p < 0.01); and 24 weeks (2.45 +/- 0.11 mm vs 2.01 +/- 0.11 mm, p < 0.05). No significant differences in the narrowest diameter of the arterial segments were observed between high and low cholesterol groups in the angioplasty alone areas or within the open stents. There was a significant difference in the narrowest diameter between stents with versus those without gaps (at 12, 16, and 20 weeks poststenting in group I and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks in group II). Thus the stent with the least metal is correlated with less stenosis and intimal hyperplasia. From

  20. Selective ablation of WHHLMI rabbit atherosclerotic plaque by quantum cascade laser in the 5.7 μm wavelength range for less-invasive laser angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, Keisuke; Ishii, Katsunori; Akikusa, Naota; Edamura, Tadataka; Yoshida, Harumasa; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the potential of a compact and high-power quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the 5.7 μm wavelength range for less-invasive laser angioplasty. Atherosclerotic plaques consist mainly of cholesteryl esters. Radiation at a wavelength of 5.75 μm is strongly absorbed in C=O stretching vibration mode of cholesteryl esters. Our previous study achieved to make cutting differences between a normal artery and an atherosclerotic lesions using nanosecond pulsed laser by difference-frequency generation (DFG laser) at the wavelength of 5.75 μm. For applying this technique to clinical treatment, a compact laser device is required. In this study, QCL irradiation effects to a porcine normal aorta were compared with DFG laser. Subsequently, QCL irradiation effects on an atherosclerotic aorta of myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHLMI rabbit) and a normal rabbit aorta were observed. As a result, the QCL could make cutting differences between the rabbit atherosclerotic and normal aortas. On the other hand, the QCL induced more thermal damage to porcine normal aorta than the DFG laser at the irradiation condition of comparable ablation depths. In conclusion, the possibility of less-invasive and selective treatment of atherosclerotic plaques using the QCL in the 5.7 μm wavelength range was revealed, although improvement of QCL was required to prevent the thermal damage of a normal artery.

  1. Short-term administration of basic fibroblast growth factor enhances coronary collateral development without exacerbating atherosclerosis and balloon injury-induced vasoproliferation in atherosclerotic rabbits with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxiang; Yang, Jian; Feng, Jianzhang; Jennings, Lisa K

    2002-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the extent of atherosclerosis and balloon injury-induced vasoproliferation in atherosclerotic animals with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Fifty-six rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet. Balloon injury of iliac arteries and experimental acute myocardial infarction were induced in the same animals. Rabbits were then randomized to a bFGF group (20 pg/day, intravenously) or a control group (intravenous saline solution). The beneficial effects of bFGF on cardiac function, infarct size, and collateral vessel development, and the possible effect on vasoproliferation of balloon-injured vessels, were measured after 1 and 2 weeks. The extent of atherosclerosis was measured after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Our results showed that bFGF significantly reduced infarct size and increased collateral-vessel density (P <.01) in infarct areas. Cardiac function was better in the bFGF group than in corresponding controls (P <.05). Similar beneficial effects of bFGF were noted in animals after 1- and 2-week treatments. However, the extent of atherosclerosis and the vasoproliferation in chronic atherosclerotic vessels induced by balloon injury and cholesterol diet were not significantly different between the two groups. Our results suggest that short-term treatment with bFGF enhances collateral development and produces maximum therapeutic benefits without exacerbating atherosclerosis and cell proliferation in stenotic vessels after AMI in atherosclerotic rabbits. PMID:12228768

  2. Detection of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Experimental Atherosclerosis with the USPIO-Enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chun-Mei; Du, Lili; Wu, Wei-Heng; Li, Dong-Ye; Hao, Ji; Gong, Lei; Deng, Liangrong; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-11-01

    This study's goal was to assess the diagnostic value of the USPIO-(ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in abdominal aorta in experimental atherosclerosis. Thirty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, Group A and Group B. Each group comprised 15 animals which were fed with high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks and then subjected to balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. After another 8 weeks, animals in Group B received adenovirus carrying p53 gene that was injected through a catheter into the aortic segments rich in plaques. Two weeks later, all rabbits were challenged with the injection of Chinese Russell's viper venom and histamine. Pre-contrast images and USPIO-enhanced MRI images were obtained after pharmacological triggering with injection of USPIO for 5 days. Blood specimens were taken for biochemical and serological tests at 0 and 18 weeks. Abdominal aorta was histologically studied. The levels of serum ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were quantified by ELISA. Vulnerable plaques appeared as a local hypo-intense signal on the USPIO-enhanced MRI, especially on T2*-weighted sequences. The signal strength of plaques reached the peak at 96 h. Lipid levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in both Group A and B compared with the levels before the high cholesterol diet. The ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Group B compared with Group A. The USPIO-enhanced MRI efficiently identifies vulnerable plaques due to accumulation of USPIO within macrophages in abdominal aorta plaques. PMID:27352319

  3. Identifying Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque in Rabbits Using DMSA-USPIO Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Investigate the Effect of Atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongye; Wu, Weiheng; Gong, Lei; Li, Yong; Zhang, Qingdui; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is the primary cause of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular syndromes. Early and non-invasive detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VP) would be significant in preventing some aspects of these syndromes. As a new contrast agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) modified ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) was synthesized and used to identify VP and rupture plaque by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Atherosclerosis was induced in male New Zealand White rabbits by feeding a high cholesterol diet (n = 30). Group A with atherosclerosis plaque (n = 10) were controls. VP was established in groups B (n = 10) and C (n = 10) using balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. Adenovirus-carrying p53 genes were injected into the aortic segments rich in plaques after 8 weeks. Group C was treated with atorvastatin for 8 weeks. Sixteen weeks later, all rabbits underwent pharmacological triggering, and imaging were taken daily for 5 d after DMSA-USPIO infusion. At the first day and before being killed, serum MMP-9, sCD40L, and other lipid indicators were measured. Results DMSA-USPIO particles accumulated in VP and rupture plaques. Rupture plaques appeared as areas of hyper-intensity on DMSA-USPIO enhanced MRI, especially T2*-weighted sequences, with a signal strength peaking at 96 h. The group given atorvastatin showed few DMSA-USPIO particles and had lower levels of serum indicators. MMP-9 and sCD40L levels in group B were significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (P <0.05). Conclusion After successfully establishing a VP model in rabbits, DMSA-USPIO was used to enhance MRI for clear identification of plaque inflammation and rupture. Rupture plaques were detectable in this way probably due to an activating inflammatory process. Atorvastatin reduced the inflammatory response and stabilizing VP possibly by decreasing MMP-9 and sCD40L levels. PMID:25973795

  4. Noninvasive Detection of Macrophage-rich Atherosclerotic Plaque in Hyperlipidemic Rabbits using ‘Positive Contrast’ Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Korosoglou, Grigorios; Weiss, Robert G.; Kedziorek, Dorota A.; Walczak, Piotr; Gilson, Wesley D.; Schär, Michael; Sosnovik, David; Kraitchman, Dara L.; Boston, Raymond C.; Bulte, Jeff W.M; Weissleder, Ralph; Stuber, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To identify macrophage-rich atherosclerotic plaque non-invasively by the combined use of systemic administration of superparamagnetic nanoparticles with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using a positive contrast off-resonance imaging sequence (Inversion Recovery with ON-resonant water suppression: IRON). Background The sudden rupture of macrophage-rich atherosclerotic plaques can trigger the formation of an occlusive thrombus in coronary vessels, resulting in acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, a noninvasive technique that can identify macrophage-rich plaques and thereby assist with risk stratification of patients with atherosclerosis would be of great potential clinical utility. Methods Experiments were conducted on a clinical 3T MRI scanner in seven heritable hyperlipidemic and four control rabbits. Monocrystalline iron-oxide nanoparticles (MION)-47 were administrated intravenously (two doses of 250μmol Fe/kg), and animals underwent serial IRON-MRI before injection of the nanoparticles and serially after 1, 3 and 6 days. Results After administration of MION-47, a striking signal enhancement was found in areas of plaque only in hyperlipidemic rabbits. The magnitude of enhancement on MR-images had a high correlation with the number of macrophages determined by histology (p<0.001) and allowed for the detection of macrophage-rich plaque with high accuracy (AUC=0.92, SE=0.04, 95% CI=0.84-0.96, p<0.001). No significant signal enhancement was measured in remote areas without plaque by histology and in controls without atherosclerosis. Conclusion IRON-MRI in conjunction with superparamagnetic nanoparticles is a promising approach for the noninvasive evaluation of macrophage-rich, vulnerable plaques. PMID:18672170

  5. Effect of Quercus infectoria and Rosa damascena on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaque formation in rabbit model of hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Gholamhoseinian, A; Shahouzehi, B; Joukar, S; Iranpoor, M

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is the cause of many complications in the human societies. In this study, the effect of methanol extracts of Quercus infectoria (QI) galls and Rosa damascena (RD) Mill flower were studied on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaques formation in hyperlipidemic rabbits. Thirty-six New Zeland white rabbits randomly divided into 6 groups as control (I), hyperlipidemic (II), hyperlipidemic+QI (III), hyperlipidemic+RD (IV), +Atorvastolin (V) and hyperlipidemic+Orlistat (VI) and were fed with high fat diet (0.5% cholesterol and 16% hydrogenated vegetable oil) for 45 days. At the end of the study period, lipid profile and plaque formation were assessed. Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in hyperlipidemic group compared with control group (p < 0.001). Methanol extract consumption of Quercus infectoria significantly decreased plasma levels of TC, TG and LDL (p < 0.001). It also decreased plaques formation in semi lunar valve and thoracic aorta. Rosa damascena mill flower methanol extract moderately decreased the levels of TC, TG, LDL and plaques formation but it was not significant. HDL levels and weight of animals did not show significant difference among groups. Based on the doses used in this study, our finding indicated that QI but no RD methanol extract has anti atherogenic and hypolipidemic activities. PMID:22530439

  6. Improvement of thermal effects to rabbit atherosclerotic aortas by macro pulse irradiation of a quantum cascade laser in the 5.7 μm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, Keisuke; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques mainly consist of cholesteryl esters. Cholesteryl esters have an absorption peak at the wavelength of 5.75 μm originated from C=O stretching vibration mode of ester bond. Our group achieved making cutting difference between atherosclerotic lesions and normal vessels using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the 5.7 μm wavelength range. QCLs are relatively new types of semiconductor lasers that can emit mid-infrared range. They are sufficiently compact and have recently achieved their high-power emission. However, large thermal damage was observed because the QCL worked as a quasi-continuous wave laser due to its short pulse interval. To realize less invasive ablation by the QCL, reducing thermal effects to normal vessels is needed. In this study, we tried improving the thermal effects by changing the pulse structure. First, irradiation effects to rabbit atherosclerotic aortas by macro pulse irradiation (irradiation of pulses at intervals) and conventional continuous pulse irradiation were compared. The macro pulse width and the macro pulse interval were set to 0.54 and 12 ms, respectively, because the thermal relaxation time of rabbit normal and atherosclerotic aortas in the oscillation wavelength was 0.54-12 ms. As a result, ablation depth became longer and coagulation width became shorter by the macro pulse irradiation. In addition, cutting difference between rabbit normal and atherosclerotic aortas was observed by the macro pulse irradiation. Therefore, the macro pulse irradiation achieved the improvement of thermal effects by the QCL in the 5.7 μm wavelength range. The QCL has the potential of realizing less-invasive laser angioplasty.

  7. Contribution of the WHHL rabbit, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia, to elucidation of the anti-atherosclerotic effects of statins.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi; Koike, Tomonari; Ito, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    This year marks the 40th year since the discovery of a mutant rabbit showing spontaneous hyperlipidemia, which is the proband of the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit strain, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia, and the first statin, a general term for inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, a rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Nowadays, statins are the primary drug of choice for treating cardiovascular disease. Although several reviews have described clinical trials and in vitro studies of statins, the anti-atherosclerotic effects of statins on animal models have not been comprehensively reviewed. This review summarized the contribution of WHHL rabbits to elucidating the anti-atherosclerotic effects of statins in vivo. Studies using WHHL rabbits verified that statins suppress plaque destabilization by reducing unstable components (foam cells derived from macrophages, foam cell debris, and extracellular lipid accumulation), preventing smooth muscle cell reductions, and increasing the collagen content of plaques. In addition, the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue factor are decreased in intimal macrophages by statin treatment. Lipid-lowering effects of statins alter plaque biology by reducing the proliferation and activation of macrophages, a prominent source of the molecules responsible for plaque instability and thrombogenicity. Although statins remain the standard treatment for cardiovascular disease, new therapeutics are eagerly awaited. WHHL rabbits will continue to contribute to the development of therapeutics. PMID:24125408

  8. The Arginine/ADMA Ratio Is Related to the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits When Giving a Combined Therapy with Atorvastatine and Arginine

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, Saskia J. H.; Wörner, Elisabeth A.; Buijs, Nikki; Richir, Milan; Cynober, Luc; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Couderc, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with arginine in combination with atorvastatin is more efficient in reducing the size of an atherosclerotic plaque than treatment with a statin or arginine alone in homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. We evaluated the mechanism behind this feature by exploring the role of the arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) ratio, which is the substrate and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and thereby nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Methods: Rabbits were fed either an arginine diet (group A, n = 9), standard rabbit chow plus atorvastatin (group S, n = 8), standard rabbit chow plus an arginine diet with atorvastatin (group SA, n = 8) or standard rabbit chow (group C, n = 9) as control. Blood was sampled and the aorta was harvested for topographic and histological analysis. Plasma levels of arginine, ADMA, cholesterol and nitric oxide were determined and the arginine/ADMA ratio was calculated. Results: The decrease in ADMA levels over time was significantly correlated to fewer aortic lesions in the distal aorta and total aorta. The arginine/ADMA ratio was correlated to cholesterol levels and decrease in cholesterol levels over time in the SA group. A lower arginine/ADMA ratio was significantly correlated to lower NO levels in the S and C group. Discussion: A balance between arginine and ADMA is an important indicator in the prevention of the development of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26035753

  9. Experimental infection of young rabbits with a rabbit enteric coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Descôteaux, J P; Lussier, G

    1990-01-01

    The clinical signs and lesions caused by the rabbit enteric coronavirus (RECV) were studied in young rabbits orally inoculated with a suspension containing RECV particles. The inoculated animals were observed daily for evidence of diarrhea. Fecal samples and specimens from the small intestine and from the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) were collected from 2 h to 29 days postinoculation (PI) and processed for immune electron microscopy (IEM) and light microscopy. Coronavirus particles were detected in the cecal contents of most inoculated animals from 6 h to 29 days PI. Lesions were first observed 6 h PI and were characterized by a loss of the brush border of mature enterocytes located at the tips of intestinal villi and by necrosis of these cells. At 48 h PI, short intestinal villi and hypertrophic crypts were noted. In the GALT, complete necrosis of the M cells as well as necrosis of the enterocytes lining the villi above the lymphoid follicules with hypertrophy of the corresponding crypts were observed in all the animals. Five inoculated rabbits had diarrhea three days PI. The presence of RECV particles in the feces of the sick animals and the microscopic lesions observed in the small intestine suggested that the virus was responsible for the clinical signs. A few inoculated rabbits remained free of diarrhea. Fecal material collected at postmortem examination contained RECV particles. The results suggest that the virus could also produce a subclinical infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2174299

  10. Autoimmunity in Experimental Trypanosoma congolense Infections of Rabbits 1

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, John M.; Kreier, Julius P.

    1972-01-01

    Autoimmunity in rabbits with experimental Trypanosoma congolense infections was investigated. Complement-fixing (CF) and precipitating autoantibodies to normal allogeneic and autologous tissues were found in the sera of all infected rabbits tested; the titers of CF autoantibody occurring during infection were significantly higher than normally occurring titers of autoantibody in pre-infection serum samples. Autoantibody did not cross-react with trypanosome antigens, and Wassermann antibody was not detected in normal or infected rabbit sera. Passive transfer of autoantibody to normal rabbits did not produce observable pathology or death. Physicochemical methods of analysis revealed that the autoantibody was exclusively of the immunoglobulin M class. That cell-mediated autoimmunity to normal tissue antigens did not occur during T. congolense infections was shown by histological analyses, skin tests, migration inhibitory factor, and skin reactive factor tests. Images PMID:4629248

  11. Hematopoietic Fas Deficiency Does Not Affect Experimental Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation despite Inducing a Proatherogenic State

    PubMed Central

    de Claro, R. Angelo; Zhu, Xiaodong; Tang, Jingjing; Morgan-Stevenson, Vicki; Schwartz, Barbara R.; Iwata, Akiko; Liles, W. Conrad; Raines, Elaine W.; Harlan, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The Fas death receptor (CD95) is expressed on macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and T cells within atherosclerotic lesions. Given the dual roles of Fas in both apoptotic and nonapoptotic signaling, the aim of the present study was to test the effect of hematopoietic Fas deficiency on experimental atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice (Ldlr−/−). Bone marrow from Fas−/− mice was used to reconstitute irradiated Ldlr−/− mice as a model for atherosclerosis. After 16 weeks on an 0.5% cholesterol diet, no differences were noted in brachiocephalic artery lesion size, cellularity, or vessel wall apoptosis. However, Ldlr−/− mice reconstituted with Fas−/− hematopoietic cells had elevated hyperlipidemia [80% increase, relative to wild-type (WT) controls; P < 0.001] and showed marked elevation of plasma levels of CXCL1/KC, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 subunit p70, and soluble Fas ligand (P < 0.01), as well as systemic microvascular inflammation. It was not possible to assess later stages of atherosclerosis because of increased mortality in Fas−/− bone marrow recipients. Our data indicate that hematopoietic Fas deficiency does not affect early atherosclerotic lesion development in Ldlr−/− mice. PMID:21550016

  12. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei; Li Qian; Chen Li; Wang Guisong Tang Jian

    2007-11-16

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE{sup -/-} mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% and 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury.

  13. Measurement of drug and macromolecule diffusion across atherosclerotic rabbit aorta ex vivo by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Francesca; Danoux, Charlène B.; Weinberg, Peter D.; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2009-07-01

    Diffusion of two model drugs-benzyl nicotinate and ibuprofen-and the plasma macromolecule albumin across atherosclerotic rabbit aorta was studied ex vivo by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) imaging. Solutions of these molecules were applied to the endothelial surface of histological sections of the aortic wall that were sandwiched between two impermeable surfaces. An array of spectra, each corresponding to a specific location in the section, was obtained at various times during solute diffusion into the wall and revealed the distribution of the solutes within the tissue. Benzyl nicotinate in Ringer's solution showed higher affinity for atherosclerotic plaque than for apparently healthy tissue. Transmural concentration profiles for albumin demonstrated its permeation across the section and were consistent with a relatively low distribution volume for the macromolecule in the middle of the wall. The ability of albumin to act as a drug carrier for ibuprofen, otherwise undetected within the tissue, was demonstrated by multivariate subtraction image analysis. In conclusion, ATR-FTIR imaging can be used to study transport processes in tissue samples with high spatial and temporal resolution and without the need to label the solutes under study.

  14. Selective ablation of rabbit atherosclerotic plaque with less thermal effect by the control of pulse structure of a quantum cascade laser in the 5.7 μm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, Keisuke; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-03-01

    Cholesteryl esters are main components of atherosclerotic plaques and have an absorption peak at the wavelength of 5.75 μm originated from C=O stretching vibration mode of ester bond. Our group achieved the selective ablation of atherosclerotic lesions using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the 5.7 μm wavelength range. QCLs are relatively new types of semiconductor lasers that can emit mid-infrared range. They are sufficiently compact and considered to be useful for clinical application. However, large thermal effects were observed because the QCL worked as quasicontinuous wave (CW) lasers due to its short pulse interval. Then we tried macro pulse irradiation (irradiation of pulses at intervals) of the QCL and achieved effective ablation with less-thermal effects than conventional quasi-CW irradiation. However, lesion selectivity might be changed by changing pulse structure. Therefore, in this study, irradiation effects of the macro pulse irradiation to rabbit atherosclerotic plaque and normal vessel were compared. The macro pulse width and the macro pulse interval were set to 0.5 and 12 ms, respectively, because the thermal relaxation time of rabbit normal and atherosclerotic aortas in the oscillation wavelength of the QCL was 0.5-12 ms. As a result, cutting difference was achieved between rabbit atherosclerotic and normal aortas by the macro pulse irradiation. Therefore, macro pulse irradiation of a QCL in the 5.7 μm wavelength range is effective for reducing thermal effects and selective ablation of the atherosclerotic plaque. QCLs have the potential of realizing less-invasive laser angioplasty.

  15. Carob pod insoluble fiber exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects in rabbits through sirtuin-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α.

    PubMed

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Lahera, Vicente; de las Heras, Natalia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of an insoluble dietary fiber from carob pod (IFC) (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in the diet) on alterations associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits with dyslipidemia. Male New Zealand rabbits (n = 30) were fed the following diets for 8 wk: 1) a control diet (SF412; Panlab) as a control group representing normal conditions; 2) a control supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL) (SF302; Panlab) for 8 wk as a dyslipidemic group; and 3) a control containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus IFC (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) (DL+IFC) for 8 wk. IFC was administered in a pellet mixed with the DL diet. The DL-fed group developed mixed dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic lesions, which were associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein expression in the aorta were reduced to 77% and 63% of the control group, respectively (P < 0.05), in these rabbits. Administration of IFC to DL-fed rabbits reduced the size of the aortic lesion significantly (DL, 15.2% and DL+IFC, 2.6%) and normalized acetylcholine-induced relaxation (maximal response: control, 89.3%; DL, 61.6%; DL+IFC, 87.1%; P < 0.05) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (DL, 52% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group). IFC administration to DL-fed rabbits also reduced cluster of differentiation 36 (DL, 148% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group; P < 0.05), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (DL, 141% and DL+IFC, 107% of the control group), tumor necrosis factor-α (DL, 166% and DL+IFC, 120% of the control group), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (DL, 153% and DL+IFC, 110% of the control group), transforming growth factor-β (DL, 173% and DL+IFC, 99% of the control group), and collagen I (DL, 157% and DL+IFC, 112% of the control group) in the aorta. These effects were accompanied by an enhancement of

  16. Experimental study of USPIO-enhanced MRI in the detection of atherosclerotic plaque and the intervention of atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    SHA, TING; QI, CHUNMEI; FU, WEI; HAO, JI; GONG, LEI; WU, HAO; ZHANG, QINGDUI

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) can identify atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque and atorvastatin can stabilize vulnerable plaque by inhibiting the inflammatory response. Using balloon injury in rabbit abdominal aortic endothelial cells and p53 gene transfecting the local plaque, we established an atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque model. In the treatment group, animals were treated with atorvastatin for 8 weeks. At the end of week 16, the animals in each group underwent medication trigger. USPIO-enhanced MRI was utilized to detect vulnerable plaque formation and the transformation of stable plaque in the treatment group. Pathological and serological studies were conducted in animal sera and tissues. The images from the USPIO-enhanced MRI, and the vulnerable plaque showed low signal, especially on T2*-weighted sequences (T2*WI). Plaque signal strength reached a negative enhancement peak at 96 h. Compared with the other groups, lipids, cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the treatment group. In conclusion, USPIO-enhanced MRI can identify vulnerable plaque formation by deposition in macrophages, while atorvastatin is able to inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis and promote plaque transformation to the stable form. PMID:27347029

  17. Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonist combination on nitric oxide bioavailability and atherosclerotic change in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Toshio; Kuroi, Akio; Ikejima, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Katsunobu; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Mochizuki, Seiichi; Goto, Masami; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the effects of co-administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in genetically hyperlipidemic rabbits with our newly developed NO sensor. Plasma NO was measured using the new NO sensor in the abdominal aorta of anesthetized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. Acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated (20 microg in 5 min into the aortic arch) NO production was recorded after an 8 week per os pretreatment with 1) vehicle (control), 2) the ACEI enalapril (E: 3 mg/kg/day), 3) the ARB losartan (L: 30 mg/kg/day) and 4) enalapril (1.5 mg/kg/day)+losartan (15 mg/kg/day) (E+L). Intra-aortic infusion of ACh produced an increase in plasma NO concentration, which was significantly greater with all the drug treatments than with the control. E increased ACh-induced NO significantly more than L (by 6.9 nmol/L, and 4.7 nmol/L, respectively). E+L increased ACh-induced NO by 9.5 nmol/L, significantly more than either E or L. Plasma peroxynitrite concentration was 1.2 pmol/mg protein in the control group and significantly less than in the E- and L-group. The lowest peroxynitrite concentration was observed in the E+L group (0.5 pmol/mg protein), which was significantly lower than in the E-group and the L-group. Optical coherence tomography and histology of the thoracic aorta revealed that the plaque area decreased significantly more with the combination than with the monotherapy (p<0.01). In conclusion, the combined treatment with an ACEI and an ARB may have additive protective effects on endothelial function as well as atherosclerotic change. PMID:18497479

  18. Transmission of Lawsonia intracellularis to weanling foals using feces from experimentally infected rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, D; Vannucci, F A; Mapes, S; White, A; DiFrancesco, M; Gebhart, C

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether feces from rabbits experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis were infectious to foals. Two rabbits were infected with L. intracellularis, while two rabbits served as controls. Eight foals received daily feces from either the infected or the control rabbits. All rabbits and foals were monitored daily for clinical signs for the entire study period (21days for rabbits, 42days for foals). Feces and blood were collected for the PCR detection of L. intracellularis and serologic analysis, respectively. None of the infected rabbits or foals developed clinical signs compatible with proliferative enteropathy. All infected rabbits and foals shed L. intracellularis in their feces and all seroconverted. The results support the role of rabbits as asymptomatic amplifiers of L. intracellularis and their role as sources of infection for susceptible foals. PMID:22841447

  19. Increased expression of phosphorylated forms of heat-shock protein-27 and p38MAPK in macrophage-rich regions of fibro-fatty atherosclerotic lesions in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Shahida; Codrington, Rosalind; Gidden, Lewis Michael; Ferns, Gordon Ashley Anthony

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to assess the expression and distribution of Hsp27, pHsp27 (Ser82), p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK in fibro-fatty atherosclerotic lesions and the myocardium of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 18 weeks, maintaining serum cholesterol at approximately 20 mmol/l over this period. Aortic arch and myocardial tissues were analysed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence. Plasma Hsp27 levels were measured by ELISA. There was a significant increase in the expression of monomeric and dimeric forms of Hsp27, together with pHsp27 (Ser82), p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK in the fibro-fatty atherosclerotic lesions (P < 0.01; P < 0.05; P < 0.001; and P < 0.001, respectively) and the myocardial tissues (P < 0.001) from the cholesterol-fed rabbits compared with equivalent tissues from controls when the plasma concentration was low. Immunohistochemical analysis of the fibro-fatty lesions showed marked increases in Hsp27 and pHsp27 (Ser82) immunoreactivity. Double immunostaining showed intense expression of pHsp27 and p-p38MAPK in regions that were rich in macrophages, suggesting a close association with these inflammatory cells, whereas, in regions rich in smooth muscle cells, only p-p38MAPK was found to be strongly expressed. An increased expression of pHsp27 (Ser82) was spatially associated with increased p-p38MAPK within fibro-fatty atherosclerotic lesions and was colocalized to regions rich in macrophages. The initial increase in plasma Hsp27 levels may reflect the increase in systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in the early phases of disease. The falling concentrations subsequently may be coincident with the development of the advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:26853073

  20. Alpha lipoic acid possess dual antioxidant and lipid lowering properties in atherosclerotic-induced New Zealand White rabbit.

    PubMed

    Zulkhairi, A; Zaiton, Z; Jamaluddin, M; Sharida, F; Mohd, T H B; Hasnah, B; Nazmi, H M; Khairul, O; Zanariyah, A

    2008-12-01

    There is accumulating data demonstrated hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a protective activity of alpha-lipoic acid; a metabolic antioxidant in hypercholesterolemic-induced animals was investigated. Eighteen adult male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit were segregated into three groups labelled as group K, AT and ALA (n=6). While group K was fed with normal chow and acted as a control, the rest fed with 100 g/head/day with 1% high cholesterol diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. 4.2 mg/body weight of alpha lipoic acid was supplemented daily to the ALA group. Drinking water was given ad-libitum. The study was designed for 10 weeks. Blood sampling was taken from the ear lobe vein at the beginning of the study, week 5 and week 10 and plasma was prepared for lipid profile estimation and microsomal lipid peroxidation index indicated with malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and the aortas were excised for intimal lesion analysis. The results showed a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation index indicated with low MDA level (p<0.05) in ALA group compared to that of the AT group. The blood total cholesterol (TCHOL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were found to be significantly low in ALA group compared to that of the AT group (p<0.05). Histomorphometric intimal lesion analysis of the aorta showing less of atheromatous plaque formation in alpha lipoic acid supplemented group (p<0.05) compared to that of AT group. These findings suggested that apart from its antioxidant activity, alpha lipoic acid may also posses a lipid lowering effect indicated with low plasma TCHOL and LDL levels and reduced the athero-lesion formation in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet. PMID:18538528

  1. Lack of effectiveness of ofloxacin against experimental syphilis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Une, T; Nakajima, R; Otani, T; Katami, K; Osada, Y; Otani, M

    1987-09-01

    Ofloxacin, a new pyridone-carboxylic acid derivative, was evaluated in experimental syphilis in rabbits in comparison with penicillin G. Experimental syphilis was established by intradermal injection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols. Ten days after infection, the dermal lesions were characterized by syphilitic papula accompanied with central necrosis. These animals were subsequently treated either with ofloxacin twice a day at an oral dose of 10 mg/kg or with penicillin G once a day at an intramuscular dose of 10,000 U/kg for 21 consecutive days. In penicillin G-treated animals, the dermal lesions became smaller as early as day 3 of treatment and almost disappeared during the therapy. In marked contrast to remarkable efficacy of penicillin G was further development of the lesions in ofloxacin-treated animals, showing no difference in pathological manifestations as compared to untreated animals. The results of nontreponemal serologic test correlated well with the response of animals to treatment. PMID:3325066

  2. Evaluation of some coagulation parameters in hepatic coccidiosis experimentally induced with Eimeria stiedai in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cam, Y; Cetin, E; Iça, A; Atalay, O; Cetin, N

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate some coagulation parameters in hepatic coccidiosis experimentally induced with Eimeria stiedai in rabbits. Fourteen healthy New Zealand rabbits were equally divided into two groups. One group received no treatment, the other group was orally inoculated with 40 000 sporulated oocysts of E. stiedai in a 1 ml inoculum using a catheter. At day 24 after inoculation, blood samples were collected into sodium citrate-containing tubes to evaluate some coagulation parameters. Although statistically not significant, infected rabbits had prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time compared with rabbits in the control group. A significant reduction (P < 0.05) was observed in the level of fibrinogen of infected rabbits compared with that of the controls. A slight decrease in thrombocyte counts of infected rabbits was not statistically significant. PMID:16629990

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Malignant Osseous and Soft-Tissue Sarcomas. I. A Rabbit Experimental Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Yasushi; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Okajima, Kaoru; Mitsumori, Michihide; Mizowaki, Takashi; Ohya, Natsuo; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Ohura, Koitirou; Wataya, Shigeki

    1998-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) on metastatic bone tumors in an experimental study. Methods: Fifteen Japanese white rabbits were transplanted with VX2 sarcoma cells into the iliac crest. In 10 rabbits, the arterial supply to the iliac bone tumors, internal iliac artery and iliolumbar artery were then embolized with particles of gelatin sponge. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by comparison with the natural course of control tumors in the other five rabbits. Results: After TAE, extensive necrosis, fibrosis, and vacuolization within the tumors were confirmed histologically. In the control rabbits, 19% {+-} 7% of the entire tumor was found to be spontaneous tumor necrosis; in contrast, the tumors of the TAE group showed necrosis as 62% {+-} 22% of the entire tumor. In one TAE group rabbit, no active tumor cell could be detected in the residual tumor. Conclusion: TAE was found to be an effective treatment for bone tumors in an experimental model.

