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1

Expert Elicitation Method Selection Process and Method Comparison  

SciTech Connect

Research on integrative modeling has gained considerable attention in recent years and expert opinion has been increasingly recognized as an important data source and modeling contributor. However, little research has systematically compared and evaluated expert elicitation methods in terms of their ability to link to computational models that capture human behavior and social phenomena. In this paper, we describe a decision-making process we used for evaluating and selecting a task specific elicitation method within the framework of integrative computational social-behavioral modeling. From the existing literature, we identified the characteristics of problems that each candidate method is well suited to address. A small-scale expert elicitation was also conducted to evaluate the comparative strength and weaknesses of the methods against a number of consensus-based decision criteria. By developing a set of explicit method evaluation criteria and a description characterizing decision problems for the candidate methods, we seek to gain a better understanding of the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of integrating elicitation methods with computational modeling techniques. This serves an important first step toward expanding our research effort and trajectory toward greater interdisciplinary modeling research of human behavior.

Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Whitney, Paul D.

2010-09-21

2

Promoting environmental sustainability via an expert elicitation process  

SciTech Connect

Environmental sustainability (ES) planning was applied to the 981-mile, commercially navigable Ohio River. Navigation improvement needs were identified within the broad study along with actions to restore aquatic and riparian ecological resources to a higher state of sustainability. The actions were identified via an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) involving aquatic and riparian/terrestrial experts knowledgeable of Ohio River resources. The received information was synthesized into goals for the selected resources (Valued Ecosystem Components - or VECs), actions or measures to attain the goals, and monitoring to evaluate conditions. Finally, 26 types of ES actions were identified and classified into three ES alternatives. These alternatives were then evaluated relative to key decision criteria, and such evaluations, based on pertinent decision criteria, were also conducted for four navigation improvement alternatives. Finally, the best combination of ES and navigation alternatives was identified. The key lessons derived from this use of EEP were that: (1) EEP can support the preliminary identification of ES measures; however, more detailed study of specific designs and cost evaluations will be necessary; (2) the method promotes collaboration between key scientists and policymakers from governmental agencies and private sectors, and such collaboration will ultimately provide the foundation for implementation of sustainability actions; and (3) an effective EEP does not occur by accident, it requires careful planning, implementation, and documentation. - Research Highlights: > Use of an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) is demonstrated in this study. > EEP was used to identify Environmental Sustainability (ES) needs for the Ohio River. > EEP helped develop consensus among resource experts on ES needs. > EEP promotes collaboration to identify and contribute to common resource goals. > EEP may be used in assessing cumulative effects and formulating restoration plans.

Swor, Tom, E-mail: tomswor@ardmore.net [Nashville District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States); Canter, Larry [University of Oklahoma (United States); Principal, Environmental Impact Training, Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States)

2011-09-15

3

Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

2005-06-01

4

Implementation of the PR&PP methodology: the role of formal expert elicitations  

SciTech Connect

The application of the methodology developed by the GenIV International Forum's (GIF's) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) Working Group is an expert elicitation. Although the framework of the methodology is structured and systematic, it does not by itself constitute or require a formal elicitation. However, formal elicitation can be utilized in the PR&PP context to provide a systematic, credible and transparent qualitative analysis and develop input for quantitative analyses. This section provides an overview of expert elicitations, a discussion of the role formal expert elicitations can play in the PR&PP methodology, an outline of the formal expert elicitation process and a brief practical guide to conducting formal expert elicitations. Expert elicitation is a process utilizing knowledgeable people in cases, for example, when an assessment is needed but physically based data is absent or open to interpretation. More specifically, it can be used to: (1) predict future events; (2) provide estimates on new, rare, complex or poorly understood phenomena; (3) integrate or interpret existing information; or (4) determine what is currently known, how well it is known or what is worth learning in a field. Expert elicitation can be informal or formal. The informal application of expert judgment is frequently used. Although it can produce good results, it often provides demonstrably biased or otherwise flawed answers to problems. This along with the absence of transparency can result in a loss of confidence when experts speak on issues. More formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. The reason for advocating formal use is that the quality and accuracy of expert judgment comes from the completeness of the expert's understanding of the phenomena and the process used to elicit and analyze the data. The use of a more formal process to obtain, lU1derstand and analyze expert judgment has led to an improved acceptance of expert judgment because of the rigor and transparency of the results.

Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

5

Expert elicitation methods for studying technological change under uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent study by Anadón et al (2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 034020) employs multiple expert elicitation to study the potential impact of public RD&D on nuclear power costs through 2030. This study achieves a rare depth and variation in multiple expert elicitation on the same problem, which allows the authors to carefully identify expert-level drivers of variations in assessments of outcomes and associated uncertainties. An important parameter—change in the future costs of nuclear fission technologies upon doubling of public RD&D—is also calculated. Overall, this study makes a significant contribution to both the decision-making under uncertainty literature focusing on technological change as well as the expert elicitation methodology literature.

Rai, Varun

2013-12-01

6

An Expert Elicitation Process in Support of Groundwater Model Evaluation for Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is implementing corrective actions at facilities where nuclear-related operations were conducted in Nevada. Among the most significant sites being addressed are the locations of underground nuclear tests on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The process for implementing corrective actions for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) locations is defined in Appendix VI of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996, as amended). In broad terms, Appendix VI describes a Corrective Action Investigation followed by a Corrective Action Decision, and implementation of a Corrective Action Plan prior to closure. The Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) is farthest along in the UGTA corrective action process. It includes ten underground tests within the Frenchman Flat topographic basin, in the southeastern portion of the NNSS. Data have been collected from drilling exploration, hydrologic testing, and field and laboratory studies. Modeling has been completed at a variety of scales and focusing on a variety of flow and transport aspects ranging from regional boundary conditions to process dynamics within a single nuclear cavity. The culmination of the investigations is a transport model for the Frenchman Flat CAU (Stoller Navarro Joint Venture, 2009) that has undergone rigorous peer review and been accepted by the State of Nevada, setting the stage for the Corrective Action Decision and progression from the investigation phase to the corrective action phase of the project.

Chapman Jenny,Pohlmann Karl

2011-02-01

7

CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

2012-10-01

8

Expert Knowledge Elicitations in a Procurement Card Context  

E-print Network

card usage is typically linked to event or a business trip. ­ For P-card transactions, no preExpert Knowledge Elicitations in a Procurement Card Context: Towards Continuous Monitoring) Terry Hickman (P&G Global Internal Audit) #12;AGENDA · INTRODUCTION · THE DATA · P-CARD MISUSE DETECTION

Lin, Xiaodong

9

The use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment: a seven step procedure  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental health impact assessments often have to deal with substantial uncertainties. Typically, the knowledge-base is limited with incomplete, or inconsistent evidence and missing or ambiguous data. Consulting experts can help to identify and address uncertainties. Methods Formal expert elicitation is a structured approach to systematically consult experts on uncertain issues. It is most often used to quantify ranges for poorly known parameters, but may also be useful to further develop qualitative issues such as definitions, assumptions or conceptual (causal) models. A thorough preparation and systematic design and execution of an expert elicitation process may increase the validity of its outcomes and transparency and trustworthiness of its conclusions. Various expert elicitation protocols and methods exist. However, these are often not universally applicable, and need customization to suite the needs of a specific study. In this paper, we set out to develop a widely applicable method for the use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment. Results We present a practical yet flexible seven step procedure towards organising expert elicitation in the context of environmental health impact assessment, based on existing protocols. We describe how customization for specific applications is always necessary. In particular, three issues affect the choice of methods for a particular application: the types of uncertainties considered, the intended use of the elicited information, and the available resources. We outline how these three considerations guide choices regarding the design and execution of expert elicitation. We present signposts to sources where the issues are discussed in more depth to give the newcomer the insights needed to make the protocol work. The seven step procedure is illustrated using examples from earlier published elicitations in the field of environmental health research. Conclusions We conclude that, despite some known criticism on its validity, formal expert elicitation can support environmental health research in various ways. Its main purpose is to provide a temporary summary of the limited available knowledge, which can serve as a provisional basis for policy until further research has been carried out. PMID:20420657

2010-01-01

10

Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation. R. Lawley, M. Barron and K. Lee. NERC - British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK, NG12 5GG The boundaries mapped in traditional field geological survey are subject to a wide range of inherent uncertainties. A map at a survey-scale of 1:10,000 is created by a combination of terrain interpretation, direct observations from boreholes and exposures (often sparsely distributed), and indirect interpretation of proxy variables such as soil properties, vegetation and remotely sensed images. A critical factor influencing the quality of the final map is the skill and experience of the surveyor to bring this information together in a coherent conceptual model. The users of geological data comprising or based on mapped boundaries are increasingly aware of these uncertainties, and want to know how to manage them. The growth of 3D modelling, which takes 2D surveys as a starting point, adds urgency to the need for a better understanding of survey uncertainties; particularly where 2D mapping of variable vintage has been compiled into a national coverage. Previous attempts to apply confidence on the basis of metrics such as data density, survey age or survey techniques have proved useful for isolating single, critical, factors but do not generally succeed in evaluating geological mapping 'in the round', because they cannot account for the 'conceptual' skill set of the surveyor. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is using expert elicitation methods to gain a better understanding of uncertainties within the national geological map of Great Britain. The expert elicitation approach starts with the assumption that experienced surveyors have an intuitive sense of the uncertainty of the boundaries that they map, based on a tacit model of geology and its complexity and the nature of the surveying process. The objective of elicitation is to extract this model in a useable, quantitative, form by a robust and transparent procedure. At BGS expert elicitation is being used to evaluate the uncertainty of mapped boundaries in different common mapping scenarios, with a view to building a 'collective' understanding of the challenges each scenario presents. For example, a 'sharp contact (at surface) between highly contrasting sedimentary rocks' represents one level of survey challenge that should be accurately met by all surveyors, even novices. In contrast, a 'transitional boundary defined by localised facies-variation' may require much more experience to resolve (without recourse to significantly more sampling). We will describe the initial phase of this exercise in which uncertainty models were elicited for mapped boundaries in six contrasting scenarios. Each scenario was presented to a panel of experts with varied expertise and career history. In five cases it was possible to arrive at a consensus model, in a sixth case experts with different experience took different views of the nature of the mapping problem. We will discuss our experience of the use of elicitation methodology and the implications of our results for further work at the BGS to quantify uncertainty in map products. In particular we will consider the value of elicitation as a means to capture the expertise of individuals as they retire, and as the composition of the organization's staff changes in response to the management and policy decisions.

Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lee, Katy

2014-05-01

11

Eliciting Forecasts from Self-interested Experts: Scoring Rules for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

rules for eliciting expert predictions of random variables are usually developed assuming that experts derive utility only from the quality of their predictions. We study more realistic settings in which (a) the principal is a decision maker who takes a decision based on the expert's prediction; and (b) the expert has

Boutilier, Craig

12

The future costs of nuclear power using multiple expert elicitations: effects of RD&D and elicitation design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030. We show that controlling for expert, technology, and design characteristics increases experts’ implied public RD&D elasticity of expected costs by 25%. Public sector and industry experts’ cost expectations are 14% and 32% higher, respectively than academics. US experts are more optimistic than their EU counterparts, with median expected costs 22% lower. On average, a doubling of public RD&D is expected to result in an 8% cost reduction, but the uncertainty is large. The difference between the 90th and 10th percentile estimates is on average 58% of the experts’ median estimates. Public RD&D investments do not affect uncertainty ranges, but US experts are less confident about costs than Europeans.

Díaz Anadón, Laura; Nemet, Gregory; Verdolini, Elena

2013-09-01

13

Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy.  

PubMed

The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making. PMID:24821779

Morgan, M Granger

2014-05-20

14

Eliciting Forecasts from Self-interested Experts: Scoring Rules for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

for eliciting expert predictions of random variables are usu- ally developed assuming that experts derive utility only from the quality of their predictions (e.g., score awarded by the rule, or payoff in a prediction market). We study a more realistic setting in which (a) the principal is a decision maker

Boutilier, Craig

15

Wind Energy Learning Curves for Reference in Expert Elicitations  

E-print Network

in government funding, public interest, technological development etc.) and to analyze how those changes would. The job of the expert is to think about how the future may be different than the past (based on changes to .16 GW in 2009). At the same time, wind technology has changed dramatically (Figure 1), leading

Mountziaris, T. J.

16

EXPERT ELICITATION OF ACROSS-TECHNOLOGY CORRELATIONS FOR REACTOR CAPITAL COSTS  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of the uncertainty in the Levelized Cost at Equilibrium (LCAE) of generating nuclear electricity typically assume that the costs of the system component, notably reactors, are uncorrelated. Partial cancellation of independent errors thus gives rise to unrealistically small cost uncertainties for fuel cycles that incorporate multiple reactor technologies. This summary describes an expert elicitation of correlations between overnight reactor construction costs. It also defines a method for combining the elicitations into a single, consistent correlation matrix suitable for use in Monte Carlo LCAE calculations. Both the elicitation and uncertainty propagation methods are demonstrated through a pilot study where cost correlations between eight reactor technologies were elicited from experts in the US DOE Fuel Cycle Research

Brent Dixon; Various

2014-06-01

17

Parallel processing and expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 1990s cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient implementation of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real-time demands are met for larger systems. Speedup via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial laboratories in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems is surveyed. The survey discusses multiprocessors for expert systems, parallel languages for symbolic computations, and mapping expert systems to multiprocessors. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. The main reasons are (1) the body of knowledge applicable in any given situation and the amount of computation executed by each rule firing are small, (2) dividing the problem solving process into relatively independent partitions is difficult, and (3) implementation decisions that enable expert systems to be incrementally refined hamper compile-time optimization. In order to obtain greater speedups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

Lau, Sonie; Yan, Jerry C.

1991-01-01

18

Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

1990-01-01

19

Flammable gas double shell tank expert elicitation presentations (Part A and Part B)  

SciTech Connect

This document is a compilation of presentation packages and white papers for the Flammable Gas Double Shell Tank Expert Elicitation Workshop {number_sign}2. For each presentation given by the different authors, a separate section was developed. The purpose for issuing these workshop presentation packages and white papers as a supporting document is to provide traceability and a Quality Assurance record for future reference to these packages.

Bratzel, D.R.

1998-04-17

20

AN INTERNET-BASED METHOD TO ELICIT EXPERTS' BELIEFS FOR BAYESIAN PRIORS: A CASE STUDY IN INTRACRANIAL STENT EVALUATION.  

PubMed

Rationale: Bayesian methods provide an interesting approach to assessing an implantable medical device (IMD) that has evolved through successive versions because they allow for explicit incorporation of prior knowledge into the analysis. However, the literature is sparse on the feasibility and reliability of elicitation in cases where expert beliefs are used to form priors. Objectives: To develop an Internet-based method for eliciting experts' beliefs about the success rate of an intracranial stenting procedure and to assess their impact on the estimated benefit of the latest version. Study Design and Setting: The elicitation questionnaire was administered to a group of nineteen experts. Elicited experts' beliefs were used to inform the prior distributions of a Bayesian hierarchical meta-analysis model, allowing for the estimation of the success rate of each version. PMID:25401304

Pibouleau, Leslie; Chevret, Sylvie

2014-11-17

21

Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

Harper, F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Abbott, M. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

22

Parameterizing Bayesian network Representations of Social-Behavioral Models by Expert Elicitation  

SciTech Connect

Bayesian networks provide a general framework with which to model many natural phenomena. The mathematical nature of Bayesian networks enables a plethora of model validation and calibration techniques: e.g parameter estimation, goodness of fit tests, and diagnostic checking of the model assumptions. However, they are not free of shortcomings. Parameter estimation from relevant extant data is a common approach to calibrating the model parameters. In practice it is not uncommon to find oneself lacking adequate data to reliably estimate all model parameters. In this paper we present the early development of a novel application of conjoint analysis as a method for eliciting and modeling expert opinions and using the results in a methodology for calibrating the parameters of a Bayesian network.

Walsh, Stephen J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Whitney, Paul D.; White, Amanda M.

2010-05-23

23

Impact of plain packaging of tobacco products on smoking in adults and children: an elicitation of international experts’ estimates  

PubMed Central

Background Governments sometimes face important decisions in the absence of direct evidence. In these cases, expert elicitation methods can be used to quantify uncertainty. We report the results of an expert elicitation study regarding the likely impact on smoking rates in adults and children of plain packaging of tobacco products. Methods Thirty-three tobacco control experts were recruited from the UK (n?=?14), Australasia (n?=?12) and North America (n?=?7). Experts’ estimates were individually elicited via telephone interviews, and then linearly pooled. Elicited estimates consisted of (1) the most likely, (2) the highest possible, and (3) the lowest possible value for the percentage of (a) adult smokers and (b) children trying smoking, two years after the introduction of plain packaging (all other things being constant) in a target country in the expert’s region of residence. Results The median estimate for the impact on adult smoking prevalence was a 1 percentage point decline (99% range 2.25 to 0), and for the percentage of children trying smoking was a 3 percentage point decline (99% range 6.1 to 0), the latter estimated impact being larger than the former (P?experts’ estimates within regions (I2: Adults: 0.91; Children: 0.89). Conclusions In the absence of direct evidence for the impact of introducing plain packaging on smoking rates in adults and children, this study shows that tobacco control experts felt the most likely outcomes would be a reduction in smoking prevalence in adults, and a greater reduction in the numbers of children trying smoking, although there was substantial variability in the estimated size of these impacts. No experts judged an increase in smoking as a likely outcome. PMID:23302325

2013-01-01

24

Eliciting information from experts on the likelihood of rapid climate change.  

PubMed

The threat of so-called rapid or abrupt climate change has generated considerable public interest because of its potentially significant impacts. The collapse of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation or the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, for example, would have potentially catastrophic effects on temperatures and sea level, respectively. But how likely are such extreme climatic changes? Is it possible actually to estimate likelihoods? This article reviews the societal demand for the likelihoods of rapid or abrupt climate change, and different methods for estimating likelihoods: past experience, model simulation, or through the elicitation of expert judgments. The article describes a survey to estimate the likelihoods of two characterizations of rapid climate change, and explores the issues associated with such surveys and the value of information produced. The surveys were based on key scientists chosen for their expertise in the climate science of abrupt climate change. Most survey respondents ascribed low likelihoods to rapid climate change, due either to the collapse of the Thermohaline Circulation or increased positive feedbacks. In each case one assessment was an order of magnitude higher than the others. We explore a high rate of refusal to participate in this expert survey: many scientists prefer to rely on output from future climate model simulations. PMID:16506972

Arnell, Nigel W; Tompkins, Emma L; Adger, W Neil

2005-12-01

25

Expert Prior Elicitation and Bayesian Analysis of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To perform a Bayesian analysis of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I) using expert opinion as a prior belief. Methods. MUTT I was a randomized clinical trial comparing topical natamycin or voriconazole for treating filamentous fungal keratitis. A questionnaire elicited expert opinion on the best treatment of fungal keratitis before MUTT I results were available. A Bayesian analysis was performed using the questionnaire data as a prior belief and the MUTT I primary outcome (3-month visual acuity) by frequentist analysis as a likelihood. Results. Corneal experts had a 41.1% prior belief that natamycin improved 3-month visual acuity compared with voriconazole. The Bayesian analysis found a 98.4% belief for natamycin treatment compared with voriconazole treatment for filamentous cases as a group (mean improvement 1.1 Snellen lines, 95% credible interval 0.1–2.1). The Bayesian analysis estimated a smaller treatment effect than the MUTT I frequentist analysis result of 1.8-line improvement with natamycin versus voriconazole (95% confidence interval 0.5–3.0, P = 0.006). For Fusarium cases, the posterior demonstrated a 99.7% belief for natamycin treatment, whereas non-Fusarium cases had a 57.3% belief. Conclusions. The Bayesian analysis suggests that natamycin is superior to voriconazole when filamentous cases are analyzed as a group. Subgroup analysis of Fusarium cases found improvement with natamycin compared with voriconazole, whereas there was almost no difference between treatments for non-Fusarium cases. These results were consistent with, though smaller in effect size than, the MUTT I primary outcome by frequentist analysis. The accordance between analyses further validates the trial results. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00996736.) PMID:23702779

Sun, Catherine Q.; Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Raghavan, Anita; O'Brien, Kieran S.; Ray, Kathryn J.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Porco, Travis C.; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

26

We’re only in it for the knowledge? A problem solving turn in environment and health expert elicitation  

PubMed Central

Background The FP6 EU HENVINET project aimed at synthesizing the scientific information available on a number of topics of high relevance to policy makers in environment and health. The goal of the current paper is to reflect on the methodology that was used in the project, in view of exploring the usefulness of this and similar methodologies to the policy process. The topics investigated included health impacts of the brominated flame retardants decabrominated diphenylether (decaBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), phthalates highlighting di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), nanoparticles, the impacts of climate change on asthma and other respiratory disorders, and the influence of environment health stressors on cancer induction. Methods Initially the focus was on identifying knowledge gaps in the state of the art in scientific knowledge. Literature reviews covered all elements that compose the causal chain of the different environmental health issues from emissions to exposures, to effects and to health impacts. Through expert elicitation, knowledge gaps were highlighted by assessing expert confidence using calibrated confidence scales. During this work a complementary focus to that on knowledge gaps was developed through interdisciplinary reflections. By extending the scope of the endeavour from only a scientific perspective, to also include the more problem solving oriented policy perspective, the question of which kind of policy action experts consider justifiable was addressed. This was addressed by means of a questionnaire. In an expert workshop the results of both questionnaires were discussed as a basis for policy briefs. Results The expert elicitation, the application of the calibrated confidence levels and the problem solving approach were all experienced as being quite challenging for the experts involved, as these approaches did not easily relate to mainstream environment and health scientific practices. Even so, most experts were quite positive about it. In particular, the opportunity to widen one’s own horizon and to interactively exchange knowledge and debate with a diversity of experts seemed to be well appreciated in this approach. Different parts of the approach also helped in focussing on specific relevant aspects of scientific knowledge, and as such can be considered of reflective value. Conclusions The approach developed by HENVINET was part of a practice of learning by doing and of interdisciplinary cooperation and negotiation. Ambitions were challenged by unforeseen complexities and difference of opinion and as no Holy Grail approach was at hand to copy or follow, it was quite an interesting but also complicated endeavour. Perfection, if this could be defined, seemed out of reach all the time. Nevertheless, many involved were quite positive about it. It seems that many felt that it fitted some important needs in current science when addressing the needs of policy making on such important issues, without anyone really having a clue on how to actually do this. Challenging questions remain on the quality of such approach and its product. Practice tells us that there probably is no best method and that the best we can do is dependent on contextual negotiation and learning from experiences that we think are relevant. PMID:22759503

2012-01-01

27

Jurors Believe Interrogation Tactics Are Not Likely To Elicit False Confessions: Will Expert Witness Testimony Inform Them Otherwise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situational factors – in the form of interrogation tactics – have been reported to unduly influence innocent suspects to confess. This study assessed jurors’ perceptions of these factors and tested whether expert witness testimony on confessions informs jury decision-making. In Study 1, jurors rated interrogation tactics on their level of coerciveness and likelihood that each would elicit true and false

Iris Blandon-Gitlin; Kathryn Sperry; Richard Leo

2009-01-01

28

Jurors believe interrogation tactics are not likely to elicit false confessions: will expert witness testimony inform them otherwise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situational factors – in the form of interrogation tactics – have been reported to unduly influence innocent suspects to confess. This study assessed jurors' perceptions of these factors and tested whether expert witness testimony on confessions informs jury decision making. In Study 1, jurors rated interrogation tactics on their level of coerciveness and likelihood that each would elicit true and

Iris Blandón-Gitlin; Katheryn Sperry; Richard Leo

2011-01-01

29

Expert systems in the process industries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

Stanley, G. M.

1992-01-01

30

The use of expert elicitation to quantify uncertainty in incomplete sorption data bases for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

Iterative, annual performance-assessment calculations are being performed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a planned underground repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA for the disposal of transuranic waste. The performance-assessment calculations estimate the long-term radionuclide releases from the disposal system to the accessible environment. Because direct experimental data in some areas are presently of insufficient quantity to form the basis for the required distributions. Expert judgment was used to estimate the concentrations of specific radionuclides in a brine exiting a repository room or drift as it migrates up an intruding borehole, and also the distribution coefficients that describe the retardation of radionuclides in the overlying Culebra Dolomite. The variables representing these concentrations and coefficients have been shown by 1990 sensitivity analyses to be among the set of parameters making the greatest contribution to the uncertainty in WIPP performance-assessment predictions. Utilizing available information, the experts (one expert panel addressed concentrations and a second panel addressed retardation) developed an understanding of the problem and were formally elicited to obtain probability distributions that characterize the uncertainty in fixed, but unknown, quantities. The probability distributions developed by the experts are being incorporated into the 1991 performance-assessment calculations. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

Anderson, D.R.; Trauth, K.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Hora, S.C. (Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States))

1991-01-01

31

Policy relevant results from an expert elicitation on the health risks of phthalates  

PubMed Central

Background The EU 6th Framework Program (FP)-funded Health and Environment Network (HENVINET) aimed to support informed policy making by facilitating the availability of relevant knowledge on different environmental health issues. An approach was developed by which scientific agreement, disagreement, and knowledge gaps could be efficiently identified, and expert advice prepared in a way that is usable for policy makers. There were two aims of the project: 1) to apply the tool to a relevant issue; the potential health impacts of the widely used plasticizers, phthalates, and 2) to evaluate the method and the tool by asking both scientific experts and the target audience, namely policy makers and stakeholders, for their opinions. Methods The tool consisted of an expert consultation in several steps on the issue of phthalates in environmental health. A diagram depicting the cause-effect chain, from the production and use of phthalates to potential health impacts, was prepared based on existing reviews. This was used as a basis for an online questionnaire, through which experts in the field were consulted. The results of this first round of consultation laid the foundation for a new questionnaire answered by an expert panel that, subsequently, also discussed approaches and results in a workshop. One major task of the expert panel was to pinpoint priorities from the cause-effect chain according to their impact on the extent of potential health risks and their relevance for reducing uncertainty. The results were condensed into a policy brief that was sent to policy makers and stakeholders for their evaluation. Results The experts agreed about the substantial knowledge gaps within the field of phthalates. The top three priorities for further research and policy action were: 1) intrauterine exposure, 2) reproductive toxicology, and 3) exposure from medical devices. Although not all relevant information from the cause-effect chain is known for phthalates, most experts thought that there are enough indications to justify a precautionary approach and to restrict their general use. Although some of the experts expressed some scepticism about such a tool, most felt that important issues were highlighted. Conclusions The approach used was an efficient way at summarising priority knowledge gaps as a starting point for health risk assessment of compounds, based on their relevance for the risk assessment outcome. We conclude that this approach is useful for supporting policy makers with state-of-the-art scientific knowledge weighed by experts. The method can assist future evidence-based policy making. PMID:22759506

2012-01-01

32

Two-dimensional fuzzy fault tree analysis for chlorine release from a chlor-alkali industry using expert elicitation.  

PubMed

The hazards associated with major accident hazard (MAH) industries are fire, explosion and toxic gas releases. Of these, toxic gas release is the worst as it has the potential to cause extensive fatalities. Qualitative and quantitative hazard analyses are essential for the identification and quantification of these hazards related to chemical industries. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is an established technique in hazard identification. This technique has the advantage of being both qualitative and quantitative, if the probabilities and frequencies of the basic events are known. This paper outlines the estimation of the probability of release of chlorine from storage and filling facility of chlor-alkali industry using FTA. An attempt has also been made to arrive at the probability of chlorine release using expert elicitation and proven fuzzy logic technique for Indian conditions. Sensitivity analysis has been done to evaluate the percentage contribution of each basic event that could lead to chlorine release. Two-dimensional fuzzy fault tree analysis (TDFFTA) has been proposed for balancing the hesitation factor involved in expert elicitation. PMID:20674168

Renjith, V R; Madhu, G; Nayagam, V Lakshmana Gomathi; Bhasi, A B

2010-11-15

33

Chlorpyrifos and neurodevelopmental effects: a literature review and expert elicitation on research and policy  

PubMed Central

Background Organophosphate pesticides are widely used on food crops grown in the EU. While they have been banned from indoor use in the US for a decade due to adverse health effects, they are still the most prevalent pesticides in the EU, with Chlorpyrifos (CPF) being the most commonly applied. It has been suggested CPF affects neurodevelopment even at levels below toxicity guidelines. Younger individuals may be more susceptible than adults due to biological factors and exposure settings. Methods A literature review was undertaken to assess the evidence for CPF contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders in infants and children. Other literature was consulted in order to formulate a causal chain diagram showing the origins, uptake, and neurological effects of animal and human exposure to CPF. The causal chain diagram and a questionnaire were distributed online to scientific experts who had published in relevant areas of research. They were asked to assess their confidence levels on whether CPF does in fact contribute to adverse neurodevelopment outcomes and rate their confidence in the scientific evidence. A second questionnaire queried experts as to which kind of policy action they consider justifiable based on current knowledge. In a special workshop session at the EuroTox congress in Dresden in 2009 the results of both questionnaires were further discussed with invited experts, as a basis for a policy brief with main messages for policy makers and stakeholders. Results Most experts who responded to the first questionnaire felt that there was already enough evidence to support a ban on indoor uses of CPF in the EU. However, most felt additional research is still required in several areas. The responses from the first questionnaire were used to formulate the second questionnaire addressing the feasibility of government action. In turn, these expert participants were invited to attend a special session at the EuroTox congress in Dresden in 2009. Conclusions Some of the evidence that CPF contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders is still disputed among experts, and the overall sense is that further research and public awareness are warranted. There have been campaigns in North America making the potential exposure concerns known, but such information is not widely known in the EU. The ability of government action to produce change is strongly felt in some quarters while others believe better knowledge of consumer use trends would have a greater impact. PMID:22759505

2012-01-01

34

Can increased biomass offset carbon release from permafrost region soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert elicitation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the permafrost region warms, up to 288 Pg carbon (CO2 equivalent) may be released from soil by the end of the century, and up to 616 Pg by 2300. This soil carbon can be released to the atmosphere directly via mineralization or wildfire, or enter aquatic ecosystems as dissolved or particulate organic or inorganic carbon. Some models predict an increase in Arctic and boreal living biomass in response to extended growing season, enhanced nutrient cycling, and CO2 fertilization, but we have a poor understanding of how the production of new biomass will compare with loss of carbon from permafrost thaw. We administered surveys to permafrost region experts to assess current understanding of the magnitude and timing of biomass accumulation, hydrologic carbon flux, and wildfire carbon losses. Surveys addressed three time periods (present to 2040, 2100, and 2300) and four warming scenarios based on IPCC representative concentration pathways. Estimates of change in biomass and fire losses were provided individually for the boreal forest and arctic tundra. Experts estimated changes in carbon delivery to freshwater ecosystems as well as delivery to the ocean, including carbon release due to coastal erosion, fluxes infrequently captured in high-latitude models. Initial expert estimates indicated that while tundra biomass would increase substantially, total permafrost region biomass would decrease by the end of the century due to boreal forest drying and browning, followed by a modest increase by 2300 due to vegetation community shifts. Changes in aquatic systems could release an additional 2.7 Pg carbon by 2100 and 7.3 Pg by 2300. Modified wildfire regime could cause the release of an additional 13.6 Pg carbon by 2100 and 51.7 Pg by 2300. Current expert understanding therefore suggests that carbon gains in high-latitude biomass will be orders of magnitude smaller than carbon loss from permafrost soils and that hydrologic and wildfire pathways of carbon loss will likely accelerate carbon mobilization from permafrost region ecosystems.

Abbott, B. W.; Jones, J.; Schuur, E. A.; Bowden, W. B.; Chapin, F. S., III; Epstein, H. E.; Flannigan, M.; Harms, T.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Natali, S.; Rocha, A. V.; Tank, S. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Vonk, J.; Wickland, K.

2013-12-01

35

Training 'greeble' experts: a framework for studying expert object recognition processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve participants were trained to be experts at identifying a set of 'Greebles', novel objects that, like faces, all share a common spatial configuration. Tests comparing expert with novice performance revealed: (1) a surprising mix of generalizability and specificity in expert object recognition processes; and (2) that expertise is a multi-faceted phenomenon, neither adequately described by a single term nor

Isabel Gauthier; Pepper Williams; Michael J. Tarr; James Tanaka

1998-01-01

36

Developing a Methodology for Eliciting Subjective Probability Estimates During Expert Evaluations of Safety Interventions: Application for Bayesian Belief Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has defined several products that will potentially modify airline and/or ATC operations, enhance aircraft systems, and improve the identification of potential hazardous situations within the National Airspace System (NAS). Consequently, there is a need to develop methods for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the judgments to develop Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN's) that model the potential impact that specific interventions may have. Specifically, the present report summarizes methodologies for improving the elicitation of probability estimates during expert evaluations of AvSP products for use in BBN's. The work involved joint efforts between Professor James Luxhoj from Rutgers University and researchers at the University of Illinois. The Rutgers' project to develop BBN's received funding by NASA entitled "Probabilistic Decision Support for Evaluating Technology Insertion and Assessing Aviation Safety System Risk." The proposed project was funded separately but supported the existing Rutgers' program.

Wiegmann, Douglas A.a

2005-01-01

37

EXPERT ELICITATION WHITE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA is frequently called upon to make decisions on complex environmental issues, and to make these decisions, analyses are required from a broad range of disciplines. In all of these analyses, uncertainty and variability exist in estimates of the values of key parameters and...

38

Training 'greeble' experts: a framework for studying expert object recognition processes.  

PubMed

Twelve participants were trained to be experts at identifying a set of 'Greebles', novel objects that, like faces, all share a common spatial configuration. Tests comparing expert with novice performance revealed: (1) a surprising mix of generalizability and specificity in expert object recognition processes; and (2) that expertise is a multi-faceted phenomenon, neither adequately described by a single term nor adequately assessed by a single task. Greeble recognition by a simple neural-network model is also evaluated, and the model is found to account surprisingly well for both generalization and individuation using a single set of processes and representations. PMID:9798007

Gauthier, I; Williams, P; Tarr, M J; Tanaka, J

1998-08-01

39

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

40

Application of fault diagnosis expert system in grinding process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directing at the complex structure, cockamamie production technology and great operation difficulty of vertical roller mill, this paper constructs the fault expert system to guide and optimize the grinding process. First, the expert database is established with fuzzy cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and tendency analysis. With support vector machine (SVM) regression, the multiple regression equations of main operation

Wei Qin; Wenjun Yan; Jing Xu

2010-01-01

41

Probability encoding of hydrologic parameters for basalt. Elicitation of expert opinions from a panel of five consulting hydrologists  

SciTech Connect

The Columbia River basalts underlying the Hanford Site in Washington State are being considered as a possible location for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. To investigate the feasibility of a repository at this site, the hydrologic parameters of the site must be evaluated. Among hydrologic parameters of particular interest are the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top and flow interior and the vertical-to-horizontal hydraulic conductivity, or anisotropy ratio, of the Cohassett basalt flow interior. The Cohassett basalt flow is the prime candidate horizon for repository studies. Site-specific data for these hydrologic parameters are currently inadequate for the purpose of preliminary assessment of candidate repository performance. To obtain credible, auditable, and independently derived estimates of the specified hydrologic parameters, a panel of five nationally recognized hydrologists was assembled. Their expert judgments were quantified during two rounds of Delphi process by means of a probability encoding method developed to estimate the probability distributions of the selected hydrologic variables. The results indicate significant differences of expert opinion for cumulative probabilities of less than 10% and greater than 90%, but relatively close agreement in the middle ranges of values. The principal causes of the diversity of opinion are believed to be the lack of site-specific data and the absence of a single, widely accepted, conceptual or theoretical basis for analyzing these variables.

Runchal, A.K.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Olmsted, E.; Davis, J.D.

1984-11-01

42

Statistical process control methods for expert system performance monitoring.  

