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1

Expert Elicitation Method Selection Process and Method Comparison  

SciTech Connect

Research on integrative modeling has gained considerable attention in recent years and expert opinion has been increasingly recognized as an important data source and modeling contributor. However, little research has systematically compared and evaluated expert elicitation methods in terms of their ability to link to computational models that capture human behavior and social phenomena. In this paper, we describe a decision-making process we used for evaluating and selecting a task specific elicitation method within the framework of integrative computational social-behavioral modeling. From the existing literature, we identified the characteristics of problems that each candidate method is well suited to address. A small-scale expert elicitation was also conducted to evaluate the comparative strength and weaknesses of the methods against a number of consensus-based decision criteria. By developing a set of explicit method evaluation criteria and a description characterizing decision problems for the candidate methods, we seek to gain a better understanding of the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of integrating elicitation methods with computational modeling techniques. This serves an important first step toward expanding our research effort and trajectory toward greater interdisciplinary modeling research of human behavior.

Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Whitney, Paul D.

2010-09-21

2

Promoting environmental sustainability via an expert elicitation process  

SciTech Connect

Environmental sustainability (ES) planning was applied to the 981-mile, commercially navigable Ohio River. Navigation improvement needs were identified within the broad study along with actions to restore aquatic and riparian ecological resources to a higher state of sustainability. The actions were identified via an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) involving aquatic and riparian/terrestrial experts knowledgeable of Ohio River resources. The received information was synthesized into goals for the selected resources (Valued Ecosystem Components - or VECs), actions or measures to attain the goals, and monitoring to evaluate conditions. Finally, 26 types of ES actions were identified and classified into three ES alternatives. These alternatives were then evaluated relative to key decision criteria, and such evaluations, based on pertinent decision criteria, were also conducted for four navigation improvement alternatives. Finally, the best combination of ES and navigation alternatives was identified. The key lessons derived from this use of EEP were that: (1) EEP can support the preliminary identification of ES measures; however, more detailed study of specific designs and cost evaluations will be necessary; (2) the method promotes collaboration between key scientists and policymakers from governmental agencies and private sectors, and such collaboration will ultimately provide the foundation for implementation of sustainability actions; and (3) an effective EEP does not occur by accident, it requires careful planning, implementation, and documentation. - Research Highlights: > Use of an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) is demonstrated in this study. > EEP was used to identify Environmental Sustainability (ES) needs for the Ohio River. > EEP helped develop consensus among resource experts on ES needs. > EEP promotes collaboration to identify and contribute to common resource goals. > EEP may be used in assessing cumulative effects and formulating restoration plans.

Swor, Tom, E-mail: tomswor@ardmore.net [Nashville District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States); Canter, Larry [University of Oklahoma (United States); Principal, Environmental Impact Training, Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States)

2011-09-15

3

Learning from Expert Elicitation in Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 1990's the author has been involved in the design and execution of six detailed expert elicitations that, among other things, have obtained subjective judgments from experts that reflect their best judgment in the form of subjective probability density functions, about the value of key climate variables, climate impacts and a technology for mitigation (Morgan and Keith, 1995; Morgan Pitelka and Shevliakova, 2001; Morgan, Adams and Keith, 2006; Zickfeld et al, 2007; Curtright, Morgan and Keith, 2008; Zickfeld, Morgan Keith and Frame, in review). This paper builds on that experience to draw insights about the design and use of expert elicitation in the assessment and analysis of climate change and its impacts. Several trends in responses will be noted. Methodological pitfalls will be discussed. Comparisons will be drawn with the consensus-based methods employed by IPCC, which appear to have produced tighter uncertainty bounds than individual elicitation. The paper will close with thoughts on the possible use of expert elicitation in future IPCC assessments. Support for this work is from the Climate Decision Making Center through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SES-0345798) and Carnegie Mellon University. References: M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Subjective Judgments by Climate Experts," Environmental Science & Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A, October 1995. M. Granger Morgan, Louis F. Pitelka and Elena Shevliakova, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems," Climatic Change, 49, 279-307, 2001. M. Granger Morgan, Peter Adams, and David W. Keith, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Aerosol Forcing," Climatic Change, 75, 195-214, 2006. Kirsten Zickfeld, Anders Levermann, Till Kuhlbrodt. Stefan Rahmstorf, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Judgements on the Response on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Climate Change," Climatic Change, 82, 235-265, 2007. Aimee Curtright, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Assessment of Future Photovoltaic Technology, " Environmental Science & Technology, 42(24), 2008. Kirsten Zickfeld, M. Granger Morgan , David Frame, David W. Keith, "Expert judgments about transient climate response to alternative future trajectories of radiative forcing," in review at PNAS.

Morgan, M. G.

2009-12-01

4

Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

2005-06-01

5

Eliciting spatial statistics from geological experts using genetic algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method to obtain the statistics of a geostatistical model is introduced. The method elicits the statistical information from a geological expert directly, by iteratively updating a population of vectors of statistics, based on the expert's subjective opinion of the corresponding geological simulations. Thus, it does not require the expert to have knowledge of the mathematical and statistical details of the model. The process uses a genetic algorithm to generate new vectors. We demonstrate the methodology for a particular geostatistical model used to model rock pore-space, which simulates the spatial distribution of matrix and pores over a 2-D grid, using multipoint statistics specified by conditional probabilities. Experts were asked to use the algorithm to estimate the statistics of a given target pore-space image with known statistics; thus, their numerical rates of convergence could be calculated. Convergence was measured for all experts, showing that the algorithm can be used to find appropriate probabilities given the expert's subjective input. However, considerable and apparently irreducible residual misfit was found between the true statistics and the estimates of statistics obtained by the experts, with the root-mean-square error on the conditional probabilities typically >0.1. This is interpreted as the limit of the experts' abilities to distinguish between realizations of different spatial statistics using the algorithm. More accurate discrimination is therefore likely to require complementary elicitation techniques or sources of information independent of expert opinion.

Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

2014-07-01

6

Eliciting spatial statistics from geological experts using genetic algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method to obtain the statistics of a geostatistical model is introduced. The method elicits the statistical information from a geological expert directly, by iteratively updating a population of vectors of statistics, based on the expert's subjective opinion of the corresponding geological simulations. Thus, it does not require the expert to have knowledge of the mathematical and statistical details of the model. The process uses a genetic algorithm to generate new vectors. We demonstrate the methodology for a particular geostatistical model used to model rock pore-space, which simulates the spatial distribution of matrix and pores over a 2-D grid, using multipoint statistics specified by conditional probabilities. Experts were asked to use the algorithm to estimate the statistics of a given target pore-space image with known statistics; thus, their numerical rates of convergence could be calculated. Convergence was measured for all experts, showing that the algorithm can be used to find appropriate probabilities given the expert's subjective input. However, considerable and apparently irreducible residual misfit was found between the true statistics and the estimates of statistics obtained by the experts, with the root-mean-square error on the conditional probabilities typically >0.1. This is interpreted as the limit of the experts' abilities to distinguish between realizations of different spatial statistics using the algorithm. More accurate discrimination is therefore likely to require complementary elicitation techniques or sources of information independent of expert opinion.

Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

2014-05-01

7

Expert Elicitation for Reliable System Design1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the role of expert judgement to support reliability assessments within the systems engineering design process. Generic design processes are described to give the context and a dis- cussion is given about the nature of the reliability assessments required in the different systems engineering phases. It is argued that, as far as meeting reliability requirements is concerned, the

Tim Bedford; John Quigley; Lesley Walls

8

Expert Elicitation for Reliable System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the role of expert judgement to support reliability assessments within the systems engineering design process. Generic design processes are described to give the context and a discussion is given about the nature of the reliability assessments required in the different systems engineering phases. It is argued that, as far as meeting reliability requirements is concerned, the whole

Tim Bedford; John Quigley; Lesley Walls

2006-01-01

9

Web-based tool for expert elicitation of the variogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variogram is the keystone of geostatistics. Estimation of the variogram is deficient and difficult when there are no or too few observations available due to budget constraints or physical and temporal obstacles. In such cases, expert knowledge can be an important source of information. Expert knowledge can also fulfil the increasing demand for an a priori variogram in Bayesian geostatistics and spatial sampling optimization. Formal expert elicitation provides a sound scientific basis to reliably and consistently extract knowledge from experts. In this study, we aimed at applying existing statistical expert elicitation techniques to extract the variogram of a regionalized variable that is assumed to have either a multivariate normal or lognormal spatial probability distribution from expert knowledge. To achieve this, we developed an elicitation protocol and implemented it as a web-based tool to facilitate the elicitation of beliefs from multiple experts. Our protocol has two main rounds: elicitation of the marginal probability distribution and elicitation of the variogram. The web-based tool has three main components: a web interface for expert elicitation and feedback; a component for statistical computation and mathematical pooling of multiple experts' knowledge; and a database management component. Results from a test case study show that the protocol is adequate and that the online elicitation tool functions satisfactorily. The web-based tool is free to use and supports scientists to conveniently elicit the variogram of spatial random variables from experts. The source code is available from the journal FTP site under the GNU General Public License.

Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gosling, John Paul

2013-02-01

10

Implementation of the PR&PP methodology: the role of formal expert elicitations  

SciTech Connect

The application of the methodology developed by the GenIV International Forum's (GIF's) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) Working Group is an expert elicitation. Although the framework of the methodology is structured and systematic, it does not by itself constitute or require a formal elicitation. However, formal elicitation can be utilized in the PR&PP context to provide a systematic, credible and transparent qualitative analysis and develop input for quantitative analyses. This section provides an overview of expert elicitations, a discussion of the role formal expert elicitations can play in the PR&PP methodology, an outline of the formal expert elicitation process and a brief practical guide to conducting formal expert elicitations. Expert elicitation is a process utilizing knowledgeable people in cases, for example, when an assessment is needed but physically based data is absent or open to interpretation. More specifically, it can be used to: (1) predict future events; (2) provide estimates on new, rare, complex or poorly understood phenomena; (3) integrate or interpret existing information; or (4) determine what is currently known, how well it is known or what is worth learning in a field. Expert elicitation can be informal or formal. The informal application of expert judgment is frequently used. Although it can produce good results, it often provides demonstrably biased or otherwise flawed answers to problems. This along with the absence of transparency can result in a loss of confidence when experts speak on issues. More formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. The reason for advocating formal use is that the quality and accuracy of expert judgment comes from the completeness of the expert's understanding of the phenomena and the process used to elicit and analyze the data. The use of a more formal process to obtain, lU1derstand and analyze expert judgment has led to an improved acceptance of expert judgment because of the rigor and transparency of the results.

Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

11

An Expert Elicitation Process in Support of Groundwater Model Evaluation for Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is implementing corrective actions at facilities where nuclear-related operations were conducted in Nevada. Among the most significant sites being addressed are the locations of underground nuclear tests on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The process for implementing corrective actions for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) locations is defined in Appendix VI of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996, as amended). In broad terms, Appendix VI describes a Corrective Action Investigation followed by a Corrective Action Decision, and implementation of a Corrective Action Plan prior to closure. The Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) is farthest along in the UGTA corrective action process. It includes ten underground tests within the Frenchman Flat topographic basin, in the southeastern portion of the NNSS. Data have been collected from drilling exploration, hydrologic testing, and field and laboratory studies. Modeling has been completed at a variety of scales and focusing on a variety of flow and transport aspects ranging from regional boundary conditions to process dynamics within a single nuclear cavity. The culmination of the investigations is a transport model for the Frenchman Flat CAU (Stoller Navarro Joint Venture, 2009) that has undergone rigorous peer review and been accepted by the State of Nevada, setting the stage for the Corrective Action Decision and progression from the investigation phase to the corrective action phase of the project.

Chapman Jenny,Pohlmann Karl

2011-02-01

12

The use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment: a seven step procedure  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental health impact assessments often have to deal with substantial uncertainties. Typically, the knowledge-base is limited with incomplete, or inconsistent evidence and missing or ambiguous data. Consulting experts can help to identify and address uncertainties. Methods Formal expert elicitation is a structured approach to systematically consult experts on uncertain issues. It is most often used to quantify ranges for poorly known parameters, but may also be useful to further develop qualitative issues such as definitions, assumptions or conceptual (causal) models. A thorough preparation and systematic design and execution of an expert elicitation process may increase the validity of its outcomes and transparency and trustworthiness of its conclusions. Various expert elicitation protocols and methods exist. However, these are often not universally applicable, and need customization to suite the needs of a specific study. In this paper, we set out to develop a widely applicable method for the use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment. Results We present a practical yet flexible seven step procedure towards organising expert elicitation in the context of environmental health impact assessment, based on existing protocols. We describe how customization for specific applications is always necessary. In particular, three issues affect the choice of methods for a particular application: the types of uncertainties considered, the intended use of the elicited information, and the available resources. We outline how these three considerations guide choices regarding the design and execution of expert elicitation. We present signposts to sources where the issues are discussed in more depth to give the newcomer the insights needed to make the protocol work. The seven step procedure is illustrated using examples from earlier published elicitations in the field of environmental health research. Conclusions We conclude that, despite some known criticism on its validity, formal expert elicitation can support environmental health research in various ways. Its main purpose is to provide a temporary summary of the limited available knowledge, which can serve as a provisional basis for policy until further research has been carried out.

2010-01-01

13

PROBES: a framework for probability elicitation from experts.  

PubMed Central

A decision analytic model represents uncertainties as probability distributions. These distributions are hard to assess especially for large and dynamic models. We propose an integrated framework that facilitates elicitation of the relevant probability distributions for dynamic decision models from the domain experts. The experts usually use some judgmental heuristics to aid probability assessments; the resulting distributions may be proned to cognitive biases. Our framework aims to minimize the effects of these biases and to improve the quality of decisions made. We have implemented a prototype system of the framework and evaluated its effectiveness via a case study in the follow-up management of colorectal cancer patients after curative surgery. Preliminary results demonstrate the practical promise of the framework. Images Figure 4

Lau, A. H.; Leong, T. Y.

1999-01-01

14

Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation. R. Lawley, M. Barron and K. Lee. NERC - British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK, NG12 5GG The boundaries mapped in traditional field geological survey are subject to a wide range of inherent uncertainties. A map at a survey-scale of 1:10,000 is created by a combination of terrain interpretation, direct observations from boreholes and exposures (often sparsely distributed), and indirect interpretation of proxy variables such as soil properties, vegetation and remotely sensed images. A critical factor influencing the quality of the final map is the skill and experience of the surveyor to bring this information together in a coherent conceptual model. The users of geological data comprising or based on mapped boundaries are increasingly aware of these uncertainties, and want to know how to manage them. The growth of 3D modelling, which takes 2D surveys as a starting point, adds urgency to the need for a better understanding of survey uncertainties; particularly where 2D mapping of variable vintage has been compiled into a national coverage. Previous attempts to apply confidence on the basis of metrics such as data density, survey age or survey techniques have proved useful for isolating single, critical, factors but do not generally succeed in evaluating geological mapping 'in the round', because they cannot account for the 'conceptual' skill set of the surveyor. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is using expert elicitation methods to gain a better understanding of uncertainties within the national geological map of Great Britain. The expert elicitation approach starts with the assumption that experienced surveyors have an intuitive sense of the uncertainty of the boundaries that they map, based on a tacit model of geology and its complexity and the nature of the surveying process. The objective of elicitation is to extract this model in a useable, quantitative, form by a robust and transparent procedure. At BGS expert elicitation is being used to evaluate the uncertainty of mapped boundaries in different common mapping scenarios, with a view to building a 'collective' understanding of the challenges each scenario presents. For example, a 'sharp contact (at surface) between highly contrasting sedimentary rocks' represents one level of survey challenge that should be accurately met by all surveyors, even novices. In contrast, a 'transitional boundary defined by localised facies-variation' may require much more experience to resolve (without recourse to significantly more sampling). We will describe the initial phase of this exercise in which uncertainty models were elicited for mapped boundaries in six contrasting scenarios. Each scenario was presented to a panel of experts with varied expertise and career history. In five cases it was possible to arrive at a consensus model, in a sixth case experts with different experience took different views of the nature of the mapping problem. We will discuss our experience of the use of elicitation methodology and the implications of our results for further work at the BGS to quantify uncertainty in map products. In particular we will consider the value of elicitation as a means to capture the expertise of individuals as they retire, and as the composition of the organization's staff changes in response to the management and policy decisions.

Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lee, Katy

2014-05-01

15

Advanced solar R&D: Combining economic analysis with expert elicitations to inform climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between R&D investments and technical change is inherently uncertain. In this paper we combine economics and decision analysis to incorporate the uncertainty of technical change into climate change policy analysis. We present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for technical change in advanced solar photovoltaics. We then use the results of the expert elicitations as

Erin Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey Keisler

2007-01-01

16

Advanced solar R&D: Applying expert elicitations to inform climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between R&D investments and technical change is inherently uncertain. In this paper we combine economics and decision analysis to incorporate the uncertainty of technical change into climate change policy analysis. We present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for technical change in advanced solar photovoltaics. We then use the results of the expert elicitations as

Erin D Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey Keisler

2009-01-01

17

Advanced solar R&D: Combining economic analysis with expert elicitations to inform climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between R&D investments and technical change is inherently uncertain. In this paper we combine economics and decision analysis to incorporate the uncertainty of technical change into climate change policy analysis. We present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for technical change in advanced solar photovoltaics. We then use the results of the expert elicitations as

Erin Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey Keisler

2009-01-01

18

A methodology for uncertainty quantification in quantitative technology valuation based on expert elicitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The management of technology portfolios is an important element of aerospace system design. New technologies are often applied to new product designs to ensure their competitiveness at the time they are introduced to market. The future performance of yet-to- be designed components is inherently uncertain, necessitating subject matter expert knowledge, statistical methods and financial forecasting. Estimates of the appropriate parameter settings often come from disciplinary experts, who may disagree with each other because of varying experience and background. Due to inherent uncertain nature of expert elicitation in technology valuation process, appropriate uncertainty quantification and propagation is very critical. The uncertainty in defining the impact of an input on performance parameters of a system makes it difficult to use traditional probability theory. Often the available information is not enough to assign the appropriate probability distributions to uncertain inputs. Another problem faced during technology elicitation pertains to technology interactions in a portfolio. When multiple technologies are applied simultaneously on a system, often their cumulative impact is non-linear. Current methods assume that technologies are either incompatible or linearly independent. It is observed that in case of lack of knowledge about the problem, epistemic uncertainty is the most suitable representation of the process. It reduces the number of assumptions during the elicitation process, when experts are forced to assign probability distributions to their opinions without sufficient knowledge. Epistemic uncertainty can be quantified by many techniques. In present research it is proposed that interval analysis and Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence are better suited for quantification of epistemic uncertainty in technology valuation process. Proposed technique seeks to offset some of the problems faced by using deterministic or traditional probabilistic approaches for uncertainty propagation. Non-linear behavior in technology interactions is captured through expert elicitation based technology synergy matrices (TSM). Proposed TSMs increase the fidelity of current technology forecasting methods by including higher order technology interactions. A test case for quantification of epistemic uncertainty on a large scale problem of combined cycle power generation system was selected. A detailed multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment was adopted for this problem. Results have shown that evidence theory based technique provides more insight on the uncertainties arising from incomplete information or lack of knowledge as compared to deterministic or probability theory methods. Margin analysis was also carried out for both the techniques. A detailed description of TSMs and their usage in conjunction with technology impact matrices and technology compatibility matrices is discussed. Various combination methods are also proposed for higher order interactions, which can be applied according to the expert opinion or historical data. The introduction of technology synergy matrix enabled capturing the higher order technology interactions, and improvement in predicted system performance.