  4. Experimental ulcerative herpetic keratitis. II. Influence of topical corticosteroid in immunised rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, C A; Easty, D L; Walker, S R

    1981-01-01

    Since the great majority of patients possess immune response to herpes simplex virus (HSV), the influence of a topical anti-inflammatory corticosteroid (0.1% clobetasone butyrate) on ulcerative herpetic keratitis was studied in rabbits with a previous HSV skin infection (immunised) and compared with that in normal rabbits. Corticosteroid treatment had a much greater ulceration-exacerbating effect in immunised than in normal animals. On day 7 the mean area of ulceration in immunised rabbits were 3 times greater in treated eyes. 0.01% clobetasone butyrate treatment had less effect on immunised rabbits; 0.001% had no effect. It is concluded that the immunised rabbit provides a useful experimental model for studying the relationship between concentration of topical anti-inflammatory agents and enhancement of herpetic ulceration. PMID:7260009

  5. Experimental Paratuberculosis in Calves following Inoculation with a Rabbit Isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Beard, P. M.; Stevenson, K.; Pirie, A.; Rudge, K.; Buxton, D.; Rhind, S. M.; Sinclair, M. C.; Wildblood, L. A.; Jones, D. G.; Sharp, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    The role of wildlife species in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis has been the subject of increased research efforts following the discovery of natural paratuberculosis in free-living rabbits from farms in east Scotland. This paper describes the experimental inoculation of young calves with an isolate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis recovered from a free-living rabbit. After a 6-month incubation period, all eight calves inoculated with the rabbit isolate had developed histopathological and/or microbiological evidence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Similar results were obtained from a group of calves infected with a bovine isolate of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The virulence of the rabbit isolate for calves demonstrated in this study suggests that rabbits are capable of passing paratuberculosis to domestic ruminants and that wildlife reservoirs of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis should therefore be considered when formulating control plans for the disease. PMID:11526132

  6. Flagella-induced immunity against experimental cholera in adult rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Yancey, R J; Willis, D L; Berry, L J

    1979-01-01

    The adult rabbit ligated ileal loop model was used to evaluate the prophylactic potential of a crude flagellar (CF) vaccine produced from the classical. Inaba strain CA401. A greater than 1,000-fold increase in the challenge inoculum was required to induce an intestinal fluid response in actively immunized adult rabbits equivalent to that produced in unimmunized animals. Similar protection was afforded against challenge with classical and El Tor biotypes of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Highly virulent 35S-labeled vibrios were inhibited in their ability to associated with the intestinal mucosa of CF-immunized rabbits. The protection conferred by CF immunization was found to be superior to that of a commercial bivalent vaccine and also to that of glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid. The critical immunogenic component of CF appears to be a flagella-derived protein. The immunogenicity of CF was destroyed by heat treatment, and absorption of CF-immune serum with aflagellated mutant vibrios did not diminish its ability to confer a high level of passive protection. The intestinal protection of CF-immunized rabbits was completely reversed by the introduction of both goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins A and G, but by neither alone. PMID:478635

  7. Chondroprotective activity of N-acetylglucosamine in rabbits with experimental osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shikhman, A; Amiel, D; D'Lima, D; Hwang, S; Hu, C; Xu, A; Hashimoto, S; Kobayashi, K; Sasho, T; Lotz, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the therapeutic efficacy of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in rabbits with experimental osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Experimental OA was induced in rabbits by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). In the first study, rabbits (six in each group) received intramuscular injections of GlcNAc or normal saline three times a week starting 1 week postoperatively. In the second study, rabbits (eight in each group) were injected intra-articularly with GlcNAc (either once or twice a week) or normal saline. In the third study, rabbits (seven in each group) were injected intra-articularly twice a week with either GlcNAc, hyaluronan, or normal saline. Animals were killed 8 weeks after ACLT for macroscopic and histological assessment of the knee joints. Results: Intramuscular administration of GlcNAc in rabbits with experimental knee OA did not show chondroprotective effects but showed mild anti-inflammatory activity. In contrast, intra-articular administration of GlcNAc twice a week reduced cartilage degradation. Additionally, intra-articular GlcNAc also suppressed synovitis. Once a week intra-articular injections of GlcNAc did not demonstrate therapeutic efficacy. The chondroprotective efficacy of GlcNAc was better than that of viscosupplementation treatment with hyaluronan. Conclusion: Intra-articular GlcNAc has chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity in experimental OA. PMID:15608304

  8. [Aortic expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) gene in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Sekalska, Beata

    2003-01-01

    expression in relation to constitutive expression of the GAPDH gene. Significantly lower expression was found in rabbits given ibuprofen (groups IK2, IK3, IM3) as compared with groups K2, K3 and M2 (Tab. 1, Fig. 1). Significantly higher concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver and adrenal mass indices were revealed in rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet with or without ibuprofen, in comparison to groups K2, K3, IK2 and IK3. No atherosclerotic lesions were disclosed in control groups. Atheromatous lesions were demonstrated in rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet with or without ibuprofen, occupying more than 60% of the intimal surface. The following conclusions were made: 1) RT-PCR corrected for contamination of RNA samples with genomic DNA is a reliable technique for studying MCP-1 gene expression in rabbit aorta, 2) Three months of cholesterol-rich diet is without effect on MCP-1 gene expression in rabbit aorta, 3) Ibuprofen suppresses MCP-1 gene expression in the aorta without affecting the progression of atherosclerosis induced with the cholesterol-rich diet. PMID:15552841

  9. Vascularization of the ureter after experimental ureterolysis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sirca, A; Dekleva, A; Kordas, I

    1978-03-01

    The left ureter was isolated and its nutritive arteries interrupted in 43 rabbits. The blood flow in the isolated and in the control ureters was estimated intravitally by measuring the temperature in the wall of the ureters, and postmortally by counting the capillaries injected with India ink. The vascularization of the isolated ureter was lowered at 3 days after surgery and returned to normal values at 14 days. PMID:640805

  10. Experimental infections of rabbits with proliferative and latent stages of Besnoitia besnoiti.

    PubMed

    Liénard, Emmanuel; Pop, Loredana; Prevot, Françoise; Grisez, Christelle; Mallet, Virginie; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Bouhsira, Émilie; Franc, Michel; Jacquiet, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Cattle besnoitiosis due to Besnoitia besnoiti is spreading across Europe and is responsible for severe economic losses in newly infected herds. Experimentally speaking, rabbits have been found to be susceptible to this parasite. The adaptation of B. besnoiti to rabbits may offer a new, easier and cheaper model of investigation for this disease. This study compared the virulence between tachyzoites and bradyzoites of B. besnoiti in rabbits. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were allocated into three groups of six animals each. The rabbits from the control (group C), "tachyzoite" (group T) and "bradyzoite" (group B) groups were subcutaneously injected in the right flank with 66 μg of ovalbumin, 6.10(6) tachyzoites (125th passage on Vero cells) and 6.10(6) bradyzoites (collected from a natural infected cow) of B. besnoiti, respectively. Clinical follow-up and blood sampling for serological survey and qPCR were performed during 10 weeks until euthanasia. Molecular and immunohistochemistry examination was achieved on 25 samples of tissue per rabbit. Seroconversion occurred in group T without any clinical signs. Rabbits of group B exhibited a febrile condition (temperature above 40 °C from day 8 to day 11 following injection) with positive qPCR in blood. Cysts of B. besnoiti were found on skin samples and organs of rabbits from group B in tissue explored with threshold cycle (Ct) values below 30. These results suggest a higher virulence of bradyzoites in rabbits than Vero cell-cultivated tachyzoites. The proposed model could be used to assess the in vivo effectiveness of vaccine or drugs against cattle besnoitiosis. PMID:26143866

  11. Topical fluconazole for experimental candida keratitis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens-Baumann, W; Klinge, B; Rüchel, R

    1990-01-01

    Using a reproducible model of Candida albicans keratitis in rabbits we studied the effect of topical fluconazole, a new triazole. Candida albicans DSM 70010 (2.5 X 10(5) cells) was injected into the corneal stroma of both eyes of 21 rabbits. All eyes developed a corneal ulcer. Forty-eight hours after inoculation the animals were divided into three groups: (1) 14 eyes, received fluconazole (2 mg/ml) and the epithelium subsequently removed; (2) 14 eyes, received only fluconazole drops; (3) 14 eyes, received 0.9% NaCl: half of this group was also debrided. We applied one drop of either substance 10 times a day for 24 days. A further six rabbits were used to judge if the drug penetrated into the cornea and aqueous humour. There was a highly significant difference between the fluconazole groups (1,2) and the control group (3) as to hypopyon and complications (descemetocele, corneal perforation) as well as recultivation of C. albicans from corneal tissue. The difference between the fluconazole groups with and without debridement was not significant. The drug penetrated into the cornea and aqueous humour of both uninflamed and inflamed eyes. Images PMID:2306443

  12. RADIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL DISC DEGENERATION IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Emiliano; Vialle, Luiz Roberto; Arruda, André de Oliveira; Riet, Ricardo Nascimento; Krieger, Antônio Bernardo de Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To validate radiographic evaluation of a rabbit model for disc degeneration. Methods: Lumbar intervertebral discs of New Zealand rabbits were stabbed three times with a 18G needle at a limited depth of 5mm, through lateral approach. Serial radiographic images were taken on the early pre-and postoperative periods, and after four, eight and 12 weeks of the procedure, with subsequent analysis of disc height, osteophyte formation, endplate sclerosis, and presence of disc degeneration. The statistical analysis of data was validated by the Kappa coefficient, with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. Results: A significant reduction of disc space was found on AP X-ray images after 12 postoperative weeks, with Kappa = 0.489 for CI 95% (0.25-0.72) with p < 0.001. X-ray signs of disc degeneration also presented Kappa = 0.63 for CI 95% (0.39-0.86) with p < 0.001. The remaining assessed criteria showed positive results, but with a lower Kappa value. Conclusion: The disc degeneration model using rabbits as proposed in this study was shown to be feasible, with positive X-ray correlation between pre- and postoperative images, validating the potential to induce disc degeneration in this animal model for future studies. PMID:27022512

  13. Experimental herpetic keratitis in rabbit corneal organ cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Percy, D. H.; Creighton, M. O.; Hatch, L. A.; De Clercq, E.

    1984-01-01

    An in-vitro method for maintaining rabbit corneal organ cultures for short periods of time is described. These cultures supported replication of strains of type 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus, and changes typical of herpetic infections of the cornea in vivo were observed by light microscopy, and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Infectious virus was readily recovered from inoculated corneal organ cultures. For practical, economic and humanitarian reasons, the full potential of this system warrants further investigation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6320856

  14. Experimental and finite element analysis of tibial stress fractures using a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Franklyn, Melanie; Field, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine if rabbit models can be used to quantify the mechanical behaviour involved in tibial stress fracture (TSF) development. METHODS: Fresh rabbit tibiae were loaded under compression using a specifically-designed test apparatus. Weights were incrementally added up to a load of 30 kg and the mechanical behaviour of the tibia was analysed using tests for buckling, bone strain and hysteresis. Structural mechanics equations were subsequently employed to verify that the results were within the range of values predicted by theory. A finite element (FE) model was developed using cross-sectional computer tomography (CT) images scanned from one of the rabbit bones, and a static load of 6 kg (1.5 times the rabbit's body weight) was applied to represent running. The model was validated using the experimental strain gauge data, then geometric and elemental convergence tests were performed in order to find the minimum number of cross-sectional scans and elements respectively required for convergence. The analysis was then performed using both the model and the experimental results to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the rabbit tibia under compressive load and to examine crack initiation. RESULTS: The experimental tests showed that under a compressive load of up to 12 kg, the rabbit tibia demonstrates linear behaviour with little hysteresis. Up to 30 kg, the bone does not fail by elastic buckling; however, there are low levels of tensile stress which predominately occur at and adjacent to the anterior border of the tibial midshaft: this suggests that fatigue failure occurs in these regions, since bone under cyclic loading initially fails in tension. The FE model predictions were consistent with both mechanics theory and the strain gauge results. The model was highly sensitive to small changes in the position of the applied load due to the high slenderness ratio of the rabbit’s tibia. The modelling technique used in the current study could have applications

  15. Upregulation of Relaxin after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Satoshi; Kurogi, Ryota; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although relaxin causes vasodilatation in systemic arteries, little is known about its role in cerebral arteries. We investigated the expression and role of relaxin in basilar arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rabbits. Methods. Microarray analysis with rabbit basilar artery RNA was performed. Messenger RNA expression of relaxin-1 and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) was investigated with quantitative RT-PCR. RXFP1 expression in the basilar artery was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Relaxin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were investigated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC) preincubated with relaxin, myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLC) was investigated with immunoblotting after endothelin-1 stimulation. Results. After SAH, RXFP1 mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated on day 3, whereas relaxin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated on day 7. The relaxin concentration in CSF was significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. Pretreatment with relaxin reduced sustained MLC phosphorylation induced by endothelin-1 in HBVSMC. Conclusion. Upregulation of relaxin and downregulation of RXFP1 after SAH may participate in development of cerebral vasospasm. Downregulation of RXFP1 may induce a functional decrease in relaxin activity during vasospasm. Understanding the role of relaxin may provide further insight into the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm. PMID:25133183

  16. Chronic achilles paratenonitis with tendinosis: an experimental model in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Backman, C; Boquist, L; Fridén, J; Lorentzon, R; Toolanen, G

    1990-07-01

    An experimental model for inducing chronic Achilles paratenonitis with tendinosis in the rabbit is presented. Thirteen rabbits were exercised in a kicking machine producing passive flexions and extensions of the ankle joint. Active contractions of the triceps surae muscles were induced by electric stimulation via surface electrodes. The animals were exercised for 5 to 6 weeks, with a rate of 150 flexions and extensions per minute for 2 h, three times a week. Light microscopic examination showed degenerative changes of the tendon, and increased number of capillaries, infiltrates of inflammatory cells, edema, and fibrosis in the paratenon. We conclude that chronic Achilles paratenonitis with tendinosis can be experimentally induced in a standardized manner in rabbits. PMID:2355294

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LFS): detection of unstable thrombogenic atherosclerotic plaque formation in a rabbit model: a first-look diagnostic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, Alexander M.; Dai, Erbin; Drangova, Maria; Liu, Liying; Abela, George S.; Nash, Piers; McFadden, Grant; Lucas, Alexandra

    2000-11-01

    Many approaches to imaging of unstable plaque have been applied to detect vascular thrombosis and occlusion with only moderate success. LFS detected significant and specific changes in thrombogenic plaque in a rabbit model. Fluorescence emission intensity analysis of structural characteristics may provide an optical diagnostic technique for early recognition of unstable coronary syndromes.

  18. A new minimally invasive experimental spinal cord injury model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Baydin, A; Cokluk, C; Aydin, K

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effectivity of epidural microballoon inflation into the unroofed spinal column for the creation of a new experimental spinal cord injury model in rabbits. 10 New Zealand white rabbits were used for this study. Before operation and after anasthesia with 50 mg/kg ketamine and 8 mg/kg xylazine, spinal evoked potentials (SEP) were recorded in all rabbits. A midline skin incision was done on the lomber skin at the level of L1-L4. Paravertebral muscles were dissected bilaterally. A microhemilaminotomy was done in the right L3 lamina close to the midline by using Midas-rex micro-diamond drill instruments. The ligamentum flavum was opened and removed with microscissors. A microballoon was inserted into the spinal column between the bone and dura mater to the level of T12. The microballoon was inflated by using a pressure- and volume-controlled microballoon inflation device. Pre-injury and post-injury SEPs were recorded. The microballoon was deflated 15 minutes later and removed completely from the epidural space. 24 hours later the SEP study was repeated. Following microballoon inflation the SEP waves dropped to the basal level. All rabbits were paraplegic after the operation. In conclusion, this experimental study demonstrated that the microballoon inflation technique is a very successful method for the evaluation of spinal cord injury in rabbits. Unroofing of the spinal column is extremely important because decompression may be an effective treatment in spinal cord injury. Also the traumatic effect of aneurysm clips represents a different type of injury to the spinal cord. This new model may be used in experimental studies of spinal cord injury in rabbits. PMID:17882754

  19. Primary and secondary experimental infestation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a wild rabbit: factors determining resistance to reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Casais, Rosa; Dalton, Kevin P; Millán, Javier; Balseiro, Ana; Oleaga, Alvaro; Solano, Paloma; Goyache, Félix; Prieto, José Miguel; Parra, Francisco

    2014-06-16

    Studies of sarcoptic mange and immunity are hampered by lack of mite sources and natural infestation models. We have investigated the clinical and pathological signs, specific IgG response and acquired immunity in naïve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei originally isolated from a clinically affected free-living European wild rabbit. Twenty rabbits were infested using two methods, direct contact for a 24 h period with a seeder rabbit simulating the natural process of infestation and application of a dressing holding approximately 1800 live mites on each hind limb (foot area) for a 24h period. Eight weeks post infestation, rabbits were treated with ivermectin and infestation cleared. Eight weeks later seventeen previously infested and four uninfested naïve controls were then re-exposed to the same S. scabiei variety using the same methods and followed for another 8 weeks. The progress of the disease was markedly more virulent in the animals infested by contact, indicating that the effective dose of mites managing to thrive and infest each rabbit by this method was higher. Nevertheless, infestation by contact resulted in partial protection to reexposure, rabbits developed high non-protective antibody titres upon reinfestation and presented severe clinical signs. However, rabbits reinfested by dressing developed lower IgG titres, and presented high levels of resistance to reinfestation, which might be due to induction of a strong local cellular response in the inoculation point that killed the mites and resulted in a lower mite effective dose, with subsequent reduced lesion development. Statistical analysis showed that sex, method of infestation and previous exposure are key factors determining the ability of rabbits to develop immunity to this disease. The rabbit-mange model developed will allow the further study of immunity and resistance to this neglected pathogen using a natural host system. PMID

  20. Experimental coronary sclerosis induced by immobilization of rabbits: A new model of arteriosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyavokin, V. V.; Tjawokin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for producing arteriosclerosis with coronary insufficiency in rabbits by means of immobilization is described and discussed. The experimentally induced atherosclerosis develops due to hypodynamics imposed by the reduced muscular activity without overloading with exogenous cholesterol. The atherosclerosis and coronary insufficiency are associated. With variations in the duration and extent of immobilization, coronary insufficiency alone or with atherosclerosis can be produced.

  1. Cholinesterase as inflammatory markers in a experimental infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Costa, Márcio M; Silva, Aleksandro S da; Paim, Francine C; França, Raqueli; Dornelles, Guilherme L; Thomé, Gustavo R; Serres, Jonas D S; Schmatz, Roberta; Spanevello, Rosélia M; Gonçalves, Jamile F; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Mazzanti, Cinthia M A; Lopes, Sonia T A; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of cholinesterases as an inflammatory marker in acute and chronic infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits experimentally infected. Twelve adult female New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into two groups with 6 animals each: control group (rabbits 1-6) and infected group (rabbits 7-12). Infected group received intraperitoneally 0.5 mL of blood from a rat containing 108 parasites per animal. Blood samples used for cholinesterases evaluation were collected on days 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 and 118 days post-inoculation (PI). Increased activity (P<0.05) of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were observed in the blood on days 7 and 27, respectively and no differences were observed in cholinesterase activity in other periods. No significant difference in AChE activity (P>0.05) was observed in the encephalic structures. The increased activities of AChE and BChE probably have a pro-inflammatory purpose, attempting to reduce the concentration of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter which has an anti-inflammatory property. Therefore, cholinesterase may be inflammatory markers in infection with T. evansi in rabbits. PMID:23011112

  2. Transauricular balloon angioplasty in rabbit thoracic aorta: a novel model of experimental restenosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to demonstrate a percutaneous transauricular method of balloon angioplasty in high-cholesterol fed rabbits, as an innovative atherosclerosis model. Methods Twenty male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals, as follows: atherogenic diet plus balloon angioplasty (group A) and atherogenic diet alone (group B). Balloon angioplasty was performed in the descending thoracic aorta through percutaneous catheterization of the auricular artery. Eight additional animals fed regular diet were served as long term control. At the end of 9 week period, rabbits were euthanized and thoracic aortas were isolated for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis. Results Atherogenic diet induced severe hypercholesterolemia in both group A and B (2802 ± 188.59 and 4423 ± 493.39 mg/dl respectively) compared to the control animals (55.5 ± 11.82 mg/dl; P < 0.001). Group A atherosclerotic lesions appeared to be more advanced histologically (20% type IV and 80% type V) compared to group B lesions (50% type III and 50% type IV). Group A compared to group B atherosclerotic lesions demonstrated similar percentage of macrophages (79.5 ± 9.56% versus 84 ± 12.2%; P = 0.869), more smooth muscle cells (61 ± 14.10% versus 40.5 ± 17.07; P = 0.027), increased intima/media ratio (1.20 ± 0.50 versus 0.62 ± 0.13; P = 0.015) despite the similar degree of intimal hyperplasia (9768 ± 1826.79 μm2 versus 12205 ± 8789.23 μm2; P = 0.796), and further significant lumen deterioration (23722 ± 4508.11 versus 41967 ± 20344.61 μm2; P = 0.05) and total vessel area reduction (42350 ± 5819.70 versus 73190 ± 38902.79 μm2; P = 0.022). Group A and B animals revealed similar nitrated protein percentage (P = NS), but significantly higher protein nitration compared to control group (P < 0.01; P < 0.01, respectively

  3. Respiratory and neurological disease in rabbits experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Fábio A; Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Anziliero, Deniz; Gonçalves, Kelley V; Masuda, Eduardo K; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2015-10-01

    Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an important pathogen of horses worldwide, associated with respiratory, reproductive and/or neurological disease. A mouse model for EHV-1 infection has been established but fails to reproduce some important aspects of the viral pathogenesis. Then, we investigated the susceptibility of rabbits to EHV-1 aiming at proposing this species as an alternative model for EHV-1 infection. Weanling rabbits inoculated intranasal with EHV-1 Kentucky D (10(7) TCID50/animal) shed virus in nasal secretions up to day 8-10 post-inoculation (pi), presented viremia up to day 14 pi and seroconverted to EHV-1 (virus neutralizing titers 4 to 64). Most rabbits (75%) developed respiratory disease, characterized by serous to hemorrhagic nasal discharge and mild to severe dyspnea. Some animals (20%) presented neurological signs as circling, bruxism and opisthotonus. Six animals died during acute disease (days 3-6); infectious virus and/or viral DNA were detected in the lungs, trigeminal ganglia (TG), olfactory bulbs (OBs) and cerebral cortex/brain (CC). Histological examination showed necrohemorrhagic, multifocal to coalescent bronchointerstitial pneumonia and diffuse alveolar edema. In two rabbits euthanized at day 50 pi, latent EHV-1 DNA was detected in the OBs. Dexamethasone administration at day 50 pi resulted in virus reactivation, demonstrated by virus shedding, viremia, clinical signs, and increase in VN titers and/or by detection of virus DNA in lungs, OBs, TGs and/or CC. These results demonstrate that rabbits are susceptible to EHV-1 infection and develop respiratory and neurological signs upon experimental inoculation. Thus, rabbits may be used to study selected aspects of EHV-1 biology and pathogenesis, extending and complementing the mouse model. PMID:26187161

  4. High fat diet induces obesity in British Angora rabbit: a model for experimental obesity.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, S; Sinha, R; Sinha, M; Paudel, B H; Bhattacharya, N; Mandal, M B

    2009-01-01

    A reliable and cost-effective animal model for human obesity with its manifested disorders is yet to be established in the context of increased morbidity and mortality due to obesity and its related problems. Therefore, an attempt was made to produce obesity in locally available British Angora Rabbits (BAR) and examine the effect on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Adult male BARs weighing nearly 2 kg were randomly divided into two groups, one of the groups was fed with high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 10 weeks and the control group received standard normal rabbit chow for same period. Body weight, skinfold thickness, serum cholesterol, serum glucose and resting heart rate were measured before and after the dietary regimens. After 10 weeks, HFD group of rabbits demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight (+24%) and skinfold thickness (+37%). The gain in body weight was positively correlated to skinfold thickness (r = 0.61). Serum cholesterol, serum glucose and resting heart rate were also increased by 46%, 52% and 15%, respectively. Whereas no such increases in any of these parameters were observed in control group of rabbits. Our results suggest that obesity can be produced in BARs by feeding HFD. The obesity manifests with cardiovascular and metabolic changes. It is proposed that this may serve as a valid and reliable model of experimental obesity. PMID:19810577

  5. Antistressor activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) against experimentally induced oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, S; Satendra, S; Sushma, S; Anjana, T; Shashi, S

    2007-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) were evaluated for antistress activity against experimentally induced oxidative stress in albino rabbits. Animals of the test group received supplementation of 2 g fresh leaves of O. sanctum per rabbit for 30 days. Anemic hypoxia was induced chemically by injecting the rabbits with 15 mg sodium nitrite per 100 g body weight intraperitoneally. Results indicated that O. sanctum administration blunted the changes in cardiorespiratory (BP, HR, RR) parameters in response to stress. A significant (p < 0.01) decrease in blood sugar level was observed after 30 days of dietary supplementation of O. sanctum leaves. Significant increase (p < 0.05) in the levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase) and nonenzymatic (reduced glutathione) antioxidants was observed in the test group after the treatment with O. sanctum. Oxidative stress led to a lesser depletion of reduced glutathione (28.80%) and plasma superoxide dismutase (23.04%) in O. sanctum-treated rabbits. The results of this study suggest that the potential antistressor activity of O. sanctum is partly attributable to its antioxidant properties. PMID:17922070

  6. Effect of the extracts of pumpkin seeds on the urodynamics of rabbits: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Ouyang, J Z; Zhang, Y S; Tayalla, B; Zhou, X C; Zhou, S W

    1994-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds were prepared into oil n-butyle alcohol and ether extracts. The effects of the three extracts on the urodynamics of rabbits were observed. It was concluded that the oil preparation could remarkably reduce the bladder pressure, increase the bladder compliance, reduce the urethral pressure. Other two kinds of preparations had no effect in this experimental. The mechanisms of the effect of oil preparation on the urodynamics and the prospect of clinical use was discussed. PMID:7760436

  7. Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Lupton, H W; Reed, D E

    1979-09-01

    Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus caused acute keratoconjunctivitis and a fatal systemic infection. The clinical syndrome was characterized initially by blepharospasm and ocular discharge. The rabbits were markedly depressed on post-exposure day (PED) 5 and were dead or moribund on PED 6. The virus was readily recovered from liver and adrenal gland tissue on PED 6 and from conjunctival swabs on PED 1 to 6. Histopathologic studies revealed a few necrotic foci in the liver and multiple focal to diffuse necrosis of the adrenal glands. Viral isolation and immunofluorescence tests were used to demonstrate a direct association between infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antigens and the lesions. PMID:230773

  8. Pathology of experimental African trypanosomiasis in rabbits infected with Trypanosoma rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Nagle, R B; Dong, S; Guillot, J M; McDaniel, K M; Lindsley, H B

    1980-11-01

    The pathologic response of New Zealand White rabbits to experimental infection with Trypanosoma rhodesiense is described. Autopsies of 18 rabbits killed from 30-44 days after infection revealed focal perivascular inflammation of the ears, eyes and testes. Examination by electron microscopy revealed extravascular trypanosomes in the dermis of the ear and interstitium of testes. Deposits of IgG, IgM and C3 were in renal glomeruli associated with glomerular hypercellularity; proteinuria was present as evidenced by an increase in tubular hyaline droplets. There was marked hyperplasia of lymph nodes and spleen with generalized increase in the number of macrophage and plasma cells. In contrast there was thymic atrophy. The findings suggest an immunologic host response associated with severe localized vascular injury. PMID:7446810

  9. [Effect of trimethylglycine on lipid metabolism in experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Panteleĭmonova, T N; Zapadniuk, V I

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown in adult rabbits aged 8 months with experimental cholesterol atherosclerosis that administration of trimethylglycinee in a dose of 0.5 g/kg reduces the elevated content of total and ester-bound cholesterol, beta-lipoproteins, total lipids in the blood serum and that of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver. Little toxicity and high efficacy of trimethylglycin in experimental atherosclerosis make this compound prospective in the light of its use as an antisclerotic agent. PMID:6617841

  10. EFFECT OF USE OF BONE-MARROW CENTRIFUGATE ON MUSCLE INJURY TREATMENT: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Daniel Ferreira Fernandes; Guarniero, Roberto; Vaz, Carlos Eduardo Sanches; de Santana, Paulo José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bone-marrow centrifugate on the healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. Methods: This experimental study involved use of fifteen adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Each animal received a transverse lesion in the middle of the right tibialis anterior muscle, to which an absorbable collagen sponge, soaked in a centrifugate of bone marrow aspirate from the ipsilateral iliac bone, was added. The left hind limb was used as a control and underwent the same injury, but in this case only the absorbable collagen sponge. Thirty days later, the animals were sacrificed to study the muscle healing. These muscle areas were subjected to histological analysis with histomorphometry, with the aim of measuring the number of muscle cells per square micrometer undergoing regeneration and the proportion of resultant fibrosis. Results: The centrifugation method used in this study resulted in an average concentration of nucleated cells greater than the number of these cells in original aspirates, without causing significant cell destruction. Addition of the bone marrow centrifugate did not result in any significant increase in the number of muscle cells undergoing regeneration, in relation to the control group. There was also no significant difference in the proportion of resultant fibrosis, compared with the control group. Conclusion: Administration of the bone marrow centrifugate used in this study did not favor healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. PMID:27047832

  11. Therapeutic Effect of Chenodeoxycholic Acid in an Experimental Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhao-wei; Dong, Ji; Qin, Chen-hao; Zhao, Chun-yang; Miao, Li-yan; He, Chun-yan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. At present, there is no ideal agent to treat OA. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was a principal active constituent from animal bile. However, the therapeutic effect of CDCA on OA severity was largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intra-articular injection of CDCA in a rabbit OA model. OA was induced in experimental rabbits by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and then rabbits were intra-articularly injected with CDCA (10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) once per week for 5 weeks. The results showed that CDCA significantly decreased cartilage degradation on the surface of femoral condyles, reducing the pathological changes of articular cartilage and synovial membrane by macroscopic and histological analysis. CDCA also significantly decreased bone destruction and erosion of joint evaluated by micro-CT. Furthermore, CDCA could markedly reduce the release of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in synovial fluid. These observations highlight CDCA might be a potential therapeutic agent for OA. PMID:26538834

  12. Atypical myxomatosis--virus isolation, experimental infection of rabbits and restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate.

    PubMed

    Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Valícek, L; Bendová, J

    2003-08-01

    Atypical form of myxomatosis, which caused non-lethal and clinically mild disease in domestic rabbits 1 month after immunization with a commercially available vaccine MXT, is described. The isolated myxoma virus designated as Litovel 2 (Li-2) did not induce systemic disease following subcutaneous and intradermal applications in susceptible experimental rabbits but led to the immune response demonstrated by ELISA. No severe disease was induced in those Li-2 inoculated rabbits by challenge with the virulent strains Lausanne (Lu) or Sanar (SA), while the control animals showed nodular form of myxomatosis with lethal course of the illness. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of genomic DNA with KpnI and BamHI endonucleases was used for genetic characterization of the Li-2 isolate, the vaccine strain MXT and both virulent strains Lu and SA, respectively. In general, RFLP analysis has shown to be informative for inferring genetic relatedness between myxoma viruses. Based on restriction endonuclease DNA fragment size distribution, it was evident that the pathogenic strain SA is genetically related to the reference strain Lu and the isolate Li-2 is more related, but not identical, to the vaccination strain MXT. PMID:14628995

  13. Proteomic Analysis of the Vitreous following Experimental Retinal Detachment in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Nakul; Lewis, Geoffrey P.; Fisher, Steven K.; Prause, Jan U.; la Cour, Morten; Vorum, Henrik; Honoré, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) remains incompletely understood, with no clinically effective treatment for potentially severe complications such as photoreceptor cell death and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Here we investigate the protein profile of the vitreous following experimental retinal detachment using a comparative proteomic based approach. Materials and Methods. Retinal detachment was created in the right eyes of six New Zealand red pigmented rabbits. Sham surgery was undertaken in five other rabbits that were used as controls. After seven days the eyes were enucleated and the vitreous was removed. The vitreous samples were evaluated with two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the differentially expressed proteins were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Ten protein spots were found to be at least twofold differentially expressed when comparing the vitreous samples of the sham and retinal detachment surgery groups. Protein spots that were upregulated in the vitreous following retinal detachment were identified as albumin fragments, and those downregulated were found to be peroxiredoxin 2, collagen-Iα1 fragment, and α-1-antiproteinase F. Conclusions. Proteomic investigation of the rabbit vitreous has identified a set of proteins that help further our understanding of the pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and its complications. PMID:26664739

  14. Ultrastructural characterization of the rabbit mandibular condyle following experimental induction of anterior disk displacement.