PubMed

The literature on the performance evaluation of medical expert system is extensive, yet most of the techniques used in the early stages of system development are inappropriate for deployed expert systems. Because extensive clinical and informatics expertise and resources are required to perform evaluations, efficient yet effective methods of monitoring performance during the long-term maintenance phase of the expert system life cycle must be devised. Statistical process control techniques provide a well-established methodology that can be used to define policies and procedures for continuous, concurrent performance evaluation. Although the field of statistical process control has been developed for monitoring industrial processes, its tools, techniques, and theory are easily transferred to the evaluation of expert systems. Statistical process tools provide convenient visual methods and heuristic guidelines for detecting meaningful changes in expert system performance. The underlying statistical theory provides estimates of the detection capabilities of alternative evaluation strategies. This paper describes a set of statistical process control tools that can be used to monitor the performance of a number of deployed medical expert systems. It describes how p-charts are used in practice to monitor the GermWatcher expert system. The case volume and error rate of GermWatcher are then used to demonstrate how different inspection strategies would perform. PMID:8816348

Kahn, M G; Bailey, T C; Steib, S A; Fraser, V J; Dunagan, W C

1996-01-01

43

Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion  

E-print Network

Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation-borne viruses listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. It was predicted that climate change will increase the risk of incursions of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

Mottram, Nigel

44

Impact of plain packaging of tobacco products on smoking in adults and children: an elicitation of international experts¿ estimates  

E-print Network

the likely impact on smoking rates in adults and children of plain packaging of tobacco products. Methods Thirty-three tobacco control experts were recruited from the UK (n?=?14), Australasia (n?=?12) and North America (n ...

Pechey, Rachel; Spiegelhalter, David; Marteau, Theresa M

2013-01-09

45

An expert system for natural language processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

Hennessy, John F.

1988-01-01

46

Interpretation of the margin of exposure for genotoxic carcinogens - elicitation of expert knowledge about the form of the dose response curve at human relevant exposures.  

PubMed

The general approach to risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens has been to advise reduction of exposure to "as low as reasonably achievable/practicable" (ALARA/P). However, whilst this remains the preferred risk management option, it does not provide guidance on the urgency or extent of risk management actions necessary. To address this, the "Margin of Exposure" (MOE) approach has been proposed. The MOE is the ratio between the point of departure for carcinogenesis and estimated human exposure. However, interpretation of the MOE requires implicit or explicit consideration of the shape of the dose-response curve at human relevant exposures. In a structured elicitation exercise, we captured expert opinion on available scientific evidence for low dose-response relationships for genotoxic carcinogens. This allowed assessment of: available evidence for the nature of dose-response relationships at human relevant exposures; the generality of judgments about such dose-response relationships; uncertainties affecting judgments on the nature of such dose-response relationships; and whether this last should differ for different classes of genotoxic carcinogens. Elicitation results reflected the variability in experts' views on the form of the dose-response curve for low dose exposure and major sources of uncertainty affecting the assumption of a linear relationship. PMID:23507349

Boobis, Alan; Flari, Villie; Gosling, John Paul; Hart, Andy; Craig, Peter; Rushton, Lesley; Idahosa-Taylor, Ehi

2013-07-01

47

The hybrid image processing\\/expert image analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work is to analyze and interpret the X-ray image by using some knowledge base that relates objects within a scene to one another and to the scene background. Knowledge-based Image Analysis System (KIAS) is a prototype environment for image analysis and interpretation, KIAS consists of an image processing system and an expert system. It oversees

Jung H. Kim; E. H. Park; C. Ntuen; K. H. Sohn; W. Alexander

1990-01-01

48

Expert neural network with fuzzy coding for process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new intelligent method using neural networks and fuzzy logic to control a hot coil strip process having a look-up table. An expert neural network with a gating network made by multilayer neural networks is used for model a rule based look-up table that has a quantization error caused by an offset of the input variables. Also,

Minho Lee; Hoon-Suk Byun; Cheol Hoon Park; Soo-Young Lee; Joodong Lee; Byunghwa Ham; Hyungseok Cho; Heebaek Ro

1997-01-01

49

Prospective Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Thought Processes on a Model Eliciting Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical model and modeling are one of the topics that have been intensively discussed in recent years. The purpose of this study is to examine prospective elementary mathematics teachers' thought processes on a model eliciting activity and reveal difficulties or blockages in the processes. The study includes forty-five seniors taking the…

Eraslan, Ali

2012-01-01

50

Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes were developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. The SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

1987-01-01

51

Neural processes distinguishing elite from expert and novice athletes.  

PubMed

This commentary builds on a companion article in which Kim et al compare brain activation in elite, expert, and novice archers during a simulated target aiming task (Kim et al. 2014. Cogn Behav Neurol. 27:173-182). With the archery study as our starting point, we address 4 neural processes that may be responsible in general for elite athletes' superior performance over experts and novices: neural efficiency, cortical expansion, specialized processes, and internal models. In Kim et al's study, the elite archers' brains showed more activity in the supplementary motor area and the cerebellum than those of the novices and experts, and showed minimal widespread activity, especially in frontal areas involved with executive control. Kim et al's results are consistent with the idea of specialized neural processes that help coordinate motor planning and control. As athletes become more skilled, these processes may mediate the reduction in widespread activity in regions mapping executive control, and may produce a shift toward more automated processing. Kim et al's finding that activity in the cerebellum rose with increasing skill is consistent both with expansion of the finger representational area in the cerebellum and with internal models that simulate how archers manipulate the bow and arrow when aiming. Kim et al prepare the way for testing of neuromodulation techniques to improve athletic performance, refine highly technical job skills, and rehabilitate patients. PMID:25539037

Callan, Daniel E; Naito, Eiichi

2014-12-01

52

Business Process Elicitation, Modeling, and Reengineering: Teaching and Learning with Simulated Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of enterprise information systems requires students to master technical skills for elicitation, modeling, and reengineering business processes as well as soft skills for information gathering and communication. These tacit skills and behaviors cannot be effectively taught students but rather experienced and learned by students. This…

Jeyaraj, Anand

2010-01-01

53

Cellular defense processes regulated by pathogen-elicited receptor signaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertebrates are constantly threatened by the invasion of microorganisms and have evolved systems of immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens in the body. Initial sensing of microbial agents is mediated by the recognition of pathogens by means of molecular structures expressed uniquely by microbes of a given type. So-called 'Toll-like receptors' are expressed on host epithelial barrier cells play an essential role in the host defense against microbial pathogens by inducing cell responses (e.g., proliferation, death, cytokine secretion) via activation of intracellular signaling networks. As these networks, comprising multiple interconnecting dynamic pathways, represent highly complex multi-variate "information processing" systems, the signaling activities particularly critical for governing the host cell responses are poorly understood and not easily ascertained by a priori theoretical notions. We have developed over the past half-decade a "data-driven" computational modeling approach, on a 'cue-signal-response' combined experiment/computation paradigm, to elucidate key multi-variate signaling relationships governing the cell responses. In an example presented here, we study how a canonical set of six kinase pathways combine to effect microbial agent-induced apoptotic death of a macrophage cell line. One modeling technique, partial least-squares regression, yielded the following key insights: {a} signal combinations most strongly correlated to apoptotic death are orthogonal to those most strongly correlated with release of inflammatory cytokines; {b} the ratio of two key pathway activities is the most powerful predictor of microbe-induced macrophage apoptotic death; {c} the most influential time-window of this signaling activity ratio is surprisingly fast: less than one hour after microbe stimulation.

Wu, Rongcong; Goldsipe, Arthur; Schauer, David B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

2011-06-01

54

Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

Gevarter, W. B.

1984-01-01

55

Development of an instructional expert system for hole drilling processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system which captures the expertise of workshop technicians in the drilling domain was developed. The expert system is aimed at novice technicians who know how to operate the machines but have not acquired the decision making skills that are gained with experience. This paper describes the domain background and the stages of development of the expert system.

Al-Mutawa, Souhaila; Srinivas, Vijay; Moon, Young Bai

1990-01-01

56

Statistical Process Control Methods for Expert System Performance Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the performance evaluation of medical expert system is extensive, yet most of the techniques used in the early stages of system development are inappropriate for deployed expert systems. Because extensive clinical and informatics expertise and resources are required to perform evaluations, efficient yet effective methods of monitoring performance during the long-term maintenance phase of the expert system

Michael G Kahn; Thomas C Bailey; Sherry A Steib; Victoria J Fraser; William Claiborne Dunagan

1996-01-01

57

Explainable expert systems: A research program in information processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our work in Explainable Expert Systems (EES) had two goals: to extend and enhance the range of explanations that expert systems can offer, and to ease their maintenance and evolution. As suggested in our proposal, these goals are complementary because they place similar demands on the underlying architecture of the expert system: they both require the knowledge contained in a system to be explicitly represented, in a high-level declarative language and in a modular fashion. With these two goals in mind, the Explainable Expert Systems (EES) framework was designed to remedy limitations to explainability and evolvability that stem from related fundamental flaws in the underlying architecture of current expert systems.

Paris, Cecile L.

1993-01-01

58

Processing memories of anger-eliciting events: the effect of asking 'why' from a distance.  

PubMed

Preliminary experimental evidence suggests that ruminating about anger-eliciting events exacerbates anger and associated affect. However, no research has investigated the effect of rumination on processing memories of these events. This study examined the impact of manipulating cognitive processing when recalling anger-eliciting events. Participants (N=60) outlined an anger-related experience and were randomly allocated to recall the event according to an experimental instruction that manipulated recall perspective and emotional focus (distanced-why, distanced-what, immersed-why or immersed-what). Participants completed measures of negative affect and implicit and explicit anger, and returned the following day to complete measures that indexed frequency of intrusive memories of the event and memory-related distress. Contrary to prediction, participants allocated to the distanced-why condition did not report reduced anger. However, participants instructed to think about 'why' they experienced the emotions they did during the event (compared with 'what' emotions they experienced) reported more intrusions 24h later, regardless of vantage perspective. These results accord with theoretical models that emphasise the negative impact of a ruminative 'why' focus on the processing of past events. PMID:18279839

Wimalaweera, Subodha W; Moulds, Michelle L

2008-03-01

59

Study on Project Experts' Evaluation Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assure justice and science of scientific and technological project evaluation, avoiding the corrupt transaction in the process of project evaluation, it is necessary to evaluation the experts' performance with a scientific method. The main factors that affect the experts' performance evaluation were analyzed. To avoid the effect of individual subjective judgment and favoritism on the result of the experts'

Tianbiao Yu; Jing Zhou; Kai Zhao; Wei Wang; Wanshan Wang

2008-01-01

60

Differences in the Educational Software Evaluation Process for Experts and Novice Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comparative case study investigated the educational software evaluation processes of both experts and novices in conjunction with a software evaluation checklist. Twenty novice elementary education students, divided into groups of five, and three experts participated. Each novice group and the three experts evaluated educational software…

Tokmak, Hatice Sancar; Incikabi, Lutfi; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar

2012-01-01

61

The use of concept maps during knowledge elicitation in ontology development processes – the nutrigenomics use case  

PubMed Central

Background Incorporation of ontologies into annotations has enabled 'semantic integration' of complex data, making explicit the knowledge within a certain field. One of the major bottlenecks in developing bio-ontologies is the lack of a unified methodology. Different methodologies have been proposed for different scenarios, but there is no agreed-upon standard methodology for building ontologies. The involvement of geographically distributed domain experts, the need for domain experts to lead the design process, the application of the ontologies and the life cycles of bio-ontologies are amongst the features not considered by previously proposed methodologies. Results Here, we present a methodology for developing ontologies within the biological domain. We describe our scenario, competency questions, results and milestones for each methodological stage. We introduce the use of concept maps during knowledge acquisition phases as a feasible transition between domain expert and knowledge engineer. Conclusion The contributions of this paper are the thorough description of the steps we suggest when building an ontology, example use of concept maps, consideration of applicability to the development of lower-level ontologies and application to decentralised environments. We have found that within our scenario conceptual maps played an important role in the development process. PMID:16725019

Castro, Alexander Garcia; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Stevens, Robert; Taylor, Chris; Nashar, Karim; Ragan, Mark A; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

2006-01-01

62

UPDATING AN EXPERT ELICITATION IN THE LIGHT OF NEW DATA: TEN YEARS OF PROBABILISTIC VOLCANIC HAZARD ANALYSIS FOR THE PROPOSED HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) considers volcanism to be a potentially disruptive class of events that could affect the safety of the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Volcanic hazard assessment in monogenetic volcanic fields depends on an adequate understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of past eruptions. At Yucca Mountain, the hazard is due to an 11 Ma-history of basaltic volcanism with the latest eruptions occurring in three Pleistocene episodes to the west and south of Yucca Mountain. An expert elicitation convened in 1995-1996 by the DOE estimated the mean hazard of volcanic disruption of the repository as slightly greater than 10{sup -8} dike intersections per year with an uncertainty of about two orders of magnitude. Several boreholes in the region have encountered buried basalt in alluvial-filled basins; the youngest of these basalts is dated at 3.8 Ma. The possibility of additional buried basalt centers is indicated by a previous regional aeromagnetic survey conducted by the USGS that detected approximately 20 magnetic anomalies that could represent buried basalt volcanoes. Sensitivity studies indicate that the postulated presence of buried post-Miocene volcanoes to the east of Yucca Mountain could increase the hazard by an order of magnitude, and potentially significantly impact the results of the earlier expert elicitation. Our interpretation of the aeromagnetic data indicates that post-Miocene basalts are not present east of Yucca Mountain, but that magnetic anomalies instead represent faulted and buried Miocene basalt that correlates with nearby surface exposures. This interpretation is being tested by drilling. The possibility of uncharacterized buried volcanoes that could significantly change hazard estimates led DOE to support an update of the expert elicitation in 2004-2006. In support of the expert elicitation data needs, the DOE is sponsoring (1) a new higher-resolution, helicopter-borne aeromagnetic survey, completed in mid-2004, and (2) drilling of selected anomalies based on the aeromagnetic survey results to better characterize the number, location and age of buried volcanoes, which began in mid-2005. The new aeromagnetic survey detected the presence of 33 anomalies interpreted as possible buried volcanoes or faulted tuff bedrock. A program to drill ten of the anomalies has begun, with the selection of drill holes prioritized based on their potential impact on the hazard assessment.

F.V. Perry; A. Cogbill; R. Kelley

2005-08-26

63

An Expert System to Support Clothing Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of expert systems technologies and human computer interaction, the goal of this project is to construct an\\u000a interactive design support to fashion designers when designing workwear or corporatewear clothes. This system will be fed\\u000a by a semantic database that describes the relations between function and clothes specific context of use under the user’s\\u000a perspective. This application will

Michele Santos; Francisco Rebelo

2007-01-01

64

Mind at ease puts a smile on the face: psychophysiological evidence that processing facilitation elicits positive affect.  

PubMed

The affect system, in its position to monitor organismic-environmental transactions, may be sensitive to the internal dynamics of information processing. Hence, the authors predicted that facilitation of stimulus processing should elicit a brief, mild, positive affective response. In 2 studies, participants watched a series of neutral pictures while the processing ease was unobtrusively manipulated. Affective reactions were assessed with facial electromyography (EMG). In both studies, easy-to-process pictures elicited higher activity over the region of zygomaticus major, indicating positive affect. The EMG data were paralleled by self-reports of positive responses to the facilitated stimuli. The findings suggest a close link between processing dynamics and affect and may help understand several preference phenomena, including the mere-exposure effect. The findings also highlight a potential source of affective biases in social judgments. PMID:11761320

Winkielman, P; Cacioppo, J T

2001-12-01

65

The effects of rational and experiential information processing of expert testimony in death penalty cases.  

PubMed

Past research examining the effects of actuarial and clinical expert testimony on defendants' dangerousness in Texas death penalty sentencing has found that jurors are more influenced by less scientific pure clinical expert testimony and less influenced by more scientific actuarial expert testimony (Krauss & Lee, 2003; Krauss & Sales, 2001). By applying cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST) to juror decision-making, the present study was undertaken in an attempt to offer a theoretical rationale for these findings. Based on past CEST research, 163 mock jurors were either directed into a rational mode or experiential mode of processing. Consistent with CEST and inconsistent with previous research using the same stimulus materials, results demonstrate that jurors in a rational mode of processing more heavily weighted actuarial expert testimony in their dangerousness assessments, while those jurors in the experiential condition were more influenced by clinical expert testimony. The policy implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:15568199

Krauss, Daniel A; Lieberman, Joel D; Olson, Jodi

2004-01-01

66

Probability encoding of hydrologic parameters for basalt. Elicitation of expert opinions from a panel of three basalt waste isolation project staff hydrologists  

SciTech Connect

The present study implemented a probability encoding method to estimate the probability distributions of selected hydrologic variables for the Cohassett basalt flow top and flow interior, and the anisotropy ratio of the interior of the Cohassett basalt flow beneath the Hanford Site. Site-speciic data for these hydrologic parameters are currently inadequate for the purpose of preliminary assessment of candidate repository performance. However, this information is required to complete preliminary performance assessment studies. Rockwell chose a probability encoding method developed by SRI International to generate credible and auditable estimates of the probability distributions of effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity anisotropy. The results indicate significant differences of opinion among the experts. This was especially true of the values of the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow interior for which estimates differ by more than five orders of magnitude. The experts are in greater agreement about the values of effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top; their estimates for this variable are generally within one to two orders of magnitiude of each other. For anisotropy ratio, the expert estimates are generally within two or three orders of magnitude of each other. Based on this study, the Rockwell hydrologists estimate the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top to be generally higher than do the independent experts. For the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a smaller uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts. On the other hand, for the effective porosity and anisotropy ratio of the Cohassett basalt flow interior, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a larger uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts.

Runchal, A.K.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Olmsted, E.; Davis, J.D.

1984-11-01

67

Knowledge elicitation for an operator assistant system in process control tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A knowledge based system (KBS) methodology designed to study human machine interactions and levels of autonomy in allocation of process control tasks is presented. Users are provided with operation manuals to assist them in normal and abnormal situations. Unfortunately, operation manuals usually represent only the functioning logic of the system to be controlled. The user logic is often totally different. A method is focused on which illicits user logic to refine a KBS shell called an Operator Assistant (OA). If the OA is to help the user, it is necessary to know what level of autonomy gives the optimal performance of the overall man-machine system. For example, for diagnoses that must be carried out carefully by both the user and the OA, interactions are frequent, and processing is mostly sequential. Other diagnoses can be automated, in which the case the OA must be able to explain its reasoning in an appropriate level of detail. OA structure was used to design a working KBS called HORSES (Human Orbital Refueling System Expert System). Protocol analysis of pilots interacting with this system reveals that the a-priori analytical knowledge becomes more structured with training and the situation patterns more complex and dynamic. This approach can improve the a-priori understanding of human and automatic reasoning.

Boy, Guy A.

1988-01-01

68

User needs elicitation via analytic hierarchy process (AHP). A case study on a Computed Tomography (CT) scanner  

PubMed Central

Background The rigorous elicitation of user needs is a crucial step for both medical device design and purchasing. However, user needs elicitation is often based on qualitative methods whose findings can be difficult to integrate into medical decision-making. This paper describes the application of AHP to elicit user needs for a new CT scanner for use in a public hospital. Methods AHP was used to design a hierarchy of 12 needs for a new CT scanner, grouped into 4 homogenous categories, and to prepare a paper questionnaire to investigate the relative priorities of these. The questionnaire was completed by 5 senior clinicians working in a variety of clinical specialisations and departments in the same Italian public hospital. Results Although safety and performance were considered the most important issues, user needs changed according to clinical scenario. For elective surgery, the five most important needs were: spatial resolution, processing software, radiation dose, patient monitoring, and contrast medium. For emergency, the top five most important needs were: patient monitoring, radiation dose, contrast medium control, speed run, spatial resolution. Conclusions AHP effectively supported user need elicitation, helping to develop an analytic and intelligible framework of decision-making. User needs varied according to working scenario (elective versus emergency medicine) more than clinical specialization. This method should be considered by practitioners involved in decisions about new medical technology, whether that be during device design or before deciding whether to allocate budgets for new medical devices according to clinical functions or according to hospital department. PMID:23289426

2013-01-01

69

Design Expert's Participation in Elementary Students' Collaborative Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe elementary students' collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

70

Understanding Radical Technology Innovation and its Application to CO2 Capture R&D: Interim Report, Volume Two—Expert Elicitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved twenty structured interviews with researchers, research and development (R&D) managers, and other experts in fossil-energy technologies from government, academia, and the private sector. The intent was to gain a deeper understanding of the kinds of developments that would constitute a radical innovation in fossil-energy technology and its potential impact in the associated environmental control domain. The meanings

Amanda Slocum; Edward S. Rubin

2008-01-01

71

Construction of PC-based expert system for cold forging process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold forging process design is a field where the theory has not been established until present, and it depends on skilled designers with long time experience and intuition. Consequently, it is difficult for designers with shallow experience to cope, since process design needs time and cost. Thus, computer-based expert system for cold forging process design targeted to beginners has been

Tsutao Katayama; Masami Akamatsu; Yoji Tanaka

2004-01-01

72

Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status  

DOEpatents

A method and system are disclosed for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 24 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.

1998-06-02

73

Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status  

DOEpatents

A method and system for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-01

74

Development strategies of an expert system for multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development strategies of a prototype expert system, called ESAPD, for multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants are described. The main objectives of the system are to assist operators in identifying a primary causal alarm among multiple fired alarms and to diagnose the plant malfunction quickly. The overall plant-wide diagnosis is performed at the alarm processing stage

Se Woo Cheon; Soon Heung Chang; Hak Yeong Chung

1993-01-01

75

Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

1998-07-01

76

Stronger activation and deactivation in archery experts for differential cognitive strategy in visuospatial working memory processing.  

PubMed

It is well known that elite athletes have higher performance in perception, planning, and execution in sports activities relative to novices. It remains controversial, however, whether any differences in basic cognitive functions between experts and novices exist. Furthermore, few studies have directly used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation and deactivation differences between experts and novices while performing visuospatial working memory (WM) tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in neural activation and deactivation associated with working memory components in processing visuospatial information between archery experts and novices. To this end, we employed a judgment of line orientation (JLO) task, which has a strong WM component. With regard to brain activation, archery experts displayed higher activation in cortical areas associated with visuospatial attention and working memory, including the middle frontal cortex, supplemental motor area, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex than that of the novices during the performance of the JLO task. With regard to brain deactivation, archery experts exhibited stronger task-related deactivation in cortical areas, such as the paracentral cortex/precuneus and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex related to the default network, than that of the novices. These results suggest that the archery experts have a strategy that demands greater use of neural correlates associated with visuospatial working memory and attention in addition to greater use of DMN in visuospatial working memory task not directly tied to their domain of expertise. PMID:22266924

Seo, Jeehye; Kim, Yang-Tae; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Jongmin; Jung, Tae-Du; Lee, Gunyoung; Kwon, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Gu; Chang, Yongmin

2012-04-01

77

Evidence for the auditory P3a reflecting an automatic process: elicitation during highly-focused continuous visual attention.  

PubMed

The P3a is an event-related potential (ERP) component believed to reflect an attention-switch to task-irrelevant stimuli or stimulus information. The present study concerns the automaticity of the processes underlying the auditory P3a. More specifically, we investigated whether the auditory P3a is an attention-independent component, that is, whether it can still be elicited under highly-focused selective attention to a different (visual) channel. Furthermore, we examined whether the auditory P3a can be modulated by the demands of the visual diversion task. Subjects performed a continuous visual tracking task that varied in difficulty, based on the number of objects to-be-tracked. Task-irrelevant auditory stimuli were presented at very rapid and random rates concurrently to the visual task. The auditory sequence included rare increments (+10 dB) and decrements (-20 dB) in intensity relative to the frequently-presented standard stimulus. Importantly, the auditory deviant stimuli elicited a significant P3a during the most difficult visual task, when conditions were optimised to prevent attentional slippage to the auditory channel. This finding suggests that the elicitation of the auditory P3a does not require available central capacity, and confirms the automatic nature of the processes underlying this ERP component. Moreover, the difficulty of the visual task did not modulate either the mismatch negativity (MMN) or the P3a but did have an effect on a late (350-400 ms) negativity, an ERP deflection perhaps related to a subsequent evaluation of the auditory change. Together, these results imply that the auditory P3a could reflect a strongly-automatic process, one that does not require and is not modulated by attention. PMID:17692834

Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Macdonald, Margaret; Schröger, Erich; Sculthorpe, Lauren; Campbell, Kenneth

2007-09-19

78

Holistic processing of musical notation: Dissociating failures of selective attention in experts and novices  

PubMed Central

Holistic processing, i.e. the tendency to process objects as wholes, is associated with face perception and also with expertise individuating novel objects. Surprisingly, recent work also reveals holistic effects in novice observers. It is unclear whether the same mechanisms support holistic effects in experts and in novices. Here, we measured holistic processing of music sequences using a selective attention task in participants who vary in music reading expertise. We found that holistic effects were strategic in novices but relatively automatic in experts. Correlational analyses revealed that individual holistic effects were predicted by both individual music reading ability and neural responses for musical notation in the right fusiform face area (rFFA), but in opposite directions for experts and novices, suggesting that holistic effects in the two groups may be of different nature. To characterize expert perception, it is important to measure not only the tendency to process objects as wholes but to test whether this effect is dependent on task constraints. PMID:21098813

Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

2010-01-01

79

Expert system for the process sequence design of a ball stud  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ball stud is used for joining the mechanical elements of a ball joint in the steering or suspension system of automobiles. Process sequence design for the manufacturing of a ball stud, highly dependent on experience-based trial and error, limits the productivity and competitiveness of the product in meeting the demands of the current market. In this study, an expert

J.-H. Song; Y.-T. Im

1999-01-01

80

A hybrid expert system-neural networks methodology for anticipatory control in a process environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented that couples expert systems to neural networks for the purpose of monitoring and control in a process environment. This is achieved within the framework of the anticipatory paradigm. The basic assumption of the anticipatory paradigm is that a complex system can modify its behavior on the basis of present as well as anticipated future states. The

Lefteri H. Tsoukalas; J. Reyes-Jimenez

1990-01-01

81

Process Consistency in Models: the Importance of System Signatures, Expert Knowledge and Process Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological models are frequently characterized by what is often considered to be adequate calibration performances. In many cases, however, these models experience a substantial uncertainty and performance decrease in validation periods, thus resulting in poor predictive power. Besides the likely presence of data errors, this observation can point towards wrong or insufficient representations of the underlying processes and their heterogeneity. In other words, right results are generated for the wrong reasons. Thus ways are sought to increase model consistency and to thereby satisfy the contrasting priorities of the need a) to increase model complexity and b) to limit model equifinality. In this study a stepwise model development approach is chosen to test the value of an exhaustive and systematic combined use of hydrological signatures, expert knowledge and readily available, yet anecdotal and rarely exploited, hydrological information for increasing model consistency towards generating the right answer for the right reasons. A simple 3-box, 7 parameter, conceptual HBV-type model, constrained by 4 calibration objective functions was able to adequately reproduce the hydrograph with comparatively high values for the 4 objective functions in the 5-year calibration period. However, closer inspection of the results showed a dramatic decrease of model performance in the 5-year validation period. In addition, assessing the model's skill to reproduce a range of 20 hydrological signatures including, amongst others, the flow duration curve, the autocorrelation function and the rising limb density, showed that it could not adequately reproduce the vast majority of these signatures, indicating a lack of model consistency. Subsequently model complexity was increased in a stepwise way to allow for more process heterogeneity. To limit model equifinality, increase in complexity was counter-balanced by a stepwise application of "realism constraints", inferred from expert knowledge (e.g. unsaturated storage capacity of hillslopes should exceed the one of wetlands) and anecdotal hydrological information (e.g. long-term estimates of actual evaporation obtained from the Budyko framework and long-term estimates of baseflow contribution) to ensure that the model is well behaved with respect to the modeller's perception of the system. A total of 11 model set-ups with increased complexity and an increased number of realism constraints was tested. It could be shown that in spite of largely unchanged calibration performance, compared to the simplest set-up, the most complex model set-up (12 parameters, 8 constraints) exhibited significantly increased performance in the validation period while uncertainty did not increase. In addition, the most complex model was characterized by a substantially increased skill to reproduce all 20 signatures, indicating a more suitable representation of the system. The results suggest that a model, "well" constrained by 4 calibration objective functions may still be an inadequate representation of the system and that increasing model complexity, if counter-balanced by realism constraints, can indeed increase predictive performance of a model and its skill to reproduce a range of hydrological signatures, but that it does not necessarily result in increased uncertainty. The results also strongly illustrate the need to move away from automated model calibration towards a more general expert-knowledge driven strategy of constraining models if a certain level of model consistency is to be achieved.

Hrachowitz, Markus; Fovet, Ophelie; Ruiz, Laurent; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Savenije, Hubert

2014-05-01

82

Vision expert system 3D-IMPRESS for automated construction of three dimensional image processing procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a three dimensional (3D) image processing expert system called 3D-IMPRESS is presented. This system can automatically construct a 3D image processing procedure by using pairs of an original input image and a desired output figure called sample figure given by a user This paper describes the outline of 3D-IMPRESS and presents a method of procedure consolidation for

Xiang-Rong Zhou; Akinobu Shimizu; Jun-ichi Hasegawa; Jun-ichiro Toriwaki; Takeshi Hara; Hiroshi Fujita

2001-01-01

83

Efficient production of flavonoids in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with yeast polysaccharide elicitation and medium renewal process  

PubMed Central

Background: Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an excellent edible and medicinal crop, has been widely used as a daily diet and traditional medicine for a long time. The major functional components of Fagopyrum tataricum have been demonstrated to be flavonoids (i.e. rutin and quercetin), which had notable andioxidant, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and antitumor activities. Hairy root culture is a convenient and efficient plant tissue culture system for large scale production of bioactive metabolites. Objective: To enhance the functional flavonoids production in hairy root culture of F. tataricum. Materials and Methods: The elicitation treatment in combination with medium renewal strategy was applied for efficient promoting flavonoids production in F. tataricum hairy root cultures. Results: The exogenous yeast polysaccharide (YPS) elicitor notably stimulated the functional metabolites production in F. tataricum hairy root cultures, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. Combination with the YPS elicitation (200 mg/L) and medium renewal process, the maximal flavonoids yield was enhanced to 47.13 mg/L, about 3.2-fold in comparison with the control culture of 14.88 mg/L. Moreover, this research also revealed the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. These results indicated that the F. tataricum hairy root culture could be an effective system for rutin and quercetin production. PMID:25210309

Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Zou, Liang; Zhang, Cai-Qiong; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Peng, Lian-Xin; Xiang, Da-Bing; Zhao, Gang

2014-01-01

84

Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

Shewhart, Mark

1991-01-01

85

An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

1998-01-01

86

Thinking Within the Box: The Relational Processing Style Elicited by Counterfactual Mind-Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

By comparing reality to what might have been, counterfactuals promote a relational processing style characterized by a tendency to consider relationships and associations among a set of stimuli. As such, counterfactual mind-sets were expected to improve performance on tasks involving the consideration of relationships and associations but to impair performance on tasks requiring novel ideas that are uninfluenced by salient

Laura J. Kray; Adam D. Galinsky; Elaine M. Wong

2006-01-01

87

The linear programming alternative to policy capturing for eliciting criteria weights in the performance appraisal process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of management is the periodic performance appraisal (PA) of subordinates. This paper focuses on inferring the criteria employed and weights attached to them by an assessor in any PA process. Linear programming (LP) is proposed as an alternative to policy capturing (PC) as the inference mechanism. The LP approach is illustrated and contrasted with regression-based PC approaches.

C. Zappe

1995-01-01

88

Deduction electrified: ERPs elicited by the processing of words in conditional arguments.  

PubMed

This study investigates the ERP components associated with the processing of words that are critical to generating and rejecting deductive conditional Modus Ponens arguments (If P then Q; P//Therefore, Q). The generation of a logical inference is investigated by placing a verb in the minor premise that matches the one used in the antecedent of the conditional premise so that the inference can be carried out (If John is sleeping then he is snoring; John is sleeping). Rejections are examined by placing verbs that are associates of the verb that would make the conclusion valid (Conclusion 'therefore John is dreaming' in the example above). The inference generation phase was characterized by two ERP components, namely the P3b and the PSW. Rejections were associated with an N2 and a late positive component. The implications of these results regarding the processing of words in an inferential context are discussed. PMID:23395713

Bonnefond, Mathilde; Henst, Jean-Baptiste Van der

2013-03-01

89

Energy Efficiency Policy in Arizona Public Participation and Expert Consultation in the Policy Implementation Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many different levels of government, organizations, and programs actively shape the future of energy in Arizona, a state that lacks a comprehensive energy plan. Disparate actions by multiple actors may slow the energy policy process rather than expedite it. The absence of a state energy policy or plan raises questions about how multiple actors and ideas engage with state energy policy development and whether the absence of a comprehensive state plan can be understood. Improving how policy development is conceptualized and giving more focused attention to the mechanisms by which interested parties become involved in shaping Arizona energy policy. To explore these questions, I examine the future energy efficiency. Initially, public engagement mechanisms were examined for their role in policy creation from a theoretical perspective. Next a prominent public engagement forum that was dedicated to the topic of the Arizona's energy future was examined, mapping its process and conclusions onto a policy process model. The first part of this thesis involves an experimental expert consultation panel which was convened to amplify and refine the results of a public forum. The second part utilizes an online follow up survey to complete unfinished ideas from the focus group. The experiment flowed from a hypothesis that formal expert discussion on energy efficiency policies, guided by the recommendations put forth by the public engagement forum on energy in Arizona, would result in an increase in relevance while providing a forum for interdisciplinary collaboration that is atypical in today's energy discussions. This experiment was designed and evaluated utilizing a public engagement framework that incorporated theoretical and empirical elements. Specifically, I adapted elements of three methods of public and expert engagement used in policy development to create a consultation process that was contextualized to energy efficiency stakeholders in Arizona and their unique constraints. The goal of the consultation process was to refine preferences about policy options by expert stakeholders into actionable goals that could achieve advancement on policy implementation. As a corollary goal, the research set out to define implementation barriers, refine policy ideas, and operationalize Arizona-centric goals for the future of energy efficiency.

Bryck, Drew

90

How do experts reporting for the legal process validate symptoms? The results of a survey.  

PubMed

This article examines the views of experts from a range of disciplines and how they view symptoms given to them by claimants in matters of personal injury or medical negligence assessments. The survey was carried out in 2009 and looks at current practice and attitudes from a number of different disciplines. The survey included questions looking at what percentage of cases were thought to be genuine, symptoms most likely to be elaborated, methods for assessing symptom validity, and documentary evidence required for a report. This article highlights the importance of looking at symptom validation in the legal process. PMID:23966354

Allcott, Drew; Anderson, Stuart; Friedland, Daniel; Leng, Nicholas; Gross, Michael; Skelton-Robinson, Martin; Weller, Malcolm

2014-04-01

91

Using Domain Ontology as Domain Knowledge for Requirements Elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domain knowledge is one of crucial factors to get a great success in requirements elicitation of high quality, and only domain experts, not requirements analysts, have it. We pro- pose a new requirements elicitation method ORE (Ontology based Requirements Elicitation), where a domain ontology can be used as domain knowledge. In our method, a do- main ontology plays a role

Haruhiko Kaiya; Motoshi Saeki

2006-01-01

92

Processes in construction of failure management expert systems from device design information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper analyzes the tasks and problem solving methods used by an engineer in constructing a failure management expert system from design information about the device to te diagnosed. An expert test engineer developed a trouble-shooting expert system based on device design information and experience with similar devices, rather than on specific expert knowledge gained from operating the device or troubleshooting its failures. The construction of the expert system was intensively observed and analyzed. This paper characterizes the knowledge, tasks, methods, and design decisions involved in constructing this type of expert system, and makes recommendations concerning tools for aiding and automating construction of such systems.

Malin, Jane T.; Lance, Nick

1987-01-01

93

Documenting the use of expert scientific reasoning processes by high school physics students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these processes can be central during scientific model construction; here we code for their spontaneous use by students. We document evidence for numerous instances of these forms of reasoning in these classes. Most of these instances were associated with motion- and force-indicating depictive gestures, which we take as one kind of evidence for the use of animated mental imagery. Altogether, this methodology shows promise for use in highlighting the role of nonformal reasoning in student learning and for investigating the possible association of animated mental imagery with scientific reasoning processes.

Stephens, A. L.; Clement, John J.