Akram, Muhammad Farooq Bin

19

The future costs of nuclear power using multiple expert elicitations: effects of RD&D and elicitation design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030. We show that controlling for expert, technology, and design characteristics increases experts’ implied public RD&D elasticity of expected costs by 25%. Public sector and industry experts’ cost expectations are 14% and 32% higher, respectively than academics. US experts are more optimistic than their EU counterparts, with median expected costs 22% lower. On average, a doubling of public RD&D is expected to result in an 8% cost reduction, but the uncertainty is large. The difference between the 90th and 10th percentile estimates is on average 58% of the experts’ median estimates. Public RD&D investments do not affect uncertainty ranges, but US experts are less confident about costs than Europeans.

Díaz Anadón, Laura; Nemet, Gregory; Verdolini, Elena

2013-09-01

20

Effects on mock jurors of experts favorable and unfavorable toward hypnotically elicited eyewitness testimony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mock jurors were told that a rape victim's initial identification of the defendant was made either during a police interrogation or a hypnotic interrogation. Jurors given the hypnotic interrogation case then saw a videotape of an expert who was favorable toward hypnotically elicited testimony, an expert who was unfavorable, or both experts. Jurors' private beliefs of the defendant's guilt (assessed

Nicholas P. Spanos; Maxwell I. Gwynn; Kevin Terrade

1989-01-01

21

Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy.  

PubMed

The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making. PMID:24821779

Morgan, M Granger

2014-05-20

22

Branch technical position on the use of expert elicitation in the high-level radioactive waste program  

SciTech Connect

Should the site be found suitable, DOE will apply to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for permission to construct and then operate a proposed geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. In deciding whether to grant or deny DOE`s license application for a geologic repository, NRC will closely examine the facts and expert judgment set forth in any potential DOE license application. NRC expects that subjective judgments of individual experts and, in some cases, groups of experts, will be used by DOE to interpret data obtained during site characterization and to address the many technical issues and inherent uncertainties associated with predicting the performance of a repository system for thousands of years. NRC has traditionally accepted, for review, expert judgment to evaluate and interpret the factual bases of license applications and is expected to give appropriate consideration to the judgments of DOE`s experts regarding the geologic repository. Such consideration, however, envisions DOE using expert judgments to complement and supplement other sources of scientific and technical information, such as data collection, analyses, and experimentation. In this document, the NRC staff has set forth technical positions that: (1) provide general guidelines on those circumstances that may warrant the use of a formal process for obtaining the judgments of more than one expert (i.e., expert elicitation); and (2) describe acceptable procedures for conducting expert elicitation when formally elicited judgments are used to support a demonstration of compliance with NRC`s geologic disposal regulation, currently set forth in 10 CFR Part 60. 76 refs.

Kotra, J.P.; Lee, M.P.; Eisenberg, N.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); DeWispelare, A.R. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1996-11-01

23

Requirements Elicitation and Elicitation Technique Selection: A Model for Two Knowledge-Intensive Software Development Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

By its very nature, software development consists of many knowledge-intensive processes. One of the most difficult to model, however, is requirements elicitation. This paper presents a mathematical model of the requirements elicitation process that clearly shows the critical role of knowledge in its performance. One meta- process of requirements elicitation, selection of an appropriate elicitation technique, is also captured in

Ann M. Hickey; Alan M. Davis

2003-01-01

24

Parallel processing and expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 1990s cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient implementation of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real-time demands are met for larger systems. Speedup via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial laboratories in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems is surveyed. The survey discusses multiprocessors for expert systems, parallel languages for symbolic computations, and mapping expert systems to multiprocessors. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. The main reasons are (1) the body of knowledge applicable in any given situation and the amount of computation executed by each rule firing are small, (2) dividing the problem solving process into relatively independent partitions is difficult, and (3) implementation decisions that enable expert systems to be incrementally refined hamper compile-time optimization. In order to obtain greater speedups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

Lau, Sonie; Yan, Jerry C.

1991-01-01

25

Carbon capture and storage: combining economic analysis with expert elicitations to inform climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between R&D investments and technical change is inherently uncertain. In this paper we combine economics\\u000a and decision analysis to incorporate the uncertainty of technical change into climate change policy analysis. We present the\\u000a results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for technical change in carbon capture and storage. We find a significant\\u000a amount of disagreement between experts,

Erin D Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M Keisler

2009-01-01

26

Parallel processing and expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

1991-01-01

27

Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

2006-05-10

28

Assessing nutrient flows in septic tanks by eliciting expert judgement: a promising method in the context of developing countries.  

PubMed

Simple models based on the physical and biochemical processes occurring in septic tanks, pit and urine diversion latrines were developed to determine the nutrient flows in these systems. Nitrogen and phosphorus separation in different output materials from these on-site sanitation installations were thus determined. Moreover, nutrient separation in septic tanks was also assessed through literature values and by eliciting expert judgement. Use of formal expert elicitation technique proved to be effective, particularly in the context of developing countries where data is often scarce but expert judgement readily available. In Vietnam, only 5-14% and 11-27% of the nitrogen and phosphorus input, respectively, are removed from septic tanks with the faecal sludge. The remaining fraction leaves the tank via the liquid effluent. Unlike septic tanks, urine diversion latrines allow to immobilize most of the nutrients either in form of stored urine or dehydrated faecal matter. These latrines thus contribute to reducing the nutrient load in the environment and lowering consumption of energy and non-renewable resources for fertiliser production. PMID:17223156

Montangero, Agnes; Belevi, Hasan

2007-03-01

29

Food-specific attribution of selected gastrointestinal illnesses: estimates from a Canadian expert elicitation survey.  

PubMed

The study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of food-specific attribution for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in Canada. It was based on a similar survey conducted in the United States and focused on Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Norwalk-like virus. A snowball approach was used to identify food safety experts within Canada. Survey respondents provided background information as well as self-assessments of their expertise for each pathogen and the 12 food categories. Depending on the pathogen, food source attribution estimates were based on responses from between 10 and 35 experts. For each pathogen, experts divided their estimates of total foodborne illness across 12 food categories and they provided a best estimate for each category as well as 5th and 95th percentile limits for foods considered to be vehicles. Their responses were treated as triangular probability distributions, and linear aggregation was used to combine the opinions of each group of experts for each pathogen-food source group. Across the 108 pathogen-food groups, a majority of experts agreed on 30 sources and 48 nonsources for illness. The number of food groups considered to be pathogen sources by a majority of experts varied by pathogen from a low of one food source for Vibrio spp. (seafood) and C. parvum (produce) to a high of seven food sources for Salmonella spp. Beta distributions were fitted to the aggregated opinions and were reasonable representations for most of the pathogen-food group attributions. These results will be used to quantitatively assess the burden of foodborne illness in Canada as well as to analyze the uncertainty in our estimates. PMID:21561379

Davidson, Valerie J; Ravel, André; Nguyen, To N; Fazil, Aamir; Ruzante, Juliana M

2011-09-01

30

Parameterizing Bayesian network Representations of Social-Behavioral Models by Expert Elicitation  

SciTech Connect

Bayesian networks provide a general framework with which to model many natural phenomena. The mathematical nature of Bayesian networks enables a plethora of model validation and calibration techniques: e.g parameter estimation, goodness of fit tests, and diagnostic checking of the model assumptions. However, they are not free of shortcomings. Parameter estimation from relevant extant data is a common approach to calibrating the model parameters. In practice it is not uncommon to find oneself lacking adequate data to reliably estimate all model parameters. In this paper we present the early development of a novel application of conjoint analysis as a method for eliciting and modeling expert opinions and using the results in a methodology for calibrating the parameters of a Bayesian network.

Walsh, Stephen J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Whitney, Paul D.; White, Amanda M.

2010-05-23

31

An Expert Elicitation Based Study of the Proliferation Resistance of a Suite of Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, a multi-laboratory research team completed a study evaluating the proliferation resistance (PR) characteristics of a diverse suite of four advanced nuclear reactor designs. The systems evaluated included: • a light water reactor (a pressurized-water reactor), • a heavy water reactor, • a high temperature gas reactor (with a prismatic-block reactor core), • a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The team used an expert elicitation assessment approach based on the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) methodology. The team evaluated three general types of proliferation threats: 1) concealed diversion of material, 2) concealed misuse of the reactor to produce material, and 3) breakout. The evaluations took into account the intrinsic PR characteristics of each reactor and the extrinsic PR characteristics provided by generic safeguards the team considered appropriate for each reactor, based on the team’s experience and available conceptual design information.

Zentner, Michael D.; Therios, Ike; Bari, Robert A.; Cheng, Lap; Yue, Meng; Wigeland, Roald; Hassberger, Jim; Boyer, Brian; Pilat, Joseph

2010-08-11

32

Eliciting information from experts on the likelihood of rapid climate change.  

PubMed

The threat of so-called rapid or abrupt climate change has generated considerable public interest because of its potentially significant impacts. The collapse of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation or the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, for example, would have potentially catastrophic effects on temperatures and sea level, respectively. But how likely are such extreme climatic changes? Is it possible actually to estimate likelihoods? This article reviews the societal demand for the likelihoods of rapid or abrupt climate change, and different methods for estimating likelihoods: past experience, model simulation, or through the elicitation of expert judgments. The article describes a survey to estimate the likelihoods of two characterizations of rapid climate change, and explores the issues associated with such surveys and the value of information produced. The surveys were based on key scientists chosen for their expertise in the climate science of abrupt climate change. Most survey respondents ascribed low likelihoods to rapid climate change, due either to the collapse of the Thermohaline Circulation or increased positive feedbacks. In each case one assessment was an order of magnitude higher than the others. We explore a high rate of refusal to participate in this expert survey: many scientists prefer to rely on output from future climate model simulations. PMID:16506972

Arnell, Nigel W; Tompkins, Emma L; Adger, W Neil

2005-12-01

33

Expert Prior Elicitation and Bayesian Analysis of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To perform a Bayesian analysis of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I) using expert opinion as a prior belief. Methods. MUTT I was a randomized clinical trial comparing topical natamycin or voriconazole for treating filamentous fungal keratitis. A questionnaire elicited expert opinion on the best treatment of fungal keratitis before MUTT I results were available. A Bayesian analysis was performed using the questionnaire data as a prior belief and the MUTT I primary outcome (3-month visual acuity) by frequentist analysis as a likelihood. Results. Corneal experts had a 41.1% prior belief that natamycin improved 3-month visual acuity compared with voriconazole. The Bayesian analysis found a 98.4% belief for natamycin treatment compared with voriconazole treatment for filamentous cases as a group (mean improvement 1.1 Snellen lines, 95% credible interval 0.1–2.1). The Bayesian analysis estimated a smaller treatment effect than the MUTT I frequentist analysis result of 1.8-line improvement with natamycin versus voriconazole (95% confidence interval 0.5–3.0, P = 0.006). For Fusarium cases, the posterior demonstrated a 99.7% belief for natamycin treatment, whereas non-Fusarium cases had a 57.3% belief. Conclusions. The Bayesian analysis suggests that natamycin is superior to voriconazole when filamentous cases are analyzed as a group. Subgroup analysis of Fusarium cases found improvement with natamycin compared with voriconazole, whereas there was almost no difference between treatments for non-Fusarium cases. These results were consistent with, though smaller in effect size than, the MUTT I primary outcome by frequentist analysis. The accordance between analyses further validates the trial results. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00996736.)

Sun, Catherine Q.; Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Raghavan, Anita; O'Brien, Kieran S.; Ray, Kathryn J.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Porco, Travis C.; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

34

Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Expert opinion was elicited to undertake a qualitative risk assessment to estimate the current and future risks to the European Union (EU) from five vector-borne viruses listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. It was predicted that climate change will increase the risk of incursions of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Rift

A. B R O UW; V. R AMNIAL; L. KELLY; R. K O S M ID

35

Expert systems in the process industries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

Stanley, G. M.

1992-01-01

36

Approach, methods and results of an individual elicitation for the volcanism expert judgment panel  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA) of future magnetic disruption of the Yucca Mountain site was completed as a participating member of the volcanism export judgment panel conducted by Geomatrix Consultants for the Department of Energy. The purpose of this summary is to describe the data assumptions, methods, and results of the elicitation and to contrast this assessment with past volcanism studies conducted for the Yucca Mountain Project.

Crowe, B.M.

1996-06-01

37

Training 'greeble' experts: a framework for studying expert object recognition processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve participants were trained to be experts at identifying a set of 'Greebles', novel objects that, like faces, all share a common spatial configuration. Tests comparing expert with novice performance revealed: (1) a surprising mix of generalizability and specificity in expert object recognition processes; and (2) that expertise is a multi-faceted phenomenon, neither adequately described by a single term nor

Isabel Gauthier; Pepper Williams; Michael J. Tarr; James Tanaka

1998-01-01

38

Timing and magnitude of CO2 and CH4 release from the permafrost region: an expert elicitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost contains more than twice as much carbon as currently exists in the atmosphere. As temperature increases and permafrost is lost, a portion of this carbon pool will be released as CO2 and CH4, however, the rate and magnitude of this release is highly uncertain. In June of 2011 we administered an expert elicitation survey at the Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon Research Coordination Network Synthesis Workshop in Seattle. The 43 permafrost, carbon, and climate experts were asked to estimate the magnitude of permafrost degradation and subsequent CO2 and CH4 release in response to four arctic and boreal warming scenarios, adapted from the most recent IPCC radiative forcing scenarios. We asked respondents to quantitatively estimate permafrost loss and net change in permafrost-region soil carbon, as well as to provide a qualitative self-rating of their confidence and relevant expertise concerning each question. Because direct measurements of arctic carbon fluxes are scarce and the quantity and distribution of soil carbon in the arctic is only coarsely characterized, expert elicitation methods allowed us to integrate results from both field and modeling research efforts, and to measure consensus and quantify uncertainty concerning the activation of the pan-arctic permafrost carbon pool. Results indicate rapid permafrost loss and substantial carbon release by the end of the century for even modest warming scenarios-between 56 and 193 Pg of cumulative carbon release by 2100 depending on the magnitude of warming. Under the current warming trajectory, the permafrost region will soon become one of the largest ecosystem sources of green house gases.

Abbott, B. W.; Schuur, E. A.; Jones, J.; Permafrost Carbon RCN Group

2011-12-01

39

Can increased biomass offset carbon release from permafrost region soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert elicitation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the permafrost region warms, up to 288 Pg carbon (CO2 equivalent) may be released from soil by the end of the century, and up to 616 Pg by 2300. This soil carbon can be released to the atmosphere directly via mineralization or wildfire, or enter aquatic ecosystems as dissolved or particulate organic or inorganic carbon. Some models predict an increase in Arctic and boreal living biomass in response to extended growing season, enhanced nutrient cycling, and CO2 fertilization, but we have a poor understanding of how the production of new biomass will compare with loss of carbon from permafrost thaw. We administered surveys to permafrost region experts to assess current understanding of the magnitude and timing of biomass accumulation, hydrologic carbon flux, and wildfire carbon losses. Surveys addressed three time periods (present to 2040, 2100, and 2300) and four warming scenarios based on IPCC representative concentration pathways. Estimates of change in biomass and fire losses were provided individually for the boreal forest and arctic tundra. Experts estimated changes in carbon delivery to freshwater ecosystems as well as delivery to the ocean, including carbon release due to coastal erosion, fluxes infrequently captured in high-latitude models. Initial expert estimates indicated that while tundra biomass would increase substantially, total permafrost region biomass would decrease by the end of the century due to boreal forest drying and browning, followed by a modest increase by 2300 due to vegetation community shifts. Changes in aquatic systems could release an additional 2.7 Pg carbon by 2100 and 7.3 Pg by 2300. Modified wildfire regime could cause the release of an additional 13.6 Pg carbon by 2100 and 51.7 Pg by 2300. Current expert understanding therefore suggests that carbon gains in high-latitude biomass will be orders of magnitude smaller than carbon loss from permafrost soils and that hydrologic and wildfire pathways of carbon loss will likely accelerate carbon mobilization from permafrost region ecosystems.

Abbott, B. W.; Jones, J.; Schuur, E. A.; Bowden, W. B.; Chapin, F. S., III; Epstein, H. E.; Flannigan, M.; Harms, T.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Natali, S.; Rocha, A. V.; Tank, S. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Vonk, J.; Wickland, K.

2013-12-01

40

ISA implementation and uncertainty: a literature review and expert elicitation study.  

PubMed

Each day, an average of over 116 people die from traffic accidents in the European Union. One out of three fatalities is estimated to be the result of speeding. The current state of technology makes it possible to make speeding more difficult, or even impossible, by placing intelligent speed limiters (so called ISA devices) in vehicles. Although the ISA technology has been available for some years now, and reducing the number of road traffic fatalities and injuries has been high on the European political agenda, implementation still seems to be far away. Experts indicate that there are still too many uncertainties surrounding ISA implementation, and dealing with these uncertainties is essential for implementing ISA. In this paper, a systematic and representative inventory of the uncertainties is made based upon the literature. Furthermore, experts in the field of ISA were surveyed and asked which uncertainties are barriers for ISA implementation, and how uncertain these uncertainties are. We found that the long-term effects and the effects of large-scale implementation of ISA are still uncertain and are the most important barriers for the implementation of the most effective types of ISA. One way to deal with these uncertainties would be to start implementation on a small scale and gradually expand the penetration, in order to learn how ISA influences the transport system over time. PMID:22664671

van der Pas, J W G M; Marchau, V A W J; Walker, W E; van Wee, G P; Vlassenroot, S H

2012-09-01

41

Policy relevant Results from an Expert Elicitation on the Human Health Risks of Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) and Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)  

PubMed Central

Aim Apply a recently developed expert elicitation procedure to evaluate the state of the current knowledge of the two brominated flame retardants (BFRs) most commonly used today; decabromo-diphenyl ether (decaBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and their potential impact on human health in order to support policy considerations. This expert elicitation was organized by the HENVINET (Health and Environment Network) Consortium. Method The HENVINET expert elicitation procedure that was used in the evaluations of decaBDE and HBCD is a rapid assessment tool aimed at highlighting areas of agreement and areas of disagreement on knowledge-related key issues for environment and health policy decision making. Results The outcome of the expert consultation on BFRs was concrete expert advice for policy makers with specific priorities for further action made clear for both stakeholders and policy makers. The experts were not in agreement whether or not the knowledge currently available on decaBDE or HBCD is sufficient to justify policy actions, but most experts considered that enough data already exists to support a ban or restriction on the use of these compounds. All experts agreed on the necessity of more research on the compounds. Priority issues for further research were, among others: • more studies on the extent of human exposure to the compounds. • more studies on the fate and concentration in the human body of the compounds.