    PubMed

    Sharawy, M; Ali, A M; Choi, W S; Larke, V

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that surgical induction of anterior disk displacement (ADD) in the rabbit craniomandibular joint (CMJ) leads to cellular and extracellular alterations consistent with osteoarthritis. Similar findings were also reported in human ADD as well as osteoarthritis of other joints. The purpose of this study was to further characterize these histopathological findings at the ultrastructural level. The right joint of 15 rabbits was exposed surgically and all discal attachments were severed except for the posterior attachment. The disk was then repositioned anteriorly and sutured to the zygomatic arch. The left joint served as a sham-operated control. Ten additional joints were used as nonoperated controls. Mandibular condyles were excised 2 weeks following surgery and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Experimental condyles showed neovascularization, fibrillation and vacuolation of the extracellular matrix and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells compared to controls. In addition, chondrocytes in osteoarthritic cartilage showed an increase in the amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex suggesting an increase in protein synthesis. The presence of thick collagen fibers in osteoarthritic cartilage supports our previous immunohistochemical results of the presence of type I collagen instead of normally existing type II collagen. It was concluded that surgical induction of ADD in the rabbit CMJ leads to ultrastructural changes in the mandibular condylar cartilage consistent with degenerative alterations known to occur in osteoarthritis. PMID:10899715

  15. [Use of Plaferon LB for cardiac preconditioning during experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Ubilava, T O; Megreladze, I I; Dzhangavadze, M B; Khodeli, N G; Chkhaidze, Z A

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of research was to study potential of Plaferon LB for cardiac preconditioning during experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits. 30 rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) were used in experiment. They were divided in 3 groups and 6 subgroups (n=5). In I group experimental design of m/i was performed by proximal ligation of left coronary artery (LCA) (2-6 hours). In II group on the 2 and 6 hour ligature was removed - reperfusion during 1 hour. In III group before ligation of LCA animals was administered Plaferon LB (0.2 mg/kg). The animals were under electrocardiographic monitoring. Troponin I was measured in blood. In II group after 1 hour of reperfusion Troponin I concentration was higher than in I group after 2 and 6 hours. In II group electrocardiographic data was worsened (rhythm and heart rate). In III group these changes were less marked. Obtained data confirm enhancement of myocardial injury during the reperfusion. Cardiac preconditioning by Plaferon LB significantly decreased pathologic indices. PMID:17921551

  16. Kinetics of Anti-Phlebotomus perniciosus Saliva Antibodies in Experimentally Bitten Mice and Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Martín, Inés; Molina, Ricardo; Jiménez, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    Background Sand flies are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of Leishmania parasites. When hosts are bitten they develop cellular and humoral responses against sand fly saliva. A positive correlation has been observed between the number of bites and antibody levels indicating that anti-saliva antibody response can be used as marker of exposure to sand flies. Little is known about kinetics of antibodies against Phlebotomus perniciosus salivary gland homogenate (SGH) or recombinant salivary proteins (rSP). This work focused on the study of anti-P. perniciosus saliva antibodies in sera of mice and rabbits that were experimentally exposed to the bites of uninfected sand flies. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-saliva antibodies were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. In addition, antibody levels against two P. perniciosus rSP, apyrase rSP01B and D7 related protein rSP04 were determined in mice sera. Anti-saliva antibody levels increased along the immunizations and correlated with the number of sand fly bites. Anti-SGH antibody levels were detected in sera of mice five weeks after exposure, and persisted for at least three months. Anti-apyrase rSP01B antibodies followed similar kinetic responses than anti-SGH antibodies while rSP04 showed a delayed response and exhibited a greater variability among sera of immunized mice. In rabbits, anti-saliva antibodies appeared after the second week of exposure and IgG antibodies persisted at high levels, even 7 months post-exposure. Conclusions/Significance Our results contributed to increase the knowledge on the type of immune response P. perniciosus saliva and individual proteins elicited highlighting the use of rSP01B as an epidemiological marker of exposure. Anti-saliva kinetics in sera of experimentally bitten rabbits were studied for the first time. Results with rabbit model provided useful information for a better understanding of the anti-saliva antibody levels found in wild leporids in the human leishmaniasis

  17. An evaluation of biocompatibility of indigenously produced pure titanium: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chittaranjan, Bhogisetty; Murthy, Late Bhamidipati Sreerama; Ravindranath, Turaga

    2012-10-01

    The indigenously produced pure titanium dental implants are economical and useful for common human use in India. The aim of this study is to test the biocompatibility of the indigenously produced pure titanium dental implant material obtained from the Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, India, and the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Science, Delhi, India. An experimental study in rabbits was done to study the amount of ordered bone formation around the screw and cylinder type of indigenously produced pure titanium metal implant specimens. The experimental animals were killed at 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks from the date of implantation. The histopathological examination of the animals killed at 16 weeks demonstrates the presence of osteoblastic cell proliferation and early ordered bone formation toward the implant site, indicating signs of osseointegration of both screw- and cylinder-type indigenously produced pure titanium specimens. PMID:20932119

  18. Rotational knee strain resulting in patellar dislocation. An experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Finsterbush, A

    1982-09-01

    The right lower extremities of 64 young rabbits were immobilized by a plaster spica. The animals developed a gait pattern, which included internal tibial rotation and adduction of the left (unimmobilized) tibia. Twenty-one of the animals developed medial patellar dislocation in the unimmobilized lower extremity. The mechanism of the patellar dislocation in this experimental model was possibly overstretching of the lateral colateral ligament and the lateral side of the joint capsule, associated with medial rotation of the tibia and the tibial tubercle. The direction of patellar pull when gliding inferiorly during knee flexion was shifted medially, resulting in patellar dislocation and secondarily, in formation of an exostosis under the displaced patella. Hip arthrodesis in humans, as a course of rotational instability of the contralateral knee, resembles some aspects of this experimental condition. PMID:7105585

  19. Bioactive glass in cavitary bone defects: a comparative experimental study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, André Ferrari de França; Baptista, André Mathias; Natalino, Renato; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare bioactive glass and autograft regarding their histomorphometric characteristics. METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective case-control experimental study on animals in order to compare the histomorphometric characteristics of bioactive glass versus autograft. Eight rabbits underwent surgery in which a cavitary defect was created in both proximal femurs. One side was filled with bioactive glass granules and the other, with autograft grafted from the contralateral side. The sides were randomized. Fourteen days after surgery, the animals were euthanized. RESULTS: Histologic analysis revealed that bone neoformation was equivalent among the two groups and the osteoblasts cell-count was higher in the femurs treated with bioactive glass. The osteocytes cell-count, however, was lower. The similarity in bone formation between both groups was consistent to literature findings. CONCLUSION: Bioactive glass is similar to autograft regarding bone neoformation in this animal model of cavitary bone defects. Level of Evidence III, Case-Control Study. PMID:26327802

  20. Atherosclerotic changes of vessels caused by restriction of movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gvishiani, G. S.; Kobakhidze, N. G.; Mchedlishvili, M. G.; Dekanosidze, T. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of restriction of movement on the development of atheroscelerosis was studied in rabbits. Drastic restriction of movement for 20 and 30 days causes atherosclerotic alterations of the aorta and shifts in ECG which are characteristic of coronary atherosclerosis. At the same time, shortening of the duration of blood coagulation and an increase in the content of catecholamines and beta-lipoproteids occur.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid outflow resistance in rabbits with experimental meningitis. Alterations with penicillin and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed Central

    Scheld, W M; Dacey, R G; Winn, H R; Welsh, J E; Jane, J A; Sande, M A

    1980-01-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis may be associated with increased intracranial pressure, neurological sequelae such as communicating hydrocephalus, and a slow response to antibiotic therapy. Alterations in cerebrospinal hydrodynamics are at least partially responsible for these complications. Constant, low-flow short-duration manometric infusion studies through a hollow-bore pressure monitoring device in direct continuity with the supracortical subarachnoid space were performed in rabbits with experimental meningitis. Maximal resistance to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow from the subarachnoid to vascular space was markedly increaed in acute pneumococcal meningitis when compared to control, uninfected animals (6.77 +/- 3.52 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.04 mm Hg/microliter per min, P less than 0.001). Similar elevations (8.93 +/- 4.15 mm Hg/microliter per min were found in experimental Escherichia coli meningitis. Despite eradication of viable bacteria from the CSF by penicillin therapy during the acute stage of pneumococcal meningitis, resistance remained elevated (6.07 +/- 4.68 mm Hg/microliter per min) and had not returned to normal up to 15 d later. Administration of methylprednisolone during the early stages of acute pneumococcal meningitis reduced mean peak outflow resistance towards control values (0.59 mm Hg/microliter per min) and no "rebound" effect was apparent 24 h later. These hydrodynamic alterations in experimental meningitis prevent normal CSF absorption and decrease the ability of the bran to compensate for changes in intracranial volume and pressure. PMID:6995482

  2. [Morphologic study of the intestine in an experimental model of amnioinfusion in fetal rabbits with gastroschisis].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M E; Albert, A; Juliá, V; Sancho, M A; Grande, C; Martínez, A; Morales, L

    2002-10-01

    An experimental model of serial amnioinfusion has been developed in fetal rabbits with gastroschisis, using an intraamniotic catheter connected to a subcutaneous port. Fetuses of 4 groups were compared 7 days after surgery: group A: gastroschisis and daily amnioinfusion through an implanted catheter; group C: gastroschisis and blind amniotic catheter; group G: gastroschisis without catheter; group O: nonoperated fetuses. Survival rate, fetal body weight, lung weight, intestinal weight and length were determined. Computer aided morphometric analysis was performed, in which intestinal diameter, thickness and villi length were measured. Amniotic fluid samples were recovered along the experimental period. Intestinal length was significantly shorter and had a significantly thicker wall than nonoperated fetuses; we found no other morphometric differences between gastroschisis treated with amnioinfusion (group A) and the other gastroschisis groups (C and G). Amnioinfusion did not affect fetal survival rate; the amniotic catheter alone did not cause pulmonary hypoplasia due to significant amniotic leak. The physiological decrease in amniotic volume towards the end of gestation has not been modified by this regime of amnioinfusion. PMID:12601972

  3. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control.

    PubMed

    Suen, Willy W; Uddin, Muhammad J; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A; Bowen, Richard A; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-01-01

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections. PMID:26184326

  4. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Willy W.; Uddin, Muhammad J.; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R.; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A.; Bowen, Richard A.; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-01-01

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections. PMID:26184326

  5. Increased IL-37 in Atherosclerotic Disease could be Suppressed by Atorvastatin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shaoyuan, C; Ming, D; Yulang, H; Hongcheng, F

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the evidence showed that interleukin-37 (IL-37) was expressed in the foam-like cells of atherosclerotic coronary and carotid artery plaques in IL-37-transgenic mice, suggesting that interleukin-37 is involved in atherosclerosis-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the change of IL-37 in atherosclerotic plaque, the effect of atorvastatin on IL-37 and the association between IL-37 and Smad3 in atherosclerotic disease. Rabbits were subjected to atherosclerosis by the immunologic injury composite with balloon injury (BI). Some rabbits received atorvastatin treatment from 6 weeks to 12 weeks. Serum levels of IL-37 were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks in normal, atherosclerotic and atorvastatin groups. Protein and RNA levels of IL-37 atherosclerotic plaque from abdominal aorta were processed at 12 weeks. Abdominal aorta including atherosclerotic plaque was immunostained with IL-37 and Smad3. Serum IL-37 significantly increased in atherosclerotic disease, and this increase could be reduced by the atorvastatin treatment. IL-37 and Smad3 were accumulated in the macrophage-derived foam cells in the plaque and significantly increased in protein and RNA levels. Atorvastatin treatment could significantly suppress the increase of both IL-37 and Smad3. Plasma level of IL-37 and the IL-37 expression of the plaque were significantly increased in atherosclerotic disease. This increase could be suppressed by the atorvastatin treatment. In addition, Smad3 might be required for IL-37 activity during the atherosclerotic physiologic process. PMID:26074195

  6. Quantification of Cellular Proliferation in Mouse Atherosclerotic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Fuster, José J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive cell proliferation within atherosclerotic plaques plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Macrophage proliferation in particular has become a major focus of attention in the cardiovascular field because it appears to mediate most of macrophage expansion in mouse atherosclerotic arteries. Therefore, quantification of cell proliferation is an essential part of the characterization of atherosclerotic plaques in experimental studies. This chapter describes two variants of a simple immunostaining protocol that allow for the quantification of cellular proliferation in mouse atherosclerotic lesions based on the detection of the proliferation-associated antigen Ki-67. PMID:26445791

  7. Cerebral ischemia in rabbit: a new experimental model with immunohistochemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yoshimine, T; Yanagihara, T

    1985-12-01

    Regional cerebral ischemia was produced in the rabbit by unilateral transorbital occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (procedure I); the middle cerebral and azygos anterior cerebral or anterior communicating artery (procedure II); or the middle cerebral, azygos anterior cerebral or anterior communicating, and internal carotid artery (procedure III). Evolution of ischemic lesions was examined with the immunohistochemical reaction for tubulin. With procedure I, ischemic lesions did not become constantly visible for 6 h in the basal ganglia and for 8 h in the frontoparietal region of the cerebral cortex. With procedure II, it was shortened to 3 h in the basal ganglia and to 6 h in the cerebral cortex. With procedure III, the ischemic lesions were observed in 1 h both in the basal ganglia and in the cerebral cortex as loss of the reaction for tubulin in the neuropil, nerve cell bodies, and dendrites. The evidence of neuronal damage became apparent in the same areas later by staining with hematoxylin-eosin. The experimental model presented here may be suitable for investigation of the mechanism that shifts reversible ischemia to cerebral infarction and for evaluation of the effectiveness of pharmacological intervention. PMID:3932374

  8. Daptomycin (LY146032) for prevention and treatment of experimental aortic valve endocarditis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, S; Chambers, H F

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of daptomycin (LY146032), a vancomycinlike lipopeptide antibiotic, was compared with that of antibiotics commonly in use for prevention and treatment of experimental aortic valve endocarditis in rabbits. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus. S. epidermidis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Enterococcus faecalis were used to establish endocarditis. A single 10-mg/kg dose of daptomycin and a single 25-mg/kg dose of vancomycin were both effective in prevention of endocarditis produced by strains of S. aureus and S. sanguis. Daptomycin was more effective than vancomycin for prevention of endocarditis caused by the strain of S. epidermidis. A single dose of daptomycin also was more effective in prevention of staphylococcal and enterococcal endocarditis than were single-dose regimens of cefazolin (100 mg/kg) and the combination of ampicillin (30 mg/kg) plus gentamicin (3 mg/kg), respectively. For treatment of endocarditis, daptomycin (10 mg/kg) as a single daily dose was as effective as regimens of either vancomycin or beta-lactam antibiotics for staphylococcal and enterococcal endocarditis. Daptomycin, however, was not as effective as a single daily dose of 600,000 U of procaine penicillin for endocarditis caused by the strain of S. sanguis. PMID:2554799

  9. Effects of prostaglandin on experimental bone malignancy and on scintigrams of bone and marrow. [Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, N.; Ito, Y.; Nagai, K.; Terashima, H.; Yanagimoto, S.; Muranaka, A.

    1981-05-01

    The correlation between prostaglandin E (PgE) and scintigrams of bone (Tc-99m MDP) and bone marrow (Tc-99m SC) was investigated in normal and VX-2-bearing rabbits. PgE in plasma of normal rabbits was 486.2. In rabbits with VX-2 transplanted into femoral muscles, PgE was in the normal range unless the tumor invaded bone. PgE was not increase significantly in rabbits when the tumor was transplanted into the marrow cavity. When tumor invaded bone, PgE increassed markedly (to 1335). Elevation of PgE did not necessarily coincide with the appearance of positive bone scans. PgE in an indomethacin-treated group did not necessarily coincide with the appearance of positive bone scans. PgE in an indomethacin-treated group did not higher than in the untreated group. Indomethacin may suppress the local acceleration of calcium metabolism.

  10. Experimental study on the toxicity of povidone-iodine solution in brain tissues of rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Hua; Wang, Yu; Gao, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Kun; Hou, Yu-Chen; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether Povidone-iodine was toxic to brain tissues by rinsing the cerebral cortex of New Zealand rabbits with Povidone-iodine Solution of different concentrations. Methods: 12 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups (Group A, B, C and D, 3 rabbits each group). In each group, the left cerebral cortex of rabbits was rinsed with physiological saline after the craniotomy; in Group A and B, the right cerebral cortex of rabbits was also locally rinsed with Povidone-iodine Solution (0.01%), in Group C and D, the right cerebral cortex of rabbits was also locally rinsed with Povidone-iodine Solution (0.05%). In Group A and C, the rabbits were sacrificed at D3 after the operation, and the brain was taken out; and in Group B and D, the rabbits were sacrificed at D7 after the operation, and the brain was taken out. Under the optical and electron microscope, the change in micro-structure of brain tissues was observed in each group. Results: In each group, there was no epilepsy or paralysis during and after the operation. At the treatment side of physiological saline, there was no significant cell damage in the local brain tissues. At the treatment side of Povidone-iodine Solution, there was no cell apoptosis or degeneration in the local brain tissues. Conclusion: The Povidone-iodine Solution (0.05% and 0.01%) was toxic to brain tissues, with a more obvious damage of brain tissues for the former concentration. The histological sign was more serious at D7 than that at D3. PMID:26628968

  11. Accumulation of sup 125 I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    SciTech Connect

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K. )

    1989-10-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of {sup 125}I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with {sup 125}I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits.

  12. 99m T c-DTPA Study to Validate an Experimental Model of Ureteral Obstruction in Rabbits: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Marcelo Lopes; Bertti, Rodolfo; Moro, Juliano César; Coltro Neto, Fábio; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Fregonesi, Adriano; de Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes; Ramos, Celso Darío

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To create a ureteral obstruction experimental model that can be proved through 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological studies, without causing total renal function loss. Materials and Methods. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were submitted to a surgical experiment to create a model of unilateral obstruction to urinary flow. Surgery procedure provided unilateral ureteral obstruction (left kidney) to urinary flow and posteriorly was evaluated by 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy and histopathological study. 99mTc-DTPA renal study was performed to detect and quantify signs of obstruction and to evaluate renal function. Statistical analysis was performed through the Student t-test with a significance level of P<0.05. Results. Nine of the ten rabbits presented left renal unit obstruction and one nonobstructive on the 99mTc-DTPA and histopathological studies. All the right renal units, which were not submitted to surgical procedure, were nonobstructed by the studies. There was a general agreement between scintigraphy and histopathological results in both groups. Conclusion. The experimental model promoted the creation of ureteral obstruction in rabbits, confirmed by nuclear medicine scintigraphy and histopathology, and could be used in further studies to better understand urinary obstruction. PMID:24489538

  13. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    PubMed Central

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  14. The effect of butyric acid with autogenous omental graft on healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, S; Moslemi, H. R.; Dehghan, M. M.; Sedaghat, R; Mazaheri Nezhad, R; Rezaee Moghaddam, D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the role of local injection of butyric acid (BA) with autogenous omental graft was evaluated in healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits. Nine adult male New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and a partial thickness tenotomy was created on both hindlimbs. In treated group, omental graft was secured in place using BA soaked polygalactin 910 suture. In control group, the graft was sutured without BA. Butyric acid and normal saline were injected daily to treatment and control groups for three days, respectively. Based on the findings, on day 15 after injury, the tendon sections showed that healing rate in BA treated group was higher than that in control group. Furthermore, at days 28 and 45, comparison between BA treated and control groups demonstrated that BA increased the healing rate but with no significance. In summary, results of this study show that application of BA with autogenous omental graft can improve healing process of damaged Achilles tendon. PMID:27175160

  15. Experimental Infection of New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi) with Leporid herpesvirus 4

    PubMed Central

    Sunohara-Neilson, Janet R; Brash, Marina; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Turner, Patricia V

    2013-01-01

    Leporid herpesvirus 4 (LHV4) is a novel alphaherpesvirus recently identified in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi). Little is known about the pathogenesis or time course of disease induced by this virus. We therefore intranasally inoculated 22 female New Zealand white rabbits with 8.4 × 104 CCID50 of a clinical viral isolate. Rabbits were monitored for clinical signs, viral shedding in oculonasal secretions, and development and persistence of serum antibodies. Rabbits were euthanized at 3, 5, 7, 14, and 22 d postinfection (dpi) to evaluate gross and microscopic changes. Clinical signs were apparent between 3 to 8 dpi, and included oculonasal discharge, respiratory distress, and reduced appetite, and viral shedding occurred between 2 and 8 dpi. Seroconversion was seen at 11 dpi and persisted to the end of the study (day 22). Severe necrohemorrhagic bronchopneumonia and marked pulmonary edema were noted by 5 dpi and were most severe at 7 dpi. Pulmonary changes largely resolved by 22 dpi. In addition, multifocal splenic necrosis was present at 5 dpi and progressed to submassive necrosis by 7 dpi. Eosinophilic herpesviral intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected in the nasal mucosa, skin, spleen, and lung between 3 to 14 dpi. LHV4 is a pathogen that should be considered for rabbits that present with acute respiratory disease. LHV4 infection can be diagnosed based on characteristic microscopic changes in the lungs and spleen and by virus isolation. Serum antibody levels may be used to monitor viral prevalence in colonies. PMID:24210019

  16. The influence of systemically administered oxytocin on the implant-bone interface area: an experimental study in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Am; Park, Sang-Hun

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of systemically administered oxytocin (OT) on the implant-bone interface by using histomorphometric analysis and the removal torque test. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 10 adult, New Zealand white, female rabbits were used in this experiment. We placed 2 implants (CSM; CSM Implant, Daegu, South Korea) in each distal femoral metaphysis on both the right and left sides; the implants on both sides were placed 10 mm apart. In each rabbit, 1 implant was prepared for histomorphometric analysis and the other 3 were prepared for the removal torque test (RT). The animals received intramuscular injections of either saline (control group; 0.15 M NaCl) or OT (experimental group; 200 µg/rabbit). The injections were initiated on Day 3 following the implant surgery and were continued for 4 subsequent weeks; the injections were administered twice per day (at a 12-h interval), for 2 days per week. RESULTS While no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (P=.787), the control group had stronger removal torque values. The serum OT concentration (ELISA value) was higher in the OT-treated group, although no statistically significant difference was found. Further, the histomorphometric parameter (bone-toimplant contact [BIC], inter-thread bone, and peri-implant bone) values were higher in the experimental group, but the differences were not significant. CONCLUSION We postulate that OT supplementation via intramuscular injection weakly contributes to the bone response at the implant-bone interface in rabbits. Therefore, higher concentrations or more frequent administration of OT may be required for a greater bone response to the implant. Further studies analyzing these aspects are needed. PMID:25551011

  17. Hemolytic activity of plasma and urine from rabbits experimentally infected with Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Baine, W B; Rasheed, J K; Maca, H W; Kaufmann, A F

    1979-01-01

    Rabbits were infected with Legionella pneumophila by intravenous administration of allantoic fluid from eggs infected with this organism. Heated plasma from animals with severe illness caused by L. pneumophila lysed erythrocytes from guinea pigs in a radial hemolysis assay. Plasma from control rabbits did not lyse guinea pig erythrocytes in parallel assays. Urine from two of the infected animals also showed hemolytic activity. Attempts to induce illness in rabbits by intranasal administration of L. pneumohpila were less successful. Allantoic fluid from embrynated hen eggs developed hemolytic activity when maintained eithr in vitro at room temperature or in eggs whose embryos were killed by refrigeration. Hemolytic activity in filtrates of allantoic fluid from eggs infected with L. pneumophila, as previously reported, may not be due to the presence of bacterial hemolysins in the fluid. PMID:399383

  18. Mechanism of atherosclerotic calcification.

    PubMed

    Shioi, A; Mori, K; Jono, S; Wakikawa, T; Hiura, Y; Koyama, H; Okuno, Y; Nishizawa, Y; Morii, H

    2000-01-01

    Calcification is almost invariably associated with atherosclerotic plaque lesions. Recent data suggest that plaque calcification is an active, regulated process similar to osteogenesis. In order to clarify the mechanism of plaque calcification, we developed an in vitro model of vascular calcification by utilizing bovine vascular smooth muscle cells (BVSMCs). This model is useful in that diffuse and massive calcification can be induced within 2 weeks and thereby biochemical analyses of vascular calcification can be performed. We have analyzed several aspects of vascular calcification by using this model and demonstrated as follows: 1) in vitro calcification of BVSMCs is regulated by calciotropic hormones and BVSMCs are equipped with a unique autocrine and/or paracrine system regulating calcium metabolism. 2) Sodium-dependent phosphate cotransport plays a crucial role in BVSMC calcification as well as in mineralization of skeletal tissues. 3) BVSMCs acquire osteoblastic phenotype under certain conditions. Finally, we discuss the roles of macrophages in the development of atherosclerotic calcification. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induces gene expression of 25-hydrovitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase (1 alpha OHase) and its activity in macrophages. Since 1 alpha OHase can locally convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D into 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), an active metabolite of vitamin D, it is suggested that local production of 1,25(OH)2D by macrophages may promote atherosclerotic calcification. Moreover, macrophages may be involved in the phenotypic changes of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to acquire calcifying capacity. Therefore, the phenotypic changes of VSMCs in atherosclerotic plaque may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic calcification. PMID:10769407

  19. Comparative capacity of orally administered amoxicillin and parenterally administered penicillin-streptomycin to protect rabbits against experimentally induced streptococcal endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Pujadas, R; Escriva, E; Jane, J; Fernandez, F; Fava, P; Garau, J

    1986-01-01

    A single-intramuscular-dose immunization regimen with a penicillin G-streptomycin combination was compared with three oral-dose amoxicillin regimens for the capacity to prevent Streptococcus sanguis infections of experimentally induced valvular heart lesions in rabbits. Challenge doses of 10(4), 10(6), and 10(8) CFU of a strain of S. sanguis equally susceptible to penicillin and amoxicillin were used in this study. Measured by recovery of test organisms from endocardial lesions, the lowest concentration of these inocula was infective for 60% of the recipients; the two higher-concentration inocula were infective for all recipients. The penicillin G-streptomycin combination provided complete protection against infection with inocula of all sizes. A single-oral-dose amoxicillin regimen (50 mg/kg of body weight) prevented endocarditis when rabbits were challenged with 10(4) CFU, but protection diminished with increasing inoculum concentrations. Similar results were achieved when five oral doses of amoxicillin (8.5 mg/kg of body weight) added at 8-h intervals were included in the single-oral-dose regimen. In contrast, when rabbits received two oral doses of amoxicillin (50 mg/kg of body weight) with a 10-h interval between doses, prophylaxis was fully effective with even the highest inoculum concentration. PMID:3729348

  20. Virological and clinico-pathological features of orf virus infection in experimentally infected rabbits and mice.

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, J F; Masuda, E K; Martins, M; Diel, D G; Rock, D L; Weiblen, R; Flores, E F

    2011-01-01

    Many aspects of the biology of orf virus (ORFV) infection remain poorly understood and attempts to establish animal models have yielded conflicting and non-reproducible results. We herein describe the characterization of ORFV infection and disease in rabbits and mice. A protocol of intradermal inoculation was employed to inoculate 10(8.5)TCID₅₀/mL of ORFV strain IA-82 in the skin of ears, of the back and labial commissures. All inoculated rabbits presented a clinical course characterized by erythema, macules, papules/vesicles or pustules that eventually dried originating scabs. Local signs started around days 3 and 4 post-inoculation (pi) and lasted 3-10 days. Virus was recovered from lesions between days 2 and 14pi. Histological examination of lesions revealed focal proliferative dermatitis with ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in keratinocytes, histological hallmarks of contagious ecthyma in sheep. A similar, albeit milder clinical course occurred in 5/10 inoculated mice; virus was recovered from lesions from three animals. Inoculated lambs - used as controls - developed severe lesions of contagious ecthyma. VN tests performed at day 28pi failed to detect neutralizing antibodies in all inoculated animals. In contrast, convalescent rabbit sera were positive by ELISA at dilutions from 100 to 400. These results show that rabbits are susceptible to ORFV infection and thus may be used to study selected aspects of ORFV biology. PMID:20833245

  1. Experimental research of Fuaile medical adhesive for portal vein embolization in white rabbit models

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, TIANPENG; WANG, LIZHOU; LI, XING; SONG, JIE; WU, XIAOPING; AN, TIANZHI; ZHOU, SHI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of Fuaile medical adhesive for portal vein embolization in the treatment of a rabbit model. This study used 26 white rabbits, 14 of which were selected and assigned into seven groups (n=2) for the preliminary experiment. Fuaile medical adhesive was mixed with lipiodol at different ratios of 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 0:1, respectively, and administered via the portal trunk. The remaining 12 white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (n=6). The evaluation of the results included the degree of adhesion to the vessels, the extent of embolization and the reaction of the rabbit. Hepatic and renal functions were detected prior to and at 1, 7 and 14 days post-embolization, respectively. Angiography, CT scans and pathological examinations were conducted at post-embolization. Histological examinations revealed that the topical swollen lesions were darker. Light microscopy showed embolic agents in the portal venous blood vessels and the formation of a secondary thrombus. Hepatic necrosis appeared surrounding the embolization area. Inflammatory cell infiltration of different degrees occurred in the early stage and inflammatory fibroplasia occurred in the late stage. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased at 1 day post-embolization, peaked at 7 days and was in the normal range at 14 days. The levels of blood urea nitrogen and ceruloplasmin were elevated at 1 day post-embolization and lowered to normal at 7 days. Fuaile medical adhesive is an effective, safe and inexpensive agent, used for effectively inducing embolization in the portal trunk, and the first and second branches of rabbit portal veins. The use of Fuaile therefore merits widespread application in clinical practice. PMID:26137115

  2. Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

    2003-06-01

    Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular

  3. Laser-induced hyperthemia in the treatment of ocular tumors: experimental evaluation of temperature rise in rabbits' eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svaasand, Lars O.; Morinelli, Elisa; Gomer, Charles J.

    1990-08-01

    Experimental results for the optical properties of ocular tumors in the red to near infrared region from 600-900 nm and at the near infrared wavelength of 1064 nm are presented. The tumor models have been human retinoblastoma heterotransplanted in athyinic mice and B16 melanotic melanoma in athymic mice. The steady state retinal and tumor temperature rise during 1064 nm laser irradiation have been examined in vivo in normal albino and pigmented rabbits eye and in Greene''s melanoma inoculated in the retinachoroidal layers. 2.

  4. Detection of atherosclerotic vascular tissue from optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ammu; Hewko, Mark; Sowa, Mike; Sherif, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease continues to be one of the major causes of mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease are dependent on the detection of high risk atherosclerotic plaque. As age is one of the most important risk factors, atherosclerosis worsens steadily with increasing age. Automatic characterization of atherosclerotic plaque using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) images provides a powerful tool to classify patients with high risk plaque. In this study we develop an automatic classifier to detect atherosclerotic plaque in young and old Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, using OCT images without reliance on visual inspection. Our classifier based on texture analysis technique may provide an efficient tool for detecting invisible changes in tissue structure. We extracted a set of 22 statistical textural features for each image using the spatial gray level dependence matrix (SGLDM) method. An optimal scalar feature selection process was carried to select the best discriminating features that employ the Fisher discriminant ratio (FDR) criterion, and cross correlation measure between the pairs of features. Using these optimal features, we formed a combination of 5 best classification features using an exhaustive search method. A combined feature set was finally employed for the classification of plaque. We obtained correct classification rate and validation of 76.67% and 75% respectively.

  5. [Experimental study of coral implantation in repair of skull bone defect in rabbit: histomorphometry of bone].

    PubMed

    Miao, L; Liu, B

    1997-05-01

    In order to evaluate coral as a bone graft substitute in repair of bone defect, particulates of coral were implanted into skull bone defect of rabbit, 1.5 cm in diameter. Hydroxyapatite and blank were taken as controls. The rabbits were sacrificed at the second, fourth, eighth and twelveth weeks after the operation. The specimens were taken and performed histological examination and histomorphometry observation. Results were as follows: at the second week many multinucleus giant cells infiltrated. As time elapsed, the coral were progressively degenerated and new bone was formed to fill the defect. Up to the twelveth week, the coral degenerated completely and new bone formed in the center of the defect. Percentage of new bone was in defect was 36.9%. Compared with the controls, there were significant differences (P < 0.01). It was suggested that coral had good osteoconductility. Howevel, coral underwent rapid degeneration, it might result in inconplete repair of bone defect. PMID:9867910

  6. Effects of "kyushin", a drug containing toad venom, on experimental congestive heart failure in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morishita, S; Shoji, M; Oguni, Y; Ito, C; Noguchi, K; Sakanashi, M

    1992-01-01

    Effects of "Kyushin" (KY-2), a drug containing toad venom, on a low-output-type heart failure model produced in rabbits by protease treatment on the left ventricular anterior wall, were examined. Heart rate, aortic blood flow (AoF), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVP) and maximal rate of rise of LVP (max dP/dt) in this model were maintained at lower levels than those in normal rabbits, while left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were maintained at higher levels, and the mean blood pressure (MBP) was at a normal level. KY-2 was administered intraduodenally to the animal. KY-2 improved heart failure state by increasing the AoF, LVP and max dP/dt, and by decreasing the LVEDP and SVR without a significant change in MBP. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of KY-2 on this heart failure model originate from their cardiotonic activity. PMID:1605132

  7. Experimental study of sutureless vascular anastomosis with use of glued prosthesis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Vokrri, Lulzim; Qavdarbasha, Arsim; Rudari, Hajriz; Ahmetaj, Halil; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Hyseni, Nexhmi; Porcu, Paolo; Cinquin, Philippe; Sessa, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to explore the feasibility and efficacy of a new technique for sutureless vascular anastomosis, using glued prosthesis, as a sole anastomosis fixation method in rabbits. Methods Ten rabbits were randomly selected to conduct the experiment. Five rabbits underwent direct anastomosis of infrarenal abdominal aorta, with glued prosthesis. In five other rabbits, reconstruction was done by sutured anastomosis. All animals were immediately examined by echo-Doppler for patency of anastomosis. The burst pressure of the glued anastomosis was measured and compared with that of a sutured artery. The animals were euthanized, and tissue samples were taken for histological examination immediately after the experiment. Results Compared to conventional anastomoses, sutureless vascular anastomoses required shorter time of creation and significantly reduced blood loss (P<5%). There was no significant difference on the average blood flow through the anastomosis between two groups at the end of surgery. All anastomoses with glued prosthesis, examined by echo-Doppler, were patent at the anastomotic site, except one, which was stenosed immediately after surgery. In the control group, except one with stenosis, all conventional anastomoses were patent. Mean burst pressure at the anastomotic site for sutureless anastomoses was lower than in control group. Macroscopically, the BioGlue did not demonstrate any adhesion to the surrounding tissue as it was covered by the vascular prosthesis. Histological examination showed low-grade inflammatory reaction in glued anastomoses versus no inflammatory reaction at the sutured anastomoses. Conclusion This technique may provide a feasible and successful alternative in vascular surgery. However, further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate the break pressure and degree of inflammation at the anastomotic site. PMID:25848302

  8. Neuroprotective effects of sildenafil in experimental spinal cord injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Hasan; Degirmenci, Selim; Ak, Ahmet; Bayir, Aysegul; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Uyar, Mehmet; Akinci, Murat; Acar, Demet; Kocacan, Metin; Akyurek, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Neuroprotective agents such as methylprednisolone and sildenafil may limit damage after spinal cord injury. We evaluated the effects of methylprednisolone and sildenafil on biochemical and histologic changes after spinal cord injury in a rabbit model. Female New Zealand rabbits (32 rabbits) were allocated to 4 equal groups: laminectomy only (sham control) or laminectomy and spinal trauma with no other treatment (trauma control) or treatment with either methylprednisolone or sildenafil. Gelsolin and caspase-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma were determined, and spinal cord histology was evaluated at 24 hours after trauma. There were no differences in mean cerebrospinal fluid or plasma levels of caspase-3 between the groups or within the groups from 0 to 24 hours after injury. From 0 to 24 hours after trauma, mean cerebrospinal fluid gelsolin levels significantly increased in the sildenafil group and decreased in the sham control and the trauma control groups. Mean plasma gelsolin level was significantly higher at 8 and 24 hours after trauma in the sildenafil than other groups. Histologic examination indicated that general structural integrity was better in the methylprednisolone in comparison with the trauma control group. General structural integrity, leptomeninges, white and grey matter hematomas, and necrosis were significantly improved in the sildenafil compared with the trauma control group. Caspase-3 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood were not increased but gelsolin levels were decreased after spinal cord injury in trauma control rabbits. Sildenafil caused an increase in gelsolin levels and may be more effective than methylprednisolone at decreasing secondary damage to the spinal cord. PMID:25725143

  9. The influence of atorvastatin on tendon healing: an experimental study on rabbits.

    PubMed

    Esenkaya, Irfan; Sakarya, Bulent; Unay, Koray; Elmali, Nurzat; Aydin, Nasuhi Engin