2012-05-21

94

School Principal Expertise: Putting Expert-Aspiring Principal Differences in Problem Solving Processes to the Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on differences between expert and aspiring principals. Following the work of Leithwood and colleagues, we asked expert and aspiring principals to respond to ill-structured written problem scenarios. Our sample of 44 included 20 expert principals and 24 aspiring principals. The aspiring principals were from a cohort of…

Spillane, James P.; White, Kathryn Weitz; Stephan, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

95

PRODIAG: Combined expert system/neural network for process fault diagnosis. Volume 2, Code manual  

SciTech Connect

We recommend the reader first review Volume 1 of this document, Code Theory, before reading Volume 2. In this volume we make extensive use of terms and concepts described and defined in Volume 1 which are not redefined here to the same extent. To try to reduce the amount of redundant information, we have restricted this volume to the presentation of the expert system code and refer back to the theory described in Volume 1 when necessary. Verification and validation of the results are presented in Volume 3, Application, of this document. Volume 3 also presents the implementation of the component characteristics diagnostic approach through artificial neural networks discussed in Volume 1. We decided to present the component characteristics approach in Volume 3, as opposed to write a separate code manual for it, because the approach, although general, requires a case-by-case analysis. The purpose of this volume is to present the details of the expert system (ES) portion o the PRODIAG process diagnostic program. In addition, we present here the graphical diagnostics interface (GDI) and illustrate the combined use of the ES and GDI with a sample problem. For completeness, we provide the file names of all files, programs and major subroutines of these two systems, ES and GDI, and their corresponding location in the Reactor Analysis Division (RA) computer network and Reactor Engineering Division (RE) computer network as of 30 September 1995.

Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1995-09-01

96

Parahippocampal cortex is involved in material processing via echoes in blind echolocation experts.  

PubMed

Some blind humans use sound to navigate by emitting mouth-clicks and listening to the echoes that reflect from silent objects and surfaces in their surroundings. These echoes contain information about the size, shape, location, and material properties of objects. Here we present results from an fMRI experiment that investigated the neural activity underlying the processing of materials through echolocation. Three blind echolocation experts (as well as three blind and three sighted non-echolocating control participants) took part in the experiment. First, we made binaural sound recordings in the ears of each echolocator while he produced clicks in the presence of one of three different materials (fleece, synthetic foliage, or whiteboard), or while he made clicks in an empty room. During fMRI scanning these recordings were played back to participants. Remarkably, all participants were able to identify each of the three materials reliably, as well as the empty room. Furthermore, a whole brain analysis, in which we isolated the processing of just the reflected echoes, revealed a material-related increase in BOLD activation in a region of left parahippocampal cortex in the echolocating participants, but not in the blind or sighted control participants. Our results, in combination with previous findings about brain areas involved in material processing, are consistent with the idea that material processing by means of echolocation relies on a multi-modal material processing area in parahippocampal cortex. PMID:25086210

Milne, Jennifer L; Arnott, Stephen R; Kish, Daniel; Goodale, Melvyn A; Thaler, Lore

2014-07-30

97

Hybrid learning in expert networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert networks are defined as the embodiment of an expert's rule-based knowledge in an acyclic feedforward network. A transformation process is used to create an expert network from an expert system to enable training of the certainty factors of the expert system's rules from data. Certainty factors in the expert system correspond to connection weights in the network. The training

S. I. Hruska; D. C. Kuncicky; R. C. Lacher

1991-01-01

98

Relationships between the Process Standards: Process Elicited through Letter Writing between Preservice Teachers and High School Mathematics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current body of literature suggests an interactive relationship between several of the process standards advocated by National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Verbal and written mathematical communication has often been described as an alternative to typical mathematical representations (e.g., charts and graphs). Therefore, the…

Kosko, Karl Wesley; Norton, Anderson

2012-01-01

99

Methodology development of an engineering design expert system utilizing a modular knowledge-base inference process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodology development was conducted to incorporate a modular knowledge-base representation into an expert system engineering design application. The objective for using multidisciplinary methodologies in defining a design system was to develop a system framework that would be applicable to a wide range of engineering applications. The technique of "knowledge clustering" was used to construct a general decision tree for all factual information relating to the design application. This construction combined the design process surface knowledge and specific application depth knowledge. Utilization of both levels of knowledge created a system capable of processing multiple controlling tasks including; organizing factual information relative to the cognitive levels of the design process, building finite element models for depth knowledge analysis, developing a standardized finite element code for parallel processing, and determining a best solution generated by design optimization procedures. Proof of concept for the methodology developed here is shown in the implementation of an application defining the analysis and optimization of a composite aircraft canard subjected to a general compound loading condition. This application contained a wide range of factual information and heuristic rules. The analysis tools used included a finite element (FE) processor and numerical optimizer. An advisory knowledge-base was also developed to provide a standard for conversion of serial FE code for parallel processing. All knowledge-bases developed operated as either an advisory, selection, or classification systems. Laminate properties are limited to even-numbered, quasi-isotropic ply stacking sequences. This retained full influence of the coupled in-plane and bending effects of the structures behavior. The canard is modeled as a constant thickness plate and discretized into a varying number of four or nine-noded, quadrilateral, shear-deformable plate elements. The benefit gained by a designer from using this design methodology is presented by examining the capability of the system to satisfy the different levels of engineering design cognitive abilities. Numerical results of design iterations are provided to detail the expert system's advise in feasible region identification, and multiple iteration outcomes are used to justify solution assessment rules used in controlling the optimization process.

Winter, Steven John

100

Combined expert system/neural networks method for process fault diagnosis  

DOEpatents

A two-level hierarchical approach for process fault diagnosis of an operating system employs a function-oriented approach at a first level and a component characteristic-oriented approach at a second level, where the decision-making procedure is structured in order of decreasing intelligence with increasing precision. At the first level, the diagnostic method is general and has knowledge of the overall process including a wide variety of plant transients and the functional behavior of the process components. An expert system classifies malfunctions by function to narrow the diagnostic focus to a particular set of possible faulty components that could be responsible for the detected functional misbehavior of the operating system. At the second level, the diagnostic method limits its scope to component malfunctions, using more detailed knowledge of component characteristics. Trained artificial neural networks are used to further narrow the diagnosis and to uniquely identify the faulty component by classifying the abnormal condition data as a failure of one of the hypothesized components through component characteristics. Once an anomaly is detected, the hierarchical structure is used to successively narrow the diagnostic focus from a function misbehavior, i.e., a function oriented approach, until the fault can be determined, i.e., a component characteristic-oriented approach. 9 figs.

Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1995-08-15

101

Combined expert system/neural networks method for process fault diagnosis  

DOEpatents

A two-level hierarchical approach for process fault diagnosis is an operating system employs a function-oriented approach at a first level and a component characteristic-oriented approach at a second level, where the decision-making procedure is structured in order of decreasing intelligence with increasing precision. At the first level, the diagnostic method is general and has knowledge of the overall process including a wide variety of plant transients and the functional behavior of the process components. An expert system classifies malfunctions by function to narrow the diagnostic focus to a particular set of possible faulty components that could be responsible for the detected functional misbehavior of the operating system. At the second level, the diagnostic method limits its scope to component malfunctions, using more detailed knowledge of component characteristics. Trained artificial neural networks are used to further narrow the diagnosis and to uniquely identify the faulty component by classifying the abnormal condition data as a failure of one of the hypothesized components through component characteristics. Once an anomaly is detected, the hierarchical structure is used to successively narrow the diagnostic focus from a function misbehavior, i.e., a function oriented approach, until the fault can be determined, i.e., a component characteristic-oriented approach.

Reifman, Jaques (Westchester, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1995-01-01

102

Size determines whether specialized expert processes are engaged for recognition of faces.  

PubMed

Many influential models of face recognition postulate specialized expert processes that are engaged when viewing upright, own-race faces, as opposed to a general-purpose recognition route used for nonface objects and inverted or other-race faces. In contrast, others have argued that empirical differences do not stem from qualitatively distinct processing. We offer a potential resolution to this ongoing controversy. We hypothesize that faces engage specialized processes at large sizes only. To test this, we measured recognition efficiencies for a wide range of sizes. Upright face recognition efficiency increased with size. This was not due to better visibility of basic image features at large sizes. We ensured this by calculating efficiency relative to a specialized ideal observer unique to each individual that incorporated size-related changes in visibility and by measuring inverted efficiencies across the same range of face sizes. Inverted face recognition efficiencies did not change with size. A qualitative face inversion effect, defined as the ratio of relative upright and inverted efficiencies, showed a complete lack of inversion effects for small sizes up to 6°. In contrast, significant face inversion effects were found for all larger sizes. Size effects may stem from predominance of larger faces in the overall exposure to faces, which occur at closer viewing distances typical of social interaction. Our results offer a potential explanation for the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the special status of faces. PMID:25052697

Yang, Nan; Shafai, Fakhri; Oruc, Ipek

2014-01-01

103

Breast Implant–associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Updated Results from a Structured Expert Consultation Process  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite increased cases published on breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), important clinical issues remain unanswered. We conducted a second structured expert consultation process to rate statements related to the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of this disease, based on their interpretation of published evidence. Methods: A multidisciplinary panel of 12 experts was selected based on nominations from national specialty societies, academic department heads, and recognized researchers in the United States. Results: Panelists agreed that (1) this disease should be called “BIA-ALCL”; (2) late seromas occurring >1 year after breast implantation should be evaluated via ultrasound, and if a seroma is present, the fluid should be aspirated and sent for culture, cytology, flow cytometry, and cell block to an experienced hematopathologist; (3) surgical removal of the affected implant and capsule (as completely as possible) should occur, which is sufficient to eradicate capsule-confined BIA-ALCL; (4) surveillance should consist of clinical follow-up at least every 6 months for at least 5 years and breast ultrasound yearly for at least 2 years; and (5) BIA-ALCL is generally a biologically indolent disease with a good prognosis, unless it extends beyond the capsule and/or presents as a mass. They firmly disagreed with statements that chemotherapy and radiation therapy should be given to all patients with BIA-ALCL. Conclusions: Our assessment yielded consistent results on a number of key, incompletely addressed issues regarding BIA-ALCL, but additional research is needed to support these statement ratings and enhance our understanding of the biology, treatment, and outcomes associated with this disease. PMID:25674377

Predmore, Zachary S.; Mattke, Soeren; van Busum, Kristin; Gidengil, Courtney A.

2015-01-01

104

Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) quality assurance (QA)/data accounting (DA) expert systems - Transition from prototypes to operational systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historical records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

Basile, Lisa

1988-01-01

105

Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) Quality Assurance (QA)/Data Accounting (DA) expert systems: Transition from prototypes to operational systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historial records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

Basile, Lisa

1988-01-01

106

Expert system for multi-stage cold-forging process design with a re-designing algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold forging has recently become one of the competitive technologies in manufacturing. In order to improve the productivity of cold forging at low production cost, an integrated systems approach is necessary in handling the material preparation and the optimum process design considering the forming machines, tooling, and operation, including quality control. As the first step toward this approach, an expert

Hong-Seok Kim; Yong-Taek Im

1995-01-01

107

Human Factors Contributions to Knowledge Elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this article is to lay out contributions of human factors to knowledge elicitation (KE) methodology. Background: The background is historical, dating to about 1985, and involves the convergence of expert systems with applied psychology and cognitive psychology. Method: The method is a literature review, focusing on past issues of Human Factors. Results: Human factors researchers have

Robert R. Hoffman

2008-01-01

108

Engaging communication experts in a Delphi process to identify patient behaviors that could enhance communication in medical encounters  

PubMed Central

Background The communication literature currently focuses primarily on improving physicians' verbal and non-verbal behaviors during the medical interview. The Four Habits Model is a teaching and research framework for physician communication that is based on evidence linking specific communication behaviors with processes and outcomes of care. The Model conceptualizes basic communication tasks as "Habits" and describes the sequence of physician communication behaviors during the clinical encounter associated with improved outcomes. Using the Four Habits Model as a starting point, we asked communication experts to identify the verbal communication behaviors of patients that are important in outpatient encounters. Methods We conducted a 4-round Delphi process with 17 international experts in communication research, medical education, and health care delivery. All rounds were conducted via the internet. In round 1, experts reviewed a list of proposed patient verbal communication behaviors within the Four Habits Model framework. The proposed patient verbal communication behaviors were identified based on a review of the communication literature. The experts could: approve the proposed list; add new behaviors; or modify behaviors. In rounds 2, 3, and 4, they rated each behavior for its fit (agree or disagree) with a particular habit. After each round, we calculated the percent agreement for each behavior and provided these data in the next round. Behaviors receiving more than 70% of experts' votes (either agree or disagree) were considered as achieving consensus. Results Of the 14 originally-proposed patient verbal communication behaviors, the experts modified all but 2, and they added 20 behaviors to the Model in round 1. In round 2, they were presented with 59 behaviors and 14 options to remove specific behaviors for rating. After 3 rounds of rating, the experts retained 22 behaviors. This set included behaviors such as asking questions, expressing preferences, and summarizing information. Conclusion The process identified communication tasks and verbal communication behaviors for patients similar to those outlined for physicians in the Four Habits Model. This represents an important step in building a single model that can be applied to teaching patients and physicians the communication skills associated with improved satisfaction and positive outcomes of care. PMID:20403173

2010-01-01

109

"Combining Probabilistic Elicitation Data on Energy Technologies" Hannah Varner  

E-print Network

"Combining Probabilistic Elicitation Data on Energy Technologies" Hannah Varner Faculty Mentor will be combining the probabilistic data collected from the newly available reports of these expert elicitations, we will be checking for consistency across the predictions and comparing it. We hope to combine

Mountziaris, T. J.

110

Combining analytical hierarchy process and agglomerative hierarchical clustering in search of expert consensus in green corridors development management.  

PubMed

Environmental management and planning are instrumental in resolving conflicts arising between societal needs for economic development on the one hand and for open green landscapes on the other hand. Allocating green corridors between fragmented core green areas may provide a partial solution to these conflicts. Decisions regarding green corridor development require the assessment of alternative allocations based on multiple criteria evaluations. Analytical Hierarchy Process provides a methodology for both a structured and consistent extraction of such evaluations and for the search for consensus among experts regarding weights assigned to the different criteria. Implementing this methodology using 15 Israeli experts-landscape architects, regional planners, and geographers-revealed inherent differences in expert opinions in this field beyond professional divisions. The use of Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering allowed to identify clusters representing common decisions regarding criterion weights. Aggregating the evaluations of these clusters revealed an important dichotomy between a pragmatist approach that emphasizes the weight of statutory criteria and an ecological approach that emphasizes the role of the natural conditions in allocating green landscape corridors. PMID:23674241

Shapira, Aviad; Shoshany, Maxim; Nir-Goldenberg, Sigal

2013-07-01

111

Combining Analytical Hierarchy Process and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering in Search of Expert Consensus in Green Corridors Development Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental management and planning are instrumental in resolving conflicts arising between societal needs for economic development on the one hand and for open green landscapes on the other hand. Allocating green corridors between fragmented core green areas may provide a partial solution to these conflicts. Decisions regarding green corridor development require the assessment of alternative allocations based on multiple criteria evaluations. Analytical Hierarchy Process provides a methodology for both a structured and consistent extraction of such evaluations and for the search for consensus among experts regarding weights assigned to the different criteria. Implementing this methodology using 15 Israeli experts—landscape architects, regional planners, and geographers—revealed inherent differences in expert opinions in this field beyond professional divisions. The use of Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering allowed to identify clusters representing common decisions regarding criterion weights. Aggregating the evaluations of these clusters revealed an important dichotomy between a pragmatist approach that emphasizes the weight of statutory criteria and an ecological approach that emphasizes the role of the natural conditions in allocating green landscape corridors.

Shapira, Aviad; Shoshany, Maxim; Nir-Goldenberg, Sigal

2013-07-01

112

Emotion elicitation using films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

113

Estimating structural collapse fragility of generic building typologies using expert judgment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The structured expert elicitation process proposed by Cooke (1991), hereafter referred to as Cooke's approach, is applied for the first time in the realm of structural collapse-fragility assessment for selected generic construction types. Cooke's approach works on the principle of objective calibration scoring of judgments couple with hypothesis testing used in classical statistics. The performance-based scoring system reflects the combined measure of an expert's informativeness about variables in the problem are under consideration, and their ability to enumerate, in a statistically accurate way through expressing their true beliefs, the quantitative uncertainties associated with their assessments. We summarize the findings of an expert elicitation workshop in which a dozen earthquake-engineering professionals from around the world were engaged to estimate seismic collapse fragility for generic construction types. Development of seismic collapse fragility-functions was accomplished by combining their judgments using weights derived from Cooke's method. Although substantial effort was needed to elicit the inputs of these experts successfully, we anticipate that the elicitation strategy described here will gain momentum in a wide variety of earthquake seismology and engineering hazard and risk analyses where physical model and data limitations are inherent and objective professional judgment can fill gaps.

Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.; Perkins, David M.; Aspinall, Willy P.; Kiremidjian, Anne S.

2014-01-01

114

An expert system for cold forging process design based on a depth-first search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the non-deterministic nature of process sequence design for multi-stage cold forging, various process designs are available depending on the initial billet geometry and the order of basic processes such as forward\\/backward extrusion, upsetting and trimming process. Therefore, various process sequences should be determined and compared to obtain an optimal solution. For this purpose, a depth-first search, a searching

Hong-Seok Kim; Yong-Taek Im

1999-01-01

115

SP100 shield design automation process using expert system and heuristic search techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SP-100 shield subsystem design process has been modified to utilize the GE Corporate Reserch and Development program, ENGINEOUS (Tong 1990). ENGINEOUS is a software system that automates the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis programs in the engineering design process. The shield subsystem design process incorporates a nuclear subsystems design and performance code, a two-dimensional neutral particle transport

Thomas F. Marcille; Robert Protsik; Nelson A. Deane; Darryl G. Hoover

1993-01-01

116

CABPRO: An expert system for process planning multiwire cables. Final report  

SciTech Connect

CABPRO (CABle PROcessor) is a set of computer programs using Artificial Intelligence programming to automatically generate process plans and work instructions in support of the manufacture of multiwire cables. Development of these programs required selecting appropriate hardware and software tools, defining engineering process planning activities, acquiring and representing process planning knowledge, and creating a prototype system. A successful prototype was developed and demonstrated.

Schaefer, R.M.

1994-04-01

117

PRODIAG: Combined expert system/neural network for process fault diagnosis. Volume 1, Theory  

SciTech Connect

The function of the PRODIAG code is to diagnose on-line the root cause of a thermal-hydraulic (T-H) system transient with trace back to the identification of the malfunctioning component using the T-H instrumentation signals exclusively. The code methodology is based on the Al techniques of automated reasoning/expert systems (ES) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The research and development objective is to develop a generic code methodology which would be plant- and T-H-system-independent. For the ES part the only plant or T-H system specific code requirements would be implemented through input only and at that only through a Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (PID) database. For the ANN part the only plant or T-H system specific code requirements would be through the ANN training data for normal component characteristics and the same PID database information. PRODIAG would, therefore, be generic and portable from T-H system to T-H system and from plant to plant without requiring any code-related modifications except for the PID database and the ANN training with the normal component characteristics. This would give PRODIAG the generic feature which numerical simulation plant codes such as TRAC or RELAP5 have. As the code is applied to different plants and different T-H systems, only the connectivity information, the operating conditions and the normal component characteristics are changed, and the changes are made entirely through input. Verification and validation of PRODIAG would, be T-H system independent and would be performed only ``once``.

Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E.

1995-09-01

118

Expert Biogeographers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

Bednarski, Marsha

2006-01-01

119

Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the meiosis models utilized by five individuals at each of three levels of expertise in genetics as each reasoned about this process in an individual interview setting. Results revealed a set of biologically correct features common to all individuals' models as well as a variety of model flaws (i.e., meiosis misunderstandings) which are…

Kindfield, A. C. H.

1994-01-01

120

Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three…

Kindfield, Ann C. H.

121

Understanding a basic biological process: Expert and novice models of meiosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central to secondary and college-level biology instruction is the development of student understanding of a number of subcellular processes. Yet some of the most crucial are consistently cited as the most difficult components of biology to learn. Among these is meiosis. In this article I report on the meiosis models utilized by five individuals at each of three levels of expertise in genetics as each reasoned about this process in an individual interview setting. Detailed characterization of individual meiosis models and comparison among models revealed a set of biologically correct features common to all individuals' models as well as a variety of model flaws (i.e., meiosis misunderstandings) which are categorized according to type and level of expertise. These results are suggestive of both sources of various misunderstandings and factors that might contribute to the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis. Each of these is addressed in relation to their respective implications for instruction.

Kindfield, Ann C. H.

122

Results from the Second Forum on the Future Role of the Human in the Forecast Process. Part II: Cognitive Psychological Aspects of Expert Weather Forecasters  

E-print Network

1 Results from the Second Forum on the Future Role of the Human in the Forecast Process. Part II: Cognitive Psychological Aspects of Expert Weather Forecasters NEIL A. STUART* NOAA/National Weather Service;2 ABSTRACT The Second Forum on the Future Role of the Human in the Forecast Process occurred on 2­3 August

Schultz, David

123

Wisdom and psychotherapy: Studying expert therapists' clinical wisdom to explicate common processes.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This research study explores the concept of clinical wisdom. Method: Seventeen psychologists who were nominated multiple times by their peers as wise clinicians participated in an interview on clinical wisdom, analyzed using grounded-theory methods. Results: Participants described clinical wisdom as accepting that the best answers to clients' problems often were not immediately accessible and instead using their sense of their clients, their theory of psychotherapy, and their own experiences of adversity, diversity, and intimate relationships to help clients explore the ambiguities and vulnerabilities they experienced to craft idiosyncratic answers. Conclusions: An understanding of clinical wisdom is put forward, characterized by markers and principles for practice, to guide therapy processes within therapists' intentionality and direct research on common factors. PMID:25084092

Levitt, Heidi M; Piazza-Bonin, Elizabeth

2014-08-01

124

Expert Biogeographers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Instead of having students read about biomes in a textbook, why not have them become expert biogeographers? Once students have learned what a biogeographer does through an on-line search, they will take on the role as expert biogeographer. In this hypothetical scenario, they have been hired by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to research a land biome area. As researchers, they will be required to do a variety of inquiry-based tasks, which are outlined in the article.

Bednarski, Marsha

2006-01-01

125

Expert Seeker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or hobbies). Unify myriad collections of data into Web-enabled repository that could easily be searched for relevant data.

Fernandez, Becerra

2003-01-01

126

Oil palm fresh fruit bunch ripeness classification based on rule- based expert system of ROI image processing technique results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a processing need for a fast, easy and accurate classification system for oil palm fruit ripeness. Such a system will be invaluable to farmers and plantation managers who need to sell their oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) for the mill as this will avoid disputes. In this paper,a new approach was developed under the name of expert rules-based systembased on the image processing techniques results of thethree different oil palm FFB region of interests (ROIs), namely; ROI1 (300x300 pixels), ROI2 (50x50 pixels) and ROI3 (100x100 pixels). The results show that the best rule-based ROIs for statistical colour feature extraction with k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifier at 94% were chosen as well as the ROIs that indicated results higher than the rule-based outcome, such as the ROIs of statistical colour feature extraction with artificial neural network (ANN) classifier at 94%, were selected for further FFB ripeness inspection system.

Alfatni, M. S. M.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Marhaban, M. H.; Shafie, S. B.; Bamiruddin, M. D.; Saaed, O. M. B.

2014-06-01

127

The Magic or Myth of Expertise: A Comparison of Judgment Processes between Forensic Experts and Lay Persons Based on Psychiatric Case Vignettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a continuation of a previous study (Grøndahl, Grønnerød, & Sexton, 2009), we examined how 120 laypersons and 35 forensic experts (14 psychiatrists and 21 psychologists) differed in their judgment processes of forensic case vignettes. The vignettes contained descriptions of three components, namely social history, psychiatric history and criminal offense. We found important differences in how the groups used information

Pål Grøndahl; Cato Grønnerød; Joseph Sexton

2011-01-01

128

[Medical expert systems].  

PubMed

Expert systems are software systems that can successfully compare to human experts. Their purpose is mostly advisory. Besides, they give explanation and advice to human experts when performing certain tasks. They are intelligent information systems, and are capable to explain and justify their conclusions. Knowledge systems are smaller software systems, and are usually less successful than human experts. Main reasons for expert systems development in medicine are: need for justification of decisions, need for enhancing performances in many uncertain relations; need for explaining of decision making process etc. One of the reasons of developing knowledge-based systems was that conventional statistic formalisms have not provided satisfactory solutions in medical decision making (MDM). Also, today, the relations between cases and conclusions are not universally valid. So, few causes can provide the same conclusion. Besides, data are not necessarily absolutely accurate. The area of applying expert systems is very wide: diagnosis, prognosis, self-education, directing etc. Basic structure of expert system consists of: knowledge, data base, inferring mechanism, explaining mechanism and user-interface. Though, expert systems also have certain bad features: primarily, they are not physicians i.e. they can not examine a patient. Furthermore, expert system that is good for one certain area is often not good for another one. There are some cases, when these systems can confuse a physician and make him to make a wrong decision. This occurs very often in two specific cases: when the clinical situation is urgent; and when accuracy of clinical information is not definite. PMID:9601753

Masi?, I; Ridanovi?, Z; Pandza, H

1995-01-01

129

Rule based processing of the CD4000, CD3200 and CD Sapphire analyser output using the Cerner Discern Expert Module.  

PubMed

The latest version of our Laboratory Information System haematology laboratory expert system that handles the output of Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphires, CD4000s and a CD3200 full blood count analyser in three high-volume haematology laboratories is described. The three hospital laboratories use Cerner Millennium Version 2007.02 software and the expert system uses Cerner Millennium Discern Expert rules and some small Cerner Command Language in-house programs. The entire expert system is totally integrated with the area-wide database and has been built and maintained by haematology staff members, as has the haematology database. Using patient demographic data, analyser numeric results, analyser error and morphology flags and previous results for the patient, this expert system decides whether to validate the main full blood count indices and white cell differential, or if the analyser results warrant further operator intervention/investigation before verifying, whether a blood film is required for microscopic review and if abnormal results require phoning to the staff treating the patient. The principles of this expert system can be generalized to different haematology analysers and haematology laboratories that have different workflows and different software. PMID:18691345

Burgess, P; Robin, H; Langshaw, M; Kershaw, G; Pathiraja, R; Yuen, S; Coad, C; Xiros, N; Mansy, G; Coleman, R; Brown, R; Gibson, J; Holman, R; Hubbard, J; Wick, V; Lammers, M; Johnson, R; Huffman, K; Bell, J; Ibrahim, A; Estepa, F; Lovegrove, J; Joshua, D

2009-12-01

130

Experts, Bayesian Belief Networks, rare events and aviation risk estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) are conceptually sensible models for aviation risk assessment. The aim here is to examine the ability of BBN-based techniques to make accurate aviation risk predictions. BBNs consist of a framework of causal factors linked by conditional probabilities. BBN conditional probabilities are elicited from aviation experts. The issue is that experts are not being asked about their

Peter Brooker

2011-01-01

131

Elecitation of Knowledge from Multiple Experts Using Network Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eliciting knowledge from multiple experts usually entails the use of groups, and thus is subject to the problems inherent in group dynamics. We present a technique for multiple expert knowledge acquisition that does not rely upon the use of groups and can take advantage of technological advances in communications and computing, i.e., the Internet. The approach uses influence diagrams to

Robert Rush; William A. Wallace

1997-01-01

132

Using repertory grids for knowledge acquisition for spatial expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional approach to knowledge acquisition from domain experts has been via interview. However deeper knowledge can be elicited using repertory grid techniques which get domain experts to rank objects against concepts. The technique based on Kelly's (1955) Personal Construct Theory has been well proven by Boose et. al. (1987) but has not to date been applied to a spatial

P. Crowther; J. Hartnett

1996-01-01

133

Being an Expert Mathematics Online Tutor: What Does Expertise Entail?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is derived from the qualitative portion of a larger study conducted on mathematics websites that provide expert volunteer help. Data consist of tutoring logs of five expert tutors from two help sites, plus interviews with these tutors. The researcher has employed theories about expertise in the educational domain to elicit details of…

Martinovic, Dragana

2009-01-01

134

Aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in probability elicitation with an example from hazardous waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantification of a risk assessment model often requires the elicitation of expert judgments about quantities that cannot be precisely measured. The aims of the model being quantified provide important guidance as to the types of questions that should be asked of the experts. The uncertainties underlying a quantity may be classified as aleatory or epistemic according to the goals

Stephen C. Hora

1996-01-01

135

a New Method for Fmeca Based on Fuzzy Theory and Expert System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) is one of most widely used methods in modern engineering system to investigate potential failure modes and its severity upon the system. FMECA evaluates criticality and severity of each failure mode and visualize the risk level matrix putting those indices to column and row variable respectively. Generally, those indices are determined subjectively by experts and operators. However, this process has no choice but to include uncertainty. In this paper, a method for eliciting expert opinions considering its uncertainty is proposed to evaluate the criticality and severity. In addition, a fuzzy expert system is constructed in order to determine the crisp value of risk level for each failure mode. Finally, an illustrative example system is analyzed in the case study. The results are worth considering in deciding the proper policies for each component of the system.

Byeon, Yoong-Tae; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jin-O.

2008-10-01

136

Requirements for Electronic Commerce Applications are created rather than elicited1  

E-print Network

@cs.vu.nl Keywords Business model, process model, software architecture, electronic commerce, requirements creation-1- Requirements for Electronic Commerce Applications are created rather than elicited1 Jaap, requirements elicitation, value chain, value constellation. Abstract Electronic commerce applications

van Vliet, Hans

137

Identification of an essential component of the elicitation active site of the EIX protein elicitor  

E-print Network

-derived elicitors trigger these defense responses. The Elicitor Ethylene-inducing Xylanase (EIX) elicits HR) indicate that the enzymatic xylanase activity of EIX is unrelated to the elicitation process

Avni, Adi

138

Eliciting geologists' tacit model of the uncertainty of mapped geological boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally accepted that geological linework, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is also recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for mapped boundaries in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicted distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering linework or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of linework.

Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

2015-01-01

139

Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1) defining the range of concerns of the public toward different bioremediation strategies and long-term stewardship; (2) creating materials and delivery methods that address bioremediation issues; and (3) assessing the effectiveness of the consensus workshop in identifying concerns about bioremediation and involving the public in a dialogue about their use. After a brief description of the Idaho workshop, we discuss the range of concerns articulated by the participants about bioremediation, discuss the materials and delivery methods used to communicate information about bioremediation, and assess the effectiveness of the consensus workshop. In summary we found that panel members in general: understood complex technical issues, especially when given enough time in a facilitated discussion with experts; are generally accepting of in situ bioremediation, but concerned about costs, safety, and effectiveness of the technology; are concerned equally about technology and decision processes; and liked the consensus workshop approach to learning about bioremediation.

Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

2003-03-01

140

Capital Expert System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

1987-05-01

141

Issues in expert system development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explicit representation of domain knowledge and its separation from the processes which manipulate it and the representation formalism particular to artificial intelligence allow expert systems to solve problems which are characterized by a high combinatoric complexity or which are sufficiently ill defined as to not have reasonable software engineering solutions. The expert system approach to problem-solving differs radically from its conventional system development counterpart. This paper defines the expert system and introduces the production system architecture. The relative strengths and weakenesses of expert system and software engineering approaches to problem solving are discussed. Also addressed are criteria for identifying problems amenable to expert system solution and some justifications for system development.

Baer, C. L.

1988-03-01

142

Statistics Department Auctioning Experts inAuctioning Experts in  

E-print Network

Auction = Experts + ModelAuction = Experts + Model Predictive Model Feature Auction Expert Bidder Expert Bidder Expert Bidder Expert Bidder #12;Wharton Statistics Department CRSM 2004 11 AwktionAwktion Modeling

Stine, Robert A.

143

How experiences become data: the process of eliciting adverse event, medical history and concomitant medication reports in antimalarial and antiretroviral interaction trials  

PubMed Central

Background Accurately characterizing a drug’s safety profile is essential. Trial harm and tolerability assessments rely, in part, on participants’ reports of medical histories, adverse events (AEs), and concomitant medications. Optimal methods for questioning participants are unclear, but different methods giving different results can undermine meta-analyses. This study compared methods for eliciting such data and explored reasons for dissimilar participant responses. Methods Participants from open-label antimalarial and antiretroviral interaction trials in two distinct sites (South Africa, n?=?18 [all HIV positive]; Tanzania, n?=?80 [86% HIV positive]) were asked about ill health and treatment use by sequential use of (1) general enquiries without reference to particular conditions, body systems or treatments, (2) checklists of potential health issues and treatments, (3) in-depth interviews. Participants’ experiences of illness and treatment and their reporting behaviour were explored qualitatively, as were trial clinicians’ experiences with obtaining participant reports. Outcomes were the number and nature of data by questioning method, themes from qualitative analyses and a theoretical interpretation of participants’ experiences. Results There was an overall cumulative increase in the number of reports from general enquiry through checklists to in-depth interview; in South Africa, an additional 12 medical histories, 21 AEs and 27 medications; in Tanzania an additional 260 medical histories, 1 AE and 11 medications. Checklists and interviews facilitated recognition of health issues and treatments, and consideration of what to report. Information was sometimes not reported because participants forgot, it was considered irrelevant or insignificant, or they feared reporting. Some medicine names were not known and answers to questions were considered inferior to blood tests for detecting ill health. South African inpatient volunteers exhibited a “trial citizenship”, working to achieve researchers’ goals, while Tanzanian outpatients sometimes deferred responsibility for identifying items to report to trial clinicians. Conclusions Questioning methods and trial contexts influence the detection of adverse events, medical histories and concomitant medications. There should be further methodological work to investigate these influences and find appropriate questioning methods. PMID:24229315

2013-01-01

144

Using an integrated process of data and modeling in HRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an approach taken to estimate the probabilities of failure associated with various railroad tasks to prevent accidents (principally collisions and derailments). These probabilities were estimated using an expert elicitation process that used partially relevant data available from a variety of databases and that were filtered and scaled to make them more directly relevant to the analyses being

John Wreathall; Dennis Bley; Emilie Roth; Jordan Multer; Thomas Raslear

2004-01-01

145

Integrating machine learning with knowledge acquisition through direct interaction with domain experts  

E-print Network

Integrating machine learning with knowledge acquisition through direct interaction with domain, Australia Abstract Knowledge elicitation from experts and empirical machine learning are two distinct apprentices have provided environments in which a knowledge engineer may collaborate with a machine learning

Webb, Geoff

146

Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors.  

PubMed

Analysts and decision makers frequently want estimates of the cost of technologies that have yet to be developed or deployed. Small modular reactors (SMRs), which could become part of a portfolio of carbon-free energy sources, are one such technology. Existing estimates of likely SMR costs rely on problematic top-down approaches or bottom-up assessments that are proprietary. When done properly, expert elicitations can complement these approaches. We developed detailed technical descriptions of two SMR designs and then conduced elicitation interviews in which we obtained probabilistic judgments from 16 experts who are involved in, or have access to, engineering-economic assessments of SMR projects. Here, we report estimates of the overnight cost and construction duration for five reactor-deployment scenarios that involve a large reactor and two light water SMRs. Consistent with the uncertainty introduced by past cost overruns and construction delays, median estimates of the cost of new large plants vary by more than a factor of 2.5. Expert judgments about likely SMR costs display an even wider range. Median estimates for a 45 megawatts-electric (MWe) SMR range from $4,000 to $16,300/kWe and from $3,200 to $7,100/kWe for a 225-MWe SMR. Sources of disagreement are highlighted, exposing the thought processes of experts involved with SMR design. There was consensus that SMRs could be built and brought online about 2 y faster than large reactors. Experts identify more affordable unit cost, factory fabrication, and shorter construction schedules as factors that may make light water SMRs economically viable. PMID:23716682

Abdulla, Ahmed; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger

2013-06-11

147

Speech spectrogram expert  

SciTech Connect

Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

1983-01-01

148

The Development of Expert Face Processing: Are Infants Sensitive to Normal Differences in Second-Order Relational Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensitivity to second-order relational information (i.e., spatial relations among features such as the distance between eyes) is a vital part of achieving expertise with face processing. Prior research is unclear on whether infants are sensitive to second-order differences seen in typical human populations. In the current experiments, we examined…

Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Reed, Andrea; Corbly, Christine R.; Joseph, Jane E.

