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1

Promoting environmental sustainability via an expert elicitation process  

SciTech Connect

Environmental sustainability (ES) planning was applied to the 981-mile, commercially navigable Ohio River. Navigation improvement needs were identified within the broad study along with actions to restore aquatic and riparian ecological resources to a higher state of sustainability. The actions were identified via an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) involving aquatic and riparian/terrestrial experts knowledgeable of Ohio River resources. The received information was synthesized into goals for the selected resources (Valued Ecosystem Components - or VECs), actions or measures to attain the goals, and monitoring to evaluate conditions. Finally, 26 types of ES actions were identified and classified into three ES alternatives. These alternatives were then evaluated relative to key decision criteria, and such evaluations, based on pertinent decision criteria, were also conducted for four navigation improvement alternatives. Finally, the best combination of ES and navigation alternatives was identified. The key lessons derived from this use of EEP were that: (1) EEP can support the preliminary identification of ES measures; however, more detailed study of specific designs and cost evaluations will be necessary; (2) the method promotes collaboration between key scientists and policymakers from governmental agencies and private sectors, and such collaboration will ultimately provide the foundation for implementation of sustainability actions; and (3) an effective EEP does not occur by accident, it requires careful planning, implementation, and documentation. - Research Highlights: > Use of an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) is demonstrated in this study. > EEP was used to identify Environmental Sustainability (ES) needs for the Ohio River. > EEP helped develop consensus among resource experts on ES needs. > EEP promotes collaboration to identify and contribute to common resource goals. > EEP may be used in assessing cumulative effects and formulating restoration plans.

Swor, Tom, E-mail: tomswor@ardmore.net [Nashville District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States); Canter, Larry [University of Oklahoma (United States); Principal, Environmental Impact Training, Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States)

2011-09-15

2

Detecting mismatches among experts' ontologies acquired through knowledge elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a set of ontologies modelled on conceptual structures elicited from several domain experts. Protocols were collected from various experts who advise on the selection\\/ specification and purchase of PCs. These protocols were analysed from the perspective of both the processes and the domain knowledge to reflect each expert's inherent conceptualisation of the domain. We are particularly interested

Adil Hameed; Derek H. Sleeman; Alun D. Preece

2002-01-01

3

Expert elicitation and the problem of detecting undeclared activities  

SciTech Connect

Measures applicable to the detection of undeclared activities are not well established, and their effectiveness is uncertain. To detect clandestine paths, the IAEA is still developing processes and procedures. As the Agency gains experience with new measures and with integrated safeguards, dealing with such problems may become more experience-based and perhaps more closely parallel the process with current safeguards where detection probabilities for the measures to be utilized on declared paths are well characterized. Whether or not this point will be reached for undeclared and mixed paths, the only tool that appears suitable at present for the purpose of generating a reasonable detection probability that can over time be tested against reality and, if necessary, adjusted is formal expert judgment, or expert elicitation. Formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. To provide a 'proof of principle' of this methodology for presentation to the Agency, experts in nuclear technology, nonproliferation, safeguards and open source information, as well as in formal expert elicitation processes, engaged in three illustrative expert elicitations on assessing information analysis as a means to detect undeclared activities. These elicitations were successful. This paper will discuss the process of and issues raised by the elicitations.

Pilat, Joseph F.; Sylvester, K. B. (Kori Budlong); Stanbro, W. D. (William D.)

2002-01-01

4

Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

2005-06-01

5

Expert Elicitation for Reliable System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the role of expert judgement to support reliability assessments within the systems engineering design process. Generic design processes are described to give the context and a discussion is given about the nature of the reliability assessments required in the different systems engineering phases. It is argued that, as far as meeting reliability requirements is concerned, the whole

Tim Bedford; John Quigley; Lesley Walls

2006-01-01

6

Expert Elicitation for Reliable System Design1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the role of expert judgement to support reliability assessments within the systems engineering design process. Generic design processes are described to give the context and a dis- cussion is given about the nature of the reliability assessments required in the different systems engineering phases. It is argued that, as far as meeting reliability requirements is concerned, the

Tim Bedford; John Quigley; Lesley Walls

7

Web-based tool for expert elicitation of the variogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variogram is the keystone of geostatistics. Estimation of the variogram is deficient and difficult when there are no or too few observations available due to budget constraints or physical and temporal obstacles. In such cases, expert knowledge can be an important source of information. Expert knowledge can also fulfil the increasing demand for an a priori variogram in Bayesian geostatistics and spatial sampling optimization. Formal expert elicitation provides a sound scientific basis to reliably and consistently extract knowledge from experts. In this study, we aimed at applying existing statistical expert elicitation techniques to extract the variogram of a regionalized variable that is assumed to have either a multivariate normal or lognormal spatial probability distribution from expert knowledge. To achieve this, we developed an elicitation protocol and implemented it as a web-based tool to facilitate the elicitation of beliefs from multiple experts. Our protocol has two main rounds: elicitation of the marginal probability distribution and elicitation of the variogram. The web-based tool has three main components: a web interface for expert elicitation and feedback; a component for statistical computation and mathematical pooling of multiple experts' knowledge; and a database management component. Results from a test case study show that the protocol is adequate and that the online elicitation tool functions satisfactorily. The web-based tool is free to use and supports scientists to conveniently elicit the variogram of spatial random variables from experts. The source code is available from the journal FTP site under the GNU General Public License.

Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gosling, John Paul

2013-02-01

8

Implementation of the PR&PP methodology: the role of formal expert elicitations  

SciTech Connect

The application of the methodology developed by the GenIV International Forum's (GIF's) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) Working Group is an expert elicitation. Although the framework of the methodology is structured and systematic, it does not by itself constitute or require a formal elicitation. However, formal elicitation can be utilized in the PR&PP context to provide a systematic, credible and transparent qualitative analysis and develop input for quantitative analyses. This section provides an overview of expert elicitations, a discussion of the role formal expert elicitations can play in the PR&PP methodology, an outline of the formal expert elicitation process and a brief practical guide to conducting formal expert elicitations. Expert elicitation is a process utilizing knowledgeable people in cases, for example, when an assessment is needed but physically based data is absent or open to interpretation. More specifically, it can be used to: (1) predict future events; (2) provide estimates on new, rare, complex or poorly understood phenomena; (3) integrate or interpret existing information; or (4) determine what is currently known, how well it is known or what is worth learning in a field. Expert elicitation can be informal or formal. The informal application of expert judgment is frequently used. Although it can produce good results, it often provides demonstrably biased or otherwise flawed answers to problems. This along with the absence of transparency can result in a loss of confidence when experts speak on issues. More formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. The reason for advocating formal use is that the quality and accuracy of expert judgment comes from the completeness of the expert's understanding of the phenomena and the process used to elicit and analyze the data. The use of a more formal process to obtain, lU1derstand and analyze expert judgment has led to an improved acceptance of expert judgment because of the rigor and transparency of the results.

Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

9

CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

2012-10-01

10

Use of expert judgment elicitation to estimate seismic vulnerability of selected building types  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pooling engineering input on earthquake building vulnerability through an expert judgment elicitation process requires careful deliberation. This article provides an overview of expert judgment procedures including the Delphi approach and the Cooke performance-based method to estimate the seismic vulnerability of a building category.

Jaiswal, K.S.; Aspinall, W.; Perkins, D.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.A.

2012-01-01

11

Estimating unknown parameters in haemophilia using expert judgement elicitation.  

PubMed

The increasing attention to healthcare costs and treatment efficiency has led to an increasing demand for quantitative data concerning patient and treatment characteristics in haemophilia. However, most of these data are difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to use expert judgement elicitation (EJE) to estimate currently unavailable key parameters for treatment models in severe haemophilia A. Using a formal expert elicitation procedure, 19 international experts provided information on (i) natural bleeding frequency according to age and onset of bleeding, (ii) treatment of bleeds, (iii) time needed to control bleeding after starting secondary prophylaxis, (iv) dose requirements for secondary prophylaxis according to onset of bleeding, and (v) life-expectancy. For each parameter experts provided their quantitative estimates (median, P10, P90), which were combined using a graphical method. In addition, information was obtained concerning key decision parameters of haemophilia treatment. There was most agreement between experts regarding bleeding frequencies for patients treated on demand with an average onset of joint bleeding (1.7 years): median 12 joint bleeds per year (95% confidence interval 0.9-36) for patients ? 18, and 11 (0.8-61) for adult patients. Less agreement was observed concerning estimated effective dose for secondary prophylaxis in adults: median 2000 IU every other day The majority (63%) of experts expected that a single minor joint bleed could cause irreversible damage, and would accept up to three minor joint bleeds or one trauma related joint bleed annually on prophylaxis. Expert judgement elicitation allowed structured capturing of quantitative expert estimates. It generated novel data to be used in computer modelling, clinical care, and trial design. PMID:23672712

Fischer, K; Lewandowski, D; Janssen, M P

2013-05-15

12

The use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment: a seven step procedure  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental health impact assessments often have to deal with substantial uncertainties. Typically, the knowledge-base is limited with incomplete, or inconsistent evidence and missing or ambiguous data. Consulting experts can help to identify and address uncertainties. Methods Formal expert elicitation is a structured approach to systematically consult experts on uncertain issues. It is most often used to quantify ranges for poorly known parameters, but may also be useful to further develop qualitative issues such as definitions, assumptions or conceptual (causal) models. A thorough preparation and systematic design and execution of an expert elicitation process may increase the validity of its outcomes and transparency and trustworthiness of its conclusions. Various expert elicitation protocols and methods exist. However, these are often not universally applicable, and need customization to suite the needs of a specific study. In this paper, we set out to develop a widely applicable method for the use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment. Results We present a practical yet flexible seven step procedure towards organising expert elicitation in the context of environmental health impact assessment, based on existing protocols. We describe how customization for specific applications is always necessary. In particular, three issues affect the choice of methods for a particular application: the types of uncertainties considered, the intended use of the elicited information, and the available resources. We outline how these three considerations guide choices regarding the design and execution of expert elicitation. We present signposts to sources where the issues are discussed in more depth to give the newcomer the insights needed to make the protocol work. The seven step procedure is illustrated using examples from earlier published elicitations in the field of environmental health research. Conclusions We conclude that, despite some known criticism on its validity, formal expert elicitation can support environmental health research in various ways. Its main purpose is to provide a temporary summary of the limited available knowledge, which can serve as a provisional basis for policy until further research has been carried out.

2010-01-01

13

Expert knowledge elicitation to improve formal and mental models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge intensive processes are often driven and constrained by the mental models of experts acting as direct participants or managers. Descriptions of these relationships are not generally available from traditional data sources but are stored in the mental models of experts. Often the knowledge is not explicit but tacit, so it is diÅcult to describe, examine, and use. Consequently, improvement

David N. Ford; John D. Sterman

14

Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Expert judgment elicitation: Part 1, Expert panel results, Part 2, Project staff results  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative modeling techniques have limitations as to the resolution of important issues in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Not all issues can be resolved via the existing set of methods such as fault trees, event trees, statistical analyses, data collection, and computer simulation. Therefore, an expert judgment process was developed to address issues perceived as important to risk in the NUREG-1150 analysis but which could not be resolved with existing techniques. This process was applied to several issues that could significantly affect the internal event core damage frequencies of the PRAs performed on six light water reactors. Detailed descriptions of these issues and the results of the expert judgment elicitation are reported here, as well as an explanation of the methodology used and the procedure followed in performing the overall elicitation task. The process is time-consuming and expensive. However, the results are very useful, and represent an improvement over the draft NUREG-1150 analysis in the areas of expert selection, elicitation training, issue selection and presentation, elicitation of judgment and aggregation of results. The results are presented in two parts. Part 1 documents the expert panel elicitations, where the most important issues were presented to a panel of experts convened from throughout the nuclear power risk assessment community. Part 2 documents the process by which the project staff performed expert judgment on other important issues, using the project staff as panel members. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Wheeler, T.A.; Hora, S.C.; Cramond, W.R.; Unwin, S.D.

1989-04-01

15

The future costs of nuclear power using multiple expert elicitations: effects of RD&D and elicitation design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030. We show that controlling for expert, technology, and design characteristics increases experts’ implied public RD&D elasticity of expected costs by 25%. Public sector and industry experts’ cost expectations are 14% and 32% higher, respectively than academics. US experts are more optimistic than their EU counterparts, with median expected costs 22% lower. On average, a doubling of public RD&D is expected to result in an 8% cost reduction, but the uncertainty is large. The difference between the 90th and 10th percentile estimates is on average 58% of the experts’ median estimates. Public RD&D investments do not affect uncertainty ranges, but US experts are less confident about costs than Europeans.

Díaz Anadón, Laura; Nemet, Gregory; Verdolini, Elena

2013-09-01

16

Effects on mock jurors of experts favorable and unfavorable toward hypnotically elicited eyewitness testimony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mock jurors were told that a rape victim's initial identification of the defendant was made either during a police interrogation or a hypnotic interrogation. Jurors given the hypnotic interrogation case then saw a videotape of an expert who was favorable toward hypnotically elicited testimony, an expert who was unfavorable, or both experts. Jurors' private beliefs of the defendant's guilt (assessed

Nicholas P. Spanos; Maxwell I. Gwynn; Kevin Terrade

1989-01-01

17

Using expert elicitation to define successful adaptation to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops definitions of adaptation and successful adaptation to climate change, with a view to evaluating adaptations. There is little consensus on the definition of adapting to climate change in existing debates or on the criteria by which adaptation actions can be deemed successful or sustainable. In this paper, a variant of the Delphi technique is used to elicit

Miguel de França Doria; Emily Boyd; Emma L. Tompkins; W. Neil Adger

2009-01-01

18

Expert Elicitation for the Judgment of Prion Disease Risk Uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a high level of uncertainty surrounding the potential for iatrogenic prion transmission through transplantation, medical instrument reuse, blood transfusion, and blood product use due to a lack of evidence-based research on this important risk issue. A group of specialists was enlisted to evaluate some of the knowledge gaps in this area using the “Classical Model,” a structured elicitation

Michael G. Tyshenko; Susie ElSaadany; Tamer Oraby; Shalu Darshan; Willy Aspinall; Roger Cooke; Angela Catford; Daniel Krewski

2011-01-01

19

A process and representation for modeling expert navigators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes both the knowledge elicitation process we have used and the representation we have built as a result of our study of expert navigators. The first step was to recognize and characterize expert navigation behavior. We interviewed a focus group of Army Ranger School instructors to determine how they evaluate tactical dismounted navigation expertise. The second step was

Barry Peterson

2000-01-01

20

Branch technical position on the use of expert elicitation in the high-level radioactive waste program  

SciTech Connect

Should the site be found suitable, DOE will apply to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for permission to construct and then operate a proposed geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. In deciding whether to grant or deny DOE`s license application for a geologic repository, NRC will closely examine the facts and expert judgment set forth in any potential DOE license application. NRC expects that subjective judgments of individual experts and, in some cases, groups of experts, will be used by DOE to interpret data obtained during site characterization and to address the many technical issues and inherent uncertainties associated with predicting the performance of a repository system for thousands of years. NRC has traditionally accepted, for review, expert judgment to evaluate and interpret the factual bases of license applications and is expected to give appropriate consideration to the judgments of DOE`s experts regarding the geologic repository. Such consideration, however, envisions DOE using expert judgments to complement and supplement other sources of scientific and technical information, such as data collection, analyses, and experimentation. In this document, the NRC staff has set forth technical positions that: (1) provide general guidelines on those circumstances that may warrant the use of a formal process for obtaining the judgments of more than one expert (i.e., expert elicitation); and (2) describe acceptable procedures for conducting expert elicitation when formally elicited judgments are used to support a demonstration of compliance with NRC`s geologic disposal regulation, currently set forth in 10 CFR Part 60. 76 refs.

Kotra, J.P.; Lee, M.P.; Eisenberg, N.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); DeWispelare, A.R. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1996-11-01

21

Carbon capture and storage: combining economic analysis with expert elicitations to inform climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between R&D investments and technical change is inherently uncertain. In this paper we combine economics\\u000a and decision analysis to incorporate the uncertainty of technical change into climate change policy analysis. We present the\\u000a results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for technical change in carbon capture and storage. We find a significant\\u000a amount of disagreement between experts,

Erin D Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M Keisler

2009-01-01

22

Expert elicitation of recharge model probabilities for the Death Valley regional flow system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study uses expert elicitation to evaluate and select five alternative recharge models developed for the Death Valley regional flow system (DVRFS), covering southeast Nevada and the Death Valley area of California, USA. The five models were developed based on three independent techniques: an empirical approach, an approach based on unsaturated-zone studies and an approach based on saturated-zone studies.

Ming Ye; Karl F. Pohlmann; Jenny B. Chapman

2008-01-01

23

Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

1990-01-01

24

Flammable gas double shell tank expert elicitation presentations (Part A and Part B)  

SciTech Connect

This document is a compilation of presentation packages and white papers for the Flammable Gas Double Shell Tank Expert Elicitation Workshop {number_sign}2. For each presentation given by the different authors, a separate section was developed. The purpose for issuing these workshop presentation packages and white papers as a supporting document is to provide traceability and a Quality Assurance record for future reference to these packages.

Bratzel, D.R.

1998-04-17

25

Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

2006-05-10

26

A probabilistic characterization of the relationship between fine particulate matter and mortality: elicitation of European experts.  

PubMed

In support of an assessment of the mortality impacts of the Kuwait Oil Fires we interviewed six European experts in epidemiology and toxicology using formal procedures for elicitation of expert judgment. While the primary focus of the elicitations was to characterize the public health impacts of the fires, the experts provided quantitative estimates of the mortality impacts of hypothetical changes in the levels of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in both the United States and Europe. Uncertainty was assessed by asking each expert to provide the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of their subjective cumulative probability density function for each quantity of interest. The results suggest that many regulatory risk assessments underestimate the impacts of PM2.5 mortality; confirm that only a small fraction of the mortality impact occurs within the first few months after exposure; and indicate that it may be important to better address the differential toxicities of particles from various source classes. By providing quantitative estimates of the uncertainty in current estimates of PM2.5 mortality risks, the study facilitates structured analysis of the value of further research on PM2.5 and its impacts. PMID:17948814

Cooke, Roger M; Wilson, Andrew M; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Morales, Oswaldo; Tainio, Marko; Evans, John S

2007-09-15

27

Food-specific attribution of selected gastrointestinal illnesses: estimates from a Canadian expert elicitation survey.  

PubMed

The study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of food-specific attribution for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in Canada. It was based on a similar survey conducted in the United States and focused on Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Norwalk-like virus. A snowball approach was used to identify food safety experts within Canada. Survey respondents provided background information as well as self-assessments of their expertise for each pathogen and the 12 food categories. Depending on the pathogen, food source attribution estimates were based on responses from between 10 and 35 experts. For each pathogen, experts divided their estimates of total foodborne illness across 12 food categories and they provided a best estimate for each category as well as 5th and 95th percentile limits for foods considered to be vehicles. Their responses were treated as triangular probability distributions, and linear aggregation was used to combine the opinions of each group of experts for each pathogen-food source group. Across the 108 pathogen-food groups, a majority of experts agreed on 30 sources and 48 nonsources for illness. The number of food groups considered to be pathogen sources by a majority of experts varied by pathogen from a low of one food source for Vibrio spp. (seafood) and C. parvum (produce) to a high of seven food sources for Salmonella spp. Beta distributions were fitted to the aggregated opinions and were reasonable representations for most of the pathogen-food group attributions. These results will be used to quantitatively assess the burden of foodborne illness in Canada as well as to analyze the uncertainty in our estimates. PMID:21561379

Davidson, Valerie J; Ravel, André; Nguyen, To N; Fazil, Aamir; Ruzante, Juliana M

2011-05-11

28

Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

Harper, F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Abbott, M. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

29

An Expert Elicitation Based Study of the Proliferation Resistance of a Suite of Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, a multi-laboratory research team completed a study evaluating the proliferation resistance (PR) characteristics of a diverse suite of four advanced nuclear reactor designs. The systems evaluated included: • a light water reactor (a pressurized-water reactor), • a heavy water reactor, • a high temperature gas reactor (with a prismatic-block reactor core), • a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The team used an expert elicitation assessment approach based on the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) methodology. The team evaluated three general types of proliferation threats: 1) concealed diversion of material, 2) concealed misuse of the reactor to produce material, and 3) breakout. The evaluations took into account the intrinsic PR characteristics of each reactor and the extrinsic PR characteristics provided by generic safeguards the team considered appropriate for each reactor, based on the team’s experience and available conceptual design information.

Zentner, Michael D.; Therios, Ike; Bari, Robert A.; Cheng, Lap; Yue, Meng; Wigeland, Roald; Hassberger, Jim; Boyer, Brian; Pilat, Joseph

2010-08-11

30

Eliciting information from experts on the likelihood of rapid climate change.  

PubMed

The threat of so-called rapid or abrupt climate change has generated considerable public interest because of its potentially significant impacts. The collapse of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation or the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, for example, would have potentially catastrophic effects on temperatures and sea level, respectively. But how likely are such extreme climatic changes? Is it possible actually to estimate likelihoods? This article reviews the societal demand for the likelihoods of rapid or abrupt climate change, and different methods for estimating likelihoods: past experience, model simulation, or through the elicitation of expert judgments. The article describes a survey to estimate the likelihoods of two characterizations of rapid climate change, and explores the issues associated with such surveys and the value of information produced. The surveys were based on key scientists chosen for their expertise in the climate science of abrupt climate change. Most survey respondents ascribed low likelihoods to rapid climate change, due either to the collapse of the Thermohaline Circulation or increased positive feedbacks. In each case one assessment was an order of magnitude higher than the others. We explore a high rate of refusal to participate in this expert survey: many scientists prefer to rely on output from future climate model simulations. PMID:16506972

Arnell, Nigel W; Tompkins, Emma L; Adger, W Neil

2005-12-01

31

Impact of plain packaging of tobacco products on smoking in adults and children: an elicitation of international experts' estimates  

PubMed Central

Background Governments sometimes face important decisions in the absence of direct evidence. In these cases, expert elicitation methods can be used to quantify uncertainty. We report the results of an expert elicitation study regarding the likely impact on smoking rates in adults and children of plain packaging of tobacco products. Methods Thirty-three tobacco control experts were recruited from the UK (n?=?14), Australasia (n?=?12) and North America (n?=?7). Experts’ estimates were individually elicited via telephone interviews, and then linearly pooled. Elicited estimates consisted of (1) the most likely, (2) the highest possible, and (3) the lowest possible value for the percentage of (a) adult smokers and (b) children trying smoking, two years after the introduction of plain packaging (all other things being constant) in a target country in the expert’s region of residence. Results The median estimate for the impact on adult smoking prevalence was a 1 percentage point decline (99% range 2.25 to 0), and for the percentage of children trying smoking was a 3 percentage point decline (99% range 6.1 to 0), the latter estimated impact being larger than the former (P?experts’ estimates within regions (I2: Adults: 0.91; Children: 0.89). Conclusions In the absence of direct evidence for the impact of introducing plain packaging on smoking rates in adults and children, this study shows that tobacco control experts felt the most likely outcomes would be a reduction in smoking prevalence in adults, and a greater reduction in the numbers of children trying smoking, although there was substantial variability in the estimated size of these impacts. No experts judged an increase in smoking as a likely outcome.

2013-01-01

32

Expert Network Process Control Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, a computerized process control technique based on an artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. The process of concern is the wood dryer portion of an industrial retort used for the dehydration stage of wood waste pyrolysis in the makin...

D. M. Rodgers

1994-01-01

33

We're only in it for the knowledge? A problem solving turn in environment and health expert elicitation  

PubMed Central

Background The FP6 EU HENVINET project aimed at synthesizing the scientific information available on a number of topics of high relevance to policy makers in environment and health. The goal of the current paper is to reflect on the methodology that was used in the project, in view of exploring the usefulness of this and similar methodologies to the policy process. The topics investigated included health impacts of the brominated flame retardants decabrominated diphenylether (decaBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), phthalates highlighting di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), nanoparticles, the impacts of climate change on asthma and other respiratory disorders, and the influence of environment health stressors on cancer induction. Methods Initially the focus was on identifying knowledge gaps in the state of the art in scientific knowledge. Literature reviews covered all elements that compose the causal chain of the different environmental health issues from emissions to exposures, to effects and to health impacts. Through expert elicitation, knowledge gaps were highlighted by assessing expert confidence using calibrated confidence scales. During this work a complementary focus to that on knowledge gaps was developed through interdisciplinary reflections. By extending the scope of the endeavour from only a scientific perspective, to also include the more problem solving oriented policy perspective, the question of which kind of policy action experts consider justifiable was addressed. This was addressed by means of a questionnaire. In an expert workshop the results of both questionnaires were discussed as a basis for policy briefs. Results The expert elicitation, the application of the calibrated confidence levels and the problem solving approach were all experienced as being quite challenging for the experts involved, as these approaches did not easily relate to mainstream environment and health scientific practices. Even so, most experts were quite positive about it. In particular, the opportunity to widen one’s own horizon and to interactively exchange knowledge and debate with a diversity of experts seemed to be well appreciated in this approach. Different parts of the approach also helped in focussing on specific relevant aspects of scientific knowledge, and as such can be considered of reflective value. Conclusions The approach developed by HENVINET was part of a practice of learning by doing and of interdisciplinary cooperation and negotiation. Ambitions were challenged by unforeseen complexities and difference of opinion and as no Holy Grail approach was at hand to copy or follow, it was quite an interesting but also complicated endeavour. Perfection, if this could be defined, seemed out of reach all the time. Nevertheless, many involved were quite positive about it. It seems that many felt that it fitted some important needs in current science when addressing the needs of policy making on such important issues, without anyone really having a clue on how to actually do this. Challenging questions remain on the quality of such approach and its product. Practice tells us that there probably is no best method and that the best we can do is dependent on contextual negotiation and learning from experiences that we think are relevant.

2012-01-01

34

Which uncertainty? Using expert elicitation and expected value of information to design an adaptive program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural resource management is plagued with uncertainty of many kinds, but not all uncertainties are equally important to resolve. The promise of adaptive management is that learning in the short-term will improve management in the long-term; that promise is best kept if the focus of learning is on those uncertainties that most impede achievement of management objectives. In this context, an existing tool of decision analysis, the expected value of perfect information (EVPI), is particularly valuable in identifying the most important uncertainties. Expert elicitation can be used to develop preliminary predictions of management response under a series of hypotheses, as well as prior weights for those hypotheses, and the EVPI can be used to determine how much management could improve if uncertainty was resolved. These methods were applied to management of whooping cranes (Grus americana), an endangered migratory bird that is being reintroduced in several places in North America. The Eastern Migratory Population of whooping cranes had exhibited almost no successful reproduction through 2009. Several dozen hypotheses can be advanced to explain this failure, and many of them lead to very different management responses. An expert panel articulated the hypotheses, provided prior weights for them, developed potential management strategies, and made predictions about the response of the population to each strategy under each hypothesis. Multi-criteria decision analysis identified a preferred strategy in the face of uncertainty, and analysis of the expected value of information identified how informative each strategy could be. These results provide the foundation for design of an adaptive management program.

Runge, Michael C.; Converse, Sarah J.; Lyons, James E.

2011-01-01

35

Using structural equation modeling and expert elicitation to select nutrient criteria variables for south-central Florida lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenney, M.A., G.B. Arhonditsis, L.C. Reiter, M. Barkley, and K.H. Reckhow. 2009. Using structural equation modeling and expert elicitation to select nutrient criteria variables for south-central Florida lakes.To protect the nation's waterbodies from excessive impairments from pollution leading to eutrophication, the Clean Water Act requires states to establish water quality standards. These water quality standards are designed to protect the

Melissa A. Kenney; George B. Arhonditsis; Linda C. Reiter; Matthew Barkley; Kenneth H. Reckhow

2009-01-01

36

Timely knowledge elicitation from geographically separate, mobile experts during emergency response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two crucial factors for eÄective emergency response are the speed with which the response strategy is implemented and the quality of the expert knowledge on which the response is based. We propose a method for using communication and computing technologies for eli- citing and aggregating the knowledge of multiple, geographically separate experts that improves our ability to address these two

D. Mendonca; R. Rush; W. A. Wallace

2000-01-01

37

Training 'greeble' experts: a framework for studying expert object recognition processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve participants were trained to be experts at identifying a set of 'Greebles', novel objects that, like faces, all share a common spatial configuration. Tests comparing expert with novice performance revealed: (1) a surprising mix of generalizability and specificity in expert object recognition processes; and (2) that expertise is a multi-faceted phenomenon, neither adequately described by a single term nor

Isabel Gauthier; Pepper Williams; Michael J. Tarr; James Tanaka

1998-01-01

38

Policy relevant results from an expert elicitation on the health risks of phthalates  

PubMed Central

Background The EU 6th Framework Program (FP)-funded Health and Environment Network (HENVINET) aimed to support informed policy making by facilitating the availability of relevant knowledge on different environmental health issues. An approach was developed by which scientific agreement, disagreement, and knowledge gaps could be efficiently identified, and expert advice prepared in a way that is usable for policy makers. There were two aims of the project: 1) to apply the tool to a relevant issue; the potential health impacts of the widely used plasticizers, phthalates, and 2) to evaluate the method and the tool by asking both scientific experts and the target audience, namely policy makers and stakeholders, for their opinions. Methods The tool consisted of an expert consultation in several steps on the issue of phthalates in environmental health. A diagram depicting the cause-effect chain, from the production and use of phthalates to potential health impacts, was prepared based on existing reviews. This was used as a basis for an online questionnaire, through which experts in the field were consulted. The results of this first round of consultation laid the foundation for a new questionnaire answered by an expert panel that, subsequently, also discussed approaches and results in a workshop. One major task of the expert panel was to pinpoint priorities from the cause-effect chain according to their impact on the extent of potential health risks and their relevance for reducing uncertainty. The results were condensed into a policy brief that was sent to policy makers and stakeholders for their evaluation. Results The experts agreed about the substantial knowledge gaps within the field of phthalates. The top three priorities for further research and policy action were: 1) intrauterine exposure, 2) reproductive toxicology, and 3) exposure from medical devices. Although not all relevant information from the cause-effect chain is known for phthalates, most experts thought that there are enough indications to justify a precautionary approach and to restrict their general use. Although some of the experts expressed some scepticism about such a tool, most felt that important issues were highlighted. Conclusions The approach used was an efficient way at summarising priority knowledge gaps as a starting point for health risk assessment of compounds, based on their relevance for the risk assessment outcome. We conclude that this approach is useful for supporting policy makers with state-of-the-art scientific knowledge weighed by experts. The method can assist future evidence-based policy making.

2012-01-01

39

The use of expert elicitation to quantify uncertainty in incomplete sorption data bases for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

Iterative, annual performance-assessment calculations are being performed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a planned underground repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA for the disposal of transuranic waste. The performance-assessment calculations estimate the long-term radionuclide releases from the disposal system to the accessible environment. Because direct experimental data in some areas are presently of insufficient quantity to form the basis for the required distributions. Expert judgment was used to estimate the concentrations of specific radionuclides in a brine exiting a repository room or drift as it migrates up an intruding borehole, and also the distribution coefficients that describe the retardation of radionuclides in the overlying Culebra Dolomite. The variables representing these concentrations and coefficients have been shown by 1990 sensitivity analyses to be among the set of parameters making the greatest contribution to the uncertainty in WIPP performance-assessment predictions. Utilizing available information, the experts (one expert panel addressed concentrations and a second panel addressed retardation) developed an understanding of the problem and were formally elicited to obtain probability distributions that characterize the uncertainty in fixed, but unknown, quantities. The probability distributions developed by the experts are being incorporated into the 1991 performance-assessment calculations. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

Anderson, D.R.; Trauth, K.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Hora, S.C. (Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States))

1991-01-01

40

Approach, methods and results of an individual elicitation for the volcanism expert judgment panel  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA) of future magnetic disruption of the Yucca Mountain site was completed as a participating member of the volcanism export judgment panel conducted by Geomatrix Consultants for the Department of Energy. The purpose of this summary is to describe the data assumptions, methods, and results of the elicitation and to contrast this assessment with past volcanism studies conducted for the Yucca Mountain Project.

Crowe, B.M.

1996-06-01

41

Introduction of contagious animal diseases into The Netherlands: elicitation of expert opinions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiment aimed at the derivation of information on Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Classical and African Swine Fever, Swine Vesicular Disease, Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza to be used in an economic model to simulate introduction of a virus into the Netherlands. Several elicitation techniques, including three-point estimation, Conjoint analysis and ELI were used in the experiment. Three-point estimation

H. S. Horst; A. A. Dijkhuizen; R. B. M. Huirne; P. W De Leeuw

1998-01-01

42

Elicitation by design in ecology: using expert opinion to inform priors for Bayesian statistical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian statistical modeling has several benefits within an ecological context. In particular, when observed data are limited in sample size or representativeness, then the Bayesian framework provides a mechanism to combine observed data with other ''prior'' information. Prior information may be obtained from earlier studies, or in their absence, from expert knowledge. This use of the Bayesian framework reflects the

Samantha Low Choy; Rebecca O'Leary; Kerrie Mengersen

2009-01-01

43

Two-dimensional fuzzy fault tree analysis for chlorine release from a chlor-alkali industry using expert elicitation.  

PubMed

The hazards associated with major accident hazard (MAH) industries are fire, explosion and toxic gas releases. Of these, toxic gas release is the worst as it has the potential to cause extensive fatalities. Qualitative and quantitative hazard analyses are essential for the identification and quantification of these hazards related to chemical industries. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is an established technique in hazard identification. This technique has the advantage of being both qualitative and quantitative, if the probabilities and frequencies of the basic events are known. This paper outlines the estimation of the probability of release of chlorine from storage and filling facility of chlor-alkali industry using FTA. An attempt has also been made to arrive at the probability of chlorine release using expert elicitation and proven fuzzy logic technique for Indian conditions. Sensitivity analysis has been done to evaluate the percentage contribution of each basic event that could lead to chlorine release. Two-dimensional fuzzy fault tree analysis (TDFFTA) has been proposed for balancing the hesitation factor involved in expert elicitation. PMID:20674168

Renjith, V R; Madhu, G; Nayagam, V Lakshmana Gomathi; Bhasi, A B

2010-07-31

44

Chlorpyrifos and neurodevelopmental effects: a literature review and expert elicitation on research and policy  

PubMed Central

Background Organophosphate pesticides are widely used on food crops grown in the EU. While they have been banned from indoor use in the US for a decade due to adverse health effects, they are still the most prevalent pesticides in the EU, with Chlorpyrifos (CPF) being the most commonly applied. It has been suggested CPF affects neurodevelopment even at levels below toxicity guidelines. Younger individuals may be more susceptible than adults due to biological factors and exposure settings. Methods A literature review was undertaken to assess the evidence for CPF contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders in infants and children. Other literature was consulted in order to formulate a causal chain diagram showing the origins, uptake, and neurological effects of animal and human exposure to CPF. The causal chain diagram and a questionnaire were distributed online to scientific experts who had published in relevant areas of research. They were asked to assess their confidence levels on whether CPF does in fact contribute to adverse neurodevelopment outcomes and rate their confidence in the scientific evidence. A second questionnaire queried experts as to which kind of policy action they consider justifiable based on current knowledge. In a special workshop session at the EuroTox congress in Dresden in 2009 the results of both questionnaires were further discussed with invited experts, as a basis for a policy brief with main messages for policy makers and stakeholders. Results Most experts who responded to the first questionnaire felt that there was already enough evidence to support a ban on indoor uses of CPF in the EU. However, most felt additional research is still required in several areas. The responses from the first questionnaire were used to formulate the second questionnaire addressing the feasibility of government action. In turn, these expert participants were invited to attend a special session at the EuroTox congress in Dresden in 2009. Conclusions Some of the evidence that CPF contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders is still disputed among experts, and the overall sense is that further research and public awareness are warranted. There have been campaigns in North America making the potential exposure concerns known, but such information is not widely known in the EU. The ability of government action to produce change is strongly felt in some quarters while others believe better knowledge of consumer use trends would have a greater impact.