    2010-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The most commonly used antihyperlipidemic drugs are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins), of which atorvastatin is one of the most widely used. Little is known about the relationship between tendinopathy and HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or the effects of atorvastatin use on tendon healing following surgical repair of tendon rupture. We hypothesized that atorvastatin negatively affects this healing process. The Achilles tendons of 16 New Zealand rabbits were ruptured surgically and repaired with sutures. Eight of the rabbits were given oral atorvastatin. The other 8 served as a surgical control group. Six weeks postoperatively, all the rabbits were sacrificed, and the repaired tendons were removed. After standard histological preparation, fibroblastic activity, re-vascularization, collagenization, collagen construction, and inflammatory-cell infiltration were evaluated. On comparing the atorvastatin and surgical control groups, we observed no difference in fibroblastic activity. Although it did not reach statistical significance in our study, a difference was noted in revascularization, collagenization, and inflammatory cell infiltration; and a statistical difference was observed in collagen construction. Doubt remains about the adverse effect of atorvastatin use during tendon healing. Further investigations in animal and human models are needed on the effects of tendon healing when atorvastatin is administered for a longer time frame prior to the injury. PMID:20806777

  10. Experimental observation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation into rabbit intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hao; Lin, Yazhou; Zhang, Guoqing; Gu, Rui; Chen, Bohua

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation has been investigated worldwide. However, few reports have addressed the survival status of human BMSCs in the intervertebral discs (IVDs) in vivo following transplantation. The current study aimed to observe the survival status of human BMSCs in rabbit IVDs. The IVDs of 15 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups: Punctured blank control group (L1-2); punctured physiological saline control group (L2-3); and punctured human BMSCs transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) group (L3-4, L4-5 and L5-6). One, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after transplantation the IVDs were removed and a fluorescence microscope was used to observe the density of GFP-positive human BMSCs. The results indicated that in the sections of specimens removed at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-transplantation, no GFP-positive cells were observed in the control groups, whereas GFP-positive cells were apparent in the nucleus pulposus at all periods in the GFP-labeled human BMSCs group, and the cell density at 6 and 8 weeks was significantly less than that at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-transplantation (P<0.001). Thus, it was identified that human BMSCs were able to survive in the rabbit IVDs for 8 weeks. PMID:27588177

  11. The Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on the Achilles Tendon: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mingwei; Ding, Weidong; Xu, Kui; Fan, Qingyu; Li, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the potential effects of irreversible electroporation ablation on the Achilles tendon in a rabbit model and to compare the histopathological and biomechanical changes between specimens following electroporation ablation and radiofrequency ablation. Methods A total of 140 six-month-old male New Zealand rabbits were used. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, 70 in the radiofrequency ablation group and 70 in the electroporation group. In situ ablations were applied directly to the Achilles tendons of rabbits using typical electroporation (1800 V/cm, 90 pulses) and radiofrequency ablation (power control mode) protocols. Histopathological and biomechanical evaluations were performed to examine the effects of electroporation ablation and radiofrequency ablation over time. Results Both electroporation and radiofrequency ablation produced complete cell ablation in the target region. Thermal damage resulted in tendon rupture 3 days post radiofrequency ablation. In contrast, electroporation-ablated Achilles tendons preserved their biomechanical properties and showed no detectable rupture at this time point. The electroporation-ablated tendons exhibited signs of recovery, including tenoblast regeneration and angiogenesis within 2 weeks, and the restoration of their integral structure was evident within 12 weeks. Conclusions When applying electroporation to ablate solid tumors, major advantage could be that collateral damage to adjacent tendons or ligaments is minimized due to the unique ability of electroporation ablation to target the cell membrane. This advantage could have a significant impact on the field of tumor ablation near vital tendons or ligaments. PMID:26114962

  12. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Achilles Tendon Ruptures: An Experimental Study on Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Şen, Baran; Güler, Serkan; Çeçen, Berivan; Kumtepe, Erdem; Bağrıyanık, Alper; Özkal, Sermin; Ali Özcan, M.; Özsan, Hayri; Şanlı, Namık; Tatari, M. Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Achilles tendon ruptures are characterized by a long recovery period, high re-rupture rate and late return to work. To overcome these difficulties and augment tendon repair, many agents have been used. Aims: To determine the effect of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures in rabbits. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The study included 14 New Zealand albino rabbits that were divided randomly into 2 groups, A and B, each containing seven rabbits. On day zero, all 28 Achilles tendons were tenotomized and repaired. In group A, the tendons were injected with PRP post-surgery, whereas those in group B were left untreated. On day 28, the right tendons in both groups were examined histopathologically via both light and electron microscopy, and the left tendons were subjected to biomechanical testing. Results: The histological and biomechanical findings in both light and electron microscopy in group A were better than those in group B, but the difference was not significant. According to Tang’s scale, the mean value in Group A was 3.57, while it was 3.0 in Group B. The mean value of Group A for the length of collagen bands was 48.09 nm while the mean value of Group B was 46.58 nm (p=0.406). In biomechanical tests, although stiffness values were higher in group A, the difference between groups was not significant. In addition, maximum load values did not differ between groups A and B. Conclusion: PRP had no effect on the healing process 28 days post-Achilles tendon rupture. PMID:26966624

  13. Bladder urine oxygen tension for assessing renal medullary oxygenation in rabbits: experimental and modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Kett, Michelle M; Ow, Connie P C; Abdelkader, Amany; Layton, Anita T; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, David W; Lankadeva, Yugeesh R; Evans, Roger G

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen tension (Po2) of urine in the bladder could be used to monitor risk of acute kidney injury if it varies with medullary Po2 Therefore, we examined this relationship and characterized oxygen diffusion across walls of the ureter and bladder in anesthetized rabbits. A computational model was then developed to predict medullary Po2 from bladder urine Po2 Both intravenous infusion of [Phe(2),Ile(3),Orn(8)]-vasopressin and infusion of N(G)-nitro-l-arginine reduced urinary Po2 and medullary Po2 (8-17%), yet had opposite effects on renal blood flow and urine flow. Changes in bladder urine Po2 during these stimuli correlated strongly with changes in medullary Po2 (within-rabbit r(2) = 0.87-0.90). Differences in the Po2 of saline infused into the ureter close to the kidney could be detected in the bladder, although this was diminished at lesser ureteric flow. Diffusion of oxygen across the wall of the bladder was very slow, so it was not considered in the computational model. The model predicts Po2 in the pelvic ureter (presumed to reflect medullary Po2) from known values of bladder urine Po2, urine flow, and arterial Po2 Simulations suggest that, across a physiological range of urine flow in anesthetized rabbits (0.1-0.5 ml/min for a single kidney), a change in bladder urine Po2 explains 10-50% of the change in pelvic urine/medullary Po2 Thus, it is possible to infer changes in medullary Po2 from changes in urinary Po2, so urinary Po2 may have utility as a real-time biomarker of risk of acute kidney injury. PMID:27385734

  14. Limb cooling with targeted arterial infusion of cold fluid alleviates scald injury: an experimental rabbit study

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hao; Zhao, Zhijing; Zhou, Qin; He, Fei; Yu, Min; Cai, Weixia; Yang, Ximing; Xu, Zhigang; Hou, Hongyi; Hu, Dahai

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the cooling and healing effect of different modalities: Hydrogel dressing® was compared with targeted artery injection of low temperature liquid as a coolant following application to a fresh deep partial thickness hot water scald in a rabbit hind limb model. Materials and methods: Fifty five rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups. Treatment group received femoral artery injection of low temperature liquid and hydrogel dressing post burn 30 min or 1 hour. Control group were just scalded. Subcutaneous (Tu) and deep mussel temperatures (Tm) were continually monitored in all wounds. After scald the rectal temperature were detected within 6 hours. The wounds were biopsied for histological assessment at 72 h and 3 weeks. Results: Effective cooling of the burn wound and an increased rate of wound healing was achieved by both treatment methods. The final temperature at 1h decreased to the preburn temperature. Compared with hydrogel dressing group (Tm decreased by 1.3 ± 0.4°C), Tm decreased by 2.8 ± 0.3°C in femoral artery injection group, showing significant difference (P < 0.05). Artery injection of low temperature liquid and hydrogel dressing almost exert no influence on rabbit core temperature. Clinical and histological assessment at 21 days indicated more rapid healing in both the 30 min hydrogel dressing and artery injection burns compared with the controls and the 60 minutes intervention groups. Conclusion: This result indicates artery injection of low temperature liquid earlier to cooling limb is an effective means to reduce residual heat damage tissue without affect core temperature and increase wound healing. PMID:25356176

  15. Circular Herpesvirus sylvilagus DNA in spleen cells of experimentally infected cottontail rabbits.

    PubMed

    Medveczky, P; Kramp, W J; Sullivan, J L

    1984-11-01

    Cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were infected with Herpesvirus sylvilagus, and spleen cells were analyzed for the presence of virus-specific, covalently closed circular, and linear DNA molecules by a simple electrophoretic technique, followed by transfer to nitrocellulose filters and hybridization with cloned viral DNA (Gardella et al., J. Virol. 50:248-254, 1984). Approximately 0.2 copies per cell of circular DNA and 0.2 copies per cell of linear DNA were detected by hybridization with a cloned viral DNA fragment. The size of the viral DNA was estimated at ca. 158 kilobase pairs. Restriction endonuclease patterns suggested structural similarities to cottontail herpesvirus DNA. PMID:6092696

  16. Influence of experimental influenza infection of the eye on the course of herpetic keratitis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zaitseva, N S; Vinogradova, V L; Krichevskaya, G I

    1978-11-01

    Influenza virus monoinfection and combined influenza and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the eye was studied in rabbits. Influenza A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) virus caused a clinically overt disease of the eye only after inoculation into the eye chamber. The combined influenza and HSV infection of the eye induced severe iridocyclitis. The combined infection of the eye with influenza virus and HSV had a more severe course than HSV monoinfection. The occurence of influenza antibody in the lacrimal fluid in the presence of the antigen in eye tissues is of diagnostic importance in determining the aetiology of the disease. PMID:35945

  17. Injectable hyaluronic-acid-doxycycline hydrogel therapy in experimental rabbit osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease that causes disabilities in elderly adults. However, few long-lasting pharmacotherapeutic agents with low side effects have been developed to treat OA. We evaluated the therapeutic effects of intra-articular injections of hydrogels containing hyaluronic acid (HA) and doxycycline (DOX) in a rabbit OA model. Results Thirteen week old New Zealand White rabbits undergone a partial meniscectomy and unilateral fibular ligament transection were administered with either normal saline (NT), HA, DOX or HA-DOX hydrogels on day 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12; animals were also examined the pain assessment in every three days. The joint samples were taken at day 14 post-surgery for further histopathological evaluation. The degree of pain was significantly attenuated after day 7 post-treatment with both HA and HA-DOX hydrogels. In macroscopic appearance, HA-DOX hydrogel group showed a smoother cartilage surface, no or minimal signs of ulceration, smaller osteophytes, and less fissure formation in compare to HA or DOX treatment alone. In the areas with slight OA changes, HA-DOX hydrogel group exhibited normal distribution of chondrocytes, indicating the existence of cartilage regeneration. In addition, HA-DOX hydrogels also ameliorated the progression of OA by protecting the injury of articular cartilage layer and restoring the elastoviscosity. Conclusion Overall, from both macroscopic and microscopic data of this study indicate the injectable HA-DOX hydrogels presented as a long-lasting pharmacotherapeutic agent to apply for OA therapy. PMID:23574696

  18. Intravitreal injection of methotrexate in an experimental rabbit model: Determination of pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Ebru Bener; Ozcan, Altan A; Alparslan, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravitreally administered methotrexate. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one New Zealand white rabbits were used in the study. The pharmacokinetics of intravitreally injected 800 μg/0.1 ml of methotrexate was investigated. Intravitreal concentration of the drug was measured at seven different times, in six eyes at each occasion, on a total of 42 eyes of 21 rabbits from a period of 30 minutes to 72 hours. Results: The volume of distribution was calculated as 1.33 ml following intravitreal injection of 800 μg methotrexate. Vitreous concentrations of the drug were found to be decreasing related to the specific mathematical equation; drug concentration= 1426.73 e-0.1182(time) and remained over effective dose by 81 hours with a half life of 5.9 hours. Conclusions: These findings evidenced those vitreous levels of methotrexate at various time intervals after 800 μg intravitreal injections which formulated a mathematical equation for calculation of vitreous level of the drug at each hour. PMID:21586839

  19. Remote Subcutaneous Needling to Suppress the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spots: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhonghua; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Hong, Chang-Zern; Kao, Mu-Jung; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To obtain electrophysiological effects of Fu's subcutaneous needling (FSN) on needling distance by assessment of endplate noise (EPN) recorded from the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs) in rabbit skeletal muscle. Method. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.5–3.0 kg were randomly divided into two groups as follows: proximal needling (PN) group and distal needling (DN) group. The needling procedure followed the instructions described by the inventor of FSN, including needling insertion and swaying movement. The amplitudes of EPN on the MTrS region of BF muscle were recorded as an index of MTrS irritability. Random sampling of EPN tracings were taken for further analyses before, during, and after FSN treatment. Results. In PN and DN groups, the trends of EPN amplitude alterations were similar at conditions before, during, and after FSN treatment. The degree of reduction in the EPN amplitude in PN group was significantly higher than that in DN group. There were no significant changes in EPN amplitudes in the MTrS of contralateral BF without FSN intervention either in DN or PN group. Conclusion. The irritability of proximal MTrSs could be modulated after ipsilateral FSNs. The placement of FSN may affect the effectiveness of suppression of irritability of MTrSs. PMID:23346200

  20. The Healing Effects of Autologous Mucosal Grafts in Experimentally Injured Rabbit Maxillary Sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Topdag, Murat; Kara, Ahmet; Konuk, Esma; Demir, Necdet; Ozturk, Murat; Calıskan, Sebla; Topdag, Deniz Ozlem; Ulubil, Arif; Keskin, Ibrahim Gurkan; Iseri, Mete

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Healing processes of the nose and paranasal sinuses are quite complex, and poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of mucosal autologous grafts on the degenerated rabbit maxillary sinus mucosa with spontaneous wound healing. It is hypothesized that mucosal grafts will enhance ciliogenesis and improve the morphology of regenerated cilia. Methods Ten female New Zealand rabbits were included in the study. They underwent external maxillary sinus surgery through a transcutaneous approach. A total of 20 maxillary sinuses were randomly divided into 2 groups: ‘spontaneous healing group’ and ‘autologous graft group.’ The animals were sacrificed at the 14th day after the surgery. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and light microscope were used for the evaluation. Results Cellular composition of the graft group is better than the spontaneous healing group. The graft group had larger areas covered with ciliary epithelium than the spontaneous healing group, and the mean length of the cilias were also longer. Additionally, there were wider cilia with abnormal morphology areas in the spontaneous healing group. Conclusion In our opinion, covering of the denuded areas with a graft improves re-epithelization, and may prevent the early complications after sinus surgeries. PMID:26976026

  1. Efficacy of Seprafilm® graft with adhesiolysis in experimentally induced lid adhesion in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang Wook; Ahn, Hee Bae; Roh, Mi Sook; Kwon, Yoon Hyung; Ryu, Won Yeol

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy of Seprafilm® transplantation following adhesiolysis for preventing postoperative readhesion and improving surgical outcomes. METHODS Primary blepharoplasty was carried out on both eyelids of 18 albino rabbits. After 2 weeks, a new skin incision was made, and adhesiolysis was performed on both eyelids. The rabbits were categorized into two groups, one with adhesiolysis alone in the left eyelid (control group), and the other with adhesiolysis with a Seprafilm® graft in the right eyelid (Seprafilm® group). The degrees of inflammation and fibrosis were examined with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome stains. Expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was also immunohistochemically examined. RESULTS Eyelid examination immediately after the operation revealed mild swelling and hemorrhage in both groups, but these symptoms resolved after 1 week-2 weeks, and eyelid shape had recovered completely in both groups. Microscopic assessments demonstrated that the Seprafilm® group showed less inflammation and fibrosis than the control group. The Seprafilm® group also exhibited fewer α-SMA-positive cells than the control group. CONCLUSION Based on these findings, we conclude that Seprafilm® graft with adhesiolysis is an effective method for preventing postoperative readhesions after eyelid surgery. PMID:23447376

  2. Enhanced osseointegration of titanium implants with nanostructured surfaces: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Salou, Laëtitia; Hoornaert, Alain; Louarn, Guy; Layrolle, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are commonly used for dental implants because of their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The surface properties of titanium implants are key factors for rapid and stable bone tissue integration. Micro-rough surfaces are commonly prepared by grit-blasting and acid-etching. However, proteins and cells interact with implant surfaces in the nanometer range. The aim of this study was to compare the osseointegration of machined (MA), standard alumina grit-blasted and acid-etched (MICRO) and nanostructured (NANO) implants in rabbit femurs. The MICRO surface exhibited typical random cavities with an average roughness of 1.5 μm, while the NANO surface consisted of a regular array of titanium oxide nanotubes 37±11 nm in diameter and 160 nm thick. The MA and NANO surfaces had a similar average roughness of 0.5 μm. The three groups of implants were inserted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand White rabbits. After 4 weeks, the pull-out test gave higher values for the NANO than for the other groups. Histology corroborated a direct apposition of bone tissue on to the NANO surface. Both the bone-to-implant contact and bone growth values were higher for the NANO than for the other implant surfaces. Overall, this study shows that the nanostructured surface improved the osseointegration of titanium implants and may be an alternative to conventional grit-blasted and acid-etched surface treatments. PMID:25449926

  3. Biologic Response to Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Associated with Orthopedic Device: Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Saoudi, Mongi; Badraoui, Riadh; Rebai, Tarek; Oudadesse, Hassane; Ellouz, Zoubaier; Keskese, Hassib; El Feki, Abdelfattah; El Feki, Hafed

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) and related calcium phosphates have been studied for many years as implant materials due to their similarity with the mineral phase of bone. The main limitation of CHA ceramics as well as other bioactive materials is that they have poor mechanical proprieties. It is thought that the mechanical device can cause an increase in metabolic activity and bone healing. In this study we investigated the reactivity and tissue behaviour of implanted CHA biomaterial reinforced by mini external fixator. Methods The evaluation of biomaterial biocompatibility and osteogenesis was performed on a rabbit model over a period of 6 weeks by radiological, histological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Results While rabbits treated with CHA exhibited more bone formation, and fibrous tissue was observed when empty bone defects were observed. EDX analysis detected little calcium and phosphorus on the surface of the bone that was not implanted, while high content of calcium (62.7%) and phosphorus (38%) was found on the interface bone cement. Conclusions Bone repairing showed that the mini external fixator stimulated the ossification which was pushed when grafted by CHA. This effect may play an important role in the prevention of implant loosening. PMID:23109978

  4. Antifungal Activity of the Pradimicin Derivative BMS 181184 in the Treatment of Experimental Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Persistently Neutropenic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Corina E.; Groll, Andreas H.; Giri, Neelam; Shetty, Daiva; Al-Mohsen, Ibrahim; Sein, Tin; Feuerstein, Erwin; Bacher, John; Piscitelli, Stephen; Walsh, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    The activity of the pradimicin derivative BMS 181184 was evaluated in a model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in persistently neutropenic rabbits and compared with that of amphotericin B deoxycholate. BMS 181184 at total daily doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg of body weight was at least as effective as amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg once a day in conferring survival and had comparable activity in reducing organism-mediated tissue injury and excess lung weight. Although treatment at all dosing regimens of BMS 181184 resulted in significant reductions in fungal tissue burden compared to untreated controls, equivalence to amphotericin B occurred only at the higher dosage level. Similar observations were made in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cultures obtained postmortem. Monitoring of the animals through ultrafast computerized tomography scan revealed a marked resolution of pulmonary lesions during treatment with BMS 181184. The compound was well tolerated at all dosing regimens, and no toxicity was noted. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed nonlinear drug disposition with increased clearance at higher dosages and some evidence for extravascular drug accumulation. BMS 181184 had excellent activity in the treatment of experimental invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in persistently neutropenic rabbits, thus underscoring the potential of pradimicin derivatives in therapy of invasive aspergillosis in the neutropenic host. PMID:9736570

  5. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  6. Experimental aluminum pathology in rabbits: effects of hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Bombi, G G; Corain, B; Favarato, M; Giordano, R; Nicolini, M; Perazzolo, M; Tapparo, A; Zatta, P

    1990-01-01

    Aluminum lactate [Al(lact)3] (hydrophilic, hydrolytically unstable) and aluminum acetylacetonate [Al(acae)3] (lipophilic, hydrolytically stable) were tested as potential toxicants to rabbits upon IV administration both as aqueous solutions and as liposome suspensions. Both chemicals behaved as cardiotoxic agents when administered as aqueous solutions, but Al(acae)3 was at least two orders of magnitude more active than Al(lact)3. Al(acae)3, but not Al(lact)3, caused myocardial infarcts resembling those in humans (with contraction bands) at doses as low as 0.24 mg/kg body weight, as well as a prominent acanthocytosis. Al(lact)3, when administered as a liposome suspension, was about 300 times more toxic than in aqueous solution, although cardiac damage was not infarctual in character. Both chemical and physical speciation of aluminum(III) thus play an essential role in determining the toxicity of the metal. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. PMID:2088750

  7. Repair of experimentally produced defects in rabbit articular cartilage by autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Grande, D.A.; Pitman, M.I.; Peterson, L.; Menche, D.; Klein, M.

    1989-01-01

    Using the knee joints of New Zealand White rabbits, a baseline study was made to determine the intrinsic capability of cartilage for healing defects that do not fracture the subchondral plate. A second experiment examined the effect of autologous chondrocytes grown in vitro on the healing rate of these defects. To determine whether any of the reconstituted cartilage resulted from the chondrocyte graft, a third experiment was conducted involving grafts with chondrocytes that had been labeled prior to grafting with a nuclear tracer. Results were evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative light microscopy. Macroscopic results from grafted specimens displayed a marked decrease in synovitis and other degenerative changes. In defects that had received transplants, a significant amount of cartilage was reconstituted (82%) compared to ungrafted controls (18%). Autoradiography on reconstituted cartilage showed that there were labeled cells incorporated into the repair matrix.

  8. Study of Outcome of an Implanted Autologous Auricular Cartilage: A Preliminary Experimental Research in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Belaldavar, B P; Mudhol, R S; Dhorigol, Vijaylaxmi; Belaldavar, Chetan; Desai, Satish; Garg, Rishav; Deshmukh, Onkar; Sinha, Mohit; Ganesh, S

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the viability of the implanted crushed and uncrushed auricular cartilage graft with intact perichondrium with respect to macroscopic and microscopic parameters. Cartilage grafts from 8 white New Zealand rabbits were harvested from the right auricle, with intact perichondrial layers. There were two categories Pre implant and Post-implant and two types, mildly crushed and uncrushed cartilage graft. The cartilage grafts were implanted into the subcutaneous pockets over the right upper paraspinal area. At the end of 2 months, implanted grafts were retrieved and examined histopathologically. There was a difference among the both types of cartilages in both the categories with respect to chronic inflammation, fibrosis, cartilage mass viability and vascularization. The mildly crushed auricular autologous cartilage with intact perichondrium does not lose the viability and maintains the structural integrity and thus increasing the clinical predictability for cosmetic correction of nose in rhinoplasty. PMID:27066402

  9. Experimental chronic obstructive lung disease. I. Bronchopulmonary changes induced in rabbits by prolonged exposure to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, J; Marinescu, D; Tapu, V; Eskenasy, A

    1978-01-01

    The prolonged exposure to formaldehyde induces in the rabbit lung reactional and dystrophic changes involving the intrapulmonary bronchi, the bronchioli and the lung tissue. These changes are represented by bronchial cell hyperplasia with hypermucigenesis, extrusion of bronchial cells, bronchiolar hypermucigenesis, parcellary squamous metaplasia or necrobiosis of epithelia, thickening of bronchial and bronchiolar walls by subepithelial cell accumulations, destruction of musculo-elastic structures with stenosis or ectasia; the vascular reactions are hyperhaemic and proliferative with an obstructive and fibrous tendency; the parenchymal lesions are atelectasias, intralobular emphysema, and cellular thickening of alveolar walls and interlobular areas. The acid phosphatase, Tween-60-esterase, naphthol-AS-D-acetate-esterase, proline-oxidase and hydroxyproline-2-epimerase activities are increasing, while the leucyl-aminopeptidase and beta-glucuronidase ones are decreasing. The qualitative observations are completed and sustained by quanitative studies of mucous cell kinetics, of cell accumulations and differentiations. PMID:151223

  10. Use of human nail for reconstruction of the orbital floor: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Görgülü, Tahsin; Akçal, Arzu; Uğurlu, Kemal

    2016-07-01

    The orbital floor is the thinnest part of the orbital wall, and in 20% of all maxillofacial injuries it is fractured. Autografts, allografts, and alloplastic materials are used in reconstruction, but there is no consensus about which material is the most appropriate. Nail is a semirigid material that is easy to reshape and is not antigenic. Alloplastic materials, which are used in reconstructions of the orbital floor, have various complications and are expensive. Autografts have donor-site problems, high rates of resorption, and take a long time to do. We created bilateral 10mm defects in the orbital floors in 18 New Zealand rabbits. We reconstructed the left orbital floors with double-ground human nail while the right orbital floors were left open as controls. The orbital floors were examined macroscopically and microscopically at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively, and there were no macroscopic signs of infection, inflammation, or extrusion. Forced duction tests showed that it was possible to induce movement of the eyeball for all 18 of the reconstructed sides throughout the observation period, and in 14 of the 18 rabbits on the control sides. Positive forced duction test shows us that orbital muscles are trapped in orbital floor defect and due to this movement of eyeball is restricted. Acute and chronic inflammation, fibrosis, vascularisation, and the presence of foreign body giant cells were evaluated microscopically. Acute inflammation and the presence of foreign body giant cells were recorded as mild, whereas fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and vascularisation were severe, as were epithelialisation on the maxillary sinus side of the nails, calcification, and progression of collagen. We found no signs of resorption of the nails. PMID:27090026

  11. Taurine and cholestasis associated to TPN. Experimental study in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Moran, J M; Salas, J; Botello, F; Macià, E; Climent, V

    2005-10-01

    Taurine seems to be essential in the newborn for bile acid (BA) tauroconjugation, and its deficiency has been implicated in total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (TPN-AC). Our purpose was to study the relationship between taurine (Ta) and TPN-AC in rabbits, which have a similar biliary metabolism to that of humans. We used 40 young rabbits, fed for 10 days according to the following four groups: GA [10] given TPN, with amino acid solution (AA) but without taurine (Ta) or its AA-precursors (methionine, cysteine, and serine); GB [10] the same but only without taurine; GC [10] the same but with taurine and its precursors; and GD [10] the control group with oral nutrition and saline infusion. Complete blood and bile analytical data were obtained and analyzed, including plasma AA and BA. Liver samples were studied under optical and electron microscopy. Serum: In GC there was a 20% increase in the AA-precursors, but paradoxically it was greater in GA. Bile: In GC there was 30% more excretion of total and free BA compared with less than 20% in GA and GB. Regarding toxic BA, there was a 15% decline in GLC3S excretion, but more than 20% in LCA excretion, than in GA and GB. Moreover, in GC the glyco-/tauro-conjugate ratio was worse than in the other groups. Histomorphology: While in GA and GB liver steatosis was diffuse (microsteatohepatitis type), in GC there was macrosteatosis with mitochondria-surrounded lipid droplets. In GA and GB, the canaliculi appeared dilated, with abundant bile plugs and loss of microvilli. There are signs that taurine may protect against TPN-AC. The mechanism does not seem to be BA tauroconjugation, but probably taurine's antioxidant, membrane stabilization (with Ca2+ and HCO3-), and/or osmotic effects. PMID:16172874

  12. Effect of intermittent cigarette smoke inhalation on tibial lengthening: experimental study on rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ueng, S W; Lee, M Y; Li, A F; Lin, S S; Tai, C L; Shih, C H

    1997-02-01

    We investigated the effect of intermittent cigarette smoke inhalation on the bone healing of tibial lengthening in rabbits. Thirty-eight male rabbits were divided into two groups of 19 animals each. The first group went through intermittent cigarette smoke inhalation, and the second group did not go through intermittent cigarette smoke inhalation. Each animal's right tibia was lengthened 5 mm using an uniplanar lengthening device. Five animals of each group were killed at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively for biomechanical testing, and one animal of each group was killed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively for histologic study. Using the contralateral nonoperated tibia as an internal control, we found that torsional strength of the lengthened tibia of the smoke inhalation group was decreased significantly compared with the non-smoke inhalation group. The mean percent of maximal torque at 4, 6, and 8 weeks were 22.0, 66.3, and 78.6%, respectively, in the smoke inhalation group, whereas the mean percent of maximal torque were 48.0, 84.1, and 90.8% %, respectively, in non-smoke inhalation group (one-tailed t test, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05 at 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively). Our histologic observations revealed that the granulation tissue resorption, bone formation, and remodeling were delayed in smoke inhalation group. The results of this study suggest that intermittent inhalation of cigarette smoke delays, but does not prevent, the bone healing in tibial lengthening. PMID:9042873

  13. Photopic negative response in diagnosis of glaucoma: an experimental study in glaucomatous rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    ElGohary, Amal A.; Elshazly, Laila Hassan M.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine whether the photopic negative response (PhNR) elicited by transient white flash on white background is characterizing for glaucoma model in rabbits. METHODS Glaucoma was induced in twelve rabbits by subconjunctival injection of 0.05 mL of betamethasone in right eyes (each 1 mL contain betamethasone dipropionate 5 mg and betamethasone sodium phosphate 2 mg).The intraocular pressure (IOP), electroretinogram (ERG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) were measured successively prior and on the 3, 7d, two weeks and four weeks postglaucoma induction. After four weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the globes were histopathologically examined. RESULTS The IOP increased significantly after one week (P=0.0001), then it gradually returned to the control level. In ERG examination, the means of a and b wave amplitude and latency were not affected significantly. PhNR amplitude decreased significantly within one week (P=0.0001), but its latency was not affected significantly (P=0.132). The means of VEP latency and amplitude were significantly affected after two weeks and four weeks of glaucoma induction (P=0.0001 and 0.02, respectively). The histopathologic examination of the globes showed reduced number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer with multiple vacuoles in the retinal nerve fibre layer.There was significant positive correlation between ganglion cell layer cells and PhNR amplitude (r=0.8, P=0.002). CONCLUSION The rise in IOP resulted in irreversible changes or incomplete recovery of VEP and PhNR amplitude. Both PhNR and VEP represented good additional tools in early diagnosis of glaucoma. PMID:26085991

  14. Pathophysiology of Atherosclerotic Plaque Development.

    PubMed

    Rognoni, Andrea; Cavallino, Chiara; Veia, Alessia; Bacchini, Sara; Rosso, Roberta; Facchini, Manuela; Secco, Gioel G; Lupi, Alessandro; Nardi, Federico; Rametta, Francesco; Bongo, Angelo S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases and in particular coronary atherosclerotic disease are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the industrialized countries. Coronary atherosclerosis has been recognized for over a century and it was the subject of various studies. Pathophysiological studies have unravelled the interactions of molecular and cellular elements involved in atherogenesis; during the last decades the basic research has focused on the study of the instability of atherosclerotic plaque. Plaque rupture and resulting intracoronary thrombosis are thought to account for most acute coronary syndromes including ST - segment elevation myocardial infarction and non ST - segment elevation myocardial infarction. This is a brief review of the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaque development. PMID:25544119

  15. Antirestenotic Effects of a Novel Polymer-Coated D-24851 Eluting Stent. Experimental Data in a Rabbit Iliac Artery Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lysitsas, Dimitrios N.; Katsouras, Christos S.; Papakostas, John C.; Toumpoulis, Ioannis K.; Angelidis, Charalampos; Bozidis, Petros; Thomas, Christopher G.; Seferiadis, Konstantin; Psychoyios, Nikolaos; Frillingos, Stathis; Pavlidis, Nikolaos; Marinos, Euaggelos; Khaldi, Lubna; Sideris, Dimitris A.; Michalis, Lampros K.

    2007-11-15

    Experimental and clinical data suggest that stents eluting antiproliferative agents can be used for the prevention of in-stent restenosis. Here we investigate in vitro the antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of D-24851 and evaluate the safety and efficacy of D-24851-eluting polymer-coated stents in a rabbit restenosis model (n = 53). Uncoated stents (n = 6), poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-coated stents (n = 7), and PLGA-coated stents loaded with 0.08 {+-} 0.0025 {mu}M (31 {+-} 1 {mu}g; low dose; n = 7), 0.55 {+-} 0.02 {mu}M (216 {+-} 8 {mu}g; high dose; n = 6), and 4.55 {+-} 0.1 {mu}M (1774 {+-} 39 {mu}g; extreme dose; n = 5) of D-24851 were randomly implanted in New Zealand rabbit right iliac arteries and the animals were sacrificed after 28 days for histomorphometric analysis. For the assessment of endothelial regrowth in 90 days, 12 rabbits were subjected to PLGA-coated (n = 3), low-dose (n = 3), high-dose (n = 3), and extreme-dose (n = 3) stent implantation. In vitro studies revealed that D-24851 exerts its growth inhibitory effects via inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis without increasing the expression of heat shock protein-70, a cytoprotective and antiapoptotic protein. Treatment with low-dose D-24851 stents was associated with a significant reduction in neointimal area and percentage stenosis only compared with bare metal stents (38% [P = 0.029] and 35% [P = 0.003] reduction, respectively). Suboptimal healing, however, was observed in all groups of D-24851-loaded stents in 90 days in comparison with PLGA-coated stents. We conclude that low-dose D-24851-eluting polymer-coated stents significantly inhibit neointimal hyperplasia at 28 days through inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis. In view of the suboptimal re-endothelialization, longer-term studies are needed in order to establish whether the inhibition of intimal growth is maintained.