2007-01-01

149

Learning Classification Models from Multiple Experts  

PubMed Central

Building classification models from clinical data using machine learning methods often relies on labeling of patient examples by human experts. Standard machine learning framework assumes the labels are assigned by a homogeneous process. However, in reality the labels may come from multiple experts and it may be difficult to obtain a set of class labels everybody agrees on; it is not uncommon that different experts have different subjective opinions on how a specific patient example should be classified. In this work we propose and study a new multi-expert learning framework that assumes the class labels are provided by multiple experts and that these experts may differ in their class label assessments. The framework explicitly models different sources of disagreements and lets us naturally combine labels from different human experts to obtain: (1) a consensus classification model representing the model the group of experts converge to, as well as, and (2) individual expert models. We test the proposed framework by building a model for the problem of detection of the Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) where examples are labeled by three experts. We show that our framework is superior to multiple baselines (including standard machine learning framework in which expert differences are ignored) and that our framework leads to both improved consensus and individual expert models. PMID:24035760

Valizadegan, Hamed; Nguyen, Quang; Hauskrecht, Milos

2013-01-01

150

A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation  

SciTech Connect

A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

R. L. Boring

2007-06-01

151

Knowledge acquisition for a simple expert controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for process control which has the properties of being incremental, cyclic and top-down. It is described on the basis of the development of an expert controller for a simple, but nonlinear control route. A quality comparison between expert controller and process operator shows the ability of the method for knowledge acquisition.

Bieker, B.

1987-01-01

152

Simplifying Probability Elicitation and Uncertainty Modeling in Bayesian Networks  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we contribute two methods that simplify the demands of knowledge elicitation for particular types of Bayesian networks. The ?rst method simplify the task of providing probabilities when the states that a random variable takes can be described by a new, fully ordered state set in which a state implies all the preceding states. The second method leverages Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to provide a way for the expert to express the degree of ignorance that they feel about the estimates being provided.

Paulson, Patrick R.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Neorr, Peter A.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hossain, Shamina S.

2011-04-16

153

Liquid low level waste management expert system  

SciTech Connect

An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Jackson, J.R. (Southwest Baptist Univ., Bolivar, MO (USA))

1991-01-01

154

Bioprocess optimization of furanocoumarin elicitation by medium renewal and re-elicitation: a perfusion-based approach.  

PubMed

Effect of various abiotic (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid) and biotic (yeast extract, Aspergillus niger) elicitors on furanocoumarin production and in situ product removal was studied using shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens L. Elicitation by yeast extract (1% w/v) on day 15 was most effective. It led to 7.8-fold higher furanocoumarin production that was attained 24 h after elicitation and 43% of the product was released into the medium. Changes in the relative concentration of furanocoumarins produced depend on the elicitor used. Molar ratio of bergapten increased to 93% in response to yeast extract. With the perspective of developing a commercially feasible process, an approach for preserving viability of biomass and its reuse needs to be developed. For this, medium renewal strategy was investigated. Removal of the spent medium 48 h after elicitation allowed in situ product removal and proved effective in revival of cultures, allowing reuse of biomass. A week after medium renewal, the revived biomass was re-elicited and a second furanocoumarin production peak was obtained. A perfusion-based bioprocess optimization approach, employing elicitation coupled with medium renewal with subsequent re-elicitation, as a new strategy for improved furanocoumarin production, has been suggested. PMID:20862563

Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

2011-03-01

155

Artificial intelligence and expert systems in accounting databases: survey and extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to survey and extend the use of Artificial Intelligence and expert systems in accounting databases. The paper elicits a number of concerns often voiced about accounting databases. The use of Artificial Intelligence and expert system is investigated as a basis to mitigate those problems. The literature is surveyed and extended. Demons and objects are

DANIEL E. O'LEARY

1991-01-01

156

Back-propagation learning in expert networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert networks are event-driven, acyclic networks of neural objects derived from expert systems. The neural objects process information through a nonlinear combining function that is different from, and more complex than, typical neural network node processors. The authors develop back-propagation learning for acyclic, event-driven networks in general and derive a specific algorithm for learning in EMYCIN-derived expert networks. The algorithm

R. C. Lacher; S. I. Hruska; D. C. Kuncicky

1992-01-01

157

Expert Status and Performance  

PubMed Central

Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience [1], [2]. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback. PMID:21829574

Burgman, Mark A.; McBride, Marissa; Ashton, Raquel; Speirs-Bridge, Andrew; Flander, Louisa; Wintle, Bonnie; Fidler, Fiona; Rumpff, Libby; Twardy, Charles

2011-01-01

158

Remarks on the assessment, representation, aggregation and utilization of expert opinion  

SciTech Connect

This report considers the relevance of recent ideas in the foundations of probability to the rational use of expert opinion in the design of a nuclear waste repository, and the assessment of its performance. The main probability concepts introduce are those of modal (probably A), comparative (A is at least as probable as B) and interval-valued (the lower probability of A is P(A) and the upper probability of A is P(anti A)) probabilities. We then outline an approach first using comparative probability to model the resuls of binary elicitation of an expert's opinions concerning repository uncertainties and then employing interval-valued probability to represent comparative probability in a computationally convenient form. We further consider the issue of aggregating or amalgamating the responses of several experts, and we emphasize the need to preserve some measure of the disagreements among the experts. The resulting aggregated interval-valued representation of the responses concerning the uncertainties surrounding the performance of a nuclear waste repository design can then be used to numerically assess this performance in a manner parallel to that of utility theory. Utility theory is the basis for statistical decision theory. Our recommendations can only be tentative, and research is recommended to gain some working experience with the results of the proposed decision-making process in the repostory design context.

Fine, T.L.

1980-04-01

159

Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

1976-01-01

160

Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity  

PubMed Central

How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people?Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250) ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400) latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces. PMID:23785327

Puce, Aina; McNeely, Marie E.; Berrebi, Michael E.; Thompson, James C.; Hardee, Jillian; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie

2013-01-01

161

Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity.  

PubMed

How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people?Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250) ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400) latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces. PMID:23785327

Puce, Aina; McNeely, Marie E; Berrebi, Michael E; Thompson, James C; Hardee, Jillian; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie

2013-01-01

162

Expert systems for superalloy studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

1990-01-01

163

Expert reasoning in psychotherapy case formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapist reasoning in case formulation construction was investigated. Sixty-five psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioral therapists classified as experts, experienced, or novices generated “think aloud” formulations based on six standardized vignettes. Formulations were reliably transcribed, segmented into idea units, and content coded. ANOVA and sequential analysis compared formulation content and reasoning processes. Expert formulations contained more descriptive, diagnostic, inferential, and treatment planning information.

Tracy D. Eells; Kenneth G. Lombart; Nicholas Salsman; Edward M. Kendjelic; Carolyn T. Schneiderman; Cynthia P. Lucas

2011-01-01

164

An expert network for DNA sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expert neural network system the author has developed for use in DNA sequence analysis combines a traditional symbolic expert system with an artificial neural network. The resulting hybrid system can accurately model underlying domain knowledge to improve accuracy, generalization performance, and information-processing speed

LiMin Fu

1999-01-01

165

EASy: Expert authorizations system  

SciTech Connect

Equifax Check Services provides retail merchants and other businesses with quality decisions concerning the acceptability. risk. or fraudulence of customer checks. The greatest percentage of these decisions are provided automatically through on-line links with point-of-sale terminals. When a transaction is suspect, a referral notice is generated directing the merchant to call one of Equifax Check Services` authorization centers for additional processing. This processing considers a wide variety of information unavailable through online processing, thereby giving consumers the greatest possible benefit of doubt prior to declining checks. These high-risk authorizations had historically been handled using a legacy mainframe system involving a high degree of manual intervention. Authorizations agents would complete a lengthy, rigorous training regimen, and be monitored as to their performance. Pursuit of service excellence caused Equifax, in conjunction with Brightware Corporation, to develop the Expert Authorization System (EASy), a rule-based solution for check authorizations that uses an innovative twist on a standard blackboard architecture. EASy was deployed and is used today by as many as 300 concurrent users. By encapsulating extensive domain knowledge, EASy has effectively eliminated authorization errors, provided consistent and replicable decisions, reduced elapsed time to a decision, and reduced the average agent training time from 4-6 weeks to 3 days.

Altfeld, J. [Brightware, Inc., Roswell, GA (United States); Landon, D.F.; Daniels, C.J. [Equifax Check Services, Tampa, FL (United States)

1996-12-31

166

Graphic elicitation: using research diagrams as interview stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrams are effective instruments of thought and a valuable tool in conveying those thoughts to others. As such, they can be usefully employed as representations of a research domain and act as stimulus materials in interviews. This process of graphic elicitation may encourage contributions from interviewees that are difficult to obtain by other means. By representing concepts and relationships that

NATHAN CRILLY; ALAN F BLACKWELL; P JOHN CLARKSON

2006-01-01

167

Photo-Elicitation: Reflexivity on Method, Analysis, and Graphic Portraits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this methodological discussion, the authors detail and reflect on the processes of using photo-elicitation interviewing as a way to align with positive qualitative methodologies, to gain access to participant beliefs and values, and to highlight participant voices through their choices of words and visuals. A review of the literature and an…

Richard, Veronica M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.

2015-01-01

168

AN EXPERT NETWORK ANALYZER  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTt,Section 5 concludes this work and discusses future developments. In this work, we shall present the framework of an expert,system,that,will,be,capable,of,diagnosing,and predicting faults in a cable television plant.,2. STRUCTURE OF THE NETWORK The structure of the diagnostic expert system under.,A Cable Television. ~etwork in~orporates a numb~r of

Nikitas J. Dimopoulos; Kin F. Li; Andrew Watkins

169

Ethical Expert Systems  

PubMed Central

The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

Victoroff, Michael S.

1985-01-01

170

Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

Stockall, Nancy

2013-01-01

171

Resource Activation Patterns In Expert Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the analysis of video recordings of physics experts solving novel problems involving solar cells, which involved such advanced physics topics as complex circuits and semiconductors. By performing a fine grained analysis using a resource based model of cognition, we determined what resources experts use while reasoning in the current context and how they used them. By analyzing critical events in the problem solving process, we searched for meaningful patterns of resource activation to help gain insight into expert problem solving processes.

Jones, Darrick C.; Malysheva, Marina; Richards, Aj; Planinå¡ic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

2014-01-31

172

Eliciting consumer preferences for health plans.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine (1) what people say is important to them in choosing a health plan; (2) the effect, if any, that giving health plan information has on what people say is important to them; and (3) the effect of preference elicitation methods on what people say is important. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTINGS: A random sample of 201 Wisconsin state employees who participated in a health plan choice experiment during the 1995 open enrollment period. STUDY DESIGN: We designed a computer system to guide subjects through the review of information about health plan options. The system began by eliciting the stated preferences of the subjects before they viewed the information, at time 0. Subjects were given an opportunity to revise their preference structures first after viewing summary information about four health plans (time 1) and then after viewing more extensive, detailed information about the same options (time 2). At time 2, these individuals were also asked to rate the relative importance of a predefined list of health plan features presented to them. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Data were collected on the number of attributes listed at each point in time and the importance weightings assigned to each attribute. In addition, each item on the attribute list was content analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The provision of information changes the preference structures of individuals. Costs (price) and coverage dominated the attributes cited both before and after looking at health plan information. When presented with information on costs, quality, and how plans work, many of these relatively well educated consumers revised their preference structures; yet coverage and costs remained the primary cited attributes. CONCLUSIONS: Although efforts to provide health plan information should continue, decisions on the information to provide and on making it available are not enough. Individuals need help in understanding, processing, and using the information to construct their preferences and make better decisions. PMID:10536973

Booske, B C; Sainfort, F; Hundt, A S

1999-01-01

173

Become A Rock Expert!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocks are the most common material on earth. But how do we identify and classify rocks? Your mission is to become an amateur geologist by exploring the different types of rocks; sorting them by color, hardness, texture, layering, and particle size; and discussing with your classmates what you learned! Rockin Rocks, Ms. Andersen's site about the Big6. Rock Expert Webquest INTRODUCTION The Museum of Natural History is creating a new exhibit on rocks and minerals. They are looking for expert knowledge to share with museum visitors. They need your help, Rock Expert! MISSION You will work as an Amateur Geologist for the Museum of Natural ...

Ms. Andersen

2010-11-13

174

Benchmarking expert system tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

Riley, Gary

1988-01-01

175

Elicitation Behavior during Mediated Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elicitations study during 40 mediated information retrieval (IR) interactions identified 1557 search intermediary elicitations within 15 purpose categories (requests for information on search terms and strategies, database selection, search procedures, system's outputs and relevance of retrieved items, and users' knowledge and previous…

Spink, Amanda; Goodrum, Abby; Robins, David

1998-01-01

176

Back-propagation learning in expert networks.  

PubMed

Expert networks are event-driven, acyclic networks of neural objects derived from expert systems. The neural objects process information through a nonlinear combining function that is different from, and more complex than, typical neural network node processors. The authors develop back-propagation learning for acyclic, event-driven networks in general and derive a specific algorithm for learning in EMYCIN-derived expert networks. The algorithm combines back-propagation learning with other features of expert networks, including calculation of gradients of the nonlinear combining functions and the hypercube nature of the knowledge space. It offers automation of the knowledge acquisition task for certainty factors, often the most difficult part of knowledge extraction. Results of testing the learning algorithm with a medium-scale (97-node) expert network are presented. PMID:18276406

Lacher, R C; Hruska, S I; Kuncicky, D C

1992-01-01

177

Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research. PMID:17621416

André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

2008-02-01

178

Inductive Acquisition of Expert Knowledge   

E-print Network

Expert systems divide neatly into two categories: those in which ( 1) the expert decisions result in changes to some external environment (control systems), and (2) the expert decisions merely seek to describe the ...

Muggleton, Stephen H.

1986-01-01

179

Sherlock Holmes an expert's view of expertise Didierjean Andre1  

E-print Network

Sherlock Holmes ­ an expert's view of expertise Didierjean Andre´1 * and Gobet Fernand2 1 made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current

Jeanjean, Louis

180

Nickel hydrogen battery expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

Shiva, Sajjan G.

1991-01-01

181

Adaptive capture of expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hand, Un Kyong [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[US Navy (United States)

1995-05-01

182

A practical gated expert network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in training multilayer networks for strongly nonlinear problems has led some researchers to propose the gated expert networks. The idea is based on having several local “expert networks”, where each learns a particular region of the input space. A “gating network” combines the outputs of the expert networks to produce the final output. We propose a practical gated expert

A. Atiya; R. Aiyad; S. Shaheen

1998-01-01

183

Music can elicit a visual motion aftereffect.  

PubMed

Motion aftereffects (MAEs) are thought to result from the adaptation of both subcortical and cortical systems involved in the processing of visual motion. Recently, it has been reported that the implied motion of static images in combination with linguistic descriptions of motion is sufficient to elicit an MAE, although neither factor alone is thought to directly activate visual motion areas in the brain. Given that the monotonic change of musical pitch is widely recognized in music as a metaphor for vertical motion, we investigated whether prolonged exposure to ascending or descending musical scales can also produce a visual motion aftereffect. After listening to ascending or descending musical scales, participants made decisions about the direction of visual motion in random-dot kinematogram stimuli. Metaphoric motion in the musical stimuli did affect the visual direction judgments, in that repeated exposure to rising or falling musical scales shifted participants' sensitivity to visual motion in the opposite direction. The finding that music can induce an MAE suggests that the subjective interpretation of monotonic pitch change as motion may have a perceptual foundation. PMID:23456973

Hedger, Stephen C; Nusbaum, Howard C; Lescop, Olivier; Wallisch, Pascal; Hoeckner, Berthold

2013-07-01

184

Expert Cold Structure Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub- orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011.

Atkins, T.; Demuysère, P.

2011-08-01

185

The Expert System for Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All students struggling with the subject of thermodynamics should visit this site created by Professor Subrata Bhattacharjee at San Diego State University. After reading an overview of The Expert System for Thermodynamics' (TEST) merits, users can take the Feature Tour to discover all the concepts covered at the site such as Exergy Analyses, Open Processes, and Combustions in Closed Chambers. Students and educators can then view the Slide Show to receive a preface to the problem solving atmosphere. Lastly, visitors can work through the many challenging problems that utilize Daemons.

Bhattacharjee, Subrata

186

Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model  

SciTech Connect

The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects.

Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

1999-04-01

187

Developing an Expert System for Nursing Practice  

PubMed Central

The American Nurses' Association has set eight Standards of Nursing Practice related to the nursing process. Computer-aided information systems intended to facilitate the nursing process must be designed to promote adherence to these professional standards. For each of the eight standards, the paper tells how a hypothetical expert system could help nurses to meet the standard. A prototype of such an expert system is being developed. The paper describes issues in conceptualizing clinical decision-making and developing decision strategies for the prototype system. The process of developing the prototype system is described.

Ozbolt, Judy G.; Schultz, Samuel; Swain, Mary Ann P.; Abraham, Ivo L.; Farchaus-Stein, Karen

1984-01-01

188

Toward disaster-resilient cities: characterizing resilience of infrastructure systems with expert judgments.  

PubMed

Resilient infrastructure systems are essential for cities to withstand and rapidly recover from natural and human-induced disasters, yet electric power, transportation, and other infrastructures are highly vulnerable and interdependent. New approaches for characterizing the resilience of sets of infrastructure systems are urgently needed, at community and regional scales. This article develops a practical approach for analysts to characterize a community's infrastructure vulnerability and resilience in disasters. It addresses key challenges of incomplete incentives, partial information, and few opportunities for learning. The approach is demonstrated for Metro Vancouver, Canada, in the context of earthquake and flood risk. The methodological approach is practical and focuses on potential disruptions to infrastructure services. In spirit, it resembles probability elicitation with multiple experts; however, it elicits disruption and recovery over time, rather than uncertainties regarding system function at a given point in time. It develops information on regional infrastructure risk and engages infrastructure organizations in the process. Information sharing, iteration, and learning among the participants provide the basis for more informed estimates of infrastructure system robustness and recovery that incorporate the potential for interdependent failures after an extreme event. Results demonstrate the vital importance of cross-sectoral communication to develop shared understanding of regional infrastructure disruption in disasters. For Vancouver, specific results indicate that in a hypothetical M7.3 earthquake, virtually all infrastructures would suffer severe disruption of service in the immediate aftermath, with many experiencing moderate disruption two weeks afterward. Electric power, land transportation, and telecommunications are identified as core infrastructure sectors. PMID:24152135

Chang, Stephanie E; McDaniels, Timothy; Fox, Jana; Dhariwal, Rajan; Longstaff, Holly

2014-03-01

189

An Exploratory Study of Expert Group Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a grounded theory exploration that described expert group leaders' experiences and perceptions during the process of leading groups in terms of influence of experience, preexisting knowledge and attitudes, and in-the-moment leadership process. The discussion presents implications for practice, counselor…

Rubel, Deborah J.; Kline, William B.

2008-01-01

190

Bioethics for Technical Experts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

Asano, Shigetaka

191

Parameterizing bayesian network representations of social-behavioral models by expert elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian networks provide a general framework with which to model many natural phenomena. The mathematical nature of Bayesian networks enables a plethora of model validation and calibration techniques: e.g. parameter learning, structure learning, goodness of fit tests, and diagnostic checking of the model assumptions. However, they are not free of shortcomings. With regard to parameter learning, in practice it is

Stephen J. Walsh; Angela C. Dalton; Paul D. Whitney; Amanda M. White

2010-01-01

192

Eliciting Information from Experts on the Likelihood of Rapid Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of so-called rapid or abrupt climate change has generated considerable public interest because of its potentially significant impacts. The collapse of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation or the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, for example, would have potentially catastrophic effects on temperatures and sea level, respectively. But how likely are such extreme climatic changes? Is it possible actually to

Nigel W. Arnell; Emma L. Tompkins; W. Neil Adger

2005-01-01

193

A framework for nuclear facility safeguard evaluation using probabilistic methods and expert elicitation  

E-print Network

With the advancement of the next generation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, concerns of the effectiveness of nuclear facility safeguards have been increasing due to the inclusion of highly enriched material and reprocessing ...

Iamsumang, Chonlagarn

2010-01-01

194

ALICE Expert System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in different system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by regular shifters during the next data taking period.

Ionita, C.; Carena, F.

2014-06-01

195

Information/Knowledge Acquisition Methods for Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares information requirement-elicitation (IRE) methods for decision support systems (DSS) with knowledge acquisition (KA) methods for expert systems (ES) development. The definition and architectures of ES and DSS are compared and the systems' development cycles and IRE/KA methods are discussed. Differences are noted between ES and DSS…

Yang, Heng-Li

1995-01-01

196

Expert systems in industrial engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert system can be denned as ‘a tool which has the capability to understand problem specific knowledge and use the domain knowledge intelligently to suggest alternate paths of action’. This paper presents a structured framework for the development of an expert system. The five major aspects of expert system development are: Problem definition; knowledge acquisition, representation and coordination; inference

S. R. T. KUMARA; SANJAY JOSHI; R. L. KASHYAP; C. L. MOODIE; T. C. CHANG

1986-01-01

197

Empirical analysis for expert systems  

SciTech Connect

This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant for rheumatology.

Politakis, P.

1985-01-01

198

Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

Doyle, E. Kevin

199

Expert system training and control based on the fuzzy relation matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuzzy knowledge, that for which the terms of reference are not crisp but overlapped, seems to characterize human expertise. This can be shown from the fact that an experienced human operator can control some complex plants better than a computer can. Proposed here is fuzzy theory to build a fuzzy expert relation matrix (FERM) from given rules or/and examples, either in linguistic terms or in numerical values to mimic human processes of perception and decision making. The knowledge base is codified in terms of many implicit fuzzy rules. Fuzzy knowledge thus codified may also be compared with explicit rules specified by a human expert. It can also provide a basis for modeling the human operator and allow comparison of what a human operator says to what he does in practice. Two experiments were performed. In the first, control of liquid in a tank, demonstrates how the FERM knowledge base is elicited and trained. The other shows how to use a FERM, build up from linguistic rules, and to control an inverted pendulum without a dynamic model.

Ren, Jie; Sheridan, T. B.

1991-01-01

200

Distinguishing Between Social Reinforcement and Social Elicitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the distinction between species-typical (elicitation) and operant reinforcement interpretations of infant/adult social interaction; considers procedural and analytic components of Poulson's 1983 paper (v36 p471-89); and clarifies differences in Poulson's interpretation and the author's interpretation of the vocal conditioning studies of…

Bloom, Kathleen

1984-01-01

201

Assessing Coral Reef Condition: Eliciting Community Meanings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photographs depicting a gradient of coral reef condition associated with anchor damage were assessed and described by 76 research participants. The participants were divided into two groups: those with and those without occupational experience of coral reefs. Three important meanings ascribed to coral reefs were elicited. The most important meaning was “evaluation,” whether the scenes were perceived positively or negatively.

Elizabeth A. Dinsdale; D. Mark Fenton

2006-01-01

202

Eliciting Perceptual Ground Truth for Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate human visual perception and establish a body of ground truth data elicited from human visual studies. We aim to build on the formative work of Ren, Eakins and Briggs who pro- duced an initial ground truth database. Human participants were asked to draw and rank their perceptions of the parts of a series of figurative

Victoria J. Hodge; Garry Hollier; John P. Eakins; Jim Austin

2006-01-01

203

MushroomExpert.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by amateur mycologist Dr. Michael Kuo with contributions from amateur and professional mycologists, MushroomExpert.Com is an excellent resource for a wide variety of mushroom enthusiasts. The site provides a genus and species index and search engine for detailed information on, and quality up-close photos of, over 330 North American Mushrooms. Individual species pages include brief sections on Habitat, Cap, Stem, and Microscopic Features-to name a few. The site also provides information for beginners, as well as sections on Studying Mushrooms, Edibility, a Morel Data Collection Project, and more.

Kuo, Michael

204

Calculating the Information Content of an Information Process for a Domain Expert Using Shannon's Mathematical Theory of Communication: A Preliminary Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of information as a process focuses on a conceptual exercise for calculating the information content of an information process. Topics include Bertram Brookes' fundamental equation; Claude Shannon's mathematical theory of communication; set of a priori alternatives; knowledge structures; and an example of an archaeologist's information…

Cole, Charles

1997-01-01

205

Differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis an expert system  

SciTech Connect

Nasal congestion is a common problem for many people. It is a symptom of chronic sinusitis and also a characteristic of allergic rhinitis. Individuals frequently confuse sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. The expert system described below will diagnose the problem to be either rhinitis or sinusitis. In this paper we describe the expert system, the need for such an expert system and the process of developing the system.

Creider, R.D.; Sundar Singh, P.S. [Texas A& M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

206

Low Level Image Segmentation: An Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major problem in robotic vision is the segmentation of images of natural scenes in order to understand their content. This paper presents a new solution to the image segmentation problem that is based on the design of a rule-based expert system. General knowledge about low level properties of processes employ the rules to segment the image into uniform regions

AHMED M. NAZIFAND; Martin D. Levine

1984-01-01

207

APPLICATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  

EPA Science Inventory

Expert systems are a promising computer-based approach to helping environmental engineers solve difficult problems. A number of such systems have been developed to date in the areas of hazard assessment, modeling support, process failure diagnosis, and regulatory support. The US ...

208

Three CLIPS-based expert systems for solving engineering problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have written three expert systems, using the CLIPS PC-based expert system shell. These three expert systems are rule based and are relatively small, with the largest containing slightly less than 200 rules. The first expert system is an expert assistant that was written to help users of the ASPEN computer code choose the proper thermodynamic package to use with their particular vapor-liquid equilibrium problem. The second expert system was designed to help petroleum engineers choose the proper enhanced oil recovery method to be used with a given reservoir. The effectiveness of each technique is highly dependent upon the reservoir conditions. The third expert system is a combination consultant and control system. This system was designed specifically for silicon carbide whisker growth. Silicon carbide whiskers are an extremely strong product used to make ceramic and metal composites. The manufacture of whiskers is a very complicated process. which to date. has defied a good mathematical model. The process was run by experts who had gained their expertise by trial and error. A system of rules was devised by these experts both for procedure setup and for the process control. In this paper we discuss the three problem areas of the design, development and evaluation of the CLIPS-based programs.

Parkinson, W. J.; Luger, G. F.; Bretz, R. E.

1990-01-01

209

Expert system for scheduling simulation lab sessions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implementation and results of an expert system used for scheduling session requests for the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are discussed. Weekly session requests are received from astronaut crew trainers, procedures developers, engineering assessment personnel, software developers, and various others who wish to access the computers, scene generators, and other simulation equipment available to them in the SES lab. The expert system under discussion is comprised of a data acquisition portion - two Pascal programs run on a personal computer - and a CLIPS program installed on a minicomputer. A brief introduction to the SES lab and its scheduling background is given. A general overview of the system is provided, followed by a detailed description of the constraint-reduction process and of the scheduler itself. Results from a ten-week trial period using this approach are discussed. Finally, a summary of the expert system's strengths and shortcomings are provided.

Lund, Chet

1990-01-01

210

The SIGNAL expert system  

SciTech Connect

The SIGNAL insurance companies have developed an expert system for the support of its customer sales service. It was introduced at the end of 1993 and is currently used by approximately 500 customer service representatives. It involves a counseling system, which enables customer sales personnel to produce high-quality benefit analyses at the point of sale. It is not only an information system for the agent but involves the customer in an active role (through the implementation of sales talks, the conscious visualization of facts, the generation of natural language explanations etc.). Thus, the customer is not faced with a fait accompli but is actively involved in solving the problem. To meet these requirements, several Al techniques are used, as described further below. The application has increased sales efficiency, optimized customer contact time and decreased training requirements. The system is developed with KEE (and reimplemented in Allegro CL/PC) and runs on notebooks with 8 MB RAM.

Struve, R. [SIGNAL Versicherungen, Dortmund (Germany)

1996-12-31

211

Expert System Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a software shell for developing expert systems is designed to allow research and development of artificial intelligence on conventional computers. Originally developed by Johnson Space Center, it enables highly efficient pattern matching. A collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is built into a rule network. Additional pertinent facts are matched to the rule network. Using the program, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. is monitoring chemical production machines; California Polytechnic State University is investigating artificial intelligence in computer aided design; Mentor Graphics has built a new Circuit Synthesis system, and Brooke and Brooke, a law firm, can determine which facts from a file are most important.

1989-01-01

212

Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling.

Reece, Wendy Jane

1998-10-01

213

Personalised, predictive and preventive medication process in hospitals—still rather missing: professional opinion survey on medication safety in Czech hospitals (based on professional opinions of recognised Czech health care experts)  

PubMed Central

The survey had the following aims: (1) to rationalise the hypothesis that risks and losses relating to medication process' errors in Czech hospitals are at least comparable with the other developed countries and EU countries especially, (2) to get a valid professional opinion/estimate on the rate of adverse drug events happening in Czech hospitals, (3) to point out that medication errors represent real and serious risks and (4) to induce the hospital management readiness to execute fundamental changes and improvements to medication processes. We read through a lot of studies inquiring into hospitals' medication safety. Then, we selected the studies which brought reliable findings and formulated credible conclusions. Finally, we addressed reputable Czech experts in health care and asked them structured questions whether the studies' findings and conclusions corresponded with our respondents' own experience in the Czech hospital clinical practice and what their own estimates of adverse drug events' consequences were like. Based on the reputable Czech health care expert opinions/estimates, the rate of a false drug administration may exceed 5%, and over 7% of those cause serious health complications to Czech hospital inpatients. Measured by an average length of stay (ALOS), the Czech inpatients, harmed by a false drug administration, stay in hospital for more than 2.6?days longer than necessary. Any positive changes to a currently used, traditional, ways of drug dispensing and administration, along with computerisation, automation, electronic traceability, validation, or verification, must well pay off. Referring to the above results, it seems to be wise to follow the EU priorities in health and health care improvements. Thus, a right usage of the financial means provided by the EC—in terms of its new health programmes for the period 2014–2020 (e.g. Horizon 2020)—has a good chance of a good result in doing the right things right, at the right time and in the right way. All citizens of the EU may benefit using the best practice. PMID:24834138

2014-01-01

214

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

1988-01-01

215

Inventing and Testing Models: Using Model-Eliciting Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By Joan Garfield, Robert delMas and Andrew Zieffler, University of Minnesota What are Model-Eliciting Activities? Model-Eliciting Activities (MEAs) are activities that encourage students to invent and test models. ...

Zieffler, Andrew

216

A Problem Space Approach to Expert System Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

One view of expert system development separates the endeavor into two parts. First, a domain expert, with the aid of a knowledge engineer, articulates a procedure for performing the desired task in some external form. Next, the knowledge engineer operationalizes the external description within some computer language. This paper examines the nature of the processes that operationalize natural task descriptions.

Gregg Yost; Allen Newell

1989-01-01

217

MethoDex: A Methodology for Expert Systems Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework that can help users, experts and data processing personnel to be effectively involved in the development of Expert Systems is proposed and discussed. The approach taken is to evaluate the two most basic approaches used in industry today, namely, the usage of a standard methodology (SDLC) which is also used for the development of general business systems, and

J. P. Klut; Jan H. P. Eloff

1993-01-01

218

Growing multi-experts network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a particular class of modular network called Growing Multi-Experts network is presented. The core idea of Multi-Experts network shares a conceptual link with divide-and conquer methodology. In this regard, the task of approximating a complicated non- linear function can be split up among local experts. In other words, the problem space is decomposed into overlapping regions and

Chu Kiong Loo; Mandava Rajeswari

2000-01-01

219

Unmasking of latent synaptic connections in the cortex of the rat, elicited by facial nerve transection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nerve injury elicits plastic changes in the cortex, resulting in reorganization of the somatotopic representation maps. These processes begin within minutes after nerve injury, and last for weeks. Although the mechanisms leading to these plastic changes are not known in a detail, a number of results suggest that the key element in the starting of these processes is a

Tamás Farkas; József Toldi

2001-01-01

220

Epistemological Beliefs across Faculty Experts and Student Non-Experts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The epistemological beliefs of non-experts or novices have been studied with some frequency, while the beliefs of experts as a comparison group have received little attention in research literature. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the conceptual framework of epistemological beliefs may be considered statistically similar or…

Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Lan, William

2009-01-01

221

Ask the Experts -- January 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered why lead is considered to be a cancerous metal? One of our "Ask the Experts" readers was also curious about this subject and posed this question to our Experts: "They say lead is a very cancerous metal. How come? Other metals are not."

2006-01-01

222

Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)

Nuclear Industry, 1991

1991-01-01

223

Local Experts in Social Media  

E-print Network

(e.g., in the aftermath of a disaster), and for accessing local communities. I developed a local expert finding system – called OLE (online local experts) – that leverages the crowd sourced location-topic labels provided by users of the popular...

Bachani, Vandana

2013-12-04

224

Ask the Experts - February 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Ask the Experts column, the Experts address the following two questions: Does the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle serve as the basis for Chaos theory? and Why doesn't the United States use the metric system, also known as the System International, as other countries do? It was supposed to be in use by the 1980s. What happened?

2007-02-01

225

Expertise in Teaching: Expert Pedagogues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The purpose of this article is to report a review of the developing empirical literature to explain "expert" teacher behavior, by analogy, from the cognitive psychology expertise literature. Emphasized is a review of the expert-novice cognitive psychology literature, encompassing the research on: chess, and other games; physics, medicine, and…

Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

226

Expert system prototype developments for NASA-KSC business and engineering applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prototype expert systems developed for a variety of NASA projects in the business/management and engineering domains are discussed. Business-related problems addressed include an assistant for simulating launch vehicle processing, a plan advisor for the acquisition of automated data processing equipment, and an expert system for the identification of customer requirements. Engineering problems treated include an expert system for detecting potential ignition sources in LOX and gaseous-oxygen transportation systems and an expert system for hazardous-gas detection.

Ragusa, James M.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

1988-01-01

227

Threat expert system technology advisor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

1987-01-01

228

Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

2011-10-01

229

Alarm calls elicit predator-specific physiological responses.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids regulate glucose concentrations and responses to unpredictable events, while also modulating cognition. Juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) learn to respond to whistle and trill alarm calls, warning of aerial and terrestrial predators, respectively, shortly after emerging from natal burrows at one month of age. Alarm calls can cause physiological reactions and arousal, and this arousal, coupled with watching adult responses, might help juveniles learn associations between calls and behavioural responses. I studied whether young show differential cortisol responses to alarm and non-alarm calls, using playbacks of U. beldingi whistles, trills, squeals (a conspecific control vocalization) and silent controls. Trills elicited very high cortisol responses, and, using an individual's response to the silent control as baseline, only their response to a trill was significantly higher than baseline. This cortisol increase would provide glucose for extended vigilance and escape efforts, which is appropriate for evading terrestrial predators which hunt for long periods. Although whistles do not elicit a cortisol response, previous research has shown that they do result in bradycardia, which enhances attention and information processing. This is a novel demonstration of two physiological responses to two alarm calls, each appropriate to the threats represented by the calls. PMID:20236965

Mateo, Jill M

2010-10-23

230

Experts reveal catalyst-selection methodologies  

SciTech Connect

Refining catalyst selection procedure were discussed in detail at Oil and Gas Journal`s International Catalyst Conference, Feb. 1--2, in Houston. Marathon Oil Co.`s James P. Wick revealed details of Marathon`s program for review and optimization of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and hydrotreating catalysts. And renowned FCC expert Del Tolen outlined a step-by-step procedure for choosing an FCC catalyst. The paper describes Marathon`s program and Tolen`s selection process.

NONE

1996-10-14

231

Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.  

PubMed

We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

1992-06-01

232

CASWW Central Asia Experts Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Harvard Forum for Central Asian Studies, this site will prove useful to graduate students and scholars of Central Asia. The site was created to facilitate access for policy-makers, the press, and others to scholars with the appropriate expertise in Central Asian Studies. The Directory features those who have indicated their willingness to be contacted for expert consultations, and their listing will include a brief description of their qualifications. It organizes experts by name, topic, location, and under several headings: Politics and International Relations, Economy, Social Issues, and Cultural and Historical Background. The site is still soliciting experts for inclusion, and a link to the questionnaire is provided.