2012-01-01

45

ISA implementation and uncertainty: a literature review and expert elicitation study.  

PubMed

Each day, an average of over 116 people die from traffic accidents in the European Union. One out of three fatalities is estimated to be the result of speeding. The current state of technology makes it possible to make speeding more difficult, or even impossible, by placing intelligent speed limiters (so called ISA devices) in vehicles. Although the ISA technology has been available for some years now, and reducing the number of road traffic fatalities and injuries has been high on the European political agenda, implementation still seems to be far away. Experts indicate that there are still too many uncertainties surrounding ISA implementation, and dealing with these uncertainties is essential for implementing ISA. In this paper, a systematic and representative inventory of the uncertainties is made based upon the literature. Furthermore, experts in the field of ISA were surveyed and asked which uncertainties are barriers for ISA implementation, and how uncertain these uncertainties are. We found that the long-term effects and the effects of large-scale implementation of ISA are still uncertain and are the most important barriers for the implementation of the most effective types of ISA. One way to deal with these uncertainties would be to start implementation on a small scale and gradually expand the penetration, in order to learn how ISA influences the transport system over time. PMID:22664671

van der Pas, J W G M; Marchau, V A W J; Walker, W E; van Wee, G P; Vlassenroot, S H

2011-01-16

46

Policy relevant Results from an Expert Elicitation on the Human Health Risks of Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) and Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)  

PubMed Central

Aim Apply a recently developed expert elicitation procedure to evaluate the state of the current knowledge of the two brominated flame retardants (BFRs) most commonly used today; decabromo-diphenyl ether (decaBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and their potential impact on human health in order to support policy considerations. This expert elicitation was organized by the HENVINET (Health and Environment Network) Consortium. Method The HENVINET expert elicitation procedure that was used in the evaluations of decaBDE and HBCD is a rapid assessment tool aimed at highlighting areas of agreement and areas of disagreement on knowledge-related key issues for environment and health policy decision making. Results The outcome of the expert consultation on BFRs was concrete expert advice for policy makers with specific priorities for further action made clear for both stakeholders and policy makers. The experts were not in agreement whether or not the knowledge currently available on decaBDE or HBCD is sufficient to justify policy actions, but most experts considered that enough data already exists to support a ban or restriction on the use of these compounds. All experts agreed on the necessity of more research on the compounds. Priority issues for further research were, among others: • more studies on the extent of human exposure to the compounds. • more studies on the fate and concentration in the human body of the compounds.

2012-01-01

47

[Medical expert assessment in criminal processes from the legal viewpoint].  

PubMed

In the area of medical professional blunder, the medical expert witness is the one participant in a trial whose statement is practically decisive for the court or the prosecutor. Legally, the responsibility remains naturally in the legal hand as the expert witness is only the assistant of the judge. The most important demands on the expert witness are strict objectiveness including towards the colleague, no independent inquiries or interrogations, comprehensive processing of the expert assessment, readiness to revise a written expert assessment according to better knowledge or new facts, independence from the client, no legal comments, clarity of language and intellectual honesty. PMID:9064925

Ulsenheimer, K

1996-11-01

48

Simulation at digital equiptment corporation: The process expert as simulation expert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing process simulation has long been tlie domain of mathematicians, operations researchers, and consultants; a relatively small, exclusive group of expert practitioners. Con’sensus has held that only these individuals can successEully practice tlie craft of simulation. This thinking persists, even today. There are still many manufacturers who believe they can not apply simulation techniques to their operations without prohibitive investments

M. J. O'Loughlin; M. T. Meagher; R. J. Hatper

1988-01-01

49

Simulation at Digital Equipment Corporation: the process expert as simulation expert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing process simulation has long been the domain of mathematicians, operations researchers, and consultants; a relatively small, exclusive group of expert practitioners. Consensus has held that only these individuals can successfully practice the craft of simulation. This thinking persists, even today. There are still many manufacturers who believe they can not apply simulation techniques to their operations without prohibitive investments

Michael J. O'Loughlin; Michael T. Meagher; Richard J. Harper

1988-01-01

50

Concentration response functions for ultrafine particles and all-cause mortality and hospital admissions: results of a European expert panel elicitation.  

PubMed

Toxicological studies have provided evidence of the toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFP), but epidemiological evidence for health effects of ultrafines is limited. No quantitative summary currently exists of concentration-response functions for ultrafine particles that can be used in health impact assessment. The goal was to specify concentration-response functions for ultrafine particles in urban air including their uncertainty through an expert panel elicitation. Eleven European experts from the disciplines of epidemiology, toxicology, and clinical medicine selected using a systematic peer-nomination procedure participated. Using individual ratings supplemented with group discussion, probability distributions of effect estimates were obtained for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions. Experts judged the small database of epidemiological studies supplemented with experimental studies sufficient to quantify effects of UFP on all-cause mortality and to a lesser extent hospital admissions. Substantial differences in the estimated UFP health effect and its uncertainty were found between experts. The lack of studies on long-term exposure to UFP was rated as the most important source of uncertainty. Effects on hospital admissions were considered more uncertain. This expert elicitation provides the first quantitative evaluation of estimates of concentration response functions between urban air ultrafine particles and all-cause mortality and hospital admissions. PMID:19958027

Hoek, Gerard; Boogaard, Hanna; Knol, Anne; de Hartog, Jeroen; Slottje, Pauline; Ayres, Jon G; Borm, Paul; Brunekreef, Bert; Donaldson, Ken; Forastiere, Francesco; Holgate, Stephen; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Nemery, Benoit; Pekkanen, Juha; Stone, Vicki; Wichmann, H-Erich; van der Sluijs, Jeroen

2010-01-01

51

ELICITED EXPERT PERCEPTIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS AND ADAPTATION IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION THROUGH MENTAL MODELS APPROACH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impacts of climate change have become obvious in agriculture and food production in Japan these days, and researches to adapt to their risks have been conducted as a key effort to cope with the climate change. Numerous scientific findings on climate change impacts have been presented so far; however, prospective risks to be adapted to and their management in the context of individual on-site situations have not been investigated in detail. The structure of climate change risks and their management vary depending on geographical and social features in the regions where the adaptation options should be applied; therefore, a practical adaptation strategy should consider actual on-site situations. This study intended to clarify climate change risks to be adapted to in the Japanese agricultural sector, and factors to be considered in adaptation options, for encouragement of decision-making on adaptation implementation in the field. Semi-structured individual interviews have been conducted with 9 multidisciplinary experts engaging in climate change impacts research in agricultural production, economics, engineering, policy, and so on. Based on the results of the interviews, and the latest literatures available for risk assessment and adaptation, an expert mental model including their perceptions which cover the process from climate change impacts assessment to adaptation has been developed. The prospective risks, adaptation options, and issues to be examined to progress the development of practical and effective adaptation options and to support individual or social decision-making, have been shown on the developed expert mental model. It is the basic information for developing social communication and stakeholders cooperations in climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture and food production in Japan.

Suda, Eiko; Kubota, Hiromi; Baba, Kenshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hanasaki, Naota

52

Branch Technical Position on the Use of Expert Elicitation in the High-Level Radioactive Waste Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff expects that subjective judgments of individual experts and, in some cases, groups of experts, will be used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to interpret data obtained during site characterization and to ...

J. P. Kotra M. P. Lee N. A. Eisenberg A. R. DeWispelare

1996-01-01

53

The hybrid image processing\\/expert image analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work is to analyze and interpret the X-ray image by using some knowledge base that relates objects within a scene to one another and to the scene background. Knowledge-based Image Analysis System (KIAS) is a prototype environment for image analysis and interpretation, KIAS consists of an image processing system and an expert system. It oversees

Jung H. Kim; E. H. Park; C. Ntuen; K. H. Sohn; W. Alexander

1990-01-01

54

Eliciting information for product modeling using process modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A product model is a formal and structured definition of product information. The most common procedure for defin- ing a product data model is to first describe the business and\\/or engineering process in a formal process model, then to create a product data model based on the process model. However, there is a logical gap between process modeling and product

Ghang Lee; Charles M. Eastman; Rafael Sacks

2007-01-01

55

An expert multivariable controller for distillation process control  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the area of Expert Systems (ES) facilitate the encoding of symbolic reasoning and make possible the creation of control systems where algorithmic knowledge and human experience can interact, resulting in more efficient and reliable control systems. In the present study, a methodology to design control systems that provide safe and effective operation for multivariable processes during on-line closed loop control has been developed. This methodology has been implemented in a control system called Expert Multivariable Controller (EMC). The EMC determines and implements on-line the normal, abnormal (sensor failure and valve saturation) and constrained (process constraints) structures to be used under normal and abnormal operating conditions. This requires selecting controlled and manipulated variables, determining the level of operation, pairing controlled with manipulated variables, selecting controller types, and designing controllers. The structure and methodology of the EMC are generic and independent of the controlled process and the control theory used. The EMC has been implemented in ART using facts, frames, and rules. Its performance has been tested using linear and nonlinear dynamic models of two product distillation columns, as well as a three product sidestream distillation column. The successful application of the EMC to the control of these processes under a wide range of normal and abnormal operating conditions using diagonal as well as multivariable controller structures (IMC) demonstrates its effectiveness.

Tzouanas, V.K.

1989-01-01

56

The impact of new data on an expert elicitation of the probability of volcanic intersection of the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expert elicitation completed in 1996 estimated the frequency of intersection by a dike of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. That assessment resulted in a mean annual frequency of intersection of 1.7e -8, or about 1 chance in 60 million per year. The expert panel primarily considered the past 5 million years of volcanic history when estimating the probability of intersection, and included in their assessment the possibility that at least a few volcanic centers were buried in alluvial basins near Yucca Mountain. The results of a regional aeromagnetic survey completed in 1999 suggested the potential for a higher number of buried volcanic centers than previously considered in the 1996 elicitation. Therefore, a new expert elicitation was convened in 2004 with the primary purpose of assessing the impact of buried volcanic centers on probability estimates. A major data-gathering effort completed in 2006 provided high-resolution aeromagnetic, drilling, and geochronology results that provided information on the number, location and age of buried basaltic centers near Yucca Mountain. Most buried basalt was determined to be of Miocene age. The youngest group of buried volcanic centers, 20-25 km south of Yucca Mountain, has an age of about 3.9 Ma. These results indicate that post-Miocene basaltic volcanism only occurred to the south and west of Yucca Mountain and not to the east, an important constraint in models that forecast the potential location of future volcanism. Other new data considered included the characteristics of dike swarms based on analog volcanoes, variations in crustal extension across the region, mantle tomography, and differences in calculated lithostatic pressure between basins and ranges. The new distribution for the annual frequency of intersection (5th and 95th percentiles of ~6e -10 and 1e -7) overlaps the 1996 distribution but is broader with more weight at both higher and lower values. This results in a slightly higher mean value and a slightly lower median value. The results are consistent with consideration of a broader range of conceptual models for the spatial and temporal behavior of volcanism, as well as more complex models of the geometry of volcanic events, all influenced in part by availability of new data.

Perry, F. V.; Jenni, K. E.; Neiman, T.; Coppersmith, K.

2008-12-01

57

An expert system for processing uncorrelated satellite tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through an array of ground based radar sights and optical cameras, the United States military tracks objects in near and far Earth orbit. The sensors provide epoch and ephemeris information that is used to update a database of known objects. While a majority of the sensor observations are matched to their corresponding satellites, a small percentage are beyond the capabilities of current software and cannot be correlated. These uncorrelated targets, UCT's, must be manually fitted by orbital analysts in a labor intensive process. As an alternative to this human intervention, the use of artificial intelligence techniques to augment the present computer code was explored. Specifically, an expert system for processing UCT's at the Naval Space Surveillance Command was developed. Rules were generated through traditional knowledge engineering methods and by a novel application of machine learning. The initial results are very good with the operational portions of the system matching the performance of the experts with an accuracy of 99%. Although not yet complete, the code developed in this research definitely shows the potential of using artificial intelligence to process UCT'S.

Hecker, Michael A.

1992-12-01

58

Prospective Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Thought Processes on a Model Eliciting Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical model and modeling are one of the topics that have been intensively discussed in recent years. The purpose of this study is to examine prospective elementary mathematics teachers' thought processes on a model eliciting activity and reveal difficulties or blockages in the processes. The study includes forty-five seniors taking the…

Eraslan, Ali

2012-01-01

59

Social groups that elicit disgust are differentially processed in mPFC  

PubMed Central

Social neuroscience suggests medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC) as necessary for social cognition. However, the mPFC activates less to members of extreme outgroups that elicit disgust, an emotion directed toward both people and objects. This study aimed to counteract that effect. Participants made either superficial categorical age estimations or individuating food-preference judgments about people, while fMRI recorded neural activity. Besides replicating the reduced mPFC activity to extreme outgroups that elicit disgust, this study demonstrates that the same type of judgment for these individuals is processed in a region anatomically distinct from social groups that elicit exclusively social emotions (pity, envy, pride). Finally, inferring individuating information (food preferences) increases mPFC activation above superficial categorical judgments. This evidence fits differentiated mPFC processing of extreme outgroups, which activate mPFC less than other groups, but suggests that individuation increases activation.

Fiske, Susan T.

2007-01-01

60

Career Counseling Process: A Qualitative Analysis of Experts’ Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensual qualitative research methodology was used to analyze the career counseling cases of 12 noted vocational psychologists to identify common themes and factors. The findings indicated that the career counseling described by these experts often involved the same counseling or helping skills found in personal counseling or psychotherapy. Furthermore, these experts indicated that their career counseling had a theoretical

Susan C. Whiston; Dawn Lindeman; Daryn Rahardja; Jordan H. Reed

2005-01-01

61

Combining experts' judgments: comparison of algorithmic methods using synthetic data.  

PubMed

Expert judgment (or expert elicitation) is a formal process for eliciting judgments from subject-matter experts about the value of a decision-relevant quantity. Judgments in the form of subjective probability distributions are obtained from several experts, raising the question how best to combine information from multiple experts. A number of algorithmic approaches have been proposed, of which the most commonly employed is the equal-weight combination (the average of the experts' distributions). We evaluate the properties of five combination methods (equal-weight, best-expert, performance, frequentist, and copula) using simulated expert-judgment data for which we know the process generating the experts' distributions. We examine cases in which two well-calibrated experts are of equal or unequal quality and their judgments are independent, positively or negatively dependent. In this setting, the copula, frequentist, and best-expert approaches perform better and the equal-weight combination method performs worse than the alternative approaches. PMID:22583060

Hammitt, James K; Zhang, Yifan

2012-05-14

62

Eliciting and Developing Teachers' Conceptions of Random Processes in a Probability and Statistics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to examine prospective mathematics specialists' engagement in an instructional sequence designed to elicit and develop their understandings of random processes. The study was conducted with two different sections of a probability and statistics course for K-8 teachers. Thirty-two teachers participated. Video analyses…

Smith, Toni M.; Hjalmarson, Margret A.

2013-01-01

63

Business Process Elicitation, Modeling, and Reengineering: Teaching and Learning with Simulated Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The design of enterprise information systems requires students to master technical skills for elicitation, modeling, and reengineering business processes as well as soft skills for information gathering and communication. These tacit skills and behaviors cannot be effectively taught students but rather experienced and learned by students. This…

Jeyaraj, Anand

2010-01-01

64

Differences in the Educational Software Evaluation Process for Experts and Novice Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This comparative case study investigated the educational software evaluation processes of both experts and novices in conjunction with a software evaluation checklist. Twenty novice elementary education students, divided into groups of five, and three experts participated. Each novice group and the three experts evaluated educational software…

Tokmak, Hatice Sancar; Incikabi, Lutfi; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar

2012-01-01

65

Use of an expert system in a personnel evaluation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop an Expert System (ES) to evaluate Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators. The study included a review of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) literature relevant to the NPP and human resource management, knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, knowledge encoding, and Inference engine. An expert system development tool FuzzyCLIPS6.1 was used to develop a fuzzy rule-based

Yangping Zhou; Xiang Fang; Xuhong He

2011-01-01

66

Best Practices in Crisis Communication: An Expert Panel Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The description of ''best practices'' is widely used to improve organizational and professional practice. This analysis describes best practices in crisis communication as a form of grounded theoretical approach for improving the effectiveness of crisis communication specifically within the context of large publicly-managed crises. The results of a panel of crisis communication experts are reviewed. Ten best practices for effective

Matthew W. Seeger

2006-01-01

67

Career Counseling Process: A Qualitative Analysis of Experts' Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A consensual qualitative research methodology was used to analyze the career counseling cases of 12 noted vocational psychologists to identify common themes and factors. The findings indicated that the career counseling described by these experts often involved the same counseling or helping skills found in personal counseling or psychotherapy.…

Whiston, Susan C.; Lindeman, Dawn; Rahardja, Daryn; Reed, Jordan H.

2005-01-01

68

Design expert’s participation in elementary students’ collaborative design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and\\u000a Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe\\u000a elementary students’ collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a professional designer. The\\u000a video-recorded lessons on lamp designing and the

Kaiju KangasPirita; Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen; Kai Hakkarainen

69

The use of concept maps during knowledge elicitation in ontology development processes - the nutrigenomics use case  

PubMed Central

Background Incorporation of ontologies into annotations has enabled 'semantic integration' of complex data, making explicit the knowledge within a certain field. One of the major bottlenecks in developing bio-ontologies is the lack of a unified methodology. Different methodologies have been proposed for different scenarios, but there is no agreed-upon standard methodology for building ontologies. The involvement of geographically distributed domain experts, the need for domain experts to lead the design process, the application of the ontologies and the life cycles of bio-ontologies are amongst the features not considered by previously proposed methodologies. Results Here, we present a methodology for developing ontologies within the biological domain. We describe our scenario, competency questions, results and milestones for each methodological stage. We introduce the use of concept maps during knowledge acquisition phases as a feasible transition between domain expert and knowledge engineer. Conclusion The contributions of this paper are the thorough description of the steps we suggest when building an ontology, example use of concept maps, consideration of applicability to the development of lower-level ontologies and application to decentralised environments. We have found that within our scenario conceptual maps played an important role in the development process.

Castro, Alexander Garcia; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Stevens, Robert; Taylor, Chris; Nashar, Karim; Ragan, Mark A; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

2006-01-01

70

Design Expert's Participation in Elementary Students' Collaborative Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe elementary students' collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

71

Representing and Capturing the Experts' Knowledge in a Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An object-oriented framework to support t he modeling and management of the design process is introduced. It naturally integrates the representation of both the design process itself, and the outcomes that are achieved as the result of the various design activities. The integral view of tracing that was adopted not only captures and manages the products being generated but also

Silvio Gonnet; Horacio P. Leone; Gabriela P. Henning

2003-01-01

72

Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status  

DOEpatents

A method and system are disclosed for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 24 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.

1998-06-02

73

Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status  

DOEpatents

A method and system for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-01

74

Expert Knowledge, Distinctiveness, and Levels of Processing in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The foreign language vocabulary learning research literature often attributes strong mnemonic potency to the cognitive processing of meaning when learning words. Routinely cited as support for this idea are experiments by Craik and Tulving (C&T) demonstrating superior recognition and recall of studied words following semantic tasks ("deep"…

Bird, Steve

2012-01-01

75

UPDATING AN EXPERT ELICITATION IN THE LIGHT OF NEW DATA: TEN YEARS OF PROBABILISTIC VOLCANIC HAZARD ANALYSIS FOR THE PROPOSED HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) considers volcanism to be a potentially disruptive class of events that could affect the safety of the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Volcanic hazard assessment in monogenetic volcanic fields depends on an adequate understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of past eruptions. At Yucca Mountain, the hazard is due to an 11 Ma-history of basaltic volcanism with the latest eruptions occurring in three Pleistocene episodes to the west and south of Yucca Mountain. An expert elicitation convened in 1995-1996 by the DOE estimated the mean hazard of volcanic disruption of the repository as slightly greater than 10{sup -8} dike intersections per year with an uncertainty of about two orders of magnitude. Several boreholes in the region have encountered buried basalt in alluvial-filled basins; the youngest of these basalts is dated at 3.8 Ma. The possibility of additional buried basalt centers is indicated by a previous regional aeromagnetic survey conducted by the USGS that detected approximately 20 magnetic anomalies that could represent buried basalt volcanoes. Sensitivity studies indicate that the postulated presence of buried post-Miocene volcanoes to the east of Yucca Mountain could increase the hazard by an order of magnitude, and potentially significantly impact the results of the earlier expert elicitation. Our interpretation of the aeromagnetic data indicates that post-Miocene basalts are not present east of Yucca Mountain, but that magnetic anomalies instead represent faulted and buried Miocene basalt that correlates with nearby surface exposures. This interpretation is being tested by drilling. The possibility of uncharacterized buried volcanoes that could significantly change hazard estimates led DOE to support an update of the expert elicitation in 2004-2006. In support of the expert elicitation data needs, the DOE is sponsoring (1) a new higher-resolution, helicopter-borne aeromagnetic survey, completed in mid-2004, and (2) drilling of selected anomalies based on the aeromagnetic survey results to better characterize the number, location and age of buried volcanoes, which began in mid-2005. The new aeromagnetic survey detected the presence of 33 anomalies interpreted as possible buried volcanoes or faulted tuff bedrock. A program to drill ten of the anomalies has begun, with the selection of drill holes prioritized based on their potential impact on the hazard assessment.

F.V. Perry; A. Cogbill; R. Kelley

2005-08-26

76

Identification and evaluation of scientific uncertainties related to fish and aquatic resources in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon - summary and interpretation of an expert-elicitation questionnaire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identifying areas of scientific uncertainty is a critical step in the adaptive management process (Walters, 1986; Runge, Converse, and Lyons, 2011). To identify key areas of scientific uncertainty regarding biologic resources of importance to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) convened Knowledge Assessment Workshops in May and July 2005. One of the products of these workshops was a set of strategic science questions that highlighted key areas of scientific uncertainty. These questions were intended to frame and guide the research and monitoring activities conducted by the GCMRC in subsequent years. Questions were developed collaboratively by scientists and managers. The questions were not all of equal importance or merit—some questions were large scale and others were small scale. Nevertheless, these questions were adopted and have guided the research and monitoring efforts conducted by the GCMRC since 2005. A new round of Knowledge Assessment Workshops was convened by the GCMRC in June and October 2011 and January 2012 to determine whether the research and monitoring activities conducted since 2005 had successfully answered some of the strategic science questions. Oral presentations by scientists highlighting research findings were a centerpiece of all three of the 2011–12 workshops. Each presenter was also asked to provide an answer to the strategic science questions that were specific to the presenter’s research area. One limitation of this approach is that these answers represented the views of the handful of scientists who developed the presentations, and, as such, they did not incorporate other perspectives. Thus, the answers provided by presenters at the Knowledge Assessment Workshops may not have accurately captured the sentiments of the broader group of scientists involved in research and monitoring of the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Yet a fundamental ingredient of resilient decisionmaking and problem-solving is incorporation of a wide range of perspectives (Carpenter and others, 2009). To ensure that a wide range of scientists had an opportunity to weigh in on the strategic science questions, the GCMRC elicited additional perspectives through written questionnaires. Independently soliciting responses from scientists through questionnaires had the added advantage of allowing all scientists to freely and openly share their views on complex and controversial topics—something which may not have occurred in the group setting of the June 2011 Knowledge Assessment Workshop because of dominance by one or more scientists. The purpose of this report is to document and interpret the questionnaire responses.

Kennedy, Theodore A.

2013-01-01

77

A microanalytic study of self-regulated learning processes of expert, non-expert, and at-risk science students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present investigation sought to examine differences in the self-regulated learning processes and beliefs of students who vary in their level of expertise in science and to investigate if there are gender differences. Participants were 51 ethnically diverse 11th grade students from three parochial high schools consisting of 34 females and 17 males. Students were grouped as either expert, non-expert, or at-risk based on the school's classification. Students were provided with a short passage on tornados to read and study. The two achievement measures obtained were the Tornado Knowledge Test : ten short-answer questions and the Conceptual Model Test : a question which required the students to draw and describe the three sequential images of tornado development from the textual description of the three phases. A microanalytic methodology was used which consists of asking a series of questions aimed at assessing students' psychological behaviors, feelings, and thoughts in each of Zimmerman's three phases of self-regulation: forethought, performance, and reflection. These questions were asked of the students while they were engaged in learning. Two additional measures were obtained: the Rating Student Self-Regulated Learning Outcomes: A Teacher Scale (RSSRL) and the Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning (SELF). Analysis of variance, chi square analysis, and post hoc test results showed significant expertise differences, large effect sizes, and positive linear trends on most measures. Regarding gender, there were significant differences on only two measures. Correlational analyses also revealed significant relations among the self-regulatory subprocesses across the three phases. The microanalytic measures were combined across the three phases and entered into a regression formula to predict the students' scores on the Tornado Knowledge Test. These self-regulatory processes explained 77% of the variance in the Tornado Knowledge Test, which was a significant and substantial effect. Prior to this investigation, there have been no studies which have tested Zimmerman's three phase model on an academic task, such as science, within an expertise framework. Implications from the present study suggest that students varying in expertise level in science achievement also vary in self-regulatory behavior, and that gender is not a significant factor.

Dibenedetto, Maria K.

78

Sensory processing during kinesthetic aftereffect following illusory hand movement elicited by tendon vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how the human sensory–motor system elicits a somatosensory aftereffect. Tendon vibration of a limb excites the muscle spindle afferents that contribute to eliciting illusory movements of the limb. After the cessation of vibration, a transient sensation in which the vibrated limb returns towards its original position (kinesthetic aftereffect) is often experienced, even in the absence of the afferent

Tomonori Kito; Toshihiro Hashimoto; Tsugutake Yoneda; Shizuo Katamoto; Eiichi Naito

2006-01-01

79

Concentration response functions for ultrafine particles and all-cause mortality and hospital admissions: results of a European expert panel elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicological studies have provided evidence of the toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFP), but epidemiological evidence for health effects of ultrafines is limited. No quantitative summary currently exists of concentration-response functions for ultrafine particles that can be used in health impact assessment. The goal was to specify concentration-response functions for ultrafine particles in urban air including their uncertainty through an expert

Gerard Hoek; Hanna Boogaard; Anne Knol; Jeroen de Hartog; Pauline Slottje; Jon G. Ayres; Paul Borm; Bert Brunekreef; Ken Donaldson; Francesco Forastiere; Stephen Holgate; Wolfgang G. Kreyling; Benoit Nemery; Juha Pekkanen; Vicki Stone; H.-Erich Wichmann; Jeroen van der Sluijs

2010-01-01

80

XPC: an on-line expert system for statistical process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of available microcomputer packages for statistical process control (SPC) are off-line programs which present information regarding quality in the form of control charts. The user has to interpret the charts to infer process and product quality. This paper describes XPC, an on-line expert system for SPC. The system produces mean and range charts and interprets them automatically. XPC

D. T. PHAM; E. OZTEMEL

1992-01-01

81

Expert Models and Modeling Processes Associated with a Computer-Modeling Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Holding the premise that the development of expertise is a continuous process, this study concerns expert models and modeling processes associated with a modeling tool called Model-It. Five advanced Ph.D. students in environmental engineering and public health used Model-It to create and test models of water quality. Using "think aloud" technique…

Zhang, BaoHui; Liu, Xiufeng; Krajcik, Joseph S.

2006-01-01

82

A Sublanguage Approach to Natural Language Processing for an Expert System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the development of an NLP (natural language processing) component for processing the free-text comments on life insurance applications for evaluation by an underwriting expert system. A sublanguage grammar approach with strong reliance on semantic word classes is described. Highlights include lexical analysis, adjacency analysis, and…

Liddy, Elizabeth D.; And Others

1993-01-01

83

The discovery of experts' decision rules from qualitative bankruptcy data using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies on bankruptcy prediction have widely applied data mining techniques to finding out the useful knowledge automatically from financial databases, while few studies have proposed qualitative data mining approaches capable of eliciting and representing experts' problem-solving knowledge from experts' qualitative decisions. In an actual risk assessment process, the discovery of bankruptcy prediction knowledge from experts is still regarded as

Myoung-jong Kim; Ingoo Han

2003-01-01

84

A Prescriptive Approach for Eliciting Imprecise Weight Statements in an MCDA Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we discuss decision making involving multiple objectives (MCDA) and especially the lack of more prescriptively\\u000a useful elicitation methods for weights within MCDA. We highlight the discrepancy between how elicitation is handled in current\\u000a decision analysis applications and the abilities of real decision-makers to provide what is required from them. Based on theory\\u000a and highlighted problems with current

Mona Riabacke; Mats Danielson; Love Ekenberg; Aron Larsson

2009-01-01

85

Systematic image processing for diagnosing brain tumors: A Type-II fuzzy expert system approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systematic Type-II fuzzy expert system for diagnosing the human brain tumors (Astrocytoma tumors) using T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images with contrast. The proposed Type-II fuzzy image processing method has four distinct modules: Pre-processing, Segmentation, Feature Extraction, and Approximate Reasoning. We develop a fuzzy rule base by aggregating the existing filtering methods for Pre-processing step. For Segmentation step,

Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi; Marzie Zarinbal; M. Izadi

2011-01-01

86

A digraph-based expert system for non-traditional machining processes selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a number of available non-traditional machining (NTM) processes has brought out the idea of selecting the\\u000a most suitable NTM process for generating a desired shape feature on a given work material. This paper presents a digraph-based\\u000a approach to ease out the appropriate NTM process selection problem. It includes the design and development of an expert system\\u000a that

Nilanjan Das Chakladar; Ranatosh Das; Shankar Chakraborty

2009-01-01

87

Experts' Circumvention of Processing Limitations: An Example From the Sport of Orienteering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a discussion of how experts in the sport of orienteering are able to circumvent natural limits on information processing during performance and thus acquire a performance advantage. Orienteering requires navigation in outdoor environments and thus research on skill acquisition in orienteering is of relevance to an understanding of military tasks involving navigation and their training. It is

David W. Eccles

2008-01-01

88

Holistic processing of musical notation: Dissociating failures of selective attention in experts and novices  

PubMed Central

Holistic processing, i.e. the tendency to process objects as wholes, is associated with face perception and also with expertise individuating novel objects. Surprisingly, recent work also reveals holistic effects in novice observers. It is unclear whether the same mechanisms support holistic effects in experts and in novices. Here, we measured holistic processing of music sequences using a selective attention task in participants who vary in music reading expertise. We found that holistic effects were strategic in novices but relatively automatic in experts. Correlational analyses revealed that individual holistic effects were predicted by both individual music reading ability and neural responses for musical notation in the right fusiform face area (rFFA), but in opposite directions for experts and novices, suggesting that holistic effects in the two groups may be of different nature. To characterize expert perception, it is important to measure not only the tendency to process objects as wholes but to test whether this effect is dependent on task constraints.

Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

2010-01-01

89

Holistic processing of musical notation: Dissociating failures of selective attention in experts and novices.  

PubMed

Holistic processing (i.e., the tendency to process objects as wholes) is associated with face perception and also with expertise individuating novel objects. Surprisingly, recent work also reveals holistic effects in novice observers. It is unclear whether the same mechanisms support holistic effects in experts and in novices. In the present study, we measured holistic processing of music sequences using a selective attention task in participants who vary in music-reading expertise. We found that holistic effects were strategic in novices but were relatively automatic in experts. Correlational analyses revealed that individual holistic effects were predicted by both individual music-reading ability and neural responses for musical notation in the right fusiform face area (rFFA), but in opposite directions for experts and novices, suggesting that holistic effects in the two groups may be of different natures. To characterize expert perception, it is important not only to measure the tendency to process objects as wholes, but also to test whether this effect is dependent on task constraints. PMID:21098813

Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

2010-12-01

90

The use of expert systems in process design for offshore oil and gas production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the details of the development effort which is currently underway at Hudson Engineering Corporation to automate the design of conventional offshore gas and oil production facilities. A front-end design engineering expert system has been developed which utilizes artificial intelligence techniques to assist process and facility engineers in performing feasibility studies to allow for quick development of a

H. Agnili; G. Montgomery; A. Amlani; J. Shah

1987-01-01

91

CABPRO: A rule-based expert system for process planning of assembled multiwire cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process planning for the manufacture of multiwire cables is a labor-intensive activity, often based on engineering experience and rules of thumb. Rather than the traditional form of expert system programming, which follows decision trees to a preplanned answer, this activity requires the system to produce an original plan based solely on the design requirements of the cable. CABPRO is a

R. M. Schaefer; J. S. Colmer; M. Miley

1987-01-01

92

Visual Attention and Brain Processes That Underlie Expert Performance: Implications for Sport and Military Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in methodology have allowed sport psychologists to broaden their understanding of expert performance through inclusion of physiological assessments of expertise (e.g., eye movements and bioelectric signals such as the electroencephalogram [EEG]). Innovations linking physiology, basic cognitive processes, and performance have illustrated the degree to which these techniques can converge on a finer-grained understanding of factors driving learning and performance

Christopher M. Janelle; Bradley D. Hatfield

2008-01-01

93

The design and application of expert intelligent control system in production process of benzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, based on the mathematical model established by the authors, an expert intelligent control system (EICS) which is being used in tracing the set-points of temperature and pressure in production process of benzene, has been designed. The implementation of the computer control system based on EICS shows that the performance of this system and the tracing effectiveness are

Xue-Dao Chu; Yu-Qiang Wu; Shi-Tian Yan; Wei-Tian Chen; Wan-Quan Liu

1993-01-01

94

XCUT: A rule-based expert system for the automated process planning of machined parts  

SciTech Connect

Automated process planning is becoming a popular research and development topic in engineering and applied artificial intelligence. It is generally defined as the automatic planning of the manufacturing procedures for producing a part from a CAD based product definition. An automated process planning system, XCUT, is currently being developed using rule-based expert system techniques. XCUT will generate process plans for the production of machined piece-parts, given a geometric description of a part's features. The system currently is focused on operation planning for prismatic parts on multi-axis CNC milling machines. To date, moderately complex 2-1/2D prismatic parts have successfully been planned for with approximately 300 rules in the knowledge base. This paper will describe the XCUT system, system architecture, knowledge representation, plan development sequence, and issues in applying expert system technology to automated process planning. 16 refs.