  16. Hormonal and behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic experimental infestation with Psoroptes cuniculi in the domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic diseases are important in animal production because they cause high economic losses. Affected animals often exhibit stereotypical behavioral alterations such as anorexia and inactivity, among others. Among the diseases that commonly affect domestic rabbits is mange, which is caused by the mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Therefore, within the context of the host-parasite relationship, it is critical to understand the mechanisms involved in the alteration of host behavior, in order to better utilize sick animal behavior as a strategy for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Methods Rabbits were infested placing mites in the ear conduct. We characterized changes in exploratory behavior and scent marking evoked by acute (1-9 days) and chronic (25-33 days) experimental infestation. Behavior was recorded during ten minutes while the animals were in a 120 cm × 120 cm open field arena divided into 9 squares. Serum cortisol was measured individually using radioimmunoassay kits. Locomotor activity, chinning, rearing and body weight were compared using a Friedman test, the effect of treatment (infested versus non-infested) across time was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA, and the Pearson test was used to determine whether chinning and ambulation scores were significantly correlated. Serum cortisol levels and food consumption were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test and body temperature was analyzed with an ANOVA test. Results We observed a significant decrease in rearing behavior as early as two days post-infestation, while chinning and locomotor activity were significantly decreased four days post-infestation. Chronic infestation was associated with decreased food intake, significant weight loss, and a trend toward increased serum cortisol levels, while no changes were observed in body temperature. Conclusions The presence of visible lesions within the ear canal is commonly used to detect mite infestation in rabbits, but this is possible only after

  17. The Effect of Irreversible Electroporation on the Femur: Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Zheng, Jingjing; Yan, Mingwei; Ding, Weidong; Xu, Kui; Fan, Qingyu; Li, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel ablation method that has been tested in humans with lung, prostate, kidney, liver, lymph node and presacral cancers. As a new non-thermal treatment, the use of IRE to ablate tumors in the musculoskeletal system might reduce the incidence of fractures. We aimed to determine the ablation threshold of cortical bone and to evaluate the medium- and long-term healing process and mechanical properties of the femur in a rabbit model post-IRE ablation. The ablation threshold of cortical bone was between 1090 V/cm and 1310 V/cm (120 pulses). IRE-ablated femurs displayed no detectable fracture but did exhibit signs of recovery, including osteoblast regeneration, angiogenesis and bone remodeling. In the ablation area, revascularization appeared at 4 weeks post-IRE. Osteogenic activity peaked 8 weeks post-IRE and remained high at 12 weeks. The mechanical strength decreased briefly 4 weeks post-IRE but returned to normal levels within 8 weeks. Our experiment revealed that IRE ablation preserved the structural integrity of the bone cortex, and the ablated bone was able to regenerate rapidly. IRE may hold unique promise for in situ bone tissue ablation because rapid revascularization and active osteogenesis in the IRE ablation area are possible. PMID:26655843

  18. The Effect of Irreversible Electroporation on the Femur: Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yue; Zheng, Jingjing; Yan, Mingwei; Ding, Weidong; Xu, Kui; Fan, Qingyu; Li, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel ablation method that has been tested in humans with lung, prostate, kidney, liver, lymph node and presacral cancers. As a new non-thermal treatment, the use of IRE to ablate tumors in the musculoskeletal system might reduce the incidence of fractures. We aimed to determine the ablation threshold of cortical bone and to evaluate the medium- and long-term healing process and mechanical properties of the femur in a rabbit model post-IRE ablation. The ablation threshold of cortical bone was between 1090 V/cm and 1310 V/cm (120 pulses). IRE-ablated femurs displayed no detectable fracture but did exhibit signs of recovery, including osteoblast regeneration, angiogenesis and bone remodeling. In the ablation area, revascularization appeared at 4 weeks post-IRE. Osteogenic activity peaked 8 weeks post-IRE and remained high at 12 weeks. The mechanical strength decreased briefly 4 weeks post-IRE but returned to normal levels within 8 weeks. Our experiment revealed that IRE ablation preserved the structural integrity of the bone cortex, and the ablated bone was able to regenerate rapidly. IRE may hold unique promise for in situ bone tissue ablation because rapid revascularization and active osteogenesis in the IRE ablation area are possible. PMID:26655843

  19. Cysticercosis in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Owiny, J R

    2001-03-01

    There are no data on the current incidence of Taenia pisiformis in laboratory rabbits. Two cases of cysticercosis most likely due to T. pisiformis in laboratory rabbits (intermediate host) are presented. Both rabbits had no contact with dogs (final host); their caretakers did not work with dogs, and these caretakers changed into facility scrubs and wore gloves when working with the rabbits. Rabbit 1 may have been infected after being fed hay at our facility. In light of the life cycle of the parasite and the history of rabbit 2, it potentially could have been infected prior to arrival at our facility. There have been only three cases of tapeworm cysts in rabbits in our facility (average daily census, 250) during the last 10 years (incidence, < 1%). This report indicates that although cysticercosis is rare in laboratory rabbits, one should always be aware of such incidental findings. Although it may not produce overt illness in the rabbit, hepatic migration could adversely affect the outcome of some experimental procedures PMID:11300689

  20. Experimental femtosecond laser photodisruption of rabbit sclera for minimally invasive laser sclerostomy: An in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaobo; Dai, Nengli; Long, Hua; Lu, Peixiang; Li, Wan; Jiang, Fagang

    2010-07-01

    Femtosecond laser technology, used as a minimally invasive tool in intrastromal refractive surgery, may also have potential as a useful instrument for glaucoma filtration surgery. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of minimally invasive laser sclerostomy by femtosecond laser photodisruption and seek the appropriate patterns of laser ablation and relevant laser parameters. A femtosecond laser (800 nm/50 fs/1 kHz), focused by a 0.1 numerical aperture (NA) objective lens, with different pulse energies and exposure times was applied to ablate hydrated rabbit sclera in vitro. The irradiated samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By moving a three-dimensional, computer-controlled translation stage to which the sample was attached, the femtosecond laser could produce three types of ablation patterns, including linear ablation, cylindrical aperture and rectangular cavity. With pulse energies ranging from 37.5 to 150 μJ, the linear lesions were consistently observed at the inner surface of sclera, whereas it failed to make any photodisruption if pulse energy was below the threshold value of 31.25 μJ, with the corresponding threshold intensity of 4.06×10 14 W/cm 2. The depths of the linear lesions increased linearly with both pulse energy (37.5-150 μJ) and exposure time (0.1-0.4 s). Histological examination showed the incisions produced by femtosecond laser photodisruption had precise geometry and the edges were sharp and smooth, with no evidence of collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. Our results predict the potential application of femtosecond laser pulses in minimally invasive laser sclerostomy for glaucoma treatment.

  1. [Cholagogic effect of trimethylglycine in normal animals of different ages and in experimental atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Zapadniuk, V I; Panteleĭmonova, T N

    1987-07-01

    Trimethylglycine at a dose of 1.5 g/kg was found to produce marked bile secretory effect in young and old rats. In rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis, trimethylglycine increased the content of biliary acids in the bile and normalized the indexes of lipid metabolism in the blood serum. Apparently, the effect on cholesterol transformation into biliary acids and its excretion with the bile is one of the mechanisms of anti-atherosclerotic action of trimethylglycine. PMID:3620644

  2. Vaccinia viruses isolated from skin infection in horses produced cutaneous and systemic disease in experimentally infected rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, Juliana Felipetto; Schmidt, Candice; Masuda, Eduardo Kenji; Nogueira, Paula Rochelle Kurrle; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2012-10-01

    The susceptibility of rabbits to two isolates of Vaccinia virus (VACV) recovered from cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil was investigated. Rabbits were inoculated in the ear skin with both VACV isolates, either in single or mixed infection. All inoculated animals presented local skin lesions characterized by hyperaemia, papules, vesicles, pustules and ulcers. Infectious virus was detected in the lungs and intestine of rabbits that died during acute disease. Histological examination of the skin revealed changes characteristic of those associated with members of the genus Orthopoxvirus. These results demonstrate that rabbits develop skin disease accompanied by systemic signs upon intradermal inoculation of these two equine VACV isolates, either alone or in combination, opening the way for using rabbits to study selected aspects of the biology and pathogenesis of VACV infection. PMID:22244689

  3. Laser recanalization of occluded atherosclerotic arteries in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Abela, G S; Normann, S J; Cohen, D M; Franzini, D; Feldman, R L; Crea, F; Fenech, A; Pepine, C J; Conti, C R

    1985-02-01

    Controlled laser irradiation was used to recanalize atherosclerotic stenoses in vivo and in vitro. In 15 rabbits with atherosclerotic arteries a catheter was positioned in the distal aorta for angiographic examination and as a guide for a small silica optical fiber. Both Nd-YAG and argon lasers were used for recanalization with varying power and duration. As determined by angiographic studies the severity of iliofemoral stenoses in eight 15 arteries decreased from 78 +/- 18% to 32 +/- 11% (mean +/- SD). In one additional artery the stenosis improved from 45% to 25%, but this was associated with perforation. The other six arteries were perforated (two after fiber manipulation, four after laser discharge) without obvious improvement in severity of stenosis. No angiographic loss of distal circulation was noted. To better define tissue- laser interactions in the live-rabbits, lasing of 15 totally occluded atherosclerotic rabbit arterial segments in vitro was done while the optical fiber was advanced or fixed. When the fiber was fixed, serial sections showed that the new lumen was flame shaped. The width and depth of the lumen increased with increasing laser energy. When the fiber was advanced, histologic examination showed a smooth cylindrical vascular channel with limited lateral tissue damage. This study demonstrated that lasers can recanalize atherosclerotic stenoses in a live animal preparation; however, arterial perforation remains a problem. PMID:3965181

  4. Application of infrared fiber optic imaging in atherosclerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bujin; Casscells, S. W.; Bearman, Gregory H.; McNatt, Janice; Naghevi, Morteza; Malik, Basit A.; Gul, Khawar; Willerson, James T.

    1999-07-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques - the main cause of heart attach and stokes - is not predictable. Hence even treadmill stress tests fail to detect many persons at risk. Fatal plaques are found at autopsies to be associated with active inflammatory cells. Classically, inflammation is detected by its swelling, red color, pain and heat. We have found that heat accurately locates the dangerous plaques that are significantly warmer then atherosclerotic plaques without the same inflammation. In order to develop a non-surgical method of locating these plaques, an IR fiber optic imaging system has been developed in our laboratory to evalute the causes and effect of heat in atherosclerotic plaques. The fiber optical imagin bundle consists of 900 individual As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers which transmit IR radiation from 0.7 micrometers 7 micrometers with little energy loss. By combining that with a highly sensitive Indium Antimonide IR focal plane array detector, we are able to obtain thermal graphic images in situ. The temperature heterogeneity of atherosclerotic plaques developed in the arteral of the experimental animal models is under study with the new device. The preliminary experimental results from the animal model are encouraging. The potential of using this new technology in diagnostic evaluation of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is considerable.

  5. Vigna unguiculata modulates cholesterol induced cardiac markers, genotoxicity and gene expressions profile in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-04-25

    Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves are edible and used as a leafy vegetable in cuisine from traditional times in India. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of VU in cholesterol fed rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each and the experimental period was 3 months. Group I-ND [normal diet 40 g feed], Group II-ND + FVU [flavanoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg kg (-1) per body weight)], Group III-ND + CH [cholesterol (400 mg)] and Group IV-ND + CH (400 mg) +FVU (150 mg kg(-1) per body weight). After the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the various parameters, such as cardiac markers, toxicity parameters, genotoxicity and gene expression, were investigated. Cholesterol feeding causes a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, namely lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospokinase (CPK), atherogenic index, toxicity parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were elevated. Antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, lipid peroxidation products in heart tissue and inflammatory markers, namely cyclooxygenase (COX2) and lipooxygenase (LOX15) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs), were significantly increased. A genotoxicity study using a Comet assay and gene expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) from heart tissue showed an altered expression in the disease group. The supplementation of the flavonoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata leaves (FVU) in the CH + FVU group caused the reversal of the above parameters and cardiotoxicity to near normal when compared with the CH group and FVU. This study revealed the cardioprotective nature of Vigna unguiculata in preventing cardiovascular diseases and this effect is attributed to the presence of antioxidants and the antihyperlipidemic properties of the

  6. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis as a novel player in metabolic syndrome-induced erectile dysfunction: an experimental study in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Vignozzi, Linda; Filippi, Sandra; Comeglio, Paolo; Cellai, Ilaria; Sarchielli, Erica; Morelli, Annamaria; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maneschi, Elena; Galli, Andrea; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Saad, Farid; Mannucci, Edoardo; Adorini, Luciano; Maggi, Mario

    2014-03-25

    A pathogenic link between erectile dysfunction (ED) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is now well established. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the hepatic hallmark of MetS, is regarded as an active player in the pathogenesis of MetS-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between MetS-induced NASH and penile dysfunction. We used a non-genomic, high fat diet (HFD)-induced, rabbit model of MetS, and treated HFD rabbits with testosterone (T), with the selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA), or with the anti-TNFα mAb infliximab. Rabbits fed a regular diet were used as controls. Liver histomorphological and gene expression analysis demonstrated NASH in HFD rabbits. Several genes related to inflammation (including TNFα), activation of stellate cells, fibrosis, and lipid metabolism parameters were negatively associated to maximal acetylcholine (Ach)-induced relaxation in penis. When all these putative liver determinants of penile Ach responsiveness were tested as covariates in a multivariate model, only the association between hepatic TNFα expression and Ach response was confirmed. Accordingly, circulating levels of TNFα were increased 15-fold in HFD rabbits. T and OCA dosing in HFD rabbits both reduced TNFα liver expression and plasma levels, with a parallel increase of penile eNOS expression and responsiveness to Ach. Also neutralization of TNFα with infliximab treatment fully normalized HFD-induced hypo-responsiveness to Ach, as well as responsiveness to vardenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor. Thus, MetS-induced NASH in HFD rabbits plays an active role in the pathogenesis of ED, likely through TNFα, as indicated by treatments reducing liver and circulating TNFα levels (T or OCA), or neutralizing TNFα action (infliximab), which significantly improve penile responsiveness to Ach in HFD rabbits. PMID:24486698

  7. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  8. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  9. High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic arteries (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Ma, Teng; Qu, Yueqiao; Li, Jiawen; Yu, Mingyue; He, Youmin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the industrialized nations. Accurate quantification of both the morphology and composition of lipid-rich vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque are essential for early detection and optimal treatment in clinics. In previous works, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging for detection of lipid-rich plaque within coronary artery walls has been demonstrated in ex vivo, but the imaging speed is still limited. In order to increase the imaging speed, a high repetition rate laser is needed. In this work, we present a high speed integrated IVPA/US imaging system with a 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator laser at 1725 nm. A miniature catheter with 1.0 mm outer diameter was designed with a 200 μm multimode fiber and an ultrasound transducer with 45 MHz center frequency. The fiber was polished at 38 degree and enclosed in a glass capillary for total internal reflection. An optical/electrical rotary junction and pull-back mechanism was applied for rotating and linearly scanning the catheter to obtain three-dimensional imaging. Atherosclerotic rabbit abdominal aorta was imaged as two frame/second at 1725 nm. Furthermore, by wide tuning range of the laser wavelength from 1680 nm to 1770 nm, spectroscopic photoacoustic analysis of lipid-mimicking phantom and an human atherosclerotic artery was performed ex vivo. The results demonstrated that the developed IVPA/US imaging system is capable for high speed intravascular imaging for plaque detection.

  10. CO2 vascular anastomosis of atherosclerotic and calcified arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John V.; Leefmans, Eric; Stewart, Gwendolyn J.; Katz, Mira L.; Comerota, Anthony J.

    1990-06-01

    The technique for CO2 laser fusion vascular anastomosis in normal vessels has been well established. Normal arterial wall has a predictable thermal response to the incident laser energy, with rapid heating and cooling of collagen within the arterial wall. Since atherosclerosis involves subendothelial cellular proliferation, lipid and calcium deposition, it may modify the thermal responsiveness of the arterial wall. To this study, CO2 laser fusion anastomoses were attempted in rabbits with non-calcific atherosclerosis and humans with calcific atherosclerosis. All anastomoses were successfully completed without alteration in technique despite the presence of plaque at the site of laser fusion. Histology of rabbit vessels revealed the classic laser fusion cap within the adventitia and persistent atherosclerotic plaque at the flow surface. Duplex imaging of patients post-operatively demonstrated long term anastomotic patency in 2 of 3 fistulae. These results suggest that neither non-calcified or calcified atherosclerosis significantly alters the arterial wall thermal responsiveness to CO2 laser energy or inhibits creation of laser fusion anastomoses. Therefore, this technique may be applicable to the treatment of patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease.

  11. Low-Level Laser Therapy: An Experimental Design for Wound Management: A Case-Controlled Study in Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Hodjati, Hossein; Rakei, Siamak; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi; Geramizedeh, Bita; Sabet, Babak; Zeraatian, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a wide array of articles in medical literature for and against the laser effect on wound healing but without discrete effect determination or conclusion. This experimental study aims to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy on wound healing. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four rabbits were randomly enrolled in two groups after creating a full thickness of 3 × 3 cm wound. The intervention group received low density laser exposure (4 J/cm2) on days 0, 3 and 6 with diode helium-neon low-intensity laser device (wl = 808 nm) and in control group moist wound dressing applied. Finally, wound-healing process was evaluated by both gross and pathological assessment. Results: Fibrin formation was the same in the two groups (P = 0.4) but epithelialisation was much more in laser group (P = 0.02). Wound inflammation of the laser group was smaller than that of the control groups but statistical significance was not shown (P = 0.09). Although more smooth muscle actin was found in the wounds of the laser group but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.3). Wound diameter showed significant decrease in wound area in laser group (P = 0.003). Conclusion: According to our study, it seems that low-level laser therapy accelerates wound healing at least in some phases of healing process. So, we can conclude that our study also shows some hopes for low level laser therapy effect on wound healing at least in animal model. PMID:24761093

  12. Exogenous connexin43-expressing autologous skeletal myoblasts ameliorate mechanical function and electrical activity of the rabbit heart after experimental infarction

    PubMed Central

    Antanavičiūtė, Ieva; Ereminienė, Eglė; Vysockas, Vaidas; Račkauskas, Mindaugas; Skipskis, Vilius; Rysevaitė, Kristina; Treinys, Rimantas; Benetis, Rimantas; Jurevičius, Jonas; Skeberdis, Vytenis A

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. For regeneration of the rabbit heart after experimentally induced infarction we used autologous skeletal myoblasts (SMs) due to their high proliferative potential, resistance to ischaemia and absence of immunological and ethical concerns. The cells were characterized with muscle-specific and myogenic markers. Cell transplantation was performed by injection of cell suspension (0.5 ml) containing approximately 6 million myoblasts into the infarction zone. The animals were divided into four groups: (i) no injection; (ii) sham injected; (iii) injected with wild-type SMs; and (iv) injected with SMs expressing connexin43 fused with green fluorescent protein (Cx43EGFP). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was evaluated by 2D echocardiography in vivo before infarction, when myocardium has stabilized after infarction, and 3 months after infarction. Electrical activity in the healthy and infarction zones of the heart was examined ex vivo in Langendorff-perfused hearts by optical mapping using di-4-ANEPPS, a potential sensitive fluorescent dye. We demonstrate that SMs in the coculture can couple electrically not only to abutted but also to remote acutely isolated allogenic cardiac myocytes through membranous tunnelling tubes. The beneficial effect of cellular therapy on LVEF and electrical activity was observed in the group of animals injected with Cx43EGFP-expressing SMs. L-type Ca2+ current amplitude was approximately fivefold smaller in the isolated SMs compared to healthy myocytes suggesting that limited recovery of LVEF may be related to inadequate expression or function of L-type Ca2+ channels in transplanted differentiating SMs. PMID:25529770

  13. Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Spitalewitz, Samuel; Reiser, Ira W.

    1996-04-01

    hydronephrosis. Both kidneys were noted to be echogenic. Assays for antinuclear antibodies and antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies were negative, and the patient's serum complement levels were normal. For several days after his admission, his serum creatinine gradually rose to 10.7 mg/dl, and hemodialysis was initiated for uremic encephalopathy. Because of the high index of suspicion for renal artery stenosis as the case of both his hypertension and renal failure, a renal angiogram was performed. It revealed a 90% occlusion of the right renal artery with ostial involvement and a 70% occlusion of the left renal artery; both kidneys had poor distal renal vasculature and there was marked atherosclerotic disease of the aorta. After being hemodialyzed for 3 treatments, his renal function began to improve spontaneously. His serum creatinine returned to 3.4 mg/dl, and a subsequent 24-hour urine demonstrated a creatinine clearance of 20 ml/min and an excretion of 1.2 g of protein. Following his discharge from the hospital, his renal function remained unchanged for 3 years, and his blood pressure was easily controlled on monotherapy with a long-acting calcium channel blocker. He recently died from pneumonia. PMID:11862267

  14. Recombinant vaccine displaying the loop-neutralizing determinant from protective antigen completely protects rabbits from experimental inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Yu, Fen; Jacobs, Jana L; Cease, Kemp B

    2013-03-01

    We previously showed that a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) vaccine displaying amino acids (aa) 304 to 319 from the 2β2-2β3 loop of protective antigen was capable of protecting rabbits from an aerosolized spore challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames strain. Antibodies to this sequence, referred to as the loop-neutralizing determinant (LND), are highly potent at neutralizing lethal toxin yet are virtually absent in rabbit and human protective antigen (PA) antiserum. While the MAP vaccine was protective against anthrax, it contains a single heterologous helper T cell epitope which may be suboptimal for stimulating an outbred human population. We therefore engineered a recombinant vaccine (Rec-LND) containing two tandemly repeated copies of the LND fused to maltose binding protein, with enhanced immunogenicity resulting from the p38/P4 helper T cell epitope from Schistosoma mansoni. Rec-LND was found to be highly immunogenic in four major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-diverse strains of mice. All (7/7) rabbits immunized with Rec-LND developed high-titer antibody, 6 out of 7 developed neutralizing antibody, and all rabbits were protected from an aerosolized spore challenge of 193 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) of the B. anthracis Ames strain. Survivor serum from Rec-LND-immunized rabbits revealed significantly increased neutralization titers and specific activity compared to prechallenge levels yet lacked PA or lethal factor (LF) antigenemia. Control rabbits immunized with PA, which were also completely protected, appeared sterilely immune, exhibiting significant declines in neutralization titer and specific activity compared to prechallenge levels. We conclude that Rec-LND may represent a prototype anthrax vaccine for use alone or potentially combined with PA-containing vaccines. PMID:23283638

  15. Histology of experimental stress ulcer: the effect of cimetidine on adrenaline-induced gastric lesions in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Man, W. K.; Silcocks, P. B.; Waldes, R.; Spencer, J.

    1981-01-01

    The gastric mucosal injury produced by i.p. instillation of adrenaline in the rabbit was examined and assessed histologically. Mucosal lesions were classified by microscopy into two types bearing distinct histological features. In Type A oedema only was seen and in Type B erosion and/or haemorrhage were added. Statistical analysis revealed that mucosal lesions were related to adrenaline dose. Cimetidine was ineffective in protecting against the stress-related gastric lesion in the present rabbit model. Biochemical studies demonstrated that severe lesions were associated with depleted mucosal histamine. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7295535

  16. [Para-aminobenzoic acid in therapy of experimental keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus in rabbits: the therapeutic effect and decrease of infectious titer].

    PubMed

    Akberova, S I; Leont'eva, N A; Stroeva, O G; Galegov, G A

    1996-01-01

    Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in low concentrations exerted an antiherpetic effect with a good therapeutic result in rabbits with experimental keratoconjunctivitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) (experimental group). In group 2 (control) 0.9% NaCl solution was used as placebo. The animals were infected by instillation of HSV-1 on the cornea predissected with a bifurcation needle. The severity of keratitis was assessed in scores after A. A. Kasparov et al. PABA and placebo were administered starting from day 3 postinfection as subconjunctival injections and then instillations. In experimental group (5 rabbits, 10 eyes) the degree of keratitis reduced from 3.0 +/- 0.2 to 1.7 +/- 0.1 points within the first 4 days. Complete epithelialization was over by day 4.4 +/- 0.4, clinical cure was attained by days 12-13. In control group (6 rabbits, 12 eyes) erosion of the cornea and severity of keratitis increased from 2.9 +/- 0.07 to 3.8 +/- 0.2 points by day 4 postinoculation after placebo was started, after which it reduced; epithelialization was over by day 8.2 +/- 0.3, clinical cure by days 13-14. Infective titer in the cornea was determined in VERO cell culture from the degree of virus-induced cytopathogenic effect and expressed in lgTCE50. On day 13 this parameter was reliably higher in the control group in comparison with the experimental (3.2 vs. 1.8), this confirming the virucidal effect of PABA. PMID:9019907

  17. An overview on development and application of an experimental platform for quantitative cardiac imaging research in rabbit models of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yuanbo; Bogaert, Jan; Oyen, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    To exploit the advantages of using rabbits for cardiac imaging research and to tackle the technical obstacles, efforts have been made under the framework of a doctoral research program. In this overview article, by cross-referencing the current literature, we summarize how we have developed a preclinical cardiac research platform based on modified models of reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) in rabbits; how the in vivo manifestations of cardiac imaging could be closely matched with those ex vivo macro- and microscopic findings; how these imaging outcomes could be quantitatively analyzed, validated and demonstrated; and how we could apply this cardiac imaging platform to provide possible solutions to certain lingering diagnostic and therapeutic problems in experimental cardiology. In particular, tissue components in acute cardiac ischemia have been stratified and characterized, post-infarct lipomatous metaplasia (LM) as a common but hardly illuminated clinical pathology has been identified in rabbit models, and a necrosis avid tracer as well as an anti-ischemic drug have been successfully assessed for their potential utilities in clinical cardiology. These outcomes may interest the researchers in the related fields and help strengthen translational research in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25392822

  18. In vivo efficacy of moxifloxacin compared with cloxacillin and vancomycin in a Staphylococcus aureus rabbit arthritis experimental model.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Olivier; Caillon, Jocelyne; Arvieux, Cedric; Jacqueline, Cedric; Bugnon, Denis; Potel, Gilles; Hamel, Antoine

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the efficacies of moxifloxacin, cloxacillin, and vancomycin in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus arthritis. No significant difference between therapeutic regimens was observed after a 7-day treatment. Oral moxifloxacin could be a suitable alternative to standard parenteral therapy for S. aureus arthritis. PMID:17576849

  19. Cap buckling as a potential mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Abdelali, Maria; Reiter, Steven; Mongrain, Rosaire; Bertrand, Michel; L'Allier, Philippe L; Kritikou, Ekaterini A; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2014-04-01

    Plaque rupture in atherosclerosis is the primary cause of potentially deadly coronary events, yet about 40% of ruptures occur away from the plaque cap shoulders and cannot be fully explained with the current biomechanical theories. Here, cap buckling is considered as a potential destabilizing factor which increases the propensity of the atherosclerotic plaque to rupture and which may also explain plaque failure away from the cap shoulders. To investigate this phenomenon, quasistatic 2D finite element simulations are performed, considering the salient geometrical and nonlinear material properties of diverse atherosclerotic plaques over the range of physiological loads. The numerical results indicate that buckling may displace the location of the peak von Mises stresses in the deflected caps. Plaque buckling, together with its deleterious effects is further observed experimentally in plaque caps using a physical model of deformable mock coronary arteries with fibroatheroma. Moreover, an analytical approach combining quasistatic equilibrium equations with the Navier-Bresse formulas is used to demonstrate the buckling potential of a simplified arched slender cap under intraluminal pressure and supported by foundations. This analysis shows that plaque caps - calcified, fibrotic or cellular - may buckle in specific undulated shapes once submitted to critical loads. Finally, a preliminary analysis of intravascular ultrasonography recordings of patients with atherosclerotic coronary arteries corroborates the numerical, experimental and theoretical findings and shows that various plaque caps buckle in vivo. By displacing the sites of high stresses in the plaque cap, buckling may explain the atherosclerotic plaque cap rupture at various locations, including cap shoulders. PMID:24491969

  20. Enhanced Ablation of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound with Microbubbles: An Experimental Study on Rabbit Hepatic VX2 Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    He Wei; Wang Wei Zhou Ping; Wang, Yixiang J.; Zhou Peng; Li Ruizhen; Wang Jinsheng; Ahuja, Anil T.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the enhanced effect of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation with microbubbles on rabbit hepatic VX2 tumors and to compare the detection sensitivity of CEUS and CECT to determine the residual viable tissue after ablation of HIFU. Methods: Forty rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumors were randomly separated into two groups (20 animals per group) before HIFU ablation. A bolus of 0.2 mL of saline or a microbubble-based ultrasound (US) contrast agent was injected intravenously to group I rabbits and group II rabbits, respectively. The HIFU ablation procedure was started 15 s after the injection. Tumors were examined with grayscale contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) immediately before and after HIFU ablation. Histopathologic assessment was performed immediately after treatment imaging. Results: Before ablation, intense contrast enhancement during arterial phase was observed at the whole tumors or the periphery of the tumors by CEUS and CECT. Lower HIFU energy was used in group II than in group I (P < 0.001). Histopathologic assessment revealed local residual viable tumor tissues due to incomplete ablation in 47.4% (9/19) of tumors in group I and 10% (2/20) of tumors in group II (P < 0.05). The concordance rate of CEUS (90.9%) with histopathology on residual tumor detection was higher than that of CECT (27.3%, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Introduction of the microbubble agent enhances HIFU therapeutic efficacy. CEUS proves to have high sensitivity in assessment of residual viable rabbit VX2 tumor after HIFU.

  1. [Anti-infectious activity of intravitreal injectable voriconazole microspheres on experimental rabbit fungal endophthalmitis of Aspergillus fumigatus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Na; Xin, Meng; Wu, Xiang-Gen; Jiang, Hao-Ran

    2010-06-01

    The therapeutic effect of sustained intravitreal injectable voriconazole microspheres (VCZ-MS) on an experimental endophthalmitis of Aspergillus fumigatus was investigated. VCZ-MS was prepared successfully and its physico-chemical property was also evaluated. Right eyes of albino rabbits were infected with an intravitreal injection of 1 000 CFU x mL(-1) of susceptible Aspergillus fumigatus. All fungal endophthalmitis models were randomly divided into five groups 48 hours later: Group A is control group with no treatment; in group B, vitrectomy was performed combined with intravitreal 3 times injections of 100 microg x 0.1 mL(-1) voriconazole every other day. In group C, D and E, vitrectomy was performed combined with intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 1.5 mg VCZ-MS respectively. The treatment effect was assessed by slit lamp and indirect ophthalmoscope funduscopy examination, using clinical grading system of inflammation in the anterior chamber and the vitreous opacity. The optical microscopy revealed that microspheres obtained from the experiment design were opaque, discrete and spherical particles with smooth surfaces. The drug content and encapsulation efficiency of microspheres were 29.94% and 73.5%, respectively. Endophthalmitis occurred in all eyes of group A, and rapidly developed to panophthalmitis. The inflammation grade of group B, C, D or E was lower than that of group A (P < 0.05). The grade of vitreous opacity in group C, D, E is lower than group B (P < 0.05). Two eyes in group C developed to panophthalmitis. But in group D and E, all eyes whose inflammation was controlled had no recurrence with vitreous clear. Histopathological examination showed normal structures in the cured eyes, while most uncured eyes were atrophic and with eyeball destroyed. So, it can be safely concluded that the curative effect of intravitreal VCZ-MS is significantly better than that of routine intraocular injection of voriconazole. The optimal dose is the one

  2. STUDIES IN EXPERIMENTAL SYPHILIS : VII. REINOCULATION OF TREATED AND UNTREATED SYPHILITIC RABBITS WITH HETEROLOGOUS STRAINS OF TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.

    PubMed

    Chesney, A M; Halley, C R; Kemp, J E

    1927-07-31

    Syphilitic rabbits, whether untreated or treated after the 90th day of infection, were found to be more refractory to subsequent inoculation with the homologous strain of Treponema pallidum than to inoculation with heterologous strains of the same organism, when clinical criteria alone were employed in judging the outcome of reinoculation. The incidence of second infection with homologous strains was 5.4 per cent, as against 50 per cent with heterologous strains.(2) The resistance which develops in rabbits during the course of a syphilitic infection appears therefore to be strain-specific rather than species-specific. The protection afforded against homologous strains was found to persist for at least as long as 6 months after treatment was discontinued. A given strain may afford a higher degree of protection against some strains than against others, but whether this is to be explained upon the basis of biologic relationship or of differences in virulence, or possibly as the result of both of these factors was not disclosed by the experiments. Rabbits infected with a strain (Nichols) which had been adapted to this species for over a decade could be infected with strains which had been recovered recently from the human body. The previous existence of a syphilitic lesion in the testis which was used as the site for reinoculation did not seem to exert any influence upon the incidence of successful second infections obtained with heterologous strains of Treponema pallidum. Sometimes the course of the second infection produced by inoculation with heterologous strains was less pronounced than that observed in the controls, but in most instances no significant alteration was observed. In syphilitic rabbits treated late in the course of the disease and reinoculated with heterologous strains of Treponema pallidum no lesion may develop at the site of reinoculation but nevertheless the Wassermann reaction may become positive and remain so for weeks thereafter. It is suggested

  3. Anatomical features for an adequate choice of experimental animal model in biomedicine: II. Small laboratory rodents, rabbit, and pig.

