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1

Expert Elicitation Method Selection Process and Method Comparison  

SciTech Connect

Research on integrative modeling has gained considerable attention in recent years and expert opinion has been increasingly recognized as an important data source and modeling contributor. However, little research has systematically compared and evaluated expert elicitation methods in terms of their ability to link to computational models that capture human behavior and social phenomena. In this paper, we describe a decision-making process we used for evaluating and selecting a task specific elicitation method within the framework of integrative computational social-behavioral modeling. From the existing literature, we identified the characteristics of problems that each candidate method is well suited to address. A small-scale expert elicitation was also conducted to evaluate the comparative strength and weaknesses of the methods against a number of consensus-based decision criteria. By developing a set of explicit method evaluation criteria and a description characterizing decision problems for the candidate methods, we seek to gain a better understanding of the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of integrating elicitation methods with computational modeling techniques. This serves an important first step toward expanding our research effort and trajectory toward greater interdisciplinary modeling research of human behavior.

Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Whitney, Paul D.

2010-09-21

2

Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

2005-06-01

3

Expert Elicitation for Reliable System Design1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the role of expert judgement to support reliability assessments within the systems engineering design process. Generic design processes are described to give the context and a dis- cussion is given about the nature of the reliability assessments required in the different systems engineering phases. It is argued that, as far as meeting reliability requirements is concerned, the

Tim Bedford; John Quigley; Lesley Walls

4

Expert Elicitation for Reliable System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the role of expert judgement to support reliability assessments within the systems engineering design process. Generic design processes are described to give the context and a discussion is given about the nature of the reliability assessments required in the different systems engineering phases. It is argued that, as far as meeting reliability requirements is concerned, the whole

Tim Bedford; John Quigley; Lesley Walls

2006-01-01

5

Expert elicitation methods for studying technological change under uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent study by Anadón et al (2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 034020) employs multiple expert elicitation to study the potential impact of public RD&D on nuclear power costs through 2030. This study achieves a rare depth and variation in multiple expert elicitation on the same problem, which allows the authors to carefully identify expert-level drivers of variations in assessments of outcomes and associated uncertainties. An important parameter—change in the future costs of nuclear fission technologies upon doubling of public RD&D—is also calculated. Overall, this study makes a significant contribution to both the decision-making under uncertainty literature focusing on technological change as well as the expert elicitation methodology literature.

Rai, Varun

2013-12-01

6

CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

2012-10-01

7

Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation. R. Lawley, M. Barron and K. Lee. NERC - British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK, NG12 5GG The boundaries mapped in traditional field geological survey are subject to a wide range of inherent uncertainties. A map at a survey-scale of 1:10,000 is created by a combination of terrain interpretation, direct observations from boreholes and exposures (often sparsely distributed), and indirect interpretation of proxy variables such as soil properties, vegetation and remotely sensed images. A critical factor influencing the quality of the final map is the skill and experience of the surveyor to bring this information together in a coherent conceptual model. The users of geological data comprising or based on mapped boundaries are increasingly aware of these uncertainties, and want to know how to manage them. The growth of 3D modelling, which takes 2D surveys as a starting point, adds urgency to the need for a better understanding of survey uncertainties; particularly where 2D mapping of variable vintage has been compiled into a national coverage. Previous attempts to apply confidence on the basis of metrics such as data density, survey age or survey techniques have proved useful for isolating single, critical, factors but do not generally succeed in evaluating geological mapping 'in the round', because they cannot account for the 'conceptual' skill set of the surveyor. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is using expert elicitation methods to gain a better understanding of uncertainties within the national geological map of Great Britain. The expert elicitation approach starts with the assumption that experienced surveyors have an intuitive sense of the uncertainty of the boundaries that they map, based on a tacit model of geology and its complexity and the nature of the surveying process. The objective of elicitation is to extract this model in a useable, quantitative, form by a robust and transparent procedure. At BGS expert elicitation is being used to evaluate the uncertainty of mapped boundaries in different common mapping scenarios, with a view to building a 'collective' understanding of the challenges each scenario presents. For example, a 'sharp contact (at surface) between highly contrasting sedimentary rocks' represents one level of survey challenge that should be accurately met by all surveyors, even novices. In contrast, a 'transitional boundary defined by localised facies-variation' may require much more experience to resolve (without recourse to significantly more sampling). We will describe the initial phase of this exercise in which uncertainty models were elicited for mapped boundaries in six contrasting scenarios. Each scenario was presented to a panel of experts with varied expertise and career history. In five cases it was possible to arrive at a consensus model, in a sixth case experts with different experience took different views of the nature of the mapping problem. We will discuss our experience of the use of elicitation methodology and the implications of our results for further work at the BGS to quantify uncertainty in map products. In particular we will consider the value of elicitation as a means to capture the expertise of individuals as they retire, and as the composition of the organization's staff changes in response to the management and policy decisions.

Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lee, Katy

2014-05-01

8

Optimal elicitation of probabilistic information from experts ANDREW CURTIS1,2  

E-print Network

the interrogation of subjects for information. Surprisingly however, few elicitation techniques appear to be used (interrogation of experts for information) in real time, using all available information elicited previously quantitative, probabilistic information on any topic usually requires the interrogation of experts

9

The use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment: a seven step procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Environmental health impact assessments often have to deal with substantial uncertainties. Typically, the knowledge-base is limited with incomplete, or inconsistent evidence and missing or ambiguous data. Consulting experts can help to identify and address uncertainties. METHODS: Formal expert elicitation is a structured approach to systematically consult experts on uncertain issues. It is most often used to quantify ranges for

Anne B Knol; Pauline Slottje; Jeroen P van der Sluijs; Erik Lebret

2010-01-01

10

Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy  

PubMed Central

The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making. PMID:24821779

Morgan, M. Granger

2014-01-01

11

Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

1990-01-01

12

Parallel processing and expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

1991-01-01

13

Development of an Expert Judgement Elicitation and Calibration Methodology for Risk Analysis in Conceptual Vehicle Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive expert-judgment elicitation methodology to quantify input parameter uncertainty and analysis tool uncertainty in a conceptual launch vehicle design analysis has been developed. The ten-phase methodology seeks to obtain expert judgment opinion for quantifying uncertainties as a probability distribution so that multidisciplinary risk analysis studies can be performed. The calibration and aggregation techniques presented as part of the methodology are aimed at improving individual expert estimates, and provide an approach to aggregate multiple expert judgments into a single probability distribution. The purpose of this report is to document the methodology development and its validation through application to a reference aerospace vehicle. A detailed summary of the application exercise, including calibration and aggregation results is presented. A discussion of possible future steps in this research area is given.

Unal, Resit; Keating, Charles; Conway, Bruce; Chytka, Trina

2004-01-01

14

Productivity of Ontario initial-attack fire crews: results of an expert-judgement elicitation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structured expert-judgement elicitation technique was used to develop probability distributions for fireline production rates for Ontario's three- and four-person initial-attack crews for seven common fuel types and two distinct levels of fire intensity (i.e., low, 500 kW\\/m; moderate, 1500 kW\\/m). A total of 141 crew leaders provided 900 esti- mates of the minimum, maximum, and most likely (mode) time

Kelvin G. Hirsch; Justin J. Podur; Robert F. Janser; Robert S. McAlpine; David L. Martell

2004-01-01

15

Flammable gas double shell tank expert elicitation presentations (Part A and Part B)  

SciTech Connect

This document is a compilation of presentation packages and white papers for the Flammable Gas Double Shell Tank Expert Elicitation Workshop {number_sign}2. For each presentation given by the different authors, a separate section was developed. The purpose for issuing these workshop presentation packages and white papers as a supporting document is to provide traceability and a Quality Assurance record for future reference to these packages.

Bratzel, D.R.

1998-04-17

16

Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

2006-05-10

17

Assessing nutrient flows in septic tanks by eliciting expert judgement: a promising method in the context of developing countries.  

PubMed

Simple models based on the physical and biochemical processes occurring in septic tanks, pit and urine diversion latrines were developed to determine the nutrient flows in these systems. Nitrogen and phosphorus separation in different output materials from these on-site sanitation installations were thus determined. Moreover, nutrient separation in septic tanks was also assessed through literature values and by eliciting expert judgement. Use of formal expert elicitation technique proved to be effective, particularly in the context of developing countries where data is often scarce but expert judgement readily available. In Vietnam, only 5-14% and 11-27% of the nitrogen and phosphorus input, respectively, are removed from septic tanks with the faecal sludge. The remaining fraction leaves the tank via the liquid effluent. Unlike septic tanks, urine diversion latrines allow to immobilize most of the nutrients either in form of stored urine or dehydrated faecal matter. These latrines thus contribute to reducing the nutrient load in the environment and lowering consumption of energy and non-renewable resources for fertiliser production. PMID:17223156

Montangero, Agnes; Belevi, Hasan

2007-03-01

18

Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

Harper, F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Abbott, M. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

19

Parameterizing Bayesian network Representations of Social-Behavioral Models by Expert Elicitation  

SciTech Connect

Bayesian networks provide a general framework with which to model many natural phenomena. The mathematical nature of Bayesian networks enables a plethora of model validation and calibration techniques: e.g parameter estimation, goodness of fit tests, and diagnostic checking of the model assumptions. However, they are not free of shortcomings. Parameter estimation from relevant extant data is a common approach to calibrating the model parameters. In practice it is not uncommon to find oneself lacking adequate data to reliably estimate all model parameters. In this paper we present the early development of a novel application of conjoint analysis as a method for eliciting and modeling expert opinions and using the results in a methodology for calibrating the parameters of a Bayesian network.

Walsh, Stephen J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Whitney, Paul D.; White, Amanda M.

2010-05-23

20

An Expert Elicitation Based Study of the Proliferation Resistance of a Suite of Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, a multi-laboratory research team completed a study evaluating the proliferation resistance (PR) characteristics of a diverse suite of four advanced nuclear reactor designs. The systems evaluated included: • a light water reactor (a pressurized-water reactor), • a heavy water reactor, • a high temperature gas reactor (with a prismatic-block reactor core), • a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The team used an expert elicitation assessment approach based on the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) methodology. The team evaluated three general types of proliferation threats: 1) concealed diversion of material, 2) concealed misuse of the reactor to produce material, and 3) breakout. The evaluations took into account the intrinsic PR characteristics of each reactor and the extrinsic PR characteristics provided by generic safeguards the team considered appropriate for each reactor, based on the team’s experience and available conceptual design information.

Zentner, Michael D.; Therios, Ike; Bari, Robert A.; Cheng, Lap; Yue, Meng; Wigeland, Roald; Hassberger, Jim; Boyer, Brian; Pilat, Joseph

2010-08-11

21

Eliciting information from experts on the likelihood of rapid climate change.  

PubMed

The threat of so-called rapid or abrupt climate change has generated considerable public interest because of its potentially significant impacts. The collapse of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation or the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, for example, would have potentially catastrophic effects on temperatures and sea level, respectively. But how likely are such extreme climatic changes? Is it possible actually to estimate likelihoods? This article reviews the societal demand for the likelihoods of rapid or abrupt climate change, and different methods for estimating likelihoods: past experience, model simulation, or through the elicitation of expert judgments. The article describes a survey to estimate the likelihoods of two characterizations of rapid climate change, and explores the issues associated with such surveys and the value of information produced. The surveys were based on key scientists chosen for their expertise in the climate science of abrupt climate change. Most survey respondents ascribed low likelihoods to rapid climate change, due either to the collapse of the Thermohaline Circulation or increased positive feedbacks. In each case one assessment was an order of magnitude higher than the others. We explore a high rate of refusal to participate in this expert survey: many scientists prefer to rely on output from future climate model simulations. PMID:16506972

Arnell, Nigel W; Tompkins, Emma L; Adger, W Neil

2005-12-01

22

Expert system for the plasma spray process  

SciTech Connect

The plasma spray process, like other thermal spray processes, has few on-line monitoring sensors and many process variables which cannot be easily and precisely formulated. This provides an opportunity for improving and controlling the process through artificial intelligence. An expert system has been constructed for selecting plasma spray parameters in the development of new coatings. The expert system is based on operator experience and heuristics on the subject using symbolic reasoning, and coupled with numerical calculations. For less experienced users, the system can assist in solving process problems.

Wang, H.; Petrone, S. [Sherritt Inc., Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (Canada)

1994-12-31

23

Expert systems trains, advises process operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a prototype, on-line expert system that has been developed to advise and train process operators. The system models the experience and decision making capability of the operator, rather than automating the decision process by modeling process equipment and operations. The system, called OpAS for Operator Advisor System, coaches operators to make correct decisions so that consistent shift-to-shift

T. Touchstone; D. E. Blackwell; G. E. Carter; J. K. Kramer

1990-01-01

24

Expert systems in the process industries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

Stanley, G. M.

1992-01-01

25

The use of expert elicitation to quantify uncertainty in incomplete sorption data bases for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

Iterative, annual performance-assessment calculations are being performed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a planned underground repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA for the disposal of transuranic waste. The performance-assessment calculations estimate the long-term radionuclide releases from the disposal system to the accessible environment. Because direct experimental data in some areas are presently of insufficient quantity to form the basis for the required distributions. Expert judgment was used to estimate the concentrations of specific radionuclides in a brine exiting a repository room or drift as it migrates up an intruding borehole, and also the distribution coefficients that describe the retardation of radionuclides in the overlying Culebra Dolomite. The variables representing these concentrations and coefficients have been shown by 1990 sensitivity analyses to be among the set of parameters making the greatest contribution to the uncertainty in WIPP performance-assessment predictions. Utilizing available information, the experts (one expert panel addressed concentrations and a second panel addressed retardation) developed an understanding of the problem and were formally elicited to obtain probability distributions that characterize the uncertainty in fixed, but unknown, quantities. The probability distributions developed by the experts are being incorporated into the 1991 performance-assessment calculations. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

Anderson, D.R.; Trauth, K.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Hora, S.C. (Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States))

1991-01-01

26

Two-dimensional fuzzy fault tree analysis for chlorine release from a chlor-alkali industry using expert elicitation.  

PubMed

The hazards associated with major accident hazard (MAH) industries are fire, explosion and toxic gas releases. Of these, toxic gas release is the worst as it has the potential to cause extensive fatalities. Qualitative and quantitative hazard analyses are essential for the identification and quantification of these hazards related to chemical industries. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is an established technique in hazard identification. This technique has the advantage of being both qualitative and quantitative, if the probabilities and frequencies of the basic events are known. This paper outlines the estimation of the probability of release of chlorine from storage and filling facility of chlor-alkali industry using FTA. An attempt has also been made to arrive at the probability of chlorine release using expert elicitation and proven fuzzy logic technique for Indian conditions. Sensitivity analysis has been done to evaluate the percentage contribution of each basic event that could lead to chlorine release. Two-dimensional fuzzy fault tree analysis (TDFFTA) has been proposed for balancing the hesitation factor involved in expert elicitation. PMID:20674168

Renjith, V R; Madhu, G; Nayagam, V Lakshmana Gomathi; Bhasi, A B

2010-11-15

27

Training 'greeble' experts: a framework for studying expert object recognition processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve participants were trained to be experts at identifying a set of 'Greebles', novel objects that, like faces, all share a common spatial configuration. Tests comparing expert with novice performance revealed: (1) a surprising mix of generalizability and specificity in expert object recognition processes; and (2) that expertise is a multi-faceted phenomenon, neither adequately described by a single term nor

Isabel Gauthier; Pepper Williams; Michael J. Tarr; James Tanaka

1998-01-01

28

EXPERT ELICITATION WHITE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA is frequently called upon to make decisions on complex environmental issues, and to make these decisions, analyses are required from a broad range of disciplines. In all of these analyses, uncertainty and variability exist in estimates of the values of key parameters and...

29

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

30

Probability encoding of hydrologic parameters for basalt. Elicitation of expert opinions from a panel of five consulting hydrologists  

SciTech Connect

The Columbia River basalts underlying the Hanford Site in Washington State are being considered as a possible location for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. To investigate the feasibility of a repository at this site, the hydrologic parameters of the site must be evaluated. Among hydrologic parameters of particular interest are the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top and flow interior and the vertical-to-horizontal hydraulic conductivity, or anisotropy ratio, of the Cohassett basalt flow interior. The Cohassett basalt flow is the prime candidate horizon for repository studies. Site-specific data for these hydrologic parameters are currently inadequate for the purpose of preliminary assessment of candidate repository performance. To obtain credible, auditable, and independently derived estimates of the specified hydrologic parameters, a panel of five nationally recognized hydrologists was assembled. Their expert judgments were quantified during two rounds of Delphi process by means of a probability encoding method developed to estimate the probability distributions of the selected hydrologic variables. The results indicate significant differences of expert opinion for cumulative probabilities of less than 10% and greater than 90%, but relatively close agreement in the middle ranges of values. The principal causes of the diversity of opinion are believed to be the lack of site-specific data and the absence of a single, widely accepted, conceptual or theoretical basis for analyzing these variables.

Runchal, A.K.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Olmsted, E.; Davis, J.D.

1984-11-01

31

Differential Elicitation of Two Processing Proteases Controls the Processing Pattern of the Trypsin Proteinase Inhibitor Precursor in Nicotiana attenuata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TPIs) of Nicotiana attenuata are major antiherbivore defenses that increase dramatically in leaves after attack or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation. To understand the elicitation process, we characterized the proteolytic fragmentation and release of TPIs from a multidomain precursor by proteases in MeJA-elicited and unelicited plants. A set of approximately 6-kD TPI peptides was purified from leaves, and

Martin Horn; Aparna G. Patankar; Jorge A. Zavala; Jianqiang Wu; Lucie Doleckova

2005-01-01

32

Methods to elicit experts' beliefs over uncertain quantities: application to a cost effectiveness transition model of negative pressure wound therapy for severe pressure ulceration.  

PubMed

We can use decision models to estimate cost effectiveness, quantify uncertainty regarding the adoption decision and provide estimates of the value of further research. In many cases, the existence of only limited data with which to populate a decision model can mean that a cost-effectiveness analysis either does not proceed or may misrepresent the degree of uncertainty associated with model inputs. An example is the case of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) used to treat severe pressure ulceration, for which the evidence base is limited and sparse. There is, however, substantial practical experience of using this treatment and its comparators. We can capture this knowledge quantitatively to inform a cost-effectiveness model by eliciting beliefs from experts. This paper describes the design and conduct of an elicitation exercise to generate estimates of multiple uncertain model inputs and validate analytical assumptions for a decision model on the use of NPWT. In designing the exercise, the primary focus was the use of elicitation to inform decision models (multistate models), where representations of uncertain beliefs need to be probabilistically coherent. This paper demonstrates that it is feasible to collect formally elicited evidence to inform decision models. PMID:21748773

Soares, Marta O; Bojke, Laura; Dumville, Jo; Iglesias, Cynthia; Cullum, Nicky; Claxton, Karl

2011-08-30

33

Interpretation of the margin of exposure for genotoxic carcinogens - elicitation of expert knowledge about the form of the dose response curve at human relevant exposures.  

PubMed

The general approach to risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens has been to advise reduction of exposure to "as low as reasonably achievable/practicable" (ALARA/P). However, whilst this remains the preferred risk management option, it does not provide guidance on the urgency or extent of risk management actions necessary. To address this, the "Margin of Exposure" (MOE) approach has been proposed. The MOE is the ratio between the point of departure for carcinogenesis and estimated human exposure. However, interpretation of the MOE requires implicit or explicit consideration of the shape of the dose-response curve at human relevant exposures. In a structured elicitation exercise, we captured expert opinion on available scientific evidence for low dose-response relationships for genotoxic carcinogens. This allowed assessment of: available evidence for the nature of dose-response relationships at human relevant exposures; the generality of judgments about such dose-response relationships; uncertainties affecting judgments on the nature of such dose-response relationships; and whether this last should differ for different classes of genotoxic carcinogens. Elicitation results reflected the variability in experts' views on the form of the dose-response curve for low dose exposure and major sources of uncertainty affecting the assumption of a linear relationship. PMID:23507349

Boobis, Alan; Flari, Villie; Gosling, John Paul; Hart, Andy; Craig, Peter; Rushton, Lesley; Idahosa-Taylor, Ehi

2013-07-01

34

Formalizing expert judgment in the environmental impact assessment process  

SciTech Connect

As the debate surrounding the adequacy of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process and its intended role in environmental decision-making continues, there is growing concern that the present guidelines used to develop the EIS may not be adequate given the methodological and theoretical advances that have been introduced in environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the last Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) revisions. This concern is particularly evident when the issues surrounding the application of expert judgment and the role it plays in impact prediction are considered. Presently, there is no standardized procedure for applying expert judgment in EIA, and although the use of expert judgment has long been acknowledged in the impact assessment literature, methodologies that draw upon expert judgment have not attempted to render those judgmental aspects of an assessment visible to decision-makers. This paper presents an approach for formalizing expert judgment using the experience gained from the development of expert systems designed to assist the EIA process. Following a critical examination of judgmental approaches to impact prediction, this paper illustrates how through the application of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and fuzzy logic, substantive improvements in EIA can be made, moving the practice of impact assessment more closely into alignment with the goals expressed in Section 102(2)(a) and Section 102(2)(b) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969.

Lein, J.K. (Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Dept. of Geography)

1993-01-01

35

Prospective Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Thought Processes on a Model Eliciting Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical model and modeling are one of the topics that have been intensively discussed in recent years. The purpose of this study is to examine prospective elementary mathematics teachers' thought processes on a model eliciting activity and reveal difficulties or blockages in the processes. The study includes forty-five seniors taking the…

Eraslan, Ali

2012-01-01

36

Impact of plain packaging of tobacco products on smoking in adults and children: an elicitation of international experts¿ estimates  

E-print Network

rates of plain packaging of tobacco products. false, misleading, deceptive or likely to create an erroneous impression about its characteristics, health effects, hazards or emissions” [4]. Having overcome a high court chal- lenge, Australia is the first... places, advertising bans, price increases and educational campaigns used as reference points to place the impact of plain packaging into the tobacco control context. Even so, many experts men- tioned that they were uncomfortable with providing a pre- cise...

Pechey, Rachel; Spiegelhalter, David; Marteau, Theresa M

2013-01-09

37

Cellular defense processes regulated by pathogen-elicited receptor signaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertebrates are constantly threatened by the invasion of microorganisms and have evolved systems of immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens in the body. Initial sensing of microbial agents is mediated by the recognition of pathogens by means of molecular structures expressed uniquely by microbes of a given type. So-called 'Toll-like receptors' are expressed on host epithelial barrier cells play an essential role in the host defense against microbial pathogens by inducing cell responses (e.g., proliferation, death, cytokine secretion) via activation of intracellular signaling networks. As these networks, comprising multiple interconnecting dynamic pathways, represent highly complex multi-variate "information processing" systems, the signaling activities particularly critical for governing the host cell responses are poorly understood and not easily ascertained by a priori theoretical notions. We have developed over the past half-decade a "data-driven" computational modeling approach, on a 'cue-signal-response' combined experiment/computation paradigm, to elucidate key multi-variate signaling relationships governing the cell responses. In an example presented here, we study how a canonical set of six kinase pathways combine to effect microbial agent-induced apoptotic death of a macrophage cell line. One modeling technique, partial least-squares regression, yielded the following key insights: {a} signal combinations most strongly correlated to apoptotic death are orthogonal to those most strongly correlated with release of inflammatory cytokines; {b} the ratio of two key pathway activities is the most powerful predictor of microbe-induced macrophage apoptotic death; {c} the most influential time-window of this signaling activity ratio is surprisingly fast: less than one hour after microbe stimulation.

Wu, Rongcong; Goldsipe, Arthur; Schauer, David B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

2011-06-01

38

Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

1987-01-01

39

Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes were developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. The SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

1987-01-01

40

Business Process Elicitation, Modeling, and Reengineering: Teaching and Learning with Simulated Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of enterprise information systems requires students to master technical skills for elicitation, modeling, and reengineering business processes as well as soft skills for information gathering and communication. These tacit skills and behaviors cannot be effectively taught students but rather experienced and learned by students. This…

Jeyaraj, Anand

2010-01-01

41

Development of the Diagnostic Expert System for Tea Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.

Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

42

75 FR 76467 - Draft Concept for Government-Wide “ExpertNet” Platform and Process To Elicit Expert Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on Transparency and Open Government in which he declared: ``Knowledge is widely dispersed in society, and public officials benefit from having access to that dispersed knowledge.'' Upon signing the Memorandum, the President explained...

2010-12-08

43

Event-related brain potentials elicited by semantic and syntactic anomalies during auditory sentence processing.  

PubMed

The present study examined auditory event-related potential (ERP) responses to sentence-embedded syntactic (phrase structure) and semantic violations. Syntactic violations were found to elicit a centroparietal negativity peaking at around 350 msec, followed by a P600. Semantic anomalies elicited an N400 as well as a late centroparietally distributed positivity. The shorter latency and different morphology of the negativity observed in response to phrase structure violations compared to semantic anomalies indicate that the observed negativities are to some extent functionally different, suggesting that phrase structure information is processed prior to lexical-semantic information. The finding of a P600 in response to semantic anomalies suggests that the latter component reflects processes of reprocessing that are based on syntactic and semantic aspects of the sentence. PMID:16515142

Faustmann, Anja; Murdoch, Bruce E; Finnigan, Simon P; Copland, David A

2005-10-01

44

Development of an instructional expert system for hole drilling processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system which captures the expertise of workshop technicians in the drilling domain was developed. The expert system is aimed at novice technicians who know how to operate the machines but have not acquired the decision making skills that are gained with experience. This paper describes the domain background and the stages of development of the expert system.

Al-Mutawa, Souhaila; Srinivas, Vijay; Moon, Young Bai

1990-01-01

45

A microanalytic study of self-regulated learning processes of expert, non-expert, and at-risk science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation sought to examine differences in the self-regulated learning processes and beliefs of students who vary in their level of expertise in science and to investigate if there are gender differences. Participants were 51 ethnically diverse 11th grade students from three parochial high schools consisting of 34 females and 17 males. Students were grouped as either expert, non-expert,

Maria K. Dibenedetto

2009-01-01

46

Differences in the Educational Software Evaluation Process for Experts and Novice Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comparative case study investigated the educational software evaluation processes of both experts and novices in conjunction with a software evaluation checklist. Twenty novice elementary education students, divided into groups of five, and three experts participated. Each novice group and the three experts evaluated educational software…

Tokmak, Hatice Sancar; Incikabi, Lutfi; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar

2012-01-01

47

Breadth in Design Problem Scoping: Using Insights from Experts to Investigate Student Processes. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors used two methods for analyzing expert data: verbal protocol analysis (VPA) and narrative analysis. VPA has been effectively used to describe the design processes employed by engineering students, expert designers, and expert-novice comparative research. VPA involves asking participants to "think aloud" while…

Morozov, Andrew; Kilgore, Deborah; Atman, Cynthia

2007-01-01

48

Use of an expert system in a personnel evaluation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop an Expert System (ES) to evaluate Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators. The study included a review of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) literature relevant to the NPP and human resource management, knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, knowledge encoding, and Inference engine. An expert system development tool FuzzyCLIPS6.1 was used to develop a fuzzy rule-based

Yangping Zhou; Xiang Fang; Xuhong He

2011-01-01

49

Process design of oil and gas production facilities using expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert system known as the Automated Project Design System (APDS#8482;) has been developed to assist process and facilities engineers in performing preliminary feasibility studies, optimization studies, and provide the basic information required for the initiation of the detailed design for offshore oil and gas production facilities.Given the feedstock and product specifications, the expert system produces a preliminary process flow

Hafez Aghili; George Montgomery; Al Amlani; Jatin Shah II

1988-01-01

50

UPDATING AN EXPERT ELICITATION IN THE LIGHT OF NEW DATA: TEN YEARS OF PROBABILISTIC VOLCANIC HAZARD ANALYSIS FOR THE PROPOSED HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) considers volcanism to be a potentially disruptive class of events that could affect the safety of the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Volcanic hazard assessment in monogenetic volcanic fields depends on an adequate understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of past eruptions. At Yucca Mountain, the hazard is due to an 11 Ma-history of basaltic volcanism with the latest eruptions occurring in three Pleistocene episodes to the west and south of Yucca Mountain. An expert elicitation convened in 1995-1996 by the DOE estimated the mean hazard of volcanic disruption of the repository as slightly greater than 10{sup -8} dike intersections per year with an uncertainty of about two orders of magnitude. Several boreholes in the region have encountered buried basalt in alluvial-filled basins; the youngest of these basalts is dated at 3.8 Ma. The possibility of additional buried basalt centers is indicated by a previous regional aeromagnetic survey conducted by the USGS that detected approximately 20 magnetic anomalies that could represent buried basalt volcanoes. Sensitivity studies indicate that the postulated presence of buried post-Miocene volcanoes to the east of Yucca Mountain could increase the hazard by an order of magnitude, and potentially significantly impact the results of the earlier expert elicitation. Our interpretation of the aeromagnetic data indicates that post-Miocene basalts are not present east of Yucca Mountain, but that magnetic anomalies instead represent faulted and buried Miocene basalt that correlates with nearby surface exposures. This interpretation is being tested by drilling. The possibility of uncharacterized buried volcanoes that could significantly change hazard estimates led DOE to support an update of the expert elicitation in 2004-2006. In support of the expert elicitation data needs, the DOE is sponsoring (1) a new higher-resolution, helicopter-borne aeromagnetic survey, completed in mid-2004, and (2) drilling of selected anomalies based on the aeromagnetic survey results to better characterize the number, location and age of buried volcanoes, which began in mid-2005. The new aeromagnetic survey detected the presence of 33 anomalies interpreted as possible buried volcanoes or faulted tuff bedrock. A program to drill ten of the anomalies has begun, with the selection of drill holes prioritized based on their potential impact on the hazard assessment.

F.V. Perry; A. Cogbill; R. Kelley

2005-08-26

51

Literally experts: expertise and the processing of analogical metaphors in pharmaceutical advertising.  

PubMed

This research examined differences between novices and experts in processing analogical metaphors appearing in prescription drug advertisements. In contrast to previous studies on knowledge transfer, no evidence of the superiority of experts in processing metaphors was found. The results from an experiment suggest that expert consumers were more likely to process a metaphor in an ad literally than novices. Our findings point to a condition in which the expertise effect with processing analogies is not the linear relationship assumed in previous studies. PMID:24878402

Delbaere, Marjorie; Smith, Malcolm C

2014-01-01

52

Knowledge elicitation for an operator assistant system in process control tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A knowledge based system (KBS) methodology designed to study human machine interactions and levels of autonomy in allocation of process control tasks is presented. Users are provided with operation manuals to assist them in normal and abnormal situations. Unfortunately, operation manuals usually represent only the functioning logic of the system to be controlled. The user logic is often totally different. A method is focused on which illicits user logic to refine a KBS shell called an Operator Assistant (OA). If the OA is to help the user, it is necessary to know what level of autonomy gives the optimal performance of the overall man-machine system. For example, for diagnoses that must be carried out carefully by both the user and the OA, interactions are frequent, and processing is mostly sequential. Other diagnoses can be automated, in which the case the OA must be able to explain its reasoning in an appropriate level of detail. OA structure was used to design a working KBS called HORSES (Human Orbital Refueling System Expert System). Protocol analysis of pilots interacting with this system reveals that the a-priori analytical knowledge becomes more structured with training and the situation patterns more complex and dynamic. This approach can improve the a-priori understanding of human and automatic reasoning.

Boy, Guy A.

1988-01-01

53

User needs elicitation via analytic hierarchy process (AHP). A case study on a Computed Tomography (CT) scanner  

PubMed Central

Background The rigorous elicitation of user needs is a crucial step for both medical device design and purchasing. However, user needs elicitation is often based on qualitative methods whose findings can be difficult to integrate into medical decision-making. This paper describes the application of AHP to elicit user needs for a new CT scanner for use in a public hospital. Methods AHP was used to design a hierarchy of 12 needs for a new CT scanner, grouped into 4 homogenous categories, and to prepare a paper questionnaire to investigate the relative priorities of these. The questionnaire was completed by 5 senior clinicians working in a variety of clinical specialisations and departments in the same Italian public hospital. Results Although safety and performance were considered the most important issues, user needs changed according to clinical scenario. For elective surgery, the five most important needs were: spatial resolution, processing software, radiation dose, patient monitoring, and contrast medium. For emergency, the top five most important needs were: patient monitoring, radiation dose, contrast medium control, speed run, spatial resolution. Conclusions AHP effectively supported user need elicitation, helping to develop an analytic and intelligible framework of decision-making. User needs varied according to working scenario (elective versus emergency medicine) more than clinical specialization. This method should be considered by practitioners involved in decisions about new medical technology, whether that be during device design or before deciding whether to allocate budgets for new medical devices according to clinical functions or according to hospital department. PMID:23289426

2013-01-01

54

Design Expert's Participation in Elementary Students' Collaborative Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe elementary students' collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

55

Social groups that elicit disgust are differentially processed in mPFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social neuroscience suggests medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC) as necessary for social cognition. However, the mPFC activates less to members of extreme outgroups that elicit disgust, an emotion directed toward both people and objects. This study aimed to counteract that effect. Participants made either superficial categorical age estimations or individuating food-preference judgments about people, while fMRI recorded neural activity. Besides replicating

Lasana T. Harris; Susan T. Fiske

2007-01-01

56

Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status  

DOEpatents

A method and system are disclosed for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 24 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.

1998-06-02

57

Enhanced Temporal but Not Attentional Processing in Expert Tennis Players  

PubMed Central

In tennis, as in many disciplines of sport, fine spatio-temporal resolution is required to reach optimal performance. While many studies on tennis have focused on anticipatory skills or decision making, fewer have investigated the underlying visual perception abilities. In this study, we used a battery of seven visual tests that allowed us to assess which kind of visual information processing is performed better by tennis players than other athletes (triathletes) and non-athletes. We found that certain time-related skills, such as speed discrimination, are superior in tennis players compared to non-athletes and triathletes. Such tasks might be used to improve tennis performance in the future. PMID:18545661

Overney, Leila S.; Blanke, Olaf; Herzog, Michael H.

2008-01-01

58

A formal methodology for acquiring and representing expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

The process of eliciting knowledge from human experts and representing that knowledge in an expert or knowledge-based system suffers from numerous problems. Not only is this process time-consuming and tedious, but the weak knowledge acquisition methods typically used (i.e., interviews and protocol analysis) are inadequate for eliciting tacit knowledge and may, in fact, lead to inaccuracies in the knowledge base. In addition, the intended knowledge representation scheme guides the acquisition of knowledge resulting in a representation-driven knowledge base as opposed to one that is knowledge-driven. In this paper, a formal methodology is proposed that employs techniques from the field of cognitive psychology to uncover expert knowledge as well as an appropriate representation of that knowledge. The advantages of such a methodology are discussed, as well as results from studies concerning the elicitation of concepts from experts and the assignment of labels to links in empirically derived semantic networks.