Brooks, S.L.; Hummel, K.E.; Wolf, M.L.

1987-06-01

95

Expert models and modeling processes associated with a computer-modeling tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holding the premise that the development of expertise is a continuous process, this study concerns expert models and modeling processes associated with a modeling tool called Model-It. Five advanced Ph.D. students in environmental engineering and public health used Model-It to create and test models of water quality. Using think aloud technique and video recording, we captured their computer screen modeling

Baohui Zhang; Xiufeng Liu; Joseph S. Krajcik

2006-01-01

96

Vision expert system 3D-IMPRESS for automated construction of three dimensional image processing procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a three dimensional (3D) image processing expert system called 3D-IMPRESS is presented. This system can automatically construct a 3D image processing procedure by using pairs of an original input image and a desired output figure called sample figure given by a user This paper describes the outline of 3D-IMPRESS and presents a method of procedure consolidation for

Xiang-Rong Zhou; Akinobu Shimizu; Jun-ichi Hasegawa; Jun-ichiro Toriwaki; Takeshi Hara; Hiroshi Fujita

2001-01-01

97

Expert system for process optimization of atmospheric plasma spraying of high performance ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an experimental investigation on the process of atmospheric plasma spraying of high performance ceramics such as Al2O3, Al2O3TiO2, and PSZ on a steel substrate. The ceramic coatings were deposited under different spray conditions and optimal spray parameters were evaluated based on the quality of the coating judged in terms of bond strength and porosity. An expert

S. Gowri; G. Uma Shankar; K. Narayanasamy; R. Krishnamurthy

1997-01-01

98

Cognitive processes as integrative component for developing expert decision-making systems: a workflow centered framework.  

PubMed

The development of expert decision-making systems, which improve task performance and reduce errors within an intra-operative clinical workspace, is critically dependent on two main aspects: (a) Analyzing the clinical requirements and cognitive processes within the workflow and (b) providing an optimal context for accurate situation awareness through effective intra-operative information visualization. This paper presents a workflow centered framework and its theoretical underpinnings to design expert decision-making systems. The framework integrates knowledge of the clinical workflow based on the requirements within the clinical workspace. Furthermore, it builds upon and integrates the theory of situation awareness into system design to improve decision-making. As an application example, this framework has been used to design an intra-operative visualization system (IVS), which provides image guidance to the clinicians to perform minimally invasive procedure. An evaluative study, comparing the traditional ultrasound guided procedure with the new developed IVS, has been conducted with expert intervention radiologists and medical students. The results reveal significant evidence for improved decision-making when using the IVS. Therefore, it can be stated that this study demonstrates the benefits of integrating knowledge of cognitive processes into system development to support clinical decision-making and hence improvement of task performance and prevention of errors. PMID:19607934

Jalote-Parmar, Ashis; Badke-Schaub, Petra; Ali, Wajid; Samset, Eigil

2009-07-14

99

Knowledge-based aerial image understanding systems and expert systems for image processing  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses roles of artificial intelligence in the automatic interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The authors first discuss several image understanding systems for analyzing complex aerial photographs. The discussion is mainly concerned with knowledge representation and control structure in the aerial image understanding systems: a blackboard model for integrating diverse object detection modules, a symbolic model representation for three-dimensional object recognition, and integration of bottom-up and top-down analyses. Then, a model of expert systems for image processing is introduced that discussed which and what combinations of image processing operators are effective to analyze an image.

Matsuyama, T.

1987-05-01

100

Documenting the use of expert scientific reasoning processes by high school physics students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these processes can be central during scientific model construction; here we code for their spontaneous use by students. We document evidence for numerous instances of these forms of reasoning in these classes. Most of these instances were associated with motion- and force-indicating depictive gestures, which we take as one kind of evidence for the use of animated mental imagery. Altogether, this methodology shows promise for use in highlighting the role of nonformal reasoning in student learning and for investigating the possible association of animated mental imagery with scientific reasoning processes.

Stephens, A. L.; Clement, John J.

2012-05-21

101

An expert system with temporal reasoning for alarm processing in power system control centers  

SciTech Connect

The alarm lists presented to Control Center operators are usually of difficult interpretation. When a disturbance occurs in the Power System, several thousands alarms may arrive in a short period of time. Human operators are not able to process all the information and, in this situation, an important alarm may be ignored causing serious difficulties to the fault diagnosis and power restoration. In this paper the authors present an Expert System that processes the alarm lists in Portuguese Control Centers. This system makes an intelligent synthesis of the available information and presents it in a more flexible and structured way. It uses an original approach to deal with temporal reasoning and real-time constraints. The system incorporates an explanation module that enables its use as a tutor for novice operators.

Vale, Z.A.; Machado e Moura, A. (Univ. of Porto (Portugal))

1993-08-01

102

Documenting the use of expert scientific reasoning processes by high school physics students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these processes can be central during scientific model construction; here we code for their spontaneous use by students. We document evidence for numerous instances of these forms of reasoning in these classes. Most of these instances were associated with motion- and force-indicating depictive gestures, which we take as one kind of evidence for the use of animated mental imagery. Altogether, this methodology shows promise for use in highlighting the role of nonformal reasoning in student learning and for investigating the possible association of animated mental imagery with scientific reasoning processes.

Stephens, A. Lynn; Clement, John J.

2010-07-01

103

A fuzzy expert system for fault detection in statistical process control of industrial processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little work has previously been reported on the use of fuzzy logic within statistical process control when this is used for fault detection as part of quality control systems in industrial manufacturing processes. Therefore, the paper investigates the potential use of fuzzy logic to enhance the performance of statistical process control (SPC). The cumulative sum of the deviation in the

Shendy M. El-shal; Alan S. Morris

2000-01-01

104

The effects of rational and experiential information processing of expert testimony in death penalty cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research examining the effects of actuarial and clinical expert testimony on defendants' dangerousness in Texas death penalty sentencing has found that jurors are more influenced by less scientific pure clinical expert testimony and less influenced by more scientific actuarial expert testimony (Krauss & Lee, 2003; Krauss & Sales, 2001). By applying cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST) to juror decision-making, the present

Daniel A. Krauss; Joel D. Lieberman; Jodi Olson

2004-01-01

105

Neonatal nurse practitioner role transition: the process of reattaining expert status.  

PubMed

Neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs) have managed care for high-risk hospitalized infants in the United States for over 30 years. The journey from being expert nurse to being novice NNP and then finally to being expert NNP is fraught with many challenges. This study used a qualitative descriptive design to describe advanced practice role transition among 70 NNPs. The data consisted of participants' written responses to open-ended questions. Four themes emerged that depicted a linear progression of the transition process from school preparation to beginning feelings in the new role and then development into a more confident practice. Theme 1: First impressions emphasized the ambivalence novice NNPs experienced regarding their preparedness for the role during a stressful and exciting adjustment period. Theme 2: The transition demonstrated the overwhelmingly similar feelings of anxiety, insecurity, exhaustion, and lack of confidence that plagued decision making. Theme 3: Making it as a real NNP indicated that the 1-year mark was a consistent, significant timeframe for feeling like a real NNP. Theme 4: The helpers and hinderers revealed the vulnerability of the novice NNPs to harsh criticism as well as the importance of support, especially from nurse colleagues. NNPs are a valuable resource; thus, enhancing transition is a worthy goal. PMID:19011499

Cusson, Regina M; Strange, Sally Nelson

106

PRODIAG: Combined expert system/neural network for process fault diagnosis. Volume 2, Code manual  

SciTech Connect

We recommend the reader first review Volume 1 of this document, Code Theory, before reading Volume 2. In this volume we make extensive use of terms and concepts described and defined in Volume 1 which are not redefined here to the same extent. To try to reduce the amount of redundant information, we have restricted this volume to the presentation of the expert system code and refer back to the theory described in Volume 1 when necessary. Verification and validation of the results are presented in Volume 3, Application, of this document. Volume 3 also presents the implementation of the component characteristics diagnostic approach through artificial neural networks discussed in Volume 1. We decided to present the component characteristics approach in Volume 3, as opposed to write a separate code manual for it, because the approach, although general, requires a case-by-case analysis. The purpose of this volume is to present the details of the expert system (ES) portion o the PRODIAG process diagnostic program. In addition, we present here the graphical diagnostics interface (GDI) and illustrate the combined use of the ES and GDI with a sample problem. For completeness, we provide the file names of all files, programs and major subroutines of these two systems, ES and GDI, and their corresponding location in the Reactor Analysis Division (RA) computer network and Reactor Engineering Division (RE) computer network as of 30 September 1995.

Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1995-09-01

107

Knowledge acquisition for expert systems  

SciTech Connect

This guide examines the process, the models, and the techniques used by those involved in the development of expert systems for commerce and industry. The author demonstrates procedures, describes approaches, and emphasizes knowledge elicitation, interviewing, and transcript analysis. The book covers aspects such as the roles of the systems analyst and the knowledge engineer; reasoning and probability theory, including statistical tests, correlation, and the Bayes theorem; fuzziness in reasoning; the advantages and the limitations of machine induction; and the repertory grid. Case studies are used to clarify and supplement discussions.

Hart, A.

1986-01-01

108

An Expert View of the System Dynamics Modeling Process: Concurrences and Divergences Searching for Best Practices in System Dynamics Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We intended this research both to discover a set of core practices in the system-dynamics modeling process and to identify the best of them according to the knowledgeable opinion of a recognized group of experts in the field. The paper addresses two questions: (1) What aspects of the system dynamics modeling process are common to all model building regardless of

Ignacio J. Martínez-Moyano; George P. Richardson

109

Deduction Electrified: ERPs Elicited by the Processing of Words in Conditional Arguments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the ERP components associated with the processing of words that are critical to generating and rejecting deductive conditional Modus Ponens arguments ("If P then Q; P//"Therefore, "Q"). The generation of a logical inference is investigated by placing a verb in the minor premise that matches the one used in the antecedent…

Bonnefond, Mathilde; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

2013-01-01

110

An Information Processing Analysis of Expert and Novice Teachers' Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the possible qualitative differences between expert and novice teachers in their think aloud protocols related to solving classroom discipline problems. Expert and novice teachers were presented vignettes, under two instructional conditions-directive and nondirective-and were asked to \\

H. Lee Swanson; James E. OConnor; John B. Cooney

1990-01-01

111

INCA: an expert system for process planning in PCB assembly line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of INCA, an expert system that tackles the problem of optimization of the automatic insertion of components on printed circuit board (PCB) in the production assembly line. The authors describe the present situation in the PCB assembly line for component insertion, why an expert system has been chosen and the benefits expected from its introduction, how

Patrizia Cavalloro; Emanuela Cividati

1988-01-01

112

Knowledge Warehouse for Decision Support in Critical Business Processes: Conceptual Modeling and Requirements Elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Knowledge management is challenging for decision support of critical business processes (CBP) in the unpredictable global\\u000a architecture. To guide practical and systematic harnessing of knowledge management (KM) for CBP decision support (DS), we\\u000a introduce the knowledge warehouse (KW) conceptual model, taking into account not only every CBP, but also information that\\u000a resides in each relevant information system (IS) and owned

Meira Levy; Nava Pliskin; Gilad Ravid

113

Stepping back to see the big picture: when obstacles elicit global processing.  

PubMed

Can obstacles prompt people to look at the "big picture" and open up their minds? Do the cognitive effects of obstacles extend beyond the tasks with which they interfere? These questions were addressed in 6 studies involving both physical and nonphysical obstacles and different measures of global versus local processing styles. Perceptual scope increased after participants solved anagrams in the presence, rather than the absence, of an auditory obstacle (random words played in the background; Study 1), particularly among individuals low in volatility (i.e., those who are inclined to stay engaged and finish what they do; Study 4). It also increased immediately after participants encountered a physical obstacle while navigating a maze (Study 3A) and when compared with doing nothing (Study 3B). Conceptual scope increased after participants solved anagrams while hearing random numbers framed as an "obstacle to overcome" rather than a "distraction to ignore" (Study 2) and after participants navigated a maze with a physical obstacle, compared with a maze without a physical obstacle, but only when trait (Study 5) or state (Study 6) volatility was low. Results suggest that obstacles trigger an "if obstacle, then start global processing" response, primarily when people are inclined to stay engaged and finish ongoing activities. Implications for dealing with life's obstacles and related research are discussed. PMID:21875228

Marguc, Janina; Förster, Jens; Van Kleef, Gerben A

2011-11-01

114

Using photo-elicitation to examine artefacts in a sport club: logistical considerations and strategies throughout the research process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of logistical considerations that need to be addressed when using photo-elicitation in research, yet these are rarely discussed in the existing literature. This paper elucidates the challenges particular to using photo-elicitation in research and proposes strategies for addressing these issues. We drew upon our experiences using a combination of photographs taken by participants and photographs taken

Cathy Mills; Larena Hoeber

2012-01-01

115

Dispreferred adjective orders elicit brain responses associated with lexico-semantic rather than syntactic processing  

PubMed Central

We examined how adjective ordering is used in language comprehension by crossing order preference and concreteness in phrases consisting of two adjectives and a noun. We used both more typical phrases in which the preferred order has a concrete second adjective (“exhaustive hardback encyclopedia”) and those with a concrete first adjective in the preferred order (“heavy informative encyclopedia“). We found that concreteness-related modulations of the ERP waveform were likely responsible for prior reports of increased positivity to dispreferred orders (interpreted as a syntactic P600-like effect). When concreteness is controlled, instead, we found that dispreferred orders are associated with larger N400s to the second adjective and following noun. This suggests that dispreferred adjective orders impact lexico-semantic predictability and the ability to generate mental images of the referent but do not result in syntactic processing difficulties.

Huang, Hsu-Wen; Federmeier, Kara D.

2012-01-01

116

A Systematic, Holistic and Integrative Process of Self-Control for Voicing with Optimal Coping Effects in Teachers. 2. A Process of Change – An Expert’s Opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A learning strategy is presented for eustress-euvoicing, which prevails over distress-disvoicing. It is based on the understanding of the mechanisms of stress-voicing, conceived as a dynamic circular process of interacting entities, i.e. stressors\\/signals-arousal\\/activation-emotion-coping-effects (SAECE), which is the rationale for a multidisciplinary approach in coaching professional voice users. A systematic, holistic and integrative process of self-control (SHIPS) is directed by functional

Magda J. M. Carola Van Opstal

2010-01-01

117

SENLEX: Sensor Layout Expert System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Bec...

J. D. Ward K. J. Sena

1986-01-01

118

Relationships between the Process Standards: Process Elicited through Letter Writing between Preservice Teachers and High School Mathematics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current body of literature suggests an interactive relationship between several of the process standards advocated by National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Verbal and written mathematical communication has often been described as an alternative to typical mathematical representations (e.g., charts and graphs). Therefore, the…

Kosko, Karl Wesley; Norton, Anderson

2012-01-01

119

Documenting the Use of Expert Scientific Reasoning Processes by High School Physics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these…

Stephens, A. Lynn; Clement, John J.

2010-01-01

120

An expert system for control and signal processing with automatic Fortran code generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype expert system for the treatment of stochastic control and nonlinear filtering problems is described with several illustrative examples. The system is written in MACSYMA and Lisp. It accepts user input in natural language or symbolic form; it carries out the basic analysis of the user's problem in symbolic form; and it produces FORTRAN code for the numerical reduction

C. Gomez; J. P. Quadrat; A. Sulem; G. L. Blankenship; P. Kumar; A. LaVigna; D. C. MacEnany; K. Paul; I. Yan

1984-01-01

121

Expert system methodology for evaluating reductive dechlorination at TCE sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert knowledge site-screening methodology has been developed to evaluate naturally occurring reductive dechlorination as a remedial option for sites with TCE-contaminated groundwater. This methodology combines a causative model for the reductive dechlorination of TCE and expert knowledge within a Bayesian Belief Network. The knowledge base for this expert system was obtained from 22 experts via an expert elicitation protocol

Neil A. Stiber; Marina Pantazidou; Mitchell J. Small

1999-01-01

122

Improving preference elicitation for decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preferences form the input and control the output of all complex decision making processes. Whether they appear in the form of objective functions, goals, or criteria, preferences and their accurate elicitation are crucial to the formulation of sound decision models both in theory and in practice. Unfortunately, common methods for eliciting preferences are flawed. In this paper, alternative preference elicitation

Daniel P. Boulet; Niall M. Fraser

1995-01-01

123

CABPRO: An expert system for process planning multiwire cables. Final report  

SciTech Connect

CABPRO (CABle PROcessor) is a set of computer programs using Artificial Intelligence programming to automatically generate process plans and work instructions in support of the manufacture of multiwire cables. Development of these programs required selecting appropriate hardware and software tools, defining engineering process planning activities, acquiring and representing process planning knowledge, and creating a prototype system. A successful prototype was developed and demonstrated.

Schaefer, R.M.

1994-04-01

124

A first-principles generic methodology for representing the knowledge base of a process diagnostic expert system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a methodology for identifying faulty component candidates of process malfunctions through basic physical principles of conservation, functional classification of components and information from the process schematics. The basic principles of macroscopic balance of mass, momentum and energy in thermal hydraulic control volumes are applied in a novel approach to incorporate deep knowledge into the knowledge base. Additional deep knowledge is incorporated through the functional classification of process components according to their influence in disturbing the macroscopic balance equations. Information from the process schematics is applied to identify the faulty component candidates after the type of imbalance in the control volumes is matched against the functional classification of the components. Except for the information from the process schematics, this approach is completely general and independent of the process under consideration. The use of basic first-principles, which are physically correct, and the process-independent architecture of the diagnosis procedure allow for the verification and validation of the system. A prototype process diagnosis expert system is developed and a test problem is presented to identify faulty component candidates in the presence of a single failure in a hypothetical balance of plant of a liquid metal nuclear reactor plant.

Reifman, J.; Briggs, L.L.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1990-01-01

125

An expert system model for implementing statistical process control in the health care industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's health care industry is under increased pressure to become more efficient and cost effective. In addition, hospitals are now required to adopt the techniques and methods of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) as part of their accreditation requirements. One of the main challenges facing health care providers implementing CQI is how to manage, control and improve processes using Statistical Process

E. G. Tsacle; N. A. Aly

1996-01-01

126

Optimization of a sonar image processing chain: a fuzzy rules based expert system approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improvement of a sonar image processing chain. In order to extract significant areas, the first step of sonar image analysis consist of segmenting the image into three classes: shadow, echo, reverberation. Segmentation quality and precision are of first importance for performances of subsequent tasks. The original segmentation process was carried out by two thresholds that delimit

S. Guillaudeux; S. Daniel; E. Maillard

1996-01-01

127

Using the Process Trellis to Organize Large-Scale Parallel Realtime Monitors and Expert Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accomplishments under this grant were: The researchers defined a new sensor/actuator view of process trellis software architecture for data fusion. The trellis architecture was ported to a IAN environment. The researchers tested a flew LAN-capable sensor/...

D. Gelernter

1993-01-01

128

Microcomputer-based image processing system for CT/MRI scans: II. Expert system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microcomputer-based image processing system is used to digitize and process serial sections of CT/MRI scan and reconstruct three-dimensional images of brain structures and brain lesions. The images grabbed also serve as templates and different vital regions with different risk values are also traced out for 3D reconstruction. A knowledge-based system employing rule-based programming has been built to help identifying brain lesions and to help planning trajectory for operations. The volumes of the lesions are also automatically determined. Such system is very useful for medical skills archival, tumor size monitoring, survival and outcome forecasting, and consistent neurosurgical planning.

Kwok, John C.; Yu, Peter K.; Cheng, Andrew Y.; Ho, Wai-Chin

1991-06-01

129

Using PC-based shells to write an expert assistance for use with the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process ENgineering) computer code  

SciTech Connect

Many engineers argue against using expert systems to solve problems because of the relatively high cost of specialized LISP machines and the large expert system shells written for them. This paper demonstrates how small, but useful, expert systems can be written with inexpensive shells and run on inexpensive personal computers (PCs). Two such shells are CLIPS and EXSHELL. CLIPS, developed by NASA, is a forward-chaining, rule-based system. It is written in the C language, but the rules are entered in a LISP-like format. EXSHELL, developed by the Computer Science Department at the University of New Mexico, is a backward-chaining, rule-based system written in PROLOG. Each of these shells was used to write an expert assistant to aid the design engineer in using the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process ENgineering) computer code. ASPEN is a large computer code used to design chemical plants and refineries. Among other things, ASPEN computes mass and energy balances for the plant design. Unfortunately, an expert, or several experts, are required to use ASPEN to its full potential. For example, choosing the proper thermodynamic package to represent a given process is important in developing the correct mass and energy balances. An ASPEN user may be an expert in plant design, yet may not be expert enough at thermodynamics to pick the proper package from the many offered by ASPEN. CLIPS and EXSHELL were used to develop a useful expert assistant to help process plant designers pick the proper thermodynamic package to be used with particular operating conditions at various points in the ASPEN plant simulation. This paper also demonstrates the utility and ease of use of these inexpensive shells and compares the approach used by each. 11 refs., 12 figs.

Parkinson, W.J.; Luger, G.F.; Bretz, R.E.

1989-01-01

130

Reducing No Fault Found using statistical processing and an expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for capturing avionics test failure results from Automated Test Equipment (ATE) and statistically processing this data to provide decision support for software engineers in reducing No Fault Found (NFF) cases at various testing levels. NFFs have plagued the avionics test and repair environment for years at enormous cost to readiness and logistics support. The costs

B. Steadman; T. Pombo; I. Madison; J. Shively; L. Kirkland

2002-01-01

131

Using an expert panel to validate a requirements process improvement model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present components of a newly developed software process improvement model that aims to represent key practices in requirements engineering (RE). Our model is developed in response to practitioner needs highlighted in our empirical work with UK software development companies. We have now reached the stage in model development where we need some independent feedback as to

Sarah Beecham; Tracy Hall; Carol Britton; Michaela Cottee; Austen Rainer

2005-01-01

132

Expert face processing requires visual input to the right hemisphere during infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult expertise in face processing is mediated largely by neural networks in the right hemisphere. Here we evaluate the contribution of early visual input in establishing this neural substrate. We compared visually normal individuals to patients for whom visual input had been restricted mainly to one hemisphere during infancy. We show that early deprivation of visual input to the right

Richard Le Grand; Catherine J Mondloch; Henry P Brent; Daphne Maurer

2003-01-01

133

Expert System Development in the Classroom: Processes and Outcomes. Technical Report 91-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined cognitive processes and outcomes associated with student knowledge base development. Sixty-nine students from two grade 8 classes were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a knowledge base development (KBD) group, a problem-solving software group, and a control group. Those in the KBD group received relevant instruction…

Wideman, Herbert H.; Owston, Ronald D.

134

Expert-seeking Activity Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert seeking is an activity in which one seeks expertise from someone else in order to solve certain problems. When one realizes he or she requires helps to accomplish tasks that need new skills and knowledge, the process of expert seeking is initiated. This process involves many elements including formulating goals and strategies, identifying and selecting experts, and repeating the

Osman Ghazali; Norshuhada Shiratuddin

2004-01-01

135

Human Benchmarking of Expert Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document outlines the strategy used for benchmarking expert systems to human performance. Two major alternatives for human benchmarking of expert system are proposed: computer science driven or psychological process driven. The computer science drive...

A. Jacoby H. F. O'Neil K. M. Swigger Y. Ni

1990-01-01

136

An Ecological Analysis of the Herbivory-Elicited JA Burst and Its Metabolism: Plant Memory Processes and Predictions of the Moving Target Model  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid herbivore-induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation is known to mediate many induced defense responses in vascular plants, but little is known about how JA bursts are metabolized and modified in response to repeated elicitations, are propagated throughout elicited leaves, or how they directly influence herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings We found the JA burst in a native population of Nicotiana attenuata to be highly robust despite environmental variation and we examined the JA bursts produced by repeated elicitations with Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) at whole- and within-leaf spatial scales. Surprisingly, a 2nd OS-elicitation suppressed an expected JA burst at both spatial scales, but subsequent elicitations caused more rapid JA accumulation in elicited tissue. The baseline of induced JA/JA-Ile increased with number of elicitations in discrete intervals. Large veins constrained the spatial spread of JA bursts, leading to heterogeneity within elicited leaves. 1st-instar M. sexta larvae were repelled by elicitations and changed feeding sites. JA conjugated with isoleucine (JA-Ile) translates elicitations into defense production (e.g., TPIs), but conjugation efficiency varied among sectors and depended on NaWRKY3/6 transcription factors. Elicited TPI activity correlated strongly with the heterogeneity of JA/JA-Ile accumulations after a single elicitation, but not repeated elicitations. Conclusions/Significance Ecologically informed scaling of leaf elicitation reveals the contribution of repeated herbivory events to the formation of plant memory of herbivory and the causes and importance of heterogeneity in induced defense responses. Leaf vasculature, in addition to transmitting long-distance damage cues, creates heterogeneity in JA bursts within attacked leaves that may be difficult for an attacking herbivore to predict. Such unpredictability is a central tenet of the Moving Target Model of defense, which posits that variability in itself is defensive.

Stork, William; Diezel, Celia; Halitschke, Rayko; Galis, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

2009-01-01

137

Using probability boxes to model elicited information: a case study.  

PubMed

Governments are responsible for making policy decisions, often in the face of severe uncertainty about the factors involved. Expert elicitation can be used to fill information gaps where data are not available, cannot be obtained, or where there is no time for a full-scale study and analysis. Various features of distributions for variables may be elicited, for example, the mean, standard deviation, and quantiles, but uncertainty about these values is not always recorded. Distributional and dependence assumptions often have to be made in models and although these are sometimes elicited from experts, modelers may also make assumptions for mathematical convenience (e.g., assuming independence between variables). Probability boxes (p-boxes) provide a flexible methodology to analyze elicited quantities without having to make assumptions about the distribution shape. If information about distribution shape(s) is available, p-boxes can provide bounds around the results given these possible input distributions. P-boxes can also be used to combine variables without making dependence assumptions. This article aims to illustrate how p-boxes may help to improve the representation of uncertainty for analyses based on elicited information. We focus on modeling elicited quantiles with nonparametric p-boxes, modeling elicited quantiles with parametric p-boxes where the elicited quantiles do not match the elicited distribution shape, and modeling elicited interval information. PMID:23231722

Roelofs, V J; Roelofs, W

2012-12-12

138

Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

1994-01-01

139

[Medical expert systems].  

PubMed

Expert systems are software systems that can successfully compare to human experts. Their purpose is mostly advisory. Besides, they give explanation and advice to human experts when performing certain tasks. They are intelligent information systems, and are capable to explain and justify their conclusions. Knowledge systems are smaller software systems, and are usually less successful than human experts. Main reasons for expert systems development in medicine are: need for justification of decisions, need for enhancing performances in many uncertain relations; need for explaining of decision making process etc. One of the reasons of developing knowledge-based systems was that conventional statistic formalisms have not provided satisfactory solutions in medical decision making (MDM). Also, today, the relations between cases and conclusions are not universally valid. So, few causes can provide the same conclusion. Besides, data are not necessarily absolutely accurate. The area of applying expert systems is very wide: diagnosis, prognosis, self-education, directing etc. Basic structure of expert system consists of: knowledge, data base, inferring mechanism, explaining mechanism and user-interface. Though, expert systems also have certain bad features: primarily, they are not physicians i.e. they can not examine a patient. Furthermore, expert system that is good for one certain area is often not good for another one. There are some cases, when these systems can confuse a physician and make him to make a wrong decision. This occurs very often in two specific cases: when the clinical situation is urgent; and when accuracy of clinical information is not definite. PMID:9601753

Masi?, I; Ridanovi?, Z; Pandza, H

1995-01-01

140

Expert reports.  

PubMed

In 1996, article 4590i of the Texas Revised Civil Statutes Annotated, the statutory provision that governs health care liability claims in Texas, was amended to require claimants to file expert reports within 180 days as part of the prosecution of their claims. Sufficient expert reports include explanations of the standard of care, the deviation from that standard, and how the deviation caused the claimant's damages. Two provisions allow courts to grant a 30-day extension for filing expert reports. A good cause extension can be used to extend the filing deadline to 210 days; however, case law has not clearly defined what constitutes good cause. An accident or mistake grace period can be used to justify reports filed >210 days after the suit has been filed; judges determine whether the failure is due to a mistake or intentional indifference. As with any statute, the language is not as important as how the courts (judges) interpret that language. The statute may appear strict but room for interpretation exists. PMID:16389359

Thornton, R G

2000-10-01

141

The Magic or Myth of Expertise: A Comparison of Judgment Processes between Forensic Experts and Lay Persons Based on Psychiatric Case Vignettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a continuation of a previous study (Grøndahl, Grønnerød, & Sexton, 2009), we examined how 120 laypersons and 35 forensic experts (14 psychiatrists and 21 psychologists) differed in their judgment processes of forensic case vignettes. The vignettes contained descriptions of three components, namely social history, psychiatric history and criminal offense. We found important differences in how the groups used information

Pål Grøndahl; Cato Grønnerød; Joseph Sexton

2011-01-01

142

The Naturally Processed CD95L Elicits a c-Yes/Calcium/PI3K-Driven Cell Migration Pathway  

PubMed Central

Patients affected by chronic inflammatory disorders display high amounts of soluble CD95L. This homotrimeric ligand arises from the cleavage by metalloproteases of its membrane-bound counterpart, a strong apoptotic inducer. In contrast, the naturally processed CD95L is viewed as an apoptotic antagonist competing with its membrane counterpart for binding to CD95. Recent reports pinpointed that activation of CD95 may attract myeloid and tumoral cells, which display resistance to the CD95-mediated apoptotic signal. However, all these studies were performed using chimeric CD95Ls (oligomerized forms), which behave as the membrane-bound ligand and not as the naturally processed CD95L. Herein, we examine the biological effects of the metalloprotease-cleaved CD95L on CD95-sensitive activated T-lymphocytes. We demonstrate that cleaved CD95L (cl-CD95L), found increased in sera of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients as compared to that of healthy individuals, promotes the formation of migrating pseudopods at the leading edge of which the death receptor CD95 is capped (confocal microscopy). Using different migration assays (wound healing/Boyden Chamber/endothelial transmigration), we uncover that cl-CD95L promotes cell migration through a c-yes/Ca2+/PI3K-driven signaling pathway, which relies on the formation of a CD95-containing complex designated the MISC for Motility-Inducing Signaling Complex. These findings revisit the role of the metalloprotease-cleaved CD95L and emphasize that the increase in cl-CD95L observed in patients affected by chronic inflammatory disorders may fuel the local or systemic tissue damage by promoting tissue-filtration of immune cells.

Selva, Eric; Khadra, Nadine; Daburon, Sophie; Contin-Bordes, Cecile; Blanco, Patrick; Le Seyec, Jacques; Ducret, Thomas; Counillon, Laurent; Moreau, Jean-Francois; Hofman, Paul; Vacher, Pierre; Legembre, Patrick

2011-01-01

143

Expert judgement elicitation for risk assessments of critical infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governmental bodies and companies are confronted with the problem of achieving rational consensus in the face of substantial uncertainties. The subject area of this special issue (risk and vulnerability assessments and management of critical infrastructures) might be a good example as are risk management of chemical installations and accident consequence management for nuclear power plants. Decisions with regard to infrastructures

R. M. Cooke; L. H. J. Goossens

2004-01-01

144

Eliciting expert knowledge to inform landscape modeling of conservation scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation and land management organizations such as The Nature Conservancy are developing strategies to distribute conservation efforts over larger areas. Relative to fee-simple protection efforts, strategies that allow ecologically sustainable timber harvest and recreation activities, such as working forest conservation easements, should yield greater socioeconomic benefits (ecosystem services) with less investment per area without significantly compromising the conservation of biodiversity

Jessica Price; Janet Silbernagel; Nicholas Miller; Randy Swaty; Mark White; Kristina Nixon

145

Expert judgments about transient climate response to alternative future trajectories of radiative forcing  

PubMed Central

There is uncertainty about the response of the climate system to future trajectories of radiative forcing. To quantify this uncertainty we conducted face-to-face interviews with 14 leading climate scientists, using formal methods of expert elicitation. We structured the interviews around three scenarios of radiative forcing stabilizing at different levels. All experts ranked “cloud radiative feedbacks” as contributing most to their uncertainty about future global mean temperature change, irrespective of the specified level of radiative forcing. The experts disagreed about the relative contribution of other physical processes to their uncertainty about future temperature change. For a forcing trajectory that stabilized at 7 Wm-2 in 2200, 13 of the 14 experts judged the probability that the climate system would undergo, or be irrevocably committed to, a “basic state change” as ?0.5. The width and median values of the probability distributions elicited from the different experts for future global mean temperature change under the specified forcing trajectories vary considerably. Even for a moderate increase in forcing by the year 2050, the medians of the elicited distributions of temperature change relative to 2000 range from 0.8–1.8?°C, and some of the interquartile ranges do not overlap. Ten of the 14 experts estimated that the probability that equilibrium climate sensitivity exceeds 4.5?°C is > 0.17, our interpretation of the upper limit of the “likely” range given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Finally, most experts anticipated that over the next 20 years research will be able to achieve only modest reductions in their degree of uncertainty.

Zickfeld, Kirsten; Morgan, M. Granger; Frame, David J.; Keith, David W.

2010-01-01

146

Use of expert judgment in NUREG--1150  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expert judgment process used in NUREG--1150, ''Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Plants,'' is an advance over those processes developed in previous probabilistic risk assessments. The new process was used to obtain expert judgment on issues expected to be the main contributors to the potential risk of five nuclear plants. The use of expert judgment helped

N. R. Ortiz; T. A. Wheeler; M. A. Meyer; R. L. Keeney

1988-01-01

147

Creating an Experts Database.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many organizations are creating a database of technical experts as a mechanism for identifying key people who can solve problems, transfer information and best practices, and/or identify other experts with the needed expertise. This article discusses experts versus skills; identifying experts; responsibilities of the expert; expert profiles;…

Hodgson, Cynthia A.

1999-01-01

148

Using PC (Personal Computer)-Based Shells to Write an Expert Assistance for Use with the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process ENgineering) Computer Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many engineers argue against using expert systems to solve problems because of the relatively high cost of specialized LISP machines and the large expert system shells written for them. This paper demonstrates how small, but useful, expert systems can be ...