    PubMed

    Lossi, Laura; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Merighi, Adalberto

    2016-03-01

    The anatomical features distinctive to each of the very large array of species used in today's biomedical research must be born in mind when considering the correct choice of animal model(s), particularly when translational research is concerned. In this paper we take into consideration and discuss the most important anatomical and histological features of the commonest species of laboratory rodents (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and gerbil), rabbit, and pig related to their importance for applied research. PMID:26527557

  4. Comparison of the effects of mitomycin C and 10-hydroxycamptothecin on an experimental intraarticular adhesion model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Yan, Lianqi; Wang, Jingcheng; Sun, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Lu, Zhihua; Wang, Qi; Liu, Zhengdong; Hu, Jinlong

    2013-03-01

    The study was to compare the preventive effects of the local application of mitomycin C (MMC) and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) on reducing intraarticular adhesion after knee surgery in rabbit model. Thirty-six New-Zealand rabbits were randomly and equally divided into three groups: MMC, HCPT and control group. Approximately 10 mm × 10 mm of the cortical bone was removed from both sides of left femoral condyle and the cancellous bone underneath was exposed. The exposed decorticated areas were covered with cotton pads soaked with MMC (0.1mg/ml), HCPT (0.1mg/ml) and physiological saline for 10 min. The left knee joint was then fixed in the fully flexed position with a Kirschner wire for 4 weeks after surgery. The rabbits were killed after 4 weeks and multiple parameters including the macroscopic evaluation, the hydroxyproline content, the histological evaluation and the fibroblast counts were used to evaluate the effect of MMC and HCPT on preventing intraarticular adhesion. The results showed that weak fibrous adhesions were found around the decorticated areas in MMC group and moderate intraarticular adhesions were found in HCPT group. However, there were severe fibrous adhesions around the decorticated areas in control group. The hydroxyproline contents and the fibroblast numbers of MMC and HCPT group were significantly less than those of control group. In conclusion, our data showed that topical application of MMC and HCPT could prevent intraarticular adhesion after knee surgery in rabbit model, but MMC had a better preventive effect than that of HCPT. PMID:23422876

  5. Is low-intensity pulsed ultrasound effective for revitalizing a severely necrotic small bone? An experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Ishii, Tomoo; Mishima, Hajime; Nishino, Tomofumi; Watanabe, Arata; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2011-12-01

    Previously, we successfully applied a new method composed of drilling, bone marrow transplantation (BMT), external fixation and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for the clinical treatment of Kienböck's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether bone regeneration can be induced by LIPUS and/or multiple drilling and/or BMT within a severely necrotic small-bone rabbit model. Eighteen rabbits were divided into three groups (BMT, drilling and control) and LIPUS stimulation was introduced daily for 8 weeks post-transplantation. Next, 12 additional rabbits were produced for the BMT group and LIPUS stimulation was introduced daily for 4 and 12 weeks (n = 6 for each). Histopathologically, new bone formations were rarely observed in the drilling and control groups. In the BMT group, the mineralizing surface areas of LIPUS(+) showed a significant increase compared with LIPUS(-) for 8 weeks. LIPUS treatment alone did not accelerate the revitalization of necrotic bones. However, LIPUS combined with BMT tended to promote new bone formation. PMID:21963034

  6. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits. PMID:25277507

  7. Quantitative nonlinear optical assessment of atherosclerosis progression in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B; Kohlenberg, Elicia K; Smith, Michael; Hewko, Mark; Major, Arkady; Sowa, Michael G; Ko, Alex C-T

    2014-07-01

    Quantification of atherosclerosis has been a challenging task owing to its complex pathology. In this study, we validated a quantitative approach for assessing atherosclerosis progression in a rabbit model using a numerical matrix, optical index for plaque burden, derived directly from the nonlinear optical microscopic images captured on the atherosclerosis-affected blood vessel. A positive correlation between this optical index and the severity of atherosclerotic lesions, represented by the age of the rabbits, was established based on data collected from 21 myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits with age ranging between new-born and 27 months old. The same optical index also accurately identified high-risk locations for atherosclerotic plaque formation along the entire aorta, which was validated by immunohistochemical fluorescence imaging. PMID:24892226

  8. Iodine-125 Seeds Strand for Treatment of Tumor Thrombus in Inferior Vena Cava: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wen Yan, Zhiping Luo, Jianjun Fang, Zhuting Wu, Linlin Liu, QingXin Qu, Xudong Liu, Lingxiao Wang, Jianhua

    2013-10-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish an animal model of implanted inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (IVCTT) and to evaluate the effect of linear iodine-125 seeds strand in treating implanted IVCTT. Methods: Tumor cell line VX{sub 2} was inoculated subcutaneously into New Zealand rabbit to develop the parent tumor. The tumor strip was inoculated into inferior vena cava (IVC) to establish the IVCTT model. The IVCTT was confirmed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) after 2 weeks. Twelve rabbits with IVCTT were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (group T; n = 6) underwent Iodine-125 seeds brachytherapy, and the control group (group C; n = 6) underwent blank seeds strand. The blood laboratory examination (including blood routine examination, hepatic and renal function), body weight, survival time, and IVCTT volume by MDCT were monitored. All rabbits were dissected postmortem, and the therapeutic effects were evaluated on the basis of histopathology. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index (PI) and apoptosis index (AI) of IVCTT were compared between two groups. T test, Wilcoxon rank test, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis were used. Results: The success rate of establishing IVCTT was 100 %. The body weight loss and cachexia of rabbits in group C appeared earlier than in group T. Body weight in the third week, the mean survival time, PI, AI in groups T and C were 2.23 {+-} 0.12 kg, 57.83 {+-} 8.68 days, (16.73 {+-} 5.18 %), (29.47 {+-} 7.18 %), and 2.03 {+-} 0.13 kg, 43.67 {+-} 5.28 days, (63.01 {+-} 2.01 %), (6.02 {+-} 2.93 %), respectively. There were statistically significant differences between group T and group C (P < 0.05). The IVCTT volume of group T was remarkably smaller than that of group C. Conclusions: Injecting and suspensory fixing VX2 tumor strip into IVC is a reliable method to establish IVCTT animal model. The linear Iodine-125 seeds strand brachytherapy was a safe and effective method for treating IVCTT

  9. BESNOITIA ORYCTOFELISI N. SP. (PROTOZOA: APICOMPLEXA) FROM DOMESTIC RABBITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A species of Besnoitia from naturally infected rabbits from Argentina was propagated experimentally in mice, gerbils, rabbits, cats, and cell cultures. Cats fed tissue cysts from rabbits shed oocysts with a prepatent period of nine to 13 days. Sporulated oocysts were infective to gerbils, rabbits,...

  10. Management of atherosclerotic renovascular disease after Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL).

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Sandra M S; Saad, Ahmed; Textor, Stephen C

    2015-03-01

    Many patients with occlusive atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial and the Stent Placement and Blood Pressure and Lipid-Lowering for the Prevention of Progression of Renal Dysfunction Caused by Atherosclerotic Ostial Stenosis of the Renal Artery (STAR) and ASTRAL. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Although hemodynamically significant, ARVD can reduce renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate; adaptive mechanisms preserve both cortical and medullary oxygenation over a wide range of vascular occlusion. Progression of ARVD to severe vascular compromise eventually produces cortical hypoxia, however, associated with active inflammatory cytokine release and cellular infiltration of the renal parenchyma. In such cases ARVD produces a loss of glomerular filtration rate that no longer is reversible simply by restoring vessel patency with technically successful renal revascularization. Each of these trials reported adverse renal functional outcomes ranging between 16 and 22% over periods of 2-5 years of follow-up. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of ARVD for clinical nephrologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials and experimental research. PMID:24723543

  11. Noninvasive imaging of focal atherosclerotic lesions using fluorescence molecular tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Dolonchampa; Solomon, Metasebya; Nguyen, Annie; Pierce, Richard A.; Woodard, Pamela K.; Akers, Walter J.; Achilefu, Samuel; Culver, Joseph P.; Abendschein, Dana R.; Shokeen, Monica

    2014-11-01

    Insights into the etiology of stroke and myocardial infarction suggest that rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaque is the precipitating event. Clinicians lack tools to detect lesion instability early enough to intervene, and are often left to manage patients empirically, or worse, after plaque rupture. Noninvasive imaging of the molecular events signaling prerupture plaque progression has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with myocardial infarction and stroke by allowing early intervention. Here, we demonstrate proof-of-principle in vivo molecular imaging of C-type natriuretic peptide receptor in focal atherosclerotic lesions in the femoral arteries of New Zealand white rabbits using a custom built fiber-based, fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) system. Longitudinal imaging showed changes in the fluorescence signal intensity as the plaque progressed in the air-desiccated vessel compared to the uninjured vessel, which was validated by ex vivo tissue studies. In summary, we demonstrate the potential of FMT for noninvasive detection of molecular events leading to unstable lesions heralding plaque rupture.

  12. Expression of the matrix receptor CD44v5 on chondrocytes changes with osteoarthritis: an experimental investigation in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Tibesku, C O; Szuwart, T; Ocken, S A; Skwara, A; Fuchs, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the expression of CD44v5 on chondrocytes of hyaline cartilage during the course of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods In 12 white New Zealand rabbits the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was resected to create an anterior instability of the knee. In 12 control rabbits only a sham operation without resection of the ACL was done. Four animals of each group were killed at 3, 6, and 12 weeks. The loadbearing area was evaluated histologically according to Mankin and by immunostaining for CD44v5. Results In the trial group, histological grades of OA showed a positive linear correlation with the time after surgery. Immunostaining showed an increased expression of CD44v5 in the control group after 3 and 6 weeks, which dropped to normal after 12 weeks. There was no difference between control and trial groups after 3 and 6 weeks, but a difference was seen after 12 weeks. A significant positive correlation between CD44v5 expression and the histological grade of OA was found (r = 0.314). Conclusions An in vivo increase of expression of the hyaluronan receptor CD44v5 occurs during the course of OA. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether this pattern applies to man and whether new treatment approaches might evolve from this knowledge. PMID:16344493

  13. Imaging Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification: Translating Biology.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Grant; Meadows, Judith; Morrison, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Calcification of atherosclerotic lesions was long thought to be an age - related, passive process, but increasingly data has revealed that atherosclerotic calcification is a more active process, involving complex signaling pathways and bone-like genetic programs. Initially, imaging of atherosclerotic calcification was limited to gross assessment of calcium burden, which is associated with total atherosclerotic burden and risk of cardiovascular mortality and of all cause mortality. More recently, sophisticated molecular imaging studies of the various processes involved in calcification have begun to elucidate information about plaque calcium composition and consequent vulnerability to rupture, leading to hard cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. As such, there has been renewed interest in imaging calcification to advance risk assessment accuracy in an evolving era of precision medicine. Here we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the biologic process of atherosclerotic calcification as well as some of the molecular imaging tools used to assess it. PMID:27339750

  14. A single-photon fluorescence and multi-photon spectroscopic study of atherosclerotic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael S. D.; Ko, Alex C. T.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Schattka, Bernie; Pegoraro, Adrian; Hewko, Mark D.; Shiomi, Masashi; Stolow, Albert; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-06-01

    In this study we compare the single-photon autofluorescence and multi-photon emission spectra obtained from the luminal surface of healthy segments of artery with segments where there are early atherosclerotic lesions. Arterial tissue was harvested from atherosclerosis-prone WHHL-MI rabbits (Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit-myocardial infarction), an animal model which mimics spontaneous myocardial infarction in humans. Single photon fluorescence emission spectra of samples were acquired using a simple spectrofluorometer set-up with 400 nm excitation. Samples were also investigated using a home built multi-photon microscope based on a Ti:sapphire femto-second oscillator. The excitation wavelength was set at 800 nm with a ~100 femto-second pulse width. Epi-multi-photon spectroscopic signals were collected through a fibre-optics coupled spectrometer. While the single-photon fluorescence spectra of atherosclerotic lesions show minimal spectroscopic difference from those of healthy arterial tissue, the multi-photon spectra collected from atherosclerotic lesions show marked changes in the relative intensity of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) signals when compared with those from healthy arterial tissue. The observed sharp increase of the relative SHG signal intensity in a plaque is in agreement with the known pathology of early lesions which have increased collagen content.

  15. Fluorescence imaging of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques using plasmonic gold nanorose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Sapozhnikova, Veronika; Mancuso, J. Jacob; Willsey, Brian; Qiu, Jinze; Ma, Li L.; Li, Xiankai; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2011-03-01

    Macrophages are one of the most important cell types involved in the progression of atherosclerosis which can lead to myocardial infarction. To detect macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques, plasmonic gold nanorose is introduced as a nontoxic contrast agent for fluorescence imaging. We report macrophage cell culture and ex vivo tissue studies to visualize macrophages targeted by nanorose using scanning confocal microscopy. Atherosclerotic lesions were created in the aorta of a New Zealand white rabbit model subjected to a high cholesterol diet and double balloon injury. The rabbit was injected with nanoroses coated with dextran. A HeNe laser at 633 nm was used as an excitation light source and a acousto-optical beam splitter was utilized to collect fluorescence emission in 650-760 nm spectral range. Results of scanning confocal microscopy of macrophage cell culture and ex vivo tissue showed that nanoroses produce a strong fluorescence signal. The presence of nanorose in ex vivo tissue was further confirmed by photothermal wave imaging. These results suggest that scanning confocal microscopy can identify the presence and location of nanorose-loaded macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques.

  16. Bone regeneration and infiltration of an anisotropic composite scaffold: an experimental study of rabbit cranial defect repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Jidong; You, Fu; Li, Yubao; Zuo, Yi; Li, Limei; Jiang, Jiaxing; Qu, Yili; Lu, Minpeng; Man, Yi; Zou, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Tissue formation on scaffold outer edges after implantation may restrict cell infiltration and mass transfer to/from the scaffold center due to insufficient interconnectivity, leading to incidence of a necrotic core. Herein, a nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (n-HA/PA66) anisotropic scaffold with axially aligned channels was prepared with the aim to enhance pore interconnectivity. Bone tissue regeneration and infiltration inside of scaffold were assessed by rabbit cranial defect repair experiments. The amount of newly formed bone inside of anisotropic scaffold was much higher than isotropic scaffold, e.g., after 12 weeks, the new bone volume in the inner pores was greater in the anisotropic scaffolds (>50%) than the isotropic scaffolds (<30%). The results suggested that anisotropic scaffolds could accelerate the inducement of bone ingrowth into the inner pores in the non-load-bearing bone defects compared to isotropic scaffolds. Thus, anisotropic scaffolds hold promise for the application in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26775692

  17. From anatomy to function: diagnosis of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Odudu, Aghogho; Vassallo, Diana; Kalra, Philip A

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) affects 7% of the over 65 s and will be increasingly common with an ageing population. ARAS obstructs normal renal perfusion with adverse renal and cardiovascular consequences. Drug therapy is directed at reducing atherosclerotic risk. Two recent major trials of revascularization for ARAS showed that clinical outcomes were not improved beyond those offered by optimal drug therapy in most patients. This reflects experimental data showing that restoration of blood flow alone may not attenuate a cascade of tissue injury. A shift from anatomic to functional imaging of ARAS coupled to novel therapies might improve clinical outcomes in selected patients. This review outlines the case for separately assessing hemodynamic significance of arterial stenosis and functional reserve of renal parenchymal tissue. The authors consider current and emerging diagnostic techniques for ARAS and their potential to allow individualized and functionally directed treatments. PMID:26480218

  18. Experimental synovitis induced by aluminium phosphate in rabbits. Comparison of the changes produced in synovial tissue and in articular cartilage by aluminium phosphate, carrageenin, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, and natural diamond powder.

    PubMed

    Delongeas, J L; Netter, P; Boz, P; Faure, G; Royer, R J; Gaucher, A

    1984-01-01

    The goal of this experimental study was to examine the effect on articular tissue of tribasic aluminium phosphate (crystalline and amorphous forms) after intraarticular injection in rabbit and to compare it with that of various phlogistic compounds such as carrageenin, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate and diamond powder, as a control. Synovium and cartilage were studied with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive micro-analysis (EDM). Crystalline and amorphous aluminium phosphate could induce a synovitis with articular effusion in rabbits. With TEM, lysosomal inclusions of phagocytosed material were observed. Through SEM coupled with EDM, aluminium associated with phosphate was found in cellular elements. PMID:6087947

  19. [An experimental study on the replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament of the rabbit's knee using an augmented substitute].

    PubMed

    Kitsuda, M

    1993-04-01

    The mechanical properties of a reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using an augmented substitute were investigated in rabbits' knees. After total resection of the ACL, 25 knees were reconstructed with a patellar tendon alone (nonaugmented group) and 25 with a patella tendon augmented by a Leeds-Keio artificial ligament (augmented group). The rabbits were sacrificed for biomechanical testing at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively, after operation. In the augmented group, the mean ultimate load was 48.8% of the original ACL load at 4 weeks, and this gradually increased to 65.6% at 8 weeks. That of the twenty-four-week specimens was restored to 71% of the original ACL load. In the nonaugmented group, the mean ultimate load decreased to 9.3% at 8 weeks, but increased to 37.5% at 24 weeks. The mean static stiffness in the augmented group was higher than in the nonaugmented group at all time periods. The differences between the augmented and nonaugmented groups were statistically significant in the 8 to 12 week period (p < 0.01). Tan delta values, exhibiting the magnitude of viscosity in a viscoelastic material, in the augmented group were significantly higher than those in the nonaugmented group at 8 weeks (p < 0.05) and 12 weeks (p < 0.01). The mean tan delta in the augmented group decreased to 0.08 +/- 0.04 at 24 weeks, but the values were higher than those of the original ACL. The mean dynamic elastic modulus in the augmented group was higher than in the nonaugmented group at all time periods. The difference between the augmented and nonaugmented groups was statistically significant in the 8th week (p < 0.05). The values of dynamic elastic modulus in both groups were increased at 24 weeks: 96.4 MPa in the augmented group, and 77.5 MPa in the nonaugmented group. It was demonstrated that the augmented ligaments used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction had greater strength and static stiffness than the patellar tendon autograft. As for

  20. Mucosal Administration of Collagen V Ameliorates the Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden by Inducing Interleukin 35-dependent Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Park, Arick C; Huang, Guorui; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Massoudi, Dawiyat; Kernien, John F; Vignali, Dario A; Sullivan, Jeremy A; Wilkes, David S; Burlingham, William J; Greenspan, Daniel S

    2016-02-12

    We have shown previously that collagen V (col(V)) autoimmunity is a consistent feature of atherosclerosis in human coronary artery disease and in the Apoe(-/-) mouse model. We have also shown sensitization of Apoe(-/-) mice with col(V) to markedly increase the atherosclerotic burden, providing evidence of a causative role for col(V) autoimmunity in atherosclerotic pathogenesis. Here we sought to determine whether induction of immune tolerance to col(V) might ameliorate atherosclerosis, providing further evidence for a causal role for col(V) autoimmunity in atherogenesis and providing insights into the potential for immunomodulatory therapeutic interventions. Mucosal inoculation successfully induced immune tolerance to col(V) with an accompanying reduction in plaque burden in Ldlr(-/-) mice on a high-cholesterol diet. The results therefore demonstrate that inoculation with col(V) can successfully ameliorate the atherosclerotic burden, suggesting novel approaches for therapeutic interventions. Surprisingly, tolerance and reduced atherosclerotic burden were both dependent on the recently described IL-35 and not on IL-10, the immunosuppressive cytokine usually studied in the context of induced tolerance and amelioration of atherosclerotic symptoms. In addition to the above, using recombinant protein fragments, we were able to localize two epitopes of the α1(V) chain involved in col(V) autoimmunity in atherosclerotic Ldlr(-/-) mice, suggesting future courses of experimentation for the characterization of such epitopes. PMID:26721885

  1. A histopathologic and immunologic study of the course of syphilis in the experimentally infected rabbit. Demonstration of long-lasting cellular immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Zander, S.; Sell, S.

    1980-01-01

    Inoculation of the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum into the testes of rabbits initiated the following sequence of events: 1) a rapid proliferation of organisms in the interstitial tissues of the testes, reaching a maximum at about 10-11 days after infection; 2) systemic spread of organisms primarily in the lymphoid organs; 3) a prompt immune response manifested by hyperplasia of T cell domains in draining lymph nodes and spleen, blast transformation responses of lymphoid cells to sonicates of T pallidum, the appearance of serum antibody, and the marked infiltration of the infected areas of the testes by T cells; 4) essential clearing of organisms identified by immunofluorescence from the infected site 10-14 days after infection associated with evolution of the inflammatory response from primarily a T cell infiltrate to a larger mononuclear cell type, and the immunofluorescent identification of presumptive T pallidum antigen in macrophages; 5) interstitial fibrosis or resolution 17-21 days after infection so that examination of infected testes from 1 to 24 months later reveals foci of tubular atrophy and fibrosis of varying size, alternating with regenerated tubules, separated by interstitial areas with only minimal fibrosis. During the long period of latency there is no evidence of atrophy or hypoplasia of the lymphoid organs and long-lasting T cell memory with regard to T pallidum sonicates is demonstrable. Reinfection of previously inoculated rabbits indicates partial protection at 25 days after infection followed by essentially complete protection after 55 days. It is concluded that there is a prompt and long-lasting immune response to T pallidum in experimentally infected rabbits. The main mechanism for destruction of infecting organisms appears to be T-cell-initiated macrophage-mediated destruction, but a role for antibody dependent phagocytosis cannot be ruled out. The reason that some organisms may survive in various body organs remains

  2. Effect of experimental therapeutic ultrasound on the distal antebrachial growth plates in one-month-old rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ogurtan, Z; Celik, I; Izci, C; Boydak, M; Alkan, F; Yilmaz, K

    2002-11-01

    The effect of therapeutic ultrasound (US) on the growth plates of growing bone was determined through fluorescence labelling and histopathological evaluation in one-month-old rabbits. Mean growth rates and mean heights of the growth plates of the US exposed radius vs. control radius, and US exposed ulna vs. control ulna showed no statistically significant differences at all intensities and time intervals. Mean growth rates and heights of the growth plates of the US exposed radius for 0.2 W/cm(2) (SATA) US vs. 0.5 W/cm(2) US showed the same type of pattern compared to those of the control radius for 0.2 W/cm(2)vs. 0.5 W/cm(2) at days 10, 15 and 20. Similar results were also found for the ulna. Effects of 0.5 W/cm(2) US on the mean growth rates and mean heights of the growth plates were superior to those of 0.2 W/cm(2) US at day 10. The results at day 10 were reversed for the same comparisons at days 15 and 20. No cavitation effect of US was observed on growth plate cells. There was no evidence of partial or complete premature closure of the growth plates or of angular deformity of the carpal region. PMID:12505405

  3. Noninvasive imaging modalities to visualize atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is becoming a major cause of death in the world due to global epidemic of diabetes and obesity. For the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to detect high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to events. Recent technological advances enable to visualize atherosclerotic plaques noninvasively. This ability of noninvasive imaging helps to refine cardiovascular risk assessment in various individuals, select optimal therapeutic strategy and evaluate the efficacy of medical therapies. In this review, we discuss the role of the currently available imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography. Advantages and disadvantages of each noninvasive imaging modality will be also summarized. PMID:27500092

  4. Noninvasive imaging modalities to visualize atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Shishikura, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is becoming a major cause of death in the world due to global epidemic of diabetes and obesity. For the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to detect high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to events. Recent technological advances enable to visualize atherosclerotic plaques noninvasively. This ability of noninvasive imaging helps to refine cardiovascular risk assessment in various individuals, select optimal therapeutic strategy and evaluate the efficacy of medical therapies. In this review, we discuss the role of the currently available imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography. Advantages and disadvantages of each noninvasive imaging modality will be also summarized. PMID:27500092

  5. Ozone oxidative preconditioning prevents atherosclerosis development in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Roche, Livan; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio; Re, Lamberto

    2013-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of death in the Western World. It is known that Lipofundin 20% induces atherosclerotic lesions, whereas ozone at low doses has been satisfactorily used in the prevention of oxidative stress-associated pathologies, such as coronary artery diseases. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of ozone therapy on Lipofundin-induced atherosclerotic lesions in New Zealand White rabbits. Ozone (1 mg), mixed with oxygen as passive carrier, was administered by rectal insufflation during 15 sessions in 5 weeks. Then, the animals were intravenously treated with 2 mL/kg of Lipofundin, daily during 8 days. Animals were euthanized and eosin and hematoxylin staining was used for aortic histopathological analysis. The biomarkers of oxidative stress and lipid profile in serum were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. The results demonstrated that ozone induced inhibitory effects on aortic lesions formation. On the other hand, a reduction of biomolecular damage and an increase of antioxidant systems were observed at the end of the experiment. The serum lipids profiles were not modified after only 1 cycle of ozone treatment. Our results reinforced the hypotheses that antioxidant effects induced by ozone in the context of atherosclerosis demonstrate the antiatherogenic properties of the gas in the experimental conditions of this study. PMID:23222311

  6. Effectiveness of Two Methods for Preparation of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Maria J. H.; Messora, Michel R.; Furlaneto, Flávia A. C.; Fucini, Stephen E.; Bosco, Alvaro F.; Garcia, Valdir G.; Deliberador, Tatiana M.; de Melo, Luiz G. N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the quantity and quality of platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) samples prepared using either the single- or the double-centrifugation protocol. Methods: Ten adult white New Zealand rabbits were used. Ten ml of blood were drawn from each animal via cardiac puncture. Each blood sample was divided into two equal parts for PRP preparation: 5 ml of blood were centrifuged according to a single-centrifugation protocol (Group I), and 5 ml were centrifuged according to a double-centrifugation protocol (Group II). Manual platelet counts were performed on the whole blood and PRP samples of each group. Smears were also done on all samples in order to see the morphology of the platelets. The data obtained in the manual platelet count were submitted to statistical analysis (repeated measures ANOVA, Tukey, P<.05). Results: The average whole blood platelet count was 446,389/μl. The PRP samples in Group II presented an average platelet amount significantly higher than that of Group I (1,986,875 ± 685,020/μl and 781,875 ± 217,693/μl, respectively). The PRP smears from Group II were the only one to present platelets with altered morphology (75% of the smears). A few lymphocytes with increased cytoplasm were observed in the PRP smears of both Groups I (25% of the smears) and II (62.5% of the smears). Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the double-centrifugation protocol resulted in higher platelet concentrations than did the single-centrifugation protocol. However, the double-centrifugation protocol caused alterations in platelet morphology and was more sensitive to small processing errors. PMID:20922159

  7. LOX-1 in atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-02-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) exhibits various biological activities and accumulates in atheromas. LOX-1 (lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor) is the receptor that mediates oxidized LDL activity in vascular endothelial cells. Activation of LOX-1 results in oxidized LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and hyperlipidemia-induced vascular lipid deposition. We hypothesized that LOX-1 is a candidate risk factor beyond LDL cholesterol (LDLC) and developed a novel assay to quantify LOX-1 ligand containing apoB (LAB). In men from the United States, serum LAB showed a significant positive association with carotid intima-media thickness, independent of LDLC. LAB and the LOX index (obtained by multiplying LAB by sLOX-1) were significantly associated with the incidence of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke after adjusting for confounding factors, including non-HDL cholesterol. sLOX-1 is thought to be a better biomarker for early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome than traditional biomarkers, including troponin T. LAB was associated with various atherosclerotic risk factors such as smoking, obesity, diabetes, diastolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Measurement of the soluble form of LOX-1 (sLOX-1) and LAB seems to be useful for evaluating the state and risk of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related diseases. Further prospective studies using large populations and randomized clinical trials on sLOX-1, LAB, and the LOX index are needed. PMID:25463747

  8. Selective ablation of atherosclerotic lesions with less thermal damage by controlling the pulse structure of a quantum cascade laser in the 5.7-µm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, Keisuke; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    Cholesteryl esters are the main components of atherosclerotic plaques, and they have an absorption peak at the wavelength of 5.75 µm. To realize less-invasive ablation of the atherosclerotic plaques using a quasi-continuous wave (quasi-CW) quantum cascade laser (QCL), the thermal effects on normal vessels must be reduced. In this study, we attempted to reduce the thermal effects by controlling the pulse structure. The irradiation effects on rabbit atherosclerotic aortas using macro pulse irradiation (irradiation of pulses at intervals) and conventional quasi-CW irradiation were compared. The macro pulse width and the macro pulse interval were determined based on the thermal relaxation time of atherosclerotic and normal aortas in the oscillation wavelength of the QCL. The ablation depth increased and the coagulation width decreased using macro pulse irradiation. Moreover, difference in ablation depth between the atherosclerotic and normal rabbit aortas using macro pulse irradiation was confirmed. Therefore, the QCL in the 5.7-µm wavelength range with controlling the pulse structure was effective for less-invasive laser angioplasty.

  9. Noninvasive Three-dimensional Cardiac Activation Imaging from Body Surface Potential Maps: A Computational and Experimental Study on a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chengzong; Liu, Zhongming; Zhang, Xin; Pogwizd, Steven; He, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) cardiac activation imaging (3-DCAI) is a recently developed technique that aims at imaging the activation sequence throughout the 3-D volume of myocardium. 3-DCAI entails the modeling and estimation of the cardiac equivalent current density (ECD) distribution from which the local activation time within myocardium is determined as the time point with the peak amplitude of local ECD estimates. In this paper, we report, for the first time, an experimental study of the performance and applicability of 3-DCAI as judged by measured 3-D cardiac activation sequence using 3-D intra-cardiac mapping, in a group of 4 healthy rabbits during ventricular pacing. During the experiments, the body surface potentials and the intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition to allow for a rigorous evaluation of the noninvasive 3-DCAI algorithm using the intra-cardiac mapping. The ventricular activation sequence non-invasively imaged from the body surface measurements by using 3-DCAI was generally in agreement with that obtained from the invasive intra-cardiac recordings. The overall difference between them, quantified as the root mean square (RMS) error, was 7.42±0.61 ms, and the normalized difference, quantified as the relative error (RE), was 0.24±0.03. The distance from the reconstructed site of initial activation to the actual pacing site, defined as the localization error (LE), was 5.47±1.57 mm. In addition, computer simulations were conducted to provide additional assessment of the performance of the 3-DCAI algorithm using a realistic-geometry rabbit heart-torso model. Averaged over 9 pacing sites, the RE and LE were 0.20±0.07 and 4.56±1.12 mm, respectively, for single-pacing, when 20 μV Gaussian white noise was added to the body surface potentials at 53 body surface locations. Averaged over 8 pairs of dual pacing, the RE was 0.25±0.06 for 20 μV additive noise. The present results obtained through

  10. Transauricular embolization of the rabbit coronary artery for experimental myocardial infarction: comparison of a minimally invasive closed-chest model with open-chest surgery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To date, most animal studies of myocardial ischemia have used open-chest models with direct surgical coronary artery ligation. We aimed to develop a novel, percutaneous, minimally-invasive, closed-chest model of experimental myocardial infarction (EMI) in the New Zealand White rabbit and compare it with the standard open-chest surgical model in order to minimize local and systemic side-effects of major surgery. Methods New Zealand White rabbits were handled in conformity with the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" and underwent EMI under intravenous anesthesia. Group A underwent EMI with an open-chest method involving surgical tracheostomy, a mini median sternotomy incision and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation with a plain suture, whereas Group B underwent EMI with a closed-chest method involving fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous transauricular intra-arterial access, superselective LAD catheterization and distal coronary embolization with a micro-coil. Electrocardiography (ECG), cardiac enzymes and transcatheter left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) measurements were recorded. Surviving animals were euthanized after 4 weeks and the hearts were harvested for Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson-trichrome staining. Results In total, 38 subjects underwent EMI with a surgical (n = 17) or endovascular (n = 21) approach. ST-segment elevation (1.90 ± 0.71 mm) occurred sharply after surgical LAD ligation compared to progressive ST elevation (2.01 ± 0.84 mm;p = 0.68) within 15-20 min after LAD micro-coil embolization. Increase of troponin and other cardiac enzymes, abnormal ischemic Q waves and LVEDP changes were recorded in both groups without any significant differences (p > 0.05). Infarct area was similar in both models (0.86 ± 0.35 cm in the surgical group vs. 0.92 ± 0.54 cm in the percutaneous group;p = 0.68). Conclusion The proposed model of transauricular coronary coil embolization avoids thoracotomy and major

  11. Atherosclerotic Vessel Changes in Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tuleta, I; Pingel, S; Biener, L; Pizarro, C; Hammerstingl, C; Öztürk, C; Schahab, N; Grohé, C; Nickenig, G; Schaefer, C; Skowasch, D

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory vessel disease. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether sarcoidosis could be associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic vessel changes. Angiological analysis and blood tests were performed in 71 sarcoidosis patients and 12 matched controls in this prospective cross-sectional study. Specifically, angiological measurements comprised ankle brachial index (ABI), central pulse wave velocity (cPWV), pulse wave index (PWI), and duplex sonography of central and peripheral arteries. Sarcoidosis activity markers (angiotensin converting enzyme, soluble interleukin-2 receptor) and cardiovascular risk parameters such as cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, fibrinogen, d-dimer, and blood count were analyzed in blood. We found no relevant differences in ABI, cPWV, and plaque burden between the sarcoidosis and control groups (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 1.10 ± 0.02, 6.7 ± 0.5 vs. 6.1 ± 1.2, 53.7 % vs. 54.5 %, respectively). However, PWI was significantly higher in sarcoidosis patients (146.2 ± 6.8) compared with controls (104.9 ± 8.8), irrespectively of the activity of sarcoidosis and immunosuppressive medication. Except for increased lipoprotein(a) and d-dimer in sarcoidosis, the remaining cardiovascular markers were similar in both groups. We conclude that sarcoidosis is associated with increased pulse wave index, which may indicate an early stage of atherosclerosis. PMID:26820732

  12. Ionophore antibiotic (narasin) poisoning in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Salles, M S; Lombardo de Barros, C S; Barros, S S

    1994-10-01

    Outbreaks of narasin poisoning in rabbits from several commercial rabbit-raising farms in the state of Parana, Brazil, are reported. Approximately 5,000/35,000 rabbits died after having consumed a pelleted ration to which poultry ration premix had been added. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, muscle weakness, impaired walking, diarrhea, respiratory distress, and opistothonus. Gross findings were not remarkable, but varying degrees of degeneration, necrosis and regeneration of skeletal muscles were consistent histopathological features in affected rabbits. Myocardial changes were mild or absent. Thirty ppm of narasin were detected in the ration fed the rabbits. The disease was experimentally reproduced by feeding the suspected ration and by administering narasin po to rabbits. PMID:7839570

  13. Vaccination with a mutated variant of human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) blocks VEGF-induced retinal neovascularization in a rabbit experimental model.