233

Filtering information from human experts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors propose a model, or filter, for debiasing opinions from multiple experts and combining them into a single consistent estimate of some variable of interest. A distinguishing feature of the approach consists of making the calibration of experts an integral part of filtering. This enables the filter to learn from previous experience with the experts. The theoretical development takes a Bayesian perspective, using de Finetti's (1964) notion of exchangeability. Experimental results with a preliminary computer implementation of the filter show that its estimates are better than those from comparable filters that do not involve calibration.

Mendel, Max B.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

1989-01-01

234

Expert Witness: A system for developing expert medical testimony  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert Witness in an expert system designed to assist attorneys and medical experts in determining the merit of medical malpractice claims in the area of obstetrics. It substitutes the time of the medical expert with the time of a paralegal assistant guided by the expert system during the initial investigation of the medical records and patient interviews. The product of the system is a narrative transcript containing important data, immediate conclusions from the data, and overall conclusions of the case that the attorney and medical expert use to make decisions about whether and how to proceed with the case. The transcript may also contain directives for gathering additional information needed for the case. The system is a modified heuristic classifier and is implemented using over 600 CLIPS rules together with a C-based user interface. The data abstraction and solution refinement are implemented directly using forward chaining production and matching. The use of CLIPS and C is essential to delivering a system that runs on a generic PC platform. The direct implementation in CLIPS together with locality of inference ensures that the system will scale gracefully. Two years of use has revealed no errors in the reasoning.

Lewandowski, Raymond; Perkins, David; Leasure, David

1994-01-01

235

The Expert System Designed to Improve Customer Satisfaction  

E-print Network

Customer Relationship Management becomes a leading business strategy in highly competitive business environment. It aims to enhance the performance of the businesses by improving the customer satisfaction and loyalty. The objective of this paper is to improve customer satisfaction on product's colors and design with the help of the expert system developed by using Artificial Neural Networks. The expert system's role is to capture the knowledge of the experts and the data from the customer requirements, and then, process the collected data and form the appropriate rules for choosing product's colors and design. In order to identify the hidden pattern of the customer's needs, the Artificial Neural Networks technique has been applied to classify the colors and design based upon a list of selected information. Moreover, the expert system has the capability to make decisions in ranking the scores of the colors and design presented in the selection. In addition, the expert system has been validated with a different...

Devi, P Isakki alias

2011-01-01

236

Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.  

PubMed

Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. El Uso de Juicio Experto Estructurado para Predecir Invasiones de Carpas Asiáticas en el Lago Erie. PMID:25132396

Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

2015-02-01

237

Eliciting symptoms interpreted as normal by patients with early-stage lung cancer: could GP elicitation of normalised symptoms reduce delay in diagnosis? Cross-sectional interview study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate why symptoms indicative of early-stage lung cancer (LC) were not presented to general practitioners (GPs) and how early symptoms might be better elicited within primary care. Design, setting and participants A qualitative cross-sectional interview study about symptoms and help-seeking in 20 patients from three south England counties, awaiting resection of LC (suspected or histologically confirmed). Analysis drew on principles of discourse analysis and constant comparison to identify processes involved in interpretation and communication about symptoms, and explain non-presentation. Results Most participants experienced health changes possibly indicative of LC which had not been presented during GP consultations. Symptoms that were episodic, or potentially caused by ageing or lifestyle, were frequently not presented to GPs. In interviews, open questions about health changes/symptoms in general did not elicit these symptoms; they only emerged in response to closed questions detailing specific changes in health. Questions using disease-related labels, for example, pain or breathlessness, were less likely to elicit symptoms than questions that used non-disease terminology, such as aches, discomfort or ‘getting out of breath’. Most participants described themselves as feeling well and were reluctant to associate potentially explained, non-specific or episodic symptoms with LC, even after diagnosis. Conclusions Patients with early LC are unlikely to present symptoms possibly indicative of LC that they associate with normal processes, when attending primary care before diagnosis. Faced with patients at high LC risk, GPs will need to actively elicit potential LC symptoms not presented by the patient. Closed questions using non-disease terminology might better elicit normalised symptoms. PMID:23166137

Brindle, Lucy; Pope, Catherine; Corner, Jessica; Leydon, Geraldine; Banerjee, Anindo

2012-01-01

238

Partial belief and expert testimony  

E-print Network

My dissertation investigates two questions from within a partial belief framework: First, when and how should deference to experts or other information sources be qualified? Second, how closely is epistemology related to ...

Briggs, Rachael (Rachael Amy)

2009-01-01

239

The linguistic construction of expert identity in professor-student discussions of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how participation in a verbal exchange during an inquiry-based classroom activity allows three college students and their science instructor to use linguistic signs (choices of words, grammatical structures, discursive structures, prosody and poetic discourse) to construct authority and expertise. Our work explores linguistic and interactional processes of identification (the dynamic construction and transaction of expert identity) and examines how discursive strategies adopted by the professor at different moments of the verbal exchange influence the students' subsequent discursive practices and perceptions of authority. We adopt a dialogic, socio-constructivist perspective on identity, viewing personal identities as being partially constructed via interactional positioning. Our findings reveal that the attainment of expertise involves two different types of language-mediated processes: the transmission of a professional vision or intension and the emergence of a perception of agency among students. The former is centered on referential-denotative meanings of speech (elicitation of standard account and operational definition) while the latter requires effective use of pragmatic-performative functions of speech (non-evaluative and more than minimal recipient practices). Consideration is given to the need for science instructors to be able to utilize pragmatic functions of language strategically to encourage students to position themselves within the identity of science expertise.

Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Sadler, Troy D.; Suslak, Daniel F.

2007-01-01

240

Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

2011-01-01

241

Eliciting Motivation Knowledge from Log Files towards Motivation Diagnosis for Adaptive Systems  

E-print Network

, the influence of motivation on cognitive processes explains why some users achieve high performance while othersEliciting Motivation Knowledge from Log Files towards Motivation Diagnosis for Adaptive Systems, Dublin 1, Ireland {mcocea, sweibelzahl}@ncirl.ie Abstract. Motivation is well-known for its importance

Cocea, Mihaela

242

Category effects: is top-down control alone sufficient to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN) component?  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP) could be evoked by purely top-down, attentional control. An infrequently occurring tone was designated as a target prior to presenting a randomized sequence of five equi-probably occurring tones. MMN elicitation to the tones categorized as "high", "medium", or "low" frequency, and designated as the target, would indicate that the change detection process can be driven solely by top-down control. However, MMNs were not elicited by the categorized tones. Only the N2b and P3b attention-driven target detection components were elicited. These results suggest that top-down factors alone cannot generate mismatch negativity. Standard formation by stimulus-driven factors is required. PMID:23131615

Sadia, G; Ritter, W; Sussman, E

2013-02-01

243

Ask the Experts -- September 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's "Ask the Experts" column, the Experts respond to the following thought-provoking questions: "If water boils at 100�C, how can a glass full of water evaporate at room temperature, about 20-25�C? "Why do glaciers look blue?" and "How many substances, besides water, are less dense in their solid state than in their liquid state?"

2006-09-01

244

Rhetorical Consequences of the Computer Society: Expert Systems and Human Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expert systems are computer programs that solve selected problems by modelling domain-specific behaviors of human experts. These computer programs typically consist of an input/output system that feeds data into the computer and retrieves advice, an inference system using the reasoning and heuristic processes of human experts, and a knowledge…

Skopec, Eric Wm.

245

STOCK FORECASTING BY ARCH DRIVEN GAUSSIAN TFA AND ALTERNATIVE MIXTURE-OF-EXPERTS MODELS  

E-print Network

any ARCH(p) process. Moreover, we use the linear alternative mixture-of- experts model rather than endowed with nonlin- ear modelling, the linear gaussian alternative mixture-of- experts model which be integrated with the linear gaussian alternative mixture-of- experts model for stock price and index

Xu, Lei

246

Reinforcing concomitants of electrically elicited vocalizations.  

PubMed

In 38 squirrel monkeys 251 vocalization-producing electrode positions were tested for their positive and negative reinforcing properties. Two groups of vocalization-producing brain areas could be distinguished: One group in which the electrically elicited vocalization was independent of the accompanying reinforcement effect, and a second group in which vocalization and reinforcement effect were correlated. The first group included the anterior cingulate gyrus, the adjacent supplementary motor area, gyrus rectus, ventromedial edge of the capsula interna, caudal periaqueductal gray and adjacent parabrachial region. The second group consited of the caudatum, septum, substantia innominata, amygdala, inferior thalamic peduncle, stria terminalis, midline thalamus, ventral and periventricular hypothalamus, substantia nigra, rostral periaqueductal gray, dorsolateral midbrain tegmentum and lateral medulla. It is hypothesized that the first group contains predominantly or exclusively "primary" vocalization substrates; the second group is thought to be composed mainly of structures whose stimulation yields vocalization secondarily due to stimulus induced motivational changes. PMID:824152

Jürgens, U

1976-09-24

247

Integrating model-based and heuristic features in a real-time expert system for power distribution networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent alarm processing expert system which is integrated in a large supervisory control and data acquisition system for power distribution networks is described. The expert system works as an operator support tool by diagnosing network disturbances and device malfunctions. The expert system covers online processing of real-time data and intelligent alarm processing, as well as the automatic creation and

Monika Pfau-Wagenbauer; Wolfgang Nejdl

1992-01-01

248

Multiple neural network approaches to clinical expert systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We briefly review the concept of computer aided medical diagnosis and more extensively review the the existing literature on neural network applications in the field. Neural networks can function as simple expert systems for diagnosis or prognosis. Using a public database we develop a neural network for the diagnosis of a major presenting symptom while discussing the development process and possible approaches. MEDICAL EXPERTS SYSTEMS COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS Biomedicine is an incredibly diverse and multidisciplinary field and it is not surprising that neural networks with their many applications are finding more and more applications in the highly non-linear field of biomedicine. I want to concentrate on neural networks as medical expert systems for clinical diagnosis or prognosis. Expert Systems started out as a set of computerized " ifthen" rules. Everything was reduced to boolean logic and the promised land of computer experts was said to be in sight. It never came. Why? First the computer code explodes as the number of " ifs" increases. All the " ifs" have to interact. Second experts are not very good at reducing expertise to language. It turns out that experts recognize patterns and have non-verbal left-brain intuition decision processes. Third learning by example rather than learning by rule is the way natural brains works and making computers work by rule-learning is hideously labor intensive. Neural networks can learn from example. They learn the results

Stubbs, Derek F.

1990-08-01

249

Parallelism in backward-chained expert systems - Experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many applications which may be done by an expert system in real time, if the system is capable of real-time response. The LISP and PROLOG-based expert systems have typically been too slow for real-time response. This has led to an effort to use other languages, the development of fast pattern matching techniques and other methods of improving the speed of expert systems. Another approach to developing faster expert systems is to make use of the emerging parallel processing computer technology. A further use for parallelism is to allow reasonable response time for large knowledge bases. The size of knowledge bases may become as large as 20,000 chunks of knowledge (and more) in the near future in medical and space applications. This paper describes the use of parallel processing in the EMYCIN backward chained rule-based model.

Hall, Lawrence O.

1990-01-01

250

The Appropriateness of Renal Angioplasty. The ANPARIA Software: A Multidisciplinary Expert Panel Approach  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) is an invasive technique that is costly and involves the risk of complications and renal failure. The ability of PTRA to reduce the administration of antihypertensive drugs has been demonstrated. A potentially greater benefit, which nevertheless remains to be proven, is the deferral of the need for chronic dialysis. The aim of the study (ANPARIA) was to assess the appropriateness of PTRA to impact on the evolution of renal function. A standardized expert panel method was used to assess the appropriateness of medical treatment alone or medical treatment with revascularization in various clinical situations. The choice of revascularization by either PTRA or surgery was examined for each clinical situation. Analysis was based on a detailed literature review and on systematically elicited expert opinion, which were obtained during a two-round modified Delphi process. The study provides detailed responses on the appropriateness of PTRA for 1848 distinct clinical scenarios. Depending on the major clinical presentation, appropriateness of revascularization varied from 32% to 75% for individual scenarios (overal 48%). Uncertainty as to revascularization was 41% overall. When revascularization was appropriate, PTRA was favored over surgery in 94% of the scenarios, except in certain cases of aortic atheroma where sugery was the preferred choice. Kidney size >7 cm, absence of coexisting disease, acute renal failure, a high degree of stenosis ({>=}70%), and absence of multiple arteries were identified as predictive variables of favorable appropriateness ratings. Situations such as cardiac failure with pulmonary edema or acute thrombosis of the renal artery were defined as indications for PTRA. This study identified clinical situations in which PTRA or surgery are appropriate for renal artery disease. We built a decision tree which can be used via Internet: the ANPARIA software (http://www.chu-clermontferrand.fr/anpariahttp://www.chu-clermontferrand.fr/anparia/). In numerous clinical situations uncertainty remains as to whether PTRA prevents deterioration of renal function.

Gerbaud, Laurent; Manhes, Geraud; Debourse, Juliette; Gouby, Gerald, E-mail: ggouby@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Glanddier, Phyllis-Yvonne [CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Hotel-Dieu, Service d'epidemiologie, economie de la sante et prevention (France); Vader, John-Paul [Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland); Boyer, Louis, E-mail: lboyer@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Deteix, Patrice [Universite d'Auvergne, Faculte de Medecine (France)

2008-11-15

251

Register of hydrogen technology experts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

Ludtke, P. R.

1975-01-01

252

Elicited Priors for Bayesian Model Specifications in Political Science Research  

E-print Network

Elicited Priors for Bayesian Model Specifications in Political Science Research Jeff Gill in Bayesian political science research. These are a form of prior information produced by previous knowledge implications. Currently, there is no work in political science that articulates elicited priors in a Bayesian

Gill, Jeff

253

Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds  

E-print Network

Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds Gilad Ofeka,1 , F. Javier demonstrate the elicitation of structure- specific antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 epitope of the broadly to transplant the 2F5 epitope into select acceptor scaffolds. The resultant "2F5-epitope scaffolds" pos- sessed

Baker, David

254

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR ELICITING AND EVALUATING VOCATIONAL IMAGERY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) PRODUCE AN INSTRUMENT FOR ELICITING VOCATIONAL IMAGERY FOR USE IN THE EDUCATIONAL-VOCATIONAL ORIENTATION AND COUNSELING OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH, AND (2) DEVELOP A SCALE FOR EVALUATING THE MATURITY OF THE VOCATIONAL IMAGERY ELICITED BY THE INSTRUMENT. A PREVIOUSLY DESIGNED INSTRUMENT "WHAT I THINK OF MYSELF" (A…

MATHEWSON, ROBERT H.; ORTON, JOHN W.

255

Mixtures of Experts Estimate A Posteriori Probabilities  

E-print Network

overlaps are possible) and attributes expert networks to these di erent regions. The divideExpert 2 Figure1. Architecture of a mixture of experts network. Figure 1 shows the architecture of a ME network, consisting of three expert networks and one gating network both having access to the input vector

256

[Expert systems in medical emergencies].  

PubMed

Computers have already been introduced into the field of medical applications and many support systems have been developed. Recently expert or knowledge-based systems have been employed in some specific fields. A project for the creation of an expert system for use in toxicological emergencies is presented. This system is designed to give the physician continuous support and to employ computer formulae as similar as possible to medical reasoning. For this reason, medical knowledge was examined and the event graphs, frames and production rules to represent it were chosen. PMID:3287229

Cartasegna, S; Pancolini, O; Spampinato, L; Costantino, D

1988-05-01

257

Acting green elicits a literal warm glow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

2015-01-01

258

Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation  

PubMed Central

In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events. PMID:22403557

Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-01-01

259

Expert judgments about RD&D and the future of nuclear energy.  

PubMed

Probabilistic estimates of the cost and performance of future nuclear energy systems under different scenarios of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending were obtained from 30 U.S. and 30 European nuclear technology experts. We used a novel elicitation approach which combined individual and group elicitation. With no change from current RD&D funding levels, experts on average expected current (Gen. III/III+) designs to be somewhat more expensive in 2030 than they were in 2010, and they expected the next generation of designs (Gen. IV) to be more expensive still as of 2030. Projected costs of proposed small modular reactors (SMRs) were similar to those of Gen. IV systems. The experts almost unanimously recommended large increases in government support for nuclear RD&D (generally 2-3 times current spending). The majority expected that such RD&D would have only a modest effect on cost, but would improve performance in other areas, such as safety, waste management, and uranium resource utilization. The U.S. and E.U. experts were in relative agreement regarding how government RD&D funds should be allocated, placing particular focus on very high temperature reactors, sodium-cooled fast reactors, fuels and materials, and fuel cycle technologies. PMID:23002786

Anadón, Laura D; Bosetti, Valentina; Bunn, Matthew; Catenacci, Michela; Lee, Audrey

2012-11-01

260

How to use expert advice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze algorithms that predict a binary value by combining the predictions of several prediction strategies, called experts. Our analysis is for worst-case situations, i.e., we make no assumptions about the way the sequence of bits to be predicted is generated. We measure the performance of the algorithm by the difference between the expected number of mistakes it makes on

Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi; Yoav Freund; David Haussler; David P. Helmbold; Robert E. Schapire; Manfred K. Warmuth

1997-01-01

261

Expert Systems for Reference Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

Parrot, James R.

1986-01-01

262

Ask the Experts -- Summer 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The questions presented in this month's Ask the Experts section include, Can a chemical equation have two correct ways to balance it? and Why is the first electron shell in atomic structure designated with "K" (K, L, M, N...) rather than "A"?

2005-07-01

263

Teen Experts Guide Makerspace Makeover  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A makerspace is a place where makers can envision a project, find an expert, and create something. Libraries have always held programming during which patrons were able to come in and create. The makerspace at the Lamar Middle School in Flower Mound, Texas, is available for students every day, so that they can daily create and play with innovative…

Graves, Colleen

2014-01-01

264

An expert sample analysis planner  

SciTech Connect

Analytical chemists are faced with the problem of choosing an appropriate analytical technique for a particular sample and weighing the options as they affect precision, time, and cost. This paper describes a computer technique to assist managers in reviewing the alternatives and to match needs with the resources available. This paper proposes an expert system, knowledgeable of analytical chemistry techniques, to create sample plans. Sample planning is an appropriate topic for expert systems because scarce human expertise is required to complete sample plans. A sample plan is the description of how samples received at the Savannah River Laboratory are handled, controlled, measured, and dispositioned. Sample planning is difficult because multiple experts are needed, planning is not a static function, and planning is time consuming. An Expert Sample Analyses Planner (XSAP) is proposed to create sample plans for laboratory managers. XSAP supplements the scarce knowledge of analytical techniques creating sample plans based on analysis constraints, methods available, and time requirements. XSAP interacts with the chemist to suggest sample plans. XSAP considers equipment available locally, at other Savannah River laboratories, at other Department of Energy facilities, and at other commercial laboratories. XSAP allows options on scheduling: best solution, cheapest solution, best local solution, and fastest solution. 26 refs.

Spencer, W.A.; Parks, W.S.

1990-01-01

265

Ask the Experts -- October 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experts tackle the question, "What is the underlying natural phenomenon that causes the natural log function to show up so frequently in scientific equations? and "Why do some hairs on the human body grow indefinitely while others grow to a certain length and then stop? How does hair know when to stop?"

2005-10-01

266

The Expert System for Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Expert System for Thermodynamics (TEST) is a web-based software platform used to analyze thermofluids problems, verify hand calculations, pursue what-if scenarios, visualize thermal systems, and conduct other investigations in thermodynamics. Site materials include problem sets, examples, animations, and calculating tools to be used in solving problems. There is also a tutorial and visual tour of the platform.

Bhattacharjee, Subrata

267

Drug control Experts seek review  

E-print Network

(CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, a laboratory at St Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee of the virus, the eight countries affected so far (see map, opposite) have slaughtered 20 million chick- ens. Experts say that culling infected birds is the only way to extinguish the virus beforeitinfectsmorepeople

Cai, Long

268

Ask the Experts--January 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Ask the Experts column, the following questions are addressed: I've heard that the two sides of my brain are specialized for different tasks (language vs. reasoning, etc.). If I listen to a science lecture on my iPod using only one earpiece, will the way I process the information depend on which ear I use to listen to the lecture? and Why does the sound made by scratching a chalkboard seem to be irritating to so many people, and why to some and not others? Nature or nurture or a bit of both?

2007-01-01

269

A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature.

Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Business Administration & Economics Div.

1994-09-01

270

Comparison of an Expert System to Human Experts in Well-Log Analysis and Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of results produced by an expert system to those produced by log-analysis experts are discussed using case histories from a variety of wells from several countries. The results, in general, exceeded initial expectations, with the expert system showing surprisingly intelligent behavior in some circumstances and actually highlighting mistakes made by the human experts. In other examples, the expert system

Elizabeth Einstein; Ken Edwards

1990-01-01

271

Experts bodies, experts minds: How physical and mental training shape the brain  

PubMed Central

Skill learning is the improvement in perceptual, cognitive, or motor performance following practice. Expert performance levels can be achieved with well-organized knowledge, using sophisticated and specific mental representations and cognitive processing, applying automatic sequences quickly and efficiently, being able to deal with large amounts of information, and many other challenging task demands and situations that otherwise paralyze the performance of novices. The neural reorganizations that occur with expertise reflect the optimization of the neurocognitive resources to deal with the complex computational load needed to achieve peak performance. As such, capitalizing on neuronal plasticity, brain modifications take place over time-practice and during the consolidation process. One major challenge is to investigate the neural substrates and cognitive mechanisms engaged in expertise, and to define “expertise” from its neural and cognitive underpinnings. Recent insights showed that many brain structures are recruited during task performance, but only activity in regions related to domain-specific knowledge distinguishes experts from novices. The present review focuses on three expertise domains placed across a motor to mental gradient of skill learning: sequential motor skill, mental simulation of the movement (motor imagery), and meditation as a paradigmatic example of “pure” mental training. We first describe results on each specific domain from the initial skill acquisition to expert performance, including recent results on the corresponding underlying neural mechanisms. We then discuss differences and similarities between these domains with the aim to identify the highlights of the neurocognitive processes underpinning expertise, and conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:24847236

Debarnot, Ursula; Sperduti, Marco; Di Rienzo, Franck; Guillot, Aymeric

2014-01-01

272

Similar odorants elicit different behavioral and physiological responses, some supersustained.  

PubMed

An intriguing question in the field of olfaction is how animals distinguish among structurally similar odorants. We systematically analyzed olfactory responses elicited by a panel of 25 pyrazines. We found that structurally similar pyrazines elicit a wide range of behavioral responses from Drosophila larvae. Each pyrazine was tested against all functional receptors of the larval Odor receptor (Or) repertoire, yielding 525 odorant-receptor combinations. Different pyrazines vary markedly in the responses they elicit from the Or repertoire, with most strong responses deriving from two receptors, Or33b and Or59a. Surprisingly, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine, which elicit strikingly similar physiological responses across the receptor repertoire, elicit dramatically different behavioral responses. A small fraction of odorant-receptor combinations elicit remarkably long responses. These responses, which we term "supersustained" responses, are receptor specific and odorant specific, and can last for minutes. Such supersustained responses may prevent olfactory neurons from reporting contemporaneous information about the local odor environment. Odors that elicit such responses could provide a novel means of controlling insect pests and vectors of human disease by impairing the location of human hosts, food sources, and mates. PMID:21613503

Montague, Shelby A; Mathew, Dennis; Carlson, John R

2011-05-25

273

Ask the Experts: Summer 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this final "Ask the Experts" column, our own resident "expert" and Department Editor, Marc Rosner, addresses the following questions: � Why is chocolate bad for dogs? � Where does the color go when paper fades after sun exposure? � How do you measure weight in space? � Since "at risk" students often have difficulty with traditional academic work, it seems they should benefit from exploratory, constructivist activities. In practice, when teachers implement inquiry-type activities, controlling such classes in the requisite atmosphere of freedom can be a challenge. What advice do you have for teachers who wish to implement modern pedagogy with students not used to the new boundaries? � What makes one element a better conductor than another?

2008-07-01

274

Aircraft VSCF generator expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

VSCF (variable-speed constant-frequency) electrical systems are designed using standard modules to reduce the manufacturing cost and improve the product quality and services. An expert system that automatically configures the modules required for a particular application is described. It is a rule-based synthesis system with a domain that encompasses the matrix of standard modules. The module functions include electrical generation, conversion,

T.-L. Ho; R. A. Bayles; E. R. Sieger

1988-01-01

275

Ask the Experts -- December 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experts give their "spin" on physical science concepts as they answer the question, "What does "spin" refer to in particle physics? Why is this concept necessary?" and "My physics teacher tells me that when I go around a sharp curve in my car, there is no force causing me to move away from the center of curvature. So what is happening to make me feel as if I am sliding toward the outside?

2005-12-01

276

Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

Kreinovich, Vladik

1993-01-01

277

Eliciting and detecting affect in covert and ethically sensitive situations  

E-print Network

There is growing interest in creating systems that can sense the affective state of a user for a variety of applications. As a result, a large number of studies have been conducted with the goals of eliciting specific ...

Davis, Philip Charles

2005-01-01

278

Child Effects on Adult's Method of Eliciting Altruistic Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results showed that experimentally produced variations in the person orientation of three nine-year-old female confederates affected the socialization techniques employed by 24 female college students who were attempting to elicit altruistic behavior from the children. (JMB)

Keller, Barbara Bledsoe; Bell, Richard Q.

1979-01-01

279

MT for Minority Languages Using Elicitation-Based Learning of Syntactic Transfer Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AVENUE project contains a run-time machine translation program that is surrounded by pre- and post-run-time modules. The post-run-time module selects among translation alternatives. The pre-run-time modules are concerned with elicitation of data and automatic learning of transfer rules in order to facilitate the development of machine translation between a language with extensive resources for natural language processing and a

Katharina Probst; Lori S. Levin; Erik Peterson; Alon Lavie; Jaime G. Carbonell

2002-01-01

280

Caffeine-associated stimuli elicit conditioned responses: an experimental model of the placebo effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: A neutral stimulus repeatedly paired with administration of a drug may elicit a conditioned response. This process, termed\\u000a pharmacological classical conditioning, may be important in the understanding of placebo effects. Objective: The unconditioned response to caffeine is increased physiological and psychological arousal. The present study investigated\\u000a whether stimuli associated with the use of caffeine, i.e. the smell and taste

Magne Arve Flaten; Terry D. Blumenthal

1999-01-01

281

A middle man approach to knowledge acquisition in expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Weed Control Advisor (WCA) is a robust expert system that has been successfully implemented on an IBM AT class microcomputer in CLIPS. The goal of the WCA was to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an economical, efficient, user friendly system through which Texas rice producers could obtain expert level knowledge regarding herbicide application for weed control. During the development phase of the WCA, an improved knowledge acquisition method which we call the Middle Man Approach (MMA) was applied to facilitate the communication process between the domain experts and the knowledge engineer. The MMA served to circumvent the problems associated with the more traditional forms of knowledge acquisition by placing the Middle Man, a semi-expert in the problem domain with some computer expertise, at the site of system development. The middle man was able to contribute to system development in two major ways. First, the Middle Man had experience working in rice production and could assume many of the responsibilities normally performed by the domain experts such as explaining the background of the problem domain and determining the important relations. Second, the Middle Man was familiar with computers and worked closely with the system developers to update the rules after the domain experts reviewed the prototype, contribute to the help menus and explanation portions of the expert system, conduct the testing that is required to insure that the expert system gives the expected results answer questions in a timely way, help the knowledge engineer structure the domain knowledge into a useable form, and provide insight into the end user's profile which helped in the development of the simple user friendly interface. The final results were not only that both time expended and costs were greatly reduced by using the MMA, but the quality of the system was improved. This papa will introduce the WCA system and then discuss traditional knowledge acquisition along with some of the problems often associated with it, the MMA methodology, and its application to the WCA development.

Jordan, Janice A.; Lin, Min-Jin; Mayer, Richard J.; Sterle, Mark E.

1990-01-01

282

Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

Olmstadt, William J.

2000-01-01

283

Coherent approximation of distributed expert assessments  

E-print Network

Expert judgments of probability and expectation play an integral role in many systems. Financial markets, public policy, medical diagnostics and more rely on the ability of informed experts (both human and machine) to make ...

Jones, Peter B., Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

284

SMSlingshot: An Expert Amateur DIY Case Study Patrick Tobias Fischer, Eva Hornecker  

E-print Network

SMSlingshot: An Expert Amateur DIY Case Study Patrick Tobias Fischer, Eva Hornecker University aspects, with professional industri- al designers and technologists becoming expert amateurs, often of being an amateur! Author Keywords Design Process, Creative Process, DIY in the wild. ACM Classification

Hornecker, Eva

285

Social conflicts elicit an N400-like component.  

PubMed

When people have different opinions, they often adjust their own attitude to match that of others, known as social conformity. How social conflicts trigger subsequent conformity remains unclear. One possibility is that a conflict with the group opinion is perceived as a violation of social information, analogous to using wrong grammar, and activates conflict monitoring and adjustment mechanisms. Using event related potential (ERP) recording combined with a face attractiveness judgment task, we investigated the neural encoding of social conflicts. We found that social conflicts elicit an N400-like negative deflection, being more negative for conflict with group opinions than no-conflict condition. The social conflict related signals also have a bi-directional profile similar to reward prediction error signals: it was more negative for under-estimation (i.e. one?s own ratings were smaller than group ratings) than over-estimation, and the larger the differences between ratings, the larger the N400 amplitude. The N400 effects were significantly diminished in the non-social condition. We conclude that social conflicts are encoded in a bidirectional fashion in the N400-like component, similar to the pattern of reward-based prediction error signals. Our findings also suggest that the N400, a well-established ERP component encoding semantic violation, might be involved in social conflict processing and social learning. PMID:25446967

Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

2014-12-01

286

SciVal Experts: a collaborative tool.  

PubMed

SciVal Experts is a resource for finding experts and fostering collaboration. The tool creates researcher profiles with automatically updated publication and grant information and faculty-inputted curriculum vitae, more fully capturing a researcher's body of work. SciVal Experts indexes campus-based "experts" by research topic, allowing faculty to find potential research partners and mentors, furthering translational research opportunities and dissemination of knowledge. PMID:21800985

Vardell, Emily; Feddern-Bekcan, Tanya; Moore, Mary

2011-01-01

287

An expert system to perform on-line controller tuning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system which tunes a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller on-line for a single-input-single-output multiple-lag process with dead time is described. The expert system examines features of the previous transient responses and their corresponding sets of controller parameters. It determines a new set of controller gains to obtain a more desirable time response. This technique can be used to determine and implement a different set of PID gains for each operating regime and, once in steady state, the system can be used to find optimal parameters for load disturbance rejection. The expert system can be applied to any system of the specified form (aerospace, industrial, etc.) and can be expanded to include additional process models.

Litt, Jonathan S.

1990-01-01

288

An expert system to perform on-line controller tuning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system which tunes a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller online for a single-input-single-output multiple-lag process with dead time is described. The expert system examines features of the previous transient responses and their corresponding sets of controller parameters. It determines a new set of controller gains to obtain a more desirable time response. This technique can be used to determine and implement a different set of PID gains for each operating regime and, once in steady state, the system can be used to find optimal parameters for load disturbance rejection. The expert system can be applied to any system of the specified form (aerospace, industrial, etc.) and can be expanded to include additional process models.

Litt, Jonathan

1990-01-01

289

Expert witness testimony guidelines: identifying areas for improvement.  

PubMed

Expert witnesses play an invaluable, if controversial, role by deciphering medical events for juries in cases of alleged negligence. We review expert witness guidelines among major surgical societies and identify gaps within these standards, as our hope is that this spurs discussion addressing areas for improvement. Of 8 surgical societies with accessible guidelines, none included specific compensation guidelines or limits, detailed reporting mechanisms regarding unethical behavior by legal professionals, or addressed the appropriateness of testifying frequently and exclusively for one side. Several processes possibly deterring grossly inaccurate testimony have been adopted by other surgical societies and should potentially be addressed by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. These include offering an expert witness testimony certification path, strengthening the formalized grievance process, and encouraging members to sign an affirmation statement. PMID:25389319

Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael; Folbe, Adam J

2015-02-01

290

MRI Grant Program: Expert Tips & Tricks  

E-print Network

MRI Grant Program: Expert Tips & Tricks to Nab Expensive Instrumentation WHITE PAPER Sponsored by: #12;White Paper: MRI Grant Program: Expert Tips & Tricks to Nab Expensive Instrumentation Principal Investigators Association | www.principalinvestigators.org 2 White Paper -- "MRI Grant Program: Expert Tips

Wang, Bing

291

Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

2011-01-01

292

CRN5EXP: Expert system for statistical quality control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Expert System CRN5EXP is to assist in checking the quality of the coils at two very important mills: Hot Rolling and Cold Rolling in a steel plant. The system interprets the statistical quality control charts, diagnoses and predicts the quality of the steel. Measurements of process control variables are recorded in a database and sample statistics such as the mean and the range are computed and plotted on a control chart. The chart is analyzed through patterns using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) and a forward chaining technique to reach a conclusion about the causes of defects and to take management measures for the improvement of the quality control techniques. The Expert System combines the certainty factors associated with the process control variables to predict the quality of the steel. The paper presents the approach to extract data from the database, the reason to combine certainty factors, the architecture and the use of the Expert System. However, the interpretation of control charts patterns requires the human expert's knowledge and lends to Expert Systems rules.

Hentea, Mariana

1991-01-01

293

WHO expert committee on drug dependence.  

PubMed

This report presents the recommendations of a WHO Expert Committee responsible for reviewing information on psychoactive substances to assess the need for their international control. The report contains a summary of the Committee's evaluations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and ketamine. GHB was recommended to be rescheduled from Schedule IV to Schedule II of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The report also discusses the nine substances that were pre-reviewed: dextromethorphan, tapentadol, N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP), 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MeOPP), 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD). Of these, tapentadol, BZP, GBL and 1,4-BD were recommended for critical review. Issues identified for consideration at future Expert Committee meetings are also listed. Furthermore, the report discusses the use of terms, the use of pharmacovigilance data for the assessment of abuse and dependence potential, balancing medical availability and prevention of abuse of medicines manufactured from controlled substances, and improving the process for substance evaluation. PMID:24547667

2012-01-01

294

A neural network hybrid expert system  

SciTech Connect

When knowledge-based expert rules, equations, and proprietary languages extend Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD CAM) software, previously designed mechanisms can be scaled to satisfy new design requirements in the shortest time. However, embedded design alternatives needed by design engineers during the product conception and rework stages are lacking, and an operator is required who has a thorough understanding of the intended design and the how-to expertise needed to create and optimize the mechanisms. By applying neural network technology to build an expert system, a robust design supervisor system emerged which automated the embedded intellectual operations (e.g. questioning, identifying, selecting, and coordinating the design process) to (1) select the best mechanisms necessary to design a power transmission gearbox from proven solutions; (2) aid the inexperienced operator in developing complex design solutions; and (3) provide design alternatives which add back-to-the-drawing board capabilities to knowledge-based mechanical CAD/CAM software programs. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Goulding, J.R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1991-01-01

295

Explanation production by expert planners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the explanation capability of expert systems is usually listed as one of the distinguishing characteristics of these systems, the explanation facilities of most existing systems are quite primitive. Computer generated explanations are typically produced from canned text or by direct translation of the knowledge structures. Explanations produced in this manner bear little resemblance to those produced by humans for similar tasks. The focus of our research in explanation is the production of justifications for decisions by expert planning systems. An analysis of justifications written by people for planning tasks has been taken as the starting point. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. First, analysis of the information content of the justifications will provide a basis for deciding what knowledge must be represented if human-like justifications are to be produced. Second, an analysis of the textual organization of the justifications will be used in the development of a mechanism for selecting and organizing the knowledge to be included in a computer-produced explanation. This paper describes a preliminary analysis done of justifications written by people for a planning task. It is clear that these justifications differ significantly from those that would be produced by an expert system by tracing the firing of production rules. The results from the text analysis have been used to develop an augmented phrase structured grammar (APSG) describing the organization of the justifications. The grammar was designed to provide a computationally feasible method for determining textual organization that will allow the necessary information to be communicated in a cohesive manner.

Bridges, Susan; Jhannes, James D.

1988-01-01

296

Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

Le, Thach C.