Cooke, N.M.; McDonald, J.E.

1986-10-01

59

Controlling Real-Time Processes On The Space Station With Expert Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many aspects of space station operations involve continuous control of real-time processes. These processes include electrical power system monitoring, propulsion system health and maintenance, environmental and life support systems, space suit checkout, on-board manufacturing, and servicing of attached vehicles such as satellites, shuttles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, orbital transfer vehicles and remote teleoperators. Traditionally, monitoring of these critical real-time processes has been done by trained human experts monitoring telemetry data. However, the long duration of space station missions and the high cost of crew time in space creates a powerful economic incentive for the development of highly autonomous knowledge-based expert control procedures for these space stations. In addition to controlling the normal operations of these processes, the expert systems must also be able to quickly respond to anomalous events, determine their cause and initiate corrective actions in a safe and timely manner. This must be accomplished without excessive diversion of system resources from ongoing control activities and any events beyond the scope of the expert control and diagnosis functions must be recognized and brought to the attention of human operators. Real-time sensor based expert systems (as opposed to off-line, consulting or planning systems receiving data via the keyboard) pose particular problems associated with sensor failures, sensor degradation and data consistency, which must be explicitly handled in an efficient manner. A set of these systems must also be able to work together in a cooperative manner. This paper describes the requirements for real-time expert systems in space station control, and presents prototype implementations of space station expert control procedures in PICON (process intelligent control). PICON is a real-time expert system shell which operates in parallel with distributed data acquisition systems. It incorporates a specialized inference engine with a specialized scheduling portion specifically designed to match the allocation of system resources with the operational requirements of real-time control systems. Innovative knowledge engineering techniques used in PICON to facilitate the development of real-time sensor-based expert systems which use the special features of the inference engine are illustrated in the prototype examples.

Leinweber, David; Perry, John

1987-02-01

60

Process Consistency in Models: the Importance of System Signatures, Expert Knowledge and Process Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological models are frequently characterized by what is often considered to be adequate calibration performances. In many cases, however, these models experience a substantial uncertainty and performance decrease in validation periods, thus resulting in poor predictive power. Besides the likely presence of data errors, this observation can point towards wrong or insufficient representations of the underlying processes and their heterogeneity. In other words, right results are generated for the wrong reasons. Thus ways are sought to increase model consistency and to thereby satisfy the contrasting priorities of the need a) to increase model complexity and b) to limit model equifinality. In this study a stepwise model development approach is chosen to test the value of an exhaustive and systematic combined use of hydrological signatures, expert knowledge and readily available, yet anecdotal and rarely exploited, hydrological information for increasing model consistency towards generating the right answer for the right reasons. A simple 3-box, 7 parameter, conceptual HBV-type model, constrained by 4 calibration objective functions was able to adequately reproduce the hydrograph with comparatively high values for the 4 objective functions in the 5-year calibration period. However, closer inspection of the results showed a dramatic decrease of model performance in the 5-year validation period. In addition, assessing the model's skill to reproduce a range of 20 hydrological signatures including, amongst others, the flow duration curve, the autocorrelation function and the rising limb density, showed that it could not adequately reproduce the vast majority of these signatures, indicating a lack of model consistency. Subsequently model complexity was increased in a stepwise way to allow for more process heterogeneity. To limit model equifinality, increase in complexity was counter-balanced by a stepwise application of "realism constraints", inferred from expert knowledge (e.g. unsaturated storage capacity of hillslopes should exceed the one of wetlands) and anecdotal hydrological information (e.g. long-term estimates of actual evaporation obtained from the Budyko framework and long-term estimates of baseflow contribution) to ensure that the model is well behaved with respect to the modeller's perception of the system. A total of 11 model set-ups with increased complexity and an increased number of realism constraints was tested. It could be shown that in spite of largely unchanged calibration performance, compared to the simplest set-up, the most complex model set-up (12 parameters, 8 constraints) exhibited significantly increased performance in the validation period while uncertainty did not increase. In addition, the most complex model was characterized by a substantially increased skill to reproduce all 20 signatures, indicating a more suitable representation of the system. The results suggest that a model, "well" constrained by 4 calibration objective functions may still be an inadequate representation of the system and that increasing model complexity, if counter-balanced by realism constraints, can indeed increase predictive performance of a model and its skill to reproduce a range of hydrological signatures, but that it does not necessarily result in increased uncertainty. The results also strongly illustrate the need to move away from automated model calibration towards a more general expert-knowledge driven strategy of constraining models if a certain level of model consistency is to be achieved.

Hrachowitz, Markus; Fovet, Ophelie; Ruiz, Laurent; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Savenije, Hubert

2014-05-01

61

The use of expert systems in process design for offshore oil and gas production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the details of the development effort which is currently underway at Hudson Engineering Corporation to automate the design of conventional offshore gas and oil production facilities. A front-end design engineering expert system has been developed which utilizes artificial intelligence techniques to assist process and facility engineers in performing feasibility studies to allow for quick development of a

H. Agnili; G. Montgomery; A. Amlani; J. Shah

1987-01-01

62

Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

1998-07-01

63

Efficient production of flavonoids in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with yeast polysaccharide elicitation and medium renewal process  

PubMed Central

Background: Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an excellent edible and medicinal crop, has been widely used as a daily diet and traditional medicine for a long time. The major functional components of Fagopyrum tataricum have been demonstrated to be flavonoids (i.e. rutin and quercetin), which had notable andioxidant, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and antitumor activities. Hairy root culture is a convenient and efficient plant tissue culture system for large scale production of bioactive metabolites. Objective: To enhance the functional flavonoids production in hairy root culture of F. tataricum. Materials and Methods: The elicitation treatment in combination with medium renewal strategy was applied for efficient promoting flavonoids production in F. tataricum hairy root cultures. Results: The exogenous yeast polysaccharide (YPS) elicitor notably stimulated the functional metabolites production in F. tataricum hairy root cultures, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. Combination with the YPS elicitation (200 mg/L) and medium renewal process, the maximal flavonoids yield was enhanced to 47.13 mg/L, about 3.2-fold in comparison with the control culture of 14.88 mg/L. Moreover, this research also revealed the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. These results indicated that the F. tataricum hairy root culture could be an effective system for rutin and quercetin production. PMID:25210309

Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Zou, Liang; Zhang, Cai-Qiong; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Peng, Lian-Xin; Xiang, Da-Bing; Zhao, Gang

2014-01-01

64

Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

Shewhart, Mark

1991-01-01

65

Eliciting cognitive processes underlying patterns of human–wildlife interactions for agent-based modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating humans in our perception of ecosystems is of critical importance to adequately protect natural resources. This poses the challenge of understanding human decision making in the context of decisions potentially threatening nature's integrity. We developed a spatially explicit agent-based model that simulates commercial whale-watching vessel movements based on a representation of the captains’ decision making process when observing marine

Clément Chion; P. Lamontagne; S. Turgeon; L. Parrott; J.-A. Landry; D. J. Marceau; C. C. A. Martins; R. Michaud; N. Ménard; G. Cantin; S. Dionne

2011-01-01

66

An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

1998-01-01

67

Using photo-elicitation to examine artefacts in a sport club: logistical considerations and strategies throughout the research process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of logistical considerations that need to be addressed when using photo-elicitation in research, yet these are rarely discussed in the existing literature. This paper elucidates the challenges particular to using photo-elicitation in research and proposes strategies for addressing these issues. We drew upon our experiences using a combination of photographs taken by participants and photographs taken

Cathy Mills; Larena Hoeber

2012-01-01

68

Thinking within the box: The relational processing style elicited by counterfactual mind-sets.  

PubMed

By comparing reality to what might have been, counterfactuals promote a relational processing style characterized by a tendency to consider relationships and associations among a set of stimuli. As such, counterfactual mind-sets were expected to improve performance on tasks involving the consideration of relationships and associations but to impair performance on tasks requiring novel ideas that are uninfluenced by salient associations. The authors conducted several experiments to test this hypothesis. In Experiments 1a and 1b, the authors determined that counterfactual mind-sets increase mental states and preferences for thinking styles consistent with relational thought. Experiment 2 demonstrated a facilitative effect of counterfactual mind-sets on an analytic task involving logical relationships; Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that counterfactual mind-sets structure thought and imagination around salient associations and therefore impaired performance on creative generation tasks. In Experiment 5, the authors demonstrated that the detrimental effect of counterfactual mind-sets is limited to creative tasks involving novel idea generation; in a creative association task involving the consideration of relationships between task stimuli, counterfactual mind-sets improved performance. PMID:16834478

Kray, Laura J; Galinsky, Adam D; Wong, Elaine M

2006-07-01

69

Knowledge-based aerial image understanding systems and expert systems for image processing  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses roles of artificial intelligence in the automatic interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The authors first discuss several image understanding systems for analyzing complex aerial photographs. The discussion is mainly concerned with knowledge representation and control structure in the aerial image understanding systems: a blackboard model for integrating diverse object detection modules, a symbolic model representation for three-dimensional object recognition, and integration of bottom-up and top-down analyses. Then, a model of expert systems for image processing is introduced that discussed which and what combinations of image processing operators are effective to analyze an image.

Matsuyama, T.

1987-05-01

70

Expert therapists use specific clinical reasoning processes in the assessment and management of patients with shoulder pain: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: What are the key items in the clinical reasoning process which expert clinicians identify as being relevant to the assessment and management of patients with shoulder pain? Design: Qualitative study using a three-round Delphi procedure. Participants: Twenty-six experts in the UK consented to be involved and were contactable, of whom 20 contributed, with 12, 15, and 15 contributing to

Stephen May; Alison Greasley; Sarah Reeve; Sarah Withers

2008-01-01

71

Establishing the stages and processes of change for weight loss by consensus of experts.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to establish, by a consensus of experts, the stages and processes of change for weight management in overweight and obese people. The first step involved developing two questionnaires aimed at assessing stages and processes of change for weight loss in overweight and obese people. The processes-of-change questionnaire consisted of 12 subscales, and contained 107 items. A three-round Delphi study was carried out through a website, where participants were asked to give their opinion about the representativeness and clarity of the scale items. The stages-of-change questionnaire consisted of five items and was presented in the final round of the study. A team of 66 experts in the obesity field from 29 countries participated in the study. They were selected either because they belonged to the organizing committee of international associations related to obesity, or because of their research career. The required changes in the questionnaire were made according to the opinions of the participants. Some of these were the result of the group statistical response, whereas others were due to the suggestions made by the participants. A final version of the questionnaire consisting of 63 items was eventually obtained. The present study produced two questionnaires to assess stages and processes of change for weight management. The strength of the study lies in the consensus reached by the panel of experts in order to establish the required content of the questionnaires. The two measures provide useful tools for practitioners who wish to tailor weight-management interventions according to transtheoretical model constructs. PMID:19360014

Andrés, Ana; Saldaña, Carmina; Gómez-Benito, Juana

2009-09-01

72

How do experts reporting for the legal process validate symptoms? The results of a survey.  

PubMed

This article examines the views of experts from a range of disciplines and how they view symptoms given to them by claimants in matters of personal injury or medical negligence assessments. The survey was carried out in 2009 and looks at current practice and attitudes from a number of different disciplines. The survey included questions looking at what percentage of cases were thought to be genuine, symptoms most likely to be elaborated, methods for assessing symptom validity, and documentary evidence required for a report. This article highlights the importance of looking at symptom validation in the legal process. PMID:23966354

Allcott, Drew; Anderson, Stuart; Friedland, Daniel; Leng, Nicholas; Gross, Michael; Skelton-Robinson, Martin; Weller, Malcolm

2014-04-01

73

Tangible Media in Process Modeling – A Controlled Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In current practice, business processes modeling is done by trained method experts. Domain experts are interviewed to elicit\\u000a their process information but typically not involved in actual modeling. We created a tangible toolkit for process modeling\\u000a to be used with domain experts. We hypothesize that it results in more effective process elicitation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This paper assesses nine aspects related to ”effective

Alexander Luebbe; Mathias Weske

74

Processes in construction of failure management expert systems from device design information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper analyzes the tasks and problem solving methods used by an engineer in constructing a failure management expert system from design information about the device to te diagnosed. An expert test engineer developed a trouble-shooting expert system based on device design information and experience with similar devices, rather than on specific expert knowledge gained from operating the device or troubleshooting its failures. The construction of the expert system was intensively observed and analyzed. This paper characterizes the knowledge, tasks, methods, and design decisions involved in constructing this type of expert system, and makes recommendations concerning tools for aiding and automating construction of such systems.

Malin, Jane T.; Lance, Nick

1987-01-01

75

Documenting the use of expert scientific reasoning processes by high school physics students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these processes can be central during scientific model construction; here we code for their spontaneous use by students. We document evidence for numerous instances of these forms of reasoning in these classes. Most of these instances were associated with motion- and force-indicating depictive gestures, which we take as one kind of evidence for the use of animated mental imagery. Altogether, this methodology shows promise for use in highlighting the role of nonformal reasoning in student learning and for investigating the possible association of animated mental imagery with scientific reasoning processes.

Stephens, A. L.; Clement, John J.

2012-05-21

76

The effects of rational and experiential information processing of expert testimony in death penalty cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research examining the effects of actuarial and clinical expert testimony on defendants' dangerousness in Texas death penalty sentencing has found that jurors are more influenced by less scientific pure clinical expert testimony and less influenced by more scientific actuarial expert testimony (Krauss & Lee, 2003; Krauss & Sales, 2001). By applying cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST) to juror decision-making, the present

Daniel A. Krauss; Joel D. Lieberman; Jodi Olson

2004-01-01

77

Size determines whether specialized expert processes are engaged for recognition of faces.  

PubMed

Many influential models of face recognition postulate specialized expert processes that are engaged when viewing upright, own-race faces, as opposed to a general-purpose recognition route used for nonface objects and inverted or other-race faces. In contrast, others have argued that empirical differences do not stem from qualitatively distinct processing. We offer a potential resolution to this ongoing controversy. We hypothesize that faces engage specialized processes at large sizes only. To test this, we measured recognition efficiencies for a wide range of sizes. Upright face recognition efficiency increased with size. This was not due to better visibility of basic image features at large sizes. We ensured this by calculating efficiency relative to a specialized ideal observer unique to each individual that incorporated size-related changes in visibility and by measuring inverted efficiencies across the same range of face sizes. Inverted face recognition efficiencies did not change with size. A qualitative face inversion effect, defined as the ratio of relative upright and inverted efficiencies, showed a complete lack of inversion effects for small sizes up to 6°. In contrast, significant face inversion effects were found for all larger sizes. Size effects may stem from predominance of larger faces in the overall exposure to faces, which occur at closer viewing distances typical of social interaction. Our results offer a potential explanation for the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the special status of faces. PMID:25052697

Yang, Nan; Shafai, Fakhri; Oruc, Ipek

2014-01-01

78

INCA: an expert system for process planning in PCB assembly line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of INCA, an expert system that tackles the problem of optimization of the automatic insertion of components on printed circuit board (PCB) in the production assembly line. The authors describe the present situation in the PCB assembly line for component insertion, why an expert system has been chosen and the benefits expected from its introduction, how

Patrizia Cavalloro; Emanuela Cividati

1988-01-01

79

Integrating an Expert System And a Neural Network for Process Planning Mark Wilhelm, Alice E. Smith  

E-print Network

for metal furniture assembly, welding and painting using a rule based expert system integrated for metal furniture assembly, welding and painting using a rule based expert system integrated. 4 Corresponding author. #12;3 standard plans can be retrieved automatically and annotated to conform

Smith, Alice E.

80

A Framework for Expert Judgment to Assess Oil and Gas Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In frontier areas, where well data are sparse, many organizations have used expert judgment to estimate undiscovered resources. In this process, several important issues arise. How should the knowledge be elicited? At what level of aggregation (geologic process model, play, petroleum system, country, etc.) should the assessment be performed? How and at what stage of the assessment process should feedback

John H. Schuenemeyer

2002-01-01

81

The effects of time pressure on chess skill: an investigation into fast and slow processes underlying expert performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to play chess is generally assumed to depend on two types of processes: slow processes such as search, and fast\\u000a processes such as pattern recognition. It has been argued that an increase in time pressure during a game selectively hinders\\u000a the ability to engage in slow processes. Here we study the effect of time pressure on expert chess

Frenk van Harreveld; Eric-Jan Wagenmakers

2007-01-01

82

Integrated processing and analysis of hydrological data - not only for experts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of the digital data logging results huge amount of hydrological time series from wide variety of hydrological phenomenon and water quality indicators. There are different sampling frequencies, irregular time steps, hand measured control data which are necessary treat in the same database. Some processes (e.g. the concentration of surface water) in small catchments and urban areas change quickly thus at this case for a rigorous study it is necessary to apply high frequency data sampling. Sometimes there is an error and the equidistant times series is broken. The error produced gap in the time series forms an obstacle for some type of calculations. There are many proprietary softwares process these data and gives solutions for the exercises. It can be found also open source solutions. Some years ago the open source R was chosen for analyzing data, which are measured in the Hidegvíz Valley experimental catchment. This system is an excellent environment to organize and visualize hydrological time series. The contributing package called zoo has good abilities to work with different temporal resolutions. There are also many sophisticated statistical functions (e.g. auto- and cross-correlation functions, spectral analysis, filters, smoothing algorithms, etc.). During the years some functions was developed for data import, semi-automatic data processing, visualizations and analyses. In the last year in the umbrella of a project brings up a demand for visualize time series from non-R-experts. An easy-to-use graphical user interface was developed to solve this problem instead of cumbersome import/export processes or introduction to R course. This integrated utility uses the integrated Tcl/Tk package and gives possibilities to mouse driven visualization.

Kalicz, P.; Gribovszki, Z.

2012-04-01

83

Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) quality assurance (QA)/data accounting (DA) expert systems - Transition from prototypes to operational systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historical records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

Basile, Lisa

1988-01-01

84

Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) Quality Assurance (QA)/Data Accounting (DA) expert systems: Transition from prototypes to operational systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historial records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

Basile, Lisa

1988-01-01

85

A Systematic, Holistic and Integrative Process of Self-Control for Voicing with Optimal Coping Effects in Teachers. 2. A Process of Change – An Expert’s Opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A learning strategy is presented for eustress-euvoicing, which prevails over distress-disvoicing. It is based on the understanding of the mechanisms of stress-voicing, conceived as a dynamic circular process of interacting entities, i.e. stressors\\/signals-arousal\\/activation-emotion-coping-effects (SAECE), which is the rationale for a multidisciplinary approach in coaching professional voice users. A systematic, holistic and integrative process of self-control (SHIPS) is directed by functional

Magda J. M. Carola Van Opstal

2010-01-01

86

The Bottom Line: The Effect of Written Expert Witness Statements on Juror Verdicts and Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mock jurors recruited from jury rolls were either not given written statements of expert witnesses' direct testimony or were provided with such statements before or after the presentation of that testimony. Presentation of the statements before the testimony and cross-examination provided jurors with a schema that allowed them to distinguish more effectively among the claims of four differentially worthy plaintiffs

Lynne ForsterLee; Irwin Horowitz; Elizabeth Athaide-Victor; Nicole Brown

2000-01-01

87

Online Search + Logic Programming = Subject Bibliography: An Expert Systems Approach to Bibliographic Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a knowledge-based system, REX, that creates subject bibliographies by downloading reference material from an online bibliographic service. The expert systems architecture is explained, use of Prolog is described, and creation of the subject knowledge base and an author index are discussed. (10 references) (LRW)

Lirov, Yuval; Lirov, Viktor

1990-01-01

88

Winning the game: brain processes in expert, young elite and amateur table tennis players  

PubMed Central

This study tested two hypotheses: (1) compared with amateurs and young elite, expert table tennis players are characterized by enhanced cortical activation in the motor and fronto-parietal cortex during motor imagery in response to table tennis videos; (2) in elite athletes, world rank points are associated with stronger cortical activation. To this aim, electroencephalographic data were recorded in 14 expert, 15 amateur and 15 young elite right-handed table tennis players. All subjects watched videos of a serve and imagined themselves responding with a specific table tennis stroke. With reference to a baseline period, power decrease/increase of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) during the pretask- and task period indexed the cortical activation/deactivation (event-related desynchronization/synchronization, ERD/ERS). Regarding hypothesis (1), 8–10 Hz SMR ERD was stronger in elite athletes than in amateurs with an intermediate ERD in young elite athletes in the motor cortex. Regarding hypothesis (2), there was no correlation between ERD/ERS in the motor cortex and world rank points in elite experts, but a weaker ERD in the fronto-parietal cortex was associated with higher world rank points. These results suggest that motor skill in table tennis is associated with focused excitability of the motor cortex during reaction, movement planning and execution with high attentional demands. Among elite experts, less activation of the fronto-parietal attention network may be necessary to become a world champion. PMID:25386126

Wolf, Sebastian; Brolz, Ellen; Scholz, David; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Keune, Philipp M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Birbaumer, Niels; Strehl, Ute

2014-01-01

89

Optimizing Instructional Designer--Subject Matter Expert Communication in the Design and Development of Multimedia Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a study which explored the development, trial, and implementation of the Content Production Process (CPP) which was designed to assist instructional designers in eliciting and conceptualizing unfamiliar content from subject matter experts. Highlights include advance organizers, schema theory, consultation practices, knowledge…

Keppell, Mike

2001-01-01

90

Safety Risk Knowledge Elicitation in Support of Aeronautical R and D Portfolio Management: A Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aviation is a problem domain characterized by a high level of system complexity and uncertainty. Safety risk analysis in such a domain is especially challenging given the multitude of operations and diverse stakeholders. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) projects that by 2025 air traffic will increase by more than 50 percent with 1.1 billion passengers a year and more than 85,000 flights every 24 hours contributing to further delays and congestion in the sky (Circelli, 2011). This increased system complexity necessitates the application of structured safety risk analysis methods to understand and eliminate where possible, reduce, and/or mitigate risk factors. The use of expert judgments for probabilistic safety analysis in such a complex domain is necessary especially when evaluating the projected impact of future technologies, capabilities, and procedures for which current operational data may be scarce. Management of an R&D product portfolio in such a dynamic domain needs a systematic process to elicit these expert judgments, process modeling results, perform sensitivity analyses, and efficiently communicate the modeling results to decision makers. In this paper a case study focusing on the application of an R&D portfolio of aeronautical products intended to mitigate aircraft Loss of Control (LOC) accidents is presented. In particular, the knowledge elicitation process with three subject matter experts who contributed to the safety risk model is emphasized. The application and refinement of a verbal-numerical scale for conditional probability elicitation in a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) is discussed. The preliminary findings from this initial step of a three-part elicitation are important to project management practitioners as they illustrate the vital contribution of systematic knowledge elicitation in complex domains.

Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Luxhoj, James T.

2012-01-01

91

Towards elicitation of users requirements for hospital information system: from a care process modelling technique to a web based collaborative tool.  

PubMed

Growing attention is being given to the use of process modeling methodology for user requirements elicitation. In the analysis phase of hospital information systems, the usefulness of care-process models has been investigated to evaluate the conceptual applicability and practical understandability by clinical staff and members of users teams. Nevertheless, there still remains a gap between users and analysts in their mutual ability to share conceptual views and vocabulary, keeping the meaning of clinical context while providing elements for analysis. One of the solutions for filling this gap is to consider the process model itself in the role of a hub as a centralized means of facilitating communication between team members. Starting with a robust and descriptive technique for process modeling called IDEF0/SADT, we refined the basic data model by extracting concepts from ISO 9000 process analysis and from enterprise ontology. We defined a web-based architecture to serve as a collaborative tool and implemented it using an object-oriented database. The prospects of such a tool are discussed notably regarding to its ability to generate data dictionaries and to be used as a navigation tool through the medium of hospital-wide documentation. PMID:12463921

Staccini, Pascal M; Joubert, Michel; Quaranta, Jean-Francois; Fieschi, Marius

2002-01-01

92

Combining Analytical Hierarchy Process and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering in Search of Expert Consensus in Green Corridors Development Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental management and planning are instrumental in resolving conflicts arising between societal needs for economic development on the one hand and for open green landscapes on the other hand. Allocating green corridors between fragmented core green areas may provide a partial solution to these conflicts. Decisions regarding green corridor development require the assessment of alternative allocations based on multiple criteria evaluations. Analytical Hierarchy Process provides a methodology for both a structured and consistent extraction of such evaluations and for the search for consensus among experts regarding weights assigned to the different criteria. Implementing this methodology using 15 Israeli experts—landscape architects, regional planners, and geographers—revealed inherent differences in expert opinions in this field beyond professional divisions. The use of Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering allowed to identify clusters representing common decisions regarding criterion weights. Aggregating the evaluations of these clusters revealed an important dichotomy between a pragmatist approach that emphasizes the weight of statutory criteria and an ecological approach that emphasizes the role of the natural conditions in allocating green landscape corridors.

Shapira, Aviad; Shoshany, Maxim; Nir-Goldenberg, Sigal

2013-07-01

93

Combining analytical hierarchy process and agglomerative hierarchical clustering in search of expert consensus in green corridors development management.  

PubMed

Environmental management and planning are instrumental in resolving conflicts arising between societal needs for economic development on the one hand and for open green landscapes on the other hand. Allocating green corridors between fragmented core green areas may provide a partial solution to these conflicts. Decisions regarding green corridor development require the assessment of alternative allocations based on multiple criteria evaluations. Analytical Hierarchy Process provides a methodology for both a structured and consistent extraction of such evaluations and for the search for consensus among experts regarding weights assigned to the different criteria. Implementing this methodology using 15 Israeli experts-landscape architects, regional planners, and geographers-revealed inherent differences in expert opinions in this field beyond professional divisions. The use of Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering allowed to identify clusters representing common decisions regarding criterion weights. Aggregating the evaluations of these clusters revealed an important dichotomy between a pragmatist approach that emphasizes the weight of statutory criteria and an ecological approach that emphasizes the role of the natural conditions in allocating green landscape corridors. PMID:23674241

Shapira, Aviad; Shoshany, Maxim; Nir-Goldenberg, Sigal

2013-07-01

94

CABPRO: An expert system for process planning multiwire cables. Final report  

SciTech Connect

CABPRO (CABle PROcessor) is a set of computer programs using Artificial Intelligence programming to automatically generate process plans and work instructions in support of the manufacture of multiwire cables. Development of these programs required selecting appropriate hardware and software tools, defining engineering process planning activities, acquiring and representing process planning knowledge, and creating a prototype system. A successful prototype was developed and demonstrated.

Schaefer, R.M.

1994-04-01

95

Expert system-based selection of the preferred direction of build for rapid prototyping processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current commercial rapid prototyping technologies are based on a layered additive process to build parts. The layer-based process results in a stairstepping effect, which can be apparent on curved and sloped surfaces. The selection of the build orientation, whether based on experience, trial and error, or not even considered, is one critical factor that affects the quality of the surface

Dietmar Frank; Georges Fadel

1995-01-01

96

Process Planning Using An Integrated Expert System And Neural Network Approach  

E-print Network

a unique computer aided process planner for metal furniture assembly, welding and painting using a rule plans can be retrieved automatically and annotated to conform to the specific product of interest

Smith, Alice E.

97

Expert Biogeographers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

Bednarski, Marsha

2006-01-01

98

Designing expert system using neural computation in view of the control of plasma spray processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at integrating the artificial intelligence methodologies in a quality control of ceramic coating fabrication using the atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process. In such a way, the average velocity, temperature and diameter of thermally sprayed Al2O3-13 wt.% TiO2 particles before impinging the work piece and forming a deposit are monitored. Then, as these particle characteristics represent the most

Sofiane Guessasma; Ghislain Montavon; Patrick Gougeon; Christian Coddet

2003-01-01

99

Expert Seeker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or hobbies). Unify myriad collections of data into Web-enabled repository that could easily be searched for relevant data.

Fernandez, Becerra

2003-01-01

100

A theory of humor elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a general theory of humor elicitation that specifies the conditions in which humor is experienced in both social and nonsocial situations. The theory takes into account the interpretation of a stimulus event that is necessary to elicit humor, the difficulty of identifying the humor-eliciting features of this interpretation, and the cognitive elaboration of implications of the event.

Robert S. Wyer; James E. Collins

1992-01-01

101

Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

102

Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

1994-01-01

103

The Magic or Myth of Expertise: A Comparison of Judgment Processes between Forensic Experts and Lay Persons Based on Psychiatric Case Vignettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a continuation of a previous study (Grøndahl, Grønnerød, & Sexton, 2009), we examined how 120 laypersons and 35 forensic experts (14 psychiatrists and 21 psychologists) differed in their judgment processes of forensic case vignettes. The vignettes contained descriptions of three components, namely social history, psychiatric history and criminal offense. We found important differences in how the groups used information

Pål Grøndahl; Cato Grønnerød; Joseph Sexton

2011-01-01

104

Expert judgments about transient climate response to alternative future trajectories of radiative forcing  

PubMed Central

There is uncertainty about the response of the climate system to future trajectories of radiative forcing. To quantify this uncertainty we conducted face-to-face interviews with 14 leading climate scientists, using formal methods of expert elicitation. We structured the interviews around three scenarios of radiative forcing stabilizing at different levels. All experts ranked “cloud radiative feedbacks” as contributing most to their uncertainty about future global mean temperature change, irrespective of the specified level of radiative forcing. The experts disagreed about the relative contribution of other physical processes to their uncertainty about future temperature change. For a forcing trajectory that stabilized at 7 Wm-2 in 2200, 13 of the 14 experts judged the probability that the climate system would undergo, or be irrevocably committed to, a “basic state change” as ?0.5. The width and median values of the probability distributions elicited from the different experts for future global mean temperature change under the specified forcing trajectories vary considerably. Even for a moderate increase in forcing by the year 2050, the medians of the elicited distributions of temperature change relative to 2000 range from 0.8–1.8?°C, and some of the interquartile ranges do not overlap. Ten of the 14 experts estimated that the probability that equilibrium climate sensitivity exceeds 4.5?°C is > 0.17, our interpretation of the upper limit of the “likely” range given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Finally, most experts anticipated that over the next 20 years research will be able to achieve only modest reductions in their degree of uncertainty. PMID:20616045

Zickfeld, Kirsten; Morgan, M. Granger; Frame, David J.; Keith, David W.

2010-01-01

105

Building expert systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this book is to convey what is known today about building expert systems and to present concepts, methods and issues necessary for an understanding of the field. Among the topics covered are: an overview of the expert systems field that explains its nature, history, and significance; an analysis of how expert systems differ from conventional software programs, laboratory Artificial Intelligence programs and humans in their problem solving activity; an explanation of basic Artificial Intelligence and knowledge engineering concepts that affect design and implementation; an analysis of the architectural choices faced in building expert systems, including specific design prescriptions for tasks of different kinds; an examination of the evolutionary process of knowledge acquisition necessary to build a system with expertise; and a comparative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of existing knowledge engineering tools based on experiences with eight different techniques applied to a single problem.

Hayes-Roth, F.; Waterman, D.; Lenat, D.

1984-01-01

106

Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support  

PubMed Central

Background Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. Method This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA), which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK) to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1) Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA), and 2) Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR). In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. Results EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1) Data collection and data preparation; 2) acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK) and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB); 3) PKB-guided analysis; 4) support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited); 5) incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6) post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering), applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. Discussion This paper presents EbCA and shows the convenience of completing classical data analysis with PEK as a mean to extract relevant knowledge in complex health domains. One of the major benefits of EbCA is iterative elicitation of IK.. Both explicit and tacit or implicit expert knowledge are critical to guide the scientific analysis of very complex decisional problems as those found in health system research. PMID:20920289

2010-01-01

107

Development of a knowledge elicitation shell for materials performance evaluation in seawater systems  

SciTech Connect

It has been shown that people have a considerable aggravating influence on system failure by corrosion. In the 21st century, when the emphasis is expected to fall firmly on conservation of valuable resources and more economic use of energy -- issues likely to be governed by law -- KBSs will have a considerable role to play in reducing the incidence of premature failure by corrosion. Knowledge elicitation is a precursor to the construction of knowledge based systems (KBSS) but represents a serious difficulty for software developers. The complex transformation of lifetime industrial expertise into software requires the willing and active participation of domain experts, frequently unfamiliar with computers and not necessarily inclined or able to share the details of their thought processes. Whilst knowledge and experience can be shared by a group of people, expertise is uniquely tinted by the expert`s own individuality. This paper discusses the strategies for the formulation of expert knowledge applicable to each of the groups of people involved in corrosion failure. 38 refs.

Trethewey, K.R; Phillips, S. [Royal Naval Engineering College, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Roberge, P.R. [Royal Military College, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31

108

Expert Systems See [Bratko 1990  

E-print Network

: is automatization possible? Endeavour: Expert Systems (XPS) Challenges for XPS #15; automated knowledge (not just;cations Requirements for XPS: #15; emulating human experts #15; narrow domain Applications: #15; medical of XPS #15; possession and processing of knowledge #15; explanation of its behaviour and decisions #15

Polani, Daniel

109

Surgical experts: born or made?  

PubMed

The concept of surgical expertise and the processes involved in its development are topical, and there is a constant drive to identify reliable measures of expert performance in surgery. This review explores the notion of whether surgical experts are "born" or "made", with reference to educational theory and pertinent literature. Peer-reviewed publications, books, and online resources on surgical education, expertise and training were reviewed. Important themes and aspects of expertise acquisition were identified in order to better understand the concept of a surgical expert. The definition of surgical expertise and several important aspects of its development are highlighted. Innate talent plays an important role, but is insufficient on its own to produce a surgical expert. Multiple theories that explore motor skill acquisition and memory are relevant, and Ericsson's theory of the development of competence followed by deliberate self-practice has been especially influential. Psychomotor and non-technical skills are necessary for progression in the current climate in light of our training curricula; surgical experts are adaptive experts who excel in these. The literature suggests that surgical expertise is reached through practice; surgical experts are made, not born. A deeper understanding of the nature of expert performance and its development will ensure that surgical education training programmes are of the highest possible quality. Surgical educators should aim to develop an expertise-based approach, with expert performance as the benchmark. PMID:23838344

Sadideen, Hazim; Alvand, Abtin; Saadeddin, Munir; Kneebone, Roger

2013-01-01

110

Capital Expert System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

1987-05-01

111

Structuring expert input for a knowledge-based approach to watershed condition assessment for the Northwest Forest Plan, USA.  