W. J. Parkinson G. F. Luger R. E. Bretz

1989-01-01

149

Text Mining and Natural Language Processing Approaches for Automatic Categorization of Lay Requests to Web-Based Expert Forums  

PubMed Central

Background Both healthy and sick people increasingly use electronic media to obtain medical information and advice. For example, Internet users may send requests to Web-based expert forums, or so-called “ask the doctor” services. Objective To automatically classify lay requests to an Internet medical expert forum using a combination of different text-mining strategies. Methods We first manually classified a sample of 988 requests directed to a involuntary childlessness forum on the German website “Rund ums Baby” (“Everything about Babies”) into one or more of 38 categories belonging to two dimensions (“subject matter” and “expectations”). After creating start and synonym lists, we calculated the average Cramer’s V statistic for the association of each word with each category. We also used principle component analysis and singular value decomposition as further text-mining strategies. With these measures we trained regression models and determined, on the basis of best regression models, for any request the probability of belonging to each of the 38 different categories, with a cutoff of 50%. Recall and precision of a test sample were calculated as a measure of quality for the automatic classification. Results According to the manual classification of 988 documents, 102 (10%) documents fell into the category “in vitro fertilization (IVF),” 81 (8%) into the category “ovulation,” 79 (8%) into “cycle,” and 57 (6%) into “semen analysis.” These were the four most frequent categories in the subject matter dimension (consisting of 32 categories). The expectation dimension comprised six categories; we classified 533 documents (54%) as “general information” and 351 (36%) as a wish for “treatment recommendations.” The generation of indicator variables based on the chi-square analysis and Cramer’s V proved to be the best approach for automatic classification in about half of the categories. In combination with the two other approaches, 100% precision and 100% recall were realized in 18 (47%) out of the 38 categories in the test sample. For 35 (92%) categories, precision and recall were better than 80%. For some categories, the input variables (ie, “words”) also included variables from other categories, most often with a negative sign. For example, absence of words predictive for “menstruation” was a strong indicator for the category “pregnancy test.” Conclusions Our approach suggests a way of automatically classifying and analyzing unstructured information in Internet expert forums. The technique can perform a preliminary categorization of new requests and help Internet medical experts to better handle the mass of information and to give professional feedback.

Reincke, Ulrich; Michelmann, Hans Wilhelm

2009-01-01

150

Eliciting individual discount rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled laboratory conditions using monetary incentives have been utilized in previous studies that examine individual discount rates, and researchers have found several apparently robust anomalies. We conjecture that subject behavior in these experiments may be affected by (uncontrolled) factors other than discount rates. We address some experimental design issues and report a new series of experiments designed to elicit individual

Maribeth Coller; Melonie B. Williams

1999-01-01

151

Implicit Communication in Novice and Expert Teams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current study aimed to pilot a methodology for measuring implicit communication processes in novice and expert teams. To achieve this, implicit communication in expert teams (civilian and military) was compared with novice teams performing the same ta...

K. Swain V. Mills

2003-01-01

152

Expert Systems: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

Adiga, Sadashiv

1984-01-01

153

Expert Knowledge as a Basis for Landscape Ecological Predictive Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Defining an appropriate role for expert knowledge in science can lead to contentious debate. The professional experience of\\u000a ecologists, elicited as expert judgment, plays an essential role in many aspects of landscape ecological science. Experts\\u000a may be asked to judge the relevance of competing research or management questions, the quality and suitability of available\\u000a data, the best balance of complexity

C. Ashton Drew; Ajith H. Perera

154

Expert witness perceptions of bias in experts.  

PubMed

A pilot study of perceptions of different sources of expert bias, as well as of personal investment in case outcomes, was performed among attendees at a workshop at an annual meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. Participants were asked to rate hypothetical responses by experts to various case outcomes and the biasing potential of different kinds of situations for opposing or other experts. A factor analysis produced two factors. Factor 1 included questions about situations that were obviously biasing (such as working only for the defense). Factor 2 included questions assessing the potential of certain situations to cause bias in experts, or how likely experts thought other experts were to be biased. In general, experts identified only four areas to be overtly biasing. All occurred within situations in which experts worked only for one or the other side of civil or criminal cases. Experts otherwise thought other experts were reasonably bias free and well able to compensate for any bias when it occurred. The data suggest that experts may deal with bias by turning down cases that may cause them personal discomfort. PMID:15497632

Commons, Michael Lamport; Miller, Patrice Marie; Gutheil, Thomas G

2004-01-01

155

Using knowledge elicitation to inform a Bayesian belief network model of a stream ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of the causal pathways leading to stream impairment is a central challenge to our understanding of ecological relationships. Bayesian belief networks (BBN's) are a promising tool for modeling presumed causal relationships, providing a modeling structure within which different factors describing the ecosystem can be causally linked and uncertainties expressed for each linkage. Relationships can be specified empirically or by knowledge elicitation from a group of experts. We conducted a pilot study to examine the effectiveness of knowledge elicitation for a simple scenario (impairment of a Midwestern, low-gradient stream by excess fine sediments). Five stream ecologists guided by BBN facilitators then defined relevant chemical, physical, and biological aspects of the ecosystem and how the components interacted, and predicted quantitatively how different attributes of the macroinvertebrate assemblage would change in response to increased levels of fine sediment. The exercise provided insights into how best to adapt knowledge elicitation methods to ecological questions, and informed the assembled stream ecologists on the elicitation process and on the potential benefits of this modeling approach. The explicit quantification of uncertainty in the model not only enhances the utility of the model predictions but can also help guide future research

Black, P.; Stockton, T.; Yuan, L.; Allan, D.; Dodds, W.; Johnson, L.; Palmer, M.; Wallace, B.; Stewart, A.

2005-05-01

156

Eliciting risk perceptions with an online game: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a scientific casual browser game called LinkIT for eliciting societal risk perceptions in the form of mental models represented as influence diagrams. Given this knowledge, we can highlight similarities and differences across demographic groups as well as compare individual responses with expert models. These comparisons inform how risk should be best communicated to resolve knowledge gaps and misperceptions.

William L. McGill; Yan Cao; Miao Jiang; Jorge J. Calle; Stephen Broomell; Gale Lauser

2011-01-01

157

The use of probability elicitation in the high-level nuclear waste regulation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert judgement elicitation is expected to be used in the performance assessments (PA) of the long-term behavior of high-level waste (HLW) geologic repositories. As a preparation for an effective review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) PA, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is evaluating the mechanics of eliciting expert judgements. One of the objectives of this evaluation is to

Aaron R. Dewispelare; L. Tandy Herren; Robert T. Clemen

1995-01-01

158

Expert systems applications for productivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of productivity management and potential expert systems applications at each stage of productivity analysis. Based on literature reviews it discusses the strengths and limitations of these technologies. Describes several tasks in the measurement, interpretation and evaluation phases and examines the appropriateness of an expert systems application. Finds that expert systems

Mohan P. Rao; David M. Miller

2004-01-01

159

Using PC-based shells to write an expert assistance for use with the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process ENgineering) computer code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many engineers argue against using expert systems to solve problems because of the relatively high cost of specialized LISP machines and the large expert system shells written for them. This paper demonstrates how small, but useful, expert systems can be written with inexpensive shells and run on inexpensive personal computers (PCs). Two such shells are CLIPS and EXSHELL. CLIPS, developed

W. J. Parkinson; G. F. Luger; R. E. Bretz

1989-01-01

160

Document Delivery Expert.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the design of an expert system developed using VP-Expert for document delivery decision making in a law library. Presents methods used in knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation after a brief review of the literature on expert system use in libraries. An appendix includes the rules of the expert system. (Author/AEF)|

Abate, Anne K.

1995-01-01

161

Expert systems in business  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in expert systems point toward success for this technology in business environments. Expert systems employ unique programming techniques to model expert decisions. The production system has thus far proved to be the best programming method for expert knowledge. Some expert systems have been verified as performing at an expert level, either scientifically or through field use. Some examples of behavioural variables found in a business environment are described. Executives who choose to ignore expert systems may find themselves at a competitive disadvantage within the next decade.

Michaelsen, R.; Michie, D.

1983-11-01

162

Sources of correlation between experts: Empirical results from two extremes  

SciTech Connect

Through two studies, this report seeks to identify the sources of correlation, or dependence, between experts' estimates. Expert estimates are relied upon as sources of data whenever experimental data is lacking, such as in risk analyses and reliability assessments. Correlation between experts is a problem in the elicitation and subsequent use of subjective estimates. Until now, there have been no data confirming sources of correlation, although the experts' background is commonly speculated to be one. Two different populations of experts were administered questions in their areas of expertise. Data on their professional backgrounds and means of solving the questions were elicited using techniques from educational psychology and ethnography. The results from both studies indicate that the way in which an expert solves the problem is the major source of correlation. The experts' background can not be shown to be an important source of correlation nor to influence his choice of method for problem solution. From these results, some recommendations are given for the elicitation and use of expert opinion.

Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

1987-04-01

163

Nonfunctional Requirements: From Elicitation to Conceptual Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonfunctional Requirements (NFRs) have been frequently neglected or forgotten in software design. They have been presented as a second or even third class type of requirement, frequently hidden inside notes. We tackle this problem by treating NFRs as first class requirements. We present a process to elicit NFRs, analyze their interdependencies, and trace them to functional conceptual models. We focus

Luiz Marcio Cysneiros; Julio Cesar Sampaio Do Prado Leite

2004-01-01

164

What Are Expert Systems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

d'Agapeyeff, A.

1986-01-01

165

Paediatric expert witness.  

PubMed

Paediatricians may be asked to provide expert opinion in paediatric cases that come under legal consideration. This article provides suggestions to assist paediatricians in this role and emphasises their duty to the court when giving expert opinion. PMID:23551884

Johnson, Sandra L J

2013-03-29

166

Developing Expert Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides a set of general guidelines for the development and distribution of highway related expert systems. This expands the guidelines provided in Chapter X, Expert Systems, of the ADP Management Manual. Included is information on developin...

D. Barnett C. Jackson J. A. Wentworth

1988-01-01

167

Expert Systems for Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert systems use rules to represent experts’ reasoning in solving problems. The rules are based on knowledge about methods and the problem domain. To acquire knowledge for an expert system, one should rely on a variety of sources, such as textbooks, research papers, interviews, surveys, and protocol analysis. Protocol analysis is especially useful if the area to be modeled is

J. Scott Armstrong; Monica Adya

2001-01-01

168

Clearly Biased Experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the credibility, informativeness, and value of multidimensional cheap talk by an expert with transparent motives. Transparency ensures that the expert can credibly communicate information across dimensions and this information can be quite detailed. The expert always bene…ts from cheap talk if her preferences are quasiconvex, but is better oremaining silent if her preferences are quasiconcave. The model gener-

Archishman Chakraborty; Rick Harbaugh

169

How to Elicit Many Probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In building Bayesian belief networks, the elicitation of all probabilities required can be a major obstacle. We learned the extent of this often-cited observation in the construction of the probabilistic part of a complex influence diagram in the field of cancer treatment. Based upon our negative experiences with existing methods, we designed a new method for probability elicitation from domain

Linda C. Van Der Gaag; Silja Renooij; C. L. M. Witteman; B. M. P. Aleman; B. G. Taal

1999-01-01

170

Lessons learned from developing a mission-critical expert system with multiple experts through rapid prototyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expert systems technology is ubiquitous among the mission-critical tasks in the defense area. Knowledge compiled through the military applications can serve as a remarkable source of learning opportunities for those in the civilian sector. In this paper, we describe the process of developing one such mission-critical military application, which contains an embedded expert system. A large number of experts

P. C. Bloom; Q. B. Chung

2001-01-01

171

Expert Status and Performance  

PubMed Central

Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience [1], [2]. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.

Burgman, Mark A.; McBride, Marissa; Ashton, Raquel; Speirs-Bridge, Andrew; Flander, Louisa; Wintle, Bonnie; Fidler, Fiona; Rumpff, Libby; Twardy, Charles

2011-01-01

172

Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1) defining the range of concerns of the public toward different bioremediation strategies and long-term stewardship; (2) creating materials and delivery methods that address bioremediation issues; and (3) assessing the effectiveness of the consensus workshop in identifying concerns about bioremediation and involving the public in a dialogue about their use. After a brief description of the Idaho workshop, we discuss the range of concerns articulated by the participants about bioremediation, discuss the materials and delivery methods used to communicate information about bioremediation, and assess the effectiveness of the consensus workshop. In summary we found that panel members in general: understood complex technical issues, especially when given enough time in a facilitated discussion with experts; are generally accepting of in situ bioremediation, but concerned about costs, safety, and effectiveness of the technology; are concerned equally about technology and decision processes; and liked the consensus workshop approach to learning about bioremediation.

Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

2003-03-01

173

Forensic experts' perceptions of expert bias.  

PubMed

How do expert witnesses perceive the possible biases of their fellow expert witnesses? Participants, who were attendees at a workshop at the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law were asked to rate for their biasing potential a number of situations that might affect the behavior of an opposing expert. A Rasch analysis produced a linear scale as to the perceived biasing potential of these different kinds of situations from the most biasing to the least biasing. Working for only one side in both civil and criminal cases had large scaled values and also were the first factor. In interesting contrast, a) an opposing expert also serving as the litigant's treater and b) an opposing expert being viewed as a "hired gun" (supplying an opinion only for money) were two situations viewed as not very biasing. Order of Hierarchical Complexity also accounted for items from the 1st, 2nd and 3rd factors. The result suggests that the difficulty in understanding the conceptual basis of bias underlies the perception of how biased a behavior or a situation is. The more difficult to understand the questionnaire item, the less biasing its behavior or situation is perceived by participants. PMID:23046867

Commons, Michael Lamport; Miller, Patrice Marie; Li, Eva Yujia; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

2012-10-06

174

DICTIONARY CONSTRUCTION BY DOMAIN EXPERTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sites participating in the recent message understanding conferences have increasingly focused their research on developing methods for automated knowledge acquisition and tools for human-assisted knowledge engineering. However, it is important to remember that the ultimate users of these tools will be domain experts, not natural language processing researchers. Domain experls have extensive knowledge about the task and the domain, but

Ellen Riloff; Wendy G. Lehnert

175

Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study investigated whether the process of constructing an expert system model promotes the formation of expert-like mental models. Discusses expert systems as mindtools, expert systems as learning tools, the assessment of mental models, results of pretests and posttests, and future research. (Contains 56 references.) (Author/LRW)

Mason-Mason, Susan Dale; Tessmer, Martin A.

2000-01-01

176

Back-propagation learning in expert networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert networks are event-driven, acyclic networks of neural objects derived from expert systems. The neural objects process information through a nonlinear combining function that is different from, and more complex than, typical neural network node processors. The authors develop back-propagation learning for acyclic, event-driven networks in general and derive a specific algorithm for learning in EMYCIN-derived expert networks. The algorithm

R. C. Lacher; S. I. Hruska; D. C. Kuncicky

1992-01-01

177

Introduction to expert systems  

SciTech Connect

Expert systems have become one of the most exciting applications within the domain of artificial intelligence. Further interest has been provoked by Japan's Fifth Generation Project, which identifies expert or knowledge-based systems as a key element in the computer systems of the future. This book presents an introduction to expert systems at a level suited to the undergraduate student and the interested layman. It surveys the three main techniques for knowledge representation - rules, frames and logic. and describes in detail the expert systems which employ them. Contents: Expert systems and artificial intelligence; Formalisms for knowledge representation; MYCIN; Medical diagnosis using rules. MYCIN derivatives; TEIRESIAS, EMYCIN, and GUIDON; RI: recognition as a problem-solving strategy; CENTAUR: a combination of frames metalevel inference and commonsense reasoning in MECHO; Tools for building expert systems; Summary and conclusions; Exercises.

Jackson, P.

1986-01-01

178

Spoonerisms as Sequencer Conflicts: Evidence from Artifically Elicited Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents evidence that spoonerisms result from a conflict in word sequencing that carries through to phoneme sequencing, and in the process illustrates the use of some techniques for the experimental elicitation of spoonerisms. (Author/RK)

Baars, Bernard J.; Motley, Michael T.

1976-01-01

179

The use of fuzzy control system methods for characterizing expert judgment uncertainty distributions  

SciTech Connect

Fuzzy logic methods permit experts to assess parameters affecting performance of components/systems in natural language terms more familiar to them (e.g., high, good, etc.). Recognizing that there is a cost associated with obtaining more precise information, the authors particular interest is in cases where the relationship between the condition of the system and its performance is not well understood, especially for some sets of possible operating conditions, and where developing a better understanding is very difficult and/or expensive. The methods allow the experts to make use of the level of precision with which they understand the underlying process. The authors consider and compare various methods of formulating the process just described, with an application in reliability analysis where expert information forms a significant (if not sole) source of data for reliability analysis. The flow of information through the fuzzy-control-systems based analysis is studied using a simple, hypothetical problem which mimics the structure used to elicit expert information in Parse. They also characterize the effect of using progressively more refined information and examine the use of fuzzy-based methods as data pooling/fusion mechanisms.

Smith, R.E.; Booker, J.M.; Bement, T.R.; Parkinson, W.J.; Meyer, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jamshidi, M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-12-01

180

Eliciting the relative importance of risk factors concerning contagious animal diseases using conjoint analysis: a preliminary survey report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjoint analysis is a technique well known in marketing research to elicit consumer preferences and opinions. This paper describes the results of an experiment which explores the potential application of conjoint analysis in the field of veterinary epidemiology and economics. In this experiment, the method of conjoint analysis was used to elicit the opinion of experts about the relative importance

H. S. Horst; R. B. M. Huirne; A. A. Dijkhuizen

1996-01-01

181

Expert psychological testimony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental psychologists increasingly are asked to give expert testimony in court, especially with regard to issues of eyewitness reliability. Whether or not experimental psychologists should give expert testimony on these matters is a controversial issue. The empirical literature suggests that potential jurors do not have a good understanding of the variables influencing eyewitness accuracy and that they cannot discriminate adequately

Gary L. Wells

1986-01-01

182

Tactical Weather Expert System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of developing an expert system for tactical weather prediction. Using WILLARD, an expert system developed to predict severe thunderstorms in the Great Plains Regions of the United States, as a po...

H. B. Teates P. D. Lampru M. D. Condon

1987-01-01

183

Agent Modeling in Expert Critiquing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert critiquing systems are a type of human- computer collaborative system in which a com- puter agent presents reasoned opinions about a human agent's problem-solving process for a given task. The challenge in such systems is to provide timely critiques relevant to the user's fo- cus of attention. A problem with many expert critiquing systems is that their critiques are

Michael C. Fu; Caroline C. Hayes

1996-01-01

184

Ethical Expert Systems  

PubMed Central

The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

Victoroff, Michael S.

1985-01-01

185

Become A Rock Expert!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. But how do we identify and classify rocks? Your mission is to become an amateur geologist by exploring the different types of rocks; sorting them by color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size; and discussing with your classmates what you learned! Rockin Rocks, Ms. Andersen's site about the Big6. Rock Expert Webquest INTRODUCTION The Museum of Natural History is creating a new exhibit on rocks and minerals. They are looking for expert knowledge to share with museum visitors. They need your help, Rock Expert! MISSION You will work as an Amateur Geologist for the Museum of Natural ...

Andersen, Ms.

2010-11-13

186

Photo Elicitation Interview (PEI): Using Photos to Elicit Children's Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

When conducting photo elicitation interviews (PEI), researchers introduce photographs into the interview context. Although PEI has been employed across a wide variety of disciplines and participants, little has been written about the use of photographs in interviews with children. In this article, the authors review the use of PEI in a research study that explored the perspectives on camp of

Iris Epstein; Bonnie Stevens; Patricia McKeever; Sylvain Baruchel

2006-01-01

187

Identification of the molecular mechanisms in cellular processes that elicit a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) response using simultaneous surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (SPEF) microscopy.  

PubMed

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has developed into a powerful approach for label-free monitoring of cellular behavior. Most cellular responses, however, involve a complex cascade of molecular events which makes identifying the specific components of cellular behavior dynamics contributing to the aggregate SPR signal problematic. Recently, a number of groups have used surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (SPEF) microscopy on living cells. In this work, we show that SPEF microscopy can be used to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for SPR detection of cellular processes. By specifically labeling the actin cytoskeleton in human epithelial kidney cells (HEK 293) and rat vascular smooth muscle cells (A7r5), we correlate cell reorganization observed in SPEF with SPR signal variations reflecting aggregate cellular changes. HEK 293 cells stimulated with angiotensin-II exhibited transient contraction, appearing as an SPR signal decrease with a subsequent increase above the initial baseline. SPEF micrographs showed a decrease in cellular area followed by actin densification and cell spreading. A7r5 stimulated with Latrunculin A showed actin cytoskeleton depolymerization, generating a steady SPR signal decrease, with SPEF micrographs showing extensive collapse of cell actin structures. We observed that SPR monitoring of cellular response is strongly dependent on minute variations in cellular footprint on the substrate as well as changes in the molecular density in the basal portions of the cells. Therefore, combining SPR with imaging of selective fluorescent markers by SPEF allows a more comprehensive deconvolution of the cellular signal in relation to molecular events within the cells. PMID:23845690

Chabot, Vincent; Miron, Yannick; Charette, Paul G; Grandbois, Michel

2013-06-20

188

Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion

Erin D. Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M. Keisler

2010-01-01

189

Heat exchanger expert system logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

Cormier, R.

1988-08-01

190

Expert assistants for design  

SciTech Connect

Two expert programs currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, PROCON and the Designer's Apprentice, are briefly described. Both codes define interface to simulations that provide a wide variety of information about the performance of complex devices. (BCS)

Aldridge, J.; Cerutti, J.; Draisin, W.; Steuerwalt, M.

1986-01-01

191

Expert systems - 1987  

SciTech Connect

This is the 1987 updated version of expert systems which includes diverse areas such as CAD/CAM, business management, robotics, welding, computer hardware and software support, electronic design, medicine, insurance, transportation, and maintenance. AI Language Compilers are also inventoried. This handbook is designed to give an overview of the entire field and to assist the reader in sorting through the hundreds of expert systems which are developed to identify cost-effective tools and applications for in-house implementation.

Walker, T.C.; Miller, R.K.

1987-01-01

192

A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation  

SciTech Connect

A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

R. L. Boring

2007-06-01

193

Differences and similarities among experts’ opinions on Salmonella enterica dynamics in swine pre-harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

A workshop was conducted to elicit expert opinion on infection status and transmission of salmonella in pigs at the farm of origin, during transport and during lairage. A second objective was to compare opinions regarding risk factors for salmonella introduction and control at the farm level between experts from different countries. Thirty-six experts from 11 countries filled in a paper-and-pencil

Katharina D. C Stärk; Anne Wingstrand; Jan Dahl; Vibeke Møgelmose; Danilo M. A Lo Fo Wong

2002-01-01

194

CONSTRUAL PROCESSES IN PREFERENCE ELICITATION. (R824706)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

195

Do Nondomain Experts Enlist the Strategies of Domain Experts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of information-seeking strategies of domain experts and nondomain experts (undergraduates) focuses on a study at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor that investigated whether nondomain experts enlisted the strategies of domain experts when using information gateways on the library Web page; if so, how they learned about them; and…

Drabenstott, Karen M.

2003-01-01

196

Opinion Elicitation in Second Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a novel method for opinion elicitation, which is based on the popular 3D online world of “Second Life”. Here people, as avatars, are put into a somewhat realistic context related to the topic for which opinions are sought. We hypothesize that this kind of concrete, interactive context supports the evocation of opinions better than non-context methods, e.g. only showing related images. To confirm our hypothesis, we conducted a small pilot study, which compares the influence of static and interactive context methods on the opinions expressed by subjects. The opinion elicitation scenario in Second Life is supported by the automatic retrieval of opinions from the web. The results of a study indicate that subjects show more reasoned opinions in the interactive condition. A demo illustrating the content of this paper is available.

van Vliet, Marijn; Neviarouskaya, Alena; Prendinger, Helmut

197

Expert Evidence Pertaining to Battered Women: The Impact of Gender of Expert and Timing of Testimony  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the impact of two variables relating to general expert testimony pertaining to battered women on juror decision processes. Specifically, the gender of the expert, as well as the timing of the presentation of the testimony, were investigated in a simulated homicide trial involving a battered woman who had killed her abuser. Results indicated that when the

Regina A. Schuller; Janice Cripps

1998-01-01

198

Transferring Knowledge: A Parallel between Teaching Chemical Engineering and Developing Expert Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are expert systems development and teaching, the representation and processing of knowledge, knowledge representation in chemical engineering, and expert systems in chemical engineering. The seven phases of expert system development are illustrated. (CW)

Roberge, P. R.

1990-01-01

199

The role of expert knowledge in collaborative water management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the role of expert knowledge in collaborative water management and illustrates it with a case study. It is found that the production and utilization of expert knowledge are influenced by researchers' and policymakers' perspectives on t he nature of knowledge and by characteristics of the policy process. Expert knowl edge can be

G. T. Raadgever; E. Mostert

200

A General Expert System Design for Diagnostic Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing expert systems have a high percentage agreement with experts in a particular field in many situations. However, in many ways their overall behavior is not like that of a human expert. These areas include the inability to give flexible, functional explanations of their reasoning processes, and the failure to degrade gracefully when dealing with problems at the periphery of

Pamela K. Fink; John C. Lusth; Joe W. Duran

1985-01-01

201

Simplifying Probability Elicitation and Uncertainty Modeling in Bayesian Networks  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we contribute two methods that simplify the demands of knowledge elicitation for particular types of Bayesian networks. The ?rst method simplify the task of providing probabilities when the states that a random variable takes can be described by a new, fully ordered state set in which a state implies all the preceding states. The second method leverages Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to provide a way for the expert to express the degree of ignorance that they feel about the estimates being provided.

Paulson, Patrick R.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Neorr, Peter A.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hossain, Shamina S.

2011-04-16

202

Adaptive capture of expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hand, Un Kyong [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[US Navy (United States)

1995-05-01

203

Expert systems as a mindtool to facilitate mental model learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study investigated the question, Does the process of constructing an expert system model of a hydraulic drum\\u000a braking system promote the formation of expert-like mental models? Thirty-three participants in three countries, who reported\\u000a no knowledge of the subject domain in which the expert system was to be created, read encyclopedia extracts, viewed graphics,\\u000a and then created small expert

Susan Dale Mason-Mason; Martin A. Tessmer

2000-01-01

204

Expert System Quality Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A consultation quality control model (CQCM) developed for an expert system (ES) integrated both ES performance measures and end-user judgment values. Simple decision theory concepts were used to design the CQCM. Results show end users belong to different categories characterized by utility functions and the weights they assign to ES consultation…

Raggad, Bel Gacem

1996-01-01

205

Overview of Expert Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of Expert Systems - currently the hottest topic in the field of Artificial Intelligence. Topics covered include what it is, techniques used, existing systems, applications, who is doing it, who is funding it, the state-of-the-art, research requirements, and future trends and opportunities.

Gevarter, W.B.

1982-05-01

206

Tracking the Best Expert  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize the recent relative loss bounds for on-line algorithms where the additional loss of the algorithm on the whole sequence of examples over the loss of the best expert is bounded. The generalization allows the sequence to be partitioned into segments, and the goal is to bound the additional loss of the algorithm over the sum of the losses

Mark Herbster; Manfred K. Warmuth

1995-01-01

207

Tracking the Best Expert  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize the recent relative loss bounds for on-line algorithms where the additional loss of the algorithm on the whole sequence of examples over the loss of the best expert is bounded. The generalization allows the sequence to be partitioned into segments, and the goal is to bound the additional loss of the algorithm over the sum of the losses

Mark Herbster; Manfred K. Warmuth

1998-01-01

208

Skill in expert dogs.  

PubMed

The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between expert, advanced, intermediate, and novice dogs competing in the sport of agility were investigated. There were statistically significant differences between dogs of varying competitive levels in speed, motor control, and signal detections suggestive of increasing motor control automaticity in highly skilled, or expert, dogs. The largest sequential motor control difference was between novice and intermediate dogs, d = .96, whereas the largest sequential signal detection difference was between advanced and expert dogs, d = .90. These findings have two significant implications for expertise researchers: first, the observed similarities between dogs and humans may enable dogs to be used as expert models; and second, expertise science and methods may be profitably employed in the future to create more proficient canine workers. PMID:17924802

Helton, William S

2007-09-01

209

EXPERT EVIDENCE AFTER DAUBERT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daubert stands for a trilogy of Supreme Court cases as well as revisions of the Federal Rules of Evidence. Together they represent American law's most recent effort to filter expert evidence offered at trial. This review begins by placing the Daubert trilogy in the context of earlier judicial efforts to solve the screening problem, which began well before the twentieth

Michael J. Saks; David L. Faigman

2005-01-01

210

Reference Expert Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delivery of library reference service can be practically supplemented through the appropriate incorporation and use of software tools commonly referred to as expert systems. The level of support such systems can afford the reference service organization is dependent on the degree of complexity characteristic of the rule-based programming techniques used to develop a particular system and the size of

Dana E. Smith

1989-01-01

211

Distinctive Qualities of Expert Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper attempts to identify the distinctive qualities of successful veteran teachers, referred to as "expert teachers", which separates them not only from novice teachers but more importantly from experienced non-expert teachers. Based on earlier case studies, this paper maintains that the critical differences between expert and non-expert

Tsui, Amy B. M.

2009-01-01

212

Distinctive qualities of expert teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to identify the distinctive qualities of successful veteran teachers, referred to as “expert teachers”, which separates them not only from novice teachers but more importantly from experienced non?expert teachers. Based on earlier case studies, this paper maintains that the critical differences between expert and non?expert teachers are manifested in three dimensions: their ability to integrate aspects of

Amy B. M. Tsui

2009-01-01

213

The Expert System for Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All students struggling with the subject of thermodynamics should visit this site created by Professor Subrata Bhattacharjee at San Diego State University. After reading an overview of The Expert System for Thermodynamics' (TEST) merits, users can take the Feature Tour to discover all the concepts covered at the site such as Exergy Analyses, Open Processes, and Combustions in Closed Chambers. Students and educators can then view the Slide Show to receive a preface to the problem solving atmosphere. Lastly, visitors can work through the many challenging problems that utilize Daemons.

Bhattacharjee, Subrata

214

Make yourself an expert.  

PubMed

Almost every organization has people it can't do without--specialists with "deep smarts," who are the go-to experts on critical issues. But because their knowledge is experienced-based, it's often instinctive and unarticulated, and never gets passed on. Capturing it is a challenge for both the organization and for colleagues who wish to become in-house authorities themselves. This article offers a methodical system for acquiring deep smarts from an expert. It involves observing that person extensively to understand what makes him successful, practicing the behaviors he exhibits on your own, partnering with him to solve problems, and ultimately taking responsibility for some of his tasks. Describing the experiences of one executive as she takes this journey with a mentor, the authors show how you too can gain the wisdom that will make you indispensable to your firm. PMID:23593772

Leonard, Dorothy; Barton, Gavin; Barton, Michelle

2013-04-01

215

Bioethics for Technical Experts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

Asano, Shigetaka

216

Fields of Experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a framework for learning generic, expressive image priors that capture the statistics of natural scenes and can\\u000a be used for a variety of machine vision tasks. The approach provides a practical method for learning high-order Markov random\\u000a field (MRF) models with potential functions that extend over large pixel neighborhoods. These clique potentials are modeled\\u000a using the Product-of-Experts framework

Stefan Roth; Michael J. Black

2009-01-01

217

Expert Design Advisor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a methodology for the development of large, complex systems involving next-generation mission-critical combat computing resources and an automation toolset using an artificial intelligence expert system shell. The methodology optimizes the design structure including the generating of near-optimal allocations of logical design objects to physical implementations based on heuristic classes of rules, classes of algorithms, sets of analytical

Steven L. Howell; Phillip Q. Hwang; C. M. Nguyen

1990-01-01

218

Evidence-based expert testimony.  

PubMed

Expert witnesses undoubtedly know a great deal about topics on which ordinary people lack information. But experts, no less than other people, are subject to predictable memory biases. No plaintiff lawyer can enter the courtroom alone, without a doctor by his or her side to serve as an expert witness. The behavior of the plaintiff's experts (and the behavior of the experts who walk alongside the defense lawyers as well) is the subject of this article. What should guide expert testimony? How should those guidelines be implemented? How has our profession dealt with these issues? PMID:15777832

Meadow, William

2005-03-01

219

Expert evidence and medical manslaughter: vagueness in action.  

PubMed

This article examines the reliance placed on expert evidence in prosecutions of health professionals for gross negligence manslaughter, where juries must decide whether conduct goes beyond civil negligence and constitutes the crime of involuntary manslaughter. It argues that the test for liability is vague and examines some of the consequences of this. Given the vagueness of the offence, jurors are likely to place great reliance on expert medical evidence. Little is known about how experts negotiate the legal process, empirically speaking: how they approach their task, how they view their role as expert witnesses, and the attitudes, biases, and beliefs that may underpin their testimony. Drawing on the experiences and perceptions often medical experts, this article explores how experts manage the vagueness inherent in the task of interpreting and applying gross negligence. Experts appear to go beyond offering purely medical opinion and enjoy engaging with law and the legal process. PMID:22180927

Quick, Oliver

2011-01-01

220

An Exploratory Study of Expert Group Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a grounded theory exploration that described expert group leaders' experiences and perceptions during the process of leading groups in terms of influence of experience, preexisting knowledge and attitudes, and in-the-moment leadership process. The discussion presents implications for practice, counselor…

Rubel, Deborah J.; Kline, William B.

2008-01-01

221

An Exploratory Study of Expert Group Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a grounded theory exploration that described expert group leaders' experiences and perceptions during the process of leading groups in terms of influence of experience, preexisting knowledge and attitudes, and in-the-moment leadership process. The discussion presents implications for practice, counselor education, supervision, and research.

Deborah J. Rubel; William B. Kline

2008-01-01

222

[Gastroenterology - accusations and errors in treatment: evaluation of the completed expertise process in internal medicine of the expert committee of North Rhineland for the years 2001 to 2005].  

PubMed

Since three decades the extrajudical expertise procedures of the Expert Committee and Arbitration Group has served to pacify the doctor-patient relationship. Systematic analyses of accusations and errors provide valuable data that help to avoid treatment errors and liability disputes against physicians. Disease of the gastrointestinal tract were found ex post to be the main diagnosis in 10 % of the patients entering complaints. The most common benign diseases were bile duct diseases (1.5 %), acute appendicitis (1.2 %) and diverticulosis (0.9 %); malignant tumours of the digestive organs were found in 1.8 %. About one-third of the procedures were directed internists; with 25 % the quota of treatment errors was less than the general average of one third. With an overproportional frequency (56 %) diagnosis errors were confirmed for the occurrence of appendicitis. Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic examinations were the subject of the claimed erroneous treatment by internists in 34 % of the cases: perforations and postinterventional pancreatitis were frequent reasons for filing a complaint. For the resultant injuries, including 4 fatalities, the internists were found to be liable for damages in a total of 17 % of the cases. PMID:18759199

Weber, B; Becker, K; Strohmeyer, G

2008-08-01

223

Spacecraft Environmental Anomalies Expert System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A microcomputer based expert system is being developed to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects, a...

H. C. Koons D. J. Gorney

1988-01-01

224

Expert System for Asset Reconciliation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Expert system technology appears to hold considerable promise for enhancing productivity and promoting better decision-making. The purpose of this study was to determine if an expert system application for asset reconciliation could improve inventory mana...