1994-01-01

297

World Ocean Assessment experts needed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations (UN) is inviting interested scientists to apply to be members of an international pool of 1000-2000 experts who will be authors and reviewers of its first World Ocean Assessment (WOA) report, slated for completion in 2014. The UN anticipates that subsequent WOA reports will be generated on a 5-year cycle. The first report will include more than 50 subjects grouped within four main themes: marine environment and understanding of the ocean's role in the global integrated Earth system, food security and safety, human activities that influence the ocean or are influenced by the ocean, and marine biological diversity. A scientific and technical summary is also planned.

Showstack, Randy

2012-07-01

298

Early morphological productivity in Hungarian: evidence from sentence repetition and elicited production.  

PubMed

This paper investigates early productivity of morpheme use in Hungarian children aged between 2 ; 1 and 5 ; 3. Hungarian has a rich morphology which is the core marker of grammatical functions. A new method is introduced using the novel word paradigm in a sentence repetition task with masked inflections (i.e. a disguised elicited production task). Results suggest that Hungarian nominal and verbal suffixes can be used productively before the age of three. Children showed greater productivity with nominal than with verbal suffixes, and no productivity with novel suffixes; greater input variability facilitated productive use. These findings confirm that although morphological productivity is an early achievement, it is a gradual process influenced by several characteristics (e.g. syntactic category and variability) of the input. They also confirm that the new method is an effective way of testing morphological knowledge even at younger ages where other ways of eliciting grammatical knowledge often fail. PMID:21910952

Gábor, Bálint; Lukács, Agnes

2012-03-01

299

Establishing the expert decision-making strategy to improve the TFT-LCD quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, TFT-LCD industry demand and expand the development budget, the experts in collaboration design systems leadership and raise the alarm management system (AMS) quality. This study uses the analytic network process (ANP) and cause-effect grey relational analysis (CEGRA) model to establish the expert decision-making strategy to solve he problems in the TFT-LCD industry. Finally, the expert decision- making strategy

A. P. Chen; C. W. Chang; C. R. Wu

2011-01-01

300

System for empirical experimentation with expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

SEEK is a system which has been developed to give interactive advice about rule refinement during the design of an expert system. The advice takes the form of suggestions for possible experiments in generalizing or specializing rules in an expert model that has been specified based on reasoning rules cited by the expert. Case experience, in the form of stored cases with known conclusions, is used to interactively guide the expert in refining the rules of a model. The design framework of SEEK consists of a tabular model for expressing expert-modeled rules and a general consultation system for applying a model to specific cases. This approach has proven particularly valuable in assisting the expert in a domain where two diagnoses are difficult to distinguish. Examples are given from an expert consultation system being developed for rheumatology. 12 references.

Politakis, P.; Weiss, S.M.

1982-01-01

301

The Nature of Expertise in Fingerprint Matching: Experts Can Do a Lot with a Little  

PubMed Central

Expert decision making often seems impressive, even miraculous. People with genuine expertise in a particular domain can perform quickly and accurately, and with little information. In the series of experiments presented here, we manipulate the amount of “information” available to a group of experts whose job it is to identify the source of crime scene fingerprints. In Experiment 1, we reduced the amount of information available to experts by inverting fingerprint pairs and adding visual noise. There was no evidence for an inversion effect—experts were just as accurate for inverted prints as they were for upright prints—but expert performance with artificially noisy prints was impressive. In Experiment 2, we separated matching and nonmatching print pairs in time. Experts were conservative, but they were still able to discriminate pairs of fingerprints that were separated by five-seconds, even though the task was quite different from their everyday experience. In Experiment 3, we separated the print pairs further in time to test the long-term memory of experts compared to novices. Long-term recognition memory for experts and novices was the same, with both performing around chance. In Experiment 4, we presented pairs of fingerprints quickly to experts and novices in a matching task. Experts were more accurate than novices, particularly for similar nonmatching pairs, and experts were generally more accurate when they had more time. It is clear that experts can match prints accurately when there is reduced visual information, reduced opportunity for direct comparison, and reduced time to engage in deliberate reasoning. These findings suggest that non-analytic processing accounts for a substantial portion of the variance in expert fingerprint matching accuracy. Our conclusion is at odds with general wisdom in fingerprint identification practice and formal training, and at odds with the claims and explanations that are offered in court during expert testimony. PMID:25517509

Thompson, Matthew B.; Tangen, Jason M.

2014-01-01

302

The Right Expert at the Right Time and Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a unified and complete solution for expert finding in organizations, including not only expertise identification, but also expertise selection functionality. The latter two include the use of implicit and explicit preferences of users on meeting each other, as well as localization and planning as important auxiliary processes. We also propose a solution for privacy protection, which is urgently

Pavel Serdyukov; Ling Feng; Arthur H. Van Bunningen; Sander Evers; Harold Van Heerde; Peter M. G. Apers; Maarten M. Fokkinga; Djoerd Hiemstra

2008-01-01

303

Siblings and Buddies: Providing Expert Advice about Starting School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the role of child experts (siblings and buddies) in young children's transition to school. Drawing on two recent studies, that sought the perspectives of children, educators and family members about effective supports at this time, we explore the roles of other children in the processes and practices of transition.…

Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

2013-01-01

304

An expert supervisory system for a pilot WWTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development and implementation of a Real-Time Expert System (RTES) for the supervision and control of a wastewater treatment pilot plant (WWTPP) with biological removal of organic matter and nutrients. The hardware architecture contains different supervision levels, including two autonomous process computers (plant control and analysers control) and a PLC, being the ES the top supervisory level.

Juan Baeza; David Gabriel; Javier Lafuente

1999-01-01

305

A Mixture of Experts Network Structure for EEG Signals Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates the use of mixture of experts (ME) network structure to guide model selection for classification of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm was used for training the ME so that the learning process is decoupled in a manner that fits well with the modular structure. The EEG signals were decomposed into time-frequency representations using discrete wavelet transform

I. Guler; E. Derya Ubeyli; N. Fatma Guler

2005-01-01

306

A Mixture of Experts Network Structure for Breast Cancer Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixture of experts (ME) is a modular neural network architecture for supervised learning. This paper illustrates the use of ME network structure to guide diagnosing of breast cancer. Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm was used for training the ME so that the learning process is decoupled in a manner that fits well with the modular structure. Diagnosis tasks are among the most

Elif Derya Übeyli

2005-01-01

307

NASA ground terminal communication equipment automated fault isolation expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prototype expert systems are described that diagnose the Distribution and Switching System I and II (DSS1 and DSS2), Statistical Multiplexers (SM), and Multiplexer and Demultiplexer systems (MDM) at the NASA Ground Terminal (NGT). A system level fault isolation expert system monitors the activities of a selected data stream, verifies that the fault exists in the NGT and identifies the faulty equipment. Equipment level fault isolation expert systems are invoked to isolate the fault to a Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) level. Input and sometimes output data stream activities for the equipment are available. The system level fault isolation expert system compares the equipment input and output status for a data stream and performs loopback tests (if necessary) to isolate the faulty equipment. The equipment level fault isolation system utilizes the process of elimination and/or the maintenance personnel's fault isolation experience stored in its knowledge base. The DSS1, DSS2 and SM fault isolation systems, using the knowledge of the current equipment configuration and the equipment circuitry issues a set of test connections according to the predefined rules. The faulty component or board can be identified by the expert system by analyzing the test results. The MDM fault isolation system correlates the failure symptoms with the faulty component based on maintenance personnel experience. The faulty component can be determined by knowing the failure symptoms. The DSS1, DSS2, SM, and MDM equipment simulators are implemented in PASCAL. The DSS1 fault isolation expert system was converted to C language from VP-Expert and integrated into the NGT automation software for offline switch diagnoses. Potentially, the NGT fault isolation algorithms can be used for the DSS1, SM, amd MDM located at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

Tang, Y. K.; Wetzel, C. R.

1990-01-01

308

Becoming a "Greeble" expert: exploring mechanisms for face recognition.  

PubMed

Sensitivity to configural changes in face processing has been cited as evidence for face-exclusive mechanisms. Alternatively, general mechanisms could be fine-tuned by experience with homogeneous stimuli. We tested sensitivity to configural transformations for novices and experts with nonface stimuli ("Greebles"). Parts of transformed Greebles were identified via forced-choice recognition. Regardless of expertise level, the recognition of parts in the Studied configuration was better than in isolation, suggesting an object advantage. For experts, recognizing Greeble parts in a Transformed configuration was slower than in the Studied configuration, but only at upright. Thus, expertise with visually similar objects, not faces per se, may produce configural sensitivity. PMID:9231232

Gauthier, I; Tarr, M J

1997-06-01

309

Model-based expert systems for linac computer controls  

SciTech Connect

The use of machine modeling and beam simulation programs for the control of accelerator operation has become standard practice. The success of a model-based control operation depends on how the parameter to be controlled is measured, how the measured data is analyzed, how the result of the analysis is interpreted, and how a solution is implemented. There is considerable interest in applying expert systems technology that can automate all of these processes. The design of an expert system to control the beam trajectory in linear accelerators will be discussed as an illustration of this approach. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Lee, M.J.

1988-09-01

310

An expert system for fault diagnosis in FASTBUS network initialization  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses FBNEXPERT, an expert system designed to help operators in controlling and maintaining a FASTBUS data acquisition system; it can also assist human experts during trouble-shooting and fault diagnosis. It is based on a shell (NEXPERT, by Neuron Data) which interacts with a knowledge base, where all the information about the FASTBUS system is collected, including the description of the configuration (from the files used for the initialization procedure) and the results of tests and previous diagnoses. During the diagnostic process, FBNEXPERT spans several levels of description of the FASTBUS system and applies various co-operating strategies.

Corazziari, F.; Falciano, S.; Luminari, L.; Savarese, M.; Trasatti, E. (INFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (IT)); Rimmer, E.M. (CERN, ECP Div., 1211 Geneva 23 (CH))

1992-04-01

311

Neural network based expert system for compressor stall monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research is designed to apply a new information processing technology, artificial neural networks, to monitoring compressor stall. The outputs of neural networks support the dynamic knowledge data base of an expert system. This is the open-loop mode to avoid compressor stall. The integration of a control system with neural networks is the closed-loop mode in stall avoidance. The feasibility of the concept has been demonstrated for the compressor of 16-foot transonic/supersonic propulsion wind tunnels. The construction of a prototpye expert system has been initiated.

Lo, Ching F.; Shi, G. Z.

1991-01-01

312

Expert-System Consultant To Operating Personnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial intelligence aids engineers and technicians in controlling and monitoring complicated systems. Operations Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA) software is developmental suite of expert-system computer programs helping engineers and technicians operating from number of computer workstations to control and monitor spacecraft during prelaunch and launch phases of operation. OPERA designed to serve as consultant to operating engineers and technicians. It preprocesses incoming data, using expertise collected from conglomerate of specialists in design and operation of various parts of system. Driven by menus and mouse-activated commands. Modified versions of OPERA used in chemical-processing plants, factories, banks, and other enterprises in which there are distributed-computer systems including computers that monitor or control other computers.

Heard, Astrid E.; Pinkowski, Patrick P.; Adler, Richard M.; Hosken, R. Bruce

1992-01-01

313

Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities,

Franklin Dexter; Ruth E Wachtel; Richard H Epstein

2011-01-01

314

Knowledge requirements and management in expert decision support systems for (military) situation assessment  

SciTech Connect

Situation assessment tasks are formulated as a general family of problem solving tasks. The generic nature of this family task as a multimembership hierarchical pattern recognition problem is characterized and the types of decision support systems are identified. The focus is on knowledge representation and elicitation, although issues related to interference mechanisms, system structure, and expert-machine-user interface are also discussed. Two types of knowledge are required to determine directions on which to focus attention, while local knowledge is required for assessing the validity of a specific alternative based on a given set of findings. 37 references.

Ben-bassat, M.; Freedy, A.

1982-07-01

315

Eliciting Self-Explanations Improves Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning involves the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Generating explanations to oneself (self-explaining) facilitates that integration process. Previously, self-explanation has been shown to improve the acquisition of problem-solvi ng skills when studying worked-out examples. This study extends that finding, showing that self-explanation can also be facilitative when it is explicitly promoted, in the context of learning declarative knowledge

Michelene T. H. Chi; Nicholas De Leeuw; Mei-hung Chiu; Christian Lavancher

1994-01-01

316

Aerothermodynamics of EXPERT Control Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the ESA flight experiment EXPERT the major aerothermodynamic phenomena around two control surfaces and their cavities have been investigated with experimental and numerical methods. The flow upstream of the flap is characterized by Payload 7 of CIRA using heat flux sensors. The instrumentation of the C/SiC flap and cavity will allow measuring the surface temperature, pressure and the heat flux rate using high temperature sensors (Payload 6 of DLR). The rear surface temperature distribution of one of the flaps will be measured with an infrared (IR) camera (Payload 8 of RUAG). This data will be used to compute the front surface heat flux distribution using an inverse method analysis. Characterization tests in the SCIROCCO facility will allow calibrating the complete measurement system and data reduction software, since in contrast to the flight the front surface temperature of the flap will be measured with an additional IR camera of the facility.

Gülhan, A.; Pereira, C.; Di Clemente, M.; Fertig, M.; Vos, J.

2011-08-01

317

Accumulated Bending Energy Elicits Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activity in Human Red Blood Cells  

PubMed Central

We propose that accumulated membrane bending energy elicits a neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity in human erythrocytes. Membrane bending was achieved by osmotic or chemical processes, and SMase activity was assessed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The activity induced by hypotonic stress in erythrocyte membranes had the pH dependence, ion dependence, and inhibitor sensitivity of mammalian neutral SMases. The activity caused a decrease in SM contents, with a minimum at 6 min after onset of the hypotonic conditions, and then the SM contents were recovered. We also elicited SMase activity by adding lysophosphatidylcholine externally or by generating it with phospholipase A2. The same effect was observed upon addition of chlorpromazine or sodium deoxycholate at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, and even under hypertonic conditions. A unifying factor of the various agents that elicit this SMase activity is the accumulated membrane bending energy. Both hypo-and hypertonic conditions impose an increased curvature, whereas the addition of surfactants or phospholipase A2 activation increases the outer monolayer area, thus leading to an increased bending energy. The fact that this latent SMase activity is tightly coupled to the membrane bending properties suggests that it may be related to the general phenomenon of stress-induced ceramide synthesis and apoptosis. PMID:22824271

López, David J.; Egido-Gabas, Meritxell; López-Montero, Iván; Busto, Jon V.; Casas, Josefina; Garnier, Marie; Monroy, Francisco; Larijani, Banafshé; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

2012-01-01

318

Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results  

SciTech Connect

In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

2013-05-01

319

Expert system on a chip: an engine for real-time approximate reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of inferencing with uncertainty is becoming more important in rule-based expert systems (ES), since knowledge given by a human expert is often uncertain or imprecise. We have succeeded in designing a VLSI chip which can perform an entire inference process based on fuzzy logic. The design of the VLSI fuzzy inference engine emphasizes simplicity, extensibility, and efficiency (operational

Masaki Togai; Hiroyuki Watanabe

1986-01-01

320

Experts in Fast-Ball Sports Reduce Anticipation Timing Cost by Developing Inhibitory Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between expertise in movement correction and rate of movement reprogramming within limited time periods, and to clarify the specific cognitive processes regarding superior reprogramming ability in experts. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in baseball experts (n = 7) and…

Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mori, Shiro

2012-01-01

321

Mechanisms and Neural Basis of Object and Pattern Recognition: A Study with Chess Experts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing experts with novices offers unique insights into the functioning of cognition, based on the maximization of individual differences. Here we used this expertise approach to disentangle the mechanisms and neural basis behind two processes that contribute to everyday expertise: object and pattern recognition. We compared chess experts and…

Bilalic, Merim; Langner, Robert; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

322

Reuse of Plans As a Tool for Development of remote Sensing Expert Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems involving remote sensing analysis for satellite data in combination with geographic information systems are large and complex. The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has created an expert system shell and several expert systems in order to provide image analysis programs with the necessary knowledge to solve difficult image processing problems, such as updating forest inventory geographic information systems.

D. Charleboiss; D. Goodenough; S. Matwin; M. Robson; K. Fung

1992-01-01

323

A Mixture of Experts Network Structure Construction Algorithm for Modelling and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new fast, effective and practical model structure construction algorithm for a mixture of experts network system utilising only process data. The algorithm is based on a novel forward constrained regression procedure. Given a full set of the experts as potential model bases, the structure construction algorithm, formed on the forward constrained regression procedure, selects the most

X. Hong; C. J. Harris

2002-01-01

324

INDUCING PARAMETERS OF A DECISION TREE FOR EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL MCESE BY GENETIC ALGORITHM  

E-print Network

INDUCING PARAMETERS OF A DECISION TREE FOR EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL MCESE BY GENETIC ALGORITHM I. Bruha-mail: {bruha | franya}@mcmaster.ca KEYWORDS Expert system shell, genetic algorithms, rule-based sys- tems for the whole knowledge base. Genetic algorithms comprise a long process of evolution of a large population

Franek, Frantisek

325

Application of expert networks for predicting proteins secondary structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study utilizes expert neural networks for the prediction of proteins secondary structure. We use three independent networks, one for each structure (alpha, beta and coil) as the first-level processing unit; decision upon the chosen structure for each residue is carried out by a second-level, post-processing unit, which utilizes the Chou and Fasman frequency values F? and F? in

Sarit Sivan; Orna Filo; Hava Siegelmann

2007-01-01

326

CLEAR: Communications Link Expert Assistance Resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communications Link Expert Assistance Resource (CLEAR) is a real time, fault diagnosis expert system for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission Operations Room (MOR). The CLEAR expert system is an operational prototype which assists the MOR operator/analyst by isolating and diagnosing faults in the spacecraft communication link with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) during periods of realtime data acquisition. The mission domain, user requirements, hardware configuration, expert system concept, tool selection, development approach, and system design were discussed. Development approach and system implementation are emphasized. Also discussed are system architecture, tool selection, operation, and future plans.

Hull, Larry G.; Hughes, Peter M.

1987-01-01

327

Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho® compared with other supposed causal factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho®, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J. P.

2010-01-01

328

Agreement of experts and non-experts in a desktop exercise evaluating exposure to asthmagens in the cotton and textile, and other industries.  

PubMed

In the absence of personal exposure measurements, expert assessment, generally on a case-by-case basis, is often used to estimate exposures. However, the decision processes of individual experts when making assessments are unknown, making it difficult to assess the quality of these assessments or to compare different assessments to each other. We conducted a study in primarily the textile and cotton industries, but also in baking, metal work, and agriculture industries in which we assessed agreement between experts assessing intensity and probability of exposure in the absence of exposure measurements to compare how well their performance compares to agreement of non-desktop-based exercises reported in literature. In addition, agreement was compared with that of non-experts undertaking the same exercise, and results were further stratified to assess the impact of factors expected of affected assessments. Intraclass correlation coefficients of absolute agreement (ICC1) and consistency (ICC3) between raters were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a probabilistic simulation methodology developed previously. Fourteen occupational hygienists and exposure assessors with complete data for all 48 job descriptions and 8 non-experts participated. Although confidence intervals about correlation-coefficient differences are not reported, the individual limits were found to be so broad as to suggest that no statistically significant comparisons can be made. Nevertheless, preliminary observations are presented here as suggested by the computed means. Absolute agreement between expert raters was fair-good, but was somewhat better for intensity (ICC1 = 0.61) than for probability (ICC1 = 0.44) of exposure and was better for experts than non-experts. Estimated sensitivity was 0.95 and specificity 0.82 for intensity, and 0.91 and 0.78 for probability of exposure, respectively. Stratification for factors hypothesized to affect agreement did not show statistically significant differences, but consistent patterns of point estimates indicated that agreement between raters (both expert on non-experts) dropped for medium levels of information compared with little or extensive information. Inclusion of a photo or video generally improved agreement between experts but not between non-experts, whereas the year of the job description had no influence on the assessments. These data indicate that the desktop exposure assessment exercise was of similar quality to previously reported levels of agreement. Agreements between experts' assessments were independent of the time period of the job and can be improved by inclusion of visual material. Agreement between experts as well as the non-experts does not increase with the detail of provided job information. PMID:25324562

Robinson, Christine; Money, Annemarie; Agius, Raymond; de Vocht, Frank

2015-03-01

329

Deliberative disjunction: expert and public understanding of outcome uncertainty.  

PubMed

Many environmental and risk management decisions are made jointly by technical experts and members of the public. Frequently, their task is to select from among management alternatives whose outcomes are subject to varying degrees of uncertainty. Although it is recognized that how this uncertainty is interpreted can significantly affect decision-making processes and choices, little research has examined similarities and differences between expert and public understandings of uncertainty. We present results from a web-based survey that directly compares expert and lay interpretations and understandings of different expressions of uncertainty in the context of evaluating the consequences of proposed environmental management actions. Participants responded to two hypothetical but realistic scenarios involving trade-offs between environmental and other objectives and were asked a series of questions about their comprehension of the uncertainty information, their preferred choice among the alternatives, and the associated difficulty and amount of effort. Results demonstrate that experts and laypersons tend to use presentations of numerical ranges and evaluative labels differently; interestingly, the observed differences between the two groups were not explained by differences in numeracy or concerns for the predicted environmental losses. These findings question many of the usual presumptions about how uncertainty should be presented as part of deliberative risk- and environmental-management processes. PMID:22563823

Gregory, Robin; Dieckmann, Nathan; Peters, Ellen; Failing, Lee; Long, Graham; Tusler, Martin

2012-12-01

330

An expert system for screening enhanced oil recovery methods  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates how a small expert system can be written with inexpensive shells (CLIPS and EXSHELL) and run on inexpensive personal computers. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based system written in the C language. Rules are entered in a LISP-like format. EXSHELL is a backward-chaining rule-based system written in the PROLOG language. These shells were used to write a small expert system, an expert assistant, which is used to help petroleum engineers screen possible enhanced oil recovery candidate processes. Though the final candidate process is selected on the basis of an economic evaluation, the expert assistant greatly reduces the amount of work involved. The system selects the optimal collection of paths to the solutions and is easily updated as new data become available. This paper also demonstrates the utility and ease of use of these inexpensive shells, compares the approach used by each, and demonstrates the relative advantages of forward-chaining versus backward-chaining for this problem. 11 refs.

Parkinson, W.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Luger, G.F. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Bretz, R.E.; Osowski, J.J. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (USA). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

1990-01-01

331

Shared Task: Crowdsourced Accessibility Elicitation of Wikipedia Articles  

E-print Network

speech resources like conversational speech transcription. In this work, we ex- plore the next step a use- ful test-bed to implement qualitative vetting of workers based on difficult to define metrics open ended collec- tion even further by eliciting narrations of English Wikipedia articles. To vet

Callison-Burch, Chris

332

Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a…

Pyle, Angela

2013-01-01

333

Using Storytelling to Elicit Design Guidance for Medical Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical device designers must understand the complex context of use within a health care environment to ensure product usability. Designers must overcome domain-specific obstacles during usability research, such as patient privacy standards, which prevent designers from observing practitioners in context. In this project, we investigated storytelling as an alternative elicitation method for medical device requirements when direct observations are limited

Kim Gausepohl; Woodrow W. Winchester; James D. Arthur; Tonya Smith-Jackson

2011-01-01

334

Stimulus Duration Preference at Electrode Sites Yielding Elicited Behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latency to display eating or drinking during hypothalamic stimulation was compared with the preferred duration of the same stimulus intensity in a self-stimulation situation. All the animals preferred longer stimulus durations than those required to elicit eating or drinking

Cox, V. C.

1970-01-01

335

Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology with Elicited Oral Response Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) scored elicited oral response (EOR) tests to assess the speaking ability of English language learners. It also examined the relationship between ASR-scored EOR and other language proficiency measures and the ability of the ASR to rate speakers without bias to gender or native…

Cox, Troy L.; Davies, Randall S.

2012-01-01

336

Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

2009-01-01

337

Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED) screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs). Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA) screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230?mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years). Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0?msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen and 0.5?msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account. PMID:25197652

Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Funada, Hideaki; Minoda, Haruka

2014-01-01

338

A modified experts algorithm : using correlation to speed convergence with very large sets of experts  

E-print Network

This paper discusses a modification to the Exploration-Exploitation Experts algorithm - (EEE). The EEE is a generalization of the standard experts algorithm which is designed for use in reactive environments. In these ...

Schwartz, Jeremy (Jeremy D.)

2006-01-01

339

Satellite operations support expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Satellite Operations Support Expert System is an effort to identify aspects of satellite ground support activity which could profitably be automated with artificial intelligence (AI) and to develop a feasibility demonstration for the automation of one such area. The hydrazine propulsion subsystems (HPS) of the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) were used as applications domains. A demonstration fault handling system was built. The system was written in Franz Lisp and is currently hosted on a VAX 11/750-11/780 family machine. The system allows the user to select which HPS (either from ISEE or IUE) is used. Then the user chooses the fault desired for the run. The demonstration system generates telemetry corresponding to the particular fault. The completely separate fault handling module then uses this telemetry to determine what and where the fault is and how to work around it. Graphics are used to depict the structure of the HPS, and the telemetry values displayed on the screen are continually updated. The capabilities of this system and its development cycle are described.

1985-01-01

340

Ethics Committee (COMETS) Ethics and expert assessments  

E-print Network

Ethics Committee (COMETS) Ethics and expert assessments ajor topicExpert assessments are an area of the CNRS, the French National Centre for Scientific Research, made a formal request to the ethics committee programme on Ethics and Evaluation (see http://www2.cnrs.fr/band/254.htm), the COMETS began its study

van Tiggelen, Bart

341

The Expert Ceiling in Epistemological Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paulsen and Wells (1998) stated that, "it seems unlikely that substantial differences in epistemological beliefs across domains would persist in studies of faculty or other more advanced experts," (p. 380). This statement implies the existence of an upper limit or ceiling effect in the epistemological beliefs among experts. Faculty members are…

Barnard, Lucy

2007-01-01

342

Graphic Novels in Libraries: An Expert's Opinion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barbara Gordon a librarian and computer expert from Gotham city is a genius level intellect and photographic memory expert at research and analysis. According to her, graphic novels and comics are wildly appealing to readers of all ages and intensely popular with adolescents.

Foster, Katy

2004-01-01

343

Expert System Detects Power-Distribution Faults  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) computer program is prototype expert-system program detecting faults in electrical-power-distribution system. Assists human operators in diagnosing faults and deciding what adjustments or repairs needed for immediate recovery from faults or for maintenance to correct initially nonthreatening conditions that could develop into faults. Written in Lisp.

Walters, Jerry L.; Quinn, Todd M.

1994-01-01

344

Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner.

Levy, Arthur J. (Schenectady, NY); Oppenlander, Jane E. (Scotia, NY); Brudnoy, David M. (Albany, NY); Englund, James M. (Clifton Park, NY); Loomis, Kent C. (Clifton Park, NY)

1994-01-01

345

Finding Experts Using Social Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching an organization's document repositories for experts is a frequently occurred problem in intranet information management. A common method for finding experts in an organization is to use social networks - people are not isolated but connected by various kinds of associations. In organizations, people explicitly send email to one another thus social networks are likely to be contained in

Yupeng Fu; Rongjing Xiang; Yiqun Liu; Min Zhang; Shaoping Ma

2007-01-01

346

Expert networks: Paradigmatic conflict, technological rapproachement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rule-based expert system is demonstrated to have both a symbolic computational network representation and a sub-symbolic connectionist representation. These alternate views enhance the usefulness of the original system by facilitating introduction of connectionist learning methods into the symbolic domain. The connectionist representation learns and stores metaknowledge in highly connected subnetworks and domain knowledge in a sparsely connected expert network

R. C. Lacher

1993-01-01

347

Fuzzy Expert Systems Jonathan M. Garibaldi  

E-print Network

and the evaluation of (one or more of) its corresponding fuzzy expert systems. A model may be evaluated as accurately tutorial the reader is referred to Cox [8]; for a comprehensive coverage of fuzzy methods see, for exampleFuzzy Expert Systems Jonathan M. Garibaldi Automated Scheduling, OptimisAtion and Planning (ASAP

Aickelin, Uwe

348

Expert system technology for the military  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the applications of expert systems to complex military problems. A brief description of needs for expert systems in the military arena is given. A short tutorial on some of the elements of an expert system is found in Appendix I. An important aspect of expert systems concerns using uncertain information and ill-defined procedures. Many of the general techniques of dealing with uncertainty are described in Appendix II. These techniques include Bayesian certainty factors, Dempster-Shafer theory of uncertainty, and Zadeh's fuzzy set theory. The major portion of the paper addresses specific expert system examples such as resource allocation, identification of radar images, maintenance and troubleshooting of electronic equipment, and the interpretation and understanding of radar images. Extensions of expert systems to incorporate learning are examined in the context of military intelligence to determine the disposition, location, and intention of the adversary. The final application involves the use of distributed communicating cooperating expert systems for battle management. Finally, the future of expert systems and their evolving capabilities are discussed.

Franklin, J.E.; Carmody, C.L.; Buteau, B.L.; Keller, K.; Levitt, T.S.

1988-10-01

349

An Expert System for Environmental Data Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the possibility of using expert system tools for environmental data management. Describes the domain-independent expert system shell SAK and Knowledge EXplorer, a system that learns rules from data. Demonstrates the functionality of Knowledge EXplorer on an example of water quality evaluation. (LZ)

Berka, Petr; Jirku, Petr

1995-01-01

350

On Getting Expertise into an Expert System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship between the problems involved in the creation of expert systems by knowledge engineers, i.e., experts at translating human abilities and knowledge into computer programs, and the major issues dealt with in the planning/analysis phases of instructional development. (MBR)

Tiemann, Philip W.; Markle, Susan M.

1984-01-01

351

The Scientist's Expert Assistant Simulation Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of developing an observing program for a given observatory, the planner requires a number of inputs regarding the target and scientific instrument that need to be calculated, found, and/or confirmed. Thus, preparation of a program can be quite a daunting task. The task can be made easier by providing observers with a software tools environment. NGST funded the initial development of the Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) to research new visual approaches to proposal preparation. Building on this experience, work has begun on a new integrated SEA simulation facility. The main objective is to develop the framework for a flexible simulation facility to allow astronomers to explore the target/instrument/observatory parameters and to 'simulate' the quality of data they will attain. The goal is a simulation pipeline that will allow the user to manage the complex process of simulating and analyzing images without heroic programming effort. Tying this into SEA will allow astronomers to effectively come 'full circle' from retrieving archival images, to data analysis, to proposing new observations. The objectives and strategies for the SEA simulation facility are discussed, as well as current status and future enhancements.

Wolf, K. R.; Li, C.; Jones, J.; Matusow, D.; Grosvenor, S.; Koratkar, A.

352

A prototype expert system for fishway design.  

PubMed

The design of structures for fish passage in rivers and streams provides an opportunity to apply expert system concepts to a design problem. Fishways contribute to the sustainable development of water resources projects by providing a path that allows fish migrations to be maintained. A prototype expert system (FDES) has been developed to recommend the most suitable fishway type for given design conditions. A recommendation is provided on the basis of fishway hydraulics, fish passage performance, and cost requirements. Fishway design demands expertise in various scientific disciplines such as hydrology, hydraulics, and fish biology. Expert system technology may be used to reduce design time requirements and to serve as a teaching aid to inexperienced engineers by organizing and accessing the cumulative knowledge of the most experienced designers. The rule-based expert system development tool, VP-Expert, supplies the backward chaining control structure for accessing the knowledge within the prototype. PMID:24227094

Bender, M J; Katopodis, C; Simonovic, S P

1992-12-01

353

A Model Expert System For Machine Failure Diagnosis (MED)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MED is a model expert system for machine failure diagnosis. MED can help the repairer quickly determine milling machine electrical failure. The key points in MED are a simple method to deal with the "subsequent visit" problem in machine failure diagnosis, a weighted list to interfere in the control of AGENDA to imitate an expert's continuous thinking process and to keep away erratic questioning and problem running away caused by probabilistic reasoning, the structuralized AGENDA, the characteristics of machine failure diagnosis and people's thinking pattern in faulure diagnosis. The structuralized AGENDA gives an idea to supply a more powerful as well as flexible control strategy in best-first search by using AGENDA. The "subsequent visit" problem is a very complicated task to solve, it will be convenient to deal with it by using a simple method to keep from consuming too much time in urgent situations. Weighted list also gives a method to improve control in inference of expert system. The characteristics of machine failure diagnosis and people's thinking pattern are both important for building a machine failure diagnosis expert system. When being told failure phenomena, MED can determine failure causes through dialogue. MED is written in LISP and run in UNIVAC 1100/10 and IBM PC/XT computers. The average diagnosis time per failure is 11 seconds to CPU, 2 minites to terminal operation, and 11 minites to a skilful repairer.

Liqun, Yin

1987-05-01

354

Abnormal P600 in heroin addicts with prolonged abstinence elicited during a working memory test.  

PubMed

The P600 component of event-related potentials, believed to be generated by anterior cingulate gyrus and basal ganglia, is considered as an index of aspects of second-pass parsing processes of information processing, having much in common with working memory (WM) systems. Moreover, dysfunction of these brain structures as well as WM deficits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of opioid addicts. The present study is focused on P600 elicited during a WM test in twenty heroin addicts with prolonged abstinence compared with an equal number of healthy controls. The results showed significantly prolonged latencies at right hemisphere, specifically at Fp2 abduction. Moreover, memory performance of patients did not differ from that of normal controls. These findings may indicate that abstinent heroin addicts manifest abnormal aspects of second-pass parsing processes as are reflected by the P600 latencies, elicited during a WM test. Additionally, the P600 might serve as a valuable investigative tool for a more comprehensive understanding of the neurobiological substrate of drug abuse. PMID:11409757

Papageorgiou, C; Liappas, I; Asvestas, P; Vasios, C; Matsopoulos, G K; Nikolaou, C; Nikita, K S; Uzunoglu, N; Rabavilas, A

2001-06-13

355

A LUCID EXPERT SYSTEM FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF SCALE INSECT FAMILIES (HEMIPTERA; STERNORRHYNCHA; COCCOIDEA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A lucid online expert system provides a key and a series of HTML pages that assist identifiers in determining unknown scale insects to family. Images of characters and a glossary greatly facilitate the process of making an identification....

356

Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

Gomez, Fernando

1989-01-01

357

Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8plus T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity  

SciTech Connect

Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.

M Honda; R Wang; W Kong; M Kanekiyo; Q Akahata; L Xu; K Matsuo; K Natarajan; H Robinson; et al.

2011-12-31

358

Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8+ T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity  

SciTech Connect

Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.

Honda, M.; Robinson, H.; Wang, R.; Kong, W.-P.; Kanekiyo, M.; Akahata, W.; Xu, L.; Matsuo, K.; Natarajan, K.; Asher, T. E.; Price, D. A.; Douek, D. C.; Margulies, D. H.; Nabel, G. J.

2009-08-15

359

Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8+ T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity1  

PubMed Central

Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8+ cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2Dd better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8+ T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination. PMID:19620307

Honda, Mitsuo; Wang, Rui; Kong, Wing-Pui; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Akahata, Wataru; Xu, Ling; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Natarajan, Kannan; Robinson, Howard; Asher, Tedi E.; Price, David A.; Douek, Daniel C.; Margulies, David H.; Nabel, Gary J.

2010-01-01

360

Elicitation of galanthamine biosynthesis by Leucojum aestivum liquid shoot cultures.  