PubMed

Assessments of watershed condition for aquatic and riparian species often have to rely on expert opinion because of the complexity of establishing statistical relationships among the many factors involved. Such expert-based assessments can be difficult to document and apply consistently over time and space. We describe and reflect on the process of developing a computer-based decision support application from expert judgments for assessing aquatic and riparian conditions over the 100,000 km² managed by the US federal government under the Northwest Forest Plan. The decision support system helped structure and document the assessment process and provided consistency and transparency to the evaluation methodology. However, many decisions and trade-offs were required in the expert engagement and model-building processes. Knowledge elicitation in an interactive group had a number of benefits over nominal group or Delphi processes, but efficient knowledge capture required considerable planning and expertise in the subject matter and modeling process. Communicating model results for validation was problematic and only effectively accomplished via in-person workshops. The choice to use different expert groups for each biophysical province provided more opportunities for participation and promoted greater ownership in the assessment, but it also led to increased variation among the resulting model structures. We propose three possible approaches for better managing the consistency of assessment models when multiple expert groups are involved. PMID:20306142

Gordon, Sean N; Gallo, Kirsten

2011-01-01

112

Engaging communication experts in a Delphi process to identify patient behaviors that could enhance communication in medical encounters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The communication literature currently focuses primarily on improving physicians' verbal and non-verbal behaviors during the medical interview. The Four Habits Model is a teaching and research framework for physician communication that is based on evidence linking specific communication behaviors with processes and outcomes of care. The Model conceptualizes basic communication tasks as \\

Jaya K Rao; Lynda A Anderson; Bhuvana Sukumar; Danielle A Beauchesne; Terry Stein; Richard M Frankel

2010-01-01

113

Joint EC/USNRC expert judgement driven radiological protection uncertainty analysis.  

PubMed

The development of two probabilistic accident consequence codes sponsored by the European Commission and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, COSYMA and MACCS respectively, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks and other endpoints associated with accidents from hypothesised nuclear installations. In 1991, both commissions sponsored a joint project for an uncertainty analysis of these two codes. The main objective of this joint project was to systematically derive credible and traceable probability distributions for the respective code input variables. These input distributions will subsequently be used in two uncertainty analyses for each code separately. A formal expert judgement elicitation and evaluation process was used as the best available technique to accomplish that objective. This paper describes the process and some of the findings of the eight expert judgement exercises performed under the joint study. PMID:9915639

Goossens, L H; Harper, F T

1998-12-01

114

The nutrition advisor expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

1991-01-01

115

CONSTRUAL PROCESSES IN PREFERENCE ELICITATION. (R824706)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

116

World Bank Experts Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with reporters and editors in mind, the World Bank Experts Guide provides World Bank experts that are available to comment on to the media on a wide variety of topics. The list of experts may be viewed by name of expert or by subject. Each expert is given his or her own Webpage, which includes a short biography, expertise, and languages spoken, along with a photograph and related links. For ease of use, several "hot topics" are highlighted including AIDS/HIV and debt relief. This site gives an awe-inspiring look at the variety of experts working for the World Bank.

117

Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors.  

PubMed

Analysts and decision makers frequently want estimates of the cost of technologies that have yet to be developed or deployed. Small modular reactors (SMRs), which could become part of a portfolio of carbon-free energy sources, are one such technology. Existing estimates of likely SMR costs rely on problematic top-down approaches or bottom-up assessments that are proprietary. When done properly, expert elicitations can complement these approaches. We developed detailed technical descriptions of two SMR designs and then conduced elicitation interviews in which we obtained probabilistic judgments from 16 experts who are involved in, or have access to, engineering-economic assessments of SMR projects. Here, we report estimates of the overnight cost and construction duration for five reactor-deployment scenarios that involve a large reactor and two light water SMRs. Consistent with the uncertainty introduced by past cost overruns and construction delays, median estimates of the cost of new large plants vary by more than a factor of 2.5. Expert judgments about likely SMR costs display an even wider range. Median estimates for a 45 megawatts-electric (MWe) SMR range from $4,000 to $16,300/kWe and from $3,200 to $7,100/kWe for a 225-MWe SMR. Sources of disagreement are highlighted, exposing the thought processes of experts involved with SMR design. There was consensus that SMRs could be built and brought online about 2 y faster than large reactors. Experts identify more affordable unit cost, factory fabrication, and shorter construction schedules as factors that may make light water SMRs economically viable. PMID:23716682

Abdulla, Ahmed; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger

2013-06-11

118

Elicited responding in chain schedules.  

PubMed Central

An omission procedure was employed to study elicited pecking in the first component of a two-component chain schedule. Both components were fixed-interval schedules correlated with colored keylights. The first response following the initial-link schedule produced a second fixed-interval schedule. We studied several fixed-interval lengths in two conditions: a standard response-dependent condition and an omission-contingent condition. The omission-contingent condition differed from the response-dependent condition in that responses during the initial fixed interval terminated the trial (omitting the terminal component and grain). If the terminal component was not omitted, a response following the terminal link's requirement produced 4-s access to grain. Pigeons responded during more than 70% of the initial links in the omission-contingent condition and responded during more than 90% of the initial links in the response-dependent condition. In general, rates of responding were consistent with the percentage data. The responding in the omission condition suggests that there may be elicited pecking, in chain schedules using pigeons, that is not the result of contingent conditioned reinforcement. PMID:1774540

Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

1991-01-01

119

A Ranking of Software Engineering Measures Based on Expert Opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research proposes a framework based on expert opinion elicitation, developed to select the software engineering measures which are the best software reliability indicators. The current research is based on the top 30 measures identified in an earlier study conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A set of ranking criteria and their levels were identified. The score of each measure

Ming Li; Carol S. Smidts

2003-01-01

120

Knowledge acquisition for a simple expert controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for process control which has the properties of being incremental, cyclic and top-down. It is described on the basis of the development of an expert controller for a simple, but nonlinear control route. A quality comparison between expert controller and process operator shows the ability of the method for knowledge acquisition.

Bieker, B.

1987-01-01

121

The use of fuzzy control system methods for characterizing expert judgment uncertainty distributions  

SciTech Connect

Fuzzy logic methods permit experts to assess parameters affecting performance of components/systems in natural language terms more familiar to them (e.g., high, good, etc.). Recognizing that there is a cost associated with obtaining more precise information, the authors particular interest is in cases where the relationship between the condition of the system and its performance is not well understood, especially for some sets of possible operating conditions, and where developing a better understanding is very difficult and/or expensive. The methods allow the experts to make use of the level of precision with which they understand the underlying process. The authors consider and compare various methods of formulating the process just described, with an application in reliability analysis where expert information forms a significant (if not sole) source of data for reliability analysis. The flow of information through the fuzzy-control-systems based analysis is studied using a simple, hypothetical problem which mimics the structure used to elicit expert information in Parse. They also characterize the effect of using progressively more refined information and examine the use of fuzzy-based methods as data pooling/fusion mechanisms.

Smith, R.E.; Booker, J.M.; Bement, T.R.; Parkinson, W.J.; Meyer, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jamshidi, M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-12-01

122

Integrating expert judgment in veterinary epidemiology: example guidance for disease freedom surveillance.  

PubMed

Expert opinions supplement empirical data in many epidemiologic assessments. For veterinary disease freedom surveillance, where the geographic scope of concern is often broad, populations subject to change, decisions eminent and empirical data, expert opinion can be a critical component of the decision making process. However, opinion is by definition subjective and the manner in which opinion is sought can impact the quality and reliability of estimates. Group interaction can hinder or improve the estimation process, depending on its facilitation. Further, whether and how validation is conducted can limit or increase acceptance of the resulting model. While the utility of expert opinion is widely recognized in many fields, and the impact of its use or misuse implicit, standards for application to veterinary assessments are not readily available. This paper aims to foster discussion on this influential component of epidemiology, with disease freedom application as a focus. Benefits and concerns attributed to expert judgment and guidelines for its structured elicitation are described, borrowing insights from its long history of use in decision science fields and examples from recent veterinary assessments. PMID:23270791

Gustafson, L L; Gustafson, D H; Antognoli, M C; Remmenga, M D

2013-04-01

123

Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study investigated whether the process of constructing an expert system model promotes the formation of expert-like mental models. Discusses expert systems as mindtools, expert systems as learning tools, the assessment of mental models, results of pretests and posttests, and future research. (Contains 56 references.) (Author/LRW)

Mason-Mason, Susan Dale; Tessmer, Martin A.

2000-01-01

124

A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation  

SciTech Connect

A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

R. L. Boring

2007-06-01

125

Testing expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software quality is of primary concern in all large-scale expert system development efforts. Building appropriate validation and test tools for ensuring software reliability of expert systems is therefore required. The Expert Systems Validation Associate (EVA) is a validation system under development at the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center. EVA provides a wide range of validation and test tools to check correctness, consistency, and completeness of an expert system. Testing a major function of EVA. It means executing an expert system with test cases with the intent of finding errors. In this paper, we describe many different types of testing such as function-based testing, structure-based testing, and data-based testing. We describe how appropriate test cases may be selected in order to perform good and thorough testing of an expert system.

Chang, C. L.; Stachowitz, R. A.

1988-01-01

126

Augmenting Usability: Cultural Elicitation in HCI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper offers context and culture elicitation in an inter-cultural and multi-disciplinary setting of ICT design. Localised usability evaluation (LUE) is augmented with a socio-technical evaluation tool (STEM) as a methodological approach to expose and address issues in a collaborative ICT design within the Village e-Science for Life (VeSeL) project in rural Kenya. The paper argues that designers need to locally identify context and culture in situ and further explicate their implications through the design process and at the global level. Stakeholders' context, culture, decisions, agendas, expectations, disciplines and requirements need to be locally identified and globally evaluated to ensure a fit for purpose solution.

Camara, Souleymane Boundaouda; Oyugi, Cecilia; Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Smith, Andy

127

Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion

Erin D. Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M. Keisler

2010-01-01

128

Local Experts in Social Media  

E-print Network

The problem of finding topic experts on social networking sites has been a continued topic of research. This thesis addresses the problem of identifying local experts in social media systems like Twitter. Local experts are experts with a topical...

Bachani, Vandana

2013-12-04

129

Expert systems for superalloy studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

1990-01-01

130

Visual MMN elicited by orientation changes of faces.  

PubMed

Faces are socially very important visual objects and the detection of a change in faces is an essential evolutionary skill. To investigate whether configural computation of faces automatically occurs under non-attentional condition, visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) elicited by deviant orientation (90° vs. 0°) of faces was analyzed using the equi-probable paradigm which eliminated the low-level refractory effects. Fourteen participants were tested and schematic face stimuli were used. In comparison with control face stimuli, the deviant orientation of faces elicited larger N170 and smaller P2. During the time range between 100-300 ms post stimulus onset, face orientation changes elicited occipital-temporal distributed vMMN. The source analysis of face-MMN showed that it was generated in both temporal and frontal lobes. These data supported the hypotheses that the disruption of facial configuration processing caused by inverted faces is relatively independent of attentional resources. PMID:25164356

Wang, Wei; Miao, Danmin; Zhao, Lun

2014-09-01

131

The Physiological Role of Abscisic Acid in Eliciting Turion Morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exogenous application of hormones has led to their implica- tion in a number of processes within the plant. However, proof of their function in vivo depends on quantitative data demonstrating that the exogenous concentration used to elicit a response leads to tissue hormone levels within the physiological range. Such proof is often lacking in many investigations. We are using

Cheryl C. Smart; Andrew J. Fleming; Katerina Chaloupková; David E. Hanke

132

Graphic elicitation: using research diagrams as interview stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrams are effective instruments of thought and a valuable tool in conveying those thoughts to others. As such, they can be usefully employed as representations of a research domain and act as stimulus materials in interviews. This process of graphic elicitation may encourage contributions from interviewees that are difficult to obtain by other means. By representing concepts and relationships that

NATHAN CRILLY; ALAN F BLACKWELL; P JOHN CLARKSON

2006-01-01

133

Remarks on the assessment, representation, aggregation and utilization of expert opinion  

SciTech Connect

This report considers the relevance of recent ideas in the foundations of probability to the rational use of expert opinion in the design of a nuclear waste repository, and the assessment of its performance. The main probability concepts introduce are those of modal (probably A), comparative (A is at least as probable as B) and interval-valued (the lower probability of A is P(A) and the upper probability of A is P(anti A)) probabilities. We then outline an approach first using comparative probability to model the resuls of binary elicitation of an expert's opinions concerning repository uncertainties and then employing interval-valued probability to represent comparative probability in a computationally convenient form. We further consider the issue of aggregating or amalgamating the responses of several experts, and we emphasize the need to preserve some measure of the disagreements among the experts. The resulting aggregated interval-valued representation of the responses concerning the uncertainties surrounding the performance of a nuclear waste repository design can then be used to numerically assess this performance in a manner parallel to that of utility theory. Utility theory is the basis for statistical decision theory. Our recommendations can only be tentative, and research is recommended to gain some working experience with the results of the proposed decision-making process in the repostory design context.

Fine, T.L.

1980-04-01

134

Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

1976-01-01

135

Expert Systems: A Tutorial.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overview of expert systems (intelligent computer applications that use data, a knowledge base, and a control mechanism to solve problems) highlights history of expert systems; construction (human element, knowledge acquisition and learning, system architecture); limitations; issues and trends; and implications for information science. Thirty-three…

Yaghmai, N. Shahla; Maxin, Jacqueline A.

1984-01-01

136

Expert system technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expert system is a computer program which attempts to reproduce the problem-solving behavior of an expert, who is able to view problems from a broad perspective and arrive at conclusions rapidly, using intuition, shortcuts, and analogies to previous situations. Expert systems are a departure from the usual artificial intelligence approach to problem solving. Researchers have traditionally tried to develop general modes of human intelligence that could be applied to many different situations. Expert systems, on the other hand, tend to rely on large quantities of domain specific knowledge, much of it heuristic. The reasoning component of the system is relatively simple and straightforward. For this reason, expert systems are often called knowledge based systems. The report expands on the foregoing. Section 1 discusses the architecture of a typical expert system. Section 2 deals with the characteristics that make a problem a suitable candidate for expert system solution. Section 3 surveys current technology, describing some of the software aids available for expert system development. Section 4 discusses the limitations of the latter. The concluding section makes predictions of future trends.

Prince, Mary Ellen

1987-01-01

137

Endotoxin elicits ambivalent social behaviors  

PubMed Central

Summary The acute phase response to infection is reliably accompanied by decreases in social investigation; however, social behavior is commonly assayed in inescapable environments using unfamiliar social stimuli. In this experiment, male Wistar rats were raised from weaning with 2 familiar, same-sex conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were implanted with radiotelemetry devices that permitted localization in space, and were challenged with LPS treatments (150 mg/kg, i.p.) in a novel, semi-natural arena which afforded the treated (Focal) animal exclusive control of social exposure, and the ability to avoid social interactions. LPS reliably elicited thermoregulatory responses (transient hypothermia and fever) during the scotophase following injection, but did not yield changes in the proportion of time spent engaged in social interactions: both LPS- and saline-treated rats spent approximately 10% of the night with their familiar cagemates. Injection treatments markedly altered the spatial distribution of activity: LPS-treated rats exhibited significant increases in the amount of time spent as far as possible from their cagemates. The data suggest that sickness responses to LPS may give rise to a transient state of social ambivalence—characterized by a persistent motivation to engage in social contact, but also by increased avoidance of social environments. Selective maintenance of social motivation illustrates plasticity in the expression of sickness behaviors and may be adaptive in social species. PMID:22172640

Yee, Jason R.; Prendergast, Brian J.

2013-01-01

138

Adaptive feature extraction expert  

SciTech Connect

The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

Yuschik, M.

1983-01-01

139

Ethical Expert Systems  

PubMed Central

The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

Victoroff, Michael S.

1985-01-01

140

Eliciting and Examining Young Children's Storytelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to orally tell a story is a necessary prerequisite to later success in reading and writing. It has been found that the quality of children's oral stories is dependent on the task used to elicit stories. This study uses three language eliciting situations to obtain stories. Kindergarten students were asked to (a) tell an original story with no

Karyn Wellhousen

1993-01-01

141

Results from the Second Forum on the Future Role of the Human in the Forecast Process. Part II: Cognitive Psychological Aspects of Expert Weather Forecasters  

E-print Network

, Wakefield, Virginia DAVID M. SCHULTZ Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University on the cognitive psychological aspects of expert weather forecasters. The first presentation discussed the learning, and are described in sections 2, 3 and 4. a. Dr. David M. Schultz (Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale

Schultz, David

142

Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

Stockall, Nancy

2013-01-01

143

Benchmarking expert system tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

Riley, Gary

1988-01-01

144

16 CFR 3.31A - Expert discovery.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expert discovery. 3.31A Section 3.31A Commercial...PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery; Compulsory Process § 3.31A Expert discovery. (a) The parties shall...

2014-01-01

145

16 CFR 3.31A - Expert discovery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expert discovery. 3.31A Section 3.31A Commercial...PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery; Compulsory Process § 3.31A Expert discovery. (a) The parties shall...

2012-01-01

146

16 CFR 3.31A - Expert discovery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expert discovery. 3.31A Section 3.31A Commercial...PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery; Compulsory Process § 3.31A Expert discovery. (a) The parties shall...

2011-01-01

147

16 CFR 3.31A - Expert discovery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expert discovery. 3.31A Section 3.31A Commercial...PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery; Compulsory Process § 3.31A Expert discovery. (a) The parties shall...

2013-01-01

148

16 CFR 3.31A - Expert discovery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expert discovery. 3.31A Section 3.31A Commercial...PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery; Compulsory Process § 3.31A Expert discovery. (a) The parties shall...

2010-01-01

149

Expert Testimony in Capital  

E-print Network

on an individualized basis. The resultant changes in the laws in death penalty states fostered the involvement of psychiatric and psychologic expert witnesses at the sentencing phase of the trial, to testify on two major issues: (1) the mitigating factor of a defendant’s abnormal mental state and (2) the aggravating factor of a defendant’s potential for future violence. This study was an exploration of the responses of capital jurors to psychiatric/ psychologic expert testimony during capital sentencing. The Capital Jury Project is a multi-state research effort designed to improve the understanding of the dynamics of juror decision-making in capital cases. South Carolina data (n ? 214) were used to investigate the impact of expert testimony on the mitigating factor of mental illness and the aggravating factor of future dangerousness. Ordered logit regression analyses revealed significant correlations (p ?.005) between the presence of a defense psychiatrist or psychologist expert witness during the

John H. Montgomery; J. Richard Ciccone; Stephen P. Garvey; Theodore Eisenberg; Theodore Eisenberg Jd

2005-01-01

150

[Criminal court expert reports].  

PubMed

In relation with the structured pattern of crime today, and owing to the evolution observed among sciences and techniques, the legal system more and more frequently requires expert advice in numerous criminal cases with increasing technicality. The expert and the investigating officer appear to be of equal importance regarding the advices on which the judge bases both his evidence appreciation and his judgement when giving a ruling on a suspect's potential culpability. PMID:20688347

Fontaine, L

2011-04-01

151

Towards reasoning visualization in expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results are presented of ongoing research to develop visualization paradigms for expert systems reasoning processes. The results are based in part on a prototype implementation that is being developed to visualize the reasoning processes of a rule-based forward chaining expert system. The research is based on the premise that the presentation of information at the highest applicable conceptual level will enhance the assimilation of that information. Hierarchical levels in both the syntactic and semantic levels of reasoning in expert systems are described in detail.

Selig, William John; Johannes, James D.

1989-01-01

152

158 Emotion Elicitation Emotion Elicitation With Neurological Patients  

E-print Network

brain damage (e.g., Moebius syndrome), and neurodegenera- tive diseases (e.g., frontotemporal lobar for studying the full range of basic behav- ioral and social processes under both controlled and natural- istic

Levenson, Robert W.

153

An expert system for remote sensing  

SciTech Connect

The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing has developed two hierarchical expert systems, the Analyst Advisor and the Map Image Congruency Evaluation (MICE) advisor. These expert systems are built upon our Remote-Sensing Shell (RESHELL) written in Logicware's MPROLOG. A shell is a programming environment that specifically caters to expert system development. Knowledge is represented in the production rules and frames database. Numerical processing takes place using the extensive FORTRAN code of the Landsat Digital Image Analysis System (LDIAS). The LDIAS includes several DEC VAX computers, image displays, specialized processors, and DEC AI VAX stations. The paper describes the architecture of the expert system to compare maps and images (MICE) and the expert system to advise on the extraction of resource information from remotely sensed data, the Analyst Advisor.

Goodenough, D.G.; Goldbery, M.; Plunkett, G.; Zelek, J.

1987-05-01

154

Unstructured Direct Elicitation of Decision Rules  

E-print Network

We investigate the feasibility of unstructured direct-elicitation (UDE) of decision rules consumers use to form consideration sets. With incentives to think hard and answer truthfully, tested formats ask respondents to ...

Ding, Min

155

Collaborative Requirements Elicitation with Visualization Techniques  

E-print Network

Collaborative Requirements Elicitation with Visualization Techniques Diogo Duarte Instituto which makes collaboration crucial for the success of this activity, especially in global software development projects with distributed teams and stakeholders. Despite the need for collaboration, lack of user

da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

156

Transferring Knowledge: A Parallel between Teaching Chemical Engineering and Developing Expert Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are expert systems development and teaching, the representation and processing of knowledge, knowledge representation in chemical engineering, and expert systems in chemical engineering. The seven phases of expert system development are illustrated. (CW)

Roberge, P. R.

1990-01-01

157

What makes a location attractive for the housing consumer? Preliminary findings from metropolitan Helsinki and Randstad Holland using the analytical hierarchy process  

Microsoft Academic Search

What determines the attractiveness of a location within a given housing market? The study reports some preliminary cross-country evidence on housing consumer preferences, based on expert elicited preference profiles generated by an analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The findings indicate fundamental differences between the two housing market contexts: metropolitan Helsinki (in 1998) and Randstad Holland (in 2003). In Helsinki housing quality

Tom Kauko

2006-01-01

158

A General Expert System Design for Diagnostic Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing expert systems have a high percentage agreement with experts in a particular field in many situations. However, in many ways their overall behavior is not like that of a human expert. These areas include the inability to give flexible, functional explanations of their reasoning processes, and the failure to degrade gracefully when dealing with problems at the periphery of

Pamela K. Fink; John C. Lusth; Joe W. Duran

1985-01-01

159

Validation of expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The validation of expert systems (ESs) has only recently become an active AI research topic. Current approaches have concentrated mainly on the validation of rule properties of such systems. The efforts presented improves on current methods by also exploiting the structural and semantic information of such systems. To increase programmer productivity, more and more companies have begun exploiting the advent of AI technology by developing applications using ES shells or other AI-based high level program generators. The architecture, functionality, and future goals of Expert Systems Validation are described along with the features that have been implemented for and in Automated Reasoning Tool, the ES shell presented.

Stachowitz, Rolf A.; Combs, Jacqueline B.

1988-01-01

160

Adaptive capture of expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hand, Un Kyong [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[US Navy (United States)

1995-05-01

161

Distinctive Qualities of Expert Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to identify the distinctive qualities of successful veteran teachers, referred to as "expert teachers", which separates them not only from novice teachers but more importantly from experienced non-expert teachers. Based on earlier case studies, this paper maintains that the critical differences between expert and non-expert

Tsui, Amy B. M.

2009-01-01

162

Expert elicitation on ultrafine particles: likelihood of health effects and causal pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM) has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The relationship between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) and health effects is less firmly established. If UFP cause health effects independently from coarser fractions, this could affect health impact assessment of air pollution, which would possibly lead to alternative policy options to be

Anne Barbara Knol; Jeroen J de Hartog; Hanna Boogaard; Pauline Slottje; Jeroen P van der Sluijs; Erik Lebret; Flemming R. Cassee; J Arjan Wardekker; Jon G Ayres; Paul J. Borm; Bert Brunekreef; Kenneth Donaldson; Francesco Forastiere; Stephen T Holgate; Wolfgang G. Kreyling; Benoit Nemery; Juha Pekkanen; Vicky Stone; H-Erich Wichmann; Gerard Hoek

2009-01-01

163

Bayesian decision networks - going beyond expert elicitation for parameterisation and evaluation of ecological endpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological and integrative analyses routinely involve the synthesis of a range of information sources into a single model. Bayesian decision networks (BDN) are increasingly being used for this purpose because they are flexible, transparent and relatively easy to use. Indeed, BDNs offer a scientific and pragmatic approach to improve decision-making in environmental management, directly addressing management needs, while promoting stakeholder

C. A. Pollino; B. T. Hart

164

Eliciting and using expert opinions about dropout bias in randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The analysis of clinical trials with dropout usually assumes the missing data are `missing at random', i.e. given an individual's past observed data, their probability of dropout does not depend on their present outcome. However, in many settings this assumption is implausible, so it is sensible to assess the robustness of conclusions to departures from missing at random.Purpose To

Ian R White; James Carpenter; Stephen Evans; Sara Schroter

2007-01-01

165

Report cards for manholes: Eliciting expert feedback for a learning task  

E-print Network

We present a manhole profiling tool, developed as part of the Columbia/Con Edison machine learning project on manhole event prediction, and discuss its role in evaluating our machine learning model in three important ways: ...

Radeva, Axinia

166

Report Cards for Manholes : Eliciting Expert Feedback for a Learning Task Axinia Radeva1  

E-print Network

), with the consequence that repairs need to be prioritized carefully. Con Edison did not have an existing statistical University 475 Riverside Drive MC 7717, New York, NY 10115 USA 2 Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts York, NY, 10003, U.S.A. Email: axinia@ccls.columbia.edu, rudin@mit.edu, becky@ccls.columbia.edu, isaacd

Rudin, Cynthia

167

A framework for nuclear facility safeguard evaluation using probabilistic methods and expert elicitation  

E-print Network

With the advancement of the next generation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, concerns of the effectiveness of nuclear facility safeguards have been increasing due to the inclusion of highly enriched material and reprocessing ...

Iamsumang, Chonlagarn

2010-01-01

168

Diet expert subsystem for CELSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

1991-01-01

169

Bioethics for Technical Experts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

Asano, Shigetaka

170

Elicitation of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of channel catfish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four chemicals were evaluated for elicitation of macrophages in peritoneal cavities of 250-300g healthy channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Cellular exudates were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 d following intraperitoneal injections with squalene, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), goat serum, thioglycollate, or as a control, phosphate-buffered saline. Injection with either squalene or FIA induced significantly greater (P ??? 0.0001) macrophage recruitment than the other chemicals. The effectiveness of squalene and FIA was compared further by macrophage collection daily for 7 d. Squalene and FIA elicited similarly high macrophage responses (P ??? 0.0450), the highest being 3.43 x 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 2.4 x l06) at 99% purity at day 2 and 2.1 X 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 0.7 x 106) at day 14 at 80% purity, respectively. In both experiments, the time after injection was not statistically significant, nor was there an interaction between time and chemicals. The occurrence of cells other than macrophages decreased with time to yield macrophage recoveries of 47-99% for squalene and 30-80% for FIA. Two subsets of macrophages were observed by means of flow cytometry. As demonstrated by chemiluminescence, the squalene-elicited cells produced high-energy oxygen compounds important to the phagocytic process.

Jenkins, J. A.; Klesius, P. H.

1998-01-01

171

Abiotic elicitation of coumarin phytoalexins in sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detached leaves, leaf disks and cut stems and hypocotyls, but not roots of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants accumulated the coumarin phytoalexins, scopoletin and ayapin, when treated with solutions of CuCl2 or sucrose. Irradiation with shortware UV and exposure to Triton X-100 was also effective, while no effect was observed with longwave UV, salicylic acid, dichloroisonicotinic acid or glutathione. The elicitation

Mari-Carmen Gutierrez; Andrew Parry; Manuel Tena; Jesus Jorrin; Robert Edwards

1995-01-01

172

Combining Probabilistic Elicitation Data on Energy Technologies  

E-print Network

and interpreted relevant information from the studies to create an inclusive summary of the elicitation results. Interdisciplinary efforts to address this issue are key. Research and evaluation takes place across multiple institutions and involves fields from policy, operations research and economics to chemical and mechanical

Mountziaris, T. J.

173

Eliciting Self-Explanations Improves Children's Performance  

E-print Network

master this "translation" skill (Liben, 2006). In a review of the research literature on childrenEliciting Self-Explanations Improves Children's Performance on a Field-Based Map Skills Task Kim A To investigate children's ability to translate between the environment and an abstract representation, fourth

Kastens, Kim Anne

174

Novelty-elicited mismatch negativity in patients with schizophrenia on admission and discharge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Given recent reports of differences between mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by always novel sounds (novelty-elicited MMN) and that elicited by repeated rare deviants (conventional MMN), we investigated novelty-elicited MMN and P3a in patients with schizophrenia before and after a nonstandardized inpatient treatment. DESIGN: Electrophysiological and clinical assessment of patients on admission and discharge from hospital. Assessment of control subjects on 2 sessions. SETTING: Inpatient treatment in a psychiatric university hospital. SUBJECTS: 20 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy control subjects of similar age and sex. Selection of patients with first- to third-episode schizophrenia. OUTCOME MEASURES: Early and late component MMN amplitudes and latencies, P3a amplitudes and latencies, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Extrapyramidal Symptom Scale (EPS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) and chlorpromazine equivalents. RESULTS: In patients with schizophrenia, novelty-elicited MMN was unimpaired on admission, and there was a statistically significant reduction of the late MMN component with treatment. Improvements in symptom expression were associated with increased latencies of the early MMN component. CONCLUSION: Results indicate differences in information processing between conventional and novelty-elicited MMN. Some components of the novelty-elicited MMN might be more state dependent than those of the conventional MMN. PMID:11394193

Grzella, I; Muller, B W; Oades, R D; Bender, S; Schall, U; Zerbin, D; Wolstein, J; Sartory, G

2001-01-01

175

Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

Doyle, E. Kevin

176

The imported forensic expert  

SciTech Connect

A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

Larson, C.P.

1980-09-01

177

MushroomExpert.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by amateur mycologist Dr. Michael Kuo with contributions from amateur and professional mycologists, MushroomExpert.Com is an excellent resource for a wide variety of mushroom enthusiasts. The site provides a genus and species index and search engine for detailed information on, and quality up-close photos of, over 330 North American Mushrooms. Individual species pages include brief sections on Habitat, Cap, Stem, and Microscopic Features-to name a few. The site also provides information for beginners, as well as sections on Studying Mushrooms, Edibility, a Morel Data Collection Project, and more.

Kuo, Michael

178

Expert Systems and Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of artificial intelligence to the problems of education is examined. One of the most promising areas in artificial intelligence is expert systems technology which engages the user in a problem-solving diaglogue. Some of the characteristics that make expert systems "intelligent" are identified and exemplified. The rise of expert

Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

179

Empirical analysis for expert systems  

SciTech Connect

This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant for rheumatology.

Politakis, P.

1985-01-01

180

Expert and Knowledge Based Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and current state of knowledge-based systems and expert systems. Describes an expert system from the viewpoints of a computer programmer and an applications expert. Addresses concerns related to materials selection and forecasts future developments in the teaching of materials engineering. (ML)

Demaid, Adrian; Edwards, Lyndon

1987-01-01

181

Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model  

SciTech Connect

The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects.

Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

1999-04-01

182

Example of using expert judgement to refine GCM-based scenarios of regional climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional climate change projections are in high demand as the basis for regional risk assessment undertaken to aid adaptation planning. Such projections are most typically based on the output of global climate models (GCMs) perhaps with the addition of a high resolution regional downscaling technique. There are number of issues currently complicating such assessment work. From the climate science perspective, there is the argument that individual model shortcomings make climate models an inadequate basis for projecting regional climate and that current model based projections may be biased relative to the range of potential climate change that should be considered in adaptation planning. In the study reported here, we adopt, as a strawperson, a set of climate change scenarios based on GCM output for a region in Australia and then test these in an expert elicitation workshop setting. The aim is to prepare a small set of plausible future regional climate change scenarios by drawing upon a broad range of potentially relevant information from climate modeling experts in addition to climate model data, such as theoretical and process considerations, observed trends, and palaeoclimatic records. The process includes assessment of relative likelihoods of the scenarios, and the development of descriptive information ('storylines') to attach to each climate scenario. These include the key arguments for their assigned likelihood and their general climatological description. The goal of the results is to present stakeholders and decision-makers a set of futures that are not only supported by GCM outputs, but also through consensus by a set of disciplinary experts as a means of producing scenarios that are of the utmost relevance to regional managers. Results will be presented from this process for two regions in Australia.

Whetton, P.; Risbey, J.; Lin, B.

2012-12-01

183

Autonomous power expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

1990-01-01

184

Battery Technology for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Expert Views about Prospects for Advancement.  

E-print Network

change energy technologies including solar photovoltaics [3], nuclear power [2], CCS [4], electricity of the framework for quantifying the uncertainty in climate change technology R&D programs and their associated technologies would impact climate change. We briefly conclude in Section 6. 2 Expert Elicitations Past data

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

185

Modelling diagnosis in physical therapy: a blackboard framework and models of experts and novices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to explore clinical reasoning in physical therapy and to highlight the similarities and differences by modelling the diagnostic phase of clinical reasoning. An experimental design comparing expert and novice physical therapists was utilized. Concurrent verbal protocols detailing the clinical reasoning about standardized case material were elicited. A framework for modelling diagnosis was specified

G. A. James

2007-01-01

186

Involving Domain Experts in Authoring OWL Ontologies 1  

E-print Network

the relevant ontologies. At present, it is knowledge engineers who usually drive the ontology authoring process engineer led approach can hinder the ontology construction process because the domain expert and domainInvolving Domain Experts in Authoring OWL Ontologies 1 Vania Dimitrova1 , Ronald Denaux1 , Glen

Dimitrova, Vania

187

Understanding the human context in requirements elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human context within which a software system will operate is fundamental for its requirements. It may not appear to be\\u000a very much related to the system, but it is very relevant in achieving its successful adoption. However, requirements engineers\\u000a have usually a background in Software Engineering and are not trained to elicit this kind of information. This situation raises

Rubén Fuentes-Fernández; Jorge J. Gómez-Sanz; Juan Pavón

2010-01-01

188

Chain Graph Models to Elicit the Structure of a Bayesian Network  

PubMed Central

Bayesian networks are possibly the most successful graphical models to build decision support systems. Building the structure of large networks is still a challenging task, but Bayesian methods are particularly suited to exploit experts' degree of belief in a quantitative way while learning the network structure from data. In this paper details are provided about how to build a prior distribution on the space of network structures by eliciting a chain graph model on structural reference features. Several structural features expected to be often useful during the elicitation are described. The statistical background needed to effectively use this approach is summarized, and some potential pitfalls are illustrated. Finally, a few seminal contributions from the literature are reformulated in terms of structural features. PMID:24688427

Stefanini, Federico M.