    PubMed

    Morera, Yanelys; González, Rafael; Lamdan, Humberto; Pérez, Lincidio; González, Yorlandis; Agüero, Judith; Castro, Jorge; Romero, Juan C; Etchegoyen, Ana Yansy; Ayala, Marta; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2014-05-01

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a key driver of the neovascularization and vascular permeability that leads to the loss of visual acuity of eye diseases like wet age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, and retinopathy of premature. Among the several anti-VEGF therapies under investigation for the treatment of neovascular eye diseases, our group has developed the vaccine candidate CIGB-247-V that uses a mutated form of human VEGF as antigen. In this work we evaluated if the vaccine could prevent or attenuate VEGF-induced retinal neovascularization in the course of a rabbit eye neovascularization model, based on direct intravitreal injection of human VEGF. Our experimental findings have shown that anti-VEGF IgG antibodies induced by the vaccine were available in the retina blood circulation, and could neutralize in situ the neovascularization effect of VEGF. CIGB-247-V vaccination proved to effectively reduce retinal neovascularization caused by intravitreal VEGF injection. Altogether, these results open the way for human studies of the vaccine in neovascular eye syndromes, and inform on the potential mechanisms involved in its effect. PMID:24675387

  14. General intravenous anesthesia for brachial plexus surgery in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Reichert, P; Rutowski, R; Kielbowicz, Z; Kuryszko, J; Kielbowicz, M

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is a good experimental model for brachial plexus surgery. The risks of death during anesthesia were significantly greater in rabbits than cats or dogs. This article presents the protocol of injectable anesthesia for a short surgical procedure, safe for the rabbit patient and convenient for the surgeon. PMID:24597314

  15. Myeloperoxidase, a catalyst for lipoprotein oxidation, is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, A; Dunn, J L; Rateri, D L; Heinecke, J W

    1994-01-01

    Oxidatively modified lipoproteins have been implicated in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms that promote oxidation in vivo have not been identified. Myeloperoxidase, a heme protein secreted by activated macrophages, generates reactive intermediates that oxidize lipoproteins in vitro. To explore the potential role of myeloperoxidase in the development of atherosclerosis, we determined whether the enzyme was present in surgically excised human vascular tissue. In detergent extracts of atherosclerotic arteries subjected to Western blotting, a rabbit polyclonal antibody monospecific for myeloperoxidase detected a 56-kD protein, the predicted molecular mass of the heavy subunit. Both the immunoreactive protein and authentic myeloperoxidase bound to a lectin-affinity column; after elution with methyl mannoside their apparent molecular masses were indistinguishable by nondenaturing size-exclusion chromatography. Peroxidase activity in detergent extracts of atherosclerotic lesions likewise bound to a lectin column and eluted with methyl mannoside. Moreover, eluted peroxidase generated the cytotoxic oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), indicating that enzymatically active myeloperoxidase was present in lesions. Patterns of immunostaining of arterial tissue with antihuman myeloperoxidase antibodies were similar to those produced by an antimacrophage antibody, and were especially prominent in the shoulder region of transitional lesions. Intense foci of myeloperoxidase immunostaining also appeared adjacent to cholesterol clefts in lipid-rich regions of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. These findings identify myeloperoxidase as a component of human vascular lesions. Because this heme protein can generate reactive species that damage lipids and proteins, myeloperoxidase may contribute to atherogenesis by catalyzing oxidative reactions in the vascular wall. Images PMID:8040285

  16. Nanorose and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaque using dual-wavelength photothermal wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Qiu, Jinze; Ma, Li Leo; Li, Xiankai; Sun, Jingjing; Ryoo, Seungyup; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2010-02-01

    Atherosclerosis and specifically rupture of vulnerable plaques account for 23% of all deaths worldwide, far surpassing both infectious diseases and cancer. In atherosclerosis, macrophages can infiltrate plaques which are often associated with lipid deposits. Photothermal wave imaging is based on the periodic thermal modulation of a sample using intensity modulated light. Intensity modulated light enters the sample and is absorbed by targeted chromophores and generates a periodic thermal modulation. We report use of photothermal wave imaging to visualize nanoroses (taken up by macrophages via endocytosis) and lipids in atherosclerotic plaques. Two excitation wavelengths were selected to image nanoroses (800 nm) and lipids (1210 nm). Atherosclerotic plaque in a rabbit abdominal artery was irradiated (800 nm and 1210 nm separately) at a frequency of 4 Hz to generate photothermal waves. The radiometric temperature at the tissue surface was recorded by an infrared (IR) camera over a 10 second time period at the frame rate of 25.6 Hz. Extraction of images (256 × 256 pixels) at various frequencies was performed by Fourier transform at each pixel. Frequency amplitude images were obtained corresponding to 800 nm and 1210 nm laser irradiation. Computed images suggest that the distributions of both nanorose and lipid can be identified in amplitude images at a frequency of 4 Hz. Nanoroses taken up by macrophages are distributed at the edges of lipid deposits. Observation of high concentration of nanoroses in atherosclerotic plaque confirms that nanoroses are present at locations associated with lipid deposits.

  17. Experimental Plan for EDF Energy Creep Rabbit Graphite Irradiations- Rev. 2 (replaces Rev. 0 ORNL/TM/2013/49).

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2014-07-01

    The experimental results obtained here will assist in the development and validation of future models of irradiation induced creep of graphite by providing the following data: Inert creep stain data from low to lifetime AGR fluence Inert creep-property data (especially CTE) from low to lifetime AGR fluence Effect of oxidation on creep modulus (by indirect comparison with experiment 1 and direct comparison with experiment 3 NB. Experiment 1 and 3 are not covered here) Data to develop a mechanistic understanding, including oAppropriate creep modulus (including pinning and high dose effects on structure) oInvestigation of CTE-creep strain behavior under inert conditions oInformation on the effect of applied stress/creep strain on crystallite orientation (requires XRD) oEffect of creep strain on micro-porosity (requires tomography & microscopy) This document describes the experimental work planned to meet the requirements of project technical specification [1] and EDF Energy requests for additional Pre-IE work. The PIE work is described in detail in this revision (Section 8 and 9).

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stabilize Atherosclerotic Vulnerable Plaque by Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang-shuang; Hu, Si-wang; Zhang, Qing-hua; Xia, Ai-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Formation and progression of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque (VP) is the primary cause of many cardio-cerebrovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. It has been reported that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) exhibit protective effects against many kinds of diseases including myocardial infarction. Here, we examined the effects of intravenous MSC infusion on a VP model and provide novel evidence of its influence as a therapy in this animal disease model. Subjects and methods Thirty healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a MSC, VP or stable plaque (SP) group (n = 10/group) and received high fat diet and cold-induced common carotid artery intimal injury with liquid nitrogen to form atherosclerotic plaques. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after MSC transplantation. The animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks after MSC transplantation. Lesions in the right common carotid were observed using H&E and Masson staining, and the fibrous cap/lipid core ratio of atherosclerotic plaques were calculated. The expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and matrix metalloproteinase 1, 2, 9 (MMP-1,2,9) in the plaque were detected using immunohistochemistry, and apoptotic cells in the plaques were detected by TUNEL. In addition, the level of TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6) mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results Two rabbits in the VP group died of lung infection and cerebral infarction respectively at 1 week after plaque injury by liquid nitrogen. Both H&E and Masson staining revealed that the plaques from the SP and MSC groups had more stable morphological structure and a larger fibrous cap/lipid core ratio than the VP group. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly down-regulated, whereas IL-10 was significantly up-regulated in the MSC group compared with

  19. The Effect of a Polyvalent Antivenom on the Serum Venom Antigen Levels of Naja sputatrix (Javan Spitting Cobra) Venom in Experimentally Envenomed Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Choo Hock

    2015-10-01

    The treatment protocol of antivenom in snake envenomation remains largely empirical, partly due to the insufficient knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of snake venoms and the effects of antivenoms on the blood venom levels in victims. In this study, we investigated the effect of a polyvalent antivenom on the serum venom antigen levels of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom in experimentally envenomed rabbits. Intravenous infusion of 4 ml of Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom [NPAV, F(ab')2 ] at 1 hr after envenomation caused a sharp decline of the serum venom antigen levels, followed by transient resurgence an hour later. The venom antigen resurgence was unlikely to be due to the mismatch of pharmacokinetics between the F(ab')2 and venom antigens, as the terminal half-life and volume of distribution of the F(ab')2 in serum were comparable to that of venom antigens (p > 0.05). Infusion of an additional 2 ml of NPAV was able to prevent resurgence of the serum venom antigen level, resulting in a substantial decrease (67.1%) of the total amount of circulating venom antigens over time course of envenomation. Our results showed that the neutralization potency of NPAV determined by neutralization assay in mice may not be an adequate indicator of its capability to modulate venom kinetics in relation to its in vivo efficacy to neutralize venom toxicity. The findings also support the recommendation of giving high initial dose of NPAV in cobra envenomation, with repeated doses as clinically indicated in the presence of rebound antigenemia and symptom recurrence. PMID:25819552

  20. Experimental testing of the dual-layer Woven EndoBridge device using an elastase-induced aneurysm model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong-Hong; Dai, Daying; Schroeder, Dana; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Kallmes, David F

    2016-06-01

    The dual-layer Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device (WEB II) is designed to improve the performance of the first-generation WEB device. This study was performed to evaluate the acute and chronic performance of WEB II for aneurysm occlusion in an elastase-induced aneurysm model in rabbits. We implanted WEB II devices in 36 elastase-induced aneurysms and followed up for one, three, six, and 12 months. Degree of aneurysm occlusion at follow-up was graded on the Web Occlusion Scale (WOS): Grade A, complete aneurysm occlusion; Grade B, complete occlusion with recess filling; Grade C, residual neck filling; and Grade D, residual aneurysm filling. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histological assessment of aneurysm healing. Grades A, B, C, and D aneurysm occlusion at one-month follow-up were noted in three (17%), three (17%), eight (44%), and four (22%) of 18 cases, respectively. At the three-month time point Grades A, B, C, and D were shown in two (33%), two (33%), one (17%), and one (17%) aneurysms. Six months after treatment, one (17%), two (33%), two (33%), and one (17%) cases demonstrated Grades A, B, C, and D occlusion. At the 12-month time point, Grades B, C, and D were shown in three (50%), two (33%), and one (17%) aneurysms. Histologic evaluation showed progressive thrombus organization within aneurysm lumen from one to 12 months. These results indicated that the WEB II device can achieve high rates of aneurysm occlusion over time in experimental aneurysms. PMID:26847799

  1. Human apolipoprotein A-II protects against diet-induced atherosclerosis in transgenic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Niimi, Manabu; Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Yu, Ying; Koike, Tomonari; Kitajima, Shuji; Liu, Enqi; Inoue, Tomohiro; Kohashi, Masayuki; Keyamura, Yuka; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Zhang, Jifeng; Ma, Loretta; Zha, Xiaohui; Watanabe, Teruo; Asada, Yujiro; Chen, Y. Eugene; Fan, Jianglin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Apolipoprotein A-II (apo A-II) is the second major apolipoprotein of HDLs, yet its pathophysiological roles in the development of atherosclerosis remain unknown. We aimed to examine whether apo A-II plays any role in atherogenesis and if so, to elucidate the mechanism involved. Methods and Results We compared the susceptibility of human apo A-II transgenic (Tg) rabbits to cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis with non-Tg littermate rabbits. Tg rabbits developed significantly less aortic and coronary atherosclerosis than their non-Tg littermates while total plasma cholesterol levels were similar. Atherosclerotic lesions of Tg rabbits were characterized by reduced macrophages and smooth muscle cells and apo A-II immunoreactive proteins were frequently detected in the lesions. Tg rabbits exhibited low levels of plasma CRP and blood leukocytes compared to non-Tg rabbits and HDLs of Tg rabbit plasma exerted stronger cholesterol efflux activity and inhibitory effects on the inflammatory cytokine expression by macrophages in vitro than HDLs isolated from non-Tg rabbits. In addition, β-VLDLs of Tg rabbits were less sensitive to copper-induced oxidation than β-VLDLs of non-Tg rabbits. Conclusions These results suggest that enrichment of apo A-II in HDL particles has atheroprotective effects and apo A-II may become a target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:23241412

  2. Icaritin Inhibits Collagen Degradation-Related Factors and Facilitates Collagen Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions: A Potential Action for Plaque Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Yan, De-Xin; Leung, Wing-Nang; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Most acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The collagen content of plaques may critically affect plaque stability. This study tested whether Icaritin (ICT), an intestinal metabolite of Epimedium-derived flavonoids, could alter the collagen synthesis/degradation balance in atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed with an atherogenic diet for four months. Oral administration of ICT (10 mg·kg−1·day−1) was started after two months of an atherogenic diet and lasted for two months. The collagen degradation-related parameters, including macrophages accumulation, content and activity of interstitial collagenase-1 (MMP-1), and the collagen synthesis-related parameters, including amount and distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and collagen mRNA/protein levels, were evaluated in the aorta. ICT reduced plasma lipid levels, inhibited macrophage accumulation, lowered MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression, and suppressed proteolytic activity of pro-MMP-1 and MMP-1 in the aorta. ICT changed the distribution of the SMCs towards the fibrous cap of lesions without increasing the amount of SMCs. Higher collagen protein content in lesions and aorta homogenates was observed with ICT treatment compared with the atherogenic diet only, without altered collagen mRNA level. These results suggest that ICT could inhibit the collagen degradation-related factors and facilitate collagen accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions, indicating a new potential of ICT in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26828485

  3. N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and bone mineral density for early diagnosis of nonunion: An experimental study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-Ping; Shi, Zhan-Jun; Shen, Ning-Jiang; Wang, Jian; Li, Zao-Min; Xiao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis and treatment of bone nonunion have been studied extensively. Diagnosis and treatment of nonunion are mainly performed based on the interpretation of clinico-radiographic findings, which depend on the clinician's experience and the degree of bone callus formation during the fracture-healing process. However, resolution may be compromised when the bone mineral content is <25%. A feasible method of monitoring bone-healing is therefore needed. We monitored a rabbit model of bone nonunion by regular radiographic examinations, QCT detection, and biomarker concentrations. Materials and Methods: Twenty purebred New Zealand rabbits (10 male and 10 female, 5–6 months of age, 2.5–3.0 kg) were divided into bone defect Group (I) that 10 left radius bones underwent resection of 1.5 cm of mid-radius bone and bone fracture Group (II) that another 10 left radius bones underwent only mid-radius fracture. Quantitative computed tomography detection of bone mineral density (BMD) and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin [OC], bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and bone resorption (C- and N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) were assayed. There are twenty rabbits (10 male and 10 females). The age was 5–6 months weighing 2.5–3.0 kg). The defect was created in middle 1/3 radius in 10 rabbits and fracture was created in middle 1/3 radius of 10 rabbits. Results: BMD and NTX concentrations were significantly lower at 5 weeks postoperatively compared to the preoperative values and were significantly different between the two groups. OC showed no significant difference before and after surgery. Conclusions: BMD and NTX concentrations may be useful for early detection of bone nonunion in rabbits. PMID:27512225

  4. Brachytherapy with Iodine-125 seeds strand for treatment of main portal vein tumor thrombi: an experimental study in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Luo, Jianjun; Liu, Qingxin; Ma, Jingqin; Qu, Xudong; Yang, Minjie; Yan, Zhiping; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to establish an animal model of implanted main portal vein tumor thrombus (MPVTT) and to evaluate safety and efficacy of brachy therapy with Iodine-125 (125I) seeds strand to treat MPVTT of rabbit. VX2 tumor thrombus was implanted in main portal vein (MPV) of 32 New Zealand white rabbits. These rabbits were randomly divided into treatment group (Group T, T1-T16) and control group (Group C, C1-C16). 125I seeds and blank seeds strand were implanted in MPV of rabbits in Group T and C, respectively. Changes of general condition, body weight and blood laboratory examination were monitored at every time point after procedure. 2 weeks later, 8 rabbits of each group were sacrificed for pathologic examination. The rest of rabbits were dissected postmortem, and therapeutic effects were evaluated on basis of multi-detector computed tomography and histopathology. Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) and apoptosis index (AI) were compared between two groups. Overall survival period was recorded. At every time point after brachytherapy, more serious weight loss were detected in Group C. Results of liver function tests and blood cells counts showed no significant difference between two groups. Mean volume of tumor tissue within MPV were 565.40 ± 220.90 mm3 in Group T and 2269.90 ± 437.00 mm3 in Group C (P < 0.001). (Ki-67 LI) and AI were (4.14 ± 1.84)% and (6.51 ± 1.92)% in Group T, compared with (33.82 ± 6.07)% and (0.91 ± 0.26)% in Group C, respectively (P < 0.001). Media survival time of rabbits were 39.50 ± 2.37 days in Group T and 27.38 ± 1.22 days in Group C, respectively (P = 0.001). In conclusion, injecting and suspensory fixing VX2 tumor strip into MPV is a reliable method to establish MPVTT animal model. Brachytherapy with 125I seeds strand was safe and effective to treat VX2 tumor strand inoculated in the MPV of rabbit. PMID:27152237

  5. Rabbit models for continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis instruction

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Jason; Keller, Christopher; Porco, Travis; Naseri, Ayman; Sretavan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To develop a rabbit model for continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) instruction. SETTING University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. DESIGN Experimental study. METHODS Isolated rabbit lenses were immersed in 2% to 8% paraformaldehyde (PFA) fixative from 15 minutes to 6 hours. Rabbit eyes were treated by substituting aqueous with 2% to 4% PFA for 30 minutes to 6 hours, followed by washes with a balanced salt solution. Treated lenses and eyes were held in purpose-designed holders using vacuum. A panel of 6 cataract surgeons with 5 to 15 years of experience performed CCC on treated lenses and eyes and responded to a questionnaire regarding the utility of these models for resident teaching using a 5-item Likert scale. RESULTS The expert panel found that rabbit lenses treated with increasing amounts of fixative simulated CCC on human lens capsules from the third to the seventh decade of life. The panel also found fixative-treated rabbit eyes to simulate some of the experience of CCC within the human anterior chamber but noted a shallower anterior chamber depth, variation in pupil size, and corneal clouding under some treatment conditions. CONCLUSIONS Experienced cataract surgeons who performed CCC on these rabbit models strongly agreed that isolated rabbit lenses treated with fixative provide a realistic simulation of CCC in human patients and that both models were useful tools for capsulorhexis instruction. Results indicate that rabbit lenses treated with 8% PFA for 15 minutes is a model with good fidelity for CCC training. PMID:22727296

  6. Viral infections of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. PMID:23642871

  7. Inhibiting macrophage proliferation suppresses atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Lobatto, Mark E.; Hassing, Laurien; van der Staay, Susanne; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Calcagno, Claudia; Braza, Mounia S.; Baxter, Samantha; Fay, Francois; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Sager, Hendrik B.; Astudillo, Yaritzy M.; Leong, Wei; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Storm, Gert; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Reiner, Thomas; Cormode, David P.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation drives atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture, and is a compelling therapeutic target. Consequently, attenuating inflammation by reducing local macrophage accumulation is an appealing approach. This can potentially be accomplished by either blocking blood monocyte recruitment to the plaque or increasing macrophage apoptosis and emigration. Because macrophage proliferation was recently shown to dominate macrophage accumulation in advanced plaques, locally inhibiting macrophage proliferation may reduce plaque inflammation and produce long-term therapeutic benefits. To test this hypothesis, we used nanoparticle-based delivery of simvastatin to inhibit plaque macrophage proliferation in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice (Apoe−/−) with advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This resulted in the rapid reduction of plaque inflammation and favorable phenotype remodeling. We then combined this short-term nanoparticle intervention with an 8-week oral statin treatment, and this regimen rapidly reduced and continuously suppressed plaque inflammation. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologically inhibiting local macrophage proliferation can effectively treat inflammation in atherosclerosis. PMID:26295063

  8. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Corneal Biometric Measurements Using the Visante Omni and a Rabbit Experimental Model of Post-Surgical Corneal Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Konstantopoulos, Aris; Riau, Andri K.; Bhayani, Raj; Lwin, Nyein C.; Teo, Ericia Pei Wen; Yam, Gary Hin Fai; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of the Visante Omni topography in obtaining topography measurements of rabbit corneas and to develop a post-surgical model of corneal ectasia. Methods: Eight rabbits were used to study the repeatability and reproducibility by assessing the intra- and interobserver bias and limits of agreement. Another nine rabbits underwent different diopters (D) of laser in situ keratosmileusis (LASIK) were used for the development of ectasia model. All eyes were examined with the Visante Omni, and corneal ultrastructure were evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: There was no significant intra- or interobserver difference for mean steep and flat keratometry (K) values of simulated K, anterior, and posterior elevation measurements. Eyes underwent −5 D LASIK had a significant increase in mean amplitude of astigmatism and posterior surface elevation with time (P for trend < 0.05). At 2 and 3 months, the −5 D LASIK group had significant greater mean amplitude of astigmatism (P = 0.036; P = 0.027) and posterior surface elevation (both P < 0.005) compared with control group. On TEM, the mean collagen fibril diameter and interfibril distance in the −5 D LASIK eyes were significantly greater than in controls at 3 months (P = 0.018; P < 0.001). Conclusions: The Visante Omni provided imaging of the rabbit cornea with good repeatability and reproducibility. Application of −5 D LASIK treatment produced a rabbit model of corneal ectasia that was gradual in development and simulated the human condition. Translational Relevance: The results provide the foundations for the future evaluation of novel treatment modalities for post-surgical ectasia and keratoconus. PMID:25938004

  9. Anti-Atherosclerotic Therapy Based on Botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Orekhov, Alexander N.; Sobenin, Igor A.; Korneev, Nikolay V.; Kirichenko, Tatyana V.; Myasoedova, Veronika A.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Balcells, Mercedes; Edelman, Elazer R.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products including botanicals for both therapy of clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis and reduction of atherosclerosis risk factors are topics of recent patents. Only a few recent patents are relevant to the direct anti-atherosclerotic therapy leading to regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Earlier, using a cellular model we have developed and patented several anti-atherosclerotic drugs. The AMAR (Atherosclerosis Monitoring and Atherogenicity Reduction) study was designed to estimate the effect of two-year treatment with time-released garlic-based drug Allicor on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in 196 asymptomatic men aged 40–74 in double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical study. The primary outcome was the rate of atherosclerosis progression, measured by high-resolution B-mode ul-trasonography as the increase in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) of the far wall of common carotid arteries. The mean rate of IMT changes in Allicor-treated group (−0.022±0.007 mm per year) was significantly different (P = 0.002) from the placebo group in which there was a moderate progression of 0.015±0.008 mm at the overall mean baseline IMT of 0.931±0.009 mm. A significant correlation was found between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity (the ability of serum to induce cholesterol accumulation in cultured cells) during the study and the changes in intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (r = 0.144, P = 0.045). Thus, the results of AMAR study demonstrate that long-term treatment with Allicor has a direct anti-atherosclerotic effect on carotid atherosclerosis and this effect is likely to be due to serum atherogenicity inhibition. The beneficial effects of other botanicals including Inflaminat (calendula, elder and violet), phytoestrogen-rich Karinat (garlic powder, extract of grape seeds, green tea leafs, hop cones, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) on atherosclerosis have also been revealed in clinical

  10. Survival of rabid rabbits after intrathecal immunization.

    PubMed

    Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Sunden, Yuji; Aoshima, Keisuke; Iwaki, Yoshimi; Okumura, Masahiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Umemura, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease for which no effective treatment measures are currently available. Rabies virus (RABV) has anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties that suppress nerve cell damage and inflammation in the CNS. These features imply that the elimination of RABV from the CNS by appropriate treatment could lead to complete recovery from rabies. Ten rabbits showing neuromuscular symptoms of rabies after subcutaneous (SC) immunization using commercially available vaccine containing inactivated whole RABV particles and subsequent fixed RABV (CVS strain) inoculation into hind limb muscles were allocated into three groups. Three rabbits received no further treatment (the SC group), three rabbits received three additional SC immunizations using the same vaccine, and four rabbits received three intrathecal (IT) immunizations, in which the vaccine was inoculated directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (the SC/IT group). An additional three naïve rabbits were inoculated intramuscularly with RABV and not vaccinated. The rabbits exhibited neuromuscular symptoms of rabies within 4-8 days post-inoculation (dpi) of RABV. All of the rabbits died within 8-12 dpi with the exception of one rabbit in the SC group and all four rabbits in SC/IT group, which recovered and started to respond to external stimuli at 11-18 dpi and survived until the end of the experimental period. RABV was eliminated from the CNS of the surviving rabbits. We report here a possible, although still incomplete, therapy for rabies using IT immunization. Our protocol may rescue the life of rabid patients and prompt the future development of novel therapies against rabies. PMID:24397792

  11. Survival of rabid rabbits after intrathecal immunization

    PubMed Central

    Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Sunden, Yuji; Aoshima, Keisuke; Iwaki, Yoshimi; Okumura, Masahiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Umemura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease for which no effective treatment measures are currently available. Rabies virus (RABV) has anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties that suppress nerve cell damage and inflammation in the CNS. These features imply that the elimination of RABV from the CNS by appropriate treatment could lead to complete recovery from rabies. Ten rabbits showing neuromuscular symptoms of rabies after subcutaneous (SC) immunization using commercially available vaccine containing inactivated whole RABV particles and subsequent fixed RABV (CVS strain) inoculation into hind limb muscles were allocated into three groups. Three rabbits received no further treatment (the SC group), three rabbits received three additional SC immunizations using the same vaccine, and four rabbits received three intrathecal (IT) immunizations, in which the vaccine was inoculated directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (the SC/IT group). An additional three naïve rabbits were inoculated intramuscularly with RABV and not vaccinated. The rabbits exhibited neuromuscular symptoms of rabies within 4–8 days post-inoculation (dpi) of RABV. All of the rabbits died within 8–12 dpi with the exception of one rabbit in the SC group and all four rabbits in SC/IT group, which recovered and started to respond to external stimuli at 11–18 dpi and survived until the end of the experimental period. RABV was eliminated from the CNS of the surviving rabbits. We report here a possible, although still incomplete, therapy for rabies using IT immunization. Our protocol may rescue the life of rabid patients and prompt the future development of novel therapies against rabies. PMID:24397792

  12. miRNAs in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression, and rupture.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Ioannis; Sun, Xinghui; Stone, Peter H; Edelman, Elazer R; Feinberg, Mark W

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic immune-inflammatory disorder that integrates multiple cell types and a diverse set of inflammatory mediators. miRNAs are emerging as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in most, if not all, vertebrate cells, and constitute central players in many physiological and pathological processes. Rapidly accumulating experimental studies reveal their key role in cellular and molecular processes related to the development of atherosclerosis. We review current evidence for the involvement of miRNAs in early atherosclerotic lesion formation and in plaque rupture and erosion. We conclude with a perspective on the clinical relevance, therapeutic opportunities, and future challenges of miRNA biology in understanding the pathogenesis of this complex disease. PMID:25771097

  13. miRNAs in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression, and rupture

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, Ioannis; Sun, Xinghui; Stone, Peter H.; Edelman, Elazer R.; Feinberg, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic immune-inflammatory disorder that integrates multiple cell types and a diverse set of inflammatory mediators. miRNAs are emerging as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in most, if not all, vertebrate cells and constitute central players in many physiological and pathological processes. Rapidly accumulating experimental studies reveal their key role in cellular and molecular processes related to the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we review the current evidence for the involvement of miRNAs in early atherosclerotic lesion formation to plaque rupture and erosion. We conclude with a perspective on the clinical relevance, therapeutic opportunities, and future challenges of miRNA biology in the pathogenesis of this complex disease. PMID:25771097

  14. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant efficacies of zerumbone on the formation, development, and establishment of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hemn, Hassan Othman; Noordin, Muhammad Mustapha; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Hazilawati, Hamza; Zuki, Abubakr; Chartrand, Max Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the high incidence of cholesterol-induced cardiovascular disease, particularly atherosclerosis, the current study was designed to investigate the preventive and therapeutic efficacies of dietary zerumbone (ZER) supplementation on the formation and development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with a high cholesterol diet. A total of 72 New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly on two experimental studies carried out 8 weeks apart. The first experiment was designed to investigate the prophylactic efficacy of ZER in preventing early developed atheromatous lesion. The second experimental trial was aimed at investigating the therapeutic effect of ZER in reducing the atherosclerotic lesion progression and establishment. Sudanophilia, histopathological, and ultrastructural changes showed pronounced reduction in the plaque size in ZER-medicated aortas. On the other hand, dietary supplementation of ZER for almost 10 weeks as a prophylactic measure indicated substantially decreasing lipid profile values, and similarly, plaque size in comparison with high-cholesterol non-supplemented rabbits. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarker evaluation indicated that ZER is a potent antioxidant in suppressing the generation of free radicals in terms of atherosclerosis prevention and treatment. ZER significantly reduced the value of malondialdehyde and augmented the value of superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, our data indicated that dietary supplementation of ZER at doses of 8, 16, and 20 mg/kg alone as a prophylactic measure, and as a supplementary treatment with simvastatin, significantly reduced early plague formation, development, and establishment via significant reduction in serum lipid profile, together with suppression of oxidative damage, and therefore alleviated atherosclerosis lesions. PMID:26347047

  15. Converging Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using Kilovoltage X-Rays: Experimental Irradiation of Normal Rabbit Lung and Dose-Volume Analysis With Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, Takatsugu; Kunieda, Etsuo Deloar, Hossain M.; Tsunoo, Takanori; Seki, Satoshi; Oku, Yohei; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Ogawa, Eileen N.; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Kameyama, Kaori; Kubo, Atsushi

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To validate the feasibility of developing a radiotherapy unit with kilovoltage X-rays through actual irradiation of live rabbit lungs, and to explore the practical issues anticipated in future clinical application to humans through Monte Carlo dose simulation. Methods and Materials: A converging stereotactic irradiation unit was developed, consisting of a modified diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner. A tiny cylindrical volume in 13 normal rabbit lungs was individually irradiated with single fractional absorbed doses of 15, 30, 45, and 60 Gy. Observational CT scanning of the whole lung was performed every 2 weeks for 30 weeks after irradiation. After 30 weeks, histopathologic specimens of the lungs were examined. Dose distribution was simulated using the Monte Carlo method, and dose-volume histograms were calculated according to the data. A trial estimation of the effect of respiratory movement on dose distribution was made. Results: A localized hypodense change and subsequent reticular opacity around the planning target volume (PTV) were observed in CT images of rabbit lungs. Dose-volume histograms of the PTVs and organs at risk showed a focused dose distribution to the target and sufficient dose lowering in the organs at risk. Our estimate of the dose distribution, taking respiratory movement into account, revealed dose reduction in the PTV. Conclusions: A converging stereotactic irradiation unit using kilovoltage X-rays was able to generate a focused radiobiologic reaction in rabbit lungs. Dose-volume histogram analysis and estimated sagittal dose distribution, considering respiratory movement, clarified the characteristics of the irradiation received from this type of unit.

  16. Does Artificial Ascites Induce the Heat-Sink Phenomenon during Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of the Hepatic Subcapsular Area?: an in vivo Experimental Study Using a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the heat-sink phenomenon induced by artificial ascites on the size of the ablation zone during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area in an in vivo rabbit model. Materials and Methods A total of 21 percutaneous rabbit liver RF ablations were performed with and without artificial ascites (5% dextrose aqueous solution). The rabbits were divided into three groups: a) control group (C, n = 7); b) room temperature ascites group (R, n = 7); and c) warmed ascites group (W, n = 7). The tip of a 1 cm, internally cooled electrode was placed on the subcapsular region of the hepatic dome via ultrasound guidance, and ablation was continued for 6 min. Changes in temperature of the ascites were monitored during the ablation. The size of the ablation zones of the excised livers and immediate complications rates were compared statistically between the groups (Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, linear-by-linear association, p = 0.05). Results One rabbit from the "W" group expired during the procedure. In all groups, the ascites temperatures approached their respective body temperatures as the ablations continued; however, a significant difference in ascites temperature was found between groups "W" and "R" throughout the procedures (39.2±0.4℃ in group W and 33.4±4.3℃ in group R at 6 min, p = 0.003). No significant difference was found between the size of the ablation zones (782.4±237.3 mL in group C, 1,172.0±468.9 mL in group R, and 1,030.6±665.1 mL in group W, p = 0.170) for the excised liver specimens. Diaphragmatic injury was identified in three of seven cases (42.9%) upon visual inspection of group "C" rabbits (p = 0.030). Conclusion Artificial ascites are not likely to cause a significant heat-sink phenomenon in the percutaneous RF ablation of the hepatic subcapsular region. PMID:19182502

  17. Detection of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Fleg, Jerome L.; Stone, Gregg W.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Granada, Juan F.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Ohayon, Jacques; Pettigrew, Roderic; Sabatine, Marc S.; Tearney, Guillermo; Waxman, Sergio; Domanski, Michael J.; Srinivas, Pothur R.; Narula, Jagat

    2013-01-01

    The leading cause of major morbidity and mortality in most countries around the world is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, most commonly caused by thrombotic occlusion of a high-risk coronary plaque resulting in myocardial infarction or cardiac death, or embolization from a high-risk carotid plaque resulting in stroke. The lesions prone to result in such clinical events are termed vulnerable or high-risk plaques, and their identification may lead to the development of pharmacological and mechanical intervention strategies to prevent such events. Autopsy studies from patients dying of acute myocardial infarction or sudden death have shown that such events typically arise from specific types of atherosclerotic plaques, most commonly the thin-cap fibroatheroma. However, the search in human beings for vulnerable plaques before their becoming symptomatic has been elusive. Recently, the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study demonstrated that coronary plaques that are likely to cause future cardiac events, regardless of angiographic severity, are characterized by large plaque burden and small lumen area and/or are thin-cap fibroatheromas verified by radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. This study opened the door to identifying additional invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities that may improve detection of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions and patients. Beyond classic risk factors, novel biomarkers and genetic profiling may identify those patients in whom noninvasive imaging for vulnerable plaque screening, followed by invasive imaging for risk confirmation is warranted, and in whom future pharmacological and/or device-based focal or regional therapies may be applied to improve long-term prognosis. PMID:22974808

  18. Cells carrying C5b-9 complement complexes in human atherosclerotic wall.

    PubMed

    Rus, H G; Niculescu, F; Poruţiu, D; Ghiurca, V; Vlaicu, R

    1989-03-01

    Fibrous plaques and intimal thickenings of 5 femoral and 5 iliac human arteries obtained at surgery were processed for indirect and double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy using an affinity purified rabbit IgG anti-C5b-9 neoantigen and the EBM 11 monoclonal antibody anti-human macrophages. The C5b-9 complexes were localized in intact cells, disintegrated cells and cell debris enmeshed in the connective tissue matrix. Some of the cell debris bearing C5b-9 deposits was found to be of macrophage origin. Endocyted or exocyted pieces of membrane with pore-forming C5b-9 complexes were also identified. Damage of cells by complement in atherosclerotic lesions may contribute to atherogenesis. PMID:2714850

  19. Immunoelectron-microscopic localization of S-protein/vitronectin in human atherosclerotic wall.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, F; Rus, H G; Poruţiu, D; Ghiurca, V; Vlaicu, R

    1989-08-01

    S-protein/vitronectin is a multifunctional glycoprotein interacting with both complement activation and coagulation pathways. Its presence was investigated in 5 femoral and 5 iliac atherosclerotic human arteries, obtained at surgery, by immunoelectron microscopy using an affinity purified rabbit IgG specific for human S-protein/vitronectin. The immunoelectron dense specific deposits were found in both intimal thickenings and fibrous plaques in association with elastic fibers, collagen bundles and cell debris in the vicinity of elastin. Cell debris embedded in the collagen matrix were S-protein/vitronectin negative. S-protein/vitronectin was also absent on intact cells, lipid droplets and cholesterol clefts. All cell debris, however, was positive for C5b-9 deposits suggesting that complement activation had occurred at these sites with or without S-protein/vitronectin interaction. S-protein/vitronectin may play a role in the arterial wall defence by restricting the extent of complement activation. PMID:2476993

  20. Treatment of patients with aortic atherosclerotic disease with paclitaxel-associated lipid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Afonso A.; Senra, Tiago; Morikawa, Aleksandra T.; Deus, Débora F.; Paladino, Antonio T; Pinto, Ibraim M.F.; Maranhão, Raul C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The toxicity of anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents can be reduced by associating these compounds, such as the anti-proliferative agent paclitaxel, with a cholesterol-rich nanoemulsion (LDE) that mimics the lipid composition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). When injected into circulation, the LDE concentrates the carried drugs in neoplastic tissues and atherosclerotic lesions. In rabbits, atherosclerotic lesion size was reduced by 65% following LDE-paclitaxel treatment. The current study aimed to test the effectiveness of LDE-paclitaxel on inpatients with aortic atherosclerosis. METHODS: This study tested a 175 mg/m2 body surface area dose of LDE-paclitaxel (intravenous administration, 3/3 weeks for 6 cycles) in patients with aortic atherosclerosis who were aged between 69 and 86 yrs. A control group of 9 untreated patients with aortic atherosclerosis (72-83 yrs) was also observed. RESULTS: The LDE-paclitaxel treatment elicited no important clinical or laboratory toxicities. Images were acquired via multiple detector computer tomography angiography (64-slice scanner) before treatment and at 1-2 months after treatment. The images showed that the mean plaque volume in the aortic artery wall was reduced in 4 of the 8 patients, while in 3 patients it remained unchanged and in one patient it increased. In the control group, images were acquired twice with an interval of 6-8 months. None of the patients in this group exhibited a reduction in plaque volume; in contrast, the plaque volume increased in three patients and remained stable in four patients. During the study period, one death unrelated to the treatment occurred in the LDE-paclitaxel group and one death occurred in the control group. CONCLUSION: Treatment with LDE-paclitaxel was tolerated by patients with cardiovascular disease and showed the potential to reduce atherosclerotic lesion size.