2012-01-01

42

Developing a Methodology for Eliciting Subjective Probability Estimates During Expert Evaluations of Safety Interventions: Application for Bayesian Belief Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has defined several products that will potentially modify airline and/or ATC operations, enhance aircraft systems, and improve the identification of potential hazardous situations within the National Airspace System (NAS). Consequently, there is a need to develop methods for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the judgments to develop Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN's) that model the potential impact that specific interventions may have. Specifically, the present report summarizes methodologies for improving the elicitation of probability estimates during expert evaluations of AvSP products for use in BBN's. The work involved joint efforts between Professor James Luxhoj from Rutgers University and researchers at the University of Illinois. The Rutgers' project to develop BBN's received funding by NASA entitled "Probabilistic Decision Support for Evaluating Technology Insertion and Assessing Aviation Safety System Risk." The proposed project was funded separately but supported the existing Rutgers' program.

Wiegmann, Douglas A.a

2005-01-01

43

Sensitivity analysis using elicited expert information for inference with coarsened data: illustration of censored discrete event times in the AIDS Link to Intravenous Experience (ALIVE) Study.  

PubMed

In this paper, the authors use the rubric of "coarsened data," of which missing and censored data are special cases, to motivate the elicitation and use of expert information for performing sensitivity analyses of censored event-time data. Elicited information is important because observed data are insufficient to estimate how study participants with coarsened data compare with participants with uncoarsened data, and misspecifying this comparison may produce biased analysis results. In the presence of coarsening, performing a sensitivity analysis over a range of plausible assumptions is the best one can do. Here the authors illustrate an approach for eliciting expert information for use in sensitivity analyses to compare cumulative incidence functions of censored nonmortality outcomes. An example of such data is the AIDS Link to Intravenous Experience (ALIVE) Study, where the authors aim to estimate and compare cumulative incidence functions for human immunodeficiency virus between risk factor categories. The interval and right-censoring and censoring due to death found in the ALIVE data (1988-1998) are thought to be informative; thus, a sensitivity analysis is performed using information elicited from 2 ALIVE scientists and an expert in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemiology about the relation between seroconversion and censoring. PMID:18952850

Shardell, Michelle; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Vlahov, David; Galai, Noya

2008-12-15

44

Statistical process control methods for expert system performance monitoring.  

PubMed Central

The literature on the performance evaluation of medical expert system is extensive, yet most of the techniques used in the early stages of system development are inappropriate for deployed expert systems. Because extensive clinical and informatics expertise and resources are required to perform evaluations, efficient yet effective methods of monitoring performance during the long-term maintenance phase of the expert system life cycle must be devised. Statistical process control techniques provide a well-established methodology that can be used to define policies and procedures for continuous, concurrent performance evaluation. Although the field of statistical process control has been developed for monitoring industrial processes, its tools, techniques, and theory are easily transferred to the evaluation of expert systems. Statistical process tools provide convenient visual methods and heuristic guidelines for detecting meaningful changes in expert system performance. The underlying statistical theory provides estimates of the detection capabilities of alternative evaluation strategies. This paper describes a set of statistical process control tools that can be used to monitor the performance of a number of deployed medical expert systems. It describes how p-charts are used in practice to monitor the GermWatcher expert system. The case volume and error rate of GermWatcher are then used to demonstrate how different inspection strategies would perform.

Kahn, M G; Bailey, T C; Steib, S A; Fraser, V J; Dunagan, W C

1996-01-01

45

ELICITED EXPERT PERCEPTIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS AND ADAPTATION IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION THROUGH MENTAL MODELS APPROACH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impacts of climate change have become obvious in agriculture and food production in Japan these days, and researches to adapt to their risks have been conducted as a key effort to cope with the climate change. Numerous scientific findings on climate change impacts have been presented so far; however, prospective risks to be adapted to and their management in the context of individual on-site situations have not been investigated in detail. The structure of climate change risks and their management vary depending on geographical and social features in the regions where the adaptation options should be applied; therefore, a practical adaptation strategy should consider actual on-site situations. This study intended to clarify climate change risks to be adapted to in the Japanese agricultural sector, and factors to be considered in adaptation options, for encouragement of decision-making on adaptation implementation in the field. Semi-structured individual interviews have been conducted with 9 multidisciplinary experts engaging in climate change impacts research in agricultural production, economics, engineering, policy, and so on. Based on the results of the interviews, and the latest literatures available for risk assessment and adaptation, an expert mental model including their perceptions which cover the process from climate change impacts assessment to adaptation has been developed. The prospective risks, adaptation options, and issues to be examined to progress the development of practical and effective adaptation options and to support individual or social decision-making, have been shown on the developed expert mental model. It is the basic information for developing social communication and stakeholders cooperations in climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture and food production in Japan.

Suda, Eiko; Kubota, Hiromi; Baba, Kenshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hanasaki, Naota

46

An expert system for natural language processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

Hennessy, John F.

1988-01-01

47

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

48

Electrophysiological correlates of aesthetic music processing: comparing experts with laypersons.  

PubMed

We analyzed the processes of making aesthetic judgments of music, focusing on the differences between music experts and laypersons. Sixteen students of musicology and 16 control subjects (also students) judged the aesthetic value as well as the harmonic correctness of chord sequences. Event-related potential (ERP) data indicate differences between experts and laypersons in making aesthetic judgments at three different processing stages. Additionally, effects of expertise on ERP components that have previously been proven to be sensitive to musical training were replicated. The study thus provides insights into the effects of musical expertise on neural correlates of aesthetic music processing. PMID:19673807

Müller, Mira; Höfel, Lea; Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

2009-07-01

49

A generic expert system for materials processing in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generic expert system is described for inspecting materials processed in space (MPS). The system may be applied, with the appropriate knowledge base, to any of the nondestructive testing methods (NDT) which are appropriate to MPS. Regardless of the method being used, the inspection process consists of three tasks: (1) signal or image processing of the NDT output and feature extraction, (2) interpretation of features in terms of MPS discontinuities, and (3) evaluation of the quality of the MPS based upon industry standards. In contrast to rule based systems, this system represents its knowledge as multidimensional vectors and appropriate functions on them. Currently, the expert system accepts manual input of observed features. Once the expert system has been tested and compared to human expert inspectors, a vision front-end will be developed to complete automation of the expert MPS inspection system, based on visual discontuities. Then the data base will be extended to include a variety of other NDT methods. In addition to functional performance, ease of use was established through menu window driven input as well as flexibility in building, using and modifying data bases for different applications.

Andersen, Kristinn; Cook, George E.; Strauss, Alvin M.

1988-01-01

50

The Expert Group Work Supervision Process: Apperception, Actions, and Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researchers conducted a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. This article's purpose is to report results that inform intentional practice and illustrate supervision interventions for group work supervisors. Results indicated that participants experienced an interactive…

Rubel, Deborah; Atieno Okech, Jane E.

2009-01-01

51

Differential Elicitation of Two Processing Proteases Controls the Processing Pattern of the Trypsin Proteinase Inhibitor Precursor in Nicotiana attenuata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TPIs) of Nicotiana attenuata are major antiherbivore defenses that increase dramatically in leaves after attack or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation. To understand the elicitation process, we characterized the proteolytic fragmentation and release of TPIs from a multidomain precursor by proteases in MeJA-elicited and unelicited plants. A set of approximately 6-kD TPI peptides was purified from leaves, and

Martin Horn; Aparna G. Patankar; Jorge A. Zavala; Jianqiang Wu; Lucie Doleckova

2005-01-01

52

Toward the integration of expert knowledge and instrumental data to control food processes: application to Camembert-type cheese ripening.  

PubMed

Modeling the cheese ripening process remains a challenge because of its complexity. We still lack the knowledge necessary to understand the interactions that take place at different levels of scale during the process. However, information may be gathered from expert knowledge. Combining this expertise with knowledge extracted from experimental databases may allow a better understanding of the entire ripening process. The aim of this study was to elicit expert knowledge and to check its validity to assess the evolution of organoleptic quality during a dynamic food process: Camembert cheese ripening. Experiments on a pilot scale were carried out at different temperatures and relative humidities to obtain contrasting ripening kinetics. During these experiments, macroscopic evolution was evaluated from an expert's point of view and instrumental measurements were carried out to simultaneously monitor microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical kinetics. A correlation of 76% was established between the microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical data and the sensory phases measured according to expert knowledge, highlighting the validity of the experts' measurements. In the future, it is hoped that this expert knowledge may be integrated into food process models to build better decision-aid systems that will make it possible to preserve organoleptic qualities by linking them to other phenomena at the microscopic level. PMID:21183011

Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Baudrit, C; Corrieu, G

2011-01-01

53

A strategy of knowledge elicitation for developing an integrated bidding\\/production management expert system for the precast industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bidding and production decisions, including the estimation of optimal mark-up on price, represent major decision problems for companies formulating a successful business strategy. The objective of this research was to develop a strategy for developing an integrated bidding\\/production management expert system to assess the suitability of incoming enquiries for a particular company and suggests a ‘bid\\/no bid’ decision. If a

N. N. Dawood

1996-01-01

54

Eliciting information for product modeling using process modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A product model is a formal and structured definition of product information. The most common procedure for defin- ing a product data model is to first describe the business and\\/or engineering process in a formal process model, then to create a product data model based on the process model. However, there is a logical gap between process modeling and product

Ghang Lee; Charles M. Eastman; Rafael Sacks

2007-01-01

55

A Case Study of Requirements Elicitation Process with Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requirements changes sometimes cause a project to fail. A lot of projects now follow incremental development processes so that new requirements and requirements changes can be incorporated as soon as possible. These processes are called integrated requirements processes, which function to integrate requirements processes with other developmental processes. We have quantitatively and qualitatively investigated the requirements processes of a specific project from beginning to end. Our focus is to clarify the types of necessary requirements based on the components contained within a certain portion of the software architecture. Further, each type reveals its typical requirements processes through its own rationale. This case study is a system to manage the orders and services of a restaurant. In this paper, we introduce the case and categorize its requirements processes based on the components of the system and the qualitative characteristics of ISO-9126. We could identify seven categories of the typical requirements process to be managed and/or controlled. Each category reveals its typical requirements processes and their characteristics. The case study is our first step of practical integrated requirements engineering.

Nakatani, Takako; Hori, Shouzo; Ubayashi, Naoyasu; Katamine, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Masaaki

56

Expert panel reviews of research centers: the site visit process.  

PubMed

Site visits are used extensively in a variety of settings within the evaluation community. They are especially common in making summative value decisions about the quality and worth of research programs/centers. However, there has been little empirical research and guidance about how to appropriately conduct evaluative site visits of research centers. We review the processes of two site visit examples using an expert panel review: (1) a process to evaluate four university research centers and (2) a process to review a federally sponsored research center. A set of 14 categories describing the expert panel review process was obtained through content analysis and participant observation. Most categories were addressed differently through the two processes highlighting the need for more research about the most effective processes to use within different contexts. Decisions about how to structure site visits appear to depend on the research context, practical considerations, the level at which the review is being conducted and the intended impact of the report. Future research pertaining to the selection of site visitors, the autonomy of the visitors in data collection and report writing, and the amount and type of information provided would be particularly valuable. PMID:22306932

Lawrenz, Frances; Thao, Mao; Johnson, Kelli

2012-08-01

57

A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.

Greenberg, Marc W.

2013-01-01

58

An expert system for processing uncorrelated satellite tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through an array of ground based radar sights and optical cameras, the United States military tracks objects in near and far Earth orbit. The sensors provide epoch and ephemeris information that is used to update a database of known objects. While a majority of the sensor observations are matched to their corresponding satellites, a small percentage are beyond the capabilities of current software and cannot be correlated. These uncorrelated targets, UCT's, must be manually fitted by orbital analysts in a labor intensive process. As an alternative to this human intervention, the use of artificial intelligence techniques to augment the present computer code was explored. Specifically, an expert system for processing UCT's at the Naval Space Surveillance Command was developed. Rules were generated through traditional knowledge engineering methods and by a novel application of machine learning. The initial results are very good with the operational portions of the system matching the performance of the experts with an accuracy of 99%. Although not yet complete, the code developed in this research definitely shows the potential of using artificial intelligence to process UCT'S.

Hecker, Michael A.

1992-12-01

59

Rhythm evokes action: early processing of metric deviances in expressive music by experts and laymen revealed by ERP source imaging.  

PubMed

To examine how musical expertise tunes the brain to subtle metric anomalies in an ecological musical context, we presented piano compositions ending on standard and deviant cadences (endings) to expert pianists and musical laymen, while high-density EEG was recorded. Temporal expectancies were manipulated by substituting standard "masculine" cadences at metrically strong positions with deviant, metrically unaccented, "feminine" cadences. Experts detected metrically deviant cadences better than laymen. Analyses of event-related potentials demonstrated that an early P3a-like component (~150-300 ms), elicited by musical closure, was significantly enhanced at frontal and parietal electrodes in response to deviant endings in experts, whereas a reduced response to deviance occurred in laymen. Putative neuronal sources contributing to the modulation of this component were localized in a network of brain regions including bilateral supplementary motor areas, middle and posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, associative visual areas, as well as in the right amygdala and insula. In all these regions, experts showed enhanced responses to metric deviance. Later effects demonstrated enhanced activations within the same brain network, as well as higher processing speed for experts. These results suggest that early brain responses to metric deviance in experts may rely on motor representations mediated by the supplementary motor area and motor cingulate regions, in addition to areas involved in self-referential imagery and relevance detection. Such motor representations could play a role in temporal sensory prediction evolved from musical training and suggests that rhythm evokes action more strongly in highly trained instrumentalists. PMID:21932257

James, Clara E; Michel, Christoph M; Britz, Juliane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hauert, Claude-Alain

2012-12-01

60

KBES for process control of nitrification in activated sludge process. [Knowledge-Based Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge-based system technology has recently been introduced in activated sludge plant operations. A knowledge-based expert system (KBES) called ASPX (Activated Sludge Process Expert) is developed for nitrification process control of a specific petroleum refinery activated sludge plant. This knowledge-based system has been created to diagnose and correct problems with the nitrification process using rule-based knowledge (heuristics), statistics, and a predictive

N. H. Ozgur; M. K. Stenstrom

2009-01-01

61

Cellular defense processes regulated by pathogen-elicited receptor signaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertebrates are constantly threatened by the invasion of microorganisms and have evolved systems of immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens in the body. Initial sensing of microbial agents is mediated by the recognition of pathogens by means of molecular structures expressed uniquely by microbes of a given type. So-called 'Toll-like receptors' are expressed on host epithelial barrier cells play an essential role in the host defense against microbial pathogens by inducing cell responses (e.g., proliferation, death, cytokine secretion) via activation of intracellular signaling networks. As these networks, comprising multiple interconnecting dynamic pathways, represent highly complex multi-variate "information processing" systems, the signaling activities particularly critical for governing the host cell responses are poorly understood and not easily ascertained by a priori theoretical notions. We have developed over the past half-decade a "data-driven" computational modeling approach, on a 'cue-signal-response' combined experiment/computation paradigm, to elucidate key multi-variate signaling relationships governing the cell responses. In an example presented here, we study how a canonical set of six kinase pathways combine to effect microbial agent-induced apoptotic death of a macrophage cell line. One modeling technique, partial least-squares regression, yielded the following key insights: {a} signal combinations most strongly correlated to apoptotic death are orthogonal to those most strongly correlated with release of inflammatory cytokines; {b} the ratio of two key pathway activities is the most powerful predictor of microbe-induced macrophage apoptotic death; {c} the most influential time-window of this signaling activity ratio is surprisingly fast: less than one hour after microbe stimulation.

Wu, Rongcong; Goldsipe, Arthur; Schauer, David B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

2011-05-01

62

Development of an instructional expert system for hole drilling processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system which captures the expertise of workshop technicians in the drilling domain was developed. The expert system is aimed at novice technicians who know how to operate the machines but have not acquired the decision making skills that are gained with experience. This paper describes the domain background and the stages of development of the expert system.

Al-Mutawa, Souhaila; Srinivas, Vijay; Moon, Young Bai

1990-01-01

63

Eliciting and Developing Teachers' Conceptions of Random Processes in a Probability and Statistics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine prospective mathematics specialists' engagement in an instructional sequence designed to elicit and develop their understandings of random processes. The study was conducted with two different sections of a probability and statistics course for K-8 teachers. Thirty-two teachers participated. Video analyses…

Smith, Toni M.; Hjalmarson, Margret A.

2013-01-01

64

Combining experts' judgments: comparison of algorithmic methods using synthetic data.  

PubMed

Expert judgment (or expert elicitation) is a formal process for eliciting judgments from subject-matter experts about the value of a decision-relevant quantity. Judgments in the form of subjective probability distributions are obtained from several experts, raising the question how best to combine information from multiple experts. A number of algorithmic approaches have been proposed, of which the most commonly employed is the equal-weight combination (the average of the experts' distributions). We evaluate the properties of five combination methods (equal-weight, best-expert, performance, frequentist, and copula) using simulated expert-judgment data for which we know the process generating the experts' distributions. We examine cases in which two well-calibrated experts are of equal or unequal quality and their judgments are independent, positively or negatively dependent. In this setting, the copula, frequentist, and best-expert approaches perform better and the equal-weight combination method performs worse than the alternative approaches. PMID:22583060

Hammitt, James K; Zhang, Yifan

2013-01-01

65

Differences in the Educational Software Evaluation Process for Experts and Novice Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comparative case study investigated the educational software evaluation processes of both experts and novices in conjunction with a software evaluation checklist. Twenty novice elementary education students, divided into groups of five, and three experts participated. Each novice group and the three experts evaluated educational software…

Tokmak, Hatice Sancar; Incikabi, Lutfi; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar

2012-01-01

66

Signaling in the elicitation process is mediated through the octadecanoid pathway leading to jasmonic acid.  

PubMed Central

Fungal cell walls and fragments thereof (elicitors) induce the formation of low and high molecular weight defense compounds in plant cell suspension cultures. This induced synthesis requires a signal molecule transmitting the message between the elicitor plant cell wall receptor and gene activation. We demonstrate in this study that cis-jasmonic acid is rapidly synthesized in plant cell cultures of diverse taxonomic origin (gymnosperms and mono- and dicotyledonous plants) after challenge with a fungal elicitor preparation. The rapid decline of cis-jasmonic acid in some of these tissues is attributed to rapid metabolism of this pentacyclic acid. The induction of alkaloids by several different molecules provoking the elicitation process is strictly correlated with the synthesis of jasmonates. Elicitation leads to a rapid release of alpha-linolenic acid from the lipid pool of the plant cell. alpha-Linolenic acid and 12-oxophytodienoic acid, the formation of which is also induced, are known to be distant precursors of jasmonic acid. We assume cis-jasmonic acid and its precursors to be the signaling molecules in the elicitation process.