S. A. McCain

1987-01-01

225

Adaptation behavior in the face of global climate change: Survey responses from experts and decision makers serving the Florida Keys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct a survey to elicit responses from experts and decision makers serving the Florida Keys regarding vulnerability to global climate change. Study findings reveal deep concern among federal, state and local experts and decision makers about adverse impacts at the local level. A large majority of respondents recognize the increasing likelihood of dynamic, potentially irreversible, socioeconomic and ecological repercussions

Pallab Mozumder; Evan Flugman; Timothy Randhir

2011-01-01

226

The imported forensic expert  

SciTech Connect

A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

Larson, C.P.

1980-09-01

227

MushroomExpert.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by amateur mycologist Dr. Michael Kuo with contributions from amateur and professional mycologists, MushroomExpert.Com is an excellent resource for a wide variety of mushroom enthusiasts. The site provides a genus and species index and search engine for detailed information on, and quality up-close photos of, over 330 North American Mushrooms. Individual species pages include brief sections on Habitat, Cap, Stem, and Microscopic Features-to name a few. The site also provides information for beginners, as well as sections on Studying Mushrooms, Edibility, a Morel Data Collection Project, and more.

Kuo, Michael

228

Learning Medical Diagnosis Models from Multiple Experts  

PubMed Central

Building classification models from clinical data often requires labeling examples by human experts. However, it is difficult to obtain a perfect set of labels everyone agrees on because medical data are typically very complicated and it is quite common that different experts have different opinions on the same patient data. A solution that has been recently explored by the research community is learning from multiple experts/annotators. The objective of learning from multiple experts is to model different characteristics of the human experts and combine them to obtain a consensus model. In this work, we study and develop a new probabilistic approach for learning classification models from labels provided by multiple experts. Our method explicitly models and incorporates three characteristics of annotators into the learning process: their specific prediction model, consistency and bias. We show that in addition to building a superior classification model, our method also helps to model behavior of annotators. We applied the proposed method to learn different characteristics of Physicians labeling clinical records for Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) and combine them in order to obtain a final classifier.

Valizadegan, Hamed; Nguyen, Quang; Hauskrecht, Milos

2012-01-01

229

Expert Systems: Dead or Alive?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expert and knowledge-based systems will be an integral part of making global institutions competitive and feasible in an international environment. By integrating expert systems into the curriculum, colleges and universities will alert students to this technology and enable expert systems technology to endure and develop. (Author/AEF)

Liebowitz, Jay

1995-01-01

230

Vague soft expert set theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of fuzzy soft expert set theory and its operations were reviewed. The concept of vague soft expert set theory is introduced. Its operations such as equal, subset, complement, union and intersection are defined. Illustrative examples of vague soft expert set are then given.

Hassan, Nasruddin; Alhazaymeh, Khaleed

2013-04-01

231

`Good Practice' for Expert Witnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to look at good practice in expert-witness court reports in Children Act cases. Reports written by child psychiatrist experts differ enormously in the information they contain, the way in which the report is structured and in style of presentation. There may be a number of reasons for this. Child psychiatrists who work as experts

Guinevere Tufnell; David Cottrell; Daphne Georgiades

1996-01-01

232

Empirical analysis for expert systems  

SciTech Connect

This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant for rheumatology.

Politakis, P.

1985-01-01

233

Antitumor immune reaction elicited by photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work examines why photodynamic therapy (PDT) is capable of eliciting a strong immune reaction against treated solid tumors. It is postulated that this phenomenon originates from the basic charter of the insult inflicted by the photodynamic treatment, which is dominated by singlet oxygen-mediated oxidative stress. The early event associated with this initial impact, which is of major relevance for the development of immune response, is the generation of photo-oxidative lesions responsible for the activation of cellular signal transduction pathways and consequent induction of stress proteins. Importantly, these lesions, as well as other types of PDT mediated oxidative injury, have a strong pro-inflammatory character. It is suggested that the antitumor immune response is primed and propagated by the PDT-induced inflammatory process. Of critical importance for the immune recognition of treated tumor is the generation of large amounts of cancer cell debris that occurs rapidly following PDT treatment.

Korbelik, Mladen

1999-06-01

234

Requirements Elicitation and Analysis of Multiagent Systems Using Activity Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirements elicitation and analysis is intended to gain knowledge about customers' needs and the environment of a software system. Requirements not only commonly deal with business processes and their data but also with the motivation behind these activities, the social structures that forge them, and previous design decisions. Recent studies show that the intentional and social concepts of agent-oriented software

Rubén Fuentes-Fernández; Jorge J. Gómez-Sanz; Juan Pavón

2009-01-01

235

Time course of brain activation elicited by basic emotions.  

PubMed

Whereas facial emotion recognition protocols have shown that each discrete emotion has a specific time course of brain activation, there is no electrophysiological evidence to support these findings for emotional induction by complex pictures. Our objective was to specify the differences between the time courses of brain activation elicited by feelings of happiness and, with unpleasant pictures, by feelings of disgust and sadness. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the watching of high-arousing pictures from the International Affective Picture System, selected to induce specific emotions. In addition to a classical arousal effect on late positive components, we found specific ERP patterns for each emotion in early temporal windows (<200 ms). Disgust was the first emotion to be associated with different brain processing after 140 ms, whereas happiness and sadness differed in ERPs elicited at the frontal and central sites after 160 ms. Our findings highlight the limits of the classical averaging of ERPs elicited by different emotions inside the same valence and suggest that each emotion could elicit a specific temporal pattern of brain activation, similar to those observed with emotional face recognition. PMID:24025800

Hot, Pascal; Sequeira, Henrique

2013-11-13

236

Calculating the Information Content of an Information Process for a Domain Expert Using Shannon's Mathematical Theory of Communication: A Preliminary Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of information as a process focuses on a conceptual exercise for calculating the information content of an information process. Topics include Bertram Brookes' fundamental equation; Claude Shannon's mathematical theory of communication; set of a priori alternatives; knowledge structures; and an example of an archaeologist's information…

Cole, Charles

1997-01-01

237

CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we described our method for the expert search task in TREC 2008. First, we proposed an adaption to the language modeling method for expert search, which considers the probability of query generation separately using each kind of expert evid...

H. Zhao J. Jiang W. Lu

2008-01-01

238

The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results indicate that group work supervisors experience a process of conceptualization and critical reflection that

Jane E. Atieno Okech; Deborah Rubel

2009-01-01

239

Ask the Experts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientific American's Ask The Experts Web site (last mentioned in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is worth mentioning again as a great resource for mid and upper-level science classes. Divided into categories like Astronomy, Biology, Environment, and Medicine, students can submit their own questions or read answers to questions posed by other inquisitive minds. Some of the more recent questions include "If T. rex fell, how did it get up, given its tiny arms and low center of gravity", "How do seedless fruit arise and how are they propagated?", and "How do you get laryngitis?" The site is continually adding answers to a variety of interesting questions.

2002-01-01

240

Endotoxin elicits ambivalent social behaviors  

PubMed Central

Summary The acute phase response to infection is reliably accompanied by decreases in social investigation; however, social behavior is commonly assayed in inescapable environments using unfamiliar social stimuli. In this experiment, male Wistar rats were raised from weaning with 2 familiar, same-sex conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were implanted with radiotelemetry devices that permitted localization in space, and were challenged with LPS treatments (150 mg/kg, i.p.) in a novel, semi-natural arena which afforded the treated (Focal) animal exclusive control of social exposure, and the ability to avoid social interactions. LPS reliably elicited thermoregulatory responses (transient hypothermia and fever) during the scotophase following injection, but did not yield changes in the proportion of time spent engaged in social interactions: both LPS- and saline-treated rats spent approximately 10% of the night with their familiar cagemates. Injection treatments markedly altered the spatial distribution of activity: LPS-treated rats exhibited significant increases in the amount of time spent as far as possible from their cagemates. The data suggest that sickness responses to LPS may give rise to a transient state of social ambivalence—characterized by a persistent motivation to engage in social contact, but also by increased avoidance of social environments. Selective maintenance of social motivation illustrates plasticity in the expression of sickness behaviors and may be adaptive in social species.

Yee, Jason R.; Prendergast, Brian J.

2013-01-01

241

Automation of Expert Tutoring System Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development and introduction of expert tutoring systems (ETS), or intelligent tutoring systems. Explains MONAP-PLUS, an example of an authoring tool for the design of an ETS that includes models of the subject domain, the learner, and the learning process; a user-friendly interface; and techniques for developing algorithmic…

Galeev, Ildar

1999-01-01

242

Applications of artificial intelligence and expert systems  

SciTech Connect

This book contains over 30 papers. Some of the titles are: operating systems for CD/ROM; the impact of optical storage technology on education; the future of expert systems in the financial services industry; the future of compact disk/DC-1 explosive ordinance disposal rendered safe information system; and will artificial intelligence improve computer based training (CBT) development process.

Not Available

1987-01-01

243

Funding Gaps and Government Shutdowns: CRS Experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] In the event of a funding gap, the potential impacts of a government shutdown will depend on a program’s or agency’s specific circumstances and how relevant law is interpreted. The following table provides names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to funding gaps and the processes and effects that may be associated with a government

Clinton T Brass

2011-01-01

244

Eliciting Multi-Agent Systems Intentionality: from Language Extended Lexicon to i* Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAS methods still lack coverage to the goal elicitation process, especially on how to identify goals from corporate information, mission statements and from interviews with stakeholders. Only after eliciting goals we will be able to properly deal with goal models. On the other hand, intentionality models, for example the i* framework, are, usually, complex and difficult to read. By contrast,

A. de Padua Albuquerque Oliveira; J. C. S. do Prado Leite; L. M. Cysneiros; C. Cappelli

2007-01-01

245

Service of Searching and Ranking in a Semantic-Based Expert Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting professional and authoritative experts to evaluate projects is an essential process in order to assure the quality of projects. In this paper, we present a semantic-based expert information system, which search for expert information based on semantic and knowledge reasoning, and rank the search results according to the scientific capability of experts. We design software architecture for semantic-based information

Liu Yang; Zhigang Hu; Jun Long

2010-01-01

246

Lessons Learned - The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions ...

K. J. Coppersmith R. C. Perman R. R. Youngs

2006-01-01

247

Parameterizing bayesian network representations of social-behavioral models by expert elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian networks provide a general framework with which to model many natural phenomena. The mathematical nature of Bayesian networks enables a plethora of model validation and calibration techniques: e.g. parameter learning, structure learning, goodness of fit tests, and diagnostic checking of the model assumptions. However, they are not free of shortcomings. With regard to parameter learning, in practice it is

Stephen J. Walsh; Angela C. Dalton; Paul D. Whitney; Amanda M. White

2010-01-01

248

Waste package degradation expert elicitation panel: input on corrosion of CRM alloy C-22  

SciTech Connect

The overall electrolyte concentration in the NFE environment is expected to be somewhere between 1X and saturated J-13 well water. This covers more than three orders-of-magnitude in chloride anion concentration. The pH of this solution is expected to be somewhere between 5 and 1O. Exposed patches of the CRM could see this environment.

Farmer, J. C.,LLNL

1998-03-30

249

Expert elicitation on ultrafine particles: likelihood of health effects and causal pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM) has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The relationship between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) and health effects is less firmly established. If UFP cause health effects independently from coarser fractions, this could affect health impact assessment of air pollution, which would possibly lead to alternative policy options to be

Anne Barbara Knol; Jeroen J de Hartog; Hanna Boogaard; Pauline Slottje; Jeroen P van der Sluijs; Erik Lebret; Flemming R. Cassee; J Arjan Wardekker; Jon G Ayres; Paul J. Borm; Bert Brunekreef; Kenneth Donaldson; Francesco Forastiere; Stephen T Holgate; Wolfgang G. Kreyling; Benoit Nemery; Juha Pekkanen; Vicky Stone; H-Erich Wichmann; Gerard Hoek

2009-01-01

250

An Artificial Maieutic Approach for Eliciting Experts’ Knowledge in Multi-agent Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Models of human behaviours used in multi-agent simulations are limited by the ability of introspection of the social actors:\\u000a some of their knowledge (reflexes, habits, non-formalized expertise) cannot be extracted through interviews. The use of computer-mediated\\u000a role playing games put these actors into a situated stance where the recording of their \\

François Sempé; Minh Nguyen-Duc; Stanislas Boissau; Alain Boucher; Alexis Drogoul

2008-01-01

251

An artificial maieutic approach for eliciting experts' knowledge in multi-agent simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of human behaviours used in multi-agent simulations are limited by the ability of introspection of the social actors: some of their knowledge (reflexes, habits, non-formalized expertise) cannot be extracted through interviews. In this paper, we propose an artificial maieutic approach to extract such pieces of knowledge, by helping the actors to better understand, and sometimes formulate, their own behaviours.

François Sempé; Minh Nguyen-Duc; Alain Boucher; Alexis Drogoul

2005-01-01

252

Waste package degradation expert elicitation panel: Input on the corrosion of CRM alloy C-22  

SciTech Connect

The overall electrolyte concentration in the NFE environment is expected to be somewhere between 1X and saturated J-13 well water. This covers more than three orders-of-magnitude in chloride anion concentration. The pH of this solution is expected to be somewhere between 5 and 10. Exposed patches of the CRM could see this environment.

Farmer, J. C., LLNL

1998-02-26

253

Expert system for liquid low-level waste management  

SciTech Connect

An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework.

Ferrada, J.J.

1992-05-01

254

Expert system for liquid low-level waste management  

SciTech Connect

An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework.

Ferrada, J.J.

1992-01-01

255

Audience frames elicited by televised political advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used audience analysis to examine the audience frames elicited by political advertising. Eighteen participants between the ages of 25-60 were interviewed and asked questions about their individual responses to political advertising. Overall, this study found that five common frames were elicited: political cynicism frame, issue frame, third person frame, gender frame and ad frame. This study also examined

Elizabeth Emma Geske

2009-01-01

256

Knowledge learning on fuzzy expert neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed fuzzy expert network is an event-driven, acyclic neural network designed for knowledge learning on a fuzzy expert system. Initially, the network is constructed according to a primitive (rough) expert rules including the input and output linguistic variables and values of the system. For each inference rule, it corresponds to an inference network, which contains five types of nodes: Input, Membership-Function, AND, OR, and Defuzzification Nodes. We propose a two-phase learning procedure for the inference network. The first phase is the competitive backpropagation (CBP) training phase, and the second phase is the rule- pruning phase. The CBP learning algorithm in the training phase enables the network to learn the fuzzy rules as precisely as backpropagation-type learning algorithms and yet as quickly as competitive-type learning algorithms. After the CBP training, the rule-pruning process is performed to delete redundant weight connections for simple network structures and yet compatible retrieving performance.

Fu, Hsin-Chia; Shann, J.-J.; Pao, Hsiao-Tien

1994-03-01

257

How Expert Advice Influences Decision Making  

PubMed Central

People often use expert advice when making decisions in our society, but how we are influenced by this advice has yet to be understood. To address this, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provided expert and novice advice to participants during an estimation task. Participants reported that they valued expert advice more than novice advice, and activity in the ventral striatum correlated with this valuation, even before decisions with the advice were made. When using advice, participants compared their initial opinion to their advisor’s opinion. This comparison, termed the “opinion difference”, influenced advice utilization and was represented in reward-sensitive brain regions. Finally, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex integrated both the size of the opinion difference and the advisor’s level of expertise, and average activity in this area correlated with mean advice utilization across participants. Taken together, these findings provide neural evidence for how advice engenders behavioral change during the decision-making process.

Meshi, Dar; Biele, Guido; Korn, Christoph W.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

2012-01-01

258

Knowledge Acquisition for Probabilistic Expert Systems  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in probability-based expert systems has focused on the potential these systems have for being coherent with the beliefs of the modeled expert or of the user and consistent given any set of evidence. We have used the probabilistic formalism in creating the REFEREE system, a belief-network-based expert system designed to aid readers in determining the credibility of a randomized clinical trial. In this paper, we explore the effect the formalism had on the process of knowledge acquisition based on this experience. Although the system is still in development, we can report several of those effects. Specifically, the need to make operational definitions of concepts deemed important to the expert forced us to organize a domain that was formulated initially for a rule-based system. Categorizing probability distributions as being logical, probabilitic, or prototypical helped us to decrease the number of probability assessments. On the other hand, the lack of an intermediate prototype may have prolonged development, and computational limitations forced occasional compromises. The reality of building expert systems in a probabilistic paradigm may not be as hard as some critics have predicted.

Lehmann, Harold P.

1988-01-01

259

Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

Grider, Daryl A.

1994-01-01

260

Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

1988-01-01

261

System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

Mieg, Harald A.

2006-01-01

262

An expert system development tool for non AI experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

From their first applications until now, expert systems have provided solutions to multiple problems in companies of all types. With the advent of the Internet and its evolution, web-based expert systems have become very important. Moreover, the arrival of new mobile devices that can connect to the Internet has made it easy to access information from any place at any

Belén Ruíz-Mezcua; Ángel García-Crespo; José Luis López Cuadrado; Israel Gonzalez-Carrasco

2011-01-01

263

Information/Knowledge Acquisition Methods for Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares information requirement-elicitation (IRE) methods for decision support systems (DSS) with knowledge acquisition (KA) methods for expert systems (ES) development. The definition and architectures of ES and DSS are compared and the systems' development cycles and IRE/KA methods are discussed. Differences are noted between ES and DSS…

Yang, Heng-Li

1995-01-01

264

Principles at the Heart of an Instructional Designer : Subject Matter Expert Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on instructional design has not adequately addressed the conceptualization by the instructional designer of unfamiliar content as presented by a subject matter expert. There is widespread acknowledgement in the field of instructional design of its importance but there appears to have been no systematic efforts to develop a comprehensive strategy for the conceptualization and elicitation of subject matter knowledge.

Mike Keppell

265

Developing Research Priorities with a Cohort of Higher Education for Sustainability Experts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the results of a Delphi exercise used at the Halifax Consultation in which 35 experts representing 17 countries gathered to develop research priorities for the emerging field of higher education for sustainability (HES). Design/methodology/approach: The Delphi technique was used to elicit the…

Wright, Tarah S. A.

2007-01-01

266

Teaching Evaluations and Comments of Pre-Service Music Teachers regarding Expert and Novice Choral Conductors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present study was to determine if pre-service music educators could discriminate between novice and expert choral directors irrespective of the proficiency of the choral ensemble. A secondary purpose was to compare study results elicited in the USA with those from participants in Europe, South America and Asia. Previous…

Johnson, Christopher M.; Price, Harry E.; Schroeder, Linda K.

2009-01-01

267

Criminal Profiling as Expert Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses criminal profiling as expert evidence. First, some of the issues involving profiling as expert evidence will be explored, including the induction-centric nature of this literature, the attitude of courts toward profiling evidence, and some common areas of profiling testimony. Next, a detailed overview of the Frye and Daubert rules of evidence in the United States will be

Wayne Petherick; David Field; Andrew Lowe; Elizabeth Fry

2006-01-01

268

Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)|

Nuclear Industry, 1991

1991-01-01

269

Ask the Experts -- January 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered why lead is considered to be a cancerous metal? One of our "Ask the Experts" readers was also curious about this subject and posed this question to our Experts: "They say lead is a very cancerous metal. How come? Other metals are not."

2006-01-01

270

Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)

Nuclear Industry, 1991

1991-01-01

271

The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results…

Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Rubel, Deborah

2009-01-01

272

Hybrid expert system for the failure analysis of mechanical elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert system for the failure analysis of metallic mechanical components is described, with emphasis on the structure and the solution strategy followed by the software. The system treats failure in common mechanical elements and is aimed to guide non-experts through the process of basic failure analysis. The system acts as a “virtual colleague”, providing guidance and experience during failure

V. H. Jacobo; A. Ortiz; Y. Cerrud; R. Schouwenaars

2007-01-01

273

Figuring the World of Designing: Expert Participation in Elementary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present article was to analyze the interaction between elementary students and a professional design expert. The expert was present in the classroom, facilitating a collaborative lamp designing process together with the teacher. Using the notion of "figured worlds" (Holland et al. 1998), we explored how learning could be…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

274

An expert system application the adaptive model following control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of expert system techniques for real time process control is discussed. The paper concentrates on an expert system for the dynamic control gain optimization of adaptive model following control (AMFC). The knowledge base is first developed in OPS5 language and subsequently reimplemented in FORTRAN because of the compatibility with the numeric code of AMFC simulator. A case study

Baxter F. Womack; Toshihisa Yamada

1987-01-01

275

Combining Probability Distributions From Experts in Risk Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper concerns the combination of experts’ probability distributions in risk analysis, discussing a variety of combination methods,and attempting to highlight the important conceptual and practical issues to be considered in designing a combination process in practice. The role of experts is important because their judgments can provide valuable information, particularly in view of the limited availability of “hard

Robert T. Clemen; Robert L. Winkler

1999-01-01

276

Factors influencing organic food purchase in India – expert survey insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to document the findings of an expert survey in the organic food category in India. It seeks to highlight the relative importance attached by the experts to key explanatory variables in the consumers' purchase process of organic food. It attempts to integrate with the relevant consumer survey findings published in India in recent times in

Somnath Chakrabarti

2010-01-01

277

Novice to Expert: An Exploration of How Professionals Learn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although researchers have recently focused on the nature of expertise, the link between learning and the development of expertise remains to be more fully explored. The purpose of this study was to analyze the different learning processes undertaken by novices and experts. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with novice and expert nurses for the purpose of analyzing and comparing how

Barbara J. Daley

1999-01-01

278

[Expert evidence. General prerequisites and procedural characteristics for expert opinions].  

PubMed

In view of the boom in medical liability suits, which centre around medical malpractice, the decision of the medical expert is the pivot in the conflict between doctor and patient. Therefore, from a legal point of view it is extremely important that the expert is well prepared for a courtroom appearance. Beginning from a systematic and logical structure of the expert opinion, the most important demands on quality are dealt with: professional competence, objectivity and impartiality, intellectual integrity and intelligibility of speech, duty to give a strictly personal delivery of the opinion, limitation to the medical specialty, no legal comments, no insinuation and strict adherence to the theme. As an aid to the Judge, the expert must have a certain degree of background legal knowledge. This includes the peculiarities of civil and criminal procedures with respect to the burden of proof, the causality of medical or organisational errors in treatment leading to injury or even death of the patient, the significance of the term "a probability bordering on certainty", the meaning of "gross" errors in treatment, the guidelines and the medical standards. The obligation of the medical expert in questions of medical malpractice is not only an extremely responsible and difficult one, but also not without risk for the expert himself. Since August 2002 gross negligent errors by the expert are also liable for compensation in law under [section sign] 839a of the German Civil Code Book. PMID:16247639

Ulsenheimer, K

2005-11-01

279

Constitutional rights and hypnotically elicited testimony.  

PubMed

Despite the former popularity of hypnosis as a way of "improving" eyewitness memory, many courts almost always regard the use of this testimony to be inadmissible, whereas others allow it only when strict procedural guidelines have been followed. Although the U.S. Supreme Court recognized a defendant's constitutional right to admit his own hypnotically elicited testimony, others have recognized a constitutional basis to exclude hypnotically elicited testimony in most other circumstances. PMID:10212035

Newman, A W; Thompson, J W

1999-01-01

280

Capturing the Naturally Occurring Superior Performance of Experts in the LaboratoryToward a Science of Expert and Exceptional Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expertise researchers have traditionally shied away from studying the highest levels of achievement in favor of studying basic cognitive processes, such as memory and categorization. In this article, we present a different approach that is focused on capturing superior (expert) performance on representative tasks that reveal the essential characteristics of expertise in a given domain. In domains where expert performance

K. Anders Ericsson; Paul Ward

2007-01-01

281

Capturing the Naturally OccurringSuperiorPerformance of Experts in the Laboratory Toward a Science of Expert and Exceptional Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expertise researchers have traditionally shied away from studying the highest levels of achievement in favor of studying basic cognitive processes, such as memory and categorization. In this article, we present a different approach that is focused on capturing superior (expert) performance on representative tasks that reveal theessentialcharacteristicsofexpertiseinagivendomain. In domains where expert performance is measurable, acquisition is gradual and the highest

K. Anders Ericsson; Paul Ward

282

Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.  

PubMed

The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. PMID:21787073

Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

2011-07-25

283

Music can elicit a visual motion aftereffect.  

PubMed

Motion aftereffects (MAEs) are thought to result from the adaptation of both subcortical and cortical systems involved in the processing of visual motion. Recently, it has been reported that the implied motion of static images in combination with linguistic descriptions of motion is sufficient to elicit an MAE, although neither factor alone is thought to directly activate visual motion areas in the brain. Given that the monotonic change of musical pitch is widely recognized in music as a metaphor for vertical motion, we investigated whether prolonged exposure to ascending or descending musical scales can also produce a visual motion aftereffect. After listening to ascending or descending musical scales, participants made decisions about the direction of visual motion in random-dot kinematogram stimuli. Metaphoric motion in the musical stimuli did affect the visual direction judgments, in that repeated exposure to rising or falling musical scales shifted participants' sensitivity to visual motion in the opposite direction. The finding that music can induce an MAE suggests that the subjective interpretation of monotonic pitch change as motion may have a perceptual foundation. PMID:23456973

Hedger, Stephen C; Nusbaum, Howard C; Lescop, Olivier; Wallisch, Pascal; Hoeckner, Berthold

2013-07-01

284

Comparison of elicitation methods for moral and affective beliefs in the theory of planned behaviour.  

PubMed

Although the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been applied successfully in the area of food choice, it has been criticized for its pure utilitarian approach to the factors determining behaviour. Despite the increase in predictive power of the model with added components such as affective attitude and moral and ethical concerns, in most studies the elicitation process still only addresses people's utilitarian beliefs about the behaviour with little attention paid to other aspects. This study compares the traditional method of elicitation of advantages and disadvantages with two other methods (word association and open-ended) in the elicitations of beliefs, attitudes and moral concerns in relation to the consumption of organic foods. Results show the traditional method to be best for eliciting cognitive beliefs, open-ended emotion task for eliciting emotional beliefs and open-ended beliefs task best for moral concerns. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. PMID:16782230

Dean, M; Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Raats, M M; Saba, A; Shepherd, R

2006-06-19

285

CASWW Central Asia Experts Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Harvard Forum for Central Asian Studies, this site will prove useful to graduate students and scholars of Central Asia. The site was created to facilitate access for policy-makers, the press, and others to scholars with the appropriate expertise in Central Asian Studies. The Directory features those who have indicated their willingness to be contacted for expert consultations, and their listing will include a brief description of their qualifications. It organizes experts by name, topic, location, and under several headings: Politics and International Relations, Economy, Social Issues, and Cultural and Historical Background. The site is still soliciting experts for inclusion, and a link to the questionnaire is provided.

286

Robot Selection Expert `Rose  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems facing the robot user in the future will be his choice of the optimum robot for a particular task. What is needed is a highly automated robot selection system which will eliminate the human decision-making process. The system presented will be used when a robot is being considered to replace a human at a particular

John G. Mauceri

1985-01-01

287

An expert system for preliminary optical design.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expert system has been developed which will undertake the preliminary design of optical systems. During the preliminary design the optical designer considers the specification of an optical system and derives parameters such as lens type, focal length, etc. These parameters are then converted into power group layouts with curvatures, thicknesses, etc ready for optimisation by lens design software. The preliminary design will have been arrived at by utilising previous design knowledge and 'rules of thumb' acquired through experience. It is this stage of the design process which has been implemented by an expert system, and will hopefully prove a valuable aid to the optical designer during the important creative stage of the design process.

Moss, G. H.

1989-04-01

288

Expert system for generating fuel movement procedures  

SciTech Connect

Commercial nuclear power reactors are required by federal law and their operating license to track and control the movement of nuclear fuel. Planning nuclear fuel movements during a refueling outage by hand is a tedious process involving an initial state and final state separated by physical and administrative constraints. Since the initial and final states as well as all constraints are known, an expert computer system for planning this process is possible. Turkey Point station worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-selected vendor to implement such a system. Over the course of a 2-yr period, the EPRI Fuel Shuffle Planning System evolved from a high-tech word processor to an expert system capable of planning all fuel movement sequences required to refuel a nuclear reactor core. Turkey Point site is composed to two pressurized water reactor units owned and operated by Florida Power and Light Company.

Hendrickson, J.P. (Florida Power and Light Co., Juno Beach (United States))

1991-01-01

289

Risk assessment: Consulting the experts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a step-by-step procedure for assessing health risks of environmental pollutants is described. The key feature of the approach is to solicit the health experts' opinions in making risk assessments. The approach relies on decomposing the problem so that each expert is dealing with a relatively simple situation. Alternatives for aggregating experts' judgments are discussed. Since the responses of the experts are in the form of probability distibutions, a scheme for handling uncertainty about probabilities is suggested. Two different pollutants may interact in their impact on human health. A model for studying the interaction effects of pollutants is discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss how risk assessment can be used in an evaluation model for selecting alternative air quality standards.

Winkler, R.L. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington); Sarin, R.K.

1981-01-01

290

Expert systems in clinical microbiology.  

PubMed

This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

2011-07-01

291

Expert Systems in Clinical Microbiology  

PubMed Central

Summary: This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the “big three”: Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

2011-01-01

292

Aerothermodynamic Reentry Flight Experiments - EXPERT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper addresses the ESA in flight Aerothermodynamic (ATD) research programme referred to as EXPERT: the European EXPerimental Re-entry Testbed. The objective of this in-flight research programme is to design and instrument generic configurations, for ...

F. Cipollini H. Ottens J. Muylaert L. Walpot

2005-01-01

293

Expert systems and the weather  

SciTech Connect

The author chose predicting the weather as the subject of an early effort at knowledge engineering using Expert-2, a tiny fifth-generation type language. The results are quite interesting and possibly useful. The author deliberately kept the knowledge engineering exercise simple since he intended to run this program in a 48k Apple II using a forth system with Expert-2 on top and the application program, the weather predictor. 5 references.

Park, J.

1984-04-01

294

Using Expert System Job Aids: A Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how current commercial expert system technology can be used to create useful job aids. Expert systems are defined, situations in which an expert system job aid will be most effective are described, expert system shells are discussed, and three commercial expert system products are described. (LRW)

Carr, Clay

1989-01-01

295

AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR METAL POWDER SELECTION USING VP-EXPERT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A part of a complete expert system for powder technology is presented. This part of the system deals with the powder selection according to predetermined recommended or required material properties, and specific powder characteristics. Then, determining the most common powder production (i.e. processing) method, which satisfies the specified powder requirements for a specific application. For this purpose a detailed functional

Ibrahim Al-Harkan; Mahir Es-Saheb

296

Hypothetical constructs, hypothetical questions, and the expert witness.  

PubMed

Professor John Henry Wigmore in 1940 described the hypothetical question as an intolerable obstruction of truth. Since that time, the nature and application of the hypothetical question in the courtroom, as well as responses to this line of questioning during expert testimony, have been sources of controversy. Governed by legal philosophical foundations, the hypothetical construct addresses what there is, in a general sense, and what can or ought to be. Alexy (2004) has described the nature of legal philosophy as the epistemological question of what we can know. This article begins by examining the philosophical underpinnings, legal parameters, and teaching purposes of posing hypothetical queries. A social-psychological backdrop for the use of hypothetical questions is then discussed followed by a broader discussion of the hypothetical question's role in court procedures. This paper identifies hypothetical questions used in court as devices to elicit information, or as predictions that potentially change underlying factual interpretations of evidence. In particular, on cross examination hypothetical questions seek to make opposing experts assume facts that are incongruent with their conclusions or opinions. Sometimes in these situations, experts are led to re-evaluate opinions based on alternative understandings of events and behaviors. Thus, this paper's final aim is to explore a foundational understanding of hypothetical questions asked of expert witnesses with special reference to mental health issues. Options for responding to hypothetical questions on the stand are considered along the dimensions of assertiveness-passivity, compliance-resistance, and possible redefinitions of the hypothetical issues. PMID:23031651

Brodsky, Stanley L; Titcomb, Caroline; Sams, David M; Dickson, Kara; Benda, Yves

2012-09-29

297

Artificial intelligence and the law: will expert systems replace expert lawyers  

SciTech Connect

Summary form only given, as follows. The commercial availability of expert systems utilizing specially developed knowledge bases raises significant questions about their potential utility in the practice of law. These systems, built with the aid of recent developments in artificial intelligence research, may only prove useful in certain areas of legal practice. Counselling and interviewing are areas where expert systems are likely to effect marked changes in the practice of law. In contract, computerized legal research using a knowledge-based system is more difficult to envision. This is due to complexities presented by the multiplicity of sources of the law, and by conflicting opinions and interpretations in the common law. In the coming decade, use of expert systems in science and medicine will grow rapidly, and attempts will continue to be made to automate the legal reasoning process. As past research efforts have demonstrated, this will not be an easy task.

Grossman, G.S.

1983-01-01

298

Adding Multiple Exposure Planning and Expert System Technology in the Scientist's Expert Assistant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past year and a half, the Scientist's Expert Assistant Team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the Space Telescope Science Institute has been prototyping visual and expert system tools to support General Observer proposal development for the Hubble Space Telescope and the Next Generation Space Telescope. A year ago at ADASS '98 (Koratkar & Grosvenor 1999) the SEA team demonstrated SEA's Java-based visual target tuning and exposure calculation capabilities. At that time, SEA supported only a single exposure. Since then the team has been focusing on visit and orbit planning. We added a graphical orbit planning tool and a rule-based assistant to help determine dithering patterns. This paper describes our approach to multiple exposure planning and expert system use within the SEA. The techniques used (both visual and rule-based) and the lessons learned in the process are also discussed.

Wolf, K. R.

299

A comparison of five elicitation techniques for elicitation of attributes of low involvement products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical first step for most instruments used in analysing consumer choice and motivation is the identification of product attributes which are important to the consumer and for which there are differences among the available product alternatives. A number of techniques, ranging from the complex elicitation of idiosyncratic attributes or simpler picking procedures, have been developed to elicitate such attributes.

Tino Bech-Larsen; Niels Asger Nielsen

1999-01-01

300

Etude de l'Application des Systemes Experts aux Projets Spatiaux (Study of Expert System Applications to Space Projects).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The applicability of artificial intelligence and expert systems to space projects is discussed and the potential utilization areas are identified, including thermal analysis, electric systems, optical systems, planning, design data bases, image processing...

M. Guerin

1986-01-01

301

Expert operator's associate: An expert system for spacecraft control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Expert Operator's Associate (EOA) project which studies the applicability of expert systems for day to day space operations is described. A prototype expert system is developed, which operates together with an existing spacecraft control system at the European Space Operations Center and functions as an operator's assistant in controlling satellites. The prototype is demonstrated using an existing real-time simulation model of the MARECS-B2 spacecraft. By developing a prototype system the reliability and effectiveness of operations that can be enhanced by such means are investigated. Questions of acquisition and representation of knowledge for such systems, and the feasibility of migration of some (currently) groundbased functions into future spaceborne autonomous systems are discussed.