2014-01-01

189

Chain graph models to elicit the structure of a Bayesian network.  

PubMed

Bayesian networks are possibly the most successful graphical models to build decision support systems. Building the structure of large networks is still a challenging task, but Bayesian methods are particularly suited to exploit experts' degree of belief in a quantitative way while learning the network structure from data. In this paper details are provided about how to build a prior distribution on the space of network structures by eliciting a chain graph model on structural reference features. Several structural features expected to be often useful during the elicitation are described. The statistical background needed to effectively use this approach is summarized, and some potential pitfalls are illustrated. Finally, a few seminal contributions from the literature are reformulated in terms of structural features. PMID:24688427

Stefanini, Federico M

2014-01-01

190

Ask the Experts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientific American's Ask The Experts Web site (last mentioned in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is worth mentioning again as a great resource for mid and upper-level science classes. Divided into categories like Astronomy, Biology, Environment, and Medicine, students can submit their own questions or read answers to questions posed by other inquisitive minds. Some of the more recent questions include "If T. rex fell, how did it get up, given its tiny arms and low center of gravity", "How do seedless fruit arise and how are they propagated?", and "How do you get laryngitis?" The site is continually adding answers to a variety of interesting questions.

2002-01-01

191

Der Patient als Experte.  

PubMed

Patients as Experts: Determining Benefit by Using Assessments of Ability (ICIDH)When health economy and quality mangement are dealing with the cost-benefit relationship, to this day description, calculation, and assessment of the benefit are missing to a great extent. Deliberations in terms of cause and effect do not go beyond the model of pathogenesis (etiology - pathology - manifestation) and descriptions on the organ level (ICD). Only the international classification of impairments, disabilities, and handicaps (ICIDH) as a separate estimation of the resulting manifestations of illness on the levels of organ, individual, and society is capable to elucidate this benefit. It is the patient who is the expert to decide what he needs, what he wants, and what he can do, thus, evaluating on an individual level his loss of capability. The ICIDH is regarded as the key for the management of chronic diseases. The characteristics of being chronically ill require the integration of salutogenesis and the consideration of the hierarchy of needs. The specially developed MARA model serves as pragmatic basis for the description of the benefits of carried out and omitted interventions as changes of abilities by using the MARA curve (mean age-related ability) as ethical guideline. In quality circles the MARA model, which is based on ICIDH, hierarchy of needs and salutogenesis, can offer apatient-oriented basis of discussion for benefit assessments, and, in a pragmatical way, it can facilitate the introduction of evidence-based medicine. By the change of view from the organ level with multifactorial aspects to the individual level, in which the abilities can be understood as a monofactor, a high consensus potential between several participants of discussion in health service is possible. PMID:9892837

Dubs

1998-01-01

192

Using Expert Systems To Build Cognitive Simulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive simulations are runnable computer programs for modeling human cognitive activities. A case study is reported where expert systems were used as a formalism for modeling metacognitive processes in a seminar. Building cognitive simulations engages intensive introspection, ownership and meaning making in learners who build them. (Author/AEF)

Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

2003-01-01

193

APPLICATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  

EPA Science Inventory

Expert systems are a promising computer-based approach to helping environmental engineers solve difficult problems. A number of such systems have been developed to date in the areas of hazard assessment, modeling support, process failure diagnosis, and regulatory support. The US ...

194

Expert Provisioner: a range management aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert Provisioner is a knowledge-based provisioning system prototyped for use by the RAF Logistics Command to support their Range Managers in the procurement of consumable parts. It was jointly developed by AIAI at the University of Edinburgh and Logistics Research (LR) branch of the RAF. Spares re-provisioning is one of the most fundamental and difficult logistics processes. Any item of

Rhys Power; Steve Reynolds; John K. C. Kingston; Ian Harrison; Ann Macintosh; Jon Tonberg

1998-01-01

195

Expert system training and control based on the fuzzy relation matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuzzy knowledge, that for which the terms of reference are not crisp but overlapped, seems to characterize human expertise. This can be shown from the fact that an experienced human operator can control some complex plants better than a computer can. Proposed here is fuzzy theory to build a fuzzy expert relation matrix (FERM) from given rules or/and examples, either in linguistic terms or in numerical values to mimic human processes of perception and decision making. The knowledge base is codified in terms of many implicit fuzzy rules. Fuzzy knowledge thus codified may also be compared with explicit rules specified by a human expert. It can also provide a basis for modeling the human operator and allow comparison of what a human operator says to what he does in practice. Two experiments were performed. In the first, control of liquid in a tank, demonstrates how the FERM knowledge base is elicited and trained. The other shows how to use a FERM, build up from linguistic rules, and to control an inverted pendulum without a dynamic model.

Ren, Jie; Sheridan, T. B.

1991-01-01

196

Personalised, predictive and preventive medication process in hospitals--still rather missing: professional opinion survey on medication safety in Czech hospitals (based on professional opinions of recognised Czech health care experts)  

PubMed Central

The survey had the following aims: (1) to rationalise the hypothesis that risks and losses relating to medication process' errors in Czech hospitals are at least comparable with the other developed countries and EU countries especially, (2) to get a valid professional opinion/estimate on the rate of adverse drug events happening in Czech hospitals, (3) to point out that medication errors represent real and serious risks and (4) to induce the hospital management readiness to execute fundamental changes and improvements to medication processes. We read through a lot of studies inquiring into hospitals' medication safety. Then, we selected the studies which brought reliable findings and formulated credible conclusions. Finally, we addressed reputable Czech experts in health care and asked them structured questions whether the studies' findings and conclusions corresponded with our respondents' own experience in the Czech hospital clinical practice and what their own estimates of adverse drug events' consequences were like. Based on the reputable Czech health care expert opinions/estimates, the rate of a false drug administration may exceed 5%, and over 7% of those cause serious health complications to Czech hospital inpatients. Measured by an average length of stay (ALOS), the Czech inpatients, harmed by a false drug administration, stay in hospital for more than 2.6?days longer than necessary. Any positive changes to a currently used, traditional, ways of drug dispensing and administration, along with computerisation, automation, electronic traceability, validation, or verification, must well pay off. Referring to the above results, it seems to be wise to follow the EU priorities in health and health care improvements. Thus, a right usage of the financial means provided by the EC—in terms of its new health programmes for the period 2014–2020 (e.g. Horizon 2020)—has a good chance of a good result in doing the right things right, at the right time and in the right way. All citizens of the EU may benefit using the best practice. PMID:24834138

2014-01-01

197

Differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis an expert system  

SciTech Connect

Nasal congestion is a common problem for many people. It is a symptom of chronic sinusitis and also a characteristic of allergic rhinitis. Individuals frequently confuse sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. The expert system described below will diagnose the problem to be either rhinitis or sinusitis. In this paper we describe the expert system, the need for such an expert system and the process of developing the system.

Creider, R.D.; Sundar Singh, P.S. [Texas A& M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

198

How Expert Advice Influences Decision Making  

PubMed Central

People often use expert advice when making decisions in our society, but how we are influenced by this advice has yet to be understood. To address this, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provided expert and novice advice to participants during an estimation task. Participants reported that they valued expert advice more than novice advice, and activity in the ventral striatum correlated with this valuation, even before decisions with the advice were made. When using advice, participants compared their initial opinion to their advisor’s opinion. This comparison, termed the “opinion difference”, influenced advice utilization and was represented in reward-sensitive brain regions. Finally, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex integrated both the size of the opinion difference and the advisor’s level of expertise, and average activity in this area correlated with mean advice utilization across participants. Taken together, these findings provide neural evidence for how advice engenders behavioral change during the decision-making process. PMID:23185425

Meshi, Dar; Biele, Guido; Korn, Christoph W.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

2012-01-01

199

Deploying expert systems in Ada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the Department of Defense Ada mandate begins to be enforced actively, interest in deploying expert systems in Ada has increased. A prototype Ada based expert system tool is introduced called ART/Ada. This prototype was built to support research into the language and operational issues of expert systems in Ada. ART/Ada allows applications of a conventional expert system tool called ART-IM (Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management) to be deployed in various Ada environments with efficient use of time and space. ART-IM, a C-based expert system tool, is used to generate Ada source code which is compiled and linked with an Ada base inference engine to produce an Ada executable image. ART/Ada will be used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom Program testbeds.

Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

1989-01-01

200

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

1988-01-01

201

ESG - EXPERT SCRIPT GENERATOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automation Technology Branch of NASA's Langley Research Center is employing increasingly complex degrees of operator/robot cooperation (telerobotics). A good relationship between the operator and computer is essential for smooth performance by a telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is a software package that automatically generates high-level task objective commands from the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Lab's (ISRL's) complex menu-driven language. ESG reduces errors and makes the telerobotics lab accessible to researchers who are not familiar with the comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with the various systems of the ISRL testbed. ESG incorporates expert system technology to capture the typical rules of operation that a skilled operator would use. The result is an operator interface which optimizes the system's capability to perform a task remotely in a hazardous environment, in a timely manner, and without undue stress to the operator, while minimizing the chance for operator errors that may damage equipment. The intricate menu-driven command interface which provides for various control modes of both manipulators and their associated sensors in the TeleRobotic System Simulation (TRSS) has a syntax which is both irregular and verbose. ESG eliminates the following two problems with this command "language": 1) knowing the correct command sequence to accomplish a task, and 2) inputting a known command sequence without typos and other errors. ESG serves as an additional layer of interface, working in conjunction with the menu command processor, not supplanting it. By specifying task-level commands, such as GRASP, CONNECT, etc., ESG will generate the appropriate menu elements to accomplish the task. These elements will be collected in a script file which can then be executed by the ISRL menu command processor. In addition, the operator can extend the list of task-level commands to include customized tasks composed of sub-task commands. This mechanism gives the operator the ability to build a task-hierarchy tree of increasingly powerful commands. ESG also provides automatic regeneration of scripts based on system knowledge of telerobotic environment updates. The commands generated by ESG may be displayed at the terminal screen and/or stored. ESG is implemented as a rule-based expert system written in CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System). The system consists of a knowledge-base of task heuristics, a static (unchanged during execution) database which describes the physical features of objects, and a dynamic (may change as a result of task achievement) database which maintains changes in the environment. Capabilites are provided for adding new environmental objects and for modifying existing objects and configuration data. Options are available for interactively viewing both the static and dynamic attribute values of database items. Execution of the ESG may be suspended to allow access to system-level functions. ESG was implemented on a VAX 11/780 with the VMS 4.7 operating system using a VT100 compatible terminal. Its source code is 47% CLIPS and 53% C-language, with a memory requirement of approximately 205 KB. The program was developed in 1988.

Cooper, E. G.

1994-01-01

202

Three CLIPS-based expert systems for solving engineering problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have written three expert systems, using the CLIPS PC-based expert system shell. These three expert systems are rule based and are relatively small, with the largest containing slightly less than 200 rules. The first expert system is an expert assistant that was written to help users of the ASPEN computer code choose the proper thermodynamic package to use with their particular vapor-liquid equilibrium problem. The second expert system was designed to help petroleum engineers choose the proper enhanced oil recovery method to be used with a given reservoir. The effectiveness of each technique is highly dependent upon the reservoir conditions. The third expert system is a combination consultant and control system. This system was designed specifically for silicon carbide whisker growth. Silicon carbide whiskers are an extremely strong product used to make ceramic and metal composites. The manufacture of whiskers is a very complicated process. which to date. has defied a good mathematical model. The process was run by experts who had gained their expertise by trial and error. A system of rules was devised by these experts both for procedure setup and for the process control. In this paper we discuss the three problem areas of the design, development and evaluation of the CLIPS-based programs.

Parkinson, W. J.; Luger, G. F.; Bretz, R. E.

1990-01-01

203

Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

1988-01-01

204

Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

Grider, Daryl A.

1994-01-01

205

Building expert systems: Cognitive emulation  

SciTech Connect

This work explores the questions and issues surrounding the capacity of expert systems to emulate human thinking and problem-solving abilities, the extent to which this is possible, and the desirability and limitations involved in applying this new technology. Maintaining a balance between theoretical and practical issues, it reviews psychological research into human expert cognition and discusses the formal arguments for and against cognitive emulation in expert system design. Also analyzes in detail the factors likely to promote or constrain this strategy. Includes a critical survey of expert systems research which outlines the implications of the emulation approach to knowledge acquisition and representation.

Slatter, P.E.

1987-01-01

206

Unmasking of latent synaptic connections in the cortex of the rat, elicited by facial nerve transection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nerve injury elicits plastic changes in the cortex, resulting in reorganization of the somatotopic representation maps. These processes begin within minutes after nerve injury, and last for weeks. Although the mechanisms leading to these plastic changes are not known in a detail, a number of results suggest that the key element in the starting of these processes is a

Tamás Farkas; József Toldi

2001-01-01

207

Requirements Elicitation for an Intelligent Software Test Environment for the Physically Challenged  

E-print Network

enough to get a paraplegic to operate the software test environment. However, in the process in the software testing process. Keywords Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Elicitation, Scenario- Based environment and to aid the PC person to integrate into a multi-user coordinated software team. PCTA

208

System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

Mieg, Harald A.

2006-01-01

209

Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling.

Reece, Wendy Jane

1998-10-01

210

Eliciting nicotine craving with virtual smoking cues.  

PubMed

Craving is a strong desire to consume that emerges in every case of substance addiction. Previous studies have shown that eliciting craving with an exposure cues protocol can be a useful option for the treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce craving in smokers. Fifty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments: high arousal contextual cues and low arousal contextual cues scenarios (17 smokers with low nicotine dependency were excluded). An eye-tracker system was used to evaluate attention toward these cues. Eye fixation on smoking-related cues differed between smokers and nonsmokers, indicating that smokers focused more often on smoking-related cues than nonsmokers. Self-reports of craving are in agreement with these results and suggest a significant increase in craving after exposure to smoking cues. In sum, these data support the use of virtual environments for eliciting craving. PMID:24660864

Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Brito, Rodrigo

2014-08-01

211

Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life.  

PubMed

A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues. PMID:22008232

Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Brambilla, Paolo; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agostoni, Carlo

2011-12-01

212

Expert Systems in Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

1989-01-01

213

Ask the Experts -- January 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered why lead is considered to be a cancerous metal? One of our "Ask the Experts" readers was also curious about this subject and posed this question to our Experts: "They say lead is a very cancerous metal. How come? Other metals are not."

2006-01-01

214

Ask the Experts - February 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Ask the Experts column, the Experts address the following two questions: Does the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle serve as the basis for Chaos theory? and Why doesn't the United States use the metric system, also known as the System International, as other countries do? It was supposed to be in use by the 1980s. What happened?

2007-02-01

215

Criminal Profiling as Expert Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses criminal profiling as expert evidence. First, some of the issues involving profiling as expert evidence will be explored, including the induction-centric nature of this literature, the attitude of courts toward profiling evidence, and some common areas of profiling testimony. Next, a detailed overview of the Frye and Daubert rules of evidence in the United States will be

Wayne Petherick; David Field; Andrew Lowe; Elizabeth Fry

2006-01-01

216

Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)

Nuclear Industry, 1991

1991-01-01

217

Hindlimb unloading elicits anhedonia and sympathovagal imbalance  

PubMed Central

The hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rat model elicits cardiovascular deconditioning and simulates the physiological adaptations to microgravity or prolonged bed rest in humans. Although psychological deficits have been documented following bed rest and spaceflight in humans, few studies have explored the psychological effects of cardiovascular deconditioning in animal models. Given the bidirectional link established between cardiac autonomic imbalance and psychological depression in both humans and in animal models, we hypothesized that hindlimb unloading would elicit an alteration in sympathovagal tone and behavioral indexes of psychological depression. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats confined to 14 days of HU displayed anhedonia (a core feature of human depression) compared with casted control (CC) animals evidenced by reduced sucrose preference (CC: 81 ± 2.9% baseline vs. HU: 58 ± 4.5% baseline) and reduced (rightward shift) operant responding for rewarding electrical brain stimulation (CC: 4.4 ± 0.3 ?A vs. 7.3 ± 1.0 ?A). Cardiac autonomic blockade revealed elevated sympathetic [CC: ?54 ± 14.1 change in (?) beats/min vs. HU: ?118 ± 7.6 ? beats/min] and reduced parasympathetic (CC: 45 ± 11.8 ? beats/min vs. HU: 8 ± 7.3 ? beats/min) cardiac tone in HU rats. Heart rate variability was reduced (CC: 10 ± 1.4 ms vs. HU: 7 ± 0.7 ms), and spectral analysis of blood pressure indicated loss of total, low-, and high-frequency power, consistent with attenuated baroreflex function. These data indicate that cardiovascular deconditioning results in sympathovagal imbalance and behavioral signs consistent with psychological depression. These findings further elucidate the pathophysiological link between cardiovascular diseases and affective disorders. PMID:18635876

Moffitt, Julia A.; Grippo, Angela J.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-01-01

218

75 FR 8700 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts To Augment the SAB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Experts To Augment the SAB Ecological Processes and Effects Committee...experts to augment the SAB Ecological Processes and Effects Committee...during deliberations. The Ecological Processes and Effects Committee...biology, aquatic toxicology, microbiology, wastewater...

2010-02-25

219

Building the BIKE: Development and Testing of the Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying students' conceptual scientific understanding is difficult if the appropriate tools are not available for educators. Concept inventories have become a popular tool to assess student understanding; however, traditionally, they are multiple choice tests. International science education standard documents advocate that assessments should be reform based, contain diverse question types, and should align with instructional approaches. To date, no instrument of this type targeting student conceptions in biotechnology has been developed. We report here the development, testing, and validation of a 35-item Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE) that includes a mix of question types. The BIKE was designed to elicit student thinking and a variety of conceptual understandings, as opposed to testing closed-ended responses. The design phase contained nine steps including a literature search for content, student interviews, a pilot test, as well as expert review. Data from 175 students over two semesters, including 16 student interviews and six expert reviewers (professors from six different institutions), were used to validate the instrument. Cronbach's alpha on the pre/posttest was 0.664 and 0.668, respectively, indicating the BIKE has internal consistency. Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability among the 6,525 total items was 0.684 indicating substantial agreement among scorers. Item analysis demonstrated that the items were challenging, there was discrimination among the individual items, and there was alignment with research-based design principles for construct validity. This study provides a reliable and valid conceptual understanding instrument in the understudied area of biotechnology.

Witzig, Stephen B.; Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Izci, Kemal; McClure, Bruce

2014-10-01

220

Early pregnancy disorders: expert knowledge based consultation.  

PubMed

The study presents a part of the knowledge-based consultation system for use in a gynecological primary health service to assist doctors who might not be highly experienced, such as junior gynecologists or general practitioners working in small centers, rural areas, developing countries, etc. Aiding the prompt detection of early pregnancy disorders has been considered to reduce complications in these cases, including the life-threatening ones. Although imminent abortion or ectopic pregnancy is usually assumed, all 17 diagnostic hypotheses manifested through similar symptoms are provided. A special experts' knowledge base including 12,000 rules formulated according to the ELSA-method (Experts Lattice Structured Acquirements) principles has been completed for this purpose. The following pattern serves for obtaining experts acquirements: IF (diagnostic problem) AND (manifestation) THEN (diagnostic hypothesis A) R (diagnostic hypothesis B) where R denotes one of the following relations: ... "preferred rather than"..., ... "preferred strongly to" ..., ... "equivalent to" ... A special procedure has been developed for processing these experts judgements to aid the medical reasoning in complex situations. The consultation system offers its assistance in: --differentiation within any given group of diagnostic hypotheses through setting them in order dependent on the patient's manifestations presented, --selection of the most efficient diagnostic steps for differentiating within the diagnostic hypotheses assumed. A consultation in the case of the patient with irregular vaginal bleeding has been included. The system operates on IBM PC/XT, equipped with 256 RAM, 360 kB floppy and a printer. PMID:3065471

Ruszkowski, J

1988-01-01

221

CASWW Central Asia Experts Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Harvard Forum for Central Asian Studies, this site will prove useful to graduate students and scholars of Central Asia. The site was created to facilitate access for policy-makers, the press, and others to scholars with the appropriate expertise in Central Asian Studies. The Directory features those who have indicated their willingness to be contacted for expert consultations, and their listing will include a brief description of their qualifications. It organizes experts by name, topic, location, and under several headings: Politics and International Relations, Economy, Social Issues, and Cultural and Historical Background. The site is still soliciting experts for inclusion, and a link to the questionnaire is provided.

222

Filtering information from human experts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors propose a model, or filter, for debiasing opinions from multiple experts and combining them into a single consistent estimate of some variable of interest. A distinguishing feature of the approach consists of making the calibration of experts an integral part of filtering. This enables the filter to learn from previous experience with the experts. The theoretical development takes a Bayesian perspective, using de Finetti's (1964) notion of exchangeability. Experimental results with a preliminary computer implementation of the filter show that its estimates are better than those from comparable filters that do not involve calibration.

Mendel, Max B.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

1989-01-01

223

Expert system for generating fuel movement procedures  

SciTech Connect

Commercial nuclear power reactors are required by federal law and their operating license to track and control the movement of nuclear fuel. Planning nuclear fuel movements during a refueling outage by hand is a tedious process involving an initial state and final state separated by physical and administrative constraints. Since the initial and final states as well as all constraints are known, an expert computer system for planning this process is possible. Turkey Point station worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-selected vendor to implement such a system. Over the course of a 2-yr period, the EPRI Fuel Shuffle Planning System evolved from a high-tech word processor to an expert system capable of planning all fuel movement sequences required to refuel a nuclear reactor core. Turkey Point site is composed to two pressurized water reactor units owned and operated by Florida Power and Light Company.

Hendrickson, J.P. (Florida Power and Light Co., Juno Beach (United States))

1991-01-01

224

Elicitation: a tool for enriching the bioactive composition of foods.  

PubMed

Elicitation is a good strategy to induce physiological changes and stimulate defense or stress-induced responses in plants. The elicitor treatments trigger the synthesis of phytochemical compounds in fruits, vegetables and herbs. These metabolites have been widely investigated as bioactive compounds responsible of plant cell adaptation to the environment, specific organoleptic properties of foods, and protective effects in human cells against oxidative processes in the development of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Biotic (biological origin), abiotic (chemical or physical origin) elicitors and phytohormones have been applied alone or in combinations, in hydroponic solutions or sprays, and in different selected time points of the plant growth or during post-harvest. Understanding how plant tissues and their specific secondary metabolic pathways respond to specific treatments with elicitors would be the basis for designing protocols to enhance the production of secondary metabolites, in order to produce quality and healthy fresh foods. PMID:25255755

Baenas, Nieves; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

2014-01-01

225

Novel study on the elicitation of hypersensitive response by polyunsaturated fatty acids in potato tuber.  

PubMed

A GC-MS procedure was carried out for the simultaneous and unequivocal quantitation of both potato phytoalexin (rishitin and lubimin) accumulation and the rate of disappearance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and some of their esters tested as possible elicitors. Potato 5-lipoxygenase and lipolytic acyl hydrolase play a key role in hypersensitive response (HR) induction. As expected, arachidonic acid, its hydrolysable esters, and eicosapentaenoic acid elicited much higher HR than the other PUFA tested, although the latter were equally affected by potato 5-lipoxygenase. Hydroxyl radicals appear to be actively involved in the browning process. The polyaminoacid poly-L-lysine did not show any eliciting activity. PMID:1344908

Fanelli, C; Castoria, R; Fabbri, A A; Passi, S

1992-01-01

226

Category effects: is top-down control alone sufficient to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN) component?  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP) could be evoked by purely top-down, attentional control. An infrequently occurring tone was designated as a target prior to presenting a randomized sequence of five equi-probably occurring tones. MMN elicitation to the tones categorized as "high", "medium", or "low" frequency, and designated as the target, would indicate that the change detection process can be driven solely by top-down control. However, MMNs were not elicited by the categorized tones. Only the N2b and P3b attention-driven target detection components were elicited. These results suggest that top-down factors alone cannot generate mismatch negativity. Standard formation by stimulus-driven factors is required. PMID:23131615

Sadia, G; Ritter, W; Sussman, E

2013-02-01

227

Category effects: Is top-down control alone sufficient to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN) component?  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP) could be evoked by purely top-down, attentional control. An infrequently occurring tone was designated as a target prior to presenting a randomized sequence of five equi-probably occurring tones. MMN elicitation to the tones categorized as “high”, “medium”, or “low” frequency, and designated as the target, would indicate that the change detection process can be driven solely by top-down control. However, MMNs were not elicited by the categorized tones. Only the N2b and P3b attention-driven target detection components were elicited. These results suggest that top-down factors alone cannot generate mismatch negativity. Standard formation by stimulus-driven factors is required. PMID:23131615

Sadia, G.; Ritter, W.; Sussman, E.

2012-01-01

228

Risk assessment: Consulting the experts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a step-by-step procedure for assessing health risks of environmental pollutants is described. The key feature of the approach is to solicit the health experts' opinions in making risk assessments. The approach relies on decomposing the problem so that each expert is dealing with a relatively simple situation. Alternatives for aggregating experts' judgments are discussed. Since the responses of the experts are in the form of probability distibutions, a scheme for handling uncertainty about probabilities is suggested. Two different pollutants may interact in their impact on human health. A model for studying the interaction effects of pollutants is discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss how risk assessment can be used in an evaluation model for selecting alternative air quality standards.

Winkler, R.L. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington); Sarin, R.K.

1981-01-01

229

Partial belief and expert testimony  

E-print Network

My dissertation investigates two questions from within a partial belief framework: First, when and how should deference to experts or other information sources be qualified? Second, how closely is epistemology related to ...

Briggs, Rachael (Rachael Amy)

2009-01-01

230

Expert Secondary Inclusive Classroom Management  

E-print Network

disabilities, including autism, intellectual disability, and traumatic brain injury were of interest in this study. Further, this study was designed to determine how the teachers learned to expertly manage their inclusive classrooms. Eight teachers met criteria...

Montague, Marcia

2011-02-22

231

Conformational Nature of the Borrelia burgdorferi Decorin Binding Protein A Epitopes That Elicit Protective Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decorin binding protein A (DbpA) has been shown by several laboratories to be a protective antigen for the prevention of experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection in the mouse model of Lyme borreliosis. However, different recombinant forms of the antigen having either lipidated amino termini, approximating the natural secretion and posttranslational processing, or nonprocessed cytosolic forms have elicited disparate levels of protection

NANCY D. ULBRANDT; DAVID R. CASSATT; NITA K. PATEL; WILLIAM C. ROBERTS; CHRISTINE M. BACHY; CHRISTINE A. FAZENBAKER; MARK S. HANSON

2001-01-01

232

Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

2011-01-01

233

Expert system prototype developments for NASA-KSC business and engineering applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prototype expert systems developed for a variety of NASA projects in the business/management and engineering domains are discussed. Business-related problems addressed include an assistant for simulating launch vehicle processing, a plan advisor for the acquisition of automated data processing equipment, and an expert system for the identification of customer requirements. Engineering problems treated include an expert system for detecting potential ignition sources in LOX and gaseous-oxygen transportation systems and an expert system for hazardous-gas detection.

Ragusa, James M.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

1988-01-01

234

Cellular defense processes regulated by pathogen-elicited receptor signaling  

E-print Network

Vertebrates are constantly threatened by the invasion of microorganisms and have evolved systems of immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens in the body. Initial sensing of microbial agents is mediated by the recognition ...

Wu, Rongcong

235

A software engineering approach to expert system design and verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software engineering design and verification methods for developing expert systems are not yet well defined. Integration of expert system technology into software production environments will require effective software engineering methodologies to support the entire life cycle of expert systems. The software engineering methods used to design and verify an expert system, RENEX, is discussed. RENEX demonstrates autonomous rendezvous and proximity operations, including replanning trajectory events and subsystem fault detection, onboard a space vehicle during flight. The RENEX designers utilized a number of software engineering methodologies to deal with the complex problems inherent in this system. An overview is presented of the methods utilized. Details of the verification process receive special emphasis. The benefits and weaknesses of the methods for supporting the development life cycle of expert systems are evaluated, and recommendations are made based on the overall experiences with the methods.

Bochsler, Daniel C.; Goodwin, Mary Ann

1988-01-01

236

Biosynthesis, elicitation and roles of monocot terpenoid phytoalexins.  

PubMed

A long-standing goal in plant research is to optimize the protective function of biochemical agents that impede pest and pathogen attack. Nearly 40 years ago, pathogen-inducible diterpenoid production was described in rice, and these compounds were shown to function as antimicrobial phytoalexins. Using rice and maize as examples, we discuss recent advances in the discovery, biosynthesis, elicitation and functional characterization of monocot terpenoid phytoalexins. The recent expansion of known terpenoid phytoalexins now includes not only the labdane-related diterpenoid superfamily but also casbane-type diterpenoids and ?-macrocarpene-derived sequiterpenoids. Biochemical approaches have been used to pair pathway precursors and end products with cognate biosynthetic genes. The number of predicted terpenoid phytoalexins is expanding through advances in cereal genome annotation and terpene synthase characterization that likewise enable discoveries outside the Poaceae. At the cellular level, conclusive evidence now exists for multiple plant receptors of fungal-derived chitin elicitors, phosphorylation of membrane-associated signaling complexes, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, involvement of phytohormone signals, and the existence of transcription factors that mediate the expression of phytoalexin biosynthetic genes and subsequent accumulation of pathway end products. Elicited production of terpenoid phytoalexins exhibit additional biological functions, including root exudate-mediated allelopathy and insect antifeedant activity. Such findings have encouraged consideration of additional interactions that blur traditionally discrete phytoalexin classifications. The establishment of mutant collections and increasing ease of genetic transformation assists critical examination of further biological roles. Future research directions include examination of terpenoid phytoalexin precursors and end products as potential signals mediating plant physiological processes. PMID:24450747

Schmelz, Eric A; Huffaker, Alisa; Sims, James W; Christensen, Shawn A; Lu, Xuan; Okada, Kazunori; Peters, Reuben J

2014-08-01

237

DECISION-THEORETIC ELICITATION OF GENERALIZED ADDITIVE UTILITIES  

E-print Network

DECISION-THEORETIC ELICITATION OF GENERALIZED ADDITIVE UTILITIES by Darius Brazi¯unas A thesis of Computer Science University of Toronto Copyright c 2012 by Darius Brazi¯unas #12;Abstract Decision-theoretic elicitation of generalized additive utilities Darius Brazi¯unas Doctor of Philosophy Graduate Department

Toronto, University of

238

Introducing Forum Theatre to Elicit and Advocate Children's Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eliciting and advocating the voice of the child remains at the heart of international political agenda and also remains a central role for educational psychologists (EPs). Previous research indicates that EPs tend to use language-based methods for eliciting and advocating views of children. However, these approaches are often limited. Taking a…

Hammond, Nick

2013-01-01

239

Inquiry into the Practices of Expert Courseware Designers: A Pragmatic Method for the Design of Effective Instructional Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multi-stage study of the practices of expert courseware designers was conducted with the final goal of identifying methods for assisting non-experts with the design of effective instructional systems. A total of 25 expert designers were involved in all stages of the inquiry. A model of the expert courseware design process was created, tested,…

Rowley, Kurt

2005-01-01

240

Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation  

PubMed Central

In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-01-01

241

Weather forecasting expert system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather forecasting is critical to both the Space Transportation System (STS) ground operations and the launch/landing activities at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current launch frequency places significant demands on the USAF weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility (CCFF), who currently provide the weather forecasting for all STS operations. As launch frequency increases, KSC's weather forecasting problems will be great magnified. The single most important problem is the shortage of highly skilled forecasting personnel. The development of forecasting expertise is difficult and requires several years of experience. Frequent personnel changes within the forecasting staff jeopardize the accumulation and retention of experience-based weather forecasting expertise. The primary purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to ameliorate this shortage of experts by capturing aria incorporating the forecasting knowledge of current expert forecasters into a Weather Forecasting Expert System (WFES) which would then be made available to less experienced duty forecasters.

1985-01-01

242

Register of hydrogen technology experts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

Ludtke, P. R.

1975-01-01

243

Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.  

PubMed

Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. PMID:23062586

Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

2012-01-01

244

Rhetorical Consequences of the Computer Society: Expert Systems and Human Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expert systems are computer programs that solve selected problems by modelling domain-specific behaviors of human experts. These computer programs typically consist of an input/output system that feeds data into the computer and retrieves advice, an inference system using the reasoning and heuristic processes of human experts, and a knowledge…

Skopec, Eric Wm.

245

The making of an expert.  

PubMed

Popular lore tells us that genius is born, not made. Scientific research, on the other hand, reveals that true expertise is mainly the product of years of intense practice and dedicated coaching. Ordinary practice is not enough: To reach elite levels of performance, you need to constantly push yourself beyond your abilities and comfort level. Such discipline is the key to becoming an expert in all domains, including management and leadership. Those are the conclusions reached by Ericsson, a professor of psychology at Florida State University; Prietula, a professor at the Goizueta Business School; and Cokely, a research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, who together studied data on the behavior of experts, gathered by more than 100 scientists. What consistently distinguished elite surgeons, chess players, writers, athletes, pianists, and other experts was the habit of engaging in "deliberate" practice--a sustained focus on tasks that they couldn't do before. Experts continually analyzed what they did wrong, adjusted their techniques, and worked arduously to correct their errors. Even such traits as charisma can be developed using this technique. Working with a drama school, the authors created a set of acting exercises for managers that remarkably enhanced executives' powers of charm and persuasion. Through deliberate practice, leaders can improve their ability to win over their employees, their peers, or their board of directors. The journey to elite performance is not for the impatient or the faint of heart. It takes at least a decade and requires the guidance of an expert teacher to provide tough, often painful feedback. It also demands would-be experts to develop their "inner coach" and eventually drive their own progress. PMID:17642130

Ericsson, K Anders; Prietula, Michael J; Cokely, Edward T

2007-01-01

246

Expert systems and fuzzy systems  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the design of the expert computer system and how fuzzy systems can be used to deal with imprecise information. As the author explores the effects of semantic systems on decision support systems, he asserts that the utilization of fuzzy set theory can help an expert system draw from its knowledge base more efficiently and therefore make more accurate and reliable decisions. The book includes realistic status reports in approximate reasoning and knowledge representation that are supported by a ''theory of categories'' mathematical approach. The differences between symbolic and semantic manipulation are outline, and detailed information is given on the actual theory of knowledge-based systems.

Negoita, C.

1985-01-01

247

Expert evidence, the adversary system, and the jury.  