Mueller, M J; Brodschelm, W; Spannagl, E; Zenk, M H

1993-01-01

67

The Instructional Developer, Expert Systems, and the Front End Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is intended to provide the instructional technologist already possessing some understanding of expert systems with some insight into two of the many steps involved in the design and production of such systems: knowledge acquisition and knowledge structuring or representation. It is also intended to help technologists to see how they…

Dills, Charles R.; Romiszowski, Alexander

68

Career Counseling Process: A Qualitative Analysis of Experts' Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A consensual qualitative research methodology was used to analyze the career counseling cases of 12 noted vocational psychologists to identify common themes and factors. The findings indicated that the career counseling described by these experts often involved the same counseling or helping skills found in personal counseling or psychotherapy.…

Whiston, Susan C.; Lindeman, Dawn; Rahardja, Daryn; Reed, Jordan H.

2005-01-01

69

A rule-based expert system approach to process selection for cast components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge-based expert system at the discretion of casting product designers can be employed as a real-time expert advisor to assist product designers to achieve the correct casting design and select the most appropriate casting process for a given component. This paper proposes a rule-based expert system approach for casting process selection, and describes an ongoing rule prototype development. The

Er Ahmet; R. Dias

2000-01-01

70

Process design of oil and gas production facilities using expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert system known as the Automated Project Design System (APDS#8482;) has been developed to assist process and facilities engineers in performing preliminary feasibility studies, optimization studies, and provide the basic information required for the initiation of the detailed design for offshore oil and gas production facilities.Given the feedstock and product specifications, the expert system produces a preliminary process flow

Hafez Aghili; George Montgomery; Al Amlani; Jatin Shah II

1988-01-01

71

Clinical Guideline Audit and Knowledge Elicitation Using the MDS Tool and Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a study, utilising the MDS methodology and tool to create a knowledge model based on clinical experts' interpreted knowledge of clinical guidelines. The study demonstrated the elicitation of tacit expert knowledge when the formalised processes of the MDS were applied to model a clinical expert's interpretation of the knowledge content of a clinical guideline onto the specialised

Peter F. Summons

72

Acquiring Expertise and Cognitive Skills in the Process of Constructing an Expert System: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the educational implications of having a group of 17 first-year New Zealand nursing students develop a medical expert system. Goals of the study were to determine whether, in the process of developing the expert system, the learners could: (1) acquire a more in-depth understanding of the specific subject domain under study…

Lai, Kwok-Wing

73

Mind at Ease Puts a Smile on the Face Psychophysiological Evidence That Processing Facilitation Elicits Positive Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The affect system, in its position to monitor organismic—environmental transactions, may be sensitive to the internal dynamics of information processing. Hence, the authors predicted that facilitation of stimulus processing should elicit a brief, mild, positive affective response. In 2 studies, participants watched a series of neutral pictures while the processing ease was unobtrusively manipulated. Affective reactions were assessed with facial

Piotr Winkielman; John T. Cacioppo

2002-01-01

74

RFID-Based Critical Path Expert System for Agility Manufacture Process Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a critical path expert system for the agility manufacture process management based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. The paper explores that the agility manufacture processes can be visible and controllable with RFID. The critical paths or activities can be easily found out and tracked by the RFID tracing technology. And the expert system can optimize the bottle neck of the task process of the agility management with the critical path adjusting and reforming method. Finally, the paper gives a simple application example of the system to discuss how to adjust the critical paths and how to make the process more agility and flexibility with the critical path expert system. With an RFID-based critical path expert system, the agility manufacture process management will be more effective and efficient.

Cheng, Haifang; Xiang, Yuli

75

UPDATING AN EXPERT ELICITATION IN THE LIGHT OF NEW DATA: TEN YEARS OF PROBABILISTIC VOLCANIC HAZARD ANALYSIS FOR THE PROPOSED HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) considers volcanism to be a potentially disruptive class of events that could affect the safety of the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Volcanic hazard assessment in monogenetic volcanic fields depends on an adequate understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of past eruptions. At Yucca Mountain, the hazard is due to an 11 Ma-history of basaltic volcanism with the latest eruptions occurring in three Pleistocene episodes to the west and south of Yucca Mountain. An expert elicitation convened in 1995-1996 by the DOE estimated the mean hazard of volcanic disruption of the repository as slightly greater than 10{sup -8} dike intersections per year with an uncertainty of about two orders of magnitude. Several boreholes in the region have encountered buried basalt in alluvial-filled basins; the youngest of these basalts is dated at 3.8 Ma. The possibility of additional buried basalt centers is indicated by a previous regional aeromagnetic survey conducted by the USGS that detected approximately 20 magnetic anomalies that could represent buried basalt volcanoes. Sensitivity studies indicate that the postulated presence of buried post-Miocene volcanoes to the east of Yucca Mountain could increase the hazard by an order of magnitude, and potentially significantly impact the results of the earlier expert elicitation. Our interpretation of the aeromagnetic data indicates that post-Miocene basalts are not present east of Yucca Mountain, but that magnetic anomalies instead represent faulted and buried Miocene basalt that correlates with nearby surface exposures. This interpretation is being tested by drilling. The possibility of uncharacterized buried volcanoes that could significantly change hazard estimates led DOE to support an update of the expert elicitation in 2004-2006. In support of the expert elicitation data needs, the DOE is sponsoring (1) a new higher-resolution, helicopter-borne aeromagnetic survey, completed in mid-2004, and (2) drilling of selected anomalies based on the aeromagnetic survey results to better characterize the number, location and age of buried volcanoes, which began in mid-2005. The new aeromagnetic survey detected the presence of 33 anomalies interpreted as possible buried volcanoes or faulted tuff bedrock. A program to drill ten of the anomalies has begun, with the selection of drill holes prioritized based on their potential impact on the hazard assessment.

F.V. Perry; A. Cogbill; R. Kelley

2005-08-26

76

Representation and processing of rule-based expert system using Petri nets: a viable framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a useful and novel framework of representing and processing knowledge in a rule-based expert system. It provides a high level of interaction with domain expert for automating the construction and maintenance of rule-based system. The proposed approach uses the rich concepts of software engineering for maintaining the system and provides user-friendly environment for query processing and knowledge

G. S. Hura

1993-01-01

77

Representing and Capturing the Experts' Knowledge in a Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An object-oriented framework to support t he modeling and management of the design process is introduced. It naturally integrates the representation of both the design process itself, and the outcomes that are achieved as the result of the various design activities. The integral view of tracing that was adopted not only captures and manages the products being generated but also

Silvio Gonnet; Horacio P. Leone; Gabriela P. Henning

2003-01-01

78

Design Expert's Participation in Elementary Students' Collaborative Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe elementary students' collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

79

Identification and evaluation of scientific uncertainties related to fish and aquatic resources in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon - summary and interpretation of an expert-elicitation questionnaire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identifying areas of scientific uncertainty is a critical step in the adaptive management process (Walters, 1986; Runge, Converse, and Lyons, 2011). To identify key areas of scientific uncertainty regarding biologic resources of importance to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) convened Knowledge Assessment Workshops in May and July 2005. One of the products of these workshops was a set of strategic science questions that highlighted key areas of scientific uncertainty. These questions were intended to frame and guide the research and monitoring activities conducted by the GCMRC in subsequent years. Questions were developed collaboratively by scientists and managers. The questions were not all of equal importance or merit—some questions were large scale and others were small scale. Nevertheless, these questions were adopted and have guided the research and monitoring efforts conducted by the GCMRC since 2005. A new round of Knowledge Assessment Workshops was convened by the GCMRC in June and October 2011 and January 2012 to determine whether the research and monitoring activities conducted since 2005 had successfully answered some of the strategic science questions. Oral presentations by scientists highlighting research findings were a centerpiece of all three of the 2011–12 workshops. Each presenter was also asked to provide an answer to the strategic science questions that were specific to the presenter’s research area. One limitation of this approach is that these answers represented the views of the handful of scientists who developed the presentations, and, as such, they did not incorporate other perspectives. Thus, the answers provided by presenters at the Knowledge Assessment Workshops may not have accurately captured the sentiments of the broader group of scientists involved in research and monitoring of the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Yet a fundamental ingredient of resilient decisionmaking and problem-solving is incorporation of a wide range of perspectives (Carpenter and others, 2009). To ensure that a wide range of scientists had an opportunity to weigh in on the strategic science questions, the GCMRC elicited additional perspectives through written questionnaires. Independently soliciting responses from scientists through questionnaires had the added advantage of allowing all scientists to freely and openly share their views on complex and controversial topics—something which may not have occurred in the group setting of the June 2011 Knowledge Assessment Workshop because of dominance by one or more scientists. The purpose of this report is to document and interpret the questionnaire responses.

Kennedy, Theodore A.

2013-01-01

80

Probability encoding of hydrologic parameters for basalt. Elicitation of expert opinions from a panel of three basalt waste isolation project staff hydrologists  

SciTech Connect

The present study implemented a probability encoding method to estimate the probability distributions of selected hydrologic variables for the Cohassett basalt flow top and flow interior, and the anisotropy ratio of the interior of the Cohassett basalt flow beneath the Hanford Site. Site-speciic data for these hydrologic parameters are currently inadequate for the purpose of preliminary assessment of candidate repository performance. However, this information is required to complete preliminary performance assessment studies. Rockwell chose a probability encoding method developed by SRI International to generate credible and auditable estimates of the probability distributions of effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity anisotropy. The results indicate significant differences of opinion among the experts. This was especially true of the values of the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow interior for which estimates differ by more than five orders of magnitude. The experts are in greater agreement about the values of effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top; their estimates for this variable are generally within one to two orders of magnitiude of each other. For anisotropy ratio, the expert estimates are generally within two or three orders of magnitude of each other. Based on this study, the Rockwell hydrologists estimate the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top to be generally higher than do the independent experts. For the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a smaller uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts. On the other hand, for the effective porosity and anisotropy ratio of the Cohassett basalt flow interior, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a larger uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts.

Runchal, A.K.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Olmsted, E.; Davis, J.D.

1984-11-01

81

Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status  

DOEpatents

A method and system are disclosed for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 24 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.

1998-06-02

82

Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status  

DOEpatents

A method and system for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-01

83

An expert system for selecting and designing EOR processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes in the petroleum industry makes its understanding and prediction critical in the decisions on the applicability of certain recovery techniques. A large number of EOR projects have been applied in many regions around the world. This has lead to an increased understanding of the selection and applicability of certain oil recovery projects.

Ridha B. C Gharbi

2000-01-01

84

Expert Knowledge, Distinctiveness, and Levels of Processing in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The foreign language vocabulary learning research literature often attributes strong mnemonic potency to the cognitive processing of meaning when learning words. Routinely cited as support for this idea are experiments by Craik and Tulving (C&T) demonstrating superior recognition and recall of studied words following semantic tasks ("deep"…

Bird, Steve

2012-01-01

85

XCUT: A rule-based expert system for the automated process planning of machined parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated process planning is becoming a popular research and development topic in engineering and applied artificial intelligence. It is generally defined as the automatic planning of the manufacturing procedures for producing a part from a CAD based product definition. An automated process planning system, XCUT, is currently being developed using rule-based expert system techniques. XCUT will generate process plans for

S. L. Brooks; K. E. Hummel; M. L. Wolf

1987-01-01

86

Enhanced Temporal but Not Attentional Processing in Expert Tennis Players  

PubMed Central

In tennis, as in many disciplines of sport, fine spatio-temporal resolution is required to reach optimal performance. While many studies on tennis have focused on anticipatory skills or decision making, fewer have investigated the underlying visual perception abilities. In this study, we used a battery of seven visual tests that allowed us to assess which kind of visual information processing is performed better by tennis players than other athletes (triathletes) and non-athletes. We found that certain time-related skills, such as speed discrimination, are superior in tennis players compared to non-athletes and triathletes. Such tasks might be used to improve tennis performance in the future.

Overney, Leila S.; Blanke, Olaf; Herzog, Michael H.

2008-01-01

87

XPC: an on-line expert system for statistical process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of available microcomputer packages for statistical process control (SPC) are off-line programs which present information regarding quality in the form of control charts. The user has to interpret the charts to infer process and product quality. This paper describes XPC, an on-line expert system for SPC. The system produces mean and range charts and interprets them automatically. XPC

D. T. PHAM; E. OZTEMEL

1992-01-01

88

Expert Models and Modeling Processes Associated with a Computer-Modeling Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holding the premise that the development of expertise is a continuous process, this study concerns expert models and modeling processes associated with a modeling tool called Model-It. Five advanced Ph.D. students in environmental engineering and public health used Model-It to create and test models of water quality. Using "think aloud" technique…

Zhang, BaoHui; Liu, Xiufeng; Krajcik, Joseph S.

2006-01-01

89

Knowledge elicitation for an operator assistant system in process control tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A knowledge based system (KBS) methodology designed to study human machine interactions and levels of autonomy in allocation of process control tasks is presented. Users are provided with operation manuals to assist them in normal and abnormal situations. Unfortunately, operation manuals usually represent only the functioning logic of the system to be controlled. The user logic is often totally different. A method is focused on which illicits user logic to refine a KBS shell called an Operator Assistant (OA). If the OA is to help the user, it is necessary to know what level of autonomy gives the optimal performance of the overall man-machine system. For example, for diagnoses that must be carried out carefully by both the user and the OA, interactions are frequent, and processing is mostly sequential. Other diagnoses can be automated, in which the case the OA must be able to explain its reasoning in an appropriate level of detail. OA structure was used to design a working KBS called HORSES (Human Orbital Refueling System Expert System). Protocol analysis of pilots interacting with this system reveals that the a-priori analytical knowledge becomes more structured with training and the situation patterns more complex and dynamic. This approach can improve the a-priori understanding of human and automatic reasoning.

Boy, Guy A.

1988-01-01

90

Modelling health care processes for eliciting user requirements: a way to link a quality paradigm and clinical information system design.  

PubMed

Healthcare institutions are looking at ways to increase their efficiency by reducing costs while providing care services with a high level of safety. Thus, hospital information systems have to support quality improvement objectives. The elicitation of the requirements has to meet users' needs in relation to both the quality (efficacy, safety) and the monitoring of all health care activities (traceability). Information analysts need methods to conceptualise clinical information systems that provide actors with individual benefits and guide behavioural changes. A methodology is proposed to elicit and structure users' requirements using a process-oriented analysis, and it is applied to the blood transfusion process. An object-oriented data model of a process has been defined in order to organise the data dictionary. Although some aspects of activity, such as 'where', 'what else', and 'why' are poorly represented by the data model alone, this method of requirement elicitation fits the dynamic of data input for the process to be traced. A hierarchical representation of hospital activities has to be found for the processes to be interrelated, and for their characteristics to be shared, in order to avoid data redundancy and to fit the gathering of data with the provision of care. PMID:11734381

Staccini, P; Joubert, M; Quaranta, J F; Fieschi, D; Fieschi, M

2001-12-01

91

A formal methodology for acquiring and representing expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

The process of eliciting knowledge from human experts and representing that knowledge in an expert or knowledge-based system suffers from numerous problems. Not only is this process time-consuming and tedious, but the weak knowledge acquisition methods typically used (i.e., interviews and protocol analysis) are inadequate for eliciting tacit knowledge and may, in fact, lead to inaccuracies in the knowledge base. In addition, the intended knowledge representation scheme guides the acquisition of knowledge resulting in a representation-driven knowledge base as opposed to one that is knowledge-driven. In this paper, a formal methodology is proposed that employs techniques from the field of cognitive psychology to uncover expert knowledge as well as an appropriate representation of that knowledge. The advantages of such a methodology are discussed, as well as results from studies concerning the elicitation of concepts from experts and the assignment of labels to links in empirically derived semantic networks.

Cooke, N.M.; McDonald, J.E.

1986-10-01

92

The use of expert systems in process design for offshore oil and gas production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the details of the development effort which is currently underway at Hudson Engineering Corporation to automate the design of conventional offshore gas and oil production facilities. A front-end design engineering expert system has been developed which utilizes artificial intelligence techniques to assist process and facility engineers in performing feasibility studies to allow for quick development of a

H. Agnili; G. Montgomery; A. Amlani; J. Shah

1987-01-01

93

Method for processing an expert system rulebase on a system having limited memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of tracing a Rulebase of an expert system with a data processing system, the improvement comprising the following steps: segmenting the Rulebase into a plurality of contextual units each of which has a size less than the size of the main memory unit, each contextual unit having a plurality of Rule trees having a Goal

T. J. Ashford; N. A. Burns; R. L. Flagg; C. T. Iwaskiw; R. P. Starbird

1989-01-01

94

Visual Attention and Brain Processes That Underlie Expert Performance: Implications for Sport and Military Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in methodology have allowed sport psychologists to broaden their understanding of expert performance through inclusion of physiological assessments of expertise (e.g., eye movements and bioelectric signals such as the electroencephalogram [EEG]). Innovations linking physiology, basic cognitive processes, and performance have illustrated the degree to which these techniques can converge on a finer-grained understanding of factors driving learning and performance

Christopher M. Janelle; Bradley D. Hatfield

2008-01-01

95

Holistic processing of musical notation: Dissociating failures of selective attention in experts and novices.  

PubMed

Holistic processing (i.e., the tendency to process objects as wholes) is associated with face perception and also with expertise individuating novel objects. Surprisingly, recent work also reveals holistic effects in novice observers. It is unclear whether the same mechanisms support holistic effects in experts and in novices. In the present study, we measured holistic processing of music sequences using a selective attention task in participants who vary in music-reading expertise. We found that holistic effects were strategic in novices but were relatively automatic in experts. Correlational analyses revealed that individual holistic effects were predicted by both individual music-reading ability and neural responses for musical notation in the right fusiform face area (rFFA), but in opposite directions for experts and novices, suggesting that holistic effects in the two groups may be of different natures. To characterize expert perception, it is important not only to measure the tendency to process objects as wholes, but also to test whether this effect is dependent on task constraints. PMID:21098813

Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

2010-12-01

96

Holistic processing of musical notation: Dissociating failures of selective attention in experts and novices  

PubMed Central

Holistic processing, i.e. the tendency to process objects as wholes, is associated with face perception and also with expertise individuating novel objects. Surprisingly, recent work also reveals holistic effects in novice observers. It is unclear whether the same mechanisms support holistic effects in experts and in novices. Here, we measured holistic processing of music sequences using a selective attention task in participants who vary in music reading expertise. We found that holistic effects were strategic in novices but relatively automatic in experts. Correlational analyses revealed that individual holistic effects were predicted by both individual music reading ability and neural responses for musical notation in the right fusiform face area (rFFA), but in opposite directions for experts and novices, suggesting that holistic effects in the two groups may be of different nature. To characterize expert perception, it is important to measure not only the tendency to process objects as wholes but to test whether this effect is dependent on task constraints.

Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

2010-01-01

97

DMC-Expert Control of Gasoline In-line Blending Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an advanced control strategy for gasoline in-line blending process to achieve tight control of octane quality for resultant gasoline. Specifically, the control law includes a dynamic matrix control (DMC) part to address the large delay mainly caused by the on-line octane analyzer, and an expert control part to calculate the flow of each blending gasoline. As demonstrated

Y. Fang; N. Wang; S. Wang

2006-01-01

98

Expert models and modeling processes associated with a computer-modeling tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holding the premise that the development of expertise is a continuous process, this study concerns expert models and modeling processes associated with a modeling tool called Model-It. Five advanced Ph.D. students in environmental engineering and public health used Model-It to create and test models of water quality. Using think aloud technique and video recording, we captured their computer screen modeling activities and thinking processes. We also interviewed them the day following their modeling sessions to further probe the rationale of their modeling practices. We analyzed both the audio-video transcripts and the experts' models. We found the experts' modeling processes followed the linear sequence built in the modeling program with few instances of moving back and forth. They specified their goals up front and spent a long time thinking through an entire model before acting. They specified relationships with accurate and convincing evidence. Factors (i.e., variables) in expert models were clustered, and represented by specialized technical terms. Based on the above findings, we made suggestions for improving model-based science teaching and learning using Model-It.

Zhang, Baohui; Liu, Xiufeng; Krajcik, Joseph S.

2006-07-01

99

Expert System Rule-Base Evaluation Using Real-Time Parallel Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large rule-based expert system with each rule involving perhaps 10 out of l00,000 possible Boolean criteria, can require a significant amount of processing time to evaluate. This time can be reduced if all rules have a single consequent and have anteced...

J. L. Noyes

1993-01-01

100

An expert decision support system for monitoring and diagnosis of petroleum production and separation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation of operations of petroleum production and separation facilities are desirable because the plants are often located in remote areas difficult to access in the severe Prairie winters. This paper presents the development process of an expert decision support system for monitoring, control and diagnosis of a petroleum production and separation plant. Data from various components of the plant are

Christine W. Chan

2005-01-01

101

Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

1998-07-01

102

Social groups that elicit disgust are differentially processed in mPFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social neuroscience suggests medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC) as necessary for social cognition. However, the mPFC activates less to members of extreme outgroups that elicit disgust, an emotion directed toward both people and objects. This study aimed to counteract that effect. Participants made either superficial categorical age estimations or individuating food-preference judgments about people, while fMRI recorded neural activity. Besides replicating

Lasana T. Harris; Susan T. Fiske

2007-01-01

103

Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

Shewhart, Mark

1991-01-01

104

An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

1998-01-01

105

Early neuronal responses in right limbic structures mediate harmony incongruity processing in musical experts.  

PubMed

In western tonal music, musical phrases end with an explicit harmonic consequent which is highly expected. As such expectation is a consequence of musical background, cerebral processing of incongruities of musical grammar might be a function of expertise. We hypothesized that a subtle incongruity of standard closure should evoke a profound and rapid reaction in an expert's brain. If such a reaction is due to neuroplasticity as a consequence of musical training, it should be correlated with distinctive activations in sensory, motor and/or cognitive function related brain areas in response to the incongruent closure. Using event related potential (ERP) source imaging, we determined the temporal dynamics of neuronal activity in highly trained pianists and musical laymen in response to syntactic harmonic incongruities in expressive music, which were easily detected by the experts but not by the laymen. Our results revealed that closure incongruity evokes a selective early response in musical experts, characterized by a strong, right lateralized negative ERP component. Statistical source analysis could demonstrate putative contribution to the generation of this component in right temporal-limbic areas, encompassing hippocampal complex and amygdala, and in right insula. Its early onset (approximately 200 ms) preceded responses in frontal areas that may reflect more conscious processing. These results go beyond previous work demonstrating that musical training can change activity of sensory and motor areas during musical or audio-motor tasks, and suggest that functional plasticity in right medial-temporal structures and insula also modulates processing of subtle harmonic incongruities. PMID:18640279

James, Clara E; Britz, Juliane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hauert, Claude-Alain; Michel, Christoph M

2008-10-01

106

Psychology of developing and designing expert systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

1986-01-01

107

Expert therapists use specific clinical reasoning processes in the assessment and management of patients with shoulder pain: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: What are the key items in the clinical reasoning process which expert clinicians identify as being relevant to the assessment and management of patients with shoulder pain? Design: Qualitative study using a three-round Delphi procedure. Participants: Twenty-six experts in the UK consented to be involved and were contactable, of whom 20 contributed, with 12, 15, and 15 contributing to

Stephen May; Alison Greasley; Sarah Reeve; Sarah Withers

2008-01-01

108

Expert systems in transportation  

SciTech Connect

The 5 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Knowledge representation and software selection for expert-systems design; Expert-system architecture for retaining-wall design; Development of expert-systems technology in the California Department of Transportation; Development of an expert system to assist in the interactive graphic transit system design process; Expert systems development for contingency transportation planing.

O'Leary, K.P.

1988-01-01

109

Eliciting Goals for Business Process Models with Non-Functional Requirements Catalogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

While traditional approaches in business process modelling tend to focus on “how” the business processes are performed (adopting\\u000a a behavioural description in which business processes are described in terms of procedural aspects), in goal-oriented business process modelling [23][24][6], the proposals strive to extend traditional business process methodologies by providing a dimension of intentionality\\u000a to the business processes. One of the

Evellin C. S. Cardoso; João Paulo A. Almeida; Giancarlo Guizzardi; Renata S. S. Guizzardi

2009-01-01

110

Documenting the use of expert scientific reasoning processes by high school physics students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these processes can be central during scientific model construction; here we code for their spontaneous use by students. We document evidence for numerous instances of these forms of reasoning in these classes. Most of these instances were associated with motion- and force-indicating depictive gestures, which we take as one kind of evidence for the use of animated mental imagery. Altogether, this methodology shows promise for use in highlighting the role of nonformal reasoning in student learning and for investigating the possible association of animated mental imagery with scientific reasoning processes.

Stephens, A. Lynn; Clement, John J.

2010-07-01

111

Documenting the use of expert scientific reasoning processes by high school physics students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these processes can be central during scientific model construction; here we code for their spontaneous use by students. We document evidence for numerous instances of these forms of reasoning in these classes. Most of these instances were associated with motion- and force-indicating depictive gestures, which we take as one kind of evidence for the use of animated mental imagery. Altogether, this methodology shows promise for use in highlighting the role of nonformal reasoning in student learning and for investigating the possible association of animated mental imagery with scientific reasoning processes.

Stephens, A. L.; Clement, John J.

2012-05-21

112

A fuzzy expert system for fault detection in statistical process control of industrial processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little work has previously been reported on the use of fuzzy logic within statistical process control when this is used for fault detection as part of quality control systems in industrial manufacturing processes. Therefore, the paper investigates the potential use of fuzzy logic to enhance the performance of statistical process control (SPC). The cumulative sum of the deviation in the

Shendy M. El-shal; Alan S. Morris

2000-01-01

113

Deduction Electrified: ERPs Elicited by the Processing of Words in Conditional Arguments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the ERP components associated with the processing of words that are critical to generating and rejecting deductive conditional Modus Ponens arguments ("If P then Q; P//"Therefore, "Q"). The generation of a logical inference is investigated by placing a verb in the minor premise that matches the one used in the antecedent of…

Bonnefond, Mathilde; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

2013-01-01

114

Using photo-elicitation to examine artefacts in a sport club: logistical considerations and strategies throughout the research process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of logistical considerations that need to be addressed when using photo-elicitation in research, yet these are rarely discussed in the existing literature. This paper elucidates the challenges particular to using photo-elicitation in research and proposes strategies for addressing these issues. We drew upon our experiences using a combination of photographs taken by participants and photographs taken

Cathy Mills; Larena Hoeber

2012-01-01

115

Expert System to Help Assess Tactical Air Readiness and Capability. Phase I Report. Appendix 1. The Expert's Expertise. Raw Data for the Knowledge Engineering Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This appendix contains part of the expert's raw knowledge. This knowledge comes fom three sources. The first is a series of unstructured conversations between knowledge engineers (those people who turn an expert's thinking into a knowledge base and infere...

1986-01-01

116

Combined expert system/neural networks method for process fault diagnosis  

DOEpatents

A two-level hierarchical approach for process fault diagnosis of an operating system employs a function-oriented approach at a first level and a component characteristic-oriented approach at a second level, where the decision-making procedure is structured in order of decreasing intelligence with increasing precision. At the first level, the diagnostic method is general and has knowledge of the overall process including a wide variety of plant transients and the functional behavior of the process components. An expert system classifies malfunctions by function to narrow the diagnostic focus to a particular set of possible faulty components that could be responsible for the detected functional misbehavior of the operating system. At the second level, the diagnostic method limits its scope to component malfunctions, using more detailed knowledge of component characteristics. Trained artificial neural networks are used to further narrow the diagnosis and to uniquely identify the faulty component by classifying the abnormal condition data as a failure of one of the hypothesized components through component characteristics. Once an anomaly is detected, the hierarchical structure is used to successively narrow the diagnostic focus from a function misbehavior, i.e., a function oriented approach, until the fault can be determined, i.e., a component characteristic-oriented approach. 9 figs.

Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1995-08-15

117

Combined expert system/neural networks method for process fault diagnosis  

DOEpatents

A two-level hierarchical approach for process fault diagnosis is an operating system employs a function-oriented approach at a first level and a component characteristic-oriented approach at a second level, where the decision-making procedure is structured in order of decreasing intelligence with increasing precision. At the first level, the diagnostic method is general and has knowledge of the overall process including a wide variety of plant transients and the functional behavior of the process components. An expert system classifies malfunctions by function to narrow the diagnostic focus to a particular set of possible faulty components that could be responsible for the detected functional misbehavior of the operating system. At the second level, the diagnostic method limits its scope to component malfunctions, using more detailed knowledge of component characteristics. Trained artificial neural networks are used to further narrow the diagnosis and to uniquely identify the faulty component by classifying the abnormal condition data as a failure of one of the hypothesized components through component characteristics. Once an anomaly is detected, the hierarchical structure is used to successively narrow the diagnostic focus from a function misbehavior, i.e., a function oriented approach, until the fault can be determined, i.e., a component characteristic-oriented approach.

Reifman, Jaques (Westchester, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1995-01-01

118

Architecture For The Optimization Of A Machining Process In Real Time Through Rule-Based Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the project SENSOR-IA which has had financial funding from the Order of Incentives to the Regional Technology Centers of the Counsil of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of Andalusia, an architecture for the optimization of a machining process in real time through rule-based expert system has been developed. The architecture consists of an acquisition system and sensor data processing engine

Rafael Serrano; Luis Carlos González; Francisco Jesús Martín

2009-01-01

119

Method for processing an expert system rulebase on a system having limited memory  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of tracing a Rulebase of an expert system with a data processing system, the improvement comprising the following steps: segmenting the Rulebase into a plurality of contextual units each of which has a size less than the size of the main memory unit, each contextual unit having a plurality of Rule trees having a Goal node at its root and a plurality of other nodes at the leaves of the tree; inserting a Rulebase Call action in a preselected field of selected records of the Rulebase to limit each contextual unit to a size that can be accommodated by the main memory; transferring a first contextual unit from the media to the main memory; tracing in a predetermined order a plurality of the Rule trees; interrupting the step of tracing in response to the inference engine detecting the RULEBASE CALL; transferring a second contextual unit to the main memory; transferring the first contextual unit to the storage media, and updating selected nodes in the called second unit with data collected during the step of tracing of the first contextual unit prior to the interruption.

Ashford, T.J.; Burns, N.A.; Flagg, R.L.; Iwaskiw, C.T.; Starbird, R.P.

1989-02-28

120

Elicitation of subjective probabilities for economic risk analysis: An investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates three major issues regarding the elicitation of expert knowledge for economic risk analysis: (1) recognition of some of the implicit assumptions and beliefs; (2) development of an approach to elicit expert knowledge as accurate, calibrated and coherent subjective probabilities; and (3)a study to explore human ability to predict future events and the validity of the implicit assumptions

Malik Ranasinghe; Alan D. Russell

1993-01-01

121

Scheduling objectives, requirements, resources, constraints, and processes: Implications for a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling challenges, there is a great need for developing a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit. This paper examines objectives, requirements, resources, constraints, and processes associated with the scheduling domain. Implications

William E. Potter

1995-01-01

122

Indicators for follow-up of multidisciplinary teamwork in care processes: results of an international expert panel.  

PubMed

In order to study the impact of interventions on multidisciplinary teamwork in care processes, relevant indicators need to be defined. In the present study, the authors performed a Delphi survey of a purposively selected expert panel consisting of scientific researchers and hospital managers. Thirty-six experts from 13 countries participated. Each participant rated a list of team indicators on a scale of 1-6. Consensus was sought in two consecutive rounds. The content validity index (CVI) varied from 8% to 92%. A final list of 19 indicators was generated: 5 on team context/structure, 8 on team process, and 6 on team outcomes. Most relevant team indicators were as follows: "team relations," "quality of team leadership," "culture/climate for teamwork," "team perceived coordination of the care process," and "team vision." Scientific researchers and hospital managers that want to study and improve multidisciplinary teamwork in care processes should primarily focus on these team indicators. PMID:21190951

Deneckere, Svin; Robyns, Nathalie; Vanhaecht, Kris; Euwema, Martin; Panella, Massimiliano; Lodewijckx, Cathy; Leigheb, Fabrizio; Sermeus, Walter

2011-09-01

123

A Systematic, Holistic and Integrative Process of Self-Control for Voicing with Optimal Coping Effects in Teachers. 1. A Process of Awareness – An Expert’s Opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A learning strategy is presented for eustress-euvoicing, which prevails over distress-disvoicing. It is based on the understanding of the mechanisms of stress-voicing, conceived as a dynamic circular process of interacting entities, i.e. stressors\\/signals-arousal\\/activation-emotion-coping-effects (SAECE), which is the rationale for a multidisciplinary approach in coaching professional voice users. A systematic, holistic and integrative process of self-control (SHIPS) is directed by functional

Magda J. M. Carola Van Opstal

2010-01-01

124

A Systematic, Holistic and Integrative Process of Self-Control for Voicing with Optimal Coping Effects in Teachers. 2. A Process of Change – An Expert’s Opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A learning strategy is presented for eustress-euvoicing, which prevails over distress-disvoicing. It is based on the understanding of the mechanisms of stress-voicing, conceived as a dynamic circular process of interacting entities, i.e. stressors\\/signals-arousal\\/activation-emotion-coping-effects (SAECE), which is the rationale for a multidisciplinary approach in coaching professional voice users. A systematic, holistic and integrative process of self-control (SHIPS) is directed by functional

Magda J. M. Carola Van Opstal

2010-01-01

125

Architecture For The Optimization Of A Machining Process In Real Time Through Rule-Based Expert System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the project SENSOR-IA which has had financial funding from the Order of Incentives to the Regional Technology Centers of the Counsil of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of Andalusia, an architecture for the optimization of a machining process in real time through rule-based expert system has been developed. The architecture consists of an acquisition system and sensor data processing engine (SATD) from an expert system (SE) rule-based which communicates with the SATD. The SE has been designed as an inference engine with an algorithm for effective action, using a modus ponens rule model of goal-oriented rules.The pilot test demonstrated that it is possible to govern in real time the machining process based on rules contained in a SE. The tests have been done with approximated rules. Future work includes an exhaustive collection of data with different tool materials and geometries in a database to extract more precise rules.

Serrano, Rafael; González, Luis Carlos; Martín, Francisco Jesús

2009-11-01

126

Expert system methodology for evaluating reductive dechlorination at TCE sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert knowledge site-screening methodology has been developed to evaluate naturally occurring reductive dechlorination as a remedial option for sites with TCE-contaminated groundwater. This methodology combines a causative model for the reductive dechlorination of TCE and expert knowledge within a Bayesian Belief Network. The knowledge base for this expert system was obtained from 22 experts via an expert elicitation protocol

Neil A. Stiber; Marina Pantazidou; Mitchell J. Small

1999-01-01

127

Documenting the Use of Expert Scientific Reasoning Processes by High School Physics Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these…

Stephens, A. Lynn; Clement, John J.

2010-01-01

128

Neural correlates of motion processing through echolocation, source hearing, and vision in blind echolocation experts and sighted echolocation novices.  

PubMed

We have shown in previous research (Thaler L, Arnott SR, Goodale MA. PLoS One 6: e20162, 2011) that motion processing through echolocation activates temporal-occipital cortex in blind echolocation experts. Here we investigated how neural substrates of echo-motion are related to neural substrates of auditory source-motion and visual-motion. Three blind echolocation experts and twelve sighted echolocation novices underwent functional MRI scanning while they listened to binaural recordings of moving or stationary echolocation or auditory source sounds located either in left or right space. Sighted participants' brain activity was also measured while they viewed moving or stationary visual stimuli. For each of the three modalities separately (echo, source, vision), we then identified motion-sensitive areas in temporal-occipital cortex and in the planum temporale. We then used a region of interest (ROI) analysis to investigate cross-modal responses, as well as laterality effects. In both sighted novices and blind experts, we found that temporal-occipital source-motion ROIs did not respond to echo-motion, and echo-motion ROIs did not respond to source-motion. This double-dissociation was absent in planum temporale ROIs. Furthermore, temporal-occipital echo-motion ROIs in blind, but not sighted, participants showed evidence for contralateral motion preference. Temporal-occipital source-motion ROIs did not show evidence for contralateral preference in either blind or sighted participants. Our data suggest a functional segregation of processing of auditory source-motion and echo-motion in human temporal-occipital cortex. Furthermore, the data suggest that the echo-motion response in blind experts may represent a reorganization rather than exaggeration of response observed in sighted novices. There is the possibility that this reorganization involves the recruitment of "visual" cortical areas. PMID:24133224

Thaler, L; Milne, J L; Arnott, S R; Kish, D; Goodale, M A

2014-01-01

129

Multi-session transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) elicits inflammatory and regenerative processes in the rat brain.  