Nielsen, Mogens; Grue, Klaus; Olalainty, Bernard; Lecouat, Francois; Wheadon, Joe

1990-10-01

302

An expert experiment--medico-legal expert testimony.  

PubMed

For the past eight years, Radiology Associates of Albuquerque has provided physician expert testimony to plaintiff and defense attorneys. Initially, the business was confined to radiology consultation only. The division has expanded; it now includes more than 35 specialties and a national client base. This article will include a history of the division's growth and lessons learned as well as a look at the future of expert testimony in light of increasing emphasis on standards of care. Medical marketing in the present as well as in the future will also be addressed. PMID:10436737

Stevenson, J R

1999-01-01

303

BEAM EXPERT - integrated software for nuclear analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach for processing experimental nuclear microanalysis data based on a general mathematical model for the energy spectrum. This enables joint processing of any number of nuclear reactions and Rutherford backscattering spectra, and automatic computing of elemental and defect composition and depth profiles as well as layer thicknesses. A regularizing reduction approach is applied for depth profiling and composition reconstruction. The corresponding software BEAM EXPERT 1.5 developed for IBM PC is assumed to serve as an integrated environment for nuclear microanalysis investigations.

Kogan, D. L.; Kazancev, A. M.; Kuzmin, L. E.

1994-06-01

304

Elicitation of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of channel catfish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four chemicals were evaluated for elicitation of macrophages in peritoneal cavities of 250-300g healthy channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Cellular exudates were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 d following intraperitoneal injections with squalene, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), goat serum, thioglycollate, or as a control, phosphate-buffered saline. Injection with either squalene or FIA induced significantly greater (P ??? 0.0001) macrophage recruitment than the other chemicals. The effectiveness of squalene and FIA was compared further by macrophage collection daily for 7 d. Squalene and FIA elicited similarly high macrophage responses (P ??? 0.0450), the highest being 3.43 x 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 2.4 x l06) at 99% purity at day 2 and 2.1 X 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 0.7 x 106) at day 14 at 80% purity, respectively. In both experiments, the time after injection was not statistically significant, nor was there an interaction between time and chemicals. The occurrence of cells other than macrophages decreased with time to yield macrophage recoveries of 47-99% for squalene and 30-80% for FIA. Two subsets of macrophages were observed by means of flow cytometry. As demonstrated by chemiluminescence, the squalene-elicited cells produced high-energy oxygen compounds important to the phagocytic process.

Jenkins, J. A.; Klesius, P. H.

1998-01-01

305

Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.  

PubMed

Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. PMID:23062586

Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

2012-10-09

306

Brain Activity Elicited by Positive and Negative Feedback in Preschool-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the processing of positive vs. negative feedback in children aged 4–5 years, we devised a prize-guessing game that is analogous to gambling tasks used to measure feedback-related brain responses in adult studies. Unlike adult studies, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by positive feedback was as large as that elicited by negative feedback, suggesting that the neural system underlying

Xiaoqin Mai; Twila Tardif; Stacey N. Doan; Chao Liu; William J. Gehring; Yue-Jia Luo; Sam Gilbert

2011-01-01

307

WEAPONS AS AGGRESSION-ELICITING STIMULI  

Microsoft Academic Search

TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STIMULI COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH AGGRESSION CAN ELICIT AGGRESSIIVE RESPONSES FROM PEOPLE READY TO ACT AGGRESSIVELY. 100 MALE UNIVERSITY SS RECEIVED EITHER 1 OR 7 SHOCKS, SUPPOSEDLY FROM A PEER, AND WERE THEN GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOCK THIS PERSON. IN SOME CASES A RIFLE AND REVOLVER WERE NEAR THE SHOCK KEY. THESE WEAPONS WERE SAID TO

LEONARD BERKOWITZ; ANTHONY LEPAGE

1967-01-01

308

Eliciting transparent fuzzy model using differential evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new technique for eliciting a fuzzy inference system (FIS) from data for nonlinear systems is proposed. The strategy is conducted in two phases: in the first one, subtractive clustering is applied to extract a set of fuzzy rules, in the second phase, the generated fuzzy rule base is refined and redundant rules are removed on the

M. Eftekhari; S. D. Katebi; M. Karimi; A. H. Jahanmiri

2008-01-01

309

Affective multimodal mirror: sensing and eliciting laughter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a multimodal affective mirror that senses and elicits laughter. Currently, the mirror contains a vocal and a facial affect-sensing module, a component that fuses the output of these two modules to achieve a user-state assessment, a user state transition model, and a component to present audiovisual affective feedback that should keep or bring the user

Willem A. Melder; David A. van Leeuwen; Khiet P. Truong; Mark A. Neerincx; Marten Den Uyl; Lodewijk R. Loos

2007-01-01

310

Cross-modal elicitation of affective experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of Affective Computing the affective experience (AX) of the user during the interaction with computers is of great interest. Physiological and neurophysiological sensors assess the state of the peripheral and central nervous system. Their analysis can provide information about the state of a user. We introduce an approach to elicit emotions by audiovisual stimuli for the exploration

C. Muhl; Dirk Heylen

2009-01-01

311

Eliciting Perceptual Ground Truth for Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate human visual perception and establish a body of ground truth data elicited from human visual studies. We aim to build on the formative work of Ren, Eakins and Briggs who pro- duced an initial ground truth database. Human participants were asked to draw and rank their perceptions of the parts of a series of figurative

Victoria J. Hodge; Garry Hollier; John P. Eakins; Jim Austin

2006-01-01

312

Elicitation and Effects of Infant Gaze Aversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in maternal behavior were studied to determine if these changes could elicit infant gaze aversion. Forty mothers increase their rate of visual regard of their infants, verbalizations to their infants or both. A control group did not change their b...

P. A. Self

1985-01-01

313

Artificial intelligence: expert systems for corps tactical planning and other applications. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems such as those that play games, diagnose engine problems, or organize cargo loads in ships are all examples of artificial intelligence. The sub-discipline of expert systems deals with computerized imitation of the reasoning of judgment process of human experts. CECOM's expert system for tactical planning draws its tactical expertise from the US Army War College students that comprise study

J. F. Back; A. F. Barbone; G. K. Crocker; L. M. Johnson; L. D. Jones

1987-01-01

314

ASSISTANT: A hybrid expert system for assisting seismologists in the analysis of seismic array performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes an expert system, ASSISTANT, that is written in Lisp and runs on a Symbolics 3610 but invokes numerical codes written in FORTRAN on a MicroVAX II. It is the result of a project whose purpose was to investigate and develop an expert system that can reduce the amount of the human expert's time required to process sensor

K. L. Hiebert-Dodd; M. C. Walck; G. J. Elbring

1988-01-01

315

Juror need for cognition and sensitivity to methodological flaws in expert evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated the influence of juror need for cognition on the systematic and heuristic processing of expert evidence. U.S. citizens reporting for jury duty in South Florida read a 15-page summary of a hostile work environment case containing expert testimony. The expert described a study she had conducted on the effects of viewing sexualized materials on men's behavior toward

Bradley David McAuliff

2000-01-01

316

Towards Designing and Implementing an Expert Network To Manage the Computer Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aimed to design and implement a new hybrid intelligent technique called expert network. The main purpose of this expert network is to use it as a management tool assist network administrator in his job regarding the monitoring process of network performance. Here, the management task that uses this expert network was how to detect a fault (i.e. fault

Ibrahiem M. M. El; Salam A. Najim; Musbah Aqel

2007-01-01

317

Further Evidence for the Independent Reflex-Eliciting and Reflex-Inhibiting Effects of a Startle-Blink Eliciting Stimulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small change in the environment (a prepulse) that just precedes a startle-eliciting stimulus can reduce the size of the elicited reflex, but a prepulse does not appear to diminish the ability of the startle-eliciting stimulus to depress a startle response elicited a little later. The reflex-eliciting and reflex-modifying effects of startle stimuli seem to be independent. However, most support

E. Evan Krauter; Bridgette C. Cruickshank; Michael C. Avery

2012-01-01

318

Eliciting individual preferences about death: development of the End-of-Life Preferences Interview.  

PubMed

The capability to make decisions about one's own dying and death is commonly considered a necessary component of a good death, but difficulties in communicating about imminent death have been documented. This paper attempts to describe the process of constructing an instrument to elicit individual preferences concerning dying, while respecting the patient's awareness, and to verify its applicability in a palliative care setting. The development of the End-of-Life Preferences Interview (ELPI) was performed through (a) a literature search aimed at identifying relevant issues; (b) examination by a panel of experts in the field of palliative care of the items generated; and (c) pretesting of feasibility on all eligible consecutive patients referred to three centers of palliative care during a two-month period. The final version of the ELPI consisted of two parts: The first level explores preferences about issues regarding the caregiving process, and the second level focuses on preparation for death. Each of the two parts is introduced by key questions aimed at allowing the patient to decide whether and when to stop exploring such sensitive matters. Among the 49 eligible patients (41%), the interview was proposed to only 13 of them (27%), and only one of them refused. The reasons for such a low compliance of physicians in proposing the ELPI were evaluated by a semi-structured interview and are herein discussed. The use of the ELPI in clinical practice can favor the passage to a greater consideration of the self-determination of the patient at the end of life, with due consideration of his or her cultural and emotional needs. PMID:18440766

Borreani, Claudia; Brunelli, Cinzia; Miccinesi, Guido; Morino, Piero; Piazza, Massimo; Piva, Laura; Tamburini, Marcello

2008-04-28

319

The Expert System for Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Expert System for Thermodynamics (TEST) is a web-based software platform used to analyze thermofluids problems, verify hand calculations, pursue what-if scenarios, visualize thermal systems, and conduct other investigations in thermodynamics. Site materials include problem sets, examples, animations, and calculating tools to be used in solving problems. There is also a tutorial and visual tour of the platform.

Bhattacharjee, Subrata

320

Expert Testimony on Laboratory Witnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the past three decades of diverse and extensive research on eyewitness memory issues, the courts are increasingly being asked to accept psychologists as experts on eyewitness performance. This article examines a sample of this body of research and questions its helpfulness to triers of fact. The majority of eyewitness research has been conducted in the laboratory rather than

John C. Yuille; Marguerite Ternes; Barry S. Cooper

2010-01-01

321

Ask the Experts -- February 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Ask the Experts column, the following questions are addressed, "Why does the Moon show phases when viewed from Earth, but Earth always looks the same from the Moon, with only the top half illuminated?" and "Why are there two tides per day; i.e., why is there a side of the Earth facing away from the Moon?

2006-02-01

322

Criminal profiling as expert evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract: Profiling evidence has been accepted in courts in the United States in both trial and sentencing phases, but other jurisdictions have been more cautious in their acceptance. For example, courts in the United Kingdom and Australia have been reluctant to introduce profilers as experts, even though profiling has been given some exposure in courts operating at the lower end

Wayne Petherick; David Field; Andrew Lowe; Elizabeth Fry

2009-01-01

323

An expert sample analysis planner  

SciTech Connect

Analytical chemists are faced with the problem of choosing an appropriate analytical technique for a particular sample and weighing the options as they affect precision, time, and cost. This paper describes a computer technique to assist managers in reviewing the alternatives and to match needs with the resources available. This paper proposes an expert system, knowledgeable of analytical chemistry techniques, to create sample plans. Sample planning is an appropriate topic for expert systems because scarce human expertise is required to complete sample plans. A sample plan is the description of how samples received at the Savannah River Laboratory are handled, controlled, measured, and dispositioned. Sample planning is difficult because multiple experts are needed, planning is not a static function, and planning is time consuming. An Expert Sample Analyses Planner (XSAP) is proposed to create sample plans for laboratory managers. XSAP supplements the scarce knowledge of analytical techniques creating sample plans based on analysis constraints, methods available, and time requirements. XSAP interacts with the chemist to suggest sample plans. XSAP considers equipment available locally, at other Savannah River laboratories, at other Department of Energy facilities, and at other commercial laboratories. XSAP allows options on scheduling: best solution, cheapest solution, best local solution, and fastest solution. 26 refs.

Spencer, W.A.; Parks, W.S.

1990-01-01

324

Teacher Stress: An Expert Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveyed experts (n=226) on teacher stress and burnout to determine relevance of 49 teacher stress items to their overall concepts of teacher stress. Items rated as most relevant dealt with feeling unable to cope and experiencing physical exhaustion; the least were related to student motivation problems. (Author/NB)|

Fimian, Michael J.

1987-01-01

325

Accelerated Corrosion Expert Simulator (ACES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a complete vehicle corrosion simulation and modeling tool called ACES (Accelerated Corrosion Expert Simulator) that has a high degree of correlation to actual accelerated corrosion durability test (ACDT) data. The system imports existing 3-D geometric models of full vehicles. An integrity check is conducted to determine if there are missing or improper entities or properties and a

C. Thomas Savell; I. Carl Handsy; Pete Ault; Larry Thompson; Robert M. Hathaway; David A. Lamb

326

Resource Allocations and Expert Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work performed to meet the requirement of this task is a continuing effort, evolving toward a general purpose reasoning tool. The idea here is to build a more powerful general expert system than the previous one. Towards that, this new Bayesian infere...

1988-01-01

327

Ask the Experts -- October 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Ask the Experts column, the following thought-provoking question is addressed: "Why did mother nature use uracil to replace thymine in mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid)? What is the advantage of using U instead of T in the RNA?"

2006-10-01

328

Ask an Expert with Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses electronic mail use in elementary/secondary education focusing on a comparison/review of award-winning Internet-based Virtual Reference Desk Exemplary Services (Ask Dr. Math, Ask A Volcanologist, How Things Work, AskERIC, Mad Scientist, Shamu, and American Art) that provide ask-an-expert question and answer services. Home pages, delivery…

Ekhaml, Leticia

1999-01-01

329

Expert testimony about eyewitness identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research concerning eyewitness identification is surveyed with respect to its adequacy (reliability and validity) to support expert testimony. The conclusion is that the scientific basis is generally inadequate and that the more we have learned about various aspects of eyewitness identification, the most inadequate it appears. The argument is made that presentation in policy settings requires greater circumspection than

Rogers Elliott

1993-01-01

330

Ask the Experts -- October 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experts tackle the question, "What is the underlying natural phenomenon that causes the natural log function to show up so frequently in scientific equations? and "Why do some hairs on the human body grow indefinitely while others grow to a certain length and then stop? How does hair know when to stop?"

2005-10-01

331

Window-based Enterprise Expert Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first year for the participation of the City University Centre of Interactive System Research (CISR) in the Expert Search Task. In this paper, we describe an expert search experiment based on window- based techniques, that is, we build profile for each expert by using informa- tion around the expert's name and email address in the documents. We

Wei Lu; Stephen E. Robertson; Andy Macfarlane; Haozhen Zhao

2006-01-01

332

A mixture-of-experts framework for adaptive Kalman filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a modular and flexible approach to adaptive Kalman filtering using the framework of a mixture-of-experts regulated by a gating network. Each expert is a Kalman filter modeled with a different realization of the unknown system parameters such as process and measurement noise. The gating network performs on-line adaptation of the weights given to individual filter estimates based

Wassim S. Chaer; Robert H. Bishop; Joydeep Ghosh

1997-01-01

333

Mixture of Random Prototype-Based Local Experts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mixture of Experts (ME) is one of the most popular ensemble methods used in pattern recognition and machine learning. This algorithm stochastically partitions the input space of the problem into a number of subspaces, experts becoming specialized on each subspace. The ME uses an expert called gating network to manage this process, which is trained together with the experts. In this paper, we propose a modified version of the ME algorithm which first partitions the original problem into centralized regions and then uses a simple distance-based gating function to specialize the expert networks. Each expert contributes to classify an input sample according to the distance between the input and a prototype embedded by the expert. As a result, an accurate classifier with shorter training time and smaller number of parameters is achieved. Experimental results on a binary toy problem and selected datasets from the UCI machine learning repository show the robustness of the proposed method compared to the standard ME model.

Armano, Giuliano; Hatami, Nima

334

Ask the Experts--January 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Ask the Experts column, the following questions are addressed: I've heard that the two sides of my brain are specialized for different tasks (language vs. reasoning, etc.). If I listen to a science lecture on my iPod using only one earpiece, will the way I process the information depend on which ear I use to listen to the lecture? and Why does the sound made by scratching a chalkboard seem to be irritating to so many people, and why to some and not others? Nature or nurture or a bit of both?

2007-01-01

335

Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems: Will They Change the Library? Papers Presented at the Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (27th, Urbana, Illinois, March 25-27, 1990). Illinois, March 25-27, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the 12 conference papers presented in this proceedings focus on the present and potential capabilities of artificial intelligence and expert systems as they relate to a wide range of library applications, including descriptive cataloging, technical services, collection development, subject indexing, reference services, database searching,…

Lancaster, F. W., Ed.; Smith, Linda C., Ed.

336

Expert credibility in climate change  

PubMed Central

Although preliminary estimates from published literature and expert surveys suggest striking agreement among climate scientists on the tenets of anthropogenic climate change (ACC), the American public expresses substantial doubt about both the anthropogenic cause and the level of scientific agreement underpinning ACC. A broad analysis of the climate scientist community itself, the distribution of credibility of dissenting researchers relative to agreeing researchers, and the level of agreement among top climate experts has not been conducted and would inform future ACC discussions. Here, we use an extensive dataset of 1,372 climate researchers and their publication and citation data to show that (i) 97–98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field surveyed here support the tenets of ACC outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and (ii) the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of the convinced researchers.

Anderegg, William R. L.; Prall, James W.; Harold, Jacob; Schneider, Stephen H.

2010-01-01

337

The Experts in Electronic Evidence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ATETV project delivers web-based videos to connect students to careers in advanced technology. In this episode of ATETV, we learn about the work that computer forensic examiners do. Companies hire these experts to help recover and protect their data. Seeing the practical applications of what they are learning will be helpful for current students. Running time for the episode is 2:18.

2012-10-10

338

Ridiculous statements by mental health experts.  

PubMed

When mental health experts express their opinions in testimony, reports, and articles in professional literature, it is expected that their statements will accurately reflect the current state of knowledge. Experts may disagree about the data that they collected. In some cases, however, disagreement occurs because an expert has employed a methodology that is far outside usual procedures or simply disregarded objective facts. When that occurs, the expert's opinions may be considered ridiculous. The author presents examples of ridiculous statements by mental health experts and provides suggestions for how a forensic practitioner might address ridiculous statements by mental health experts. PMID:21683920

Bernet, William

2011-05-10

339

The Appropriateness of Renal Angioplasty. The ANPARIA Software: A Multidisciplinary Expert Panel Approach  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) is an invasive technique that is costly and involves the risk of complications and renal failure. The ability of PTRA to reduce the administration of antihypertensive drugs has been demonstrated. A potentially greater benefit, which nevertheless remains to be proven, is the deferral of the need for chronic dialysis. The aim of the study (ANPARIA) was to assess the appropriateness of PTRA to impact on the evolution of renal function. A standardized expert panel method was used to assess the appropriateness of medical treatment alone or medical treatment with revascularization in various clinical situations. The choice of revascularization by either PTRA or surgery was examined for each clinical situation. Analysis was based on a detailed literature review and on systematically elicited expert opinion, which were obtained during a two-round modified Delphi process. The study provides detailed responses on the appropriateness of PTRA for 1848 distinct clinical scenarios. Depending on the major clinical presentation, appropriateness of revascularization varied from 32% to 75% for individual scenarios (overal 48%). Uncertainty as to revascularization was 41% overall. When revascularization was appropriate, PTRA was favored over surgery in 94% of the scenarios, except in certain cases of aortic atheroma where sugery was the preferred choice. Kidney size >7 cm, absence of coexisting disease, acute renal failure, a high degree of stenosis ({>=}70%), and absence of multiple arteries were identified as predictive variables of favorable appropriateness ratings. Situations such as cardiac failure with pulmonary edema or acute thrombosis of the renal artery were defined as indications for PTRA. This study identified clinical situations in which PTRA or surgery are appropriate for renal artery disease. We built a decision tree which can be used via Internet: the ANPARIA software (http://www.chu-clermontferrand.fr/anpariahttp://www.chu-clermontferrand.fr/anparia/). In numerous clinical situations uncertainty remains as to whether PTRA prevents deterioration of renal function.

Gerbaud, Laurent; Manhes, Geraud; Debourse, Juliette; Gouby, Gerald, E-mail: ggouby@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Glanddier, Phyllis-Yvonne [CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Hotel-Dieu, Service d'epidemiologie, economie de la sante et prevention (France); Vader, John-Paul [Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland); Boyer, Louis, E-mail: lboyer@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Deteix, Patrice [Universite d'Auvergne, Faculte de Medecine (France)

2008-11-15

340

Sustainable rangeland management using a multi-fuzzy model: how to deal with heterogeneous experts' knowledge.  

PubMed

While fuzzy specialists commonly use homogeneous experts' knowledge to construct fuzzy models, it is much more difficult to deal with knowledge elicited from a heterogeneous group of experts. This issue is exemplified in the area of sustainable rangeland management (SRM). One way to deal with the diversity of opinions is to develop a fuzzy system for all experts and to combine all these, the so-called primary systems, into one multi-fuzzy model. To derive each of the primary fuzzy systems, several semi-structured interviews were held in three different areas of the Fars province in Southwest Iran using the knowledge of a group of administrative experts. To obtain the final output of the multi-fuzzy model, we applied different 'voting' methods. The first method simply uses the arithmetic average of the primary outputs as the final output of the multi-fuzzy model. This final output represents an estimation of the right rate of stocking (RRS). We also propose other (un)supervised voting methods. Most importantly, by harmonising the primary outputs such that outliers get less emphasis, we introduce an unsupervised voting method for calculating a weighted estimate of the RRS. This harmonising method is expected to provide a new useful tool for policymakers dealing with heterogenity in experts' opinions: it is especially useful where limited field data are available and one is forced to rely on experts' knowledge only. By constructing the three fuzzy models based on the elicitation of heterogeneous experts' knowledge, our study shows the multidimensional vaguenesses that exist in SRM. Finally, by comparing the final RRS with its common values, this study strongly points to the existence of overgrazing in pastures in the three regions of the Fars province in Southwest Iran. PMID:16887257

Azadi, Hossein; Shahvali, Mansour; van den Berg, Jan; Faghih, Nezamoddin

2006-08-02

341

A sensor management expert system for multiple sensor integration (MSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial intelligence (AI) expert system for the sensor management functions for an advanced fighter aircraft are described. The system was implemented using the ART (automated reasoning tool) development framework and LISP (List Processing) language. Even with its current moderate-size rule base (60 rules and functions), the system exhibits useful sensor management behavior. Throughout the process attention was focused on

B. McBryan; S. M. Meyer; M. D. Knabach

1990-01-01

342

Elicited emotions and cognitive functioning in preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four? to five?year?old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart rate variations) indices of emotions were used to measure the elicited emotions. The

Rivka Blau; Pnina S. Klein

2010-01-01

343

Unmasking of latent synaptic connections in the cortex of the rat, elicited by facial nerve transection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nerve injury elicits plastic changes in the cortex, resulting in reorganization of the somatotopic representation maps. These processes begin within minutes after nerve injury, and last for weeks. Although the mechanisms leading to these plastic changes are not known in a detail, a number of results suggest that the key element in the starting of these processes is a

Tamás Farkas; József Toldi

2001-01-01

344

Output Editing for Lexical Status in Artificially Elicited Slips of the Tongue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoonerisms can be elicited by having the subject articulate a target preceded by bias items. Any systematic difference in rate of errors between similar targets must result from processes after recoding of target into its slip. Editing processes make lexical outcomes more frequent than nonsense outcomes. (CHK)

Baars, Bernard J.; And Others

1975-01-01

345

Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

346

Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

2011-10-01

347

Researching Expert Teachers: Who Should We Study?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sets out definitions of expert found in three studies: situated effectiveness, emergent measure, and constrained elaboration. Outlines recommendations for selecting expert teachers to participate in research studies. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

Bucci, Terri T.

2003-01-01

348

Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

Olmstadt, William J.

2000-01-01

349

Mine detection training based on expert skill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies show that soldiers' mine detection capabilities with the PSS-12 hand-held detector are substandard and that their probabilities of detecting (PD) low-metal mines are dangerously low. Highly experienced PSS-12 operators, however, achieve PDS over 0.90 on high- and low-metal anti- tank (AT) and anti-personnel (AP) mines. Significantly, experts' detection techniques differ from conventional military PSS-12 operating procedures. We report three studies investigating whether instruction based on expert skill could bridge the observed performance gap. Basic research on human expertise has shown that instruction based on detailed scientific analyses of experts' behaviors and thought processes boosts skill acquisition dramatically. These studies tested the effects of an experimental detection training program based on knowledge and techniques learned from analysis of PSS-12 expertise. In Study I soldiers who had completed standard mine detection training participated as operators/trainees. This experiment used a pretest-posttest design. Mine simulants served as targets in testing gand training. Targets simulate d5 different mines and represented high- and low-metal AT and AP mine types. Pretest performance failed to distinguish the treatment and control groups. Both achieved very low PDs on low metal mines. Treatment-group soldiers then received approximately 15 hours of experimental, hands-on training. Posttest results showed that the treatment groups PD on minimal metal targets was more than 6 times that of the control group. Study 2 tested a subset of the treated soldiers in the same setting, now wearing body armor. Results replicated those of Study 1. Study 3 tested treatment group soldiers on real mine targets. Several mines from each mine type were used. The surface of the test lanes was expected to increase detection difficulty. Soldiers nonetheless achieved an aggregate PD of 0.97 and showed significant improvement in detecting low-metal mines.

Staszewski, James J.; Davison, Alan

2000-08-01

350

The use of formal and informal expert judgments when interpreting data for performance assessments  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the general process by which data and information are compiled and used for defining modeling parameters. These modeling parameters are input for the mathematical models that are used in performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, NM, which is designed to safely manage, store, and dispose of transuranic radioactive wastes. The physical and temporal scales, and the difficulty of obtaining measurements in geologic media make interpretation of measured data, including the difference between laboratory experiment scale and repository scale, important tasks. In most instances, standard scientific practices can ensure consistency of data use. To illustrate this point, an example is provided of the interpretation of field measurements of intrinsic permeability for use in computational models using the bootstrap technique. In some cases, sufficient information can never be collected, interpretation of the information is controversial, or information from diverse disciplines must be used. A procedure that formalizes the standard scientific practices under these conditions has been developed. An example is provided of how this procedure has been applied in eliciting expert judgments on markers to deter inadvertant human intrusion into the WIPP.

Rechard, R.P.; Trauth, K.M.; Tierney, M.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Rath, J.S. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Hora, S.C. (Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States))

1993-02-01

351

The use of formal and informal expert judgments when interpreting data for performance assessments  

SciTech Connect

This paper es the general process by which data and information are compiled and used for defining modeling parameters. These modeling parameters are input for the mathematical models that are used in performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, NM which is designed to safely manage, store, and dispose of transuranic radioactive wastes. The physical and temporal scales and the difficulty of obtain measurements in geologic media make interpretation of measured data, including the difference between laboratory experiment scale and repository scale, important task. In most instances, standard scientific practices can ensure consistency of data use. To illustrate this point, an example is provided of the interpretation of field measurements of intrinsic permeability for use in computational models using the bootstrap technique. In some cases, sufficient information can never be collected, interpretation of the information is controversial, or information from diverse disciplines must be used. A procedure that formalizes the standard scientific practices under these conditions has been developed. An example is provided of how this procedure has been applied in eliciting expert judgments on markers to deter inadvertant human intrusion into the WIPP.

Rechard, R.P.; Trauth, K.M.; Tierney, M.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Rath, J.S. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Hora, S.C. (Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States))

1992-01-01

352

The use of formal and informal expert judgments when interpreting data for performance assessments  

SciTech Connect

This paper es the general process by which data and information are compiled and used for defining modeling parameters. These modeling parameters are input for the mathematical models that are used in performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, NM which is designed to safely manage, store, and dispose of transuranic radioactive wastes. The physical and temporal scales and the difficulty of obtain measurements in geologic media make interpretation of measured data, including the difference between laboratory experiment scale and repository scale, important task. In most instances, standard scientific practices can ensure consistency of data use. To illustrate this point, an example is provided of the interpretation of field measurements of intrinsic permeability for use in computational models using the bootstrap technique. In some cases, sufficient information can never be collected, interpretation of the information is controversial, or information from diverse disciplines must be used. A procedure that formalizes the standard scientific practices under these conditions has been developed. An example is provided of how this procedure has been applied in eliciting expert judgments on markers to deter inadvertant human intrusion into the WIPP.

Rechard, R.P.; Trauth, K.M.; Tierney, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rath, J.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States)

1992-12-31

353

World Ocean Assessment experts needed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations (UN) is inviting interested scientists to apply to be members of an international pool of 1000-2000 experts who will be authors and reviewers of its first World Ocean Assessment (WOA) report, slated for completion in 2014. The UN anticipates that subsequent WOA reports will be generated on a 5-year cycle. The first report will include more than 50 subjects grouped within four main themes: marine environment and understanding of the ocean's role in the global integrated Earth system, food security and safety, human activities that influence the ocean or are influenced by the ocean, and marine biological diversity. A scientific and technical summary is also planned.

Showstack, Randy

2012-07-01

354

Expert systems in transmission planning  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the state of the field of expert systems and knowledge engineering in transmission planning is reviewed. A detailed analysis of the goals, definition, requirements and methodology of transmission planning is presented. Potential benefits of knowledge-based applications in transmission planning are reviewed. This is followed by a thorough review of the area broken down into subareas or important related topics. The conclusions offer a number of suggestions for possible future research and development. Finally, a detailed bibliography divided into subareas is presented.

Galiana, F.D. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (CA)); McGillis, D.T. (Hydro-Quebec Montreal, Planification du reseau, Quebec H2L 4P5 (CA)); Marin, M.A. (Automatismes, Measures et Communications, Inst. de recherche d'Hydro-Quebec, Quebec J0L 2P0 (CA))

1992-05-01

355

The Scientist's Expert Assistant Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) is a prototype effort for the Next Generation Space Telescope that uses a combination of artificial intelligence and user interface techniques to explore ways to substantially reduce the time and effort involved in proposal preparation for both scientists and the telescope operations staff. The Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been working with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) to explore SEA alternatives. At ADASS '99 we were demonstrating the latest version of the SEA software. This article summarizes the new features and lessons learned in the SEA project over the last year.

Grosvenor, S. R.; Burkhardt, C.; Koratkar, A.; Fishman, M.; Wolf, K. R.; Jones, J. E.; Ruley, L.

356

Expert Systems in Dermatology: The Computer Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expert system approach to computer diagnosis uses a non-algorithmic method to represent and manipulate an expert’s knowledge and reasoning. This information, which may be provided by a dermatologist, is represented by rules in a logic-based computer language in order to provide interactive and explanatory features. The major advantages of using expert system techniques for computer-aided diagnosis in dermatology are

A. Y. Finlay; P. Hammond

1986-01-01

357

Using expert opinion to prioritize impacts of climate change on sea turtles' nesting grounds.  

PubMed

Managers and conservationists often need to prioritize which impacts from climate change to deal with from a long list of threats. However, data which allows comparison of the relative impact from climatic threats for decision-making is often unavailable. This is the case for the management of sea turtles in the face of climate change. The terrestrial life stages of sea turtles can be negatively impacted by various climatic processes, such as sea level rise, altered cyclonic activity, and increased sand temperatures. However, no study has systematically investigated the relative impact of each of these climatic processes, making it challenging for managers to prioritize their decisions and resources. To address this we offer a systematic method for eliciting expert knowledge to estimate the relative impact of climatic processes on sea turtles' terrestrial reproductive phase. For this we used as an example the world's largest population of green sea turtles and asked 22 scientists and managers to answer a paper based survey with a series of pair-wise comparison matrices that compared the anticipated impacts from each climatic process. Both scientists and managers agreed that increased sand temperature will likely cause the most threat to the reproductive output of the nGBR green turtle population followed by sea level rise, then altered cyclonic activity. The methodology used proved useful to determine the relative impact of the selected climatic processes on sea turtles' reproductive output and provided valuable information for decision-making. Thus, the methodological approach can potentially be applied to other species and ecosystems of management concern. PMID:20702026

Fuentes, M M P B; Cinner, J E

2010-08-10

358

Rapid prototyping techniques for expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in rapid prototyping tools for expert system development are described. KITTEN and AQUINAS are integrated prototyping systems providing knowledge acquisition tools encompassing a diversity of forms of knowledge and relationships between knowledge. KITTEN can access a wide range of knowledge sources including text, interviews with experts, and observations of expert behavior. AQUINAS can present knowledge from multiple sources

M. L. G. Shaw; J. M. Bradshaw; B. R. Gaines; J. H. Boose

1988-01-01

359

Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

2011-01-01

360

MICE: a facility maintenance expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the metropolitan inter-office carrier expert (MICE), an expert system that pinpoints the cause of chronic digital carrier failures. Since different carrier equipment types are monitored by different operations systems, which are viewed by separate maintenance centers, carrier alarms caused by a single problem appear unrelated and are redundantly pursued. The authors discovered an expert who resolved the

J. P. Donaghy; R. C. Omanson

1989-01-01

361

Concert hall acoustics assessment with individually elicited attributes.  

PubMed

Concert hall acoustics was evaluated with a descriptive sensory analysis method by employing an individual vocabulary development technique. The goal was to obtain sensory profiles of three concert halls by eliciting perceptual attributes for evaluation and comparison of the halls. The stimuli were gathered by playing back anechoic symphony music from 34 loudspeakers on stage in each concert hall and recording the sound field with a microphone array. Four musical programs were processed for multichannel 3D sound reproduction in the actual listening test. Twenty screened assessors developed their individual set of attributes and performed a comparative evaluation of nine seats, three in each hall. The results contain the distinctive groups of elicited attributes and show good agreement within assessors, even though they applied individual attributes when rating the samples. It was also found that loudness and distance gave the strongest perceptual direction to the principal component basis. In addition, the study revealed that the perception of reverberance is related to the size of the space or to the enveloping reverberance, depending on the assessor. PMID:21877799

Lokki, Tapio; Patynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Vertanen, Heikki; Tervo, Sakari

2011-08-01

362

Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.  