  1. Endovascular revascularization for aortoiliac atherosclerotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vikas; Waldo, Stephen W; Armstrong, Ehrin J

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic iliac artery disease is increasingly being treated with endovascular techniques. A number of new stent technologies can be utilized with high long-term patency, including self-expanding stents, balloon-expandable stents, and covered stents, but comparative data on these stent types and in more complex lesions are lacking. This article provides a review of currently available iliac stent technologies, as well as complex procedural aspects of iliac artery interventions, including approaches to the treatment of iliac bifurcation disease, long segment occlusions, choice of stent type, and treatment of iliac artery in-stent restenosis. PMID:27099509

  2. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: current status.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lerman, Lilach O

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) remains a major cause of secondary hypertension and kidney failure. Randomized prospective trials show that medical treatment should constitute the main therapeutic approach in ARAS. Regardless of intensive treatment and adequate blood pressure control, however, renal and extrarenal complications are not uncommon. Yet, the precise mechanisms, accurate detection, and optimal treatment in ARAS remain elusive. Strategies oriented to early detection and targeting these pathogenic pathways might prevent development of clinical end points. Here, we review the results of recent clinical trials, current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, novel imaging techniques to assess kidney damage in ARAS, and treatment options. PMID:25908472

  3. Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Mohar, Dilbahar; Steward, Earl; Yu, Mingyue; Piao, Zhonglie; He, Youmin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Patel, Pranav M.; Chen, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. The majority of CAD-induced deaths are due to the rupture of vulnerable plaques. Accurate assessment of plaques is crucial to optimize treatment and prevent death in patients with CAD. Current diagnostic techniques are often limited by either spatial resolution or penetration depth. Several studies have proved that the combined use of optical and ultrasonic imaging techniques increase diagnostic accuracy of vulnerable plaques. Here, we introduce an ultrafast optical-ultrasonic dual-modality imaging system and flexible miniaturized catheter, which enables the translation of this technology into clinical practice. This system can perform simultaneous optical coherence tomography (OCT)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging at 72 frames per second safely in vivo, i.e., visualizing a 72 mm-long artery in 4 seconds. Results obtained in atherosclerotic rabbits in vivo and human coronary artery segments show that this ultrafast technique can rapidly provide volumetric mapping of plaques and clearly identify vulnerable plaques. By providing ultrafast imaging of arteries with high resolution and deep penetration depth simultaneously, this hybrid IVUS-OCT technology opens new and safe opportunities to evaluate in real-time the risk posed by plaques, detect vulnerable plaques, and optimize treatment decisions. PMID:26678300

  4. Simulation of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue: the influence of plaque material model on numerical results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the limited number of experimental studies that mechanically characterise human atherosclerotic plaque tissue from the femoral arteries, a recent trend has emerged in current literature whereby one set of material data based on aortic plaque tissue is employed to numerically represent diseased femoral artery tissue. This study aims to generate novel vessel-appropriate material models for femoral plaque tissue and assess the influence of using material models based on experimental data generated from aortic plaque testing to represent diseased femoral arterial tissue. Methods Novel material models based on experimental data generated from testing of atherosclerotic femoral artery tissue are developed and a computational analysis of the revascularisation of a quarter model idealised diseased femoral artery from a 90% diameter stenosis to a 10% diameter stenosis is performed using these novel material models. The simulation is also performed using material models based on experimental data obtained from aortic plaque testing in order to examine the effect of employing vessel appropriate material models versus those currently employed in literature to represent femoral plaque tissue. Results Simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic aortic tissue exhibit much higher maximum principal stresses within the plaque than simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic femoral tissue. Specifically, employing a material model based on calcified aortic tissue, instead of one based on heavily calcified femoral tissue, to represent diseased femoral arterial vessels results in a 487 fold increase in maximum principal stress within the plaque at a depth of 0.8 mm from the lumen. Conclusions Large differences are induced on numerical results as a consequence of employing material models based on aortic plaque, in place of material models based on femoral plaque, to represent a diseased femoral vessel. Due to these large

  5. CANCER BIOMARKERS IN HUMAN ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS: DETECTION OF DNA ADDUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since somatic mutations are suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis not only of cancer but also of atherosclerotic plaques, we measured DNA adducts in the smooth muscle layer of atherosclerotic lesions in abnormal aorta specimens taken at surgery from seven patients. NA adduc...

  6. Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in infant rabbits, an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Elcin; Kismali, Gorkem; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Ozkurt, Guzin; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the potential hazardous effects of prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels of infant rabbits. A total of 72 New Zealand female and male white rabbits aged 1-month were used. Thirty-six female and 36 male were divided into four groups which were composed of nine infants: (i) Group 1 were the sham exposure (control), (ii) Group 2 were exposed to RFR, 15 min daily for 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) (prenatal exposure group). (iii) Group 3 were exposed to RFR 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (postnatal exposure group). (iv) Group 4 were exposed to RFR for 15 min daily during 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) and 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (prenatal and postnatal exposure group). Results showed that serum lipid peroxidation level in both female and male rabbits changed due to the RFR exposure. However, different parameters of the blood biochemistry were affected by exposure in male and female infants. Consequently, the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RFR exposure may lead to oxidative stress and changes on some blood chemistry parameters. Studies on RFR exposure during prenatal and postnatal periods will help to establish international standards for the protection of pregnants and newborns from environmental RFR. PMID:23526187

  7. Tendon Tissue Engineering and Its Role on Healing of the Experimentally Induced Large Tendon Defect Model in Rabbits: A Comprehensive In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid; Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Healing of large tendon defects is challenging. We studied the role of collagen implant with or without polydioxanone (PDS) sheath on the healing of a large Achilles tendon defect model, in rabbits. Sixty rabbits were divided into three groups. A 2 cm gap was created in the left Achilles tendon of all rabbits. In the control lesions, no implant was used. The other two groups were reconstructed by collagen and collagen-PDS implants respectively. The animals were clinically examined at weekly intervals and their lesions were observed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were obtained from the animals and were assessed for hematological analysis and determination of serum PDGF level, at 60 days post injury (DPI). The animals were then euthanized and their lesions were assessed for gross and histopathology, scanning electron microscopy, biomechanical testing, dry matter and hydroxyproline content. Another 65 pilot animals were also studied grossly and histopathologically to define the host implant interaction and graft incorporation at serial time points. The treated animals gained significantly better clinical scoring compared to the controls. Treatment with collagen and collagen-PDS implants significantly increased the biomechanical properties of the lesions compared to the control tendons at 60DPI (P<0.05). The tissue engineered implants also reduced peritendinous adhesion, muscle fibrosis and atrophy, and increased ultrasonographical echogenicity and homogenicity, maturation and differentiation of the collagen fibrils and fibers, tissue alignment and volume of the regenerated tissue compared to those of the control lesions (P<0.05). The implants were gradually absorbed and substituted by the new tendon. Implantation of the bioimplants had a significant role in initiating tendon healing and the implants were biocompatible, biodegradable and safe for application in tendon reconstructive surgery. The results of the present study may be valuable in clinical practice. PMID

  8. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-01-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  9. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-12-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  10. Delivery of antifibroblast agents as adjuncts to filtration surgery. Part I--Periocular clearance of cobalt-57 bleomycin in experimental drug delivery: pilot study in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, J.S.; Litin, B.S.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Chvapil, M.; Herschler, J.

    1986-10-01

    Antitumor and antifibroblast agents show promise as adjuncts after glaucoma filtration surgery in reducing postoperative scarring and failure. We used nuclear imaging in rabbits to investigate periocular clearance of one such agent (/sup 57/Co-bleomycin). Sub-Tenon injection was compared to other delivery techniques. Our results showed that a collagen sponge and a silastic disc implant with a microhole prolonged drug delivery when compared to sub-Tenon injection alone or injection with a viscosity enhancing agent (0.5% sodium hyaluronate). We theorize that if an antifibroblast agent can be delivered in small and sustained amounts after filtration surgery, this may prolong bleb longevity and avoid unnecessary drug toxicity.

  11. Experimental Embolization of Rabbit Renal Arteries to Compare the Effects of Poly L-Lactic Acid Microspheres With and Without Epirubicin Release Against Intraarterial Injection of Epirubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Ikada, Yoshito

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: We performed a basic investigation using white rabbits of the sustained release and embolizing effects of poly L-lactic acid microspheres (PLA) to determine their usefulness for chemoembolization.Methods: Fifteen male Japanese white rabbits were used. Sustained release of an embolizing material, EPI-PLA was accomplished with 1 mg of PLA containing 0.03 mg of epirubicin hydrochloride (EPI). Embolization with 50 mg of PLA (total dose of EPI 1.5 mg) was performed after the renal artery of the rabbits was selected (Chemo-TAE group). A group in which a bolus of 1.5 mg EPI alone was injected through the renal artery (TAI group) was established as a control group. Furthermore, a group in which embolization was performed with 50 mg of PLA alone (TAE group) was also established. These three groups, each consisting of five rabbits, were compared.Results: Blood EPI levels were serially measured. The blood EPI level in the TAI group rapidly reached a peak more than 30 min after injection, then decreased to almost zero 24 hr after injection. In the Chemo-TAE group, the blood EPI level was transiently increased 30 min after embolization, but remained low thereafter until 24 hr after embolization. EPI levels in kidney tissue isolated 24 hr after embolization were measured. In the Chemo-TAE group, the tissue EPI level was significantly higher than that in the TAI group. When isolated kidneys were macroscopically and histologically examined, atrophy of the entire embolized kidney, as well as infarction and necrosis in the renal cortex, were observed in both the TAE group and the Chemo-TAE group. However, there were no such findings in the TAI group. The area of the infarction in the renal cortex did not significantly differ between the Chemo-TAE group and the TAE group; however, there was vascular injury in the Chemo-TAE group and none in the TAE group.Conclusion: It was demonstrated that EPI-PLA, a chemoembolizing material, maintained high local concentrations of the

  12. Experimental embolization of rabbit renal arteries to compare the effects of poly L-lactic acid microspheres with and without epirubicin release against ntraarterial injection of epirubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Ikada, Yoshito

    2000-05-15

    Purpose: We performed a basic investigation using white rabbits of the sustained release and embolizing effects of poly L-lactic acid microspheres (PLA) to determine their usefulness for chemoembolization.Methods: Fifteen male Japanese white rabbits were used. Sustained release of an embolizing material, EPI-PLA was accomplished with l m g of PLA containing 0.03 mg of epirubicin hydrochloride (EPI). Embolization with 50 mg of PLA (total dose of EPI l.5 mg) was performed after the renal artery of the rabbits was selected (Chemo-TAE group). A group in which a bolus of 1.5 mg EPI alone was injected through the renal artery (TAI group) was established as a control group. Furthermore, a group in which embolization was performed with 50 mg of PLA alone (TAE group) was also established. These three groups, each consisting of five rabbits, were compared.Results: Blood EPI levels were serially measured. The blood EPI level in the TAI group rapidly reached a peak more than 30 min after injection, then decreased to almost zero 24 hr after injection. In the Chemo-TAE group, the blood EPI level was transiently increased 30 min after embolization, but remained low thereafter until 24 hr after embolization. EPI levels in kidney tissue isolated 24 hr after embolization were measured. In the Chemo-TAE group, the tissue EPI level was significantly higher than that in the TAI group. When isolated kidneys were macroscopically and histologically examined, atrophy of the entire embolized kidney, as well as infarction and necrosis in the renal cortex, were observed in both the TAE group and the Chemo-TAE group. However, there were no such findings in the TAI group. The area of the infarction in the renal cortex did not significantly differ between the Chemo-TAE group and the TAE group; however, there was vascular injury in the Chemo-TAE group and none in the TAE group.Conclusion: It was demonstrated that EPI-PLA, a chemo-embolizing material, maintained high local concentrations of the

  13. The influence of intravenous laser irradiation of blood on some metabolic and functional parameters in intact rabbits and experimental cerebral ischaemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechipurenko, N.; Vasilevskaya, L.; Musienko, J.; Maslova, G.

    2007-07-01

    It has been studied the intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) influence with helium-neon laser (HNL) of 630 nm wavelength on some of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant system (AOS) findings, aside-base status (ABS) and blood oxygen transport (BOT), state of dermal microhaemodynamics (MGD) in the intact rabbits and after modeling of local ischemia of brain (LIB). Depending on conditions of organism functioning (norm or brain ischaemia) ILIB has resulted in stimulating or normalizing effects on the whole metabolic and microhaemocirculation processes which had been studied during our investigation. It is discussed the mechanisms of pathogenetic directivity of ILIB influence in cerebral ischaemia

  14. The contemporary management of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xinyi; Wong, Ka Sing; Leung, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is the most common cause of cerebral vasculopathy and an important stroke etiology worldwide, with a higher prevalence in Asian, Hispanic and African ethnicities. Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease portends a recurrent stroke risk as high as 18% at one year. The key to secondary prevention is an understanding of the underlying stroke mechanism and aggressive control of conventional cardiovascular risks. Contemporary treatment includes antiplatelet therapy, optimal glycemic and blood pressure control, statin therapy and lifestyle modifications. For patients with high-grade (70-99%) symptomatic steno-occlusion, short-term dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel followed by life-long single antiplatelet therapy may reduce the recurrent risk. Current evidence does not advocate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting as an initial treatment. External counterpulsation, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis and remote limb ischemic preconditioning are treatments under investigation. Future studies should aim at predicting patients prone to recurrence despite of medical therapies and testing the efficacy of emerging therapies. PMID:27082149

  15. Hyperspectral imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Olstad, Elisabeth; Haugen, Olav A.; Aksnes, Astrid; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable plaques constitute a risk for serious heart problems, and are difficult to identify using existing methods. Hyperspectral imaging combines spectral- and spatial information, providing new possibilities for precise optical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions. Hyperspectral data were collected from excised aorta samples (n = 11) using both white-light and ultraviolet illumination. Single lesions (n = 42) were chosen for further investigation, and classified according to histological findings. The corresponding hyperspectral images were characterized using statistical image analysis tools (minimum noise fraction, K-means clustering, principal component analysis) and evaluation of reflectance/fluorescence spectra. Image analysis combined with histology revealed the complexity and heterogeneity of aortic plaques. Plaque features such as lipids and calcifications could be identified from the hyperspectral images. Most of the advanced lesions had a central region surrounded by an outer rim or shoulder-region of the plaque, which is considered a weak spot in vulnerable lesions. These features could be identified in both the white-light and fluorescence data. Hyperspectral imaging was shown to be a promising tool for detection and characterization of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in vitro. Hyperspectral imaging provides more diagnostic information about the heterogeneity of the lesions than conventional single point spectroscopic measurements.

  16. Treating cardiovascular atherosclerotic plaques with Tongmaijiangzhi (TMJZ) capsule.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Qiang; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Zhong Shuang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Li; Duan, Jun Cang; Li, Li; Zhai, Zhi Hong; Qu, De Tao; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques can cause serious syndromes and mortality. Cholesterol accumulation in the plaques can disrupt the arterial flow, with lumen narrowing and stenosis, which contributes to heart attack and sudden cardiac death. The pharmacological treatment to atherosclerotic plaques can be anti-hypertensives, anti-cholesterol, and cleaning of the existed plaques. This work examined the effects of pharmacological Tongmaijiangzhi (TMJZ) capsule on atherosclerotic plaques. The radiological findings of the atherosclerotic plaques of 107 patients receiving TMJZ treatment were analyzed. We found that the TMJZ administration decreases plaque volume and alters the composition in a relatively short period, showing highly promising effects. TMJZ treatment is able to remove the existed atherosclerotic plaques with no side effects observed. PMID:24311866

  17. Dual-modality fiber-based OCT-TPL imaging system for simultaneous microstructural and molecular analysis of atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyi; McElroy, Austin; Halaney, David; Vela, Deborah; Fung, Edmund; Hossain, Shafat; Phipps, Jennifer; Wang, Bingqing; Yin, Biwei; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    New optical imaging techniques that provide contrast to study both the anatomy and composition of atherosclerotic plaques can be utilized to better understand the formation, progression and clinical complications of human coronary artery disease. We present a dual-modality fiber-based optical imaging system for simultaneous microstructural and molecular analysis of atherosclerotic plaques that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging. Experimental results from ex vivo human coronary arteries show that OCT and TPL optical contrast in recorded OCT-TPL images is complimentary and in agreement with histological analysis. Molecular composition (e.g., lipid and oxidized-LDL) detected by TPL imaging can be overlaid onto plaque microstructure depicted by OCT, providing new opportunities for atherosclerotic plaque identification and characterization. PMID:26137371

  18. Effect of a high dose of vitamin D on a rabbit model of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Malek, H A; Shata, A

    2014-01-01

    Multifactorial factors have been involved in atherosclerosis. An association has been shown between osteoporosis and carotid atherosclerosis. This work evaluates the effect of vitamin D on regression of atherosclerosis. Forty-eight male rabbits were divided into: Group Ia: [Standard diet + saline for 4 weeks]; Group I b: [Standard diet + a high dose of vitamin D3 daily for 4 weeks]; Group IIa: [Cholesterol–enriched diet for 4 weeks]; Group IIb: [Cholesterol–enriched diet + a single high dose of vit D3, daily for 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks, the rabbits were sacrificed for assay in serum lipid profile, C reactive protein (CRP), vitamin D3 metabolite, calcium, soluble adhesion molecules (sVCAM and sICAM) and nitrite (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) released from isolated aortic rings. Results showed that vitamin D produced a significant reduction in the sera of lipid profile, CRP, and adhesion molecules, associated with a non-significant change in serum calcium and a significant increase in the body level of vitamin D3. Addition of vitamin D to the incubated aortic rings of the atherosclerotic rabbits resulted in a significant increase in NO and decrease in MDA release. It could be concluded that vitamin D has anti-atherosclerotic effects, and may exert these effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and stimulation of nitric oxide, resulting in attenuation of the inflammatory atherosclerotic process. PMID:25004831

  19. Safety and Biocompatibility of a New High-Density Polyethylene-Based Spherical Integrated Porous Orbital Implant: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Bueno, Ivan; Di Lauro, Salvatore; Alvarez, Ivan; Lopez, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Fernandez, Itziar; Larra, Eva; Pastor, Jose Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate clinically and histologically the safety and biocompatibility of a new HDPE-based spherical porous orbital implants in rabbits. Methods. MEDPOR (Porex Surgical, Inc., Fairburn, GA, USA), OCULFIT I, and OCULFIT II (AJL Ophthalmic S.A., Vitoria, Spain) implants were implanted in eviscerated rabbis. Animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 4 each) according to the 3 implant materials tested and 2 follow-up times of 90 or 180 days. Signs of regional pain and presence of eyelid swelling, conjunctival hyperemia, and amount of exudate were semiquantitatively evaluated. After animals sacrifice, the implants and surrounding ocular tissues were processed for histological staining and polarized light evaluation. Statistical study was performed by ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results. No statistically significant differences in regional pain, eyelid swelling, or conjunctival hyperemia were shown between implants and/or time points evaluated. However, amount of exudate differed, with OCULFIT I causing the smallest amount. No remarkable clinical complications were observed. Histological findings were similar in all three types of implants and agree with minor inflammatory response. Conclusions. OCULFIT ophthalmic tolerance and biocompatibility in rabbits were comparable to the clinically used MEDPOR. Clinical studies are needed to determine if OCULFIT is superior to the orbital implants commercially available. PMID:26689343

  20. Mucosal injury and. gamma. -irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M. )

    1991-05-01

    A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and {gamma}-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. {gamma}-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment.

  1. Delivery of negatively charged liposomes into the atherosclerotic plaque of apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse aortic tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Sood, Anil K; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Walton, Brian L

    2014-09-01

    Liposomes have been used to diagnose and treat cancer and, to a lesser extent, cardiovascular disease. We previously showed the uptake of anionic liposomes into the atheromas of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits within lipid pools. However, the cellular distribution of anionic liposomes in atherosclerotic plaque remains undescribed. In addition, how anionic liposomes are absorbed into atherosclerotic plaque is unclear. We investigated the uptake and distribution of anionic liposomes in atherosclerotic plaque in aortic tissues from apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. To facilitate the tracking of liposomes, we used liposomes containing fluorescently labeled non-silencing small interfering RNA. Confocal microscopy analysis showed the uptake of anionic liposomes into atherosclerotic plaque and colocalization with macrophages. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed anionic liposomal accumulation in macrophages. To investigate how anionic liposomes cross the local endothelial barrier, we examined the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) treated with or without the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Pretreatment with amantadine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, significantly decreased liposomal uptake in HCAECs treated with or without TNF-α by 77% and 46%, respectively. Immunoblot analysis showed that endogenous clathrin expression was significantly increased in HCAECs stimulated with TNF-α but was inhibited by amantadine. These studies indicated that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is partly responsible for the uptake of liposomes by endothelial cells. Our results suggest that anionic liposomes target macrophage-rich areas of vulnerable plaque in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice; this finding may lead to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for treating vulnerable plaque in humans. PMID:24443972

  2. Dual-wavelength multifrequency photothermal wave imaging combined with optical coherence tomography for macrophage and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaques using gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyi; Jacob Mancuso, J.; Sapozhnikova, Veronika; Dwelle, Jordan; Ma, Li L.; Willsey, Brian; Shams Kazmi, S. M.; Qiu, Jinze; Li, Xiankai; Asmis, Reto; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of combined photothermal wave (PTW) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect, and further characterize the distribution of macrophages (having taken up plasmonic gold nanorose as a contrast agent) and lipid deposits in atherosclerotic plaques. Aortas with atherosclerotic plaques were harvested from nine male New Zealand white rabbits divided into nanorose- and saline-injected groups and were imaged by dual-wavelength (800 and 1210 nm) multifrequency (0.1, 1 and 4 Hz) PTW imaging in combination with OCT. Amplitude PTW images suggest that lateral and depth distribution of nanorose-loaded macrophages (confirmed by two-photon luminescence microscopy and RAM-11 macrophage stain) and lipid deposits can be identified at selected modulation frequencies. Radiometric temperature increase and modulation amplitude of superficial nanoroses in response to 4 Hz laser irradiation (800 nm) were significantly higher than native plaque (P<0.001). Amplitude PTW images (4 Hz) were merged into a coregistered OCT image, suggesting that superficial nanorose-loaded macrophages are distributed at shoulders on the upstream side of atherosclerotic plaques (P<0.001) at edges of lipid deposits. Results suggest that combined PTW-OCT imaging can simultaneously reveal plaque structure and composition, permitting characterization of nanorose-loaded macrophages and lipid deposits in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:22502567

  3. Dual-wavelength multifrequency photothermal wave imaging combined with optical coherence tomography for macrophage and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaques using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Jacob Mancuso, J.; Sapozhnikova, Veronika; Dwelle, Jordan; Ma, Li L.; Willsey, Brian; Shams Kazmi, S. M.; Qiu, Jinze; Li, Xiankai; Asmis, Reto; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of combined photothermal wave (PTW) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect, and further characterize the distribution of macrophages (having taken up plasmonic gold nanorose as a contrast agent) and lipid deposits in atherosclerotic plaques. Aortas with atherosclerotic plaques were harvested from nine male New Zealand white rabbits divided into nanorose- and saline-injected groups and were imaged by dual-wavelength (800 and 1210 nm) multifrequency (0.1, 1 and 4 Hz) PTW imaging in combination with OCT. Amplitude PTW images suggest that lateral and depth distribution of nanorose-loaded macrophages (confirmed by two-photon luminescence microscopy and RAM-11 macrophage stain) and lipid deposits can be identified at selected modulation frequencies. Radiometric temperature increase and modulation amplitude of superficial nanoroses in response to 4 Hz laser irradiation (800 nm) were significantly higher than native plaque (P<0.001). Amplitude PTW images (4 Hz) were merged into a coregistered OCT image, suggesting that superficial nanorose-loaded macrophages are distributed at shoulders on the upstream side of atherosclerotic plaques (P<0.001) at edges of lipid deposits. Results suggest that combined PTW-OCT imaging can simultaneously reveal plaque structure and composition, permitting characterization of nanorose-loaded macrophages and lipid deposits in atherosclerotic plaques.

  4. Potential Anti-Atherosclerotic Properties of Astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-02-01

    Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring red carotenoid pigment classified as a xanthophyll, found in microalgae and seafood such as salmon, trout, and shrimp. This review focuses on astaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Astaxanthin has a unique molecular structure that is responsible for its powerful antioxidant activities by quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. Astaxanthin has been reported to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and adiponectin levels in clinical studies. Accumulating evidence suggests that astaxanthin could exert preventive actions against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) via its potential to improve oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. In addition to identifying mechanisms of astaxanthin bioactivity by basic research, much more epidemiological and clinical evidence linking reduced CVD risk with dietary astaxanthin intake is needed. PMID:26861359

  5. Potential Anti-Atherosclerotic Properties of Astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring red carotenoid pigment classified as a xanthophyll, found in microalgae and seafood such as salmon, trout, and shrimp. This review focuses on astaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Astaxanthin has a unique molecular structure that is responsible for its powerful antioxidant activities by quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. Astaxanthin has been reported to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and adiponectin levels in clinical studies. Accumulating evidence suggests that astaxanthin could exert preventive actions against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) via its potential to improve oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. In addition to identifying mechanisms of astaxanthin bioactivity by basic research, much more epidemiological and clinical evidence linking reduced CVD risk with dietary astaxanthin intake is needed. PMID:26861359

  6. Atherosclerotic carotid stenosis and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Mei, Bin; Zhang, Junjian

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis carotid stenosis is associated with stroke and cognitive impairment. Progressive cognitive decline may be an even greater problem than stroke, but it has not been widely recognized and therefore must be adequately addressed. Although both Carotid Endarterectomy (CEA) and Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS) have been proven can prevent future stroke in patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis, the influence of CEA and CAS on cognitive function is not clear. In the first part of this review, we evaluated the literature concerning carotid stenosis and the risk of cognitive impairment. Studies have suggested that both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis are associated with cognitive impairment. In the second part, we reviewed the impact of CEA and CAS on cognitive function, some studies have shown benefits, but others have not. PMID:27152468

  7. A New Safety Concern for Glaucoma Treatment Demonstrated by Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Benzalkonium Chloride Distribution in the Eye, an Experimental Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  8. Ultrasound-induced opening of the blood-brain barrier to enhance temozolomide and irinotecan delivery: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Beccaria, Kevin; Canney, Michael; Goldwirt, Lauriane; Fernandez, Christine; Piquet, Julie; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Lafon, Cyril; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Carpentier, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the intracerebral penetration of drugs and brain tumor treatment efficacy. The effect of ultrasound-induced BBB opening on the intracerebral concentration of temozolomide (TMZ) and irinotecan (CPT-11) was assessed. METHODS This study was performed using 34 healthy New Zealand rabbits. Half had unilateral BBB opening, and half served as controls. Sonications were performed by pulsing a 1.05-MHz planar ultrasound transducer with a duty cycle of 2.5% and an in situ acoustic pressure level of 0.6 MPa after injection of a microbubble ultrasound contrast agent. Drugs were injected either 5 minutes before (ChemoPreUS) or 15 minutes after (ChemoPostUS) the ultrasound sonication. The plasma and intracerebral concentrations of both drugs were quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS The mean intracerebral tissue-to-plasma drug concentration ratio in the control hemispheres was 34% for TMZ and 2% for CPT-11. After BBB opening, these values increased by up to 21% for TMZ and up to 178% for CPT-11. Intracerebral concentrations of drugs were enhanced in regions where the BBB was opened compared with the contralateral hemisphere (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001 for CPT-11, p = 0.02 and p = 0.03 for TMZ, in ChemoPreUS and ChemoPostUS, respectively) and compared with the control group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001 for CPT-11, p < 0.01 and p = 0.02 for TMZ, in ChemoPreUS and ChemoPostUS, respectively). The intracerebral distribution of drugs was heterogeneous, depending on the distance from the ultrasound source. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound-induced opening of the BBB significantly enhances the intracerebral concentration of both TMZ and CPT-11 in rabbits. PMID:26566207

  9. Post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head predicted by preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid scan: an experimental and clinical study. [Rabbits; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.H.

    1983-07-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was used to visualize the bone marrow of the head of the femur within twenty-four hours after interruption of the blood supply by subcapital osteotomy and section of the ligamentum teres in thirteen rabbits and within twenty-four hours after a subcapital fracture in thirty patients. Of the rabbits, all showed loss of marrow radioactivity over the affected femoral head. Bone-imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate, in contrast, failed to demonstrate any abnormality in the avascular head of the femur for as long as forty-eight hours after osteotomy. This difference between the marrow scan and the bone scan was attributed to earlier loss of function in the marrow cells than in the osteocytes. The thirty patients who had a preoperative scan within twenty-four hours after sustaining a subcapital fracture were treated by internal fixation with a Richards screw and plate and were followed for as long as two years, or until the patient died or radiographs showed evidence of avascular necrosis. The preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid activity in the head of the fractured femur was normal in sixteen patients and absent in fourteen; two of the fourteen had no activity in either hip, which precluded assessment of the fractured hip in these patients. In fifteen of the sixteen hips, preservation of the uptake in the marrow of the head of the fractured femur preoperatively predicted normal healing. Late segmental collapse developed in the remaining hip. In eleven of the twelve patients who had loss of marrow activity in the femoral head preoperatively, avascular necrosis developed within two years.

  10. Treatment with methotrexate inhibits atherogenesis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bulgarelli, Adriana; Martins Dias, Adriana Abalen; Caramelli, Bruno; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante

    2012-04-01

    A decrease in the number of cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis treated with methotrexate (MTX) has been observed in the literature. The aim of this study was to test whether MTX could promote anti-inflammatory effects and reduce the atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits with atherosclerosis induced by cholesterol feeding. Twenty male New Zealand rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet for 60 days. Starting from day 30 of cholesterol feeding, 10 animals were treated with 4 weekly intravenous injections of MTX (4 mg/kg) and 10 with 4 weekly saline solution injections for 30 days. MTX reduced the size of the lesion areas of cholesterol-fed animals by 75% and intima-media ratio 2-fold. The drug inhibited macrophage migration into the intima by 50% and the presence of apoptotic cells by 84% but did not inhibit the intimal proliferation of smooth muscle cells. MTX treatment also diminished the positive staining area of metalloproteinase 9 in the intima, which is probably beneficial. In the tumor necrosis factor-α-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cell line, incubation with MTX led to downregulation of 5 pro-inflammatory genes, TNF-α, VAP-1, IL-1β, CXCL2, and TLR2, and upregulation of the anti-inflammatory TGF-β1 gene, thus showing endothelium-protective properties. In conclusion, MTX showed direct in vivo anti-atherosclerotic action and may have potential in the treatment of this disorder. PMID:22113347