PubMed

The effects of methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid on galanthamine production, phenolic acid content and growth of Leucojum aestivum L. shoot culture, cultivated in submerged conditions were investigated. The best time-point for addition of elicitors was during the exponential phase of the culture growth. The maximal contents of galanthamine and lycorine (226.9 ?g/flask and 491.4 ?g/flask, 1.36 and 1.67-fold higher compared to the control, respectively) were achieved after elicitation with jasmonic acid, whereas the elicitation with methyl jasmonte resulted in maximal accumulation of phenolic acids. It was demonstrated that the boosting effect of jasmonic acid on Amaryllidacea alkaloid biosynthesis was due to induction of the activity of tyrosine decarboxylase, whereas methyl jasmonate stimulates the biosynthesis of phenolic acids by inducing mainly the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. PMID:23648110

Ivanov, Ivan; Georgiev, Vasil; Pavlov, Atanas

2013-08-15

361

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compatible data compression of mammograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compatible image compression scheme tailored to the compression\\u000a of digitized mammographic images. This includes a preprocessing step that segments the tissue area from the background, replaces\\u000a the background pixels with a constant value, and applies a noise-removal filter to the tissue area. The process was tested\\u000a by performing a just-noticeable difference

Walter F. Good; Glenn S. Maitz; David Gur

1994-01-01

362

Becoming a “Greeble” Expert: Exploring Mechanisms for Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity to configural changes in face processing has been cited as evidence for face-exclusive mechanisms. Alternatively, general mechanisms could be fine-tuned by experience with homogeneous stimuli. We tested sensitivity to configural transformations for novices and experts with nonface stimuli (“Greebles”). Parts of transformed Greebles were identified via forced-choice recognition. Regardless of expertise level, the recognition of parts in the Studied

ISABEL GAUTHIER; MICHAEL J. TARR

1997-01-01

363

Subfornical Organ: Site of Drinking Elicitation by Angiotensin II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin II applied directly to the subfornical organ in a dose as small as 0.1 nanogram elicited short-latency drinking behavior in water-sated rats. Lesions in the body of this structure blocked drinking induced by angiotensin II applied to the basal telencephalon (including preoptic area). These results call attention to the subfornical organ as an important central nervous structure involved in

John B. Simpson; Aryeh Routtenberg

1973-01-01

364

An overview of expert systems. [artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system is defined and its basic structure is discussed. The knowledge base, the inference engine, and uses of expert systems are discussed. Architecture is considered, including choice of solution direction, reasoning in the presence of uncertainty, searching small and large search spaces, handling large search spaces by transforming them and by developing alternative or additional spaces, and dealing with time. Existing expert systems are reviewed. Tools for building such systems, construction, and knowledge acquisition and learning are discussed. Centers of research and funding sources are listed. The state-of-the-art, current problems, required research, and future trends are summarized.

Gevarter, W. B.

1982-01-01

365

Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits phrenic motor facilitation  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that reduced respiratory neural activity elicits compensatory mechanisms of plasticity that enhance respiratory motor output. In urethane-anesthetized and ventilated rats, we reversibly reduced respiratory neural activity for 25–30 min using: hypocapnia (end tidal CO2 = 30 mmHg), isoflurane (~ 1%) or high frequency ventilation (HFV; ~100 breaths/min). In all cases, increased phrenic burst amplitude was observed following restoration of respiratory neural activity (hypocapnia: 92 ± 22%; isoflurane: 65 ± 22%; HFV: 54 ± 13% baseline), which was significantly greater than time controls receiving the same surgery, but no interruptions in respiratory neural activity (3 ± 5% baseline, p<0.05). Hypocapnia also elicited transient increases in respiratory burst frequency (9 ± 2 versus 1 ± 1 bursts/min, p<0.05). Our results suggest that reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a unique form of plasticity in respiratory motor control which we refer to as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). iPMF may prevent catastrophic decreases in respiratory motor output during ventilatory control disorders associated with abnormal respiratory activity. PMID:21167322

Mahamed, Safraaz; Strey, Kristi A.; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Baker-Herman, Tracy L.

2011-01-01

366

Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological measures of motivational valence is rare. Objective The present study investigated the motivational properties of experimentally conditioned cues for smoking. Methods Thirty-nine smokers completed a differential conditioning protocol. Abstract pictures were used as CSs and single puffs on a cigarette as unconditioned stimulus (US). Skin conductance responses and facial electromyography of the zygomatic, corrugator, and orbicularis oris muscles were measured during conditioning. Results The conditioned cue for smoking (CS+) elicited stronger skin conductance responses and more activity of the zygomatic and orbicularis oris muscles than the CS?. Conclusions These results support the notion that through pairing with smoking, neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit preparatory physiological responses, which are assumed to play an important role in the maintenance of addiction and relapse in the natural environment. PMID:20953588

Winkler, Markus H.; Weyers, Peter; Mucha, Ronald F.; Stippekohl, Bastian; Stark, Rudolf

2010-01-01

367

Cholecystokinin elicits the complete behavioral sequence of satiety in rats.  

PubMed

The behavior of intact rats and rats with chronic gastric fistulas was observed and scored during a 60-min test period when they were offered liquid diet after 17 hr of food deprivation. Intact rats and rats with closed fistulas displayed a specific behavioral sequence at the end of each meal: They stopped eating, engaged in grooming and exploration for a short time, and then rested or slept. Thus, a fixed behavioral sequence characterizes satiety in the rat. Although the behavioral sequence of satiety was fixed, the cessation of feeding was not a sufficient condition for the appearance of the rest of the sequence: Quinine adulteration of the liquid diet stopped sham feeding but did not elicit the complete sequence. Intraperitoneal injection of the intestinal hormone cholecystokinin during sham feeding, however, elicited the complete sequence of satiety. The observation that cholecystokinin not only stops feeding but elicits the complete sequence of satiety supports our hypothesis that endogenous cholecystokinin is a satiety signal for the rat. PMID:1176672

Antin, J; Gibbs, J; Holt, J; Young, R C; Smith, G P

1975-09-01

368

Statistical analysis of elicitation strategies for thiarubrine A production in hairy root cultures of Ambrosia artemisiifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elicitation strategies were studied for yield enhancement of thiarubrine A, a secondary metabolite and a potential pharmaceutical, produced by hairy root cultures of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Abiotic elicitation was performed using vanadyl sulfate solution and biotic elicitation using autoclaved cell wall filtrates of the fungi Protomyces gravidus, a pathogen of A. artemisiifolia and Botrytis cinereae. The factors considered were age of

S. G Bhagwath; M. A Hjortsø

2000-01-01

369

An Assessment of Language Elicitation without the Supervision of a Linguist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AVENUE machine translation system is designed for resource poor scenarios in which parallel corpora are not available. In this situation, parallel corpora are created by bilingual consultants who translate an elicitation corpus into their languages. We have described the elicitation corpus in other publications. This paper is concerned with evaluation of the elicitation corpus: is it suitably designed so

Alison Alvarez; Lori Levin; Robert Frederking; Jill Lehman

370

Research Dilemmas Associated with Photo Elicitation in Comparative Early Childhood Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Photo elicitation has become an important method to produce data in qualitative research. There is quite an extensive literature indicating the benefits of photo elicitation in order to facilitate collaboration in meaning making between researcher and the interviewee. This article addresses dilemmas associated with using photo elicitation in a…

Birkeland, Asta

2013-01-01

371

Process  

Cancer.gov

Requests for resources may be made on the first of every month, after consultation with program staff. Scientists are invited to submit innovative and compelling discoveries that have no existing avenue for pre-clinical development aimed toward application for an IND. Requests for resources will be competitively reviewed as described above (i.e., by a evaluation panel composed of outside experts).

372

Ask the Experts -- April/May 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experts address this thought-provoking question in this month's column: "How does the air quality, specifically the level of air pollutants, in the smoking section of a restaurant compare to air quality in smoke-free restaurants?"

2006-04-01

373

A parallel strategy for implementing real-time expert systems using CLIPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As evidenced by current literature, there appears to be a continued interest in the study of real-time expert systems. It is generally recognized that speed of execution is only one consideration when designing an effective real-time expert system. Some other features one must consider are the expert system's ability to perform temporal reasoning, handle interrupts, prioritize data, contend with data uncertainty, and perform context focusing as dictated by the incoming data to the expert system. This paper presents a strategy for implementing a real time expert system on the iPSC/860 hypercube parallel computer using CLIPS. The strategy takes into consideration not only the execution time of the software, but also those features which define a true real-time expert system. The methodology is then demonstrated using a practical implementation of an expert system which performs diagnostics on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). This particular implementation uses an eight node hypercube to process ten sensor measurements in order to simultaneously diagnose five different failure modes within the SSME. The main program is written in ANSI C and embeds CLIPS to better facilitate and debug the rule based expert system.

Ilyes, Laszlo A.; Villaseca, F. Eugenio; Delaat, John

1994-01-01

374

Expert consultation on risk factors for introduction of infectious pathogens into fish farms.  

PubMed

An expert consultation was conducted to provide quantitative parameters required to inform risk-based surveillance of aquaculture holdings for selected infectious hazards. The hazards were four fish diseases endemic in some or several European countries: infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and koi herpes virus disease (KHD). Experts were asked to provide estimates for the relative importance of 5 risk themes for the hazard to be introduced into and infect susceptible fish at the destination. The 5 risk themes were: (1) live fish and egg movements; (2) exposure via water; (3) on-site processing; (4) short distance mechanical transmission and (5) distance independent mechanical transmission. The experts also provided parameter estimates for hazard transmission pathways within the themes. The expert consultation was undertaken in a 2 step approach: an online survey followed by an expert consultation meeting. The expert opinion indicated that live fish movements and exposure via water were the major relevant risk themes. Experts were recruited from several European countries and thus covered a range of farming systems. Therefore, the outputs from the expert consultation have relevance for the European context. PMID:24780587

Oidtmann, Birgit C; Peeler, Edmund J; Thrush, Mark A; Cameron, Angus R; Reese, R Allan; Pearce, Fiona M; Dunn, Peter; Lyngstad, Trude M; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Brun, Edgar; Stärk, Katharina D C

2014-08-01

375

Jess, the Java expert system shell  

SciTech Connect

This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

Friedman-Hill, E.J.

1997-11-01

376

2668 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1994,33, 2668-2687 An Expert Network for Predictive Modeling and Optimal Design of  

E-print Network

2668 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1994,33, 2668-2687 An Expert Network for Predictive Modeling and Optimal an expert network, provides an accurate and efficient tool for quantitative predictions of phase diagrams modelingcapabili- ties of a neural network, to develop an expert network for bioseparation process synthesis

Liu, Y. A.

377

Bothered by Abstractness or Engaged by Cohesion? Experts' Explanations Enhance Novices' Deep-Learning.  

PubMed

Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25437792

Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

2014-12-01

378

Elicitation of awareness for teachability of metacognitive strategies for transfer from L1 to L2 in students' reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study explored, through a process of elicitation of awareness for teachability, the metacognitive strategies that fifth-grade elementary monolingual English-speaking students in a dual English and Hebrew language program are using in reading comprehension in their first language (English). The study determined the extent to which degree of awareness of metacognitive strategies in a student's first language (L1) leads

Tova E Ben-Dov

1998-01-01

379

Emulating the prospector expert system with a raster gis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent enhancements to the MAPS public-domain raster geographic information system (GIS) allow it to emulate the methodology of the Prospector Expert System. This pragmatic implementation deviates from the classic methods of expert systems, forward and backward chaining, but uses the standard GIS method of cartographic modeling. This allows faster processing of cell maps, but requires that the rule base be ordered before use. There is some evidence in the original description of Prospector of deviation from the reported method of backward chaining. The Prospector methodology is discussed, and step-by-step examples of Bayesian inference, fuzzy logic, and certainty calculations are presented. Expert systems provide the ability to process a cartographic model with missing or incomplete data. A simplified model of the original Prospector rules determining a favorable location to drill for copper was used to test this methodology. This model can accept up to 26 maps as input. The example in this paper uses 23 maps. The results are compared with those of the original Prospector report.

Katz, Solomon S.

380

Real-world natural language interfaces to expert systems  

SciTech Connect

ACE (academic counseling experiment) is a natural-language text processing system currently under development at the University of Connecticut as a testbed for work in real-world conversational interaction with rule-based expert systems. ACE is designed to perform the tasks of a faculty advisor of undergraduate engineering students who intend to be computer science majors at the university. The key problem for a conversational system of this sort is robust understanding, the ability to cope with ungrammatical, ellipsed, and otherwise variant, but responsive, input. The paper outlines ACE's current status and the progress toward testing it with real users. The authors believe it represents a technology which can be applied to a wide variety of rule-based expert systems. 22 references.

Cullingford, R.E.; Selfridge, M.

1983-01-01

381

PVEX: An expert system for producibility/value engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PVEX is described as an expert system that solves the problem of selection of the material and process in missile manufacturing. The producibility and the value problem has been deeply studied in the past years, and was written in dBase III and PROLOG before. A new approach is presented in that the solution is achieved by introducing hypothetical reasoning, heuristic criteria integrated with a simple hypertext system and shell programming. PVEX combines KMS with Unix scripts which graphically depicts decision trees. The decision trees convey high level qualitative problem solving knowledge to users, and a stand-alone help facility and technical documentation is available through KMS. The system developed is considerably less development costly than any other comparable expert system.

Lam, Chun S.; Moseley, Warren

1991-01-01

382

Equating an expert system to a classifier in order to evaluate the expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strategy to evaluate an expert system is formulated. The strategy proposed is based on finding an equivalent classifier to an expert system and evaluate that classifier with respect to an optimal classifier, a Bayes classifier. Here it is shown that for the rules considered an equivalent classifier exists. Also, a brief consideration of meta and meta-meta rules is included. Also, a taxonomy of expert systems is presented and an assertion made that an equivalent classifier exists for each type of expert system in the taxonomy with associated sets of underlying assumptions.

Odell, Patrick L.

1989-01-01

383

Artificial intelligence and expert systems in the steel industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article was prepared in an effort to determine the state of the art with respect to the use of artificial intelligence and expert system technologies within the steel industry. A number of important developments have been reported and most of them resulted in significant savings. Mathematical modeling is quite important both for understanding and for controlling a process. However, most steelmaking operations are extremely complex and cannot be described mathematically. They are, however, adequately controlled by human operators on the basis of their knowledge and expertise. Because of this, artificial intelligence is an ideal technology for the automation of many steelmaking-related processes.

Carayannis, Gregory

1993-10-01

384

Beyond Reminiscence: Using Generic Video to Elicit Conversational Language.  

PubMed

Videos and multimedia are increasingly used to stimulate reminiscence in dementia care. However, they are also valuable in eliciting a wide range of language patterns that are not necessarily keyed to reminiscence about self. Low-technology, home-made generic and personalized videos were tested with 2 samples of persons with dementia, to increase engagement and support the retention of identity. Participants showed a slight, though not significant, preference for looking first at personalized videos and produced a wider range of conversational language topics and phrasal patterns in response to the generic videos. PMID:24851873

Davis, Boyd H; Shenk, Dena

2014-05-22

385

Faces differing in attractiveness elicit corresponding affective responses  

PubMed Central

We examined whether faces differing in attractiveness elicit positive and negative affect in 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 66) and adults (N = 73). Facial electromyography measured affective response. Less attractive faces evoked significantly more levator labii superioris responses in adults and children. Attractiveness was negatively correlated with corrugator supercilii activity in adults, but not significantly in children. These results suggest that less attractive faces evoke greater disgust and negative affect than more attractive faces. Perceivers’ affective reactions to attractive faces may play an important role in attractiveness preferences and attractiveness stereotypes. PMID:21432661

Principe, Connor P.; Langlois, Judith H.

2012-01-01

386

Anger Elicitation in Tonga and Germany: The Impact of Culture on Cognitive Determinants of Emotions  

PubMed Central

The cognitive appraisal of an event is crucial for the elicitation and differentiation of emotions, and causal attributions are an integral part of this process. In an interdisciplinary project comparing Tonga and Germany, we examined how cultural differences in attribution tendencies affect emotion assessment and elicitation. Data on appraising causality and responsibility and on emotional responses were collected through questionnaires based on experimentally designed vignettes, and were related to culture-specific values, norms, and the prevailing self-concept. The experimental data support our hypothesis that – driven by culturally defined self-concepts and corresponding attribution tendencies – members of the two cultures cognitively appraise events in diverging manners and consequently differ in their emotional responses. Ascription of responsibility to self and/or circumstances, in line with a more interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of shame, guilt, and sadness, whereas ascription of responsibility to others, in line with a less interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of anger. These findings support the universal contingency hypothesis and help to explain cultural differences in this domain on a fine-grained level. PMID:23112780

Bender, Andrea; Spada, Hans; Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Traber, Simone; Rauss, Karsten

2012-01-01

387

Acinetobacter baumannii Outer Membrane Vesicles Elicit a Potent Innate Immune Response via Membrane Proteins  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter baumannii is increasingly becoming a major nosocomial pathogen. This opportunistic pathogen secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that interact with host cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of A. baumannii OMVs to elicit a pro-inflammatory response in vitro and the immunopathology in response to A. baumannii OMVs in vivo. OMVs derived from A. baumannii ATCC 19606T induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6, and chemokine genes, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Disintegration of OMV membrane with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in low expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, as compared with the response to intact OMVs. In addition, proteinase K-treated A. baumannii OMVs did not induce significant increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes above the basal level, suggesting that the surface-exposed membrane proteins in intact OMVs are responsible for pro-inflammatory response. Early inflammatory processes, such as vacuolization and detachment of epithelial cells and neutrophilic infiltration, were clearly observed in lungs of mice injected with A. baumannii OMVs. Our data demonstrate that OMVs produced by A. baumannii elicit a potent innate immune response, which may contribute to immunopathology of the infected host. PMID:23977136

Jun, So Hyun; Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Tae In

2013-01-01

388

What makes an art expert? Emotion and evaluation in art appreciation.  

PubMed

Why do some people like negative, or even disgusting and provocative artworks? Art expertise, believed to influence the interplay among cognitive and emotional processing underlying aesthetic experience, could be the answer. We studied how art expertise modulates the effect of positive-and negative-valenced artworks on aesthetic and emotional responses, measured with self-reports and facial electromyography (EMG). Unsurprisingly, emotionally-valenced art evoked coherent valence as well as corrugator supercilii and zygamoticus major activations. However, compared to non-experts, experts showed attenuated reactions, with less extreme valence ratings and corrugator supercilii activations and they liked negative art more. This pattern was also observed for a control set of International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures suggesting that art experts show general processing differences for visual stimuli. Thus, much in line with the Kantian notion that an aesthetic stance is emotionally distanced, art experts exhibited a distinct pattern of attenuated emotional responses. PMID:24383619

Leder, Helmut; Gerger, Gernot; Brieber, David; Schwarz, Norbert

2014-01-01

389

Perceptual symbols of creativity: coldness elicits referential, warmth elicits relational creativity.  

PubMed

Research in the cognitive and social psychological science has revealed the pervading relation between body and mind. Physical warmth leads people to perceive others as psychological closer to them and to be more generous towards others. More recently, physical warmth has also been implicated in the processing of information, specifically through perceiving relationships (via physical warmth) and contrasting from others (via coldness). In addition, social psychological work has linked social cues (such as mimicry and power cues) to creative performance. The present work integrates these two literatures, by providing an embodied model of creative performance through relational (warm = relational) and referential (cold = distant) processing. The authors predict and find that warm cues lead to greater creativity when 1) creating drawings, 2) categorizing objects, and 3) coming up with gifts for others. In contrast, cold cues lead to greater creativity, when 1) breaking set in a metaphor recognition task, 2) coming up with new pasta names, and 3) being abstract in coming up with gifts. Effects are found across different populations and age groups. The authors report implications for theory and discuss limitations of the present work. PMID:24530552

Ijzerman, Hans; Leung, Angela K-y; Ong, Lay See

2014-05-01

390

Cut! that’s a wrap: regulating negative emotion by ending emotion-eliciting situations  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the potentially powerful set of emotion regulation (ER) processes that target emotion-eliciting situations. We thus studied the decision to end emotion-eliciting situations in the laboratory. We hypothesized that people would try to end negative situations more frequently than neutral situations to regulate distress. In addition, motivated by the selection, optimization, and compensation with ER framework, we hypothesized that failed attempts to end the situation would prompt either (a) greater negative emotion or (b) compensatory use of a different ER process, attentional deployment (AD). Fifty-eight participants (18–26 years old, 67% women) viewed negative and neutral pictures and pressed a key whenever they wished to stop viewing them. After key press, the picture disappeared (“success”) or stayed (“failure”) on screen. To index emotion, we measured corrugator and electrodermal activity, heart rate, and self-reported arousal. To index overt AD, we measured eye gaze. As their reason for ending the situation, participants more frequently reported being upset by high- than low-arousal negative pictures; they more frequently reported being bored by low- than high-arousal neutral pictures. Nevertheless, participants’ negative emotional responding did not increase in the context of ER failure nor did they use overt AD as a compensatory ER strategy. We conclude that situation-targeted ER processes are used to regulate emotional responses to high-arousal negative and low-arousal neutral situations; ER processes other than overt AD may be used to compensate for ER failure in this context. PMID:24592251

Vujovic, Lara; Opitz, Philipp C.; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Urry, Heather L.

2014-01-01

391

System and method for creating expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

392

Expert assessments of future photovoltaic technologies.  

PubMed

Subjective probabilistic judgments about future module prices of 26 current and emerging photovoltaic (PV) technologies were obtained from 18 PV technology experts. Fourteen experts provided detailed assessments, including likely future efficiencies and prices under four policy scenarios. While there is considerable dispersion among the judgments, the results suggest a high likelihood that some PV technology will achieve a price of $1.20/Wp by 2030. Only 7 of 18 experts assess a better-than-even chance that any PV technology will achieve $0.30/Wp by 2030; 10 of 18 experts give this assessment by 2050. Given these odds, and the wide dispersion in results, we conclude that PV may have difficulty becoming economically competitive with other options for large-scale, low-carbon bulk electricity in the next 40 years. If $0.30/Wp is not reached, then PV will likely continue to expand in markets other than bulk power. In assessing different policy mechanisms, a majority of experts judged that R&D would most increase efficiency, while deployment incentives would most decrease price. This implies a possible disconnect between research and policy goals. Governments should be cautious about large subsidies for deployment of present PV technology while continuing to invest in R&D to lower cost and reduce uncertainty. PMID:19174867

Curtright, Aimee E; Morgan, M Granger; Keith, David W

2008-12-15

393

Comparing the perceptions of scientific inquiry between experts and practitioners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the perception of scientific inquiry between experts and practitioners, and, if a difference was shown to exist, to analyze those perceptions in order to better understand the extent of that difference or gap. A disconnect was found between how experts and practitioners perceived scientific inquiry. The practitioners differed from both the experts and the literature in three key areas. First, although the teachers indicated that students would be manipulating materials, there was no direct reference to this manipulation actually being performed for the purpose of investigating. Second, the practitioners implied active physical engagement with materials, but they did not tie this to active mental engagement or direct involvement in their own learning. Third, teachers omitted their role in laying the foundation for inquiry. Though classroom teachers lacked a complete understanding of true inquiry and its place in the K-12 classroom, most of them actually believed they were practicing the art of teaching via inquiry. Additionally, two other points of interest arose. First, an examination of the national standards for a number of curricular areas established that the process skills of scientific inquiry are mirrored in those standards, implying that inquiry is not limited to the sciences. Second, a definition of inquiry was formulated based upon interviews with experts in the field. Although the literature and the experts were in unison in their definition, there was a disparity between the accepted definition and that provided by the teachers. The struggle for a comprehensive understanding of inquiry continues to this day. It might very well be that the concept still remains elusive partly because the teacher behaviors associated with it run counter to more traditional methods of instruction...methods that most teachers have experienced throughout their own educational careers. The most pervasive theme involved improvement at the pre-service level. Experts and practitioners alike noted the lack of training and preparation provided in inquiry-based methodologies in the sciences, educational methods courses, and other areas of the curriculum. However, it was also shown that teachers are resistant to change.

Gooding, Julia Terese Chembars

394

Ocean acidification and its impacts: an expert survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of scientists investigating ocean acidification as well as the number of papers published on this issue have increased considerably in the past few years. On the one hand, the advances are welcome for the assessment of ocean acidification and its impacts. On the other hand, the volume and rapidity of the scientific developments as well as some contradictory results have created challenges for assessing the current state of knowledge and informing policy makers. Two tools are being used to synthesize the current information: meta-analysis and expert survey. In January this year, Working Groups I and II of the IPCC organized an expert meeting on ocean acidification in Okinawa. Following this meeting, we built a set of 22 statements, in consultation with several of the meeting participants. An expert survey was then conducted. It involved 52 experts who provided a considerable amount of information. The statements covered a broad array of research fields and were grouped in 3 categories: chemical aspects, biological and biogeochemical responses, and policy and socio-economic aspects. The survey results indicate a relatively strong consensus for most statements related to the past, present and future chemical aspects. Examples of consensual issues are: non-anthropogenic ocean acidification events have occurred in the geological past, anthropogenic CO2 emissions is the main (but not the only) mechanism generating the current ocean acidification event, and ocean acidification will be felt for centuries. The experts generally agreed that there will be impacts on biological and ecological processes and biogeochemical feedbacks, but for such statements, the levels of agreement were lower overall, with more variability across responses. Levels of agreements among experts surveyed were comparatively higher for statements regarding calcification, primary production and nitrogen fixation, as compared to impacts on food-webs. The levels of agreement for statements pertaining to policy and socio-economic impacts, for example on food security, were also relatively low. Thanks are due to the respondents: Andreas Andersson, James Barry, Jerry Blackford, Philip Boyd, Ken Caldeira, Long Cao, Sinead Collins, Sarah Cooley, Kim Currie, Allemand Denis, Brad deYoung, Andrew Dickson, Ken Drinkwater, Sam Dupont, Jonathan Erez, Richard Feely, Maoz Fine, Kunshan Gao, Marion Gehlen, Jason Hall-Spencer, Christoph Heinze, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Gretchen Hofmann, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Maria Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, Akio Ishida, Masao Ishii, Atsushi Ishimatsu, Haruko Kurihara, Kitack Lee, Su Mei Liu, Salvador Lluch-Cota, Jeremy T. Mathis, Ben McNeil, Philip Munday, John Pandolfi, Gian-Kasper Plattner, Alexander Polonsky, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Ulf Riebesell, Rongshuo, Chris Sabine, Daniela Schmidt, Brad Seibel, Yoshihisa Shirayama, Atsushi Suzuki, Carol Turley, Nicola Wannicke, Poh Poh Wong, Michiyo Yamamoto-Kawai and Peter Zavialov.

Gattuso, J.; Mach, K.; Morgan, M. G.

2011-12-01

395

Tailored-to-Fit Bayesian Network Modeling of Expert Diagnostic Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses issues in constructing a Bayesian network domain model for diagnostic purposes from expert knowledge.\\u000a Diagnostic systems rely on suitable models of the domain, which describe causal relationships between problem classes and\\u000a observed symptoms. Typically these models are obtained by analyzing process data or by interviewing domain experts. The domain\\u000a models are usually built in the forward direction,

Ruxandra Lupas Scheiterer; Dragan Obradovic; Volker Tresp

2007-01-01

396

A novel multiple experts and fusion based segmentation algorithm for cursive handwriting recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel segmentation algorithm for offline cursive handwriting recognition. An over-segmentation algorithm is introduced to dissect the words from handwritten text based on the pixel density between upper and lower baselines. Each segment from the over-segmentation is passed to a multiple expert-based validation process. First expert compares the total foreground pixel of the segmentation point to a

Hong Lee; Brijesh Verma

2008-01-01

397

A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

1996-01-01

398

Adding an Expert to the Team: The Expert Flight Plan Critic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the development of a practical tool that provides expert feedback to students following an extended simulation exercise in cross-country flight planning. In contrast to development for laboratory settings, the development of an expert instructional product for everyday use posed some interesting challenges, including dealing…

Gibbons, Andrew; Waki, Randy; Fairweather, Peter

2008-01-01

399

Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.  

PubMed

The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility. PMID:22580983

Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

2013-03-01

400

Tactile stimulation of the oropharynx elicits sympathoexcitation in conscious humans.  

PubMed

Tactile stimulation of the oropharynx (TSO) elicits the gag reflex and increases heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in anesthetized patients. However, the interaction between upper-airway defense reflexes and the sympathetic nervous system has not been investigated in conscious humans. In Experiment 1, beat-by-beat measurements of HR, MAP, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were measured during TSO and tactile stimulation of the hard palate (Sham) in the supine posture. In Experiment 2, TSO was performed before (pre) and after (post) inhalation of 4% lidocaine via nebulizer. Rate pressure product (RPP) was determined. Compared with Sham, TSO elicited the gag reflex and increased RPP [absolute change (?)36 ± 6 vs. 17 ± 5%], MSNA (?122 ± 39 vs. 19 ± 19%), and RVR (?55 ± 11 vs. 4 ± 4%). This effect occurred within one to two cardiac cycles of TSO. The ?MAP (12 ± 3 vs. 6 ± 1 mmHg) and the ?HR (10 ± 3 vs. 3 ± 3 beats/min) were also greater following TSO compared with Sham. Lidocaine inhalation blocked the gag reflex and attenuated increases in MAP (?pre: 16 ± 2; ?post: 5 ± 2 mmHg) and HR (?pre: 12 ± 3; ?post: 2 ± 2 beats/min) in response to TSO. When mechanically stimulated, afferents in the oropharynx not only serve to protect the airway but also cause reflex increases in MSNA, RVR, MAP, and HR. An augmented sympathoexcitatory response during intubation and laryngoscopy may contribute to perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23599399

Muller, Matthew D; Mast, Jessica L; Cui, Jian; Heffernan, Matthew J; McQuillan, Patrick M; Sinoway, Lawrence I

2013-07-01

401

Bee Threat Elicits Alarm Call in African Elephants  

PubMed Central

Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive “rumble” vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees. PMID:20436682

Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Savage, Anne; Vollrath, Fritz

2010-01-01

402

Glyphosate Suppression of an Elicited Defense Response 1  

PubMed Central

The major effort in developing pathogenic fungi into potential mycoherbicides is aimed at increasing fungal virulence to weeds without affecting crop selectivity. Specific suppression of biosynthesis of a phytoalexin derived from the shikimate pathway in Cassia obtusifolia L. by a sublethal dose (50 micromolar) of glyphosate increased susceptibility to the mycoherbicide Alternaria cassiae Jurair & Khan. Glyphosate applied with conidia suppressed phytoalexin synthesis beginning at 12 hours, but not an earlier period 8 to 10 hours after inoculation. The phytoalexin synthesis elicited by fungal inoculation was also suppressed by darkness. The magnitudes of virulence of the mycoherbicide in the dark or with glyphosate in the light were both higher than after inoculation in the light with the same concentration of conidia in the absence of glyphosate. Five times less inoculum was needed to cause disease symptoms when applied with glyphosate than without. Glyphosate did not render A. cassiae virulent on soybean (Glycine max), a crop related to the host. These results suggest that a specific inhibition of a weed's elicited defense response can be a safe way to enhance virulence and improve the efficacy of the mycoherbicide. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 6 PMID:16668691

Sharon, Amir; Amsellem, Ziva; Gressel, Jonathan

1992-01-01

403

Tactile stimulation of the oropharynx elicits sympathoexcitation in conscious humans  

PubMed Central

Tactile stimulation of the oropharynx (TSO) elicits the gag reflex and increases heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in anesthetized patients. However, the interaction between upper-airway defense reflexes and the sympathetic nervous system has not been investigated in conscious humans. In Experiment 1, beat-by-beat measurements of HR, MAP, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were measured during TSO and tactile stimulation of the hard palate (Sham) in the supine posture. In Experiment 2, TSO was performed before (pre) and after (post) inhalation of 4% lidocaine via nebulizer. Rate pressure product (RPP) was determined. Compared with Sham, TSO elicited the gag reflex and increased RPP [absolute change (?)36 ± 6 vs. 17 ± 5%], MSNA (?122 ± 39 vs. 19 ± 19%), and RVR (?55 ± 11 vs. 4 ± 4%). This effect occurred within one to two cardiac cycles of TSO. The ?MAP (12 ± 3 vs. 6 ± 1 mmHg) and the ?HR (10 ± 3 vs. 3 ± 3 beats/min) were also greater following TSO compared with Sham. Lidocaine inhalation blocked the gag reflex and attenuated increases in MAP (?pre: 16 ± 2; ?post: 5 ± 2 mmHg) and HR (?pre: 12 ± 3; ?post: 2 ± 2 beats/min) in response to TSO. When mechanically stimulated, afferents in the oropharynx not only serve to protect the airway but also cause reflex increases in MSNA, RVR, MAP, and HR. An augmented sympathoexcitatory response during intubation and laryngoscopy may contribute to perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23599399

Muller, Matthew D.; Mast, Jessica L.; Cui, Jian; Heffernan, Matthew J.; McQuillan, Patrick M.

2013-01-01

404

Cognitive constraints on constituent order: Evidence from elicited pantomime  

PubMed Central

To what extent does human cognition influence the structure of human language? Recent experiments using elicited pantomime suggest that the prevalence of Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) order across the world's languages may arise in part because SOV order is most compatible with how we conceptually represent transitive events (Goldin-Meadow, So, Özyürek, & Mylander, 2008). However, this raises the question as to why non-SOV orders exist. Two recent studies (Meir, Lifshitz, Ilkbasaran, & Padden, 2010; Gibson et al., 2013) suggest that SOV might be suboptimal for describing events in which both the agent and patient are plausible agents (e.g. a woman pushing a boy); we call these “reversible” events. We replicate these findings using elicited pantomime and offer a new interpretation. Meir et al.'s (2010) account is framed largely in terms of constraints on comprehension, while Gibson et al.'s (2013) account involves minimizing the risk of information loss or memory degradation. We offer an alternative hypothesis that is grounded in constraints on production. We consider the implications of these findings for the distribution of constituent order in the world's spoken languages and for the structure of emerging sign languages. PMID:23792806

Hall, Matthew L.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Ferreira, Victor S.

2014-01-01

405

MEANINGS & MOTIVES Experts Debating Tobacco Addiction  

PubMed Central

Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a “habituation” in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately. PMID:18703459

Mars, Sarah G.

2008-01-01

406

TOPEX/Poseidon precision orbit determination production and expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) is a joint mission between NASA and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), the French Space Agency. The TOPEX/Poseidon Precision Orbit Determination Production System (PODPS) was developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) to produce the absolute orbital reference required to support the fundamental ocean science goals of this satellite altimeter mission within NASA. The orbital trajectory for T/P is required to have a RMS accuracy of 13 centimeters in its radial component. This requirement is based on the effective use of the satellite altimetry for the isolation of absolute long-wavelength ocean topography important for monitoring global changes in the ocean circulation system. This orbit modeling requirement is at an unprecedented accuracy level for this type of satellite. In order to routinely produce and evaluate these orbits, GSFC has developed a production and supporting expert system. The PODPS is a menu driven system allowing routine importation and processing of tracking data for orbit determination, and an evaluation of the quality of the orbit so produced through a progressive series of tests. Phase 1 of the expert system grades the orbit and displays test results. Later phases undergoing implementation, will prescribe corrective actions when unsatisfactory results are seen. This paper describes the design and implementation of this orbit determination production system and the basis for its orbit accuracy assessment within the expert system.

Putney, Barbara; Zelensky, Nikita; Klosko, Steven

1993-01-01

407

Evaluation of user acceptance of a clinical expert system.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To measure the attitudes of physicians and nurses who use the Health Evaluation through Logical Processing (HELP) clinical information system. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey of 360 attending physicians and 960 staff nurses practicing at the LDS Hospital. The physicians' responses were signed, permitting follow-up for nonresponse and use of demographic data from staff files. The nurses' responses were anonymous and their demographic data were obtained from the questionnaires. MEASUREMENTS: Fixed-choice questions with a Likert-type scale, supplemented by free-text comments. Question categories included: computer experience; general attitudes about impact of the system on practice; ranking of available functions; and desired future capabilities. RESULTS: The response rate was 68% for the physicians and 39% for the nurses. Age, specialty, and general computer experience did not correlate with attitudes. Access to patient data and clinical alerts were rated highly. Respondents did not feel that expert computer systems would lead to external monitoring, or that these systems might compromise patient privacy. The physicians and nurses did not feel that computerized decision support decreased their decision-making power. CONCLUSION: The responses to the questionnaire and "free-text comments" provided encouragement for future development and deployment of medical expert systems at LDS Hospital and sister hospitals. Although there has been some fear on the part of medical expert system developers that physicians would not adapt to or appreciate recommendations given by these systems, the results presented here are promising and may be of help to other system developers and evaluators. PMID:7850568

Gardner, R M; Lundsgaarde, H P

1994-01-01

408

Index : A Rule Based Expert System For Computer Network Maintenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communications is an expert intensive discipline. The application of expert systems for maintenance of large and complex networks, mainly as an aid in trouble shooting, can simplify the task of network management. The important steps involved in troubleshooting are fault detection, fault reporting, fault interpretation and fault isolation. At present, Network Maintenance Facilities are capable of detecting and reporting the faults to network personnel. Fault interpretation refers to the next step in the process, which involves coming up with reasons for the failure. Fault interpretation can be characterized in two ways. First, it involves such a diversity of facts that it is difficult to predict. Secondly, it embodies a wealth of knowledge in the form of network management personnel. The application of expert systems in these interpretive tasks is an important step towards automation of network maintenance. In this paper, INDEX (Intelligent Network Diagnosis Expediter), a rule based production system for computer network alarm interpretation is described. It acts as an intelligent filter for people analyzing network alarms. INDEX analyzes the alarms in the network and identifies proper maintenance action to be taken.The important feature of this production system is that it is data driven. Working memory is the principal data repository of production systems and its contents represent the current state of the problem. Control is based upon which productions match the constantly changing working memory elements. Implementation of the prototype is in OPS83. Major issues in rule based system development such as rule base organization, implementation and efficiency are discussed.