PubMed

We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

1992-06-01

363

A neural network hybrid expert system  

SciTech Connect

When knowledge-based expert rules, equations, and proprietary languages extend Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD CAM) software, previously designed mechanisms can be scaled to satisfy new design requirements in the shortest time. However, embedded design alternatives needed by design engineers during the product conception and rework stages are lacking, and an operator is required who has a thorough understanding of the intended design and the how-to expertise needed to create and optimize the mechanisms. By applying neural network technology to build an expert system, a robust design supervisor system emerged which automated the embedded intellectual operations (e.g. questioning, identifying, selecting, and coordinating the design process) to (1) select the best mechanisms necessary to design a power transmission gearbox from proven solutions; (2) aid the inexperienced operator in developing complex design solutions; and (3) provide design alternatives which add back-to-the-drawing board capabilities to knowledge-based mechanical CAD/CAM software programs. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Goulding, J.R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1991-01-01

364

Shape-specific activation of occipital cortex in an early blind echolocation expert.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that an early-blind echolocating individual (EB) showed robust occipital activation when he identified distant, silent objects based on echoes from his tongue clicks (Thaler, Arnott, & Goodale, 2011). In the present study we investigated the extent to which echolocation activation in EB's occipital cortex reflected general echolocation processing per se versus feature-specific processing. In the first experiment, echolocation audio sessions were captured with in-ear microphones in an anechoic chamber or hallway alcove as EB produced tongue clicks in front of a concave or flat object covered in aluminum foil or a cotton towel. All eight echolocation sessions (2 shapes×2 surface materials×2 environments) were then randomly presented to him during a sparse-temporal scanning fMRI session. While fMRI contrasts of chamber versus alcove-recorded echolocation stimuli underscored the importance of auditory cortex for extracting echo information, main task comparisons demonstrated a prominent role of occipital cortex in shape-specific echo processing in a manner consistent with latent, multisensory cortical specialization. Specifically, relative to surface composition judgments, shape judgments elicited greater BOLD activity in ventrolateral occipital areas and bilateral occipital pole. A second echolocation experiment involving shape judgments of objects located 20° to the left or right of straight ahead activated more rostral areas of EB's calcarine cortex relative to location judgments of those same objects and, as we previously reported, such calcarine activity was largest when the object was located in contralateral hemispace. Interestingly, other echolocating experts (i.e., a congenitally blind individual in Experiment 1, and a late blind individual in Experiment 2) did not show the same pattern of feature-specific echo-processing calcarine activity as EB, suggesting the possible significance of early visual experience and early echolocation training. Together, our findings indicate that the echolocation activation in EB's occipital cortex is feature-specific, and that these object representations appear to be organized in a topographic manner. PMID:23391560

Arnott, Stephen R; Thaler, Lore; Milne, Jennifer L; Kish, Daniel; Goodale, Melvyn A

2013-02-04

365

Well control becomes target for expert systems  

SciTech Connect

There are important applications for expert systems in well control and abnormal pressure detection. Expert systems, the more commonly used name for knowledge engineering applications of artificial intelligence (AI), are created by capturing knowledge and experience from experts in any given technical field as a series of rules. A computer applied data (in conjunction with the more familiar and conventional numerical models) to these rules which results in decisions being made in the same manner as human experts dealing with the problem. The function of an expert system is to serve as a consultant, designer, monitor, problem solver, and/or tutor. Other industries have rapidly expanded the use of expert systems to solve problems, improve efficiencies, capture knowledge as a resource, and train inexperienced personnel. Only recently has the drilling industry become a leading application area for expert systems.

Damron, E.B.; Schulze, R.T.; Boschsler, D.C.

1989-02-06

366

The Expert Witness in Medical Malpractice Litigation  

PubMed Central

Physicians may find serving as an expert witness to be interesting, intellectually stimulating, and financially beneficial. However, potential expert witnesses should be aware of the increased legal scrutiny being applied to expert witness testimony in medical malpractice litigation. In the past, expert witnesses received absolute immunity from civil litigation regarding their testimony. This is no longer the case. Expert witnesses may be subject to disciplinary sanctions from professional organizations and state medical boards. In addition, emerging case law is defining the legal duty owed by the expert witness to the litigating parties. Orthopaedic surgeons who serve as expert witnesses should be familiar with the relevant Standards of Professionalism issued by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

2008-01-01

367

System for empirical experimentation with expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

SEEK is a system which has been developed to give interactive advice about rule refinement during the design of an expert system. The advice takes the form of suggestions for possible experiments in generalizing or specializing rules in an expert model that has been specified based on reasoning rules cited by the expert. Case experience, in the form of stored cases with known conclusions, is used to interactively guide the expert in refining the rules of a model. The design framework of SEEK consists of a tabular model for expressing expert-modeled rules and a general consultation system for applying a model to specific cases. This approach has proven particularly valuable in assisting the expert in a domain where two diagnoses are difficult to distinguish. Examples are given from an expert consultation system being developed for rheumatology. 12 references.

Politakis, P.; Weiss, S.M.

1982-01-01

368

Expert stakeholder attitudes and support for alternative water sources in a groundwater depleted region.  

PubMed

The main objectives of this research were to quantify the risks/benefits and impacts of alternative water sources (AWSs) as perceived by expert stakeholders and to evaluate the overall support for multiple AWSs by expert stakeholders. The St. Johns River (SJR) basin, FL, USA was chosen as a case study for AWSs because it is a fresh groundwater depleted region and there are ongoing activities related to water supply planning. Expert stakeholders included federal, state, and local governments, public utilities, consulting engineering and industry, and environmental and social non-governmental organizations. AWSs under consideration in the SJR basin include surface water, desalination, water reclamation, and water conservation. A two-phase research approach was followed that focused on expert stakeholders. First, an elicitation study was used to identify salient beliefs about AWSs. Open-ended questions were asked about the risks/benefits of AWSs in terms of the three pillars of sustainability: ecological, economic, and human health impacts. Second, an online survey was constructed using beliefs identified during the elicitation study. The online survey was used to quantify attitudes toward and overall support for AWSs. The salient beliefs of expert stakeholders were dominated by the ecological pillar of sustainability. The support of expert stakeholders for AWSs, from least favorable to most favorable, was surface water withdrawals

Boyer, Treavor H; Overdevest, Christine; Christiansen, Lisa; Ishii, Stephanie K L

2012-09-01

369

Affective speech elicited with a computer game.  

PubMed

To determine the degree to which emotional changes in speech reflect factors other than arousal, such as valence, the authors used a computer game to induce natural emotional speech. Voice samples were elicited following game events that were either conducive or obstructive to the goal of winning and were accompanied by either pleasant or unpleasant sounds. Acoustic analysis of the speech recordings of 30 adolescents revealed that mean energy, fundamental-frequency level, utterance duration, and the proportion of an utterance that was voiced varied with goal conduciveness; spectral energy distribution depended on manipulations of pleasantness; and pitch dynamics depended on the interaction of pleasantness and goal conduciveness. The results suggest that a single arousal dimension does not adequately characterize a number of emotion-related vocal changes, lending weight to multidimensional theories of emotional response patterning. PMID:16366756

Johnstone, Tom; van Reekum, Carien M; Hird, Kathryn; Kirsner, Kim; Scherer, Klaus R

2005-12-01

370

Hindlimb unloading elicits anhedonia and sympathovagal imbalance.  

PubMed

The hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rat model elicits cardiovascular deconditioning and simulates the physiological adaptations to microgravity or prolonged bed rest in humans. Although psychological deficits have been documented following bed rest and spaceflight in humans, few studies have explored the psychological effects of cardiovascular deconditioning in animal models. Given the bidirectional link established between cardiac autonomic imbalance and psychological depression in both humans and in animal models, we hypothesized that hindlimb unloading would elicit an alteration in sympathovagal tone and behavioral indexes of psychological depression. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats confined to 14 days of HU displayed anhedonia (a core feature of human depression) compared with casted control (CC) animals evidenced by reduced sucrose preference (CC: 81 +/- 2.9% baseline vs. HU: 58 +/- 4.5% baseline) and reduced (rightward shift) operant responding for rewarding electrical brain stimulation (CC: 4.4 +/- 0.3 muA vs. 7.3 +/- 1.0 muA). Cardiac autonomic blockade revealed elevated sympathetic [CC: -54 +/- 14.1 change in (Delta) beats/min vs. HU: -118 +/- 7.6 Delta beats/min] and reduced parasympathetic (CC: 45 +/- 11.8 Delta beats/min vs. HU: 8 +/- 7.3 Delta beats/min) cardiac tone in HU rats. Heart rate variability was reduced (CC: 10 +/- 1.4 ms vs. HU: 7 +/- 0.7 ms), and spectral analysis of blood pressure indicated loss of total, low-, and high-frequency power, consistent with attenuated baroreflex function. These data indicate that cardiovascular deconditioning results in sympathovagal imbalance and behavioral signs consistent with psychological depression. These findings further elucidate the pathophysiological link between cardiovascular diseases and affective disorders. PMID:18635876

Moffitt, Julia A; Grippo, Angela J; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-07-17

371

Robot path planning using expert systems and machine vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system developed for the robotic processing of naturally variable products. In order to plan the robot motion path it was necessary to use a sensor system, in this case a machine vision system, to observe the variations occurring in workpieces and interpret this with a knowledge based expert system. The knowledge base was acquired by carrying

Denis E. Malone; Werner E. Friedrich

1992-01-01

372

THE CASE FOR EXPERT TESTIMONY ABOUT EYEWITNESS MEMORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eyewitness expert testimony informs a jury about psychological processes and accuracy-related variables in eyewitness testimony. Appropriately chosen testimony is not prejudicial, and it is on sound scientific ground. Eyewitness research has established reliable, applicable findings and demonstrated that jurors have insufficient knowledge of some findings and poorly judge eyewitness accuracy. Studies of trial dynamics and reactions to eyewitnesses suggest a

Michael R. Leippe

1995-01-01

373

Presenting a Rule Based Loan Evaluation Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A core process in investment banks is evaluation of loan requests. In this paper we have presented the development of a rule based expert system for evaluation of loan request. The purpose of system is to evaluate the loan request and do some sensitivity analyses on the evaluation result to find the critical criteria. To achieve this purpose, Inference engine

Mahmood Houshmand; Mohammad Daneshvar Kakhki

2007-01-01

374

Knowledge based expert systems in engineering: Planning and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

AI technology and in particular knowledge based expert systems is now making a major impact in design with many systems being developed an applied in engineering. This book contains details on how these systems are developed and how they are being applied. Papers cover application of AI in project management, conceptual design, automated design systems, and process planning in many

D. Sriram; R. A. Adey

1987-01-01

375

Modelling database based expert systems at the conceptual level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a conceptual modelling environment a model is given for analysing complex real world problems known as Conceptual Knowledge Model (CKM), represented by a Graphical Representation and a Formal Representation. The Graphical Representation consist of 3 graphs: Conceptual Requirement Graph, Conceptual Behavior Graph, and Conceptual Structure Graph. This graphs are developed by consulting the expert during the design process. The

Ramin Yasdi

1985-01-01

376

An integrated approach to facilities layout using expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops an expert systems approach to define appropriate layouts of machining facilities under specific combinations of manufacturing and materials handling systems. The knowledge base incorporates six factors relating product variety and quantity, degrees of flexibility, level of automation, materials handling system, work-in-process and environmental considerations. The EXSYS system program has been used to manipulate the knowledge base. The

G. ABDOU; S. P. DUTTA

1990-01-01

377

Management expert systems for competitive advantage in business  

Microsoft Academic Search

While some areas of information technology are gradually slackening into the position of competitive necessity, Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology is emerging as a competitive weapon. The three areas of AI that have immediate economic values are robotics, natural language processing, and expert systems (ES). ES have the potential of becoming useful managerial tools in decision-making. They can handle ill-structured problems

Thow-Yick Liang; Huu-Phuong Ta

1990-01-01

378

Using Filmed Expert Demonstrations in Counsellor Education: Suggestions and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research exists about student learning processes using filmed experts demonstrating counselling systems and skills, there appears to be no formal direction or advice for instructors or supervisors on how to view, use, or teach with these types of films. This article attempts to fill this gap by combining ideas from the literature on…

Keats, Patrice A.

2009-01-01

379

Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

2011-01-01

380

Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e.,…

Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

2011-01-01

381

Elicitation strategies for soft constraint problems with missing preferences: Properties, algorithms and experimental studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider soft constraint problems where some of the preferences may be unspecified. This models, for example, settings where agent s are distributed and have privacy issues, or where there is an ongoing preference elicitation process. In this context, we study how to find an optimal solution witho ut having to wait for all the preferences. In particular, we define

Mirco Gelain; Maria Silvia Pini; Francesca Rossi; Kristen Brent Venable; Toby Walsh

2010-01-01

382

Preference aggregation and elicitation: tractability in the presence of incompleteness and incomparability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider how to combine the preferences of multiple agents despite the pres- ence of incompleteness and incomparability in their preference orderings. An agent's preference ordering may be incomplete because, for example, there is an ongoing preference elicitation process. It may also contain incomparability, which can be useful, for example, in multi-criteria scenarios. We focus on the problem of com-

M. S. Pini; F. Rossi; K. Venable; T. Walshz

383

Elicitation Strategies for Fuzzy Constraint Problems with Missing Prefer ences: an Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy constraints are a popular approach to handle prefer- ences and over-constrained problems. We consider here situ- ations where some of the preferences may be missing. This models, for example, settings where agents are distributed, or have privacy issues, or where there is an ongoing preference elicitation process. We study how to find a solution which is optimal irrespective of

M. Gelain; M. S. Pini; F. Rossi; K. Venable; T. Walsh

2007-01-01

384

Distributed requirement elicitation and negotiation based on the hall for workshop of meta-synthetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Requirement Elicitation and negotiation is a collaborative process and the involved multiple stakeholders have to communicate their needs, expertise, and experiences. The ultimate quality of the requirement is greatly constrained by participation and communication of multiple stakeholders. The Hall for Workshop of Meta-Synthetic Engineering is a web-based group support system, which provides a flexible platform for asynchronous and synchronous collaboration,

Chao-fan Dai; Ming-li Wang

2009-01-01

385

Using the Common Criteria to Elicit Security Requirements with Use Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common criteria is often too confusing and technical for non-security specialists to understand and therefore properly use. At the same time, it is essential that security critical IT products under development be validated according to such standards not after but rather during the software engineering process. To help address these issues, this paper presents an approach to eliciting security

Michael S. Ware; John B. Bowles; Caroline M. Eastman

2006-01-01

386

Category effects: is top-down control alone sufficient to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN) component?  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP) could be evoked by purely top-down, attentional control. An infrequently occurring tone was designated as a target prior to presenting a randomized sequence of five equi-probably occurring tones. MMN elicitation to the tones categorized as "high", "medium", or "low" frequency, and designated as the target, would indicate that the change detection process can be driven solely by top-down control. However, MMNs were not elicited by the categorized tones. Only the N2b and P3b attention-driven target detection components were elicited. These results suggest that top-down factors alone cannot generate mismatch negativity. Standard formation by stimulus-driven factors is required. PMID:23131615

Sadia, G; Ritter, W; Sussman, E

2012-11-03

387

Event-related potentials elicited by wrong terminal notes: effects of temporal disruption.  

PubMed

Wrong terminal notes of familiar musical phrases are known to elicit a large positive deflection of the event-related potential (ERP). The present study examined whether the effect of wrong terminal notes on ERP was modulated by the timing of their occurrence. Sixteen non-musicians were asked to rate the congruity of the endings of 50 well-known musical phrases. Four different types of endings were made for each phrase by manipulating the timing (well-timed vs. delayed for 750 ms) and pitch (correct vs. wrong) of the last note orthogonally. These ending patterns were presented equiprobably in an unpredictable order. Wrong notes elicited large late positive waves irrespective of the timing of occurrence. When the notes were delayed, however, the positive waves were reduced in amplitude to about 50% of those elicited by well-timed notes. These results suggest that the temporal (rhythmic) structure of musical phrases strongly influences the processing of melodic information. PMID:10686369

Nittono, H; Bito, T; Hayashi, M; Sakata, S; Hori, T

2000-02-01

388

An expert system for fault diagnosis in FASTBUS network initialization  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses FBNEXPERT, an expert system designed to help operators in controlling and maintaining a FASTBUS data acquisition system; it can also assist human experts during trouble-shooting and fault diagnosis. It is based on a shell (NEXPERT, by Neuron Data) which interacts with a knowledge base, where all the information about the FASTBUS system is collected, including the description of the configuration (from the files used for the initialization procedure) and the results of tests and previous diagnoses. During the diagnostic process, FBNEXPERT spans several levels of description of the FASTBUS system and applies various co-operating strategies.

Corazziari, F.; Falciano, S.; Luminari, L.; Savarese, M.; Trasatti, E. (INFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (IT)); Rimmer, E.M. (CERN, ECP Div., 1211 Geneva 23 (CH))

1992-04-01

389

Interweaving Knowledge Extracting, Organizing and Evaluating: A Concrete Design for Preventing Logic and Structure Bugs while Interviewing Experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of constructing expert systems (ESs), programs that approximate how domain experts solve problems in their specialized fields, is not at all as systematic, efficient, and verifiable as it should be. A reason is that no rigorous error-prevention interviewing method exists for structuring and testing ESs while building them. Often domain experts do implicitly ask of themselves analytical questions

Joseph S. Di Piazza

1990-01-01

390

An Internet-based expert system for selecting an academic major: www.MyMajors.com  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert system is a computer program that emulates the procedures and thought processes by which one or more experts solve problems. This paper describes an Internet-based expert system found at www.MyMajors.com, which provides advice to high school students or college freshmen who are seeking assistance in selecting a potential major. It emulates a professional academic advisor. The on-demand, approximately

Fritz H Grupe

2002-01-01

391

Expert clinical rules automate steps in delivering evidence-based care in the electronic health record.  

PubMed

A working framework is presented for interdisciplinary professionals for designing, building, and evaluating clinical decision support rules (expert rules) within the electronic health record. The working framework outlines the key workflow processes for eight health system organizations for selecting, designing, building, activating, and evaluating rules. In preparation, an interdisciplinary team selected expert rules for their organizations. A physician, a nurse, and/or pharmacy informatics specialists led the team for each organization. The team chose from a catalog of expert rules that were supported by regulatory or clinical evidence. The design process ensured that each expert rule followed evidence-based guidelines and was programmed to automate steps in planning and delivering patient care. Expert rules were prioritized when improving the safety and quality of care. Finally, clinical decision support rules were evaluated for abilities to improve the consistency and currency of assessments and follow-through on patient findings from these assessments. The informatics specialists from each of the health system organizations also participated in a health system oversight group to construct the key processes for this beginning framework. The group refined the processes for the selection, design, construction, activation, and evaluation of expert rules over the past 3 years. These steps offered direction to subsequent clinic and hospital organizations in a similar situation. This case study identified four key considerations when implementing and evaluating the clinical decision support expert rules within care delivery. In summary, the processes for decision support expert rules required rigorous development and change control processes to support operation. PMID:16849914

Brokel, Jane M; Shaw, Michael G; Nicholson, Cindy

392

WES, a robust expert system for well test analysis  

SciTech Connect

Well tests are generally performed to determine the hydrologic properties of aquifers, petroleum reservoirs and underground waste disposal sites. There are many types of well tests, however, for the purposes of this paper, we consider two of the most common: pressure draw-down tests (production of a well at a constant flow rate) and pressure build-up tests (shut-in of a well after a production period). For both of these tests, the pressure changes in the wellbore are monitored for the duration of the test. The resulting data set consists of pressure versus time values, along with the corresponding flow rate data. WES is an expert system developed for well test analysis which combines data processing and graphic representations with the expertise that can be provided by an expert system. The new possibilities offered by an expert system in the field of automatic well test analysis are discussed. 22 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Mensch, A.; Benson, S.M.

1989-09-01

393

Expertise transfer for expert system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is about the Expertise Transfer System-a computer program which interviews experts and helps them build expert systems, i.e. computer programs that use knowledge from experts to make decisions and judgements under conditions of uncertainty. The techniques are useful to anyone who uses decision-making information based on the expertise of others. The methods can also be applied to personal

J. H. Boose

1986-01-01

394

[The notion and classification of expert errors].  

PubMed

The author presents the analysis of the legal and forensic medical literature concerning currently accepted concepts and classification of expert malpractice. He proposes a new easy-to-remember definition of the expert error and considers the classification of such mistakes. The analysis of the cases of erroneous application of the medical criteria for estimation of the harm to health made it possible to reveal and systematize the causes accounting for the cases of expert malpractice committed by forensic medical experts and health providers when determining the degree of harm to human health. PMID:22686055

Klevno, V A

395

Expanding the power of expert systems applications with neural networks  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that expert systems are useful in capturing expertise and applying knowledge to chemical engineering problems such as diagnosis, process control, process simulation, process advisory, etc. Traditionally, expert system applications are limited to knowledge domains that are heuristic and involve only simple mathematics. Neural networks however, represent an emerging technology capable of rapid recognition of patterned behavior without regard to mathematical complexity. Although useful in problem identification, neural networks are not very efficient in pointing to in-depth solutions and typically do not promote deep understanding of the problem or the reasoning behind its solutions. This paper explores the potential for expanding the scope of expert system applications by combining expert systems and neural networks. Specifically, this work demonstrates the use of knowledge that is pattern driven rather than heuristic and may be fuzzy, which is characteristic of many problems in chemical engineering. The feasibility of combining these two artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is explored through chemical engineering unit operations examples.

Ferrada, J.J.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Cuccuzzella, N. (Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

396

Waste package degradation expert elicitation panel: Input on the corrosion of CRM alloy C-22. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The overall electrolyte concentration in the NFE environment is expected to be somewhere between 1X and saturated J-13 well water. This covers more than three orders-of-magnitude in chloride anion concentration. The pH of this solution is expected to be somewhere between 5 and 10. Exposed patches of the CRM could see this environment.

Farmer, J.C.

1998-03-14

397

Waste package degradation expert elicitation panel: Input on the corrosion of CRM alloy C-22. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The overall electrolyte concentration in the NFE environment is expected to be somewhere between 1X and saturated J-13 well water. This covers more than three orders-of-magnitude in chloride anion concentration. The pH of this solution is expected to be somewhere between 5 and 10. Exposed patches of the CRM could see this environment.

Farmer, J.C.

1998-02-26

398

Expert Panel Opinion and Global Sensitivity Analysis for Composite Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite indicators aggregate multi-dimensional processes into simplified concepts often aiming at underpinning the development\\u000a of data-driven narratives for policy consumption. Due to methodological issues, doubts are often raised about the robustness\\u000a of the composite indicators and the significance of the associated policy messages. In this paper we use expert panel information\\u000a (derived from budget allocation and analytic hierarchy process) on

M. Saisana; A. Saltelli

399

The impact of machine learning on expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert systems are a well-known and well-received technology. It was thought that the performance of a domain expert could not be duplicated by a machine. Expert systems technologies have shown this to be a false belief, and indeed have demonstrated how experts themselves can come to depend on expert systems. Expert systems enjoy widespread use in industrial domains and further

David B. Fogel; John C. Hanson; Russell C. Kick; Heidar A. Malki; Charles Sigwart; Michael Stinson; Efraim Turban

1993-01-01

400

A Smart Elicitation Technique for Informative Priors in Ground-Motion Mixture Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) the ground motion at a particular site of interest is typically estimated as an empirically derived function of source, path and side related predictor variables. Due to the sparseness of observed seismic data these ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are not expected to provide entirely precise estimates or to reflect the full diversity of possible future ground motion, thus introducing epistemic uncertainties in the hazard estimates. This is particularly the case in regions for which no dedicated GMPE has been developed and appropriate foreign models have to be applied. We investigate the aggregation of GMPEs in order to infer a model that can deliver predictions for such a region. Instead of having a single model that tries to capture the possible ground motion at the site of interest, a standard mixture model combines several existing GMPEs. The mixture weights will be estimated within a Bayesian statistical framework, in which they are considered to be distributed according to an a priori distribution. These weights capture a notion of appropriateness or relevance of GMPEs in the mixture. Subsequently the weights are updated as data is absorbed, which results in their a posteriori distribution. However, typically a priori distributions are chosen based on algebraic and/or computational convenience rather than attempting to actually capture domain expert's beliefs; this is in part because it is thought to be a non-trivial task to capture and elicit knowledge in terms of a distribution. In this contribution, we illustrate a method based on experimental design theory enabling us to quantify, elicit and transfer expert knowledge into a prior distribution for the mixture modeling problem. We experiment with different scenarios simulating likely expert behaviors in the context of knowledge elicitation, and show the impact this has on the prior and posterior distributions. The overall aim is to generate a mixture model for Northern Chile, an area for which no indigenous GMPE exists. A set of 9 GMPEs developed for different subduction zones of the world are aggregated via a mixture and strong motion recordings from the target area will update the knowledge driven prior. The ability to describe ground motions in Northern Chile is finally compared between the mixture model and its constituent GMPEs.

Runge, Antonia K.; Händel, Annabel; Riggelsen, Carsten; Scherbaum, Frank; Kühn, Nicolas M.

2013-04-01

401

Effects of Feeding Spodoptera littoralis on Lima Bean Leaves. II. Continuous Mechanical Wounding Resembling Insect Feeding Is Sufficient to Elicit Herbivory-Related Volatile Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivore feeding elicits defense responses in infested plants, including the emission of volatile organic compounds that can serve as indirect defense signals. Until now, the contribution of plant tissue wounding during the feeding process in the elicitation of defense responses has not been clear. For example, in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), the composition of the volatiles induced by both the

Axel Mithofer; Gerhard Wanner; Wilhelm Boland

2005-01-01

402

Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

2008-01-01

403

Introducing Forum Theatre to Elicit and Advocate Children's Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eliciting and advocating the voice of the child remains at the heart of international political agenda and also remains a central role for educational psychologists (EPs). Previous research indicates that EPs tend to use language-based methods for eliciting and advocating views of children. However, these approaches are often limited. Taking a…

Hammond, Nick

2013-01-01

404

Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological…

Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

2010-01-01

405

Attorneys as equalizers: Eliciting testimony from refugee defendants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines defense attorney elicitation strategies in People v. Tien (1986), a case involving two Vietnamese immigrants unjustly accused of felonious assault in a small Michigan community. Going into the trial, the complainant had the stronger case. Skillful elicitation of testimony by the defense attorney empowered the defendants, who were clearly the underdogs, to testify in an entirely credible

Mary I. Bresnahan

1989-01-01

406

Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

2008-01-01

407

Eliciting and aggregating subjective judgements: same experimental results  

SciTech Connect

An introductory review of the literature on eliciting and aggregating subjective judgements is provided. Six direct numerical methods for eliciting subjective probabilities over continuous variables are compared using four types of stimuli. The comparison is based on an experiment conducted at Los Alamos. Six mathematical aggregation rules for providing consensus point and confidence interval judgements are also compared. Some simple conclusions are stated.

Martz, H.F.; Bryson, M.C.; Waller, R.A.

1984-01-01

408

Affective monitoring: a generic mechanism for affect elicitation.  

PubMed

In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

Phaf, R Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-03-01

409

Finding Experts Using Social Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching an organization's document repositories for experts is a frequently occurred problem in intranet information management. A common method for finding experts in an organization is to use social networks - people are not isolated but connected by various kinds of associations. In organizations, people explicitly send email to one another thus social networks are likely to be contained in

Yupeng Fu; Rongjing Xiang; Yiqun Liu; Min Zhang; Shaoping Ma

2007-01-01

410

Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

2004-01-01

411

Human expert fusion for image classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In image classification, merging the opinion of several huma n experts is very important for different tasks such as the evaluation or the t raining. Indeed, the ground truth is rarely known before the scene imaging. We propose here differ- ent models in order to fuse the informations given by two or more experts. The considered unit for the classification,

Arnaud Martin; Christophe Osswald

2008-01-01

412

The Beliefs of Two Expert EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the research into "expert" language learners has focused largely on their learning strategies or styles. Less attention has been paid to other expert learner characteristics, such as learner beliefs. However, the importance of learners' beliefs in guiding their behaviours and how they interpret their experiences is widely recognised. This…

Mercer, Sarah

2011-01-01

413

An Expert System for Environmental Data Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the possibility of using expert system tools for environmental data management. Describes the domain-independent expert system shell SAK and Knowledge EXplorer, a system that learns rules from data. Demonstrates the functionality of Knowledge EXplorer on an example of water quality evaluation. (LZ)

Berka, Petr; Jirku, Petr

1995-01-01

414

EDSIM: expert database system for inventory management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Expert database system (EDS), which is still in its infancy, is developed and demonstrated for a business function by coupling expert systems (ES) and database systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An EDS for inventory management (EDSIM) using the fifth generation artificial intelligence (AI) language, Prolog, is developed. The convergence of logic programming and database techniques is focused in achieving the

Suresh Subramoniam; K. V. Krishnankutty

2005-01-01

415

Britain's shadow science minister believes in experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the present government in Britain under extreme pressure to call an election, Robin McKie interviews the Conservative spokesman on science and education, who feels that the major research companies should be more open about the research they undertake. But expert committees should be left to experts.

Robin McKie

1979-01-01

416

Safety Tips from the Expert Witness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many physical educators and coaches use the potential for liability to guide their decisions about conducting activities. By understanding expert witnesses' roles in negligence actions, surer planning, teaching, and coaching are possible. The paper describes issues that expert witnesses examine in negligence actions against physical educators,…

Gray, Gary R.

1995-01-01

417

Expert Holistic Nurses’ Advice to Nursing Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purposes of this study were to describe the advice that expert holistic nurses gave to nursing students regarding the theory and practice of holistic nursing and to describe nursing students’ experience and perceptions of their interaction with the experts. Design: This was a qualitative descriptive study. Methods: Nursing students who attended the 2008 and 2009 conferences of the

Glenda Christiaens; Jo Ann Abegglen; Andrea Gardner

2010-01-01

418

49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...knowlege concerning the matter of science or skill to which his or...statement of the elements of the direct testimony of an expert...basis of any opinion. The direct testimony of an expert witness...statement. A party may waive direct examination of an...

2012-10-01

419

An expert system for power systems maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

When power equipment fails, maintenance personnel have traditionally had to investigate and repair the equipment by using information supplied by supervision and control systems, specified in manuals, or gained through personal experience. To enable maintenance personnel to respond more quickly and accurately, the authors have developed an expert system (called ALICE-ES), that provides diagnostic expert know-how and emergency procedures arranged

A. Mitsuhashi; T. Maruyama; H. Inoue; T. Takeda

1993-01-01

420

Expert Performance: Its Structure and Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counter to the common belief that expert performance reflects innate abilities and capacities, recent research in different domains of expertise has shown that expert performance is predominantly mediated by acquired complex skills and physiological adaptations. For elite performers, supervised practice starts at very young ages and is maintained at high daily levels for more than a decade. The effects of

K. Anders Ericsson; Neil Charness

1994-01-01

421

32 CFR 516.52 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Expert witnesses. 516.52 Section 516.52 National...Release of Information and Appearance of Witnesses Scope Litigation in Which the United...Has An Interest § 516.52 Expert witnesses. Requests for present or former...

2013-07-01

422

Ask-an-Expert Services Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the history and emergence of non-library commercial and non-commercial information services on the World Wide Web, often referred to as expert services. Describes the methodology used for a study of expert services and considers implications for further research and the development of digital reference services by libraries.…

Janes, Joseph; Hill, Chrystie; Rolfe, Alex

2001-01-01

423

The Scientist's Expert Assistant Simulation Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of developing an observing program for a given observatory, the planner requires a number of inputs regarding the target and scientific instrument that need to be calculated, found, and/or confirmed. Thus, preparation of a program can be quite a daunting task. The task can be made easier by providing observers with a software tools environment. NGST funded the initial development of the Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) to research new visual approaches to proposal preparation. Building on this experience, work has begun on a new integrated SEA simulation facility. The main objective is to develop the framework for a flexible simulation facility to allow astronomers to explore the target/instrument/observatory parameters and to 'simulate' the quality of data they will attain. The goal is a simulation pipeline that will allow the user to manage the complex process of simulating and analyzing images without heroic programming effort. Tying this into SEA will allow astronomers to effectively come 'full circle' from retrieving archival images, to data analysis, to proposing new observations. The objectives and strategies for the SEA simulation facility are discussed, as well as current status and future enhancements.

Wolf, K. R.; Li, C.; Jones, J.; Matusow, D.; Grosvenor, S.; Koratkar, A.

424

Predicting the World Cup 2002 in soccer: Performance and confidence of experts and non-experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the forecasting performance and confidence of experts and non-experts. 251 participants with four different levels of knowledge of soccer (ranging between expertise and almost ignorance) took part in a survey and predicted the outcome of the first round of World Cup 2002. The participating experts (i.e., sport journalists, soccer fans, and soccer coaches) and the non-experts were

Patric Andersson; Jan Edman; Mattias Ekman

2005-01-01

425

Mechanisms and Neural Basis of Object and Pattern Recognition: A Study with Chess Experts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing experts with novices offers unique insights into the functioning of cognition, based on the maximization of individual differences. Here we used this expertise approach to disentangle the mechanisms and neural basis behind two processes that contribute to everyday expertise: object and pattern recognition. We compared chess experts and…

Bilalic, Merim; Langner, Robert; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

426

Risk Communication: Involvement, Uncertainty, and Control's Effect on Information Scanning and Monitoring by Expert Stakeholders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posits that most risk communication studies ignore the professional role and communication processes of technical experts. Focuses on one group of technical experts, industrial hygienists, with specific attention to the impact of cognitive involvement, uncertainty, and control on their communication. Indicates that hygienists who are employed in…

Heath, Robert L.; Gay, Christine Diana

1997-01-01

427

Automating reuse of software for expert system analysis of remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems involving remote sensing analysis for airborne and satellite data in combination with geographic information systems are large and complex. The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has created an expert system shell and several expert systems in order to provide image analysis programs with the necessary knowledge to solve difficult image processing problems, such as updating a forest inventory

David G. Goodenough; Daniel Charlebois; Stan Matwin; M. Robson

1994-01-01

428

Development of an expert system for optimizing natural gas pipeline operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an expert system as a decision support tool to optimize natural gas pipeline operations. A natural gas pipeline control system is a controlling system that involves many complicated operating processes. Since a dispatcher (who operates the system) might not be able to handle all of his or her tasks consistently, an expert system has been developed for

V. Uraikul; C. W. Chan; P. Tontiwachwuthikul

2000-01-01

429

Experts in Fast-Ball Sports Reduce Anticipation Timing Cost by Developing Inhibitory Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between expertise in movement correction and rate of movement reprogramming within limited time periods, and to clarify the specific cognitive processes regarding superior reprogramming ability in experts. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in baseball experts (n = 7) and…

Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mori, Shiro

2012-01-01

430

Expert-recommended warnings for medical marijuana.  

PubMed

Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings, the first ever from marijuana experts, come from 13 experts. The expert-recommended warnings pertain to risks relating to (1) safety, (2) physical health, (3) fetal harm, (4) mental health, (5) withdrawal and dependence, and (6) adolescent development. The results provide initial expert recommendations for warnings to be required on packages of medical marijuana. PMID:23577899

Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E

431

Quantitative analysis of cardiac imaging using expert systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic identification of precise left ventricular endocardial surfacing using echocardiography and cardiac MRI for the quantification of ejection fraction continues to be difficult. Standard image processing techniques have not been completely successful, principally because not all edge data directly corresponds to anatomical boundaries. Trained physicians must use considerable a priori information regarding normal human anatomy to `fill in' the missing details of a typical cardiac study. In this paper, we describe a new method to identify borders within medical images that incorporates an expert system based approach. Throughout the design of this approach, we maintained the following constraints: the system must easily capture expert information from multiple experts, over a variety of cardiac image formats, be trainable on any patient, and once trained provide fast execution times. The method was initially tested on echocardiographic images. Using a series of 2D echo image sequences, an expert traced endo- and epicardial edges in order to 'teach' the computer which pixels were myocardium and which were left ventricular cavity; each identified pixel was then convolved so as to amplify correlations found between the pixel and its neighbors. The result, applied prospectively at near real time speed, identified all pixels as being myocardium, left ventricular cavity or uncertain. As a consequence, endocardial borders were generated. These borders were then used to calculate systolic and diastolic areas and an area ejection fraction which proved to be within 2% of an expert traced and calculated area ejection fraction. These findings suggest this method holds promise for the capturing of expert knowledge of 2D cardiac ultrasound interpretation, and, through preliminary testing, we have shown its potential in the segmentation of 3D cardiac MRI volume sets for subsequent analysis and display.