PubMed

Many assertions have been made about the competence of juries in dealing with expert evidence. I review the types of expert evidence that jurors hear and the impact of adversary legal procedure on the form and manner in which evidence is presented. Empirical research indicates that jurors understand the adversary process, that they do not automatically defer to the opinions of experts, and that their verdicts appear to be generally consistent with external criteria of performance. Conflicts between the American adversary system and changes in trial procedures that might assist the jury in its task are also considered here. PMID:16030330

Vidmar, Neil

2005-01-01

248

EDNA: Expert fault digraph analysis using CLIPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally fault models are represented by trees. Recently, digraph models have been proposed (Sack). Digraph models closely imitate the real system dependencies and hence are easy to develop, validate and maintain. However, they can also contain directed cycles and analysis algorithms are hard to find. Available algorithms tend to be complicated and slow. On the other hand, the tree analysis (VGRH, Tayl) is well understood and rooted in vast research effort and analytical techniques. The tree analysis algorithms are sophisticated and orders of magnitude faster. Transformation of a digraph (cyclic) into trees (CLP, LP) is a viable approach to blend the advantages of the representations. Neither the digraphs nor the trees provide the ability to handle heuristic knowledge. An expert system, to capture the engineering knowledge, is essential. We propose an approach here, namely, expert network analysis. We combine the digraph representation and tree algorithms. The models are augmented by probabilistic and heuristic knowledge. CLIPS, an expert system shell from NASA-JSC will be used to develop a tool. The technique provides the ability to handle probabilities and heuristic knowledge. Mixed analysis, some nodes with probabilities, is possible. The tool provides graphics interface for input, query, and update. With the combined approach it is expected to be a valuable tool in the design process as well in the capture of final design knowledge.

Dixit, Vishweshwar V.

1990-01-01

249

Similar Odorants Elicit Different Behavioral and Physiological Responses, Some Supersustained  

PubMed Central

An intriguing question in the field of olfaction is how animals distinguish among structurally similar odorants. We systematically analyzed olfactory responses elicited by a panel of 25 pyrazines. We found that structurally similar pyrazines elicit a wide range of behavioral responses from Drosophila larvae. Each pyrazine was tested against all functional receptors of the larval Odor receptor (Or) repertoire, yielding 525 odorant–receptor combinations. Different pyrazines vary markedly in the responses they elicit from the Or repertoire, with most strong responses deriving from two receptors, Or33b and Or59a. Surprisingly, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine, which elicit strikingly similar physiological responses across the receptor repertoire, elicit dramatically different behavioral responses. A small fraction of odorant-receptor combinations elicit remarkably long responses. These responses, which we term “supersustained” responses, are receptor specific and odorant specific, and can last for minutes. Such supersustained responses may prevent olfactory neurons from reporting contemporaneous information about the local odor environment. Odors that elicit such responses could provide a novel means of controlling insect pests and vectors of human disease by impairing the location of human hosts, food sources, and mates. PMID:21613503

Montague, Shelby A.; Mathew, Dennis; Carlson, John R.

2011-01-01

250

The Appropriateness of Renal Angioplasty. The ANPARIA Software: A Multidisciplinary Expert Panel Approach  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) is an invasive technique that is costly and involves the risk of complications and renal failure. The ability of PTRA to reduce the administration of antihypertensive drugs has been demonstrated. A potentially greater benefit, which nevertheless remains to be proven, is the deferral of the need for chronic dialysis. The aim of the study (ANPARIA) was to assess the appropriateness of PTRA to impact on the evolution of renal function. A standardized expert panel method was used to assess the appropriateness of medical treatment alone or medical treatment with revascularization in various clinical situations. The choice of revascularization by either PTRA or surgery was examined for each clinical situation. Analysis was based on a detailed literature review and on systematically elicited expert opinion, which were obtained during a two-round modified Delphi process. The study provides detailed responses on the appropriateness of PTRA for 1848 distinct clinical scenarios. Depending on the major clinical presentation, appropriateness of revascularization varied from 32% to 75% for individual scenarios (overal 48%). Uncertainty as to revascularization was 41% overall. When revascularization was appropriate, PTRA was favored over surgery in 94% of the scenarios, except in certain cases of aortic atheroma where sugery was the preferred choice. Kidney size >7 cm, absence of coexisting disease, acute renal failure, a high degree of stenosis ({>=}70%), and absence of multiple arteries were identified as predictive variables of favorable appropriateness ratings. Situations such as cardiac failure with pulmonary edema or acute thrombosis of the renal artery were defined as indications for PTRA. This study identified clinical situations in which PTRA or surgery are appropriate for renal artery disease. We built a decision tree which can be used via Internet: the ANPARIA software (http://www.chu-clermontferrand.fr/anpariahttp://www.chu-clermontferrand.fr/anparia/). In numerous clinical situations uncertainty remains as to whether PTRA prevents deterioration of renal function.

Gerbaud, Laurent; Manhes, Geraud; Debourse, Juliette; Gouby, Gerald, E-mail: ggouby@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Glanddier, Phyllis-Yvonne [CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Hotel-Dieu, Service d'epidemiologie, economie de la sante et prevention (France); Vader, John-Paul [Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland); Boyer, Louis, E-mail: lboyer@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Deteix, Patrice [Universite d'Auvergne, Faculte de Medecine (France)

2008-11-15

251

LYMAN MAYNARD STOWE Expert staff  

E-print Network

Please use cell phones outside of library Rev 06/13 LAPTOPS circulate for three days BOOKS circulate of library opening. RENEWALS: phone: (860) 679-3808 email: circ@nso.uchc.edu through the library's catalogLYMAN MAYNARD STOWE LIBRARY Expert staff Authoritative resources Visit us online or in person Main

Kim, Duck O.

252

Ask the Experts -- Summer 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The questions presented in this month's Ask the Experts section include, Can a chemical equation have two correct ways to balance it? and Why is the first electron shell in atomic structure designated with "K" (K, L, M, N...) rather than "A"?

2005-07-01

253

The Expert System for Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Expert System for Thermodynamics (TEST) is a web-based software platform used to analyze thermofluids problems, verify hand calculations, pursue what-if scenarios, visualize thermal systems, and conduct other investigations in thermodynamics. Site materials include problem sets, examples, animations, and calculating tools to be used in solving problems. There is also a tutorial and visual tour of the platform.

Bhattacharjee, Subrata

254

NCI's Meet The Experts Sessions  

Cancer.gov

NCI's Meet The Experts Sessions Sunday November 3: 3:30 PM Carmen Moten, Diversity Training at the NCI Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities Monday November 4: 10:00 AM David Nelson, Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program 2:00 PM Antoinette Percy-Laurry,

255

Computers that Think Like Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature of expert systems, including various techniques they use to represent knowledge (such as production rules, semantic networks, frames, first-order logic, and others), system interactions, and such problem domains as science, medicine, computer configuration, trouble-shooting/repair, and oil/mineral exploration. Also discusses…

Kinnucan, Paul

1984-01-01

256

How to use expert advice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze algorithms that predict a binary value by combining the predictions of several prediction strategies, called experts. Our analysis is for worst-case situations, i.e., we make no assumptions about the way the sequence of bits to be predicted is generated. We measure the performance of the algorithm by the difference between the expected number of mistakes it makes on

Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi; Yoav Freund; David Haussler; David P. Helmbold; Robert E. Schapire; Manfred K. Warmuth

1997-01-01

257

Ask the Experts -- October 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experts tackle the question, "What is the underlying natural phenomenon that causes the natural log function to show up so frequently in scientific equations? and "Why do some hairs on the human body grow indefinitely while others grow to a certain length and then stop? How does hair know when to stop?"

2005-10-01

258

Criminal profiling as expert evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract: Profiling evidence has been accepted in courts in the United States in both trial and sentencing phases, but other jurisdictions have been more cautious in their acceptance. For example, courts in the United Kingdom and Australia have been reluctant to introduce profilers as experts, even though profiling has been given some exposure in courts operating at the lower end

Wayne Petherick; David Field; Andrew Lowe; Elizabeth Fry

2009-01-01

259

Expert's Guide to Financing College  

E-print Network

expenses, you may want to consider a couple of special options: Private College 529 Plan You may have heard, on average, than adults who don't finish college--enough to justify any initial investment. Second, collegeExpert's Guide to Financing College #12;How do you know an education is worth the money? You

Portman, Douglas

260

Self-assembling influenza nanoparticle vaccines elicit broadly neutralizing H1N1 antibodies.  

PubMed

Influenza viruses pose a significant threat to the public and are a burden on global health systems. Each year, influenza vaccines must be rapidly produced to match circulating viruses, a process constrained by dated technology and vulnerable to unexpected strains emerging from humans and animal reservoirs. Here we use knowledge of protein structure to design self-assembling nanoparticles that elicit broader and more potent immunity than traditional influenza vaccines. The viral haemagglutinin was genetically fused to ferritin, a protein that naturally forms nanoparticles composed of 24 identical polypeptides. Haemagglutinin was inserted at the interface of adjacent subunits so that it spontaneously assembled and generated eight trimeric viral spikes on its surface. Immunization with this influenza nanoparticle vaccine elicited haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres more than tenfold higher than those from the licensed inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, it elicited neutralizing antibodies to two highly conserved vulnerable haemagglutinin structures that are targets of universal vaccines: the stem and the receptor binding site on the head. Antibodies elicited by a 1999 haemagglutinin-nanoparticle vaccine neutralized H1N1 viruses from 1934 to 2007 and protected ferrets from an unmatched 2007 H1N1 virus challenge. This structure-based, self-assembling synthetic nanoparticle vaccine improves the potency and breadth of influenza virus immunity, and it provides a foundation for building broader vaccine protection against emerging influenza viruses and other pathogens. PMID:23698367

Kanekiyo, Masaru; Wei, Chih-Jen; Yassine, Hadi M; McTamney, Patrick M; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Whittle, James R R; Rao, Srinivas S; Kong, Wing-Pui; Wang, Lingshu; Nabel, Gary J

2013-07-01

261

Ask the Experts--January 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Ask the Experts column, the following questions are addressed: I've heard that the two sides of my brain are specialized for different tasks (language vs. reasoning, etc.). If I listen to a science lecture on my iPod using only one earpiece, will the way I process the information depend on which ear I use to listen to the lecture? and Why does the sound made by scratching a chalkboard seem to be irritating to so many people, and why to some and not others? Nature or nurture or a bit of both?

2007-01-01

262

Minimax regret based elicitation of generalized additive utilities Darius Braziunas  

E-print Network

Minimax regret based elicitation of generalized additive utilities Darius Braziunas Department of Computer Science University of Toronto Toronto, ON M5S 3G4 darius@cs.toronto.edu Craig Boutilier Department

Toronto, University of

263

Eliciting and detecting affect in covert and ethically sensitive situations  

E-print Network

There is growing interest in creating systems that can sense the affective state of a user for a variety of applications. As a result, a large number of studies have been conducted with the goals of eliciting specific ...

Davis, Philip Charles

2005-01-01

264

Expert judgments about RD&D and the future of nuclear energy.  

PubMed

Probabilistic estimates of the cost and performance of future nuclear energy systems under different scenarios of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending were obtained from 30 U.S. and 30 European nuclear technology experts. We used a novel elicitation approach which combined individual and group elicitation. With no change from current RD&D funding levels, experts on average expected current (Gen. III/III+) designs to be somewhat more expensive in 2030 than they were in 2010, and they expected the next generation of designs (Gen. IV) to be more expensive still as of 2030. Projected costs of proposed small modular reactors (SMRs) were similar to those of Gen. IV systems. The experts almost unanimously recommended large increases in government support for nuclear RD&D (generally 2-3 times current spending). The majority expected that such RD&D would have only a modest effect on cost, but would improve performance in other areas, such as safety, waste management, and uranium resource utilization. The U.S. and E.U. experts were in relative agreement regarding how government RD&D funds should be allocated, placing particular focus on very high temperature reactors, sodium-cooled fast reactors, fuels and materials, and fuel cycle technologies. PMID:23002786

Anadón, Laura D; Bosetti, Valentina; Bunn, Matthew; Catenacci, Michela; Lee, Audrey

2012-11-01

265

Regulation of Teacher Elicitations in the Mathematics Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the perspective of instructional conversation, we investigated how one teacher regulated student participation and conceptual reasoning in the middle-school mathematics classroom. We examined the elicitations—questions and provocative statements—made by the teacher over a four-day algebra lesson. Analyses showed how the teacher systematically regulated the level of cognitive complexity of his elicitations in reaction to students' responses. When students gave

Mitchell J. Nathan; Suyeon Kim

2009-01-01

266

Eliciting vague but proper maximal entropy priors in Bayesian experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Priors elicited according to maximal entropy rules have been used for years in objective and subjective Bayesian analysis.\\u000a However, when the prior knowledge remains fuzzy or dubious, they often suffer from impropriety which can make them uncomfortable\\u000a to use. In this article we suggest the formal elicitation of an encompassing family for the standard maximal entropy (ME)\\u000a priors and the

Nicolas Bousquet

2010-01-01

267

Real-time space system control with expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many aspects of space system operations involve continuous control of real time processes. These processes include electrical power system monitoring, prelaunch and ongoing propulsion system health and maintenance, environmental and life support systems, space suit checkout, onboard manufacturing, and vehicle servicing including satellites, shuttles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, orbital transfer vehicles and remote teleoperators. Traditionally, monitoring of these critical real time processes has been done by trained human experts monitoring telemetry data. However, the long duration of future space missions and the high cost of crew time in space creates a powerful economic incentive for the development of highly autonomous knowledge based expert control procedures for these space systems.

Leinweber, David; Hawkinson, Lowell; Perry, John

1988-01-01

268

Knowledge engineering: tapping the experts  

SciTech Connect

Problems associated with creating a computer program to replicate the problem-solving ability of human experts are discussed. Semantic nets are examined for their ability to let a computer understand natural language. A program currently underway is discussed which handles various kinds of knowledge, then searches while linking interpretations and minimizing possible ambiguities. The program operates by constructing a graph with nodes that link each word in a sentence. The syntactic aspects of the network are constructed by a chart parser. Set theory is discussed, but the authors note that since experts do not always work with precise reasoning, use of set theory may not be practical because it involves statements that are always either true or false.

Patton, C.

1985-05-02

269

Ask the Experts: Summer 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this final "Ask the Experts" column, our own resident "expert" and Department Editor, Marc Rosner, addresses the following questions: � Why is chocolate bad for dogs? � Where does the color go when paper fades after sun exposure? � How do you measure weight in space? � Since "at risk" students often have difficulty with traditional academic work, it seems they should benefit from exploratory, constructivist activities. In practice, when teachers implement inquiry-type activities, controlling such classes in the requisite atmosphere of freedom can be a challenge. What advice do you have for teachers who wish to implement modern pedagogy with students not used to the new boundaries? � What makes one element a better conductor than another?

2008-07-01

270

Genetic medicine: an experiment in community-expert interaction.  

PubMed Central

This project tested a two-way model of communication between lay groups and experts about genetic medicine in Perth, Western Australia. Focus group discussion with community group participants was followed by a communication workshop between community group participants and experts. Four groups of concerns or themes emerged from discussion: clinical considerations; legislative concerns; research priorities, and ethical and wider considerations. Community group concerns are not always met by the actions of "experts". This is, in part, because of the differing life-worlds of each group. However, the communication workshop showed the potential of two-way communication for both lay and expert members in understanding the others' viewpoint. Further, the approach developed here offers one possible way for community groups to participate in a substantial way in policy formulation processes. PMID:10461598

Schibeci, R; Barns, I; Shaw, R; Davison, A

1999-01-01

271

The Physiological Role of Abscisic Acid in Eliciting Turion Morphogenesis.  

PubMed

The exogenous application of hormones has led to their implication in a number of processes within the plant. However, proof of their function in vivo depends on quantitative data demonstrating that the exogenous concentration used to elicit a response leads to tissue hormone levels within the physiological range. Such proof is often lacking in many investigations. We are using abscisic acid (ABA)-induced turion formation in Spirodela polyrrhiza L. to investigate the mechanism by which a hormone can trigger a morphogenic switch. In this paper, we demonstrate that the exogenous concentration of ABA used to induce turions leads to tissue concentrations of ABA within the physiological range, as quantified by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-electron capture detection analysis. These results are consistent with ABA having a physiological role in turion formation, and they provide an estimate of the changes in endogenous ABA concentration required if environmental effectors of turion formation (e.g. nitrate deficiency, cold) act via an increased level of ABA. In addition, we show that the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of ABA are equally effective in inducing turions. Moreover, comparison of the ABA; levels attained after treatment with (+)-, (-)-, and ([plus or minus])-ABA and their effect on turion induction and comparison of the effectiveness of ABA on turion induction under different pH regimes suggest that ABA most likely interacts with a plasmalemma-located receptor system to induce turion formation. PMID:12228499

Smart, C. C.; Fleming, A. J.; Chaloupkova, K.; Hanke, D. E.

1995-06-01

272

Elicitation of Casbene Synthetase Activity in Castor Bean 1  

PubMed Central

Endopolygalacturonase isolated from culture filtrates of the fungus Rhizopus stolonifer was shown previously to act as an elicitor of biosynthetic capacity for the antifungal agent, casbene, in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings (S.-C. Lee, C.A. West 1981 Plant Physiology 67:633-639). Selective amidation of exposed carboxyl groups of the pure fungal endopolygalacturonase using intermediate activation with a water-soluble carbodiimide under mild conditions leads to inactivation of its enzymic activity. Tests of active and partially inactivated preparations of the enzyme reveal a close correlation between the levels of catalytic and elicitor activities. This suggests that the catalytic activity of the enzyme is necessary for its function as an elicitor. Treatment of the cell-free particulate fraction of homogenates of castor bean seedlings with the active fungal endopolygalacturonase results in the production of a heat-stable, water-soluble component which is highly active as an elicitor of casbene synthetase activity. Several additional lines of evidence, including the susceptibility of the heat-stable elicitor fraction to partial inactivation following prolonged treatment with endopolygalacturonase, indicate that the heat-stable elicitor is most likely a pectic fragment of the plant cell wall and that it is a required intermediate in the process of elicitation of casbene synthetase activity by the fungal endopolygalacturonase. PMID:16662367

Bruce, Robert J.; West, Charles A.

1982-01-01

273

The Physiological Role of Abscisic Acid in Eliciting Turion Morphogenesis.  

PubMed Central

The exogenous application of hormones has led to their implication in a number of processes within the plant. However, proof of their function in vivo depends on quantitative data demonstrating that the exogenous concentration used to elicit a response leads to tissue hormone levels within the physiological range. Such proof is often lacking in many investigations. We are using abscisic acid (ABA)-induced turion formation in Spirodela polyrrhiza L. to investigate the mechanism by which a hormone can trigger a morphogenic switch. In this paper, we demonstrate that the exogenous concentration of ABA used to induce turions leads to tissue concentrations of ABA within the physiological range, as quantified by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-electron capture detection analysis. These results are consistent with ABA having a physiological role in turion formation, and they provide an estimate of the changes in endogenous ABA concentration required if environmental effectors of turion formation (e.g. nitrate deficiency, cold) act via an increased level of ABA. In addition, we show that the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of ABA are equally effective in inducing turions. Moreover, comparison of the ABA; levels attained after treatment with (+)-, (-)-, and ([plus or minus])-ABA and their effect on turion induction and comparison of the effectiveness of ABA on turion induction under different pH regimes suggest that ABA most likely interacts with a plasmalemma-located receptor system to induce turion formation. PMID:12228499

Smart, C. C.; Fleming, A. J.; Chaloupkova, K.; Hanke, D. E.

1995-01-01

274

Ask the Experts -- December 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experts give their "spin" on physical science concepts as they answer the question, "What does "spin" refer to in particle physics? Why is this concept necessary?" and "My physics teacher tells me that when I go around a sharp curve in my car, there is no force causing me to move away from the center of curvature. So what is happening to make me feel as if I am sliding toward the outside?

2005-12-01

275

Two-dimensional fuzzy fault tree analysis for chlorine release from a chlor-alkali industry using expert elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazards associated with major accident hazard (MAH) industries are fire, explosion and toxic gas releases. Of these, toxic gas release is the worst as it has the potential to cause extensive fatalities. Qualitative and quantitative hazard analyses are essential for the identification and quantification of these hazards related to chemical industries. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is an established technique

V. R. Renjith; G. Madhu; V. Lakshmana Gomathi Nayagam; A. B. Bhasi

2010-01-01

276

Waste package degradation expert elicitation panel: Input on the corrosion of CRM alloy C-22. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The overall electrolyte concentration in the NFE environment is expected to be somewhere between 1X and saturated J-13 well water. This covers more than three orders-of-magnitude in chloride anion concentration. The pH of this solution is expected to be somewhere between 5 and 10. Exposed patches of the CRM could see this environment.

Farmer, J.C.

1998-03-14

277

Expert searching in public health  

PubMed Central

Objective: The article explores the characteristics of public health information needs and the resources available to address those needs that distinguish it as an area of searching requiring particular expertise. Methods: Public health searching activities from reference questions and literature search requests at a large, urban health department library were reviewed to identify the challenges in finding relevant public health information. Results: The terminology of the information request frequently differed from the vocabularies available in the databases. Searches required the use of multiple databases and/or Web resources with diverse interfaces. Issues of the scope and features of the databases relevant to the search questions were considered. Conclusion: Expert searching in public health differs from other types of expert searching in the subject breadth and technical demands of the databases to be searched, the fluidity and lack of standardization of the vocabulary, and the relative scarcity of high-quality investigations at the appropriate level of geographic specificity. Health sciences librarians require a broad exposure to databases, gray literature, and public health terminology to perform as expert searchers in public health. PMID:15685281

Alpi, Kristine M.

2005-01-01

278

Onboard navigation rendezvous expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Onboard Navigation rendezvous expert system is designed to aid the ground flight controller in monitoring the shuttle onboard navigation system. The system is designed to keep track of the navigation sensors and relative state vectors. In addition, the system also keeps an event log and fills out forms usually handled by the flight controller. This expert system is one of the few rendezvous specific systems being developed for the Mission Control Center. The expert system has been in development for six years. Through these years the system has seen hardware, software, and personnel changes. Initial development was done by the Information Systems Directorate (ISD) and Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at Johnson Space Center. As of October 1, 1991 the system has been turned over to MOD. The system is completely developed except for some minor adjustments to the user interface. The rule base is in the verification stage with total certification of the system due to be completed by May 1992. Test cases for verification are obtained by saving data used for flight controller integrated simulations. The actual data comes from both the shuttle mission simulator and the Mission Control Center Computer. So far no actual flight data has been available. This paper covers all aspects of the system from the development history to the current hardware, software, and use of the system.

Kocen, Michelle

1991-01-01

279

Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

Kreinovich, Vladik

1993-01-01

280

A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature.

Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Business Administration & Economics Div.

1994-09-01

281

Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.  

PubMed

Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings. PMID:22420229

Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

2011-01-01

282

Student reflections on peer reviewing solutions to Model-Eliciting Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-blind peer review process is embedded in the implementation of model-eliciting activities - a type of open-ended problem used in a large first-year engineering course. Students conduct the peer review along three dimensions: mathematical model, re-usability & modifiability, and audience (share-ability). Classmates bring to bear both their own solution development experience as well as their own educational and personal

Heidi A. Diefes-Dux; Matthew A. Verleger

2009-01-01

283

Family Stories: Eliciting Tolerance and Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past and present provide an important reference to understanding the circumstances and cultural differences that assist in the development of our methods of interaction. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to provide a process of personal self-reflection of experiences by which administrators, school officials, staff, and faculty can…

Dukes, Melanie Anne Dillett

2009-01-01

284

[Professional and ethical medical expert quality].  

PubMed

The work of court experts, including those of medical profession, is ruled by Regulations on standing court experts. The Regulations determine requirements for performing the job of court expertise, rights and duties of court experts, awards and remuneration for their work. The ethical codex determines relation of experts to performance of expertise, to court and parties, to colleagues court experts and to the community. The expert must obey the rules on performance of the expertise, complete all his duties, protect respectability of all court experts, and justify trust of legal authorities. In relationship with the court, the expert must respond to court summons, give his finding and opinion, and come to hearing summons. PMID:19146190

Ivekovi?, Renata

2008-01-01

285

Coherent approximation of distributed expert assessments  

E-print Network

Expert judgments of probability and expectation play an integral role in many systems. Financial markets, public policy, medical diagnostics and more rely on the ability of informed experts (both human and machine) to make ...

Jones, Peter B., Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

286

Integrating expert systems into an operational environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Communications Link Expert Assistance Resource Expert System is introduced. The experience gained in implementing this expert system is used to discuss solutions to the major problems encountered during the development of an expert system to be realized in an operational environment. Knowledge acquisition is discussed as well as user involvement, interfacing the system to the user, choosing a development environment, prototyping for success, and overcoming the transition.

Hughes, Peter M.

1989-01-01

287

Embedding Human Expert Cognition Into Autonomous UAS Trajectory Planning.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new approach for the inclusion of human expert cognition into autonomous trajectory planning for unmanned aerial systems (UASs) operating in low-altitude environments. During typical UAS operations, multiple objectives may exist; therefore, the use of multicriteria decision aid techniques can potentially allow for convergence to trajectory solutions which better reflect overall mission requirements. In that context, additive multiattribute value theory has been applied to optimize trajectories with respect to multiple objectives. A graphical user interface was developed to allow for knowledge capture from a human decision maker (HDM) through simulated decision scenarios. The expert decision data gathered are converted into value functions and corresponding criteria weightings using utility additive theory. The inclusion of preferences elicited from HDM data within an automated decision system allows for the generation of trajectories which more closely represent the candidate HDM decision preferences. This approach has been demonstrated in this paper through simulation using a fixed-wing UAS operating in low-altitude environments. PMID:22949071

Narayan, Pritesh; Meyer, Patrick; Campbell, Duncan

2012-08-27

288

Explanation production by expert planners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the explanation capability of expert systems is usually listed as one of the distinguishing characteristics of these systems, the explanation facilities of most existing systems are quite primitive. Computer generated explanations are typically produced from canned text or by direct translation of the knowledge structures. Explanations produced in this manner bear little resemblance to those produced by humans for similar tasks. The focus of our research in explanation is the production of justifications for decisions by expert planning systems. An analysis of justifications written by people for planning tasks has been taken as the starting point. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. First, analysis of the information content of the justifications will provide a basis for deciding what knowledge must be represented if human-like justifications are to be produced. Second, an analysis of the textual organization of the justifications will be used in the development of a mechanism for selecting and organizing the knowledge to be included in a computer-produced explanation. This paper describes a preliminary analysis done of justifications written by people for a planning task. It is clear that these justifications differ significantly from those that would be produced by an expert system by tracing the firing of production rules. The results from the text analysis have been used to develop an augmented phrase structured grammar (APSG) describing the organization of the justifications. The grammar was designed to provide a computationally feasible method for determining textual organization that will allow the necessary information to be communicated in a cohesive manner.

Bridges, Susan; Jhannes, James D.

1988-01-01

289

Eliciting Self-Explanations Improves Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning involves the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Generating explanations to oneself (self-explaining) facilitates that integration process. Previously, self-explanation has been shown to improve the acquisition of problem-solvi ng skills when studying worked-out examples. This study extends that finding, showing that self-explanation can also be facilitative when it is explicitly promoted, in the context of learning declarative knowledge

Michelene T. H. Chi; Nicholas De Leeuw; Mei-hung Chiu; Christian Lavancher

1994-01-01

290

A middle man approach to knowledge acquisition in expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Weed Control Advisor (WCA) is a robust expert system that has been successfully implemented on an IBM AT class microcomputer in CLIPS. The goal of the WCA was to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an economical, efficient, user friendly system through which Texas rice producers could obtain expert level knowledge regarding herbicide application for weed control. During the development phase of the WCA, an improved knowledge acquisition method which we call the Middle Man Approach (MMA) was applied to facilitate the communication process between the domain experts and the knowledge engineer. The MMA served to circumvent the problems associated with the more traditional forms of knowledge acquisition by placing the Middle Man, a semi-expert in the problem domain with some computer expertise, at the site of system development. The middle man was able to contribute to system development in two major ways. First, the Middle Man had experience working in rice production and could assume many of the responsibilities normally performed by the domain experts such as explaining the background of the problem domain and determining the important relations. Second, the Middle Man was familiar with computers and worked closely with the system developers to update the rules after the domain experts reviewed the prototype, contribute to the help menus and explanation portions of the expert system, conduct the testing that is required to insure that the expert system gives the expected results answer questions in a timely way, help the knowledge engineer structure the domain knowledge into a useable form, and provide insight into the end user's profile which helped in the development of the simple user friendly interface. The final results were not only that both time expended and costs were greatly reduced by using the MMA, but the quality of the system was improved. This papa will introduce the WCA system and then discuss traditional knowledge acquisition along with some of the problems often associated with it, the MMA methodology, and its application to the WCA development.

Jordan, Janice A.; Lin, Min-Jin; Mayer, Richard J.; Sterle, Mark E.

1990-01-01

291

Expert system for train control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The train energy model (TEM), a general train simulator developed at the Association of American Railroads, is widely used in the railroad industry. Recently, a new train controller, the general automatic train-controller (GAT), has been developed for TEM. In the GAT, the 'intelligence' or 'expertise' is a set of 'if-then' train-handling rules in an external file. The expert system for train control presented in this paper is a slightly simplified version of the GAT. The main thesis of this paper is: simple, unchained rules are adequate for complex train control. Thus, an 'inference engine' using forward chaining is not required.

Drish, William F., Jr.

1995-08-01

292

Space Transportation System Meteorological Expert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS Meteorological Expert (STSMET) is a long-term project to acquire general Shuttle operational weather forecasting expertise specific to the launch locale, to apply it to Shuttle operational weather forecasting tasks at the Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility, and ultimately to provide an on-line real-time operational aid to the duty forecasters in performing their tasks. Particular attention is given to the development of an approach called scenario-based reasoning, with specific application to summer thunderstorms; this type of reasoning can also be applied to frontal weather phenomena, visibility including fog, and wind shear.

Beller, Arthur E.; Stafford, Sue P.

1987-01-01

293

Internet-Based Expert Systems Ralph Grove  

E-print Network

, medicine, science, and government. Though the Internet provides several advantages for expert systemInternet-Based Expert Systems Ralph Grove Indiana University of Pennsylvania Computer Science Dept;2 Internet-Based Expert Systems Abstract The Internet offers a large potential for delivery of various

Grove, Ralph

294

Interfaces and Expert Systems for Online Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the history of separate online system interfaces which led to efforts to develop expert systems for searching databases, particularly for end users, and introduces the research on such expert systems. Appended is a bibliography of sources on interfaces and expert systems for online retrieval. (Author/EJS)

Kehoe, Cynthia A.

1985-01-01

295

HUMAN EXPERTS FUSION FOR IMAGE CLASSIFICATION  

E-print Network

HUMAN EXPERTS FUSION FOR IMAGE CLASSIFICATION Arnaud MARTIN and Christophe OSSWALD Abstract and we study the possible decisions with these models. Keywords: Experts fusion, DST, DSmT, image enough, and experts fusion is required. Image classification is generally done on a local part

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

Expert Systems: A Five-Year Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of a major integrated oil company`s experience with artificial intelligence (AI) over the last 5 years, with an emphasis on expert systems. The authors chronicle the development of an AI group, including details on development tool selection, project selection strategies, potential pitfalls, and descriptions of several completed expert systems. Small expert systems produced by teams

D. J. MacAllister; Ron Day; M. D. McCarmack

1996-01-01

297

An Expert System for Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing has developed two hierarchical expert systems, the Analyst Advisor and the Map Image Congruency Evaluation (MICE) advisor. These expert systems are built upon our Remote-Sensing Shell (RESHELL) written in Logicware's MPROLOG. A shell is a programming environment that specifically caters to expert system development. Knowledge is represented in the production rules and frames database.

DAVID G. GOODENOUGH; Morris Goldberg; Gordon Plunkett; John Zelek

1987-01-01

298

TEAMS: technical expert aircraft maintenance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical expert aircraft maintenance system (TEAMS) is an interactive system that supports the diagnosis of problems on new aircraft. The system uses expert system technology to provide the aircraft mechanic with the knowledge and experience needed to successfully repair an aircraft. TEAMS consists of a number of expert-system modules. The authors give an overview of the TEAMS effort, a

M. P. Lischke; K. L. Mayer

1992-01-01

299

Danger and disease: electrocortical responses to threat- and disgust-eliciting images.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests facilitated processing of evolutionarily significant stimuli (e.g., depictions of erotica, mutilation, threat), as reflected by augmented event-related potentials (ERPs), including the early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP). Evolutionary models suggest that images that evoke disgust should be high in motivational salience, but evidence that the EPN and LPP are enhanced by disgusting images is lacking. Prior studies have employed only a small number of disgusting images that were limited in the types of content depicted. In the current study, participants viewed larger sets of disgusting, threatening, and neutral images with more varied content while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Results showed that disgusting and threatening images elicited equivalent LPPs, which were both significantly increased relative to LPPs elicited by neutral images. EPN amplitudes were augmented for both disgusting and threatening relative to neutral images, though significantly more for disgust. These findings offer initial evidence that the EPN and the LPP are sensitive to disgust-eliciting pictures and that these pictures may receive processing that is at least on par with that of threatening images. Limitations of the current study and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23938878

Wheaton, Michael G; Holman, Alexis; Rabinak, Christine A; Macnamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Phan, K Luan

2013-11-01

300

An expert system to perform on-line controller tuning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system which tunes a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller on-line for a single-input-single-output multiple-lag process with dead time is described. The expert system examines features of the previous transient responses and their corresponding sets of controller parameters. It determines a new set of controller gains to obtain a more desirable time response. This technique can be used to determine and implement a different set of PID gains for each operating regime and, once in steady state, the system can be used to find optimal parameters for load disturbance rejection. The expert system can be applied to any system of the specified form (aerospace, industrial, etc.) and can be expanded to include additional process models.

Litt, Jonathan S.

1990-01-01

301

Using expert opinion to identify risk factors important to infectious salmon-anemia (ISA) outbreaks on salmon farms in Maine, USA and New Brunswick, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty industry or regulatory professionals, with extensive experience in the local infectious salmon-anemia (ISA) epidemic, were queried on their opinions regarding the spread and impact of ISA in Maine, USA and New Brunswick, Canada. Subjective probability-estimation techniques were used to elicit likelihood ratios (LR) for risk factors of potential relevance to the epidemic. Experts were asked to answer questions based

L. L. Gustafson; S. K. Ellis; C. A. Bartlett

2005-01-01

302

What Is Adolescent Alcohol Misuse in the United States According to the Experts? Health Sciences Program Reprint Series 96-35D.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement and interpretation of alcohol use self-reports is characterized by a general lack of consensus. This study represents an effort to clarify what constitutes alcohol misuse among U.S. youth. A self-administered questionnaire eliciting opinions about cut-off point for alcohol misuse was mailed to 10 experts (7 men, 3 women) in alcohol…

Hays, Ron D.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.