Chaganty, Srinivas; Pitchai, Anandhi; Morgan, Thomas W.

1988-03-01

409

Adaptive control with an expert system based supervisory level. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptive control is presently one of the methods available which may be used to control plants with poorly modelled dynamics or time varying dynamics. Although many variations of adaptive controllers exist, a common characteristic of all adaptive control schemes, is that input/output measurements from the plant are used to adjust a control law in an on-line fashion. Ideally the adjustment mechanism of the adaptive controller is able to learn enough about the dynamics of the plant from input/output measurements to effectively control the plant. In practice, problems such as measurement noise, controller saturation, and incorrect model order, to name a few, may prevent proper adjustment of the controller and poor performance or instability result. In this work we set out to avoid the inadequacies of procedurally implemented safety nets, by introducing a two level control scheme in which an expert system based 'supervisor' at the upper level provides all the safety net functions for an adaptive controller at the lower level. The expert system is based on a shell called IPEX, (Interactive Process EXpert), that we developed specifically for the diagnosis and treatment of dynamic systems. Some of the more important functions that the IPEX system provides are: (1) temporal reasoning; (2) planning of diagnostic activities; and (3) interactive diagnosis. Also, because knowledge and control logic are separate, the incorporation of new diagnostic and treatment knowledge is relatively simple. We note that the flexibility available in the system to express diagnostic and treatment knowledge, allows much greater functionality than could ever be reasonably expected from procedural implementations of safety nets. The remainder of this chapter is divided into three sections. In section 1.1 we give a detailed review of the literature in the area of supervisory systems for adaptive controllers. In particular, we describe the evolution of safety nets from simple ad hoc techniques, up to the use of expert systems for more advanced supervision capabilities.

Sullivan, Gerald A.

1991-01-01

410

EXPERT SYSTEMS TO ASSIST IN EVALUATION OF MEASUREMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Expert systems are computer programs designed to provide advice in a specialized area that is comparable to the advice which would be provided by an expert or knowledgeable person in the area. Development of these systems for a particular application is feasible if expert(s) are ...

411

Informatics Systems and Modelling Case Studies of Expert Interviews  

E-print Network

Informatics Systems and Modelling ­ Case Studies of Expert Interviews Leopold Lehner1, Johannes interviews were conducted in order to identify relevant compe- tencies empirically concerning informatics conducted with different expert groups (experts of informatics, experts of didac- tics of informatics

Boyer, Edmond

412

Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expert systems are computer programs that are designed to advise or assist users by storing the knowledge of human experts and applying the computer's mathematical ability to search and sort this information. This study investigated the use of an expert system as a mindtool and whether or not creating a simple expert system would facilitate the…

Mason-Mason, Susan Dale

413

An expert path through a thermo maze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several studies in recent years have demonstrated that upper-division students struggle with partial derivatives and the complicated chain rules ubiquitous in thermodynamics. We asked several experts (primarily faculty who teach thermodynamics) to solve a challenging and novel thermodynamics problem in order to understand how they navigate through this maze. What we found was a tremendous variety in solution strategies and sense-making tools, both within and between individuals. This case study focuses on one particular expert: his solution paths, use of sense-making tools, and comparison of different approaches.

Kustusch, Mary B.; Roundy, David J.; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne

2014-02-01

414

Programming expert systems in OPS5  

SciTech Connect

This book presents techniques for rule-based programming of expert systems in OPS5. OPS5 is a widely-used language designed to simplify rule-based programming. This book is aimed at experienced programmers in industry and universities, and contains examples and exercises with answers. The first section of the book is a tutorial. The development of a small, self-contained OPS5 program is followed from problem definition to testing. The second section considers the nature of production-system architectures, and compares OPS5 with other tools for programming expert systems.

Brownston, L.; Farrell, R.; Kant, E.; Martin, N.

1985-01-01

415

Novices and Experts in Geoinformatics: the Cognitive Gap.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern geoinformatics is an extremely powerful tool for problem analysis and decision making in various fields. Currently general public uses geoinformatics predominantly for navigating (GPS) and sharing information about particular places (GoogleMaps, Wikimapia). Communities also use geoinformatics for particular purposes: fans of history use it to correspond historical and actual maps (www.retromap.ru), birdwatchers point places where they met birds (geobirds.com/rangemaps) etc. However the majority of stakeholders local authorities are not aware of advantages and possibilities of geoinformatics. The same problem is observed for students. At the same time many professional geoinformatic tools are developed, but sometimes the experts even can't explain their purpose to non-experts. So the question is how to shrink the gap between experts and non-experts in understanding and application of geoinformatics. We think that this gap has a cognitive basis. According to modern cognitive theories (Shiffrin-Atkinson and descending) the information primary has to pass through the perceptual filter that cuts off the information that seems to be irrelevant. The mind estimates the relevance implicitly (unconsciously) basing on previous knowledge and judgments what is important. Then it comes to the working memory which is used (a) for proceeding and (b) for problem solving. The working memory has limited capacity and can operate only with about 7 objects simultaneously. Then information passes to the long-term memory that is of unlimited capacity. There it is stored as more or less complex structures with associative links. When necessary it is extracted into the working memory. If great amount of information is linked ("chunked") the working memory operates with it as one object of seven thus overcoming the limitations of the working memory capacity. To adopt any information it should (a) pass through the perceptual filter, (b) not to overload the working memory and (c) to be structured in the long-term memory. Expert easily adopt domain-specific information because they (a) understand terminology and consider the information to be important thus passing it through the perceptual filter and (b) have a lot of complex domain-specific chunks that are processed by the working memory as a whole thus avoiding to overload it. Novices (students and general public) have neither understanding and feeling importance nor necessary chunks. The following measures should be taken to bridge experts' and novices' understanding of geoinformatics. Expert community should popularize geoscientific problems developing understandable language and available tools for their solving. This requires close collaboration with educational system (especially second education). If students understand a problem, they can find and apply appropriate tool for it. Geoscientific problems and models are extremely complex. In cognitive terms, they require hierarchy of chunks. This hierarchy should coherently develop beginning from simple ones later joining them to complex. It requires an appropriate sequence of learning tasks. There is no necessity in correct solutions - the students should understand how are they solved and realize limitations of models. We think that tasks of weather forecast, global climate modeling etc are suitable. The first step on bridging experts and novices is the elaboration of a set and a sequence of learning tasks and its sequence as well as tools for their solution. The tools should be easy for everybody who understands the task and as versatile as possible - otherwise students will waste a lot of time mastering it. This development requires close collaboration between geoscientists and educators.

Zhilin, M.

2012-04-01

416

Central and reflex neuronal responses elicited by odor in a terrestrial mollusk.  

PubMed

1. We studied the responses to odor of a central olfactory processing organ and subsequent central outputs in the terrestrial mollusk Limax maximus. We used extracellular recording techniques and optical recording from preparations stained with a voltage-sensitive dye to characterize network responses in the central organ and whole nerve recording to characterize central odor-elicited outputs. 2. The central olfactory organ, the procerebral (PC) lobe, is a highly interconnected network of local olfactory interneurons that receives input from primary olfactory receptors. In the absence of odor the PC network is known to exhibit periodic waves of excitation and inhibition at a frequency of approximately 0.7 Hz. Here we study how different odor inputs affect the intrinsic oscillatory dynamics. 3. Odor stimulation causes the propagation of electrical activity along the lobe to transiently switch from the state with propagating waves, with typical phase shifts of one half cycle along the lobe, to a state with few or no phase differences along the lobe. The collapse of the phase gradient typically occurs without spatially localized changes in the amplitude of the oscillation, at least on the scale of our optical resolution, approximately 0.1 times the length of the lobe. In some trials, however, we resolved spatial nonuniformities in the magnitude of excitation across the lobe. 4. The collapse of the phase gradient along the lobe in response to odor stimulation is robust on a trial-by-trial basis. Further, the change in phase gradient can occur with little or no change in the frequency of oscillation, as occasionally observed in response to weak odor stimulation. 5. Typically odor stimulation causes changes in the frequency of the oscillation. Two odors, one attractive (potato) and one repellent (amyl acetate), produced different patterns of change; potato induced a transient increase in frequency, whereas amyl acetate produced an initial decrease in frequency followed by a transient increase in frequency. We do not yet know whether these frequency change patterns are unique to these specific odors or to their behavioral meaning. 6. Previous work demonstrated direct connections from the PC lobe to the buccal and pedal ganglia, centers controlling feeding and locomotion, respectively. To establish a correlation between odor-induced changes in the PC lobe and activation of such centers and subsequently effector organs, we recorded from selected central connectives and peripheral nerve roots. The dependence of odor-elicited activity recorded in connectives and nerve roots on PC integrity was assessed by measurements of odor-elicited activity before and after PC ablation. 7. Odor stimulation caused activation of multiple units in the cerebrobuccal connective. One output of the buccal ganglion, the salivary nerve, also showed odor-elicited activation of an identified unit, the slow burster. The necessity of the PC lobe for activation of the slow burster was established by measurements of odor-elicited activity before and after PC ablation. 8. Odor stimulation also caused activation of multiple units in the buccal mass retractor nerve. Activation of a fraction of these units (3 of 10) was dependent on an intact PC lobe, like the slow burster neuron in the salivary nerve. 9. Our results clearly show how stimuli may lead to changes in the spatial-temporal pattern of activity in a central circuit without changing the overall average level of activity in that circuit. PMID:8871239

Gervais, R; Kleinfeld, D; Delaney, K R; Gelperin, A

1996-08-01

417

Expert systems built by the Expert: An evaluation of OPS5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two expert systems were written in OPS5 by the expert, a Ph.D. astronomer with no prior experience in artificial intelligence or expert systems, without the use of a knowledge engineer. The first system was built from scratch and uses 146 rules to check for duplication of scientific information within a pool of prospective observations. The second system was grafted onto another expert system and uses 149 additional rules to estimate the spacecraft and ground resources consumed by a set of prospective observations. The small vocabulary, the IF this occurs THEN do that logical structure of OPS5, and the ability to follow program execution allowed the expert to design and implement these systems with only the data structures and rules of another OPS5 system as an example. The modularity of the rules in OPS5 allowed the second system to modify the rulebase of the system onto which it was grafted without changing the code or the operation of that system. These experiences show that experts are able to develop their own expert systems due to the ease of programming and code reusability in OPS5.

Jackson, Robert

1987-01-01

418

USING EXPERT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY FOR STUDENT EVALUATION  

E-print Network

USING EXPERT SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY FOR STUDENT EVALUATION IN A WEB BASED EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Ioannis of Computer Engin. & Informatics 26500 Patras, Hellas (Greece) & Research Academic Computer Technology of an AI course. We concentrate on the knowledge management and student evaluation aspects of the system

419

BAP EXPERTS Monsieur Gilles TRAIMOND (Prsident)  

E-print Network

BAP EXPERTS Monsieur Gilles TRAIMOND (Président) Monsieur Jean-Luc MARTIN Monsieur Yves MECHULAM Monsieur Gilles TRAIMOND (Président) Monsieur Gérard LELIEVRE Madame Véronique MIGONNEY Monsieur Gilles OHANESSIAN Monsieur Gilles TRAIMOND (Président) Monsieur Piercarlo BONIFACIO Monsieur Noël DIMARCQ Monsieur

Canet, Léonie

420

A game of prediction with expert advice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the following situation. At each point of discrete time the learner must make a prediction; he is given the predictions made by a pool of experts. Each prediction and the outcome, which is disclosed after the learner has made his prediction, determine the incurred loss. It is known that, under weak regularity, the learner can ensure that his

V. G. Vovk

1995-01-01

421

An Expert System for Automatic Query Reformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfamiliarity with search tactics creates difficulties for many users of online retrieval systems. User observations indicate that even experienced searchers use vocabulary incorrectly and rarely reformulate their queries. To address these problems, an expert system for online search assistance was developed. This prototype automatically reformulates queries to improve the search results, and ranks the retrieved passages to speed the identification

Susan Gauch; John B. Smith

1993-01-01

422

The Organization of Expert Systems, A Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a tutorial about the organization of expert problem -solving programs. We begin with a restricted class of problems that admits a very simple organization. To make this organization feasible it is required that the input data be static and reliable and that the solution space be small enough to search exhaustively. These assumptions are then relaxed, one at

Mark Stefik; Jan Aikins; Robert Balzer; John Benoit; Lawrence Birnbaum; Frederick Hayes-roth; Earl D. Sacerdoti

1982-01-01

423

Ask the Experts -- April/May 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Ask the Experts column, the following questions are addressed: "Why does metal feel cold? And why are metals shiny?" and "Why does the United States use different electrical standards compared to Europe (120 V at 60 Hz versus 240 V at 50 Hz)?"

2005-04-01

424

Fuzzy Expert System to Characterize Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students wanting to succeed in higher education are required to adopt an adequate learning approach. By analyzing individual learning characteristics, teachers can give personal advice to help students identify their learning success factors. An expert system based on fuzzy logic can provide economically viable solutions to help students identify…

Van Hecke, T.

2011-01-01

425

Health experts boldly step out of  

E-print Network

Health experts boldly step out of their areas of research to speak about how their personal health Dean, Harvard School of Public Health T & G Angelopoulos Professor of Public Health and International Development, Harvard School of Public Health and Harvard Kennedy School Felicia Knaul Director, Harvard Global

426

A fuzzy expert system for substation design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer aided design (CAD) cannot complete some policymaking procedures of substation design, such as defining the main electrical connection. One can solve these problems by applying fuzzy expert system theory to CAD. The paper proposes a method of expressing all relative factors to the main electrical connection plan in a few fuzzy subsets, compute the membership degree using the Derfei

Li Ran; Gu Xueping; Lu Jinling; Sheng Siqing

2002-01-01

427

Experts Divide on Responses to Cheating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cheating scandal that has rocked the 48,000-student Atlanta school system was an egregious, but not entirely unexpected, byproduct of accountability pressures, many testing experts say. The reason: As long as test scores are used in any field to make decisions on rewards or punishments, including for schools or educators, a small percentage of…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

428

A distributed expert system for fault diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a hybrid approach to synthesizing solutions for diagnosis and set covering problems from the area of power system operations. The approach combines expert systems written in a rule-based language (OPS5) with algorithmic programs written in C and Lisp. An environment called DPSK has been developed to allow these programs to be run in parallel on a network

E. Cardozo; S. N. Talukdar

1988-01-01

429

Probabilistic expert systems for DNA mixture profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how probabilistic expert systems can be used to structure and solve complex cases of forensic identification involving DNA traces that might be mixtures of several DNA profiles. In particular, this approach can readily handle cases where the number of contributors to the mixture cannot be regarded as known in advance. The flexible modularity of the networks used also

J. Mortera; A. P. Dawid; S. L. Lauritzen

2003-01-01

430

Robust incremental growing multi-experts network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most supervised neural networks are trained by minimizing the mean square error (MSE) of the training set. In the presence of outliers, the resulting neural network model can differ significantly from the underlying model that generates the data. This paper outlines two robust learning methods for a dynamic structure neural network called incremental growing multi-experts network (IGMN). It is convincingly

Chu Kiong Loo; Mandava Rajeswari; Machavaram Venkata Chalapathy Rao

2006-01-01

431

Distributed expert systems for network performance optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed expert system that uses a simulation-based optimization methodology for queuing networks and whose architecture permits parallel simulation of multiple configurations is presented. A knowledge-based search that is a randomized combination of steepest descent and branch and bound algorithms in which the generating function of new states uses qualitative reasoning and the gradient of the objective function is estimated

YUVAL LIROV; BENJAMIN MELAMED

1990-01-01

432

Detecting malingering: a survey of experts’ practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey addressing practices of ‘expert’ neuropsychologists in handling financial compensation claim or personal injury litigation cases was carried out. Potential participants were identified by publication history. Responses were obtained from 24 out of the 39 neuropsychologists who were surveyed. Approximately 79% of the respondents reported using at least one specialized technique for detecting malingering in every litigant assessment. Half

Daniel J Slick; Jing E Tan; Esther H Strauss; David F Hultsch

2004-01-01

433

Obesity Evaluation and Treatment: Expert Committee Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objectives. The development of recom- mendations for physicians, nurse practitioners, and nu- tritionists to guide the evaluation and treatment of over- weight children and adolescents. Methods. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, the De- partment of Health and Human Services convened a committee of pediatric obesity experts to develop the recommendations. Results. The Committee

Sarah E. Barlow; William H. Dietz

1998-01-01

434

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

435

An Expert System for Monitor Alarm Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Intensive care and operating room monitors generate data that are not fully utilized. False alarms are so frequent that attending personnel tends to disconnect them. We developed an expert system that could select and validate alarms by integration of seven vital signs monitored on-line from cardiac surgical patients. Methods. The system uses fuzzy logic and is able to work

Christian Oberli; Jorge Urzua; Claudia Saez; Marcello Guarini; Aldo Cipriano; Bernardita Garayar; Guillermo Lema; Roberto Canessa; Carla Sacco; Manuel Irarrazaval

1999-01-01

436

A Prototype Expert System for Fishway Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a prototype expert system to recommend the most suitable type of fishway for given design conditions. Recommendations are provided on the basis of fishway hydraulics, fish passage performance, and cost requirements. An appendix provides an example consultation. (MDH)

Bender, Michael J.; And Others

1992-01-01

437

Small?molecule elicitation of microbial secondary metabolites  

PubMed Central

Summary Microbial natural products continue to be an unparalleled resource for pharmaceutical lead discovery, but the rediscovery rate is high. Bacterial and fungal sequencing studies indicate that the biosynthetic potential of many strains is much greater than that observed by fermentation. Prodding the expression of such silent (cryptic) pathways will allow us to maximize the chemical diversity available from microorganisms. Cryptic metabolic pathways can be accessed in the laboratory using molecular or cultivation?based approaches. A targeted approach related to cultivation?based methods is the application of small?molecule elicitors to specifically affect transcription of secondary metabolite gene clusters. With the isolation of the novel secondary metabolites lunalides A and B, oxylipins, cladochromes F and G, nygerone A, chaetoglobosin?542, ?540 and ?510, sphaerolone, dihydrosphaerolone, mutolide and pestalone, and the enhanced production of known secondary metabolites like penicillin and bacitracin, chemical elicitation is proving to be an effective way to augment natural product libraries. PMID:21375710

Pettit, Robin K.

2011-01-01

438

Biomimetic Antigenic Nanoparticles Elicit Controlled Protective Immune Response to Influenza  

PubMed Central

Here we present a biomimetic strategy towards nanoparticle design for controlled immune response through encapsulation of conserved internal influenza proteins on the interior of virus like particles (VLPs) to direct CD8+ cytotoxic T cell protection. Programmed encapsulation and sequestration of the conserved nucleoprotein (NP) from influenza on the interior of a VLP, derived from the bacteriophage P22, results in a vaccine that provides multi-strain protection against 100 times lethal doses of influenza in an NP specific CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. VLP assembly and encapsulation of the immunogenic NP cargo protein is the result of a genetically programmed self-assembly making this strategy amendable to the quick production of vaccines to rapidly emerging pathogens. Addition of adjuvants or targeting molecules were not required for eliciting the protective response. PMID:23540530

Patterson, Dustin P.; Rynda-Apple, Agnieszka; Harmsen, Ann L.; Harmsen, Allen G.; Douglas, Trevor

2013-01-01

439

Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.  

PubMed

Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2014-09-01

440

Reliance on luck: identifying which achievement goals elicit superstitious behavior.  

PubMed

People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influenced by chronic learning orientation (Studies 1 and 2). Similarly, participants exhibited stronger preferences for lucky items when primed to pursue performance goals rather than learning goals (Studies 3 and 4). As uncertainty of goal achievement increased, superstitious behavior increased when participants pursued performance goals but not learning goals (Study 5). Finally, assignment to use a lucky (vs. unlucky) item resulted in greater confidence of achieving performance goals but not learning goals (Study 6). PMID:25617118

Hamerman, Eric J; Morewedge, Carey K

2015-03-01

441

Norovirus P Particle Efficiently Elicits Innate, Humoral and Cellular Immunity  

PubMed Central

Norovirus (NoV) P domain complexes, the 24 mer P particles and the P dimers, induced effective humoral immunity, but their role in the cellular immune responses remained unclear. We reported here a study on cellular immune responses of the two P domain complexes in comparison with the virus-like particle (VLP) of a GII.4 NoV (VA387) in mice. The P domain complexes induced significant central memory CD4+ T cell phenotypes (CD4+ CD44+ CD62L+ CCR7+) and activated polyclonal CD4+ T cells as shown by production of Interleukin (IL)-2, Interferon (IFN)-?, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-?. Most importantly, VA387-specific CD4+ T cell epitope induced a production of IFN-?, indicating an antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response in P domain complex-immunized mice. Furthermore, P domain complexes efficiently induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) maturation, evidenced by up-regulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules, as well as production of IL-12 and IL-1?. Finally, P domain complex-induced mature dendritic cells (DCs) elicited proliferation of specific CD4+ T cells targeting VA387 P domain. Overall, we conclude that the NoV P domain complexes are efficiently presented by DCs to elicit not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against NoVs. Since the P particle is highly effective for both humoral and cellular immune responses and easily produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli), it is a good choice of vaccine against NoVs and a vaccine platform against other diseases. PMID:23638188

Fang, Hao; Tan, Ming; Xia, Ming; Wang, Leyi; Jiang, Xi

2013-01-01

442

In the Blink of an Eye: Neural Responses Elicited to Viewing the Eye Blinks of Another Individual  

PubMed Central

Facial movements have the potential to be powerful social signals. Previous studies have shown that eye gaze changes and simple mouth movements can elicit robust neural responses, which can be altered as a function of potential social significance. Eye blinks are frequent events and are usually not deliberately communicative, yet blink rate is known to influence social perception. Here, we studied event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to observing non-task relevant blinks, eye closure, and eye gaze changes in a centrally presented natural face stimulus. Our first hypothesis (H1) that blinks would produce robust ERPs (N170 and later ERP components) was validated, suggesting that the brain may register and process all types of eye movement for potential social relevance. We also predicted an amplitude gradient for ERPs as a function of gaze change, relative to eye closure and then blinks (H2). H2 was only partly validated: large temporo-occipital N170s to all eye change conditions were observed and did not significantly differ between blinks and other conditions. However, blinks elicited late ERPs that, although robust, were significantly smaller relative to gaze conditions. Our data indicate that small and task-irrelevant facial movements such as blinks are measurably registered by the observer's brain. This finding is suggestive of the potential social significance of blinks which, in turn, has implications for the study of social cognition and use of real-life social scenarios. PMID:21852969

Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie A.; Berrebi, Michael E.; McNeely, Marie E.; Prostko, Amy L.; Puce, Aina

2011-01-01

443

In the blink of an eye: neural responses elicited to viewing the eye blinks of another individual.  

PubMed

Facial movements have the potential to be powerful social signals. Previous studies have shown that eye gaze changes and simple mouth movements can elicit robust neural responses, which can be altered as a function of potential social significance. Eye blinks are frequent events and are usually not deliberately communicative, yet blink rate is known to influence social perception. Here, we studied event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to observing non-task relevant blinks, eye closure, and eye gaze changes in a centrally presented natural face stimulus. Our first hypothesis (H1) that blinks would produce robust ERPs (N170 and later ERP components) was validated, suggesting that the brain may register and process all types of eye movement for potential social relevance. We also predicted an amplitude gradient for ERPs as a function of gaze change, relative to eye closure and then blinks (H2). H2 was only partly validated: large temporo-occipital N170s to all eye change conditions were observed and did not significantly differ between blinks and other conditions. However, blinks elicited late ERPs that, although robust, were significantly smaller relative to gaze conditions. Our data indicate that small and task-irrelevant facial movements such as blinks are measurably registered by the observer's brain. This finding is suggestive of the potential social significance of blinks which, in turn, has implications for the study of social cognition and use of real-life social scenarios. PMID:21852969

Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie A; Berrebi, Michael E; McNeely, Marie E; Prostko, Amy L; Puce, Aina

2011-01-01

444

Monte Carlo simulation of expert judgments on human errors in chemical analysis--a case study of ICP-MS.  

PubMed

Monte Carlo simulation of expert judgments on human errors in a chemical analysis was used for determination of distributions of the error quantification scores (scores of likelihood and severity, and scores of effectiveness of a laboratory quality system in prevention of the errors). The simulation was based on modeling of an expert behavior: confident, reasonably doubting and irresolute expert judgments were taken into account by means of different probability mass functions (pmfs). As a case study, 36 scenarios of human errors which may occur in elemental analysis of geological samples by ICP-MS were examined. Characteristics of the score distributions for three pmfs of an expert behavior were compared. Variability of the scores, as standard deviation of the simulated score values from the distribution mean, was used for assessment of the score robustness. A range of the score values, calculated directly from elicited data and simulated by a Monte Carlo method for different pmfs, was also discussed from the robustness point of view. It was shown that robustness of the scores, obtained in the case study, can be assessed as satisfactory for the quality risk management and improvement of a laboratory quality system against human errors. PMID:25159436

Kuselman, Ilya; Pennecchi, Francesca; Epstein, Malka; Fajgelj, Ales; Ellison, Stephen L R

2014-12-01

445

NICBES2 - NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERY EXPERT SYSTEM-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2 (NICBES2) is a prototype diagnostic expert system for Nickel Cadmium Battery Health Management. NICBES2 is intended to support evaluation of the performance of Hubble Space Telescope spacecraft batteries, and to alert personnel to possible malfunctions. To achieve this, NICBES2 provides a reasoning system supported by appropriate battery domain knowledge. NICBES2 oversees the status of the batteries by evaluating data gathered in orbit packets, and when the status so merits, raises an alarm and provides fault diagnosis as well as advice on the actions to be taken to remedy the particular alarm. In addition to diagnosis and advice, it provides status history of the batteries' health, and a graphical display capability to help in assimilation of the information by the operator. NICBES2 is composed of three cooperating processes driven by a program written in SunOS C. A serial port process gathers incoming data from an RS-232 connection and places it into a raw data pipe. The data handler processes read this information from the raw data pipe and perform statistical data reduction to generate a set of reduced data files per orbit. The expert system process starts the Quintus Prolog interpreter and the expert system and then uses the reduced data files for the generation of status and advice information. The expert system presents the user with an interface window composed of six subwindows: Battery Status, Advice Selection, Support, Battery Selection, Graphics, and Actions. The Battery status subwindow can provide a display of the current status of a battery. Similarly, advice on battery reconditioning, charging, and workload can be obtained from the Advice Selection subwindow. A display of trends for the last orbit and over a sequence of the last twelve orbits is available in the Graph subwindow. A WHY button is available to give the user an explanation of the rules that the expert system used in determining the current information. The Support subwindow contains an editor for altering the knowledge base. NICBES2 is written in C-language and Quintus Prolog for Sun series computers running SunOS. It requires 8Mb of RAM for execution. The Quintus ProWindows graphics system is required for graphical display, and a Postscript printer is required to print graphics. A DEC LSI-11 is required to send telemetry via a RS-232 connection. The program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. NICBES2 was developed in 1989. Sun and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. DEC LSI-11 is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation.

Johnson, Y. B.

1994-01-01

446

Expert system of cold forging defects using risk analysis tree network with fuzzy language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed an expert system for detecting the risk of forging defects and their causes in cold processes. The system employs risk analysis for a computer-aided process planning system. In addition, the authors investigated topics that affect typical forging defects. Based on the investigation, the authors developed risk analysis tree networks to evaluate the risk potential and describe

T Ohashi; M Motomura

2000-01-01

447

A Semiautomated Framework for Integrating Expert Knowledge into Disease Marker Identification  

PubMed Central

Background. The availability of large complex data sets generated by high throughput technologies has enabled the recent proliferation of disease biomarker studies. However, a recurring problem in deriving biological information from large data sets is how to best incorporate expert knowledge into the biomarker selection process. Objective. To develop a generalizable framework that can incorporate expert knowledge into data-driven processes in a semiautomated way while providing a metric for optimization in a biomarker selection scheme. Methods. The framework was implemented as a pipeline consisting of five components for the identification of signatures from integrated clustering (ISIC). Expert knowledge was integrated into the biomarker identification process using the combination of two distinct approaches; a distance-based clustering approach and an expert knowledge-driven functional selection. Results. The utility of the developed framework ISIC was demonstrated on proteomics data from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Biomarker candidates were identified in a mouse model using ISIC and validated in a study of a human cohort. Conclusions. Expert knowledge can be introduced into a biomarker discovery process in different ways to enhance the robustness of selected marker candidates. Developing strategies for extracting orthogonal and robust features from large data sets increases the chances of success in biomarker identification. PMID:24223463

Wang, Jing; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Hoidal, John R.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Pounds, Joel G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Rodland, Karin D.; McDermott, Jason E.

2013-01-01

448

Developing a Biomedical Expert Finding System Using Medical Subject Headings  

PubMed Central

Objectives Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Methods Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. Results We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. Conclusions The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system. PMID:24523988

Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit

2013-01-01

449

Spatial Abilities of Expert Clinical Anatomists: Comparison of Abilities Between Novices, Intermediates, and Experts in Anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study with two aims: To determine if spatial ability is a learned or inherent facet in learning anatomy and to ascertain if there is any difference in spatial ability between experts and novices in anatomy.

Ruth Fernandez (University of Southampton Centre for Learning Anatomical Sciences)

2011-01-17

450

Expert judgements on the response of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from detailed interviews with 12 leading climate scientists about the possible effects of global climate\\u000a change on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The elicitation sought to examine the range of opinions\\u000a within the climatic research community about the physical processes that determine the current strength of the AMOC, its future\\u000a evolution in a changing climate and

Kirsten Zickfeld; Anders Levermann; M. Granger Morgan; Till Kuhlbrodt; Stefan Rahmstorf; David W. Keith

2007-01-01

451

Expert system for processing errors in a multiplex communications systems  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method to analyze errors in a system. The system having a plurality of resources with replaceable units, a display, a processor, and memory means for storing decision trees, data structures, and error analysis tasks. The resources including a diagnostics card having a processor and memory means for storing resource analysis tasks, and communication resources. The method comprising the steps of: testing the resources intermittently by the error analysis tasks invoking a card analysis task on the diagnostics card to test for an error in the communication resources in the system; detecting an error and invoking an appropriate error analysis task to further diagnose the cause of the error; isolating the error to a replaceable unit by automatically traversing the decision trees in the error analysis task on the diagnostics card; writing data to record the error in the data structure in the memory of the system; and displaying a message indicative of the error on the display of the system.

Clark, M.E.; Greever, R.G.; Schmier, L.J.; Wong, J.D.

1989-11-14

452

Design and implementation of a status at a glance user interface for a power distribution expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert systems are widely used in health monitoring and fault detection applications. One of the key features of an expert system is that it possesses a large body of knowledge about the application for which it was designed. When the user consults this knowledge base, it is essential that the expert system's reasoning process and its conclusions be as concise as possible. If, in addition, an expert system is part of a process monitoring system, the expert system's conclusions must be combined with current events of the process. Under these circumstances, it is difficult for a user to absorb and respond to all the available information. For example, a user can become distracted and confused if two or more unrelated devices in different parts of the system require attention. A human interface designed to integrate expert system diagnoses with process data and to focus the user's attention to the important matters provides a solution to the 'information overload' problem. This paper will discuss a user interface to the power distribution expert system for Space Station Freedom. The importance of features which simplify assessing system status and which minimize navigating through layers of information will be discussed. Design rationale and implementation choices will also be presented.

Liberman, Eugene M.; Manner, David B.; Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.

1993-01-01

453

A distributed expert system for fault diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a hybrid approach to synthesizing solutions for diagnosis and set covering problems from the area of power system operations. The approach combines expert systems written in a rule-based language (OPS5) with algorithmic programs written in C and Lisp. An environment called DPSK has been developed to allow these programs to be run in parallel in a network of computers. Speeds sufficient for real-time applications can thereby be obtained.

Cardozo, E.; Talukdar, S.N.

1988-05-01

454

EXADS - EXPERT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

Rogers, J. L.

1994-01-01

455

Programming expert systems in OPS5  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents techniques for rule-based programming of expert systems in OPS5. OPS5 is a widely-used language designed to simplify rule-based programming. This book is aimed at experienced programmers in industry and universities, and contains examples and exercises with answers. The first section of the book is a tutorial. The development of a small, self-contained OPS5 program is followed from

L. Brownston; R. Farrell; E. Kant; N. Martin

1985-01-01

456

Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

Shiva, Sajjan G.

1990-01-01

457

Specific volatile compounds from mango elicit oviposition in gravid Bactrocera dorsalis females.  

PubMed

Selecting a suitable oviposition site is crucial to the fitness of female insects because it determines the successful development of their offspring. During the oviposition process, an insect must use cues from the external environment to make an appropriate choice of where to lay eggs. Generalist insects can detect and react to a plethora of cues, but are under selection pressure to adopt the most reliable ones to override noise and increase efficiency in finding hosts. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a generalist that utilizes a multitude of fruits as oviposition sites. However, the identity and nature of oviposition stimulants for B. dorsalis is not well known. Recently, we identified a volatile compound ?-octalactone that elicits an innate oviposition response in B. dorsalis. We screened 21 EAD-active volatiles, identified from mango, for their oviposition stimulant activity. 1-Octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and benzothiazole instigated oviposition in gravid B. dorsalis females. Flies deposited most of their eggs into pulp discs with oviposition-stimulants, and only a small fraction of eggs were laid into control discs. In a binary choice oviposition assay, 95.1, 93.7, and 65.6 % of eggs were laid in discs treated with 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and benzothiazole, respectively. Single plate two-choice assays proved that oviposition-stimulants were crucial in oviposition site selection by gravid female B. dorsalis. In simulated semi-natural assays, gravid B. dorsalis females accurately differentiated between fruits with and without 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and ?-octalactone by laying more eggs on the treated fruit. However, benzothiazole did not elicit an increase in oviposition when presented in this context. Our results suggest that the identified oviposition-stimulants are 'key' compounds, which the flies associate with suitable oviposition sites. PMID:24623046

Kamala Jayanthi, Pagadala D; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra M; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra K; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham; Bruce, Toby J A

2014-03-01

458

Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system  

DOEpatents

An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

Filby, Evan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)

1991-01-01

459

The Workplace Exposure Assessment Expert System (WORKSPERT)  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental principles of industrial hygiene are based upon the recognition, evaluation, and control of workplace hazards. Occupational safety and health professionals (e.g., industrial hygienists) perform this task by assessing numerous complex factors. In many situations industrial hygienists are not available; therefore, an expert system has been developed to assist the performance of workplace exposure assessments (WEAs). The Workplace Exposure Assessment Expert System (WORKSPERT) evaluates various hazardous substances, workplace conditions, and worker exposures for designated homogeneous exposure groups (HEGs). The three major components of WORKSPERT (i.e., substance, workplace, and exposure factors) are described by 27 multiple attribute variables. An air monitoring program (AMP) may be recommended for each HEG based upon the WEA. The AMP provides recommendations for an appropriate sampling strategy, sampling duration, multiple substance exposures, and number of samples to be obtained in the future. The use of WORKSPERT or other expert systems should never supersede the judgment of occupational safety and health professionals. However, WORKSPERT can be a valuable tool when used by knowledgeable, qualified technical profess