Dreyer, Keith J.; Simko, Joseph; Held, A. C.

1991-06-01

432

PSG-EXPERT - AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF SLEEP DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes PSG-EXPERT, an expert system in the domain of sleep disorders exploring polysomnographic data. The developed software tool is addressed from two points of view: (1)- as an integrated environment for the development of diagnosis-oriented expert systems; (2)- as an auxiliary diagnosis tool in the particular domain of sleep disorders. Developed over a Windows platform, this software tool

Ana FRED; Joaquim FILIPE; Markku PARTINEN; Teresa PAIVA

433

Elicitation of lignin peroxidase in Streptomyces lividans  

SciTech Connect

Using a novel starch-based medium (DJMM) which elicits high expression of lignin peroxidase (ALiP-P3) from Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, significant levels of ALiP-P3 (between 1135 and 1784 nmol/g cell-min) were excreted by S. lividans TK23, TK24, and TK64 with the supernatants capable of degrading dichlorophenol (these strains were previously reported to produce low levels of LiP). The S. lividans wild-type strains produced 1/9 to 1/6 the cell-specific LiP activity previously detected in S. viridosporus T7A cultures grown in the same starch-based medium; however, by using DJMM to increase the cell density, the volumetric activity of wild-type S. lividans TK23, TK24, and TK64 strains was increased 11- to 20-fold compared to cultivations in a yeast-extract-based medium. Consequently, this increase of LiP production allows the direct analysis of LiP activity in the supernatants of these strains without the need for enzyme concentration through ultrafiltration. Immunoblot analysis verified that a single 56.5 kDa band, secreted by all three strains, was extremely similar in size and immunologic reactivity to the 59.5 kDa ALiP-P3 isoform of S. viridosporus T7A. In addition, Western blot analysis was used to show that a previously cloned 4.1 kb chromosomal fragment of S. viridosporus T7A DNA did not contain the ALiP-P3 structural genes. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Yee, D.C.; Wood, T.K. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1996-08-01

434

Expert judgments of pandemic influenza risks.  

PubMed

Structured surveys were conducted with 19 medical experts, and 17 non-medical experts in related fields, attending a meeting about pandemic influenza. Respondents gave quantitative judgments for key variables potentially affecting the extent of a possible H5N1 pandemic. The medical experts saw about a 15% (median) chance of efficient human-to-human transmission, in the next 3 years. Should it occur, they saw almost no chance of there being adequate vaccines or antiviral responses. They saw varying chances of six other mitigation strategies reducing the threat, expressing the greatest faith in improved surveillance. Compared to the medical experts, the non-medical experts saw much higher chances of both human-to-human transmission and of effective vaccine and antiviral responses being available. The medical experts and the non-medical experts had similar, dire predictions for the extent of casualties, should transmission occur in the next 3 years. Their responses to open-ended questions revealed some of the theories underlying these beliefs. PMID:19153906

Bruine De Bruin, W; Fischhoff, B; Brilliant, L; Caruso, D

2006-01-01

435

Similar Odorants Elicit Different Behavioral and Physiological Responses, Some Supersustained  

PubMed Central

An intriguing question in the field of olfaction is how animals distinguish among structurally similar odorants. We systematically analyzed olfactory responses elicited by a panel of 25 pyrazines. We found that structurally similar pyrazines elicit a wide range of behavioral responses from Drosophila larvae. Each pyrazine was tested against all functional receptors of the larval Odor receptor (Or) repertoire, yielding 525 odorant–receptor combinations. Different pyrazines vary markedly in the responses they elicit from the Or repertoire, with most strong responses deriving from two receptors, Or33b and Or59a. Surprisingly, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine, which elicit strikingly similar physiological responses across the receptor repertoire, elicit dramatically different behavioral responses. A small fraction of odorant-receptor combinations elicit remarkably long responses. These responses, which we term “supersustained” responses, are receptor specific and odorant specific, and can last for minutes. Such supersustained responses may prevent olfactory neurons from reporting contemporaneous information about the local odor environment. Odors that elicit such responses could provide a novel means of controlling insect pests and vectors of human disease by impairing the location of human hosts, food sources, and mates.

Montague, Shelby A.; Mathew, Dennis; Carlson, John R.

2011-01-01

436

Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

437

What number is "fifty-fifty"?: redistributing excessive 50% responses in elicited probabilities.  

PubMed

Studies using open-ended response modes to elicit probabilistic beliefs have sometimes found an elevated frequency (or blip) at 50 in their response distributions. Our previous research suggests that this is caused by intrusion of the phrase "fifty-fifty," which represents epistemic uncertainty, rather than a true numeric probability of 50%. Such inappropriate responses pose a problem for decision analysts and others relying on probabilistic judgments. Using an explicit numeric probability scale (ranging from 0-100%) reduces thinking about uncertain events in verbal terms like "fifty-fifty," and, with it, exaggerated use of the 50 response. Here, we present two procedures for adjusting response distributions for data already collected with open-ended response modes and hence vulnerable to an exaggerated presence of 50%. Each procedure infers the prevalence of 50s had a numeric probability scale been used, then redistributes the excess. The two procedures are validated on some of our own existing data and then applied to judgments elicited from experts in groundwater pollution and bioremediation. PMID:12224745

Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischbeck, Paul S; Stiber, Neil A; Fischhoff, Baruch

2002-08-01

438

Development of Sets of Patient Health Outcome Criteria by Panels of Nurse Experts. Final Report Project No. 7. January 1 - June 30, 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven prototype sets of outcome criteria for seven specific critical patient populations were developed by nurse experts to serve as models for nurses, and eight to ten nurse experts were identified for each population. The group process used to generate ...

M. J. Zimmer N. M. Lang D. I. Miller

1974-01-01

439

Knowledge based expert systems in engineering: Planning and design  

SciTech Connect

AI technology and in particular knowledge based expert systems is now making a major impact in design with many systems being developed an applied in engineering. This book contains details on how these systems are developed and how they are being applied. Papers cover application of AI in project management, conceptual design, automated design systems, and process planning in many areas of engineering. Example systems discussed in the 31 papers include structural design, digital circuit design, road design plus many other applications.

Sriram, D.; Adey, R.A.

1987-01-01

440

Serial Combination of Multiple Experts: A Unified Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Multiple expert decision combination has received much attention in recent years. This is a multi-disciplinary branch of\\u000a pattern recognition which has extensive applications in numerous fields including robotic vision, artificial intelligence,\\u000a document processing, office automation, human-computer interfaces, data acquisition, storage and retrieval, etc. In recent\\u000a years, this application area has been extended to forensic science, including the identification of

Ahmad Fuad Rezaur Rahman; Michael C. Fairhurst

1999-01-01

441

EUCAST expert rules in antimicrobial susceptibility testing.  

PubMed

EUCAST expert rules have been developed to assist clinical microbiologists and describe actions to be taken in response to specific antimicrobial susceptibility test results. They include recommendations on reporting, such as inferring susceptibility to other agents from results with one, suppression of results that may be inappropriate, and editing of results from susceptible to intermediate or resistant or from intermediate to resistant on the basis of an inferred resistance mechanism. They are based on current clinical and/or microbiological evidence. EUCAST expert rules also include intrinsic resistance phenotypes and exceptional resistance phenotypes, which have not yet been reported or are very rare. The applicability of EUCAST expert rules depends on the MIC breakpoints used to define the rules. Setting appropriate clinical breakpoints, based on treating patients and not on the detection of resistance mechanisms, may lead to modification of some expert rules in the future. PMID:22117544

Leclercq, R; Cantón, R; Brown, D F J; Giske, C G; Heisig, P; MacGowan, A P; Mouton, J W; Nordmann, P; Rodloff, A C; Rossolini, G M; Soussy, C-J; Steinbakk, M; Winstanley, T G; Kahlmeter, G

2011-11-25

442

Method for using expert judgment in PSA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses an expert judgement methodology development for applications at all levels of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The main applications are expected to be at PSA-levels 1 and 2. The method consists of several phases, including the ...

J. Holmberg U. Pulkkinen

1997-01-01

443

16 CFR 255.3 - Expert endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENDORSEMENTS AND TESTIMONIALS IN ADVERTISING § 255.3 Expert endorsements...endorser's qualifications must in fact give the endorser...consumers. Example 5: A woman who is identified as the president...cleaning serviceâ states in a television...

2010-01-01

444

16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...

2013-01-01

445

Ask the Experts--December 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experts address the following question in this month's column: "Since helium is an inert gas that drifts to space, where do we get the helium that we use here on Earth for balloons and other applications?"

2006-12-01

446

An expert system intervention for smoking cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pathways to Change system (PTC) is an expert system intervention for smoking cessation. Assessments are performed either by mail or by a telephone interview and each smoker receives a three- to four-page report that provides individualized recommendations matched to the individual's needs and readiness-to-change. The Transtheoretical Model of Change provides the theoretical basis for the expert system. Four different

Wayne F Velicer; James O Prochaska

1999-01-01

447

HEARTFIT: An Expert System for Cardiac Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

The knowledge based program HEARTFIT is designed to identify the educational needs of a cardiac patient based on that patient's risk factor profile for heart disease and to provide a safe and effective exercise prescription for increasing levels of activity. HEARTFIT was developed using the expert system shell EXSYS. This expert system is intended for use by experienced and neophyte nurse therapists as well as students in Cardiac Rehabilitation. The design of this program allows for adaptation to other patient populations.

Gournic, Joyce L.

1989-01-01

448

Expert system to design communications circuits  

SciTech Connect

An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

1986-07-01

449

Recognition of monkey faces by monkey experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings automatically discriminate human faces at the individual level. Infants aged 3 months implicitly recognise monkey\\u000a faces, but this capacity disappears as recognition skills mature. Expertise is known to affect recognition capacities for\\u000a different categories of stimuli that are not even face-like in their configuration. We have explored the capacity of adult\\u000a experts and non-experts in primatology to recognise

Valérie Dufour; Odile Petit

2010-01-01

450

An automated diagnostic expert system for diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Fault diagnosis of diesel engines can be a tedious time-consuming process, resulting in extended downtime, thus reducing productivity and increasing operational cost. This problem can be accentuated when experienced expert maintenance personnel are in short supply and also when the rate of development of new-generation engines using leading edge technology does not permit maintenance personnel to keep up with this change. An automated diagnostic system based on artificial intelligence criteria using mechanical signature analyses (MSA) of signals acquired from engine mounted sensors can overcome this problem by providing expert and consistent diagnostic advice. This paper describes the development and implementation of an automated diagnostic expert system for diesel engines. The system uses vibration signals together with oil pressure and temperature, crankcase pressures, exhaust gas temperature and pressure, exhaust emissions, manifold noise levels, inlet manifold pressure, fuel delivery pressure, and instantaneous engine speed to monitor and diagnose engine faults. State-of-the-art techniques used for signal processing to generate data required for effective diagnosis from raw signals acquired form the engine mounted sensors are described. Complexities of signal processing for diesel engines are discussed and solutions of a practical nature suggested. Signal analysis techniques relating to fault condition evaluation are also described.

Autar, R.K. [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-07-01

451

Cannabis Cue-elicited Craving and the Reward Neurocircuitry  

PubMed Central

Cue-elicited craving or the intense desire to consume a substance following exposure to a conditioned drug cue is one of the primary behavioral symptoms of substance use disorders (SUDs). While the concept of cue-elicited craving is well characterized in alcohol and other substances of abuse, only recently has it been described in cannabis. A review of the extant literature has established that cue-elicited craving is a powerful reinforcer that contributes to drug-seeking for cannabis. Further, emergent research has begun to identify the neurobiological systems and neural mechanisms associated with this behavior. What research shows is that while theories of THC’s effects on the dopaminergic-reward system remain divergent, cannabis cues elicit neural activation in the brain’s reward network.

Filbey, Francesca M.; DeWitt, Samuel J.

2011-01-01

452

Coccidioidin Sensitivity Elicited in Guinea Pigs by Repeated Skin Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Delayed hypersensitivity was elicited in guinea pigs by repeated skin testing with potent coccidioidin. Characteristics of delayed hypersensitivity were evident upon gross and microscopic observations. Skin testing with basal medium produced reactions tha...

J. T. Sinski

1966-01-01

453

Interactive Elicitation of Relation Semantics for the Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper the workflow and architecture of the Relation Semantics Elicitation Prototype {RSEP}. RSEP has been developed to\\u000a address the limitations of the Description Logic based constructs of the Web Ontology Language (OWL)

Cartik Kothari; David Russomanno; Phillip Tran

454

Cannabis cue-elicited craving and the reward neurocircuitry.  

PubMed

Cue-elicited craving or the intense desire to consume a substance following exposure to a conditioned drug cue is one of the primary behavioral symptoms of substance use disorders (SUDs). While the concept of cue-elicited craving is well characterized in alcohol and other substances of abuse, only recently has it been described in cannabis. A review of the extant literature has established that cue-elicited craving is a powerful reinforcer that contributes to drug-seeking for cannabis. Further, emergent research has begun to identify the neurobiological systems and neural mechanisms associated with this behavior. What research shows is that while theories of THC's effects on the dopaminergic-reward system remain divergent, cannabis cues elicit neural activation in the brain's reward network. PMID:22100353

Filbey, Francesca M; DeWitt, Samuel J

2011-11-09

455

Fuzzy expert system: applications to geology  

SciTech Connect

Expert systems are potentially valuable tools for scientists who are in so-called inexact sciences, such as geology. This is because expert-system technology deemphasizes the number-crunching aspect of computers; instead, symbol manipulation is the kernel of the expert-system software. Most geologic data are imprecise and often incomplete; yet, geologists must make decisions under uncertainty based on approximate reasoning. To deal with those situations, Aristotelian logic of true/false employed in most expert-system shells is inadequate; fuzzy logic must be incorporated in the inference engine as well as knowledge base of the expert system. Furthermore, many geological problems cannot be solved by a deductive chain of reasoning, but the solutions have to rely on a collection of related facts in an inductive fashion. An expert system shell which can accomplish all these is FLOPS - Fuzzy Logic Production System. The system employs fuzzy concepts throughout: production rules use fuzzy logic; data types include fuzzy numbers; and fuzzy predicates are provided for fuzzy comparison of numbers. It handles inductive reasoning by a production system which fires rules in parallel rather than sequentially, using weakly monotonic logic to solve memory conflicts. This paper is illustrated by examples from qualitative x-ray phase analysis and determination of clastic depositional environments.

Fang, J.H.

1987-05-01

456

Brain activity elicited by positive and negative feedback in preschool-aged children.  

PubMed

To investigate the processing of positive vs. negative feedback in children aged 4-5 years, we devised a prize-guessing game that is analogous to gambling tasks used to measure feedback-related brain responses in adult studies. Unlike adult studies, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by positive feedback was as large as that elicited by negative feedback, suggesting that the neural system underlying the FRN may not process feedback valence in early childhood. In addition, positive feedback, compared with negative feedback, evoked a larger P1 over the occipital scalp area and a larger positive slow wave (PSW) over the right central-parietal scalp area. We believe that the PSW is related to emotional arousal and the intensive focus on positive feedback that is present in the preschool and early school years has adaptive significance for both cognitive and emotional development during this period. PMID:21526189

Mai, Xiaoqin; Tardif, Twila; Doan, Stacey N; Liu, Chao; Gehring, William J; Luo, Yue-Jia

2011-04-19

457

Brain Activity Elicited by Positive and Negative Feedback in Preschool-Aged Children  

PubMed Central

To investigate the processing of positive vs. negative feedback in children aged 4–5 years, we devised a prize-guessing game that is analogous to gambling tasks used to measure feedback-related brain responses in adult studies. Unlike adult studies, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by positive feedback was as large as that elicited by negative feedback, suggesting that the neural system underlying the FRN may not process feedback valence in early childhood. In addition, positive feedback, compared with negative feedback, evoked a larger P1 over the occipital scalp area and a larger positive slow wave (PSW) over the right central-parietal scalp area. We believe that the PSW is related to emotional arousal and the intensive focus on positive feedback that is present in the preschool and early school years has adaptive significance for both cognitive and emotional development during this period.

Mai, Xiaoqin; Tardif, Twila; Doan, Stacey N.; Liu, Chao; Gehring, William J.; Luo, Yue-Jia

2011-01-01

458

Measuring impatience: Elicited discount rates and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the extent to which elicited discount rates and self-reported impulsivity measure the same behavioral characteristic. We elicit discount rates using monetary rewards and a self-reported measure of impulsiveness (the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11). Although researchers have utilized these measures to infer aspects of intertemporal preferences, we find no significant correlation between discount rates and the BIS-11 except when

Kendra N. McLeish; Robert J. Oxoby

2007-01-01

459

Brain mapping of digestive sensations elicited by cortical electrical stimulations.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to obtain a comprehensive map of cortical areas from where digestive sensations during intracerebral electrical stimulations (ES) in epileptic patients are elicited. Direct cortical ESs were performed in 339 medically intractable epileptic patients selected to presurgical evaluation using chronically stereotaxically implanted intracerebral electrodes and audio-video-EEG monitoring system. Digestive sensations were electrically induced on 723 different anatomical sites in 172 subjects (51%). According to the exclusion criteria, the final analysis includes 174 relevant stimulations evoked in 87 patients. The reported sensations referred predominantly to the upper part of the digestive tract including the epigastria and area over the periumbilical (n = 83; 48%), retrosternal (n = 17; 10%), pharyngeal (n = 31; 18%) and oral (n = 18; 10%) regions. The temporal pole (BA 38), hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; BA 24/BA 32) were the typical anatomical locations connected with epigastric sensations. Retrosternal sensations were preferentially related to the ACC, while oro-pharyngeal sensations were most related to the suprasylvian opercular cortex and the insula. Cortical ESs are followed by a great variability of induced digestive and associated symptoms corresponding to a widely distributed cortical network of visceral sensation processing, in which the limbic and paralimbic structures play a critical role. PMID:18208482

Mulak, A; Kahane, P; Hoffmann, D; Minotti, L; Bonaz, B

2008-01-15

460

The Physiological Role of Abscisic Acid in Eliciting Turion Morphogenesis.  

PubMed Central

The exogenous application of hormones has led to their implication in a number of processes within the plant. However, proof of their function in vivo depends on quantitative data demonstrating that the exogenous concentration used to elicit a response leads to tissue hormone levels within the physiological range. Such proof is often lacking in many investigations. We are using abscisic acid (ABA)-induced turion formation in Spirodela polyrrhiza L. to investigate the mechanism by which a hormone can trigger a morphogenic switch. In this paper, we demonstrate that the exogenous concentration of ABA used to induce turions leads to tissue concentrations of ABA within the physiological range, as quantified by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-electron capture detection analysis. These results are consistent with ABA having a physiological role in turion formation, and they provide an estimate of the changes in endogenous ABA concentration required if environmental effectors of turion formation (e.g. nitrate deficiency, cold) act via an increased level of ABA. In addition, we show that the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of ABA are equally effective in inducing turions. Moreover, comparison of the ABA; levels attained after treatment with (+)-, (-)-, and ([plus or minus])-ABA and their effect on turion induction and comparison of the effectiveness of ABA on turion induction under different pH regimes suggest that ABA most likely interacts with a plasmalemma-located receptor system to induce turion formation.

Smart, C. C.; Fleming, A. J.; Chaloupkova, K.; Hanke, D. E.

1995-01-01

461

Using expert opinion surveys to rank threats to endangered species: a case study with sea turtles.  

PubMed

Little is known about how specific anthropogenic hazards affect the biology of organisms. Quantifying the effect of regional hazards is particularly challenging for species such as sea turtles because they are migratory, difficult to study, long lived, and face multiple anthropogenic threats. Expert elicitation, a technique used to synthesize opinions of experts while assessing uncertainty around those views, has been in use for several decades in the social science and risk assessment sectors. We conducted an internet-based survey to quantify expert opinion on the relative magnitude of anthropogenic hazards to sea turtle populations at the regional level. Fisheries bycatch and coastal development were most often ranked as the top hazards to sea turtle species in a geographic region. Nest predation and direct take followed as the second and third greatest threats, respectively. Survey results suggest most experts believe sea turtles are threatened by multiple factors, including substantial at-sea threats such as fisheries bycatch. Resources invested by the sea turtle community, however, appear biased toward terrestrial-based impacts. Results from the survey are useful for conservation planning because they provide estimates of relative impacts of hazards on sea turtles and a measure of consensus on the magnitude of those impacts among researchers and practitioners. Our survey results also revealed patterns of expert bias, which we controlled for in our analysis. Respondents with no experience with respect to a sea turtle species tended to rank hazards affecting that sea turtle species higher than respondents with experience. A more-striking pattern was with hazard-based expertise: the more experience a respondent had with a specific hazard, the higher the respondent scored the impact of that hazard on sea turtle populations. Bias-controlled expert opinion surveys focused on threatened species and their hazards can help guide and expedite species recovery plans. PMID:20575987

Donlan, C Josh; Wingfield, Dana K; Crowder, Larry B; Wilcox, Chris

2010-12-01

462

Caffeine-associated stimuli elicit conditioned responses: an experimental model of the placebo effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: A neutral stimulus repeatedly paired with administration of a drug may elicit a conditioned response. This process, termed\\u000a pharmacological classical conditioning, may be important in the understanding of placebo effects. Objective: The unconditioned response to caffeine is increased physiological and psychological arousal. The present study investigated\\u000a whether stimuli associated with the use of caffeine, i.e. the smell and taste

Magne Arve Flaten; Terry D. Blumenthal

1999-01-01

463

Whither the Experts? Newspaper Use of Horse Race and Issue Experts in Coverage of Open Governors' Races in 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the use of “horse race” and issue experts by fifteen daily newspapers covering seven open races for governor between Labor Day and Election Day 2002. About 38% of stories cited experts. “Horse race” experts were cited in 27% of news stories, while issue experts were cited in 14%. Experts were cited more frequently in 2002 than in

Eric Freedman; Frederick Fico

2004-01-01

464

Computer-Assisted Diagnosis in Reading: An Expert Systems Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces some basic concepts on which expert systems are based. Considers how expert systems might be productively applied in education. Describes an experimental expert system with applications in reading diagnosis and teacher training. (SR)

McEneaney, John E.

1992-01-01

465

Structuring Knowledge for Expert System Solutions. Part 1: Definition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introductory article defines and delimits expert systems. The discussion covers the concepts of artificial intelligence, the components of an expert system, and the significance of expert systems when compared to more traditional decision making tools. (CLB)

Grabinger, R. Scott

1988-01-01

466

An SSME High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump diagnostic system using G2 real-time expert system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expert system which diagnoses various seal leakage faults in the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump of the SSME was developed using G2 real-time expert system. Three major functions of the software were implemented: model-based data generation, real-time expert system reasoning, and real-time input/output communication. This system is proposed as one module of a complete diagnostic system for the SSME. Diagnosis of a fault is defined as the determination of its type, severity, and likelihood. Since fault diagnosis is often accomplished through the use of heuristic human knowledge, an expert system based approach has been adopted as a paradigm to develop this diagnostic system. To implement this approach, a software shell which can be easily programmed to emulate the human decision process, the G2 Real-Time Expert System, was selected. Lessons learned from this implementation are discussed.

Guo, Ten-Huei

467

Differences between experts and novices in kinematics and accuracy of golf putting.  

PubMed

In this study, golf-putting movements were examined under three goal distances (short, 1.7m; middle, 3.25m; long, 6m), two different putter weights (500g, 750g), and two levels of expertise (5 experts, 5 novices). The study's aim was to identify differences in kinematics and accuracy between expert and novice golfers. The results demonstrated that experts achieved higher accuracy with lower impact velocity than novices. In addition, while novices showed symmetrical movements, experts exhibited asymmetrical movements, which were achieved by modulating their movement time and amplitude differently from novices. These results demonstrated differences in relative timing, relative amplitude and velocity, but no difference in time-to-contact between novices and experts. The results reaffirmed the role of prior learning and supported the hypothesis of Manoel and Connolly (1995) that motor learning is a hierarchical process organized at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. PMID:20846738

Sim, Mikyong; Kim, Jin-Uk

2010-09-16

468

Family Stories: Eliciting Tolerance and Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past and present provide an important reference to understanding the circumstances and cultural differences that assist in the development of our methods of interaction. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to provide a process of personal self-reflection of experiences by which administrators, school officials, staff, and faculty can…

Dukes, Melanie Anne Dillett

2009-01-01

469

Basic Emotions Elicited by Odors and Pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether

Ilona Croy; Selda Olgun; Peter Joraschky

2011-01-01

470

Family Stories: Eliciting Tolerance and Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The past and present provide an important reference to understanding the circumstances and cultural differences that assist in the development of our methods of interaction. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to provide a process of personal self-reflection of experiences by which administrators, school officials, staff, and faculty can…

Dukes, Melanie Anne Dillett

2009-01-01

471

C-APACS: a connectionist expert system architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an expert system architecture based on a new artificial neural network. Unlike other connectionist approaches, the proposed network paradigm is able to synthesize explicit production rules from the processing elements and the weighted connections of a trained network. The generated rules can be incorporated into an expert system to perform classification tasks such as engineering troubleshooting. The design of the neural network is based on the concepts of probabilistic inference. The network can identify the relevant attributes for classification using a statistical technique called residual analysis. Using the information theoretic weight of evidence measure, the weighted connections are established between the processing elements representing the important attribute values and classes. The proposed network is non-iterative and is therefore very efficient computationally. Since the topology of the network is deterministic, the heuristic functions of each element can be precisely understood and the internal associations directly analyzed to synthesize explicit and intuitive classification rules. This network has been shown previously to outperform the back propagation networks and ID3 in terms of computational efficiency and classification accuracy in certain types of supervised learning applications. Using a typical fault diagnosis task, we show in this paper that the proposed neural network can be used effectively to acquire knowledge for rule-based expert systems. Compared to other AI-based knowledge acquisition approaches using AQ and CN2 algorithms, our proposed approach has the fastest training time while producing the most effective classification rules.

Chan, Keith C.; Ching, John Y.; Wong, Andrew K.

1992-09-01

472

An expert system rulebase for identifying contact allergens.  

PubMed

There are currently no in vitro methods suitable for the prospective identification of skin sensitizers (contact allergens). Knowledge relating chemical structure to toxicity can be programmed into expert systems. An historical database, containing results of 294 defined single substances tested in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) carried out according to a single protocol, has been used to derive a set of structural alerts for skin sensitization. Where possible, the approach used was to group the substances according to their most likely mechanism of reaction with skin proteins. Where no mechanism could be identified, structural alerts were derived empirically for groups of molecules with similar chemical functionality. This process has currently resulted in the production of 40 structure-activity rules which have been incorporated into the expert system DEREK. This system forms an integral part of a strategic approach to the identification of contact allergens. PMID:20693071

Barratt, M D; Basketter, D A; Chamberlain, M; Admans, G D; Langowski, J J

1994-10-01

473

Expert systems and their use in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

In the operation of a nuclear power plant, great quantities of numeric, symbolic, and quantitative information are handled by the reactor operators even during routine operation. The sheer magnitude of the number of process parameters and systems interactions poses difficulties for the operators, particularly during abnormal or emergency situations. Recovery from an upset situation depends upon the facility with which available raw data can be converted into, and assimilated as, meaningful knowledge. In operating a nuclear power plant, people are sometimes affected by fatigue, stress, emotion, and environmental factors that may have varying degrees of influence on their performance. Expert systems provide a method of removing some of the uncertainty from operator decisions by providing expert advice and rapid access to a large information base. 74 refs., 2 tabs.

Uhrig, R.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1990-12-31

474

Three applications of rule induction expert systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to illustrate the usefulness of expert systems created using a technique known as rule induction. The document is organized into four parts, including this introduction and three independent papers. The remainder of this introduction discusses expert systems in general and rule induction in particular; it is intended to introduce the concepts involved and to provide the background necessary to understand the technique. The three papers that follow illustrate the creation and use of rule induction expert systems in different domain areas. The papers (along with the introduction) are intended to demonstrate the ease with which expert systems can be constructed using rule induction, and to suggest the variety of analytical problems for which they may be of value. It is hoped that this document will serve to introduce a wider audience to the potential value and uses of rule-induction expert systems, and ultimately that it may stimulate more widespread use of such systems. 5 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Zimmerman, B.D.; Jansen, G. Jr.; Moen, M.J.

1990-01-01

475

Differentiating expert and novice cognitive structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A seminal study by Chi et al. firmly established the paradigm that novices categorize physics problems by âsurface featuresâ (e.g. âincline,â âpendulum,â âprojectile motion,â . . . ), while experts use âdeep structureâ (e.g. âenergy conservation,â âNewton 2,â . . . ). Yet, efforts to replicate the study frequently fail, since the ability to distinguish experts from novices is highly sensitive to the problem set being used. But what properties of problems are most important in problem sets that discriminate experts from novices in a measurable way? To answer this question, we studied the categorizations by known physics experts and novices using a large, diverse set of problems, in order to subsequently study how well these two groups can be discriminated using small subsets. Having a large initial set allowed us to form a large number of smaller subsets and study their properties. We found that the number of questions required to accurately classify experts and novices could be surprisingly small so long as the problem set is carefully crafted to be composed of problems with particular pedagogical and contextual features.

Wolf, Steven F.; Dougherty, Daniel P.; Kortemeyer, Gerd

2013-07-12

476

Differentiating expert and novice cognitive structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seminal study by Chi et al. firmly established the paradigm that novices categorize physics problems by ``surface features'' (e.g. ``incline,'' ``pendulum,'' ``projectile motion,'' ...), while experts use ``deep structure'' (e.g. ``energy conservation,'' ``Newton 2,'' ...). Yet, efforts to replicate the study frequently fail, since the ability to distinguish experts from novices is highly sensitive to the problem set being used. But what properties of problems are most important in problem sets that discriminate experts from novices in a measurable way? To answer this question, we studied the categorizations by known physics experts and novices using a large, diverse set of problems, in order to subsequently study how well these two groups can be discriminated using small subsets. Having a large initial set allowed us to form a large number of smaller subsets and study their properties. We found that the number of questions required to accurately classify experts and novices could be surprisingly small so long as the problem set is carefully crafted to be composed of problems with particular pedagogical and contextual features.

Wolf, Steven F.; Dougherty, Daniel P.; Kortemeyer, Gerd

2013-01-01

477

Problem-solving strategies in psychiatry: differences between experts and novices in diagnostic accuracy and reasoning  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine and compare diagnostic success and its relationship with the diagnostic reasoning process between novices and experts in psychiatry. Methods Nine volunteers, comprising five expert psychiatrists and four clinical clerks, completed a think-aloud protocol while attempting to make a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) diagnosis of a selected case with both Axis I and Axis III diagnoses. Results Expert psychiatrists made significantly more successful diagnoses for both the primary psychiatric and medical diagnoses than clinical clerks. Expert psychiatrists also gave fewer differential options. Analyzing the think-aloud protocols, expert psychiatrists were much more organized, made fewer mistakes, and utilized significantly less time to access their knowledge than clinical clerks. Both novices and experts seemed to use the hypothetic-deductive and scheme-inductive approaches to diagnosis. However, experts utilized hypothetic-deductive approaches significantly more often than novices. Conclusion The hypothetic-deductive diagnostic strategy was utilized more than the scheme-inductive approach by both expert psychiatrists and clinical clerks. However, a specific relationship between diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic success could not be identified in this small pilot study. The author recommends a larger study that would include a detailed analysis of the think-aloud protocols.

Gabriel, Adel; Violato, Claudio

2013-01-01

478

Ethical issues related to medical expert testimony.  

PubMed

The obstetrician-gynecologist who provides expert witness testimony is recognized as an important participant in the medical liability system. He or she must define a standard of care and opine whether the standard has been breached and whether any perceived injury was caused by the breach. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) ethical guidelines insist that the testimony be objective (free from intentioned distortion) and that the witness not assume an advocacy or partisan role. The ethical and professional boundaries of appropriate expert testimony as delineated by ACOG are more restrictive than the legal boundaries. Members of ACOG should be held to more restrictive ACOG guidelines and egregious testimony condemned by ACOG. Prospective peer review, increased judicial review, and testimony banks are other examples of methods to improve the quality of expert witness testimony. Alternatives to litigation for medical liability disputes and further tort reform might also make the system fairer and more sustainable. PMID:16260525

Hammond, Charles B; Schwartz, Peter A

2005-11-01

479

Memory-based pre-attentive auditory N1 elicited by sound movement.  

PubMed

Quickly detecting changes in the surrounding environment is one of the most important functions of sensory processing. Comparison of a new event with preceding sensory conditions is necessary for the change-detection process. A sudden change in a continuous sound elicits auditory evoked potentials that peak approximately 100 ms after the onset of the change (Change-N1). In the present study, we recorded Change-N1 under an oddball paradigm in 19 healthy subjects using an abruptly moving sound (SM-stimulus) as a deviant stimulus and investigated effects of the probability of the SM-stimulus to reveal whether Change-N1 is a memory-based response. We compared the amplitude and latency of Change-N1 elicited by the SM-stimulus among three probability conditions (33, 50 and 100%). As the probability of the SM-stimulus decreased, the amplitude of Change-N1 increased and its latency decreased. The present results indicate that the preceding sensory history affects Change-N1 elicited by the SM-stimulus. PMID:22525281

Ohoyama, Keiko; Motomura, Eishi; Inui, Koji; Nishihara, Makoto; Otsuru, Naofumi; Oi, Motoyasu; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Okada, Motohiro

2012-04-15

480

A way into empathy: a 'case' of photo-elicitation in illness research.  

PubMed

Brain injury patients often face a lack of empathy that leads to feelings of being disrespected and powerless. This article explores the use of photo-elicitation as one way to generate empathy in research (and clinical) relationships with acquired brain injury survivors through a re-examination of the process and products of photo-elicitation research conducted several years ago. The 'case' starkly illustrates the limits of researcher empathy and analysis even as the ethics of visual methods create opportunities for participants to share research power, contest research analyses, and present an alternate view that displays health and strength as well as illness. The 'case' prompts us to remain vigilant of the ways in which our personal lenses and histories affect what we see and shape our production of knowledge. Practicing empathy by using photos to create discursive spaces in research relationships may help us to learn about ourselves as we learn with patients. PMID:21335362

Lorenz, Laura S

2011-02-18

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