1996-01-01

303

Effects of Race and Dialect of Examier on Language Samples Elicited from Southern African American Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language samples were elicited from 17 African American preschoolers by three examiners; a White female using Standard English, an African American female using Standard English, and an African American female using Black English. Language samples elicited by the Black English speaker contained more Black English features than those elicited by either of the Standard English speakers. Samples elicited by the

Emily P. Agerton; Michael J. Moran

1995-01-01

304

Development of a waste minimization expert system prototype  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the development of a generalized advanced waste minimization applicable to waste on any site, but oriented to DOE operations. The framework for the methodology is a PC-based expert system that leads the user through a waste minimization process that will tailor the general program to their specific circumstances through interactions with the experts at their facility and the expert knowledge embodied in the shell. Under this framework, the expert system will consider the implementation of several activities pertaining to waste minimization. The expert system addresses two main areas relevant to waste minimization: information and implementation. The information phase of the system provides the regulations, schedule, planning, and structure needed to minimize waste. The implementation phase includes: waste characterization and conducting research, development, and process analysis of prioritized streams. The information portion of WMES will create an environmental information system (EIS) for the facility that will be available to everyone who has a PC computer. The implementation part is the working portion where planning and implementation activities are carried out by managers and waste handlers.

Ferrada, J.J.; Rodgers, B.R.

1992-03-01

305

CRN5EXP: Expert system for statistical quality control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Expert System CRN5EXP is to assist in checking the quality of the coils at two very important mills: Hot Rolling and Cold Rolling in a steel plant. The system interprets the statistical quality control charts, diagnoses and predicts the quality of the steel. Measurements of process control variables are recorded in a database and sample statistics such as the mean and the range are computed and plotted on a control chart. The chart is analyzed through patterns using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) and a forward chaining technique to reach a conclusion about the causes of defects and to take management measures for the improvement of the quality control techniques. The Expert System combines the certainty factors associated with the process control variables to predict the quality of the steel. The paper presents the approach to extract data from the database, the reason to combine certainty factors, the architecture and the use of the Expert System. However, the interpretation of control charts patterns requires the human expert's knowledge and lends to Expert Systems rules.

Hentea, Mariana

1991-01-01

306

System for empirical experimentation with expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

SEEK is a system which has been developed to give interactive advice about rule refinement during the design of an expert system. The advice takes the form of suggestions for possible experiments in generalizing or specializing rules in an expert model that has been specified based on reasoning rules cited by the expert. Case experience, in the form of stored cases with known conclusions, is used to interactively guide the expert in refining the rules of a model. The design framework of SEEK consists of a tabular model for expressing expert-modeled rules and a general consultation system for applying a model to specific cases. This approach has proven particularly valuable in assisting the expert in a domain where two diagnoses are difficult to distinguish. Examples are given from an expert consultation system being developed for rheumatology. 12 references.

Politakis, P.; Weiss, S.M.

1982-01-01

307

Temporal pattern and spectral complexity as stimulus parameters for eliciting a cardiac orienting reflex in human fetuses.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether temporal pattern and/or spectral complexity were important stimulus parameters for eliciting a cardiac orienting reflex (OR) in low-risk human fetuses. Each of 28 term fetuses was exposed to four sounds formed from the four different combinations of temporal pattern (pulsed, continuous) and spectral complexity (sine wave, /â/). The fetal cardiac electrical signal was captured transabdominally at a rate of 1024 Hz, and fetal R-waves were extracted by using adaptive signal-processing techniques. We found that pulsed sounds elicited a significantly greater decrease in heart rate (HR) than did continuous sounds. However, the HR response was relatively unaffected by spectral complexity. For the pure tone and the phoneme used in this study, our results indicate that temporal characteristics were more effective at eliciting a cardiac OR in human fetuses than was spectral complexity. PMID:10723210

Groome, L J; Mooney, D M; Holland, S B; Smith, Y D; Atterbury, J L; Dykman, R A

2000-02-01

308

Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities,

Franklin Dexter; Ruth E Wachtel; Richard H Epstein

2011-01-01

309

A Comparison of Stimulus-and Response-Related Brain Activity Elicited in a Task Switching Paradigm  

E-print Network

A Comparison of Stimulus- and Response-Related Brain Activity Elicited in a Task Switching Paradigm. Task switching paradigms assess these processes by requiring participants to rapidly change from one on prefrontal cortex, hemodynamic (fMRI) investigations of task-switching generally suggest that, although

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

310

Calreticulin, a Peptide-binding Chaperone of the Endoplasmic Reticulum, Elicits Tumor and Peptide-specific Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Calreticulin (CRT), a peptide-binding heat shock protein (HSP) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been shown previously to associate with peptides transported into the ER by trans- porter associated with antigen processing (Spee, P., and J. Neefjes. 1997. Eur. J. Immunol. 27: 2441-2449). Our studies show that CRT preparations purified from tumors elicit specific im- munity to the tumor

Sreyashi Basu; Pramod K. Srivastava

311

DRAFT: TO APPEAR IN KNOWLEDGEBASED SYSTEMS JOURNAL: SPECIAL ISSUE ON HUMANCOMPUTER COLLABORATION, 1995 Intertwining Knowledge Delivery, Construction, and Elicitation  

E-print Network

. The KID (Knowing­In­Design) system has a shared understanding about the designers' task at hand through a partial design requirement specification and a solution. KID delivers design knowledge relevant, and elicitation processes supported by KID, designers gradually coevolve a design requirement and a solution

Nakakoji, Kumiyo

312

Program for Experimentation With Expert Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CERBERUS is forward-chaining, knowledge-based system program useful for experimentation with expert systems. Inference-engine mechanism performs deductions according to user-supplied rule set. Information stored in intermediate area, and user interrogated only when no applicable data found in storage. Each assertion posed by CERBERUS answered with certainty ranging from 0 to 100 percent. Rule processor stops investigating applicable rules when goal reaches certainty of 95 percent or higher. Capable of operating for wide variety of domains. Sample rule files included for animal identification, pixel classification in image processing, and rudimentary car repair for novice mechanic. User supplies set of end goals or actions. System complexity decided by user's rule file. CERBERUS written in FORTRAN 77.

Engle, S. W.

1986-01-01

313

Expert-System Consultant To Operating Personnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial intelligence aids engineers and technicians in controlling and monitoring complicated systems. Operations Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA) software is developmental suite of expert-system computer programs helping engineers and technicians operating from number of computer workstations to control and monitor spacecraft during prelaunch and launch phases of operation. OPERA designed to serve as consultant to operating engineers and technicians. It preprocesses incoming data, using expertise collected from conglomerate of specialists in design and operation of various parts of system. Driven by menus and mouse-activated commands. Modified versions of OPERA used in chemical-processing plants, factories, banks, and other enterprises in which there are distributed-computer systems including computers that monitor or control other computers.

Heard, Astrid E.; Pinkowski, Patrick P.; Adler, Richard M.; Hosken, R. Bruce

1992-01-01

314

[Swan Ganz catheter. Experts opinion].  

PubMed

Investigators have raised doubts as to the safety of the Swan Ganz catheter (SGC). In order to define the point of view of cardiologists in our country, the Argentine Society of Cardiology's Emergency Council organized a meeting to analyze their views in different settings (non-cardiac surgery, cardiac surgery, acute coronary syndromes and heart failure) using the RAND-UCLA appropriateness method. A detailed review with the scientific evidence was sent to the experts in cardiology prior to the meeting in the SAC auditorium where the panellists selected the clinical variables create the specific situations. These hypothetic situations were resent to the panellists at a second stage for their individual evaluation, rating the benefit-to-harm ratio of the procedure on a scale of 1 to 9 (1 meant that the expected harms greatly outweighed the expected benefits, and 9 that the expected benefits greatly outweighed the expected harms, 5 could mean either that the harms and benefits were roughly equal). Two experts analyzed the results, describing the agreement/disagreement ratio. Finally, each indication was classified as "appropriate" "uncertain" or "inappropriate" ,for the procedure in accordance with the panelists' median score: median scores in the 1-3 range were classified as inappropriate, those in the 4-6 range as uncertain, and those in the 7-9 range as appropriate. We observed high disagreement rates in SGC indications between cardiologists. However, the panelists were in favor of SGC use when situations included shock and myocardial dysfunction, especially in the presence of organic dysfunction. There were some situations when panelists considered SGC not useful, in patients without organ failure. PMID:25188663

Cohen Arazi, Hernán; Nani, Sebastián; Giorgi, Mariano; Guardiani, Fernando; Caturla, Nicolás; Benzadón, Mariano

2014-01-01

315

The Visual Language of Experts in Graphic Design Henry Lieberman  

E-print Network

The Visual Language of Experts in Graphic Design Henry Lieberman Media Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Mass. USA lieber@media.mit.edu ABSTRACT Graphic designers and other is communicated between humans in graphic design. Nowhere is the process of design communication more critical

316

An integrated approach to facilities layout using expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops an expert systems approach to define appropriate layouts of machining facilities under specific combinations of manufacturing and materials handling systems. The knowledge base incorporates six factors relating product variety and quantity, degrees of flexibility, level of automation, materials handling system, work-in-process and environmental considerations. The EXSYS system program has been used to manipulate the knowledge base. The

G. ABDOU; S. P. DUTTA

1990-01-01

317

Automated Tools for Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Automated Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As automated scoring of complex constructed-response examinations reaches operational status, the process of evaluating the quality of resultant scores, particularly in contrast to scores of expert human graders, becomes as complex as the data itself. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination (ARE), this article explores the…

Williamson, David M.; Bejar, Isaac I.; Sax, Anne

2004-01-01

318

Using Filmed Expert Demonstrations in Counsellor Education: Suggestions and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research exists about student learning processes using filmed experts demonstrating counselling systems and skills, there appears to be no formal direction or advice for instructors or supervisors on how to view, use, or teach with these types of films. This article attempts to fill this gap by combining ideas from the literature on…

Keats, Patrice A.

2009-01-01

319

Siblings and Buddies: Providing Expert Advice about Starting School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the role of child experts (siblings and buddies) in young children's transition to school. Drawing on two recent studies, that sought the perspectives of children, educators and family members about effective supports at this time, we explore the roles of other children in the processes and practices of transition.…

Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

2013-01-01

320

Mining Design Patterns for Architecture Reconstruction using an Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture reconstruction is required for many purposes. There exist many approaches to reconstruct the architecture of a system however; they do not extend the extraction process up to the design decisions and the quality attributes of the system. This paper presents a software architecture reconstruction methodology based on pattern mining from the source code using an expert system. From

Sarah Haqqie; A. A. Shahid

2005-01-01

321

An interactive expert system for daylighting design exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architects increasingly use digital tools during the design process, particularly as they approach such complex problems as designing for successful daylighting performance. However, while simulation tools may provide the designer with valuable information, they do not necessarily guide the user toward design changes which will improve performance. This paper proposes an interactive, goal-based expert system for daylighting design, intended for

Jaime M. L. Gagne; Marilyne Andersen; Leslie K. Norford

2011-01-01

322

MMN elicitation during natural sleep to violations of an auditory pattern.  

PubMed

The mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP component is generally considered to reflect the outcome of a pre-conscious change detection mechanism. The manipulation of active task demands has typically demonstrated that the MMN operates relatively independently of inferred attention. It remains a possibility, however, that subjects are capable of covertly sampling, or "eavesdropping" on, the irrelevant auditory stimuli, even during the most demanding of diversion tasks. The presence of the MMN in an unconscious state, such as natural sleep, provides strong evidence that its operations take place at a pre-conscious level. There exists consistent evidence that the MMN can be elicited at least during REM sleep, but these MMNs were typically elicited using oddball paradigms in which the new physical properties of deviants may trigger fresh afferent activation. The current sleep study employed a standard pattern in which two pure tones alternated (e.g. ABABABAB). Deviants were repetitions (e.g., ABABBBAB), and therefore physically identical to the preceding standard. In different conditions, the tones of the pattern were separated by either 1 or 6 semitones. A clear MMN was elicited in the waking state in the 6 semitone condition. The MMN was also elicited in the 6 semitone condition during REM sleep. No MMN was apparent in REM sleep in the 1 semitone condition. The MMN was not apparent in either the 6 or 1 semitone condition during NREM sleep. These results confirm the operation of the MMN in REM sleep, and support the view that the MMN operates at a pre-conscious level of processing. PMID:19527697

Sculthorpe, Lauren D; Ouellet, Daniel R; Campbell, Kenneth B

2009-09-22

323

NASA ground terminal communication equipment automated fault isolation expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prototype expert systems are described that diagnose the Distribution and Switching System I and II (DSS1 and DSS2), Statistical Multiplexers (SM), and Multiplexer and Demultiplexer systems (MDM) at the NASA Ground Terminal (NGT). A system level fault isolation expert system monitors the activities of a selected data stream, verifies that the fault exists in the NGT and identifies the faulty equipment. Equipment level fault isolation expert systems are invoked to isolate the fault to a Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) level. Input and sometimes output data stream activities for the equipment are available. The system level fault isolation expert system compares the equipment input and output status for a data stream and performs loopback tests (if necessary) to isolate the faulty equipment. The equipment level fault isolation system utilizes the process of elimination and/or the maintenance personnel's fault isolation experience stored in its knowledge base. The DSS1, DSS2 and SM fault isolation systems, using the knowledge of the current equipment configuration and the equipment circuitry issues a set of test connections according to the predefined rules. The faulty component or board can be identified by the expert system by analyzing the test results. The MDM fault isolation system correlates the failure symptoms with the faulty component based on maintenance personnel experience. The faulty component can be determined by knowing the failure symptoms. The DSS1, DSS2, SM, and MDM equipment simulators are implemented in PASCAL. The DSS1 fault isolation expert system was converted to C language from VP-Expert and integrated into the NGT automation software for offline switch diagnoses. Potentially, the NGT fault isolation algorithms can be used for the DSS1, SM, amd MDM located at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

Tang, Y. K.; Wetzel, C. R.

1990-01-01

324

Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

2009-01-01

325

Development/Plasticity/Repair Afferent Deprivation Elicits a Transcriptional Response  

E-print Network

Development/Plasticity/Repair Afferent Deprivation Elicits a Transcriptional Response Associated sensory systems are not well understood. One example is the rapid and dramatic neuron death that occurs,whichcorrespondedwithglialproliferationoverthesametimeframe.Apoptotic gene expression was not highly regulated in the vulnerable CN after afferent deprivation but

Rubel, Edwin

326

Stimulus Duration Preference at Electrode Sites Yielding Elicited Behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latency to display eating or drinking during hypothalamic stimulation was compared with the preferred duration of the same stimulus intensity in a self-stimulation situation. All the animals preferred longer stimulus durations than those required to elicit eating or drinking

Cox, V. C.

1970-01-01

327

Eliciting Students' Beliefs about Who Is Good at Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article highlights a series of activities designed to elicit students' mathematics-related beliefs, particularly those related to gender. As a result of the activities, females in upper-level classes rated themselves as having less confidence than males, and viewing a movie clip was sufficient for some students to modify their descriptions of…

Morge, Shelby P.

2007-01-01

328

Eliciting Information from People with a Gendered Humanoid Robot*  

E-print Network

Eliciting Information from People with a Gendered Humanoid Robot* Aaron Powers, Adam D.I. Kramer ground, thereby influencing the information people convey to the robot. II. ESTABLISHING COMMON GROUND THROUGH PERSONAS To perceive common ground with a robot, people need to have a reasonably accurate idea

Mankoff, Jennifer

329

Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a…

Pyle, Angela

2013-01-01

330

A Study of the Affective Responses Elicited by Occupational Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The semantic differential was used to assess the properties of affect elicited by occupational stimuli. Vocationally committed men studying medicine, business, and engineering responded to a semantic differential containing occupational concepts. Results show a semantic space for all three groups composed of three orthogonal dimensions of affect…

Schoon, Craig G.

1976-01-01

331

Myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in voluntary and electrically elicited contractions  

E-print Network

- trically elicited contractions. Voluntary contractions at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and at 80% MVC with duration of 20 s were performed at the beginning of each experiment. Tetanic electrical% MVC sus- tained for the same time. human muscle; tibialis anterior; myoelectric signal; electrical

De Luca, Carlo J.

332

Affective Speech Elicited With a Computer Game Tom Johnstone  

E-print Network

the degree to which emotional changes in speech reflect factors other than arousal, such as valence, the authors used a computer game to induce natural emotional speech. Voice samples were elicited following of emotion-related vocal changes, lending weight to multidimensional theories of emotional response

Reading, University of

333

On Eliciting Preference and Influence Measures in Goal Models  

E-print Network

On Eliciting Preference and Influence Measures in Goal Models Sotirios Liaskos School Technology York University, Toronto, Canada rjalman@yorku.ca Jorge Aranda Dept. of Computer Science influence relationships and priorities based on stakeholder input and how we can reason about the result

Liaskos, Sotirios

334

Photo-Elicitation Method Gives Voice and Reactions of Subjects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a research assignment (called "photo-elicitation") in a graduate course on the role of photography in society in which students interview people similar to the subjects in the photographs to discover how the photographs affect them. Includes material from one research project interviewing three recovering drug addicts responding to Larry…

Smith, C. Zoe; Woodward, Anne-Marie

1999-01-01

335

Feeding-elicited cataplexy in orexin knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice lacking orexin\\/hypocretin signaling have sudden episodes of atonia and paralysis during active wakefulness. These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it remains unknown whether murine cataplexy is triggered by positive emotions. To determine whether positive emotions elicit murine cataplexy, we placed orexin knockout (KO) mice on

E. L. Clark; C. R. Baumann; G. Cano; T. E. Scammell; T. Mochizuki

2009-01-01

336

Private Camera Conversation: a new method for eliciting user responses?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a new method called Private Camera Conversation. This method can be used to elicit user opinions on various subjects like their use of products. Initial impressions of the method are given on the basis of three small studies in which the method was employed. The method has not yet been validated and compared with existing human factors

GOVERT de VRIES; MARK HARTEVELT; RON OOSTERHOLT

1995-01-01

337

PMI: Knowledge Elicitation and De Bono's Thinking Tools  

E-print Network

PMI: Knowledge Elicitation and De Bono's Thinking Tools M-M. Portmann & S. M. Easterbrook School@cogs.susx.ac.uk> Abstract. Much attention in knowledge acquisition has been directed at the question "What is Knowledge arrangements of knowledge, and discuss how having knowledge about something can be used to avoid thinking

Easterbrook, Steve

338

An expert system that performs a satellite station keepimg maneuver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and characteristics of a prototype expert system, Expert System for Satellite Orbit Control (ESSOC), capable of providing real-time spacecraft system analysis and command generation for a geostationary satellite are described. The ESSOC recommends appropriate commands that reflect both the changing spacecraft condition and previous procedural action. An internal knowledge base stores satellite status information and is updated with processed spacecraft telemetry. Procedural structure data are encoded in production rules. Structural methods of knowledge acquisition and the design and performance-enhancing techniques that enable ESSOC to operate in real time are also considered.

Linesbrowning, M. Kate; Stone, John L., Jr.

1987-01-01

339

YUCSA: A CLIPS expert database system to monitor academic performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The York University CLIPS Student Administrator (YUCSA), an expert database system implemented in C Language Integrated Processing System (CLIPS), for monitoring the academic performance of undergraduate students at York University, is discussed. The expert system component in the system has already been implemented for two major departments, and it is under testing and enhancement for more departments. Also, more elaborate user interfaces are under development. We describe the design and implementation of the system, problems encountered, and immediate future plans. The system has excellent maintainability and it is very efficient, taking less than one minute to complete an assessment of one student.

Toptsis, Anestis A.; Ho, Frankie; Leindekar, Milton; Foon, Debra Low; Carbonaro, Mike

1991-01-01

340

A framework for building real-time expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom is an example of complex systems that require both traditional and artificial intelligence (AI) real-time methodologies. It was mandated that Ada should be used for all new software development projects. The station also requires distributed processing. Catastrophic failures on the station can cause the transmission system to malfunction for a long period of time, during which ground-based expert systems cannot provide any assistance to the crisis situation on the station. This is even more critical for other NASA projects that would have longer transmission delays (e.g., the lunar base, Mars missions, etc.). To address these issues, a distributed agent architecture (DAA) is proposed that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and AI. The proposed testbed for DAA is an autonomous power expert (APEX) which is a real-time monitoring and diagnosis expert system for the electrical power distribution system of the space station.

Lee, S. Daniel

1991-01-01

341

Desiderata for product labeling of medical expert systems.  

PubMed

The proliferation and increasing complexity of medical expert systems raise ethical and legal concerns about the ability of practitioners to protect their patients from defective or misused software. Appropriate product labeling of expert systems can help clinical users to understand software indications and limitations. Mechanisms of action and knowledge representation schema should be explained in layperson's terminology. User qualifications and resources available for acquiring the skills necessary to understand and critique the system output should be listed. The processes used for building and maintaining the system's knowledge base are key determinants of the product's quality, and should be carefully documented. To meet these desiderata, a printed label is insufficient. The authors suggest a new, more active, model of product labeling for medical expert systems that involves embedding 'knowledge of the knowledge base', creating user-specific data, and sharing global information using the Internet. PMID:9513004

Geissbühler, A; Miller, R A

1997-12-01

342

Effect Of A Marijuana Drug-Education Program: Comparison of Faculty-Elicited and Student-Elicited Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of a drug education course upon the relationship between drug attitudes and usage, and the validity of attitude-usage relationships, through a comparison of data elicited by peers and teachers. Questionnaires given to students before and after a course indicated significant shifts in attitude-usage patterns. (Author)

Ebel, H. C.; And Others

1975-01-01

343

Experts see it all: configural effects in action observation.  

PubMed

Biological motion perception is influenced by observers' familiarity with the observed action. Here, we used classical dance as a means to investigate how visual and motor experience modulates perceptual mechanism for configural processing of actions. Although some ballet moves are performed by only one gender, male and female dancers train together and acquire visual knowledge of all ballet moves. Twenty-four expert ballet dancers (12 female) and matched non-expert participants viewed pairs of upright and inverted point light female and common dance movements. Visual discrimination between different exemplars of the same movement presented upright was significantly better in experts than controls, whilst no differences were found when the same stimuli were presented upside down. These results suggest expertise influences configural action processing. Within the expert group, effects were stronger for female participants than for males, whilst no differences were found between movement types. This observer gender effect could suggest an additional role for motor familiarity in action perception, over and above the visual experience. Our results are consistent with a specific motor contribution to configural processing of action. PMID:19856185

Calvo-Merino, Beatriz; Ehrenberg, Shantel; Leung, Delia; Haggard, Patrick

2010-07-01

344

Expert witness testimony: A trial judge's perspective.  

PubMed

This article discusses the use of expert, scientific testimony in Judge Weinstein's courtroom cases that involved Agent Orange, silicone breast implants, repetitive stress injuries, diethylstilbestrol (DES), and asbestos. The author summarizes the evidentiary standards for admitting expert, scientific testimony, and discusses some of the unique ethical and logistical issues presented by such evidence. Advice is offered for prospective expert witnesses. Possible solutions to the problems the legal and scientific communities face in balancing society's need for expert evidence and its limitations are addressed. PMID:10196416

Weinstein, J B

1999-05-01

345

Generic satellite monitoring expert system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air Force Satellite Operations is undergoing major changes. Operators no longer receive detailed satellite training, instead they are taught basic fundamentals of satellite operations and expected to control multiple multimillion dollar satellites. The need is clear. An efficient and economical automated system is necessary to assist the satellite operator in the daily tasks of maintaining these DOD priority resources. Satellite intelligent controllers have been under R&D since the early 1980's to meet this need. These systems, however, have focused on the control of one constellation of satellites. In a military striving for efficiency and lower costs, developing a unique intelligent controller for each satellite constellation is unaffordable. This research provided support for the concept of a generic satellite intelligent controller, through the development of a prototype expert system. This capability would allow a generic rule-base to operate and maintain multiple satellite systems. The initial prototype detected anomalies on one subsystem of two different satellites. After the third satellite prototype was created, a third satellite was analyzed to show support for the viability of the satellite prototype. More research is necessary, but this thesis has created support for the concept of generic satellite controller and has laid the foundation for future extensions.

Kelemen, Loretta A.

1994-12-01

346

Expert Systems: An Overview for Teacher-Librarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of expert systems for teacher librarians. Highlights include artificial intelligence and expert systems; the development of the MYCIN medical expert system; rule-based expert systems; the use of expert system shells to develop a specific system; and how to select an appropriate application for an expert system. (11 references)…

Orwig, Gary; Barron, Ann

1992-01-01

347

[Medical expert opinion--credibility, ethics, remuneration].  

PubMed

Israeli Law requires a Personal Injury Claim to be supported by an Expert Medical Opinion. Such evidence provides the Court with information essential for the evaluation of scientific material, which is beyond the Court's "judicial knowledge". Incongruent Expert Opinions are not necessarily the result of deceit. Experts are entitled to differences in their respective evaluation and interpretation of data and conflicting medical opinions may be legitimate. The Court's duty and prerogative is to select the "legally correct" opinion. The sole tool at the Court's disposal is precise and logical thinking, aided by principles set by the U.S. Supreme Court for the evaluation of scientific evidence, and adopted by the Israeli Court. The choice of the "correct" opinion centers on it's objectivity. A court-appointed expert is not necessarily an effective solution. Remuneration of the expert by the interested party increases the level of mistrust. The difficult questions concerning the credibility of an opinion arise as the result of insufficient specific expertise of the witness, presentation by a pretender to expertise or plain misrepresentation of data, excerpts of literature etc. Such transgressions are best exposed by the opposing party's expert and attorney. The court has effective means for the control of such behavior. The fraudulent expert witness is neither immune to criminal prosecution, nor to civil suit. IMA's Code of Ethics for Experts is adequate. Expert's fees should be consistent with the effort involved, as well as with the expert's rank and experience. Any linkage of fees to the outcome of the procedure should be prohibited, as well as the intervention of "contractors". Attempts to limit experts' fees, may result in the abstention of the most knowledgeable specialists from such duties. The blame for a false opinion does not lie with the paying party, it is mostly the witness who is responsible. PMID:17803167

Sahar, Avraham

2007-07-01

348

Expert systems should be more accurate than human experts - Evaluation procedures from human judgment and decisionmaking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two procedures for the evaluation of the performance of expert systems are illustrated: one procedure evaluates predictive accuracy; the other procedure is complementary in that it uncovers the factors that contribute to predictive accuracy. Using these procedures, it is argued that expert systems should be more accurate than human experts in two senses. One sense is that expert systems must be more accurate to be cost-effective. Previous research is reviewed and original results are presented which show that simple statistical models typically perform better than human experts for the task of combining evidence from a given set of information sources. The results also suggest the second sense in which expert systems should be more accurate than human experts. They reveal that expert systems should share factors that contribute to human accuracy, but not factors that detract from human accuracy. Thus the thesis is that one should both require and expect systems to be more accurate than humans.

Levi, Keith

1989-01-01

349

Mechanisms and Neural Basis of Object and Pattern Recognition: A Study with Chess Experts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing experts with novices offers unique insights into the functioning of cognition, based on the maximization of individual differences. Here we used this expertise approach to disentangle the mechanisms and neural basis behind two processes that contribute to everyday expertise: object and pattern recognition. We compared chess experts and…

Bilalic, Merim; Langner, Robert; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

350

Expert Finding Systems for Organizations: Problem and Domain Analysis and the DEMOIR Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer systems that augment the process of finding the right expert for a given problem in an organization or world-wide are becoming feasible more than ever before, thanks to the prevalence of corporate Intranets and the Internet. This paper investigates such systems in two parts. We first explore the expert finding problem in depth, review and analyze existing systems in

Dawit Yimam SEID; Alfred KOBSA

2002-01-01

351

Experts in Fast-Ball Sports Reduce Anticipation Timing Cost by Developing Inhibitory Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between expertise in movement correction and rate of movement reprogramming within limited time periods, and to clarify the specific cognitive processes regarding superior reprogramming ability in experts. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in baseball experts (n = 7) and…

Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mori, Shiro

2012-01-01

352

Voltage transients elicited by sudden step-up of auxin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is hypothesized (i) that the molecular mechanism for the reception of friction and flexure and the mechanism by which auxin enhances ethylene production have in common a release of free calcium into the cytosol, (ii) that elevated cytosolic calcium initiates vesicle exocytosis, and (iii) that the vesicles release a factor or set of factors which depolarizes the plasmalemma and promotes ethylene synthesis. One consequence of such exocytosis should be small, extracellularly observable voltage transients. Transients, ranging in size up to 600 microvolts and possessing risetimes (10-90%) of approximately 200 ms, are known to be elicited in etiolated stems of Pisum sativum L. by friction and are here shown to be elicited by sudden increase of auxin concentration and also by a Ca2+ ionophore.

Pickard, B. G.

1984-01-01

353

Elicitation of specific syntactic structures in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these patients. We used an elicited syntactic production task to identify which syntactic structures pose difficulties for 31 patients with three variants of PPA: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. Neurodegenerative and healthy age-matched participants were included as controls. As expected, non-fluent/agrammatic patients made the most syntactic errors. The structures that resulted in the most errors were constructions involving third person singular present agreement, and constructions involving embedded clauses. Deficits on this elicited production task were associated with atrophy of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus. PMID:23046707

DeLeon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M.

2012-01-01

354

Elicitation of Diacetylenic Compounds in Suspension Cultured Cells of Eggplant  

PubMed Central

Induction of stress metabolites in the suspension cultured cells of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) was examined. When autoclaved RNase A or nigeran, both of which are nonspecific phytoalexin elicitors in bean cells, were added to the cell culture of eggplant, greatly enhanced levels of three compounds were observed. One of them was cis-pentadeca-6-ene-1,3-diyne-5,15-diol, a novel diacetylenic compound. This compound has considerable fungitoxic activity. Also identified was falcarindiol, another fungitoxic diacetylenic compound previously reported as one of the phytoalexins in infected tomato fruits and leaves. Elicited compounds preferentially accumulated in the culture medium rather than in the cells and decreased to original levels during prolonged culturing. The elicitation of these compounds was closely correlated with cellular damage in terms of the decrease of growth rate and was inhibited by 10 micromolar cycloheximide. PMID:16665862

Imoto, Setsuko; Ohta, Yoshimoto

1988-01-01

355

From Expert Words Directly to Numerical Simulations  

E-print Network

From Expert Words Directly to Numerical Simulations: Group­Theoretic Approach to Computing to transform these expert words into numerical simulation (lead­ ing to prediction) is to use the fuzzy control, therefore, desirable to get from the original words directly to numerical simulations, thus avoiding this de

Kreinovich, Vladik

356

Online Islamic Medication Expert Systems (OIMES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose an overview framework for the design and implementation of online rule-based Expert Systems for Islamic medication. This Online Islamic Medication Expert Systems (OIMES) focuses on physical and inner illnesses. The knowledge base of the proposed ES shall contain exhaustively the types of illness or sickness together with their related cures or treatments\\/therapies, obtained exclusively from the Quran

Hanita Bt Daud; Low Tan Jung; Rohiza Ahmad

2008-01-01

357

Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner.

Levy, Arthur J. (Schenectady, NY); Oppenlander, Jane E. (Scotia, NY); Brudnoy, David M. (Albany, NY); Englund, James M. (Clifton Park, NY); Loomis, Kent C. (Clifton Park, NY)

1994-01-01

358

Expert system applications in spacecraft subsystem controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA progresses into the development phase of the space station, it recognizes the importance and potential payback of high autonomous spacecraft subsystems. Priorities are presented for embedded expert system enhancements to the automatic control systems of the space station thermal, EVA, and life support systems. The primary emphasis is on top level application areas and development concerns for expert systems.

Marshall, Paul F.

1987-01-01

359

Dissolved gas analysis using expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is to study a dissolved gas analysis of transformer oil using an expert system. A prototype of an expert system based on the dissolved gas analysis techniques for diagnosis of a suspected transformer faults and the appropriate maintenance actions to be taken. This method is proposed to assist the conventional gas ratio method based on the International Electrotechnical

Maizun Binti Ahmad; Z. bin Yaacob

2002-01-01

360

Finding Experts Using Social Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching an organization's document repositories for experts is a frequently occurred problem in intranet information management. A common method for finding experts in an organization is to use social networks - people are not isolated but connected by various kinds of associations. In organizations, people explicitly send email to one another thus social networks are likely to be contained in

Yupeng Fu; Rongjing Xiang; Yiqun Liu; Min Zhang; Shaoping Ma

2007-01-01

361

BDES: A bridge design expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expert system described here designs superstructures for small to medium span highway bridges. The system addresses a domain within the engineering design consultation paradigm. It is installed in a personal microcomputer environment. This paper examines the nature of the bridge design domain as practiced in the United States and its suitability for expert system application. The architecture, the context

Mrinmay Biswas; James G. Welch

1987-01-01

362

Inertial navigation system intelligent diagnostic expert (INSIDE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A troubleshooting expert system has been designed to provide repair and diagnostic information for aircraft inertial navigation systems (INS). The inertial navigation system intelligent diagnostic expert (INSIDE) is used to diagnose faults in an INS system, and to train new operators on the troubleshooting of an INS system, thus freeing up the experienced engineer for other projects. INSIDE leads a

L. Attias; J. Sveitis

1990-01-01

363

Obstacle avoidance to elicit freezing of gait during treadmill walking.  