PubMed

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly being used in human studies as an adjuvant tool to promote recovery of function after stroke. However, its neurobiological effects are still largely unknown. Electric fields are known to influence the migration of various cell types in vitro, but effects in vivo remain to be shown. Hypothesizing that tDCS might elicit the recruitment of cells to the cortex, we here studied the effects of tDCS in the rat brain in vivo. Adult Wistar rats (n?=?16) were randomized to either anodal or cathodal stimulation for either 5 or 10 consecutive days (500 µA, 15 min). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was given systemically to label dividing cells throughout the experiment. Immunohistochemical analyses ex vivo included stainings for activated microglia and endogenous neural stem cells (NSC). Multi-session tDCS with the chosen parameters did not cause a cortical lesion. An innate immune response with early upregulation of Iba1-positive activated microglia occurred after both cathodal and anodal tDCS. The involvement of adaptive immunity as assessed by ICAM1-immunoreactivity was less pronounced. Most interestingly, only cathodal tDCS increased the number of endogenous NSC in the stimulated cortex. After 10 days of cathodal stimulation, proliferating NSC increased by ?60%, with a significant effect of both polarity and number of tDCS sessions on the recruitment of NSC. We demonstrate a pro-inflammatory effect of both cathodal and anodal tDCS, and a polarity-specific migratory effect on endogenous NSC in vivo. Our data suggest that tDCS in human stroke patients might also elicit NSC activation and modulate neuroinflammation. PMID:22928032

Rueger, Maria Adele; Keuters, Meike Hedwig; Walberer, Maureen; Braun, Ramona; Klein, Rebecca; Sparing, Roland; Fink, Gereon Rudolf; Graf, Rudolf; Schroeter, Michael

2012-01-01

130

Multi-Session Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Elicits Inflammatory and Regenerative Processes in the Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly being used in human studies as an adjuvant tool to promote recovery of function after stroke. However, its neurobiological effects are still largely unknown. Electric fields are known to influence the migration of various cell types in vitro, but effects in vivo remain to be shown. Hypothesizing that tDCS might elicit the recruitment of cells to the cortex, we here studied the effects of tDCS in the rat brain in vivo. Adult Wistar rats (n?=?16) were randomized to either anodal or cathodal stimulation for either 5 or 10 consecutive days (500 µA, 15 min). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was given systemically to label dividing cells throughout the experiment. Immunohistochemical analyses ex vivo included stainings for activated microglia and endogenous neural stem cells (NSC). Multi-session tDCS with the chosen parameters did not cause a cortical lesion. An innate immune response with early upregulation of Iba1-positive activated microglia occurred after both cathodal and anodal tDCS. The involvement of adaptive immunity as assessed by ICAM1-immunoreactivity was less pronounced. Most interestingly, only cathodal tDCS increased the number of endogenous NSC in the stimulated cortex. After 10 days of cathodal stimulation, proliferating NSC increased by ?60%, with a significant effect of both polarity and number of tDCS sessions on the recruitment of NSC. We demonstrate a pro-inflammatory effect of both cathodal and anodal tDCS, and a polarity-specific migratory effect on endogenous NSC in vivo. Our data suggest that tDCS in human stroke patients might also elicit NSC activation and modulate neuroinflammation.

Walberer, Maureen; Braun, Ramona; Klein, Rebecca; Sparing, Roland; Fink, Gereon Rudolf; Graf, Rudolf; Schroeter, Michael

2012-01-01

131

An expert system model for implementing statistical process control in the health care industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's health care industry is under increased pressure to become more efficient and cost effective. In addition, hospitals are now required to adopt the techniques and methods of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) as part of their accreditation requirements. One of the main challenges facing health care providers implementing CQI is how to manage, control and improve processes using Statistical Process

E. G. Tsacle; N. A. Aly

1996-01-01

132

Expert Biogeographers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

Bednarski, Marsha

2006-01-01

133

Separable processes before, during, and after the N400 elicited by previously inferred and new information: evidence from time-frequency decompositions.  

PubMed

Successful comprehension during reading often requires inferring information not explicitly presented. This information is readily accessible when subsequently encountered, and a neural correlate of this is an attenuation of the N400 event-related potential (ERP). We used ERPs and time-frequency (TF) analysis to investigate neural correlates of processing inferred information after a causal coherence inference had been generated during text comprehension. Participants read short texts, some of which promoted inference generation. After each text, they performed lexical decisions to target words that were unrelated or inference-related to the preceding text. Consistent with previous findings, inference-related words elicited an attenuated N400 relative to unrelated words. TF analyses revealed unique contributions to the N400 from activity occurring at 1-6 Hz (theta) and 0-2 Hz (delta), supporting the view that multiple, sequential processes underlie the N400. PMID:23165117

Steele, Vaughn R; Bernat, Edward M; van den Broek, Paul; Collins, Paul F; Patrick, Christopher J; Marsolek, Chad J

2013-01-25

134

Separable Processes Before, During, and After the N400 Elicited by Previously Inferred and New Information: Evidence from Time-Frequency Decompositions  

PubMed Central

Successful comprehension during reading often requires inferring information not explicitly presented. This information is readily accessible when subsequently encountered, and a neural correlate of this is an attenuation of the N400 event-related potential (ERP). We used ERPs and time-frequency (TF) analysis to investigate neural correlates of processing inferred information after a causal coherence inference had been generated during text comprehension. Participants read short texts, some of which promoted inference generation. After each text, they performed lexical decisions to target words that were unrelated or inference-related to the preceding text. Consistent with previous findings, inference-related words elicited an attenuated N400 relative to unrelated words. TF analyses revealed unique contributions to the N400 from activity occurring at 1–6 Hz (theta) and 0–2 Hz (delta), supporting the view that multiple, sequential processes underlie the N400.

Steele, Vaughn R.; Bernat, Edward M.; van den Broek, Paul; Collins, Paul F.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Marsolek, Chad J.

2012-01-01

135

Application of Machine Learning and Expert Systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) Chart Interpretation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a gra...

M. Shewhart

1991-01-01

136

An Ecological Analysis of the Herbivory-Elicited JA Burst and Its Metabolism: Plant Memory Processes and Predictions of the Moving Target Model  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid herbivore-induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation is known to mediate many induced defense responses in vascular plants, but little is known about how JA bursts are metabolized and modified in response to repeated elicitations, are propagated throughout elicited leaves, or how they directly influence herbivores. Methodology/Principal Findings We found the JA burst in a native population of Nicotiana attenuata to be highly robust despite environmental variation and we examined the JA bursts produced by repeated elicitations with Manduca sexta oral secretions (OS) at whole- and within-leaf spatial scales. Surprisingly, a 2nd OS-elicitation suppressed an expected JA burst at both spatial scales, but subsequent elicitations caused more rapid JA accumulation in elicited tissue. The baseline of induced JA/JA-Ile increased with number of elicitations in discrete intervals. Large veins constrained the spatial spread of JA bursts, leading to heterogeneity within elicited leaves. 1st-instar M. sexta larvae were repelled by elicitations and changed feeding sites. JA conjugated with isoleucine (JA-Ile) translates elicitations into defense production (e.g., TPIs), but conjugation efficiency varied among sectors and depended on NaWRKY3/6 transcription factors. Elicited TPI activity correlated strongly with the heterogeneity of JA/JA-Ile accumulations after a single elicitation, but not repeated elicitations. Conclusions/Significance Ecologically informed scaling of leaf elicitation reveals the contribution of repeated herbivory events to the formation of plant memory of herbivory and the causes and importance of heterogeneity in induced defense responses. Leaf vasculature, in addition to transmitting long-distance damage cues, creates heterogeneity in JA bursts within attacked leaves that may be difficult for an attacking herbivore to predict. Such unpredictability is a central tenet of the Moving Target Model of defense, which posits that variability in itself is defensive.

Stork, William; Diezel, Celia; Halitschke, Rayko; Galis, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

2009-01-01

137

Safety Risk Knowledge Elicitation in Support of Aeronautical R and D Portfolio Management: A Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aviation is a problem domain characterized by a high level of system complexity and uncertainty. Safety risk analysis in such a domain is especially challenging given the multitude of operations and diverse stakeholders. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) projects that by 2025 air traffic will increase by more than 50 percent with 1.1 billion passengers a year and more than 85,000 flights every 24 hours contributing to further delays and congestion in the sky (Circelli, 2011). This increased system complexity necessitates the application of structured safety risk analysis methods to understand and eliminate where possible, reduce, and/or mitigate risk factors. The use of expert judgments for probabilistic safety analysis in such a complex domain is necessary especially when evaluating the projected impact of future technologies, capabilities, and procedures for which current operational data may be scarce. Management of an R&D product portfolio in such a dynamic domain needs a systematic process to elicit these expert judgments, process modeling results, perform sensitivity analyses, and efficiently communicate the modeling results to decision makers. In this paper a case study focusing on the application of an R&D portfolio of aeronautical products intended to mitigate aircraft Loss of Control (LOC) accidents is presented. In particular, the knowledge elicitation process with three subject matter experts who contributed to the safety risk model is emphasized. The application and refinement of a verbal-numerical scale for conditional probability elicitation in a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) is discussed. The preliminary findings from this initial step of a three-part elicitation are important to project management practitioners as they illustrate the vital contribution of systematic knowledge elicitation in complex domains.

Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Luxhoj, James T.

2012-01-01

138

Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three…

Kindfield, Ann C. H.

139

Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the meiosis models utilized by five individuals at each of three levels of expertise in genetics as each reasoned about this process in an individual interview setting. Results revealed a set of biologically correct features common to all individuals' models as well as a variety of model flaws (i.e., meiosis misunderstandings) which are…

Kindfield, A. C. H.

1994-01-01

140

Expert Biogeographers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Instead of having students read about biomes in a textbook, why not have them become expert biogeographers? Once students have learned what a biogeographer does through an on-line search, they will take on the role as expert biogeographer. In this hypothetical scenario, they have been hired by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to research a land biome area. As researchers, they will be required to do a variety of inquiry-based tasks, which are outlined in the article.

Bednarski, Marsha

2006-04-01

141

Expert networks in CLIPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rule-based expert systems may be structurally and functionally mapped onto a special class of neural networks called expert networks. This mapping lends itself to adaptation of connectionist learning strategies for the expert networks. A parsing algorithm to translate C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rules into a network of interconnected assertion and operation nodes has been developed. The translation of CLIPS rules to an expert network and back again is illustrated. Measures of uncertainty similar to those rules in MYCIN-like systems are introduced into the CLIPS system and techniques for combining and hiring nodes in the network based on rule-firing with these certainty factors in the expert system are presented. Several learning algorithms are under study which automate the process of attaching certainty factors to rules.

Hruska, S. I.; Dalke, A.; Ferguson, J. J.; Lacher, R. C.

1991-01-01

142

Emotion elicitation using films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

143

Diverse environmental stresses elicit distinct responses at the level of pre-mRNA processing in yeast  

PubMed Central

Gene expression in eukaryotic cells is profoundly influenced by the post-transcriptional processing of mRNAs, including the splicing of introns in the nucleus and both nuclear and cytoplasmic degradation pathways. These processes have the potential to affect both the steady-state levels and the kinetics of changes to levels of intron-containing transcripts. Here we report the use of a splicing isoform-specific microarray platform to investigate the effects of diverse stress conditions on pre-mRNA processing. Interestingly, we find that diverse stresses cause distinct patterns of changes at this level. The responses we observed are most dramatic for the RPGs and can be categorized into three major classes. The first is characterized by accumulation of RPG pre-mRNA and is seen in multiple types of amino acid starvation regimes; the magnitude of splicing inhibition correlates with the severity of the stress. The second class is characterized by a rapid decrease in both pre- and mature RPG mRNA and is seen in many stresses that inactivate the TORC1 kinase complex. These decreases depend on nuclear turnover of the intron-containing pre-RNAs. The third class is characterized by a decrease in RPG pre-mRNA, with only a modest reduction in the mature species; this response is observed in hyperosmotic and cation-toxic stresses. We show that casein kinase 2 (CK2) makes important contributions to the changes in pre-mRNA processing, particularly for the first two classes of stress responses. In total, our data suggest that complex post-transcriptional programs cooperate to fine-tune expression of intron-containing transcripts in budding yeast.

Bergkessel, Megan; Whitworth, Gregg B.; Guthrie, Christine

2011-01-01

144

The Naturally Processed CD95L Elicits a c-Yes/Calcium/PI3K-Driven Cell Migration Pathway  

PubMed Central

Patients affected by chronic inflammatory disorders display high amounts of soluble CD95L. This homotrimeric ligand arises from the cleavage by metalloproteases of its membrane-bound counterpart, a strong apoptotic inducer. In contrast, the naturally processed CD95L is viewed as an apoptotic antagonist competing with its membrane counterpart for binding to CD95. Recent reports pinpointed that activation of CD95 may attract myeloid and tumoral cells, which display resistance to the CD95-mediated apoptotic signal. However, all these studies were performed using chimeric CD95Ls (oligomerized forms), which behave as the membrane-bound ligand and not as the naturally processed CD95L. Herein, we examine the biological effects of the metalloprotease-cleaved CD95L on CD95-sensitive activated T-lymphocytes. We demonstrate that cleaved CD95L (cl-CD95L), found increased in sera of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients as compared to that of healthy individuals, promotes the formation of migrating pseudopods at the leading edge of which the death receptor CD95 is capped (confocal microscopy). Using different migration assays (wound healing/Boyden Chamber/endothelial transmigration), we uncover that cl-CD95L promotes cell migration through a c-yes/Ca2+/PI3K-driven signaling pathway, which relies on the formation of a CD95-containing complex designated the MISC for Motility-Inducing Signaling Complex. These findings revisit the role of the metalloprotease-cleaved CD95L and emphasize that the increase in cl-CD95L observed in patients affected by chronic inflammatory disorders may fuel the local or systemic tissue damage by promoting tissue-filtration of immune cells.

Selva, Eric; Khadra, Nadine; Daburon, Sophie; Contin-Bordes, Cecile; Blanco, Patrick; Le Seyec, Jacques; Ducret, Thomas; Counillon, Laurent; Moreau, Jean-Francois; Hofman, Paul; Vacher, Pierre; Legembre, Patrick

2011-01-01

145

Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

146

Expert AIV: Study and Prototyping of an Expert System, To Support the Conceptual AIV Phases Of Space Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effort in optimising the AIV process has been mainly focused in the recent years on the standardisation of approaches and on the application of new methodologies. But the earlier the intervention, the greater the benefits in terms of cost and schedule. Early phases of AIV process relied up to now on standards that need to be tailored through company and personal expertise. A study has then been conducted in order to exploit the possibility to develop an expert system helping in making choices in the early, conceptual phase of Assembly, Integration and Verification, namely the Model Philosophy and the test definition. The work focused on a hybrid approach, allowing interaction between historical data and human expertise. The expert system that has been prototyped exploits both information elicited from domain experts and results of a Data Mining activity on the existent data bases of completed projects verification data. The Data Mining algorithms allow the extraction of past experience resident on ESA/ MATD data base, which contains information in the form of statistical summaries, costs, frequencies of on-ground and in flight failures. Finding non-trivial associations could then be utilised by the experts to manage new decisions in a controlled way (Standards driven) at the beginning or during the AIV Process Moreover, the Expert AIV could allow compilation of a set of feasible AIV schedules to support further programmatic-driven choices.

Andrina, G.; Basso, V.; Saitta, L.

2004-08-01

147

Experiences in Eliciting Security Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are many requirements elicitation methods, but we seldom see elicitation performed specifically for security requirements. One reason for this is that few elicitation methods are specifically directed at security requirements. Another factor is that...

N. R. Mead

2006-01-01

148

Development of an on-line fuzzy expert system for integrated alarm processing in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

An on-line fuzzy expert system, called alarm filtering and diagnostic system (AFDS), was developed to provide the operator with clean alarm pictures and system-wide failure information during abnormal states through alarm filtering and diagnosis. In addition, it carries out alarm prognosis to warn the operator of process abnormalities. Clean alarm pictures that have no information overlapping are generated from multiple activated alarms at the alarm filtering stage. The meta rules for dynamic filtering were established on the basis of the alarm relationship network. In the case of alarm diagnosis, the relations between alarms and abnormal states are represented by means of fuzzy relations, and the compositional inference rule of fuzzy logic is utilized to infer abnormal states from the fuzzy relations. The AFDS offers the operator related operating procedures as well as diagnostic results. At the stage of alarm prognosis, the future values of some important critical safety parameters are predicted by means of Levinson algorithm selected from the comparative experiments, and the global trends of these parameters are estimated using data smoothing and fuzzy membership. This information enables early failure detection and is also used to supplement diagnostic symptoms.

Choi, S.S.; Kang, K.S.; Kim, H.G.; Chang, S.H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1995-08-01

149

Rule based processing of the CD4000, CD3200 and CD Sapphire analyser output using the Cerner Discern Expert Module.  

PubMed

The latest version of our Laboratory Information System haematology laboratory expert system that handles the output of Abbott Cell-Dyn Sapphires, CD4000s and a CD3200 full blood count analyser in three high-volume haematology laboratories is described. The three hospital laboratories use Cerner Millennium Version 2007.02 software and the expert system uses Cerner Millennium Discern Expert rules and some small Cerner Command Language in-house programs. The entire expert system is totally integrated with the area-wide database and has been built and maintained by haematology staff members, as has the haematology database. Using patient demographic data, analyser numeric results, analyser error and morphology flags and previous results for the patient, this expert system decides whether to validate the main full blood count indices and white cell differential, or if the analyser results warrant further operator intervention/investigation before verifying, whether a blood film is required for microscopic review and if abnormal results require phoning to the staff treating the patient. The principles of this expert system can be generalized to different haematology analysers and haematology laboratories that have different workflows and different software. PMID:18691345

Burgess, P; Robin, H; Langshaw, M; Kershaw, G; Pathiraja, R; Yuen, S; Coad, C; Xiros, N; Mansy, G; Coleman, R; Brown, R; Gibson, J; Holman, R; Hubbard, J; Wick, V; Lammers, M; Johnson, R; Huffman, K; Bell, J; Ibrahim, A; Estepa, F; Lovegrove, J; Joshua, D

2009-12-01

150

Practical Thinking Styles of Teachers. A Comparative Study of Expert and Novice Thought Processes and Its Implications for Rethinking Teacher Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to: (1) ascertain the existence and functions of practical thinking styles, illuminating teachers' thought processes; (2) identify practical thinking styles of experts (N=5) and compare them with those of novices (N=5); and (3) present several implications for rethinking teacher education in Japan. Qualitative and…

Sato, Manabu; And Others

151

The Magic or Myth of Expertise: A Comparison of Judgment Processes between Forensic Experts and Lay Persons Based on Psychiatric Case Vignettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a continuation of a previous study (Grøndahl, Grønnerød, & Sexton, 2009), we examined how 120 laypersons and 35 forensic experts (14 psychiatrists and 21 psychologists) differed in their judgment processes of forensic case vignettes. The vignettes contained descriptions of three components, namely social history, psychiatric history and criminal offense. We found important differences in how the groups used information

Pål Grøndahl; Cato Grønnerød; Joseph Sexton

2011-01-01

152

Eliciting expert knowledge to inform landscape modeling of conservation scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation and land management organizations such as The Nature Conservancy are developing strategies to distribute conservation efforts over larger areas. Relative to fee-simple protection efforts, strategies that allow ecologically sustainable timber harvest and recreation activities, such as working forest conservation easements, should yield greater socioeconomic benefits (ecosystem services) with less investment per area without significantly compromising the conservation of biodiversity

Jessica Price; Janet Silbernagel; Nicholas Miller; Randy Swaty; Mark White; Kristina Nixon

153

Expert judgement elicitation for risk assessments of critical infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governmental bodies and companies are confronted with the problem of achieving rational consensus in the face of substantial uncertainties. The subject area of this special issue (risk and vulnerability assessments and management of critical infrastructures) might be a good example as are risk management of chemical installations and accident consequence management for nuclear power plants. Decisions with regard to infrastructures

R. M. Cooke; L. H. J. Goossens

2004-01-01

154

Using expert models in human reliability analysis-a dependence assessment method based on fuzzy logic.  