PubMed

Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and disabling feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Detailed pathophysiological studies are hampered by the fact that FOG episodes are difficult to elicit in a gait laboratory. We evaluated whether the need to avoid sudden obstacles on a treadmill can provoke FOG. We included 21 PD patients (15 with self-reported off-period FOG). Patients were tested in the off-state. FOG during overground walking was assessed using a standardized gait trajectory and axial 360 degrees turns. Subsequently, patients walked on a motorized treadmill with suddenly appearing obstacles that necessitated compensatory stepping. Performance was videotaped, and presence of FOG was scored visually by two independent raters. Thirteen patients showed FOG during overground walking. During treadmill walking, obstacle avoidance was associated with 13 unequivocal FOG episodes in eight patients, whereas only one patient froze during undisturbed treadmill walking (Wilcoxon z = -2.0, P = 0.046). FOG episodes elicited by obstacle avoidance were brief (typically <1 s). Almost all episodes were provoked when subjects had a longer available response time. In conclusion, suddenly appearing obstacles on a treadmill can elicit FOG in a controlled laboratory setting. However, the moving treadmill and the obstacle both act as cues, which apparently help to immediately overcome the provoked FOG episode. This may limit the ecological validity of this new approach. PMID:19938174

Snijders, Anke H; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Hagen, Yolien J; Duysens, Jacques; Giladi, Nir; Bloem, Bastiaan R

2010-01-15

364

Poor agreement among expert witnesses in bile duct injury malpractice litigation: an expert panel survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the inter-rater agreement of expert witness testimonies in bile duct injury malpractice litigation. BACKGROUND DATA: Malpractice litigation is an increasing concern in modern surgical practice. As most of the lawyers are not educated in medicine, expert witnesses are asked to testify about negligence of care in most jurisdictions. Although expert witnesses greatly determine the outcome of a

Philip R. de Reuver; Marcel G. W. Dijkgraaf; Sjef K. M. Gevers; Dirk J. Gouma; R. P. Bleichrodt; M. A. Cuesta; W. F. van Erp; J. Gerritsen; E. J. Hesselink; J. de Lange; H. Obertop; L. P. Stassen; O. T. Terpstra; H. W. Tilanus; T. J. Vroonhoven; L. de Wit

2008-01-01

365

Development of an On-Line Expert System: Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor  

E-print Network

An on-line expert system for fossil-fueled power plants, the "Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor," is being developed. This expert system will operate on a microcomputer and will interface with existing plant data acquisition and/or thermal...

Sopocy, D. M.; Henry, R. E.; Gehl, S.; Divakaruni, S. M.

366

Expert-control accident mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective accident mitigation system (AMS) combines technologies from several different areas. The end product allows the operator to select a rational course of action in a limited time. The system is comparable to having process, cost and maintenance engineers observing the process 24 hours a day. By implementing an AMS, operators will be able to reduce accidents and plant

Stacklin

1989-01-01

367

Brain response to empathy-eliciting scenarios involving pain in incarcerated psychopaths  

PubMed Central

Context A marked lack of empathy is a hallmark characteristic of individuals with psychopathy. However, neural response associated to empathic processing has not yet been directly examined in psychopathy especially in response to the perception of other people in pain and distress. Objective To identify potential differences in patterns of neural activity in incarcerated psychopaths and incarcerated controls during the perception of empathy-eliciting stimuli depicting other people in pain. Design In a case-control study, brain activation patterns elicited by dynamic stimuli depicting individuals being harmed and facial expression of pain were compared between incarcerated psychopaths and incarcerated controls. Setting Participants were scanned in on the grounds of a correctional facility using the Mind Research Network's mobile 1.5 T MRI system. Participants Eighty incarcerated males were classified according to scores on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) as high (n = 27; PCL-R =30), intermediate (n = 28; PCL-R between 21–29), or low (n = 25; PCL-R ?20) on psychopathy. Main Outcome Measure Neuro-hemodynamic response to empathy-eliciting dynamic scenarios revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Psychopaths exhibited significantly less activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and periaqueductal gray relative to controls, but showed greater activation in the insula. Conclusion In response to pain cues expressed by others, psychopaths exhibit deficits in vmPFC and OFC regardless of stimulus type, but display selective impairment in processing facial cues of distress in regions associated with cognitive mentalizing. PMID:23615636

Decety, Jean; Skelly, Laurie R.; Kiehl, Kent A.

2013-01-01

368

Preliminary assessment of fault rupture hazard at the Yucca Mountain Site based on expert judgement  

SciTech Connect

The judgements of seven earth science experts were elicited to quantify the uncertainties associated with the likelihood of fault displacement through the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain during the 10,000 year post-closure period. Each expert identified one or more approaches to modeling fault rupture hazard, regional tectonic models, locations of sources of fault displacement, maximum earthquake magnitudes or maximum coseismic displacement for each source, the likelihood of fault rupture through the repository, and the amount of displacement. The experts generally identified two basic approaches to assessing the hazard: first estimating the location and probability of earthquake occurrence and then the associated fault displacements; and considering only the location and probability of fault displacement directly. A wide variety of tectonic models were some level of credibility, ranging from high-angle planar faults to detachments separating strike-slip faults at depth from normal faults in the shallow crust. Recently acquired geologic data were relied on heavily to estimate the size of past displacements and their recurrence rates. Uncertainties were estimated for each component of the experts` models and the aggregated results are expressed as a probability distribution on the annual frequency of canister failure.

Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R.; Perman, R.C. [Geomatrix Consultants Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Shaw, R.A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

369

Statistics Department Auctioning Experts inAuctioning Experts in  

E-print Network

Automated MethodsAutomated Methods Expense of custom modeling hard to justify Automate process -Higher model "by hand" Advantages - Leverage domain knowledge - Can "interpret" for regulator Disadvantages Advantages - Scans entire data warehouse - Hands-off, fast · Construction · Maintenance Disadvantages - Lost

Stine, Robert A.

370

Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8+ T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity  

SciTech Connect

Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.

Honda, M.; Robinson, H.; Wang, R.; Kong, W.-P.; Kanekiyo, M.; Akahata, W.; Xu, L.; Matsuo, K.; Natarajan, K.; Asher, T. E.; Price, D. A.; Douek, D. C.; Margulies, D. H.; Nabel, G. J.

2009-08-15

371

Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8plus T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity  

SciTech Connect

Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.

M Honda; R Wang; W Kong; M Kanekiyo; Q Akahata; L Xu; K Matsuo; K Natarajan; H Robinson; et al.

2011-12-31

372

On the mechanism of apoplastic H 2 O 2 production during lignin formation and elicitation in cultured spruce cells—peroxidases after elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cell culture of Picea abies (L.) Karst. was used for studies of H2O2 generation during constitutive extracellular lignin formation and after elicitation by cell wall fragments of a pathogenic\\u000a fungus, Heterobasidium parviporum. Stable, micromolar levels of H2O2 were present in the culture medium during lignin formation. Elicitation induced a burst of H2O2, peaking at ca. 90 min after elicitation. Of

Anna Kärkönen; Tino Warinowski; Teemu H. Teeri; Liisa Kaarina Simola; Stephen C. Fry

2009-01-01

373

Smiling Elicited From an Interviewer as a Function of Subjects' History of Interpersonal Distance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viewing personality as the ability to elicit consistent reactions from others, individuals classified on Moltola's History of Interpersonal Distance questionnaire were expected to elicit different amounts of nodding and smiling from an interviewer. As predicted, low distance individuals elicited more smiling from one of two interviewers, but no…

Lewis, Philip

374

Parental styles of narrative elicitation: effect on children's narrative structure and content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two contrastive studies of personal experience narration in two mother-child pairs are reported. The relationship between patterns of narrative elicitation and the children's developing narrative skill are investigated. Three sets of data were analysed: mother's utterances during mother-child elicitation, children's spontaneously provided contextual orientation in narratives elicited by a neutral researcher when the children were between 27 and 44 months

Carole Peterson; Allyssa McCabe

1992-01-01

375

Statistical analysis of elicitation strategies for thiarubrine A production in hairy root cultures of Ambrosia artemisiifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elicitation strategies were studied for yield enhancement of thiarubrine A, a secondary metabolite and a potential pharmaceutical, produced by hairy root cultures of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Abiotic elicitation was performed using vanadyl sulfate solution and biotic elicitation using autoclaved cell wall filtrates of the fungi Protomyces gravidus, a pathogen of A. artemisiifolia and Botrytis cinereae. The factors considered were age of

S. G Bhagwath; M. A Hjortsø

2000-01-01

376

Communications and tracking expert systems study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original objectives of the study consisted of five broad areas of investigation: criteria and issues for explanation of communication and tracking system anomaly detection, isolation, and recovery; data storage simplification issues for fault detection expert systems; data selection procedures for decision tree pruning and optimization to enhance the abstraction of pertinent information for clear explanation; criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs; and analysis of expert system interaction and modularization. Progress was made in all areas, but to a lesser extent in the criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs. Among the types of expert systems studied were those related to anomaly or fault detection, isolation, and recovery.

Leibfried, T. F.; Feagin, Terry; Overland, David

1987-01-01

377

SSME fault monitoring and diagnosis expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system, called LEADER, has been designed and implemented for automatic learning, detection, identification, verification, and correction of anomalous propulsion system operations in real time. LEADER employs a set of sensors to monitor engine component performance and to detect, identify, and validate abnormalities with respect to varying engine dynamics and behavior. Two diagnostic approaches are adopted in the architecture of LEADER. In the first approach fault diagnosis is performed through learning and identifying engine behavior patterns. LEADER, utilizing this approach, generates few hypotheses about the possible abnormalities. These hypotheses are then validated based on the SSME design and functional knowledge. The second approach directs the processing of engine sensory data and performs reasoning based on the SSME design, functional knowledge, and the deep-level knowledge, i.e., the first principles (physics and mechanics) of SSME subsystems and components. This paper describes LEADER's architecture which integrates a design based reasoning approach with neural network-based fault pattern matching techniques. The fault diagnosis results obtained through the analyses of SSME ground test data are presented and discussed.

Ali, Moonis; Norman, Arnold M.; Gupta, U. K.

1989-01-01

378

Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

Lawlor, Joseph

379

Identifying Robust Student Misconceptions in Thermal Science using Model-Eliciting Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The conceptual change literature indicates the presence of robust, strongly-held misconceptions in thermal science (e.g., heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics) even after many years of formal and informal learning. For example, data collected using the Thermal and Transport concept inventory suggests that a significant number of seniors in chemical and mechanical engineering confuse the rate of energy transfer vs. the amount transferred, do not understand how temperature and energy are related, and believe that the thermal efficiency of a heat engine can be increased to 100% if all heat losses and mechanical efficiencies are eliminated. While concept inventories are one method for identifying student misconceptions, we are now exploring the development and use of a new pedagogical technique called model-eliciting activities (MEAs). MEAs were first developed to elicit problem-solving strategies from students in mathematics classes, but have now been expanded to other disciplines including ethics and engineering science2,3. Through a collaborative, large-scale National Science Foundation project, MEAs are now being developed to elicit student misconceptions about important but poorly understood concepts in thermal science. For example, misconceptions about the second law of thermodynamics and its effect on energy quality are being explored in an MEA where students estimate the overall thermal efficiency of electric vs. hybrid vs. gasoline cars. Student teams must use a systems approach and include all relevant energy conversion steps in their problem solving process. In this paper, we will describe MEAs and how they are being used for misconception identification. Potential MEA topics and a sample MEA are provided and discussed in detail.

2009-09-11

380

Event-Related Potentials Elicited by Pre-Attentive Emotional Changes in Temporal Context  

PubMed Central

The ability to detect emotional change in the environment is essential for adaptive behavior. The current study investigated whether event-related potentials (ERPs) can reflect emotional change in a visual sequence. To assess pre-attentive processing, we examined visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): the negative potentials elicited by a deviant (infrequent) stimulus embedded in a sequence of standard (frequent) stimuli. Participants in two experiments pre-attentively viewed visual sequences of Japanese kanji with different emotional connotations while ERPs were recorded. The visual sequence in Experiment 1 consisted of neutral standards and two types of emotional deviants with a strong and weak intensity. Although the results indicated that strongly emotional deviants elicited more occipital negativity than neutral standards, it was unclear whether these negativities were derived from emotional deviation in the sequence or from the emotional significance of the deviants themselves. In Experiment 2, the two identical emotional deviants were presented against different emotional standards. One type of deviants was emotionally incongruent with the standard and the other type of deviants was emotionally congruent with the standard. The results indicated that occipital negativities elicited by deviants resulted from perceptual changes in a visual sequence at a latency of 100–200 ms and from emotional changes at latencies of 200–260 ms. Contrary to the results of the ERP experiment, reaction times to deviants showed no effect of emotional context; negative stimuli were consistently detected more rapidly than were positive stimuli. Taken together, the results suggest that brain signals can reflect emotional change in a temporal context. PMID:23671693

Fujimura, Tomomi; Okanoya, Kazuo

2013-01-01

381

Chemotype-dependent metabolic response to methyl jasmonate elicitation in Artemisia annua.  

PubMed

Considerable difference in artemisinin and its direct precursors, artemisinic acid and dihydroartemisinic acid, was detected between two chemotypes within the species Artemisia annua (A. annua). These two chemotypes showed differential metabolic response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation. Exogenous application of MeJA resulted in an accumulation of dihydroartemisinic acid and artemisinin in Type I plants. In Type II plants, however, artemisinic acid and artemisinin level decreased dramatically under MeJA elicitation. Squalene and other sesquiterpenes, (e.g., caryophyllene, germacrene D), were stimulated by MeJA in both chemotypes. The effect of MeJA elicitation was also studied at the transcription level. Real time RT-PCR analysis showed a coordinated activation of most artemisinin pathway genes by MeJA in Type I plants. The lack of change in cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) transcript in Type I plants indicates that the rate-limiting enzymes in artemisinin biosynthesis have yet to be identified. Other chemotype-specific electron donor proteins likely exist in A. annua to meet the demand for P450-mediated reactions in MeJA-mediated cellular processes. In Type II plants, mRNA expression patterns of most pathway genes were consistent with the reduced artemisinin level. Intriguingly, the mRNA transcript of aldehyde dehydrogenase1 (ADHL1), an enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of artemisinic and dihydroartemisinic aldehydes, was upregulated by MeJA. The differential metabolic response to MeJA suggests a chemotype-dependent metabolic flux control towards artemisinin and sterol production in the species A. annua. PMID:21267809

Wu, Wei; Yuan, Man; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Yanming; Yong, Li; Wang, Wei; Qi, Yan; Guo, Dianjing

2011-07-01

382

The development of an MSS satellite imagery classification expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unsupervised image classification of Landsat MSS imagery entails a significant part of the remote sensing, image analysis effort. Expert systems, a technology developed in the field of artificial intelligence, offers the potential to automate this process, thus greatly increasing the efficiency with which an analyst can perform unsupervised image classification and making the knowledge of the image analyst available to a community of nonexperts. Such a system, under development at the NASA/Ames Research Center, is described and planned enhancements are discussed.

Engle, S. W.

1985-01-01

383

An ‘expert labor’ approach to business service change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents results from a recent study of the use of business service consultancies by major UK companies in managing strategic\\u000a change. This use is examined in relation to all the sources of skilled management labor available to these companies. The\\u000a focal processes supporting business service development are interaction and competition between the ‘expert labor’ they offer\\u000a and that available from

Peter Wood

1996-01-01

384

A Delphi algorithm that integrates knowledge for expert system development  

E-print Network

acquisition has been thc time-consuming process of interviews. Typical techniques include: structured and unstructured intcrvicsvs, questionnaires, and verbal reporting which incorporates protocol analysis. Thc functions involved in one or more..., (2) formulating a schematic model based on the Delphi Technique, (3) constructing an algorithm of the Delphi Manager, (4) implementing the algorithm into C language code, (5) building a questionnaire for the experts, (6) inputing the data for each...

Layton, Terre Lou

2012-06-07

385

Nicotine Elicits Prolonged Calcium Signaling along Ventral Hippocampal Axons  

PubMed Central

Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have long been implicated in the modulation of CNS circuits. We previously reported that brief exposure to low concentrations of nicotine induced sustained potentiation of glutamatergic transmission at ventral hippocampal (vHipp)-striatal synapses. Here, we exploited nAChR subtype-selective antagonists and agonists and ?7*nAChR knockout mutant mice (?7-/-) to elucidate the signaling mechanisms underlying nAChR-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission. Using a combination of micro-slices culture from WT and ?7-/-mice, calcium imaging, and immuno-histochemical techniques, we found that nicotine elicits localized and oscillatory increases in intracellular Ca2+ along vHipp axons that persists for up to 30 minutes. The sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca2+ response was blocked by ?-BgTx but not by DH?E and was mimicked by ?7*nAChR agonists but not by non-?7*nAChR agonists. In vHipp slices from ?7-/- mice, nicotine elicited only transient increases of axonal Ca2+ signals and did not activate CaMKII. The sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca2+ response required localized activation of CaMKII, phospholipase C, and IP3 receptor mediated Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). In conclusion, activation of presynaptic nAChRs by nicotine elicits Ca2+ influx into the presynaptic axons, the sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca2+ response requires that axonal ?7*nAChR activate a downstream signaling network in the vHipp axons. PMID:24349346

Zhong, Chongbo; Talmage, David A.; Role, Lorna W.

2013-01-01

386

Eliciting User Expectations for Data Behavior via Invariant Templates  

E-print Network

weigh-in-motion (WIM) data. A domain expert interacts with this mechanism to set up the model of proper resources include dynamic data feeds that provide a time-ordered sequence of observations, often derived weigh-in-motion data used in this paper, quotes for a stock, and market prices for an item. The utility

Koopman, Philip

387

Eliciting User Expectations for Data Behavior via Invariant Templates  

E-print Network

weigh­in­motion (WIM) data. A domain expert interacts with this mechanism to set up the model of proper resources include dynamic data feeds that provide a time­ordered sequence of observations, often derived weigh­in­motion data used in this paper, quotes for a stock, and market prices for an item. The utility

388

Ban Electronics in Kids' Bedrooms, Expert Says  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ban Electronics in Kids' Bedrooms, Expert Says Electronic lights, action ... your child relax and go to sleep. Turn electronics off. One hour before bedtime, all electronic devices ...

389

Understanding Usability Evaluation in Expert Domains  

E-print Network

the ATLAS.ti software. · medical imaging · software development · network security · aviation · healthcare practitioners working hand-in-hand with domain experts in all stages. We plan to conduct a parallel study

Anderson, Richard

390

Ask the Experts--December 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experts address the following question in this month's column: "Since helium is an inert gas that drifts to space, where do we get the helium that we use here on Earth for balloons and other applications?"

2006-12-01

391

Experts’ guide to saving money in health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academics and politicians have recently argued that NICE should pay more attention to disinvestment to help the NHS to save money. But what can be done at an individual specialty level? Sophie Cook asks some experts

Sophie Cook

2010-01-01

392

PANEL OF INDUSTRY EXPERTS IDENTITY & BRANDING  

E-print Network

PANEL OF INDUSTRY EXPERTS IDENTITY & BRANDING Linda Wolfe, Director, Careers Placement) CAREER CONNECTIONS FOR PROFESSIONALS "The Career Success Equation" Identity + Brand + Marketing + Sales message are you sending about yourself as a product? How can your skills and experiences solve

Saniie, Jafar

393

Expert testimony in cult-related litigation.  

PubMed

The work of forensic psychiatrists has expanded into the controversial area of cases involving new religious movements. Challenges to the expert witness in such cases include new questions and a large body of relevant literature. Published appeals decisions have appeared with judicial comments on the conduct of the involved experts. This article presents the comments about expert witnesses from judges who decided cases involving the major new issues of coercion both in recruitment into and forcible abduction from cults, and competency to join and make donations to these groups. The judicial comments are evaluated using relevant literature from the fields of law, psychiatry, and religion. This provides a basis for general observations and suggestions regarding the involvement of psychiatric experts in cult-related cases. PMID:2676025

Young, J L; Griffith, E E

1989-01-01

394

Open House Introduces NSF Engineering Experts  

NSF Publications Database

... NSF PA/M 03-09 - February 6, 2003 Open House Introduces NSF Engineering Experts An informal event to ... Engineering Education and Centers What: Open House -- Informal, brief presentations and casual ...

395

49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which he or she may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may be otherwise ordered by...

2010-10-01

396

16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...

2011-01-01

397

16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...

2010-01-01

398

49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which he or she may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may be otherwise ordered by...

2011-10-01

399

16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...

2012-01-01

400

16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...

2013-01-01

401

16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.  

...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...

2014-01-01

402

49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...which he or she may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may be otherwise ordered by...

2013-10-01

403

49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...which he or she may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may be otherwise ordered by...

2012-10-01

404

Faces differing in attractiveness elicit corresponding affective responses  

PubMed Central

We examined whether faces differing in attractiveness elicit positive and negative affect in 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 66) and adults (N = 73). Facial electromyography measured affective response. Less attractive faces evoked significantly more levator labii superioris responses in adults and children. Attractiveness was negatively correlated with corrugator supercilii activity in adults, but not significantly in children. These results suggest that less attractive faces evoke greater disgust and negative affect than more attractive faces. Perceivers’ affective reactions to attractive faces may play an important role in attractiveness preferences and attractiveness stereotypes. PMID:21432661

Principe, Connor P.; Langlois, Judith H.

2012-01-01

405

Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can\\u000a elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although\\u000a these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological\\u000a measures of motivational valence is rare.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The present study investigated

Markus H. Winkler; Peter Weyers; Ronald F. Mucha; Bastian Stippekohl; Rudolf Stark; Paul Pauli

2011-01-01

406

p -coumaroylamino acids from yeast-elicited Ephedra distachya cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threep-coumaroylamino acids (p-CAAs) were isolated from the yeast-elicitedEphedra distachya cultures by consecutive purification using XAD-2, silicagel and RP-HPLC. Retention times on HPLC as well as their UV, IR,\\u000a NMR and MS spectral data indicated that the yeast-inducedp-CAAs werep-coumaroyl-D-valine,p-coumaroyl-D-serine andp-coumaroyl-D-threonine, respectively. The structures ofp-CAAs were confirmed by the comparison of their physico-chemical properties with those of synthetic ones. They were isolated

Kyung-Sik Song; Ushio Sankawa; Yutaka Ebizuka

1994-01-01

407

Mismatch negativity (MMN), the deviance-elicited auditory deflection, explained.  

PubMed

The current review constitutes the first comprehensive look at the possibility that the mismatch negativity (MMN, the deflection of the auditory ERP/ERF elicited by stimulus change) might be generated by so-called fresh-afferent neuronal activity. This possibility has been repeatedly ruled out for the past 30 years, with the prevailing theoretical accounts relying on a memory-based explanation instead. We propose that the MMN is, in essence, a latency- and amplitude-modulated expression of the auditory N1 response, generated by fresh-afferent activity of cortical neurons that are under nonuniform levels of adaptation. PMID:19686538

May, Patrick J C; Tiitinen, Hannu

2010-01-01

408

Expert-control accident mitigation  

SciTech Connect

An effective accident mitigation system (AMS) combines technologies from several different areas. The end product allows the operator to select a rational course of action in a limited time. The system is comparable to having process, cost and maintenance engineers observing the process 24 hours a day. By implementing an AMS, operators will be able to reduce accidents and plant downtime, both in frequency and severity. This will also lessen the liability that a company has to investors, workers and the public. An automated AMS can be used as an operating aid when quick decisions are needed. It accomplishes this by presenting alternatives and diagnostics to the operator, quickly. Each solution is weighted by probabilistic and economic factors. In addition, the system determines the time that the operator must react to a situation. The AMS combines artificial intelligence, risk assessment and dynamic simulation into real-time control. An overview of the system is presented in this article.

Stacklin, C.A. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (US))

1989-10-01

409

Adaptive Tips for Helping Domain Experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers from all sectors use software applications to complete day-to-day tasks. The mastery of new software applications\\u000a can be frustrating to users who are otherwise job-experts and can temporarily decrease productivity. Job and task experts\\u000a are not well served by tutoring approaches that combine instruction about the task with instruction about the tool. This work\\u000a presents an architecture and prototype

Alana Cordick; Judi Mccuaig

2009-01-01

410

The Psychology of Experts An Alternative View  

Microsoft Academic Search

These quotes illustrate two facts: First, the topic of experts and expertise is of interest to many writers, both in literature\\u000a and in science. Second, these writers disagree about the value of advice from experts. The goal of this paper is to explore\\u000a the issue of expertise from a psychological perspective and to use that perspective to provide insights into

James Shanteau

411

Jess, the Java expert system shell  

SciTech Connect

This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

Friedman-Hill, E.J.

1997-11-01

412

Expert system to design communications circuits  

SciTech Connect

An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

1986-07-01

413

Mimicking Go Experts with Convolutional Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building a strong computer Go player is a longstanding open problem. In this paper we consider the related problem of predicting\\u000a the moves made by Go experts in professional games. The ability to predict experts’ moves is useful, because it can, in principle,\\u000a be used to narrow the search done by a computer Go player. We applied an ensemble of

Ilya Sutskever; Vinod Nair

2008-01-01

414

Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

Gomez, Fernando

1989-01-01

415

Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

2008-01-01

416

Effects of the anti-inflammatory compounds castanospermine, mannose-6-phosphate and fucoidan on allograft rejection and elicited peritoneal exudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycoprotein processing inhibitor castanospermine (CS) and the monosaccharide mannose-6-phosphate (M6P), as well as some sulfated polysaccharides (SPS), have been shown to inhibit inflammation in rat models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant-induced arthritis. Here, the anti-inflammatory effects of these agents have been further explored in murine models of allograft rejection and elicitation of peritoneal exudates. CS, M6P and the

Mark RE Bartlett; Hilary S Warren; William B Cowden; Christopher R Parish; Mark R. E. Bartlett

1994-01-01

417

Bee Threat Elicits Alarm Call in African Elephants  

PubMed Central

Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive “rumble” vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees. PMID:20436682

Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Savage, Anne; Vollrath, Fritz

2010-01-01

418

TRANSFER OF AVERSIVE RESPONDENT ELICITATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS  

PubMed Central

The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the aversive conditioning procedure employed. Match-to-sample procedures were used to teach 17 participants two 4-member equivalence classes. Then, one member of one class was paired with electric shock and one member of the other class was presented without shock. The remaining stimuli from each class were presented in transfer tests. Unlike the findings in the original study, transfer of conditioning was not achieved. In Experiment 2, similar procedures were used with 30 participants, although several modifications were introduced (formation of five-member classes, direct conditioning with several elements of each class, random sequences of stimulus presentation in transfer tests, reversal in aversive conditioning contingencies). More than 80% of participants who had shown differential conditioning also showed the transfer of function effect. Moreover, this effect was replicated within subjects for 3 participants. This is the first demonstration of the transfer of aversive respondent elicitation through stimulus equivalence classes with the presentation of transfer test trials in random order. The latter prevents the possibility that transfer effects are an artefact of transfer test presentation order. PMID:20119523

Valverde, Miguel RodrÍguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

2009-01-01

419

Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.  

PubMed

The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility. PMID:22580983

Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

2013-03-01

420

Transfer of aversive respondent elicitation in accordance with equivalence relations.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the aversive conditioning procedure employed. Match-to-sample procedures were used to teach 17 participants two 4-member equivalence classes. Then, one member of one class was paired with electric shock and one member of the other class was presented without shock. The remaining stimuli from each class were presented in transfer tests. Unlike the findings in the original study, transfer of conditioning was not achieved. In Experiment 2, similar procedures were used with 30 participants, although several modifications were introduced (formation of five-member classes, direct conditioning with several elements of each class, random sequences of stimulus presentation in transfer tests, reversal in aversive conditioning contingencies). More than 80% of participants who had shown differential conditioning also showed the transfer of function effect. Moreover, this effect was replicated within subjects for 3 participants. This is the first demonstration of the transfer of aversive respondent elicitation through stimulus equivalence classes with the presentation of transfer test trials in random order. The latter prevents the possibility that transfer effects are an artefact of transfer test presentation order. PMID:20119523

Valverde, Miguel Rodríguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

2009-07-01

421

Cognitive constraints on constituent order: Evidence from elicited pantomime  

PubMed Central

To what extent does human cognition influence the structure of human language? Recent experiments using elicited pantomime suggest that the prevalence of Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) order across the world's languages may arise in part because SOV order is most compatible with how we conceptually represent transitive events (Goldin-Meadow, So, Özyürek, & Mylander, 2008). However, this raises the question as to why non-SOV orders exist. Two recent studies (Meir, Lifshitz, Ilkbasaran, & Padden, 2010; Gibson et al., 2013) suggest that SOV might be suboptimal for describing events in which both the agent and patient are plausible agents (e.g. a woman pushing a boy); we call these “reversible” events. We replicate these findings using elicited pantomime and offer a new interpretation. Meir et al.'s (2010) account is framed largely in terms of constraints on comprehension, while Gibson et al.'s (2013) account involves minimizing the risk of information loss or memory degradation. We offer an alternative hypothesis that is grounded in constraints on production. We consider the implications of these findings for the distribution of constituent order in the world's spoken languages and for the structure of emerging sign languages. PMID:23792806

Hall, Matthew L.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Ferreira, Victor S.

2014-01-01

422

Expert consensus-building for developing guidelines: lessons learned from a dengue economics workshop.  

PubMed

A workshop with 20 experts of diverse backgrounds from five countries in the Americas was convened for two-and-a-half days in March 2012 to discuss and develop a standardized methodology for assessing the economic cost of dengue. This article discusses a number of factors that contributed to the workshop's success, including: engaging the experts at various stages of the process; convening a multidisciplinary group to reduce expert bias and provide a more comprehensive and integrated approach; facilitating guided small- and large-group discussions; developing effective cross-cultural collectivism, trust, communication, and empathy across the expert panel; establishing clear lines of responsibilities within each group of experts; breaking down the complex issues into smaller and simpler ideas; providing ample background materials in multiple languages prior to the workshop. Challenges and areas for improvement are also covered. PMID:24233113

Constenla, Dagna; Lefcourt, Noah; Garcia, Cristina

2013-09-01

423

TES: A modular systems approach to expert system development for real-time space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major goal of the Space Station era is to reduce reliance on support from ground based experts. The development of software programs using expert systems technology is one means of reaching this goal without requiring crew members to become intimately familiar with the many complex spacecraft subsystems. Development of an expert systems program requires a validation of the software with actual flight hardware. By combining accurate hardware and software modelling techniques with a modular systems approach to expert systems development, the validation of these software programs can be successfully completed with minimum risk and effort. The TIMES Expert System (TES) is an application that monitors and evaluates real time data to perform fault detection and fault isolation tasks as they would otherwise be carried out by a knowledgeable designer. The development process and primary features of TES, a modular systems approach, and the lessons learned are discussed.

Cacace, Ralph; England, Brenda

1988-01-01

424

76 FR 61625 - Cheri Swensson; Certification of Substance Abuse Experts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cheri Swensson; Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. DATES: Submit comments...CFR), Section 26.187, ``Substance abuse expert,'' by including...

2011-10-05

425

77 FR 33619 - Certification of Substance Abuse Experts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0220] Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. The NRC determined that...organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. The NRC received...

2012-06-07

426

Eliciting candidate anatomical routes for protein interactions: a scenario from endocrine physiology  

PubMed Central

Background In this paper, we use: i) formalised anatomical knowledge of connectivity between body structures and ii) a formal theory of physiological transport between fluid compartments in order to define and make explicit the routes followed by proteins to a site of interaction. The underlying processes are the objects of mathematical models of physiology and, therefore, the motivation for the approach can be understood as using knowledge representation and reasoning methods to propose concrete candidate routes corresponding to correlations between variables in mathematical models of physiology. In so doing, the approach projects physiology models onto a representation of the anatomical and physiological reality which underpins them. Results The paper presents a method based on knowledge representation and reasoning for eliciting physiological communication routes. In doing so, the paper presents the core knowledge representation and algorithms using it in the application of the method. These are illustrated through the description of a prototype implementation and the treatment of a simple endocrine scenario whereby a candidate route of communication between ANP and its receptors on the external membrane of smooth muscle cells in renal arterioles is elicited. The potential of further development of the approach is illustrated through the informal discussion of a more complex scenario. Conclusions The work presented in this paper supports research in intercellular communication by enabling knowledge?based inference on physiologically?related biomedical data and models. PMID:23590598

2013-01-01

427

Enhancement of ginsenoside biosynthesis in cell cultures of Panax ginseng by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide elicitation.  

PubMed

In this work, the effect of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) on ginsenoside biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Panax ginseng cells was investigated. The optimal concentration and timing of DCCD addition were found to be 10 ?M and on day 4 of cultivation. Under this condition, the maximal content of total ginsenosides increased to 3.0-fold that of untreated control, and the contents of Rg-group (Rg1 and Re) ginsenosides and Rb1 were 2.5- and 8.9-fold higher, respectively, which coincided with elevated activities of protopanaxatriol biosynthetic enzyme protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase and UDPG-ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase that converts Rd to Rb1. In addition, DCCD treatment induced the activity of defense response enzyme, phenylalanine ammonia lyase. To gain a better understanding of the molecular processes underlying the elicitation, we examined nitric oxide (NO) content and expression levels of the triterpene biosynthetic genes encoding squalene synthase (sqs), squalene epoxidase (se), and dammarenediol-II synthase (ds). It was found that DCCD up-regulated NO generation and transcription levels of sqs, se and ds. Interestingly, these effects of DCCD were compromised by an NO biosynthetic inhibitor, while an NO donor alone recapitulated the elicitation effect of DCCD on ginsenoside biosynthesis. These results suggest that DCCD may induce the ginsenoside biosynthesis via NO signaling in the P. ginseng cells. The information obtained might also be helpful to hyperproduction of valuable secondary metabolites in other plant cell cultures. PMID:23467002

Huang, Chao; Qian, Zhi-Gang; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

2013-05-10

428

Tumor antigens eliciting autoantibody response in cancer of gingivo-buccal complex.  

PubMed

Cancer of the gingivo-buccal complex (GBC) is a major cancer in Indian men. This study reports the identification of tumor antigens, which elicit an antibody response in cancer of GBC using immunoproteomics. Proteins from KB cells separated by 2-D PAGE, were immunoblotted with IgG from sera of 28 cancer patients, 12 patients with leukoplakia, and 28 healthy individuals. Antigens detected by the IgGs from the patient's sera were different among different individuals with presence of any single antigen ranging from 7 to 79%. Several of these antigens have been identified by MS and confirmed by immunostaining. They are three forms of ?-enolase, peroxiredoxin-VI, annexin-II, HSP70, pyruvate kinase, ?-tubulin, ?-tubulin, ATP-synthase, phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), aldose reductase, triosephosphate isomerase, and cyclophilin-A. Except, HSP70, these antigens are being reported in cancer of GBC for the first time. Pyruvate kinase and aldose reductase have not been reported to elicit autoantibody response in any other cancer earlier. Initial results show that autoantibody response against ?-enolase, HSP70, annexin-II, peroxiredoxin-VI, and aldose reductase are also seen in patients with leukoplakia of GBC, which suggest early occurrence of these autoantibodies during the process of oral carcinogenesis. These antigens can be further validated for their use in cancer management by immune intervention. PMID:21136657

Shukla, Sanjeev; Govekar, Rukmini B; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Sundaram, Curam S; D'Cruz, Anil K; Pathak, K Alok; Kane, Shubhada V; Zingde, Surekha M

2007-12-01

429

Using an Expert System to Update Forest Maps Yves Voirin, Froduald Kabanza, Goze Benie, Eric Beaudry and Kami Rousseau  

E-print Network

.benie, eric.beaudry, kami.rousseau}@usherbrooke.ca Abstract An important application for satellite images identification is essentially done by human experts. Experts can use image processing software to quickly obtain the field, sensors, image processing, and image interpretation. In this paper, we present an emerging

Kabanza, Froduald

430

Cut! that's a wrap: regulating negative emotion by ending emotion-eliciting situations.  