PubMed

In human reliability analysis (HRA), dependence analysis refers to assessing the influence of the failure of the operators to perform one task on the failure probabilities of subsequent tasks. A commonly used approach is the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP). The assessment of the dependence level in THERP is a highly subjective judgment based on general rules for the influence of five main factors. A frequently used alternative method extends the THERP model with decision trees. Such trees should increase the repeatability of the assessments but they simplify the relationships among the factors and the dependence level. Moreover, the basis for these simplifications and the resulting tree is difficult to trace. The aim of this work is a method for dependence assessment in HRA that captures the rules used by experts to assess dependence levels and incorporates this knowledge into an algorithm and software tool to be used by HRA analysts. A fuzzy expert system (FES) underlies the method. The method and the associated expert elicitation process are demonstrated with a working model. The expert rules are elicited systematically and converted into a traceable, explicit, and computable model. Anchor situations are provided as guidance for the HRA analyst's judgment of the input factors. The expert model and the FES-based dependence assessment method make the expert rules accessible to the analyst in a usable and repeatable way, with an explicit and traceable basis. PMID:20497396

Podofillini, Luca; Dang, Vinh; Zio, Enrico; Baraldi, Piero; Librizzi, Massimo

2010-08-01

155

Expert judgments about transient climate response to alternative future trajectories of radiative forcing  

PubMed Central

There is uncertainty about the response of the climate system to future trajectories of radiative forcing. To quantify this uncertainty we conducted face-to-face interviews with 14 leading climate scientists, using formal methods of expert elicitation. We structured the interviews around three scenarios of radiative forcing stabilizing at different levels. All experts ranked “cloud radiative feedbacks” as contributing most to their uncertainty about future global mean temperature change, irrespective of the specified level of radiative forcing. The experts disagreed about the relative contribution of other physical processes to their uncertainty about future temperature change. For a forcing trajectory that stabilized at 7 Wm-2 in 2200, 13 of the 14 experts judged the probability that the climate system would undergo, or be irrevocably committed to, a “basic state change” as ?0.5. The width and median values of the probability distributions elicited from the different experts for future global mean temperature change under the specified forcing trajectories vary considerably. Even for a moderate increase in forcing by the year 2050, the medians of the elicited distributions of temperature change relative to 2000 range from 0.8–1.8?°C, and some of the interquartile ranges do not overlap. Ten of the 14 experts estimated that the probability that equilibrium climate sensitivity exceeds 4.5?°C is > 0.17, our interpretation of the upper limit of the “likely” range given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Finally, most experts anticipated that over the next 20 years research will be able to achieve only modest reductions in their degree of uncertainty.

Zickfeld, Kirsten; Morgan, M. Granger; Frame, David J.; Keith, David W.

2010-01-01

156

Expert judgments about transient climate response to alternative future trajectories of radiative forcing.  

PubMed

There is uncertainty about the response of the climate system to future trajectories of radiative forcing. To quantify this uncertainty we conducted face-to-face interviews with 14 leading climate scientists, using formal methods of expert elicitation. We structured the interviews around three scenarios of radiative forcing stabilizing at different levels. All experts ranked "cloud radiative feedbacks" as contributing most to their uncertainty about future global mean temperature change, irrespective of the specified level of radiative forcing. The experts disagreed about the relative contribution of other physical processes to their uncertainty about future temperature change. For a forcing trajectory that stabilized at 7 Wm(-2) in 2200, 13 of the 14 experts judged the probability that the climate system would undergo, or be irrevocably committed to, a "basic state change" as > or =0.5. The width and median values of the probability distributions elicited from the different experts for future global mean temperature change under the specified forcing trajectories vary considerably. Even for a moderate increase in forcing by the year 2050, the medians of the elicited distributions of temperature change relative to 2000 range from 0.8-1.8 degrees C, and some of the interquartile ranges do not overlap. Ten of the 14 experts estimated that the probability that equilibrium climate sensitivity exceeds 4.5 degrees C is > 0.17, our interpretation of the upper limit of the "likely" range given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Finally, most experts anticipated that over the next 20 years research will be able to achieve only modest reductions in their degree of uncertainty. PMID:20616045

Zickfeld, Kirsten; Morgan, M Granger; Frame, David J; Keith, David W

2010-07-13

157

Strategic Plan for Support of Expert Systems in Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to elicit lessons learned in business and industry in the fielding of expert systems. The study looked at 12 research questions dealing with the acquisition, maintenance, documentation, organizational, performance, personnel,...

P. R. Boggs

1987-01-01

158

Key account management in business-to-business expert organisations: an exploratory study on the implementation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building long-term and close customer relationships is an ever-salient function in business-to-business organisations and, especially, in expert organisations where high levels of trust and close customer interaction are needed in the production of the services. A key account management (KAM) system, an organised way for managing key customers, can be a useful tool for this purpose. However, there are many

Satu Nätti; Teea Palo

2012-01-01

159

Key account management in business-to-business expert organisations: an exploratory study on the implementation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building long-term and close customer relationships is an ever-salient function in business-to-business organisations and, especially, in expert organisations where high levels of trust and close customer interaction are needed in the production of the services. A key account management (KAM) system, an organised way for managing key customers, can be a useful tool for this purpose. However, there are many

Satu Nätti; Teea Palo

2011-01-01

160

Quantifying and using expert opinion for variable-selection problems in regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a general method for use in the chemical industry for eliciting and quantifying an expert's subjective opinion concerning a normal linear regression model. The intention is to ask the expert assessment questions that he or she can meaningfully answer and to use the elicited values to determine a probability distribution on the regression parameters that quantifies and

Paul H. Garthwaite; James M. Dickey

1996-01-01

161

Elicitation Support Requirements of Multi-Expertise Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tools to support knowledge elicitation are used more and more in situations where employees or students collaborate using the computer. Studies indicate that differences exist between experts and novices regarding their methods of work and reasoning. However, the commonly preferred approach tends to deal with team members as a single system with…

Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Martens, Rob; Jochems, Wim

2005-01-01

162

Experts, Bayesian Belief Networks, rare events and aviation risk estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) are conceptually sensible models for aviation risk assessment. The aim here is to examine the ability of BBN-based techniques to make accurate aviation risk predictions. BBNs consist of a framework of causal factors linked by conditional probabilities. BBN conditional probabilities are elicited from aviation experts. The issue is that experts are not being asked about their

Peter Brooker

2011-01-01

163

Is expert opinion reliable when estimating transition probabilities? The case of HCV-related cirrhosis in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background Data on HCV-related cirrhosis progression are scarce in developing countries in general, and in Egypt in particular. The objective of this study was to estimate the probability of death and transition between different health stages of HCV (compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) for an Egyptian population of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. Methods We used the “elicitation of expert opinions” method to obtain collective knowledge from a panel of 23 Egyptian experts (among whom 17 were hepatologists or gastroenterologists and 2 were infectiologists). The questionnaire was based on virtual medical cases and asked the experts to assess probability of death or probability of various cirrhosis complications. The design was a Delphi study: we attempted to obtain a consensus between experts via a series of questionnaires interspersed with group response feedback. Results We found substantial disparity between experts’ answers, and no consensus was reached at the end of the process. Moreover, we obtained high death probability and high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The annual transition probability to death was estimated at between 10.1% and 61.5% and the annual probability of occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma was estimated at between 16.8% and 58.9% (depending on age, gender, time spent in cirrhosis and cirrhosis severity). Conclusions Our results show that eliciting expert opinions is not suited for determining the natural history of diseases due to practitioners’ difficulties in evaluating quantities. Cognitive bias occurring during this type of study might explain our results.

2014-01-01

164

Expert Knowledge as a Basis for Landscape Ecological Predictive Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Defining an appropriate role for expert knowledge in science can lead to contentious debate. The professional experience of\\u000a ecologists, elicited as expert judgment, plays an essential role in many aspects of landscape ecological science. Experts\\u000a may be asked to judge the relevance of competing research or management questions, the quality and suitability of available\\u000a data, the best balance of complexity

C. Ashton Drew; Ajith H. Perera

165

a New Method for Fmeca Based on Fuzzy Theory and Expert System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) is one of most widely used methods in modern engineering system to investigate potential failure modes and its severity upon the system. FMECA evaluates criticality and severity of each failure mode and visualize the risk level matrix putting those indices to column and row variable respectively. Generally, those indices are determined subjectively by experts and operators. However, this process has no choice but to include uncertainty. In this paper, a method for eliciting expert opinions considering its uncertainty is proposed to evaluate the criticality and severity. In addition, a fuzzy expert system is constructed in order to determine the crisp value of risk level for each failure mode. Finally, an illustrative example system is analyzed in the case study. The results are worth considering in deciding the proper policies for each component of the system.

Byeon, Yoong-Tae; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jin-O.

2008-10-01

166

A language modeling framework for expert finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical language models have been successfully applied to many information retrieval tasks, including expert finding: the process of identifying experts given a particular topic. In this paper, we introduce and detail language modeling approaches that integrate the representation, association and search of experts using various textual data sources into a generative probabilistic framework. This provides a simple, intuitive, and extensible

Krisztian Balog; Leif Azzopardi; Maarten De Rijke

2009-01-01

167

Document Delivery Expert.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of an expert system developed using VP-Expert for document delivery decision making in a law library. Presents methods used in knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation after a brief review of the literature on expert system use in libraries. An appendix includes the rules of the expert system. (Author/AEF)

Abate, Anne K.

1995-01-01

168

Teaching Requirements Elicitation within the Context of Global Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typical problems of the requirements elicitation stage increase when stakeholders are working on a Global software Development project. In order to fulfil the challenge of successfully carrying out the requirements elicitation process in a GSD environment, requirements specialists need suitable preparation. An improvement in this preparation necessitates an update of the contents, techniques and tools used in the teaching

Miguel Romero; Aurora Vizcaíno; Mario Piattini

2009-01-01

169

On polynomial-time preference elicitation with value queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preference elicitation --- the process of asking queries to determine parties' preferences --- is a key part of many problems in electronic commerce. For example, a shopping agent needs to know a user's preferences in order to correctly act on her behalf, and preference elicitation can help an auctioneer in a combinatorial auction determine how to best allocate a given

Martin A. Zinkevich; Avrim Blum; Tuomas Sandholm

2003-01-01

170

Eliciting Risk and Time Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We design experiments to jointly elicit risk and time preferences for the adult Danish population. Since subjects are generally risk averse, we find that joint elicitation provides estimates of discount rates that are significantly lower than those found in previous studies and more in line with what would be considered as a priori reasonable rates. The statistical specification relies on

Steffen Andersen; Glenn W. Harrison; Morten Igel Lau; E. Elisabet Rutström

2008-01-01

171

Activity in the fusiform face area supports expert perception in radiologists and does not depend upon holistic processing of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Training in radiology dramatically changes observers' ability to process images, but the neural bases of this visual expertise remain unexplored. Prior imaging work has suggested that the fusiform face area (FFA), normally selectively responsive to faces, becomes responsive to images in observers' area of expertise. The FFA has been hypothesized to be important for "holistic" processing that integrates information across the entire image. Here, we report a cross-sectional study of radiologists that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural activity in first-year radiology residents, fourth-year radiology residents, and practicing radiologists as they detected abnormalities in chest radiographs. Across subjects, activity in the FFA correlated with visual expertise, measured as behavioral performance during scanning. To test whether processing in the FFA was holistic, we measured its responses both to intact radiographs and radiographs that had been divided into 25 square pieces whose locations were scrambled. Activity in the FFA was equal in magnitude for intact and scrambled images, and responses to both kinds of stimuli correlated reliably with expertise. These results suggest that the FFA is one of the cortical regions that provides the basis of expertise in radiology, but that its contribution is not holistic processing of images.

Engel, Stephen A.; Harley, Erin M.; Pope, Whitney B.; Villablanca, J. Pablo; Mazziotta, John C.; Enzmann, Dieter

2009-02-01

172

The nutrition advisor expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

1991-01-01

173

How experiences become data: the process of eliciting adverse event, medical history and concomitant medication reports in antimalarial and antiretroviral interaction trials  

PubMed Central

Background Accurately characterizing a drug’s safety profile is essential. Trial harm and tolerability assessments rely, in part, on participants’ reports of medical histories, adverse events (AEs), and concomitant medications. Optimal methods for questioning participants are unclear, but different methods giving different results can undermine meta-analyses. This study compared methods for eliciting such data and explored reasons for dissimilar participant responses. Methods Participants from open-label antimalarial and antiretroviral interaction trials in two distinct sites (South Africa, n?=?18 [all HIV positive]; Tanzania, n?=?80 [86% HIV positive]) were asked about ill health and treatment use by sequential use of (1) general enquiries without reference to particular conditions, body systems or treatments, (2) checklists of potential health issues and treatments, (3) in-depth interviews. Participants’ experiences of illness and treatment and their reporting behaviour were explored qualitatively, as were trial clinicians’ experiences with obtaining participant reports. Outcomes were the number and nature of data by questioning method, themes from qualitative analyses and a theoretical interpretation of participants’ experiences. Results There was an overall cumulative increase in the number of reports from general enquiry through checklists to in-depth interview; in South Africa, an additional 12 medical histories, 21 AEs and 27 medications; in Tanzania an additional 260 medical histories, 1 AE and 11 medications. Checklists and interviews facilitated recognition of health issues and treatments, and consideration of what to report. Information was sometimes not reported because participants forgot, it was considered irrelevant or insignificant, or they feared reporting. Some medicine names were not known and answers to questions were considered inferior to blood tests for detecting ill health. South African inpatient volunteers exhibited a “trial citizenship”, working to achieve researchers’ goals, while Tanzanian outpatients sometimes deferred responsibility for identifying items to report to trial clinicians. Conclusions Questioning methods and trial contexts influence the detection of adverse events, medical histories and concomitant medications. There should be further methodological work to investigate these influences and find appropriate questioning methods.

2013-01-01

174

World Bank Experts Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with reporters and editors in mind, the World Bank Experts Guide provides World Bank experts that are available to comment on to the media on a wide variety of topics. The list of experts may be viewed by name of expert or by subject. Each expert is given his or her own Webpage, which includes a short biography, expertise, and languages spoken, along with a photograph and related links. For ease of use, several "hot topics" are highlighted including AIDS/HIV and debt relief. This site gives an awe-inspiring look at the variety of experts working for the World Bank.

175

Developing Expert Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides a set of general guidelines for the development and distribution of highway related expert systems. This expands the guidelines provided in Chapter X, Expert Systems, of the ADP Management Manual. Included is information on developin...

D. Barnett, C. Jackson, J. A. Wentworth

1988-01-01

176

What Are Expert Systems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

d'Agapeyeff, A.

1986-01-01

177

Learning classification models from multiple experts.  

PubMed

Building classification models from clinical data using machine learning methods often relies on labeling of patient examples by human experts. Standard machine learning framework assumes the labels are assigned by a homogeneous process. However, in reality the labels may come from multiple experts and it may be difficult to obtain a set of class labels everybody agrees on; it is not uncommon that different experts have different subjective opinions on how a specific patient example should be classified. In this work we propose and study a new multi-expert learning framework that assumes the class labels are provided by multiple experts and that these experts may differ in their class label assessments. The framework explicitly models different sources of disagreements and lets us naturally combine labels from different human experts to obtain: (1) a consensus classification model representing the model the group of experts converge to, as well as, and (2) individual expert models. We test the proposed framework by building a model for the problem of detection of the Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) where examples are labeled by three experts. We show that our framework is superior to multiple baselines (including standard machine learning framework in which expert differences are ignored) and that our framework leads to both improved consensus and individual expert models. PMID:24035760

Valizadegan, Hamed; Nguyen, Quang; Hauskrecht, Milos

2013-12-01

178

The Expert Witness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As consumers organize and industry begins to feel the economic pinch of pollution control laws, litigation may increase as will the need for the expert witness. Discussed are the functions and preparations of expert witnesses, their role and conduct in judicial proceedings, and the techniques of being an expert witness. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

1975-01-01

179

Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors.  

PubMed

Analysts and decision makers frequently want estimates of the cost of technologies that have yet to be developed or deployed. Small modular reactors (SMRs), which could become part of a portfolio of carbon-free energy sources, are one such technology. Existing estimates of likely SMR costs rely on problematic top-down approaches or bottom-up assessments that are proprietary. When done properly, expert elicitations can complement these approaches. We developed detailed technical descriptions of two SMR designs and then conduced elicitation interviews in which we obtained probabilistic judgments from 16 experts who are involved in, or have access to, engineering-economic assessments of SMR projects. Here, we report estimates of the overnight cost and construction duration for five reactor-deployment scenarios that involve a large reactor and two light water SMRs. Consistent with the uncertainty introduced by past cost overruns and construction delays, median estimates of the cost of new large plants vary by more than a factor of 2.5. Expert judgments about likely SMR costs display an even wider range. Median estimates for a 45 megawatts-electric (MWe) SMR range from $4,000 to $16,300/kWe and from $3,200 to $7,100/kWe for a 225-MWe SMR. Sources of disagreement are highlighted, exposing the thought processes of experts involved with SMR design. There was consensus that SMRs could be built and brought online about 2 y faster than large reactors. Experts identify more affordable unit cost, factory fabrication, and shorter construction schedules as factors that may make light water SMRs economically viable. PMID:23716682

Abdulla, Ahmed; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger

2013-06-11

180

Expert Status and Performance  

PubMed Central

Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience [1], [2]. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.

Burgman, Mark A.; McBride, Marissa; Ashton, Raquel; Speirs-Bridge, Andrew; Flander, Louisa; Wintle, Bonnie; Fidler, Fiona; Rumpff, Libby; Twardy, Charles

2011-01-01

181

Antibodies elicited by a virosomally formulated Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen-5 derived peptide detect the processed 47 kDa fragment both in sporozoites and merozoites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serine repeat antigen-5 (SERA5) is a candidate antigen for inclusion into a malaria subunit vaccine. During merozoite release and reinvasion the 120kDa SERA5 precursor protein (P120) is processed, and a complex consisting of an N-terminal 47kDa (P47) and a C-terminal 18kDa (P18) processing product associates with the surface of merozoites. This complex is thought to be involved in merozoite invasion

Shinji L. Okitsu; Francesca Boato; Markus S. Mueller; Dong Bo Li; Denise Vogel; Nicole Westerfeld; Rinaldo Zurbriggen; John A. Robinson; Gerd Pluschke

2007-01-01

182

The Role of Constraints in Expert Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of research has been devoted to developing process models of expert memory. However, K. J. Vicente and J. H. Wang (1998) proposed (a) that process theories do not provide an adequate account of expert recall in domains in which memory recall is a contrived task and (b) that a product theory, the constraint attunement hypothesis (CAH), has

Fernand Gobet; Andrew J. Waters

2003-01-01

183

Knowledge acquisition for a simple expert controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for process control which has the properties of being incremental, cyclic and top-down. It is described on the basis of the development of an expert controller for a simple, but nonlinear control route. A quality comparison between expert controller and process operator shows the ability of the method for knowledge acquisition.

Bieker, B.

1987-01-01

184

Forensic experts' perceptions of expert bias.  