PubMed

Little is known about the potentially powerful set of emotion regulation (ER) processes that target emotion-eliciting situations. We thus studied the decision to end emotion-eliciting situations in the laboratory. We hypothesized that people would try to end negative situations more frequently than neutral situations to regulate distress. In addition, motivated by the selection, optimization, and compensation with ER framework, we hypothesized that failed attempts to end the situation would prompt either (a) greater negative emotion or (b) compensatory use of a different ER process, attentional deployment (AD). Fifty-eight participants (18-26 years old, 67% women) viewed negative and neutral pictures and pressed a key whenever they wished to stop viewing them. After key press, the picture disappeared ("success") or stayed ("failure") on screen. To index emotion, we measured corrugator and electrodermal activity, heart rate, and self-reported arousal. To index overt AD, we measured eye gaze. As their reason for ending the situation, participants more frequently reported being upset by high- than low-arousal negative pictures; they more frequently reported being bored by low- than high-arousal neutral pictures. Nevertheless, participants' negative emotional responding did not increase in the context of ER failure nor did they use overt AD as a compensatory ER strategy. We conclude that situation-targeted ER processes are used to regulate emotional responses to high-arousal negative and low-arousal neutral situations; ER processes other than overt AD may be used to compensate for ER failure in this context. PMID:24592251

Vujovic, Lara; Opitz, Philipp C; Birk, Jeffrey L; Urry, Heather L

2014-01-01

431

Cut! that's a wrap: regulating negative emotion by ending emotion-eliciting situations  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the potentially powerful set of emotion regulation (ER) processes that target emotion-eliciting situations. We thus studied the decision to end emotion-eliciting situations in the laboratory. We hypothesized that people would try to end negative situations more frequently than neutral situations to regulate distress. In addition, motivated by the selection, optimization, and compensation with ER framework, we hypothesized that failed attempts to end the situation would prompt either (a) greater negative emotion or (b) compensatory use of a different ER process, attentional deployment (AD). Fifty-eight participants (18–26 years old, 67% women) viewed negative and neutral pictures and pressed a key whenever they wished to stop viewing them. After key press, the picture disappeared (“success”) or stayed (“failure”) on screen. To index emotion, we measured corrugator and electrodermal activity, heart rate, and self-reported arousal. To index overt AD, we measured eye gaze. As their reason for ending the situation, participants more frequently reported being upset by high- than low-arousal negative pictures; they more frequently reported being bored by low- than high-arousal neutral pictures. Nevertheless, participants’ negative emotional responding did not increase in the context of ER failure nor did they use overt AD as a compensatory ER strategy. We conclude that situation-targeted ER processes are used to regulate emotional responses to high-arousal negative and low-arousal neutral situations; ER processes other than overt AD may be used to compensate for ER failure in this context. PMID:24592251

Vujovic, Lara; Opitz, Philipp C.; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Urry, Heather L.

2014-01-01

432

Expert consultation on risk factors for introduction of infectious pathogens into fish farms.  

PubMed

An expert consultation was conducted to provide quantitative parameters required to inform risk-based surveillance of aquaculture holdings for selected infectious hazards. The hazards were four fish diseases endemic in some or several European countries: infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and koi herpes virus disease (KHD). Experts were asked to provide estimates for the relative importance of 5 risk themes for the hazard to be introduced into and infect susceptible fish at the destination. The 5 risk themes were: (1) live fish and egg movements; (2) exposure via water; (3) on-site processing; (4) short distance mechanical transmission and (5) distance independent mechanical transmission. The experts also provided parameter estimates for hazard transmission pathways within the themes. The expert consultation was undertaken in a 2 step approach: an online survey followed by an expert consultation meeting. The expert opinion indicated that live fish movements and exposure via water were the major relevant risk themes. Experts were recruited from several European countries and thus covered a range of farming systems. Therefore, the outputs from the expert consultation have relevance for the European context. PMID:24780587

Oidtmann, Birgit C; Peeler, Edmund J; Thrush, Mark A; Cameron, Angus R; Reese, R Allan; Pearce, Fiona M; Dunn, Peter; Lyngstad, Trude M; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Brun, Edgar; Stärk, Katharina D C

2014-08-01

433

Using expert judgment to estimate marine ecosystem vulnerability in the California Current.  

PubMed

As resource management and conservation efforts move toward multi-sector, ecosystem-based approaches, we need methods for comparing the varying responses of ecosystems to the impacts of human activities in order to prioritize management efforts, allocate limited resources, and understand cumulative effects. Given the number and variety of human activities affecting ecosystems, relatively few empirical studies are adequately comprehensive to inform these decisions. Consequently, management often turns to expert judgment for information. Drawing on methods from decision science, we offer a method for eliciting expert judgment to (1) quantitatively estimate the relative vulnerability of ecosystems to stressors, (2) help prioritize the management of stressors across multiple ecosystems, (3) evaluate how experts give weight to different criteria to characterize vulnerability of ecosystems to anthropogenic stressors, and (4) identify key knowledge gaps. We applied this method to the California Current region in order to evaluate the relative vulnerability of 19 marine ecosystems to 53 stressors associated with human activities, based on surveys from 107 experts. When judging the relative vulnerability of ecosystems to stressors, we found that experts primarily considered two criteria: the ecosystem's resistance to the stressor and the number of species or trophic levels affected. Four intertidal ecosystems (mudflat, beach, salt marsh, and rocky intertidal) were judged most vulnerable to the suite of human activities evaluated here. The highest vulnerability rankings for coastal ecosystems were invasive species, ocean acidification, sea temperature change, sea level rise, and habitat alteration from coastal engineering, while offshore ecosystems were assessed to be most vulnerable to ocean acidification, demersal destructive fishing, and shipwrecks. These results provide a quantitative, transparent, and repeatable assessment of relative vulnerability across ecosystems to any ongoing or emerging human activity. Combining these results with data on the spatial distribution and intensity of human activities provides a systematic foundation for ecosystem-based management. PMID:20666257

Teck, Sarah J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kappel, Carrie V; Micheli, Fiorenza; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Crain, Caitlin M; Martone, Rebecca; Shearer, Christine; Arvai, Joe; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Grant; Neslo, Rabin; Cooke, Roger

2010-07-01

434

Analysis of Experts’ Quantitative Assessment of Adolescent Basketball Players and the Role of Anthropometric and Physiological Attributes  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we investigated two questions: (1) can measurements of anthropometric and physiological attributes substitute for expert assessment of adolescent basketball players, and (2) how much does the quantitative assessment of a player vary among experts? The first question is relevant to the potential simplification of the player selection process. The second question pertains directly to the validity of expert quantitative assessment. Our research was based on data from 148 U14 female and male basketball players. For each player, an array of anthropometric and physiological attributes was recorded, including body height, body mass, BMI, and several motor skill tests. Furthermore, each player’s current ability and potential ability were quantitatively evaluated by two different experts from a group of seven experts. Analysis of the recorded data showed that the anthropometric and physiological attributes explained between 15% and 40% of the variance in experts’ scores. The primary predictive attributes were speed and agility (for predicting current ability) and body height and growth potential (for predicting potential ability). We concluded that these attributes were not sufficiently informative to act as a substitute for expert assessment of the players’ current or potential ability. There is substantial variability in different experts’ scores of the same player’s ability. However, the differences between experts are mostly in scale, and the relationships between experts’ scores are monotonic. That is, different experts rank players on ability very similarly, but their scores are not well calibrated.

Štrumbelj, Erik; Er?ulj, Frane

2014-01-01

435

Expert system verification and validation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five workshops on verification and validation (V&V) of expert systems (ES) where taught during this recent period of performance. Two key activities, previously performed under this contract, supported these recent workshops (1) Survey of state-of-the-practice of V&V of ES and (2) Development of workshop material and first class. The first activity involved performing an extensive survey of ES developers in order to answer several questions regarding the state-of-the-practice in V&V of ES. These questions related to the amount and type of V&V done and the successfulness of this V&V. The next key activity involved developing an intensive hands-on workshop in V&V of ES. This activity involved surveying a large number of V&V techniques, conventional as well as ES specific ones. In addition to explaining the techniques, we showed how each technique could be applied on a sample problem. References were included in the workshop material, and cross referenced to techniques, so that students would know where to go to find additional information about each technique. In addition to teaching specific techniques, we included an extensive amount of material on V&V concepts and how to develop a V&V plan for an ES project. We felt this material was necessary so that developers would be prepared to develop an orderly and structured approach to V&V. That is, they would have a process that supported the use of the specific techniques. Finally, to provide hands-on experience, we developed a set of case study exercises. These exercises were to provide an opportunity for the students to apply all the material (concepts, techniques, and planning material) to a realistic problem.

French, Scott W.; Hamilton, David

1992-01-01

436

Differentiating expert and novice cognitive structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A seminal study by Chi et al. firmly established the paradigm that novices categorize physics problems by âsurface featuresâ (e.g. âincline,â âpendulum,â âprojectile motion,â . . . ), while experts use âdeep structureâ (e.g. âenergy conservation,â âNewton 2,â . . . ). Yet, efforts to replicate the study frequently fail, since the ability to distinguish experts from novices is highly sensitive to the problem set being used. But what properties of problems are most important in problem sets that discriminate experts from novices in a measurable way? To answer this question, we studied the categorizations by known physics experts and novices using a large, diverse set of problems, in order to subsequently study how well these two groups can be discriminated using small subsets. Having a large initial set allowed us to form a large number of smaller subsets and study their properties. We found that the number of questions required to accurately classify experts and novices could be surprisingly small so long as the problem set is carefully crafted to be composed of problems with particular pedagogical and contextual features.

Wolf, Steven F.; Dougherty, Daniel P.; Kortemeyer, Gerd

2013-07-12

437

System and method for creating expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

438

Use of the response-latency paradigm for eliciting and evaluating women's responses to the threat of date rape.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the novel use of the response-latency paradigm to elicit women's hypothetical behavioral responses to the threat of acquaintance rape. There were 146 college women recruited and randomly assigned to 4 study conditions. In 3 of the conditions, the threat to which participants responded was experimentally controlled; in the fourth control condition, participants selected the level of threat themselves, following standard procedure of the response-latency paradigm. Results indicated that participant's responses became more intense as threat levels increased; this relationship was not moderated by whether the threat was controlled by the experimenter or the participant. These results indicate the response-latency paradigm is useful for eliciting and evaluating women's hypothetical responses to the threat of acquaintance rape to learn more about this process. PMID:24834746

Anderson, RaeAnn E; Cahill, Shawn P

2014-01-01

439

Calreticulin, a peptide-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, elicits tumor- and peptide-specific immunity.  

PubMed

Calreticulin (CRT), a peptide-binding heat shock protein (HSP) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been shown previously to associate with peptides transported into the ER by transporter associated with antigen processing (Spee, P., and J. Neefjes. 1997. Eur. J. Immunol. 27: 2441-2449). Our studies show that CRT preparations purified from tumors elicit specific immunity to the tumor used as the source of CRT but not to an antigenically distinct tumor. The immunogenicity is attributed to the peptides associated with the CRT molecule and not to the CRT molecule per se. It is further shown that CRT molecules can be complexed in vitro to unglycosylated peptides and used to elicit peptide-specific CD8(+) T cell response in spite of exogenous administration. These characteristics of CRT closely resemble those of HSPs gp96, hsp90, and hsp70, although CRT has no apparent structural homologies to them. PMID:10049943

Basu, S; Srivastava, P K

1999-03-01

440

Expert systems in design and manufacture  

SciTech Connect

Development of Expert systems to help in design and manufacture began at Sandia in mid-1983. Unlike most software development efforts, these systems became useful immediately, even when only partially finished. This artificial intelligence approach far exceeds written design guides or documentation in extending engineering ranks that are thinned by retirement and in tutoring permanent replacements, as well as giving assistance to general-purpose engineers on one aspect of their project. Management and most engineers see the use of expert systems as a way of freeing up resources for development and research efforts that are often set aside during the crush of rush-projects with straightforward applications. We will describe the history of expert systems utilization in cable and connector design and the first steps of implementation in IC production test construction.

Palmer, D.W.; Machin, E.D.

1984-01-01

441

Small-molecule elicitation of microbial secondary metabolites  

PubMed Central

Summary Microbial natural products continue to be an unparalleled resource for pharmaceutical lead discovery, but the rediscovery rate is high. Bacterial and fungal sequencing studies indicate that the biosynthetic potential of many strains is much greater than that observed by fermentation. Prodding the expression of such silent (cryptic) pathways will allow us to maximize the chemical diversity available from microorganisms. Cryptic metabolic pathways can be accessed in the laboratory using molecular or cultivation?based approaches. A targeted approach related to cultivation?based methods is the application of small?molecule elicitors to specifically affect transcription of secondary metabolite gene clusters. With the isolation of the novel secondary metabolites lunalides A and B, oxylipins, cladochromes F and G, nygerone A, chaetoglobosin?542, ?540 and ?510, sphaerolone, dihydrosphaerolone, mutolide and pestalone, and the enhanced production of known secondary metabolites like penicillin and bacitracin, chemical elicitation is proving to be an effective way to augment natural product libraries. PMID:21375710

Pettit, Robin K.

2011-01-01

442

Biomimetic Antigenic Nanoparticles Elicit Controlled Protective Immune Response to Influenza  

PubMed Central

Here we present a biomimetic strategy towards nanoparticle design for controlled immune response through encapsulation of conserved internal influenza proteins on the interior of virus like particles (VLPs) to direct CD8+ cytotoxic T cell protection. Programmed encapsulation and sequestration of the conserved nucleoprotein (NP) from influenza on the interior of a VLP, derived from the bacteriophage P22, results in a vaccine that provides multi-strain protection against 100 times lethal doses of influenza in an NP specific CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. VLP assembly and encapsulation of the immunogenic NP cargo protein is the result of a genetically programmed self-assembly making this strategy amendable to the quick production of vaccines to rapidly emerging pathogens. Addition of adjuvants or targeting molecules were not required for eliciting the protective response. PMID:23540530

Patterson, Dustin P.; Rynda-Apple, Agnieszka; Harmsen, Ann L.; Harmsen, Allen G.; Douglas, Trevor

2013-01-01

443

Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.  

PubMed

Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2014-09-01

444

Elicitation of the prausnitz-kustner reaction by antiidiotypic antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Rabbit antiidiotypic IgG directed against IgG F(ab')2 anti-tetanus toxoid (TT) antibodies ("idiotype") elicited a Prausnitz-Kustner reaction in normal skin sites sensitized 48 h earlier with the serum of the idiotype donor that contained IgE anti-TT antibodies. The serum moiety that caused the sensitization was heat sensitive (56 degrees C, 1 h), and was specifically removed by passage over immunosorbents containing rabbit antihuman IgE or TT antigen. The data obtained indicate that human IgG and IgE antibodies share idiotypic determinants and raise the possibility that idiotypic interactions may play a role in the regulation of the IgE antibody response in man. PMID:6176594

Geha, R S

1982-01-01

445

A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

1996-01-01

446

Noncanonical Roles of the Immune System in Eliciting Oncogene Addiction  

PubMed Central

Summary Cancer is highly complex. The magnitude of this complexity makes it highly surprising that even the brief suppression of an oncogene can sometimes result in rapid and sustained tumor regression illustrating that cancers can be “oncogene addicted” [1-10]. The essential implication is that oncogenes may not only fuel the initiation of tumorigenesis, but in some cases necessarily their surfeit of activation is paramaount to maintain a neoplastic state [11]. Oncogene suppression acutely restores normal physiological programs that effectively overrides secondary genetic events and a cancer collapses [12,13]. Oncogene addiction is mediated both through both tumor intrinsic cell-autonomous mechanisms including proliferative arrest, apoptosis, differentiation and cellular senescence [1,2,4,12] but also host-dependent mechanisms that interact with these tumor intrinsic programs [14,15]. Notably, oncogene inactivation elicits a host immune response that involves specific immune effectors and cytokines that facilitate a remodeling of the tumor microenvironment including the shut down of angiogenesis and the induction of cellular senescence of tumor cells [16]. Hence, immune effectors are critically involved in tumor initiation and prevention [17-19] and progression [20], but also appear to be essential to tumor regression upon oncogene inactivation [21-23]. The understanding how the inactivation of an oncogene elicits a systemic signal in the host that prompts a deconstruction of a tumor could have important implications. The combination of oncogene-targeted therapy together with immunomodulatory therapy may be ideal for the development of both a robust tumor intrinsic as well as immunological effectively leading to sustained tumor regression. PMID:23571026

Casey, Stephanie C.; Bellovin, David I.; Felsher, Dean W.

2013-01-01

447

Norovirus P Particle Efficiently Elicits Innate, Humoral and Cellular Immunity  

PubMed Central

Norovirus (NoV) P domain complexes, the 24 mer P particles and the P dimers, induced effective humoral immunity, but their role in the cellular immune responses remained unclear. We reported here a study on cellular immune responses of the two P domain complexes in comparison with the virus-like particle (VLP) of a GII.4 NoV (VA387) in mice. The P domain complexes induced significant central memory CD4+ T cell phenotypes (CD4+ CD44+ CD62L+ CCR7+) and activated polyclonal CD4+ T cells as shown by production of Interleukin (IL)-2, Interferon (IFN)-?, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-?. Most importantly, VA387-specific CD4+ T cell epitope induced a production of IFN-?, indicating an antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response in P domain complex-immunized mice. Furthermore, P domain complexes efficiently induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) maturation, evidenced by up-regulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules, as well as production of IL-12 and IL-1?. Finally, P domain complex-induced mature dendritic cells (DCs) elicited proliferation of specific CD4+ T cells targeting VA387 P domain. Overall, we conclude that the NoV P domain complexes are efficiently presented by DCs to elicit not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against NoVs. Since the P particle is highly effective for both humoral and cellular immune responses and easily produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli), it is a good choice of vaccine against NoVs and a vaccine platform against other diseases. PMID:23638188

Fang, Hao; Tan, Ming; Xia, Ming; Wang, Leyi; Jiang, Xi

2013-01-01

448

Utilizing Expert Knowledge in Estimating Future STS Costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of estimating the costs of future space transportation systems (STSs) involves classical activity-based cost (ABC) modeling combined with systematic utilization of the knowledge and opinions of experts to extend the process-flow knowledge of existing systems to systems that involve new materials and/or new architectures. The expert knowledge is particularly helpful in filling gaps that arise in computational models of processes because of inconsistencies in historical cost data. Heretofore, the costs of planned STSs have been estimated following a "top-down" approach that tends to force the architectures of new systems to incorporate process flows like those of the space shuttles. In this ABC-based method, one makes assumptions about the processes, but otherwise follows a "bottoms up" approach that does not force the new system architecture to incorporate a space-shuttle-like process flow. Prototype software has been developed to implement this method. Through further development of software, it should be possible to extend the method beyond the space program to almost any setting in which there is a need to estimate the costs of a new system and to extend the applicable knowledge base in order to make the estimate.

Fortner, David B.; Ruiz-Torres, Alex J.

2004-01-01

449

Image interpretation for landforms using expert systems and terrain analysis  

SciTech Connect

Most current research in digital photogrammetry and computer vision concentrates on the early vision process; little research has been done on the late vision process. The late vision process in image interpretation contains descriptive knowledge and heuristic information which requires artificial intelligence (AI) in order for it to be modeled. This dissertation has introduced expert systems, as AI tools, and terrain analysis to the late vision process. This goal has been achieved by selecting and theorizing landforms as features for image interpretation. These features present a wide spectrum of knowledge that can furnish a good foundation for image interpretation processes. In this dissertation an EXpert system for LANdform interpretation using Terrain analysis (EXPLANT) was developed. EXPLANT can interpret the major landforms on earth. The system contains sample military and civilian consultations regarding site analysis and development. A learning mechanism was developed to accommodate necessary improvement for the data base due to the rapidly advancing and dynamically changing technology and knowledge. Many interface facilities and menu-driven screens were developed in the system to aid the users. Finally, the system has been tested and verified to be working properly.

Al-garni, A.M.

1992-01-01

450

Expert System Software Assistant for Payload Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The broad objective of this expert system software based application was to demonstrate the enhancements and cost savings that can be achieved through expert system software utilization in a spacecraft ground control center. Spacelab provided a valuable proving ground for this advanced software technology; a technology that will be exploited and expanded for future ISS operations. Our specific focus was on demonstrating payload cadre command and control efficiency improvements through the use of "smart" software which monitors flight telemetry, provides enhanced schematic-based data visualization, and performs advanced engineering data analysis.

Rogers, Mark N.

1997-01-01

451

The ESSENCE in child psychiatry: Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations.  

PubMed

Co-existence of disorders--including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and autism spectrum disorder--and sharing of symptoms across disorders (sometimes referred to as comorbidity) is the rule rather than the exception in child psychiatry and developmental medicine. The acronym ESSENCE refers to Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations. It is a term I have coined to refer to the reality of children (and their parents) presenting in clinical settings with impairing child symptoms before age 3 (-5) years in the fields of (a) general development, (b) communication and language, (c) social inter-relatedness, (d) motor coordination, (e) attention, (f) activity, (g) behaviour, (h) mood, and/or (i) sleep. Children with major difficulties in one or more (usually several) of these fields, will be referred to and seen by health visitors, nurses, social workers, education specialists, pediatricians, GPs, speech and language therapists, child neurologists, child psychiatrists, psychologists, neurophysiologists, dentists, clinical geneticists, occupational therapists and physiotherapists, but, usually they will be seen only by one of these specialists, when they would have needed the input of two or more of the experts referred to. Major problems in at least one ESSENCE domain before age 5 years often signals major problems in the same or overlapping domains years later. There is no time to wait; something needs to be done, and that something is unlikely to be just in the area of speech and language, just in the area of autism or just in special education. PMID:20634041

Gillberg, Christopher

2010-01-01

452

A parallel expert system for the control of a robotic air vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert systems can be used to govern the intelligent control of vehicles, for example the Robotic Air Vehicle (RAV). Due to the nature of the RAV system the associated expert system needs to perform in a demanding real-time environment. The use of a parallel processing capability to support the associated expert system's computational requirement is critical in this application. Thus, algorithms for parallel real-time expert systems must be designed, analyzed, and synthesized. The design process incorporates a consideration of the rule-set/face-set size along with representation issues. These issues are looked at in reference to information movement and various inference mechanisms. Also examined is the process involved with transporting the RAV expert system functions from the TI Explorer, where they are implemented in the Automated Reasoning Tool (ART), to the iPSC Hypercube, where the system is synthesized using Concurrent Common LISP (CCLISP). The transformation process for the ART to CCLISP conversion is described. The performance characteristics of the parallel implementation of these expert systems on the iPSC Hypercube are compared to the TI Explorer implementation.

Shakley, Donald; Lamont, Gary B.

1988-01-01

453

Expert judgment and occupational hygiene: application to aerosol speciation in the nickel primary production industry.  

PubMed

In many situations characterized by sparse data, occupational hygienists have used subjective judgments that are claimed to be derived from their experience and knowledge. While this practice is widespread, there has been no systematic study of 'expert judgment' or the 'art' of occupational hygiene. Indeed, there is a need to address the question of whether there is such a thing as 'expert opinion' in occupational hygiene that is broadly shared by practicing professionals. This research, employing 11 experts who estimate an exposure parameter (the percentages of four nickel species) in 12 workplaces in a nickel primary production industry, provides a large dataset from which useful inferences can be drawn about the quality of expert judgments and the variability among the experts. A well-designed questionnaire that provided succinct information about the processes and baseline data served to calibrate the experts. The Bayesian framework has been used in this work to develop posterior means and standard deviations of the percentages of the four nickel species in the 12 workplaces of interest in the company. These estimates of the nickel speciation are at least as precise as--and most of the time more precise than--those provided by the sparse measurement data. There was a very high degree of agreement among the experts. A majority of the experts agreed among themselves 92% of the time, while almost two-thirds agreed 73% of the time. This, coupled with the fact that the experts came from varied backgrounds, seems to suggest that there is indeed some broad body of specialized knowledge that the experts are drawing on to reach similar judgments. It also seems that one type of expert is not necessarily any better than any other kind, and expertise does not necessarily require intimate familiarity with the workplace. In this example, the expert judgment exercise has indeed enhanced the quality of our knowledge of the exposure 'fingerprints' for the nickel industry workplaces studied and the combination of expert judgment and sparse data is better than the sparse data alone. For occupational hygiene exposure assessment, our experience suggests that such expert judgment methods can provide a cost-effective means to improve and refine information about workplace hazards. However, more study is warranted for situations where the domain of the quantity of interest has a much wider range of values, e.g. actual exposure values. PMID:12890655

Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Banerjee, Sudipto; Vincent, James H

2003-08-01

454

Central and reflex neuronal responses elicited by odor in a terrestrial mollusk.  

PubMed

1. We studied the responses to odor of a central olfactory processing organ and subsequent central outputs in the terrestrial mollusk Limax maximus. We used extracellular recording techniques and optical recording from preparations stained with a voltage-sensitive dye to characterize network responses in the central organ and whole nerve recording to characterize central odor-elicited outputs. 2. The central olfactory organ, the procerebral (PC) lobe, is a highly interconnected network of local olfactory interneurons that receives input from primary olfactory receptors. In the absence of odor the PC network is known to exhibit periodic waves of excitation and inhibition at a frequency of approximately 0.7 Hz. Here we study how different odor inputs affect the intrinsic oscillatory dynamics. 3. Odor stimulation causes the propagation of electrical activity along the lobe to transiently switch from the state with propagating waves, with typical phase shifts of one half cycle along the lobe, to a state with few or no phase differences along the lobe. The collapse of the phase gradient typically occurs without spatially localized changes in the amplitude of the oscillation, at least on the scale of our optical resolution, approximately 0.1 times the length of the lobe. In some trials, however, we resolved spatial nonuniformities in the magnitude of excitation across the lobe. 4. The collapse of the phase gradient along the lobe in response to odor stimulation is robust on a trial-by-trial basis. Further, the change in phase gradient can occur with little or no change in the frequency of oscillation, as occasionally observed in response to weak odor stimulation. 5. Typically odor stimulation causes changes in the frequency of the oscillation. Two odors, one attractive (potato) and one repellent (amyl acetate), produced different patterns of change; potato induced a transient increase in frequency, whereas amyl acetate produced an initial decrease in frequency followed by a transient increase in frequency. We do not yet know whether these frequency change patterns are unique to these specific odors or to their behavioral meaning. 6. Previous work demonstrated direct connections from the PC lobe to the buccal and pedal ganglia, centers controlling feeding and locomotion, respectively. To establish a correlation between odor-induced changes in the PC lobe and activation of such centers and subsequently effector organs, we recorded from selected central connectives and peripheral nerve roots. The dependence of odor-elicited activity recorded in connectives and nerve roots on PC integrity was assessed by measurements of odor-elicited activity before and after PC ablation. 7. Odor stimulation caused activation of multiple units in the cerebrobuccal connective. One output of the buccal ganglion, the salivary nerve, also showed odor-elicited activation of an identified unit, the slow burster. The necessity of the PC lobe for activation of the slow burster was established by measurements of odor-elicited activity before and after PC ablation. 8. Odor stimulation also caused activation of multiple units in the buccal mass retractor nerve. Activation of a fraction of these units (3 of 10) was dependent on an intact PC lobe, like the slow burster neuron in the salivary nerve. 9. Our results clearly show how stimuli may lead to changes in the spatial-temporal pattern of activity in a central circuit without changing the overall average level of activity in that circuit. PMID:8871239

Gervais, R; Kleinfeld, D; Delaney, K R; Gelperin, A

1996-08-01

455

What makes an art expert? Emotion and evaluation in art appreciation.  

PubMed

Why do some people like negative, or even disgusting and provocative artworks? Art expertise, believed to influence the interplay among cognitive and emotional processing underlying aesthetic experience, could be the answer. We studied how art expertise modulates the effect of positive-and negative-valenced artworks on aesthetic and emotional responses, measured with self-reports and facial electromyography (EMG). Unsurprisingly, emotionally-valenced art evoked coherent valence as well as corrugator supercilii and zygamoticus major activations. However, compared to non-experts, experts showed attenuated reactions, with less extreme valence ratings and corrugator supercilii activations and they liked negative art more. This pattern was also observed for a control set of International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures suggesting that art experts show general processing differences for visual stimuli. Thus, much in line with the Kantian notion that an aesthetic stance is emotionally distanced, art experts exhibited a distinct pattern of attenuated emotional responses. PMID:24383619

Leder, Helmut; Gerger, Gernot; Brieber, David; Schwarz, Norbert

2014-01-01

456

Evaluation of user acceptance of a clinical expert system.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To measure the attitudes of physicians and nurses who use the Health Evaluation through Logical Processing (HELP) clinical information system. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey of 360 attending physicians and 960 staff nurses practicing at the LDS Hospital. The physicians' responses were signed, permitting follow-up for nonresponse and use of demographic data from staff files. The nurses' responses were anonymous and their demographic data were obtained from the questionnaires. MEASUREMENTS: Fixed-choice questions with a Likert-type scale, supplemented by free-text comments. Question categories included: computer experience; general attitudes about impact of the system on practice; ranking of available functions; and desired future capabilities. RESULTS: The response rate was 68% for the physicians and 39% for the nurses. Age, specialty, and general computer experience did not correlate with attitudes. Access to patient data and clinical alerts were rated highly. Respondents did not feel that expert computer systems would lead to external monitoring, or that these systems might compromise patient privacy. The physicians and nurses did not feel that computerized decision support decreased their decision-making power. CONCLUSION: The responses to the questionnaire and "free-text comments" provided encouragement for future development and deployment of medical expert systems at LDS Hospital and sister hospitals. Although there has been some fear on the part of medical expert system developers that physicians would not adapt to or appreciate recommendations given by these systems, the results presented here are promising and may be of help to other system developers and evaluators. PMID:7850568

Gardner, R M; Lundsgaarde, H P

1994-01-01

457

Index : A Rule Based Expert System For Computer Network Maintenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communications is an expert intensive discipline. The application of expert systems for maintenance of large and complex networks, mainly as an aid in trouble shooting, can simplify the task of network management. The important steps involved in troubleshooting are fault detection, fault reporting, fault interpretation and fault isolation. At present, Network Maintenance Facilities are capable of detecting and reporting the faults to network personnel. Fault interpretation refers to the next step in the process, which involves coming up with reasons for the failure. Fault interpretation can be characterized in two ways. First, it involves such a diversity of facts that it is difficult to predict. Secondly, it embodies a wealth of knowledge in the form of network management personnel. The application of expert systems in these interpretive tasks is an important step towards automation of network maintenance. In this paper, INDEX (Intelligent Network Diagnosis Expediter), a rule based production system for computer network alarm interpretation is described. It acts as an intelligent filter for people analyzing network alarms. INDEX analyzes the alarms in the network and identifies proper maintenance action to be taken.The important feature of this production system is that it is data driven. Working memory is the principal data repository of production systems and its contents represent the current state of the problem. Control is based upon which productions match the constantly changing working memory elements. Implementation of the prototype is in OPS83. Major issues in rule based system development such as rule base organization, implementation and efficiency are discussed.

Chaganty, Srinivas; Pitchai, Anandhi; Morgan, Thomas W.

1988-03-01

458

Autonomic origins of a nonsignal stimulus-elicited bradycardia and its habituation in humans  

PubMed Central

The purposes of the present study were to determine the autonomic origins of a bradycardiac response to a moderate intensity nonsignal auditory stimulus and the changes in autonomic cardiac control of this response as a function of habituation. Pure tone stimuli were repeatedly presented to participants while phasic changes in heart period (HP), preejection period (PEP), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were observed. Tone stimuli initially elicited an increase in HP, an increase in RSA, and a decrease in PEP, suggesting a coactivation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic inputs mediating changes in the bradycardiac HP response. As expected, HP responses habituated with repeated presentations of the tones. PEP and RSA responses, however, demonstrated different habituation rates than HP. These data demonstrate that cardiodeceleratory responses to nonsignal stimuli can arise from changes in activity of both autonomic divisions and document the importance of considering the autonomic origins of habituating cardiac responses in order to fully understand the process of response habituation. PMID:11352143

GIANAROS, PETER J.; QUIGLEY, KAREN S.

2010-01-01

459

Adaptive control with an expert system based supervisory level. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptive control is presently one of the methods available which may be used to control plants with poorly modelled dynamics or time varying dynamics. Although many variations of adaptive controllers exist, a common characteristic of all adaptive control schemes, is that input/output measurements from the plant are used to adjust a control law in an on-line fashion. Ideally the adjustment mechanism of the adaptive controller is able to learn enough about the dynamics of the plant from input/output measurements to effectively control the plant. In practice, problems such as measurement noise, controller saturation, and incorrect model order, to name a few, may prevent proper adjustment of the controller and poor performance or instability result. In this work we set out to avoid the inadequacies of procedurally implemented safety nets, by introducing a two level control scheme in which an expert system based 'supervisor' at the upper level provides all the safety net functions for an adaptive controller at the lower level. The expert system is based on a shell called IPEX, (Interactive Process EXpert), that we developed specifically for the diagnosis and treatment of dynamic systems. Some of the more important functions that the IPEX system provides are: (1) temporal reasoning; (2) planning of diagnostic activities; and (3) interactive diagnosis. Also, because knowledge and control logic are separate, the incorporation of new diagnostic and treatment knowledge is relatively simple. We note that the flexibility available in the system to express diagnostic and treatment knowledge, allows much greater functionality than could ever be reasonably expected from procedural implementations of safety nets. The remainder of this chapter is divided into three sections. In section 1.1 we give a detailed review of the literature in the area of supervisory systems for adaptive controllers. In particular, we describe the evolution of safety nets from simple ad hoc techniques, up to the use of expert systems for more advanced supervision capabilities.

Sullivan, Gerald A.

1991-01-01

460

EXPERT SYSTEMS TO ASSIST IN EVALUATION OF MEASUREMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Expert systems are computer programs designed to provide advice in a specialized area that is comparable to the advice which would be provided by an expert or knowledgeable person in the area. Development of these systems for a particular application is feasible if expert(s) are ...

461

Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expert systems are computer programs that are designed to advise or assist users by storing the knowledge of human experts and applying the computer's mathematical ability to search and sort this information. This study investigated the use of an expert system as a mindtool and whether or not creating a simple expert system would facilitate the…

Mason-Mason, Susan Dale

462