PubMed

How do expert witnesses perceive the possible biases of their fellow expert witnesses? Participants, who were attendees at a workshop at the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law were asked to rate for their biasing potential a number of situations that might affect the behavior of an opposing expert. A Rasch analysis produced a linear scale as to the perceived biasing potential of these different kinds of situations from the most biasing to the least biasing. Working for only one side in both civil and criminal cases had large scaled values and also were the first factor. In interesting contrast, a) an opposing expert also serving as the litigant's treater and b) an opposing expert being viewed as a "hired gun" (supplying an opinion only for money) were two situations viewed as not very biasing. Order of Hierarchical Complexity also accounted for items from the 1st, 2nd and 3rd factors. The result suggests that the difficulty in understanding the conceptual basis of bias underlies the perception of how biased a behavior or a situation is. The more difficult to understand the questionnaire item, the less biasing its behavior or situation is perceived by participants. PMID:23046867

Commons, Michael Lamport; Miller, Patrice Marie; Li, Eva Yujia; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

2012-01-01

185

Liquid-Oxygen Expert System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complicated system monitored for equipment failures. Report summarizes structure, capabilities, and development history of Liquid-Oxygen Expert System (LES). Designed to detect immediately signs of trouble among measurements fed into current Launch Processing System (LPS). LES contains three elements: knowledge base, constraint mechanism, and diagnoser. Output of LES in form of written reports.

Jamieson, John R., Jr.; Delaune, Carl I.

1988-01-01

186

A Ranking of Software Engineering Measures Based on Expert Opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research proposes a framework based on expert opinion elicitation, developed to select the software engineering measures which are the best software reliability indicators. The current research is based on the top 30 measures identified in an earlier study conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A set of ranking criteria and their levels were identified. The score of each measure

Ming Li; Carol S. Smidts

2003-01-01

187

Testing expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software quality is of primary concern in all large-scale expert system development efforts. Building appropriate validation and test tools for ensuring software reliability of expert systems is therefore required. The Expert Systems Validation Associate (EVA) is a validation system under development at the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center. EVA provides a wide range of validation and test tools to check correctness, consistency, and completeness of an expert system. Testing a major function of EVA. It means executing an expert system with test cases with the intent of finding errors. In this paper, we describe many different types of testing such as function-based testing, structure-based testing, and data-based testing. We describe how appropriate test cases may be selected in order to perform good and thorough testing of an expert system.

Chang, C. L.; Stachowitz, R. A.

1988-01-01

188

Expert system application education project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

1988-01-01

189

[Studies of visual mismatch negativity elicited by cartoon facial expressions].  

PubMed

A modified "cross-modal delayed response" paradigm was used to investigate whether the visual mismatch negativity can be elicited by cartoon facial expressions, and to define the mechanism underlying automatic processing of facial expressions. Subjects taking part in the tests were instructed to discriminate the type of the tones they heard as quickly and accurately as possible, and to act merely when they heard the response imperative signal. Neutral, happy and angry faces were presented during intervals between a tone and a response imperative signal. Visual mismatch negativity (VMMN) was obtained by subtracting the event - related potential (ERP) elicited by neutral faces from that elicited by happy faces or angry faces. The angry-related VMMN was more negative than happy-related VMMN, and both were more negative in the left than in the right cerebral hemisphere. The results indicated that VMMN can be elicited by the cartoon facial expressions, and the facial expressions can be processed automatically. PMID:23865303

Ji, Shumei; Li, Wei; Liu, Peng; Bian, Zhjie

2013-06-01

190

Expert systems. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

It is now possible, under appropriate circumstances, to capture the skill of an expert in the form of computer software. Such ''expert systems'' are currently used by scientists to help them solve many problems. This overview of artificial intelligence explores what expert systems are, how they function, and examines their construction and maintenance. A working vocabulary and basic concepts of the area are introduced. 5 references, 2 figures.

Dessey, R.E.

1984-09-01

191

Expert systems for superalloy studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

1990-01-01

192

Expert Systems: A Tutorial.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overview of expert systems (intelligent computer applications that use data, a knowledge base, and a control mechanism to solve problems) highlights history of expert systems; construction (human element, knowledge acquisition and learning, system architecture); limitations; issues and trends; and implications for information science. Thirty-three…

Yaghmai, N. Shahla; Maxin, Jacqueline A.

1984-01-01

193

Expert System for Software Quality Assurance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of an expert system for software quality assurance(SQA). The expert system was designed to facilitate the process of tailoring statements of work by capturing the knowledge of SQA engineers. This task was undertaken i...

W. E. Baum J. Podell G. N. Romstedt

1986-01-01

194

Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion

Erin D. Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M. Keisler

2010-01-01

195

Simplifying Probability Elicitation and Uncertainty Modeling in Bayesian Networks  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we contribute two methods that simplify the demands of knowledge elicitation for particular types of Bayesian networks. The ?rst method simplify the task of providing probabilities when the states that a random variable takes can be described by a new, fully ordered state set in which a state implies all the preceding states. The second method leverages Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to provide a way for the expert to express the degree of ignorance that they feel about the estimates being provided.

Paulson, Patrick R.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Neorr, Peter A.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hossain, Shamina S.

2011-04-16

196

Safety organizations and experts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

1977-01-01

197

Expert Locator: Immunologists  

MedlinePLUS

... Endowed Fellowship Program at Children’s Hospital Seattle Endowed Immunology Prize at Harvard Medical School and Mount Sinai ... for PI. Organized and hosted the first World Immunology Conference at Rockefeller University 360 Expert immunologists from ...

198

Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

1976-01-01

199

Expert systems capital budgeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capital budgeting effects and cost justification of a high-technology innovation (expert system technology) are discussed from a managerial perspective. Budgeting strategies are reviewed as they relate to funding and support for high-technology innovations. The Defense Finance and Accounting Service-Cleveland Center (DFAS-CL) Expert System Program is reviewed from the points of view of average rate of return, payback, internal rate

J. W. Griesser

1991-01-01

200

Expert System Aid for Military Finance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historically, budget preparation processes have been difficult to accomplish. Errors and inconsistencies cause problems for the analyst during budget review. This paper discusses the development and testing of an expert system to aid budget preparation. T...

J. D. Morris M. L. Emrich H. L. Hwang M. Meador

1987-01-01

201

Towards reasoning visualization in expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results are presented of ongoing research to develop visualization paradigms for expert systems reasoning processes. The results are based in part on a prototype implementation that is being developed to visualize the reasoning processes of a rule-based forward chaining expert system. The research is based on the premise that the presentation of information at the highest applicable conceptual level will enhance the assimilation of that information. Hierarchical levels in both the syntactic and semantic levels of reasoning in expert systems are described in detail.

Selig, William John; Johannes, James D.

1989-01-01

202

Resource Activation Patterns In Expert Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the analysis of video recordings of physics experts solving novel problems involving solar cells, which involved such advanced physics topics as complex circuits and semiconductors. By performing a fine grained analysis using a resource based model of cognition, we determined what resources experts use while reasoning in the current context and how they used them. By analyzing critical events in the problem solving process, we searched for meaningful patterns of resource activation to help gain insight into expert problem solving processes.

Jones, Darrick C.; Malysheva, Marina; Richards, Aj; Planinå¡ic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

2014-01-31

203

Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research. PMID:17621416

André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

2008-02-01

204

Avionic expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the heart of any intelligent flight control system, there is a knowledge based expert system. The efficiency of these knowledge bases is one of the major factors in the success of aviation and space control systems. In the future, the speed and the capabilities of the expert system and their underlying data base(s) will be the limiting factors in the ability to build more accurate real time space controllers. A methodology is proposed for design and construction of such expert systems. It is noted that existing expert systems are inefficient (slow) in dealing with nontrivial real world situations that involve a vast collection of data. However, current data bases, which are fast in handling large amounts of data, cannot carry out intelligent tasks normally expected from an expert system. The system presented provides the power of deduction (reasoning) along with the efficient mechanisms for management of large data bases. In the system, both straight forward evaluation procedures and sophisticated inference mechanisms coexist. The design methodology is based on mathematics and logic, which ensures the correctness of the final product.

Golshani, Forouzan

1988-01-01

205

Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity  

PubMed Central

How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people?Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250) ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400) latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces.

Puce, Aina; McNeely, Marie E.; Berrebi, Michael E.; Thompson, James C.; Hardee, Jillian; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie

2013-01-01

206

Timeline hidden Markov experts for time series prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modularised connectionist model, based on the mixture of experts (ME) algorithm for time series prediction, is introduced. A group of connectionist modules learn to be local experts over some commonly appeared states in a time series. The dynamics for combining the experts is a hidden Markov process, in which the states of a time series are regarded as states

Xin Wang; Peter Whigham; Da Deng; Martin Purvis

2003-01-01

207

Intelligent interfaces for expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

1988-01-01

208

Adaptive capture of expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hand, Un Kyong [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[US Navy (United States)

1995-05-01

209

Computers Simulate Human Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

Roberts, Steven K.

1983-01-01

210

Expert Systems Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a class of artificial intelligence computer programs (often called "expert systems" because they address problems normally thought to require human specialists for their solution) intended to serve as consultants for decision making. Also discusses accomplishments (including information systematization in medical diagnosis and geology)…

Duda, Richard O.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

1983-01-01

211

Human agency and the process of healing: lessons learned from women living with a chronic illness--'re-writing the expert'.  

PubMed

In this paper we examine the notion of human agency in the context of women experiencing a chronic illness. Based on two qualitative studies conducted with Canadian women of Chinese- and Anglo-descent living with diabetes, we unmask the complex power relations inherent in patient-practitioner interactions, and problematize the privileging of healthcare providers as knowers and experts on the patient's body. Specifically, we analyse the meanings that women ascribe to their illness experience. We discuss how women experience the loss of agency in healthcare encounters, how they resist patienthood by reclaiming agency, and how healthcare providers foster agency in their interactions with women. Rather than suggesting that biomedical experts should be 'written out', we propose to rewrite healthcare providers as 'reflexive practitioners' through the construction of transformative knowledge. We argue that praxis-oriented practice, which is based on transformative knowledge, will provide the space for women and healthcare providers to enter into a new dialogue and a relation in which women can sustain a sense of self, and begin the journey of healing. PMID:10696200

Tang, S Y; Anderson, J M

1999-06-01

212

Augmenting Usability: Cultural Elicitation in HCI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper offers context and culture elicitation in an inter-cultural and multi-disciplinary setting of ICT design. Localised usability evaluation (LUE) is augmented with a socio-technical evaluation tool (STEM) as a methodological approach to expose and address issues in a collaborative ICT design within the Village e-Science for Life (VeSeL) project in rural Kenya. The paper argues that designers need to locally identify context and culture in situ and further explicate their implications through the design process and at the global level. Stakeholders' context, culture, decisions, agendas, expectations, disciplines and requirements need to be locally identified and globally evaluated to ensure a fit for purpose solution.

Camara, Souleymane Boundaouda; Oyugi, Cecilia; Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Smith, Andy

213

Diet expert subsystem for CELSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

1991-01-01

214

The Expert System for Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All students struggling with the subject of thermodynamics should visit this site created by Professor Subrata Bhattacharjee at San Diego State University. After reading an overview of The Expert System for Thermodynamics' (TEST) merits, users can take the Feature Tour to discover all the concepts covered at the site such as Exergy Analyses, Open Processes, and Combustions in Closed Chambers. Students and educators can then view the Slide Show to receive a preface to the problem solving atmosphere. Lastly, visitors can work through the many challenging problems that utilize Daemons.

Bhattacharjee, Subrata

215

Make yourself an expert.  

PubMed

Almost every organization has people it can't do without--specialists with "deep smarts," who are the go-to experts on critical issues. But because their knowledge is experienced-based, it's often instinctive and unarticulated, and never gets passed on. Capturing it is a challenge for both the organization and for colleagues who wish to become in-house authorities themselves. This article offers a methodical system for acquiring deep smarts from an expert. It involves observing that person extensively to understand what makes him successful, practicing the behaviors he exhibits on your own, partnering with him to solve problems, and ultimately taking responsibility for some of his tasks. Describing the experiences of one executive as she takes this journey with a mentor, the authors show how you too can gain the wisdom that will make you indispensable to your firm. PMID:23593772

Leonard, Dorothy; Barton, Gavin; Barton, Michelle

2013-04-01

216

Expert system prototype of food aid distribution.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to improve efficiency of the food aid distribution process of international food relief organizations. An overall objective of this study was to develop a prototype expert system for monitoring and evaluating food aid by international disaster relief organizations. The research identifies data related to monitoring and evaluation processes of various international food-aid organizations. It then applies an artificial intelligence-based expert system to develop a prototype for those processes. Existing data related to monitoring and evaluation program cycles were obtained. An expert system shell called CLIPS(c) (National Aeronautics Space Administration) was used to develop a prototype system named Food Aid Monitor, a rule-based expert system, which uses facts and heuristic rules to provide an adaptive feedback regarding monitoring and evaluating processes at various stages of food aid operation. The Food Aid Monitor was evaluated and validated by three expert panels checking the prototype system for completeness, relevancy, consistency, correctness, precision, and use-ability. Finally, the panels indicated a belief that the system could have an overall positive impact on the stages of monitoring and evaluating food aid processes of the food relief organizations. PMID:17392088

Singh, Neeta

2007-01-01

217

Three image experts which help distinguish lung tumors from non-tumors. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The design of three vision-expert programs is described. The vision experts are based on appearance models of objects in a typical chest radiograph which were derived using information from human experts. Each expert is based on a different technical concept. The rib expert uses relational constraints on parameter (Hough transform) space to determine if a rib has been detected; the vascularity expert uses a back-projected Hough transform; and the nodule expert uses features which were derived from studies of the nodule recognition process of radiologistics. The efficacy of the descriptive models and their implementations are evaluated. The process of development and implementation of image experts are discussed.

Lampeter, W.

1984-02-01

218

ALICE Expert System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in different system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by regular shifters during the next data taking period.

Ionita, C.; Carena, F.

2014-06-01

219

A POMDP Formulation of Preference Elicitation Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preference elicitation is a key problem facing the deployment of intelligent systems that make or rec- ommend decisions on the behalf of users. Since not all aspects of a utility function have the same im- pact on object-level decision quality, determining which information to extract from a user is itself a sequential decision problem, balancing the amount of elicitation effort

Craig Boutilier

2002-01-01

220

MushroomExpert.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by amateur mycologist Dr. Michael Kuo with contributions from amateur and professional mycologists, MushroomExpert.Com is an excellent resource for a wide variety of mushroom enthusiasts. The site provides a genus and species index and search engine for detailed information on, and quality up-close photos of, over 330 North American Mushrooms. Individual species pages include brief sections on Habitat, Cap, Stem, and Microscopic Features-to name a few. The site also provides information for beginners, as well as sections on Studying Mushrooms, Edibility, a Morel Data Collection Project, and more.

Kuo, Michael

221

Expert Systems and Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of artificial intelligence to the problems of education is examined. One of the most promising areas in artificial intelligence is expert systems technology which engages the user in a problem-solving diaglogue. Some of the characteristics that make expert systems "intelligent" are identified and exemplified. The rise of expert

Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

222

Expert and Knowledge Based Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and current state of knowledge-based systems and expert systems. Describes an expert system from the viewpoints of a computer programmer and an applications expert. Addresses concerns related to materials selection and forecasts future developments in the teaching of materials engineering. (ML)

Demaid, Adrian; Edwards, Lyndon

1987-01-01

223

Empirical analysis for expert systems  

SciTech Connect

This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant for rheumatology.

Politakis, P.

1985-01-01

224

Expert systems in industrial engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert system can be denned as ‘a tool which has the capability to understand problem specific knowledge and use the domain knowledge intelligently to suggest alternate paths of action’. This paper presents a structured framework for the development of an expert system. The five major aspects of expert system development are: Problem definition; knowledge acquisition, representation and coordination; inference

S. R. T. KUMARA; SANJAY JOSHI; R. L. KASHYAP; C. L. MOODIE; T. C. CHANG

1986-01-01

225

Autonomous power expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

1990-01-01

226

Autonomous power expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling an dynamic replanning.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

1990-01-01

227

How experts gain influence.  

PubMed

In theory, the risk management groups of two British banks--Saxon and Anglo--had the same influence in their organizations. But in practice, they did not: Saxon's was engaged in critical work throughout the bank, while Anglo's had little visibility outside its areas of expertise. In their study of these two financial institutions, the authors identified four competencies--trailblazing, toolmaking, teamwork, and translation--that help functional leaders or groups compete for top management's limited attention and increase their impact. Anglo's risk managers were strong in only some of the competencies, but Saxon's were strong in all four. They consistently scanned the internal and external environment for important issues to which they could apply a risk management perspective (trailblazing) and then developed tools--such as quarterly risk reports--that spread their expertise (toolmaking). While controlling the tools' design and implementation, the risk managers incorporated business managers' insights (teamwork) and made sure everyone could understand the findings (translation). Ultimately, experts' roles must fit the organization's strategy and structural needs. In some situations, functional experts can raise their profile by cultivating just two of the competencies. But those who are strong in all four are likely to be the most influential. PMID:24730171

Mikes, Anette; Hall, Matthew; Millo, Yuval

2013-01-01

228

Estimates of rupture probabilities for nuclear power plant components; Expert judgment elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that as part of the nondestructive evaluation reliability program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed a risk-based method for establishing inspection priorities for systems and components at nuclear power plants. In this method, the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) are used to estimate the safety consequences of component failures.

T. V. Vo; P. G. Heasler; F. A. Simonen; B. F. Gore

1991-01-01

229

Rhizobacterial exopolysaccharides elicit induced resistance on cucumber.  

PubMed

The role of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia gladioli IN26, on elicitation of induced systemic resistance was investigated. A purified EPS induced expression of PR- 1a::GUS on tobacco and elicited induced resistance against Colletotrichum orbiculare on cucumber. The maximum level of disease protection was noted when seeds were soaked in 200 ppm of the EPS. Our results indicate that EPS from specific rhizobacteria can elicit induced resistance and suggest that bacterial EPS might be a useful elicitor of resistance under field conditions. PMID:18600053

Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

2008-06-01

230

Expert System Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a software shell for developing expert systems is designed to allow research and development of artificial intelligence on conventional computers. Originally developed by Johnson Space Center, it enables highly efficient pattern matching. A collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is built into a rule network. Additional pertinent facts are matched to the rule network. Using the program, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. is monitoring chemical production machines; California Polytechnic State University is investigating artificial intelligence in computer aided design; Mentor Graphics has built a new Circuit Synthesis system, and Brooke and Brooke, a law firm, can determine which facts from a file are most important.

1989-01-01

231

Dynamic expert system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Embodiments of the present invention provide a dynamic expert system comprising a control database, a master rules database, an operations database, an initialization module, a dynamic knowledge module and an application of knowledge module. The control database comprises a plurality of available data structures. The master rules database comprises one or more of the available data structures populated with a plurality of rules. The initialization module causes one or more of the available data structures and corresponding rules to be copied, as a project/product database, to the operations module. The dynamic knowledge module provides for modifying the data structure, rules and/or operating parameters to be captured of the project/product database. The application of knowledge module provides for applying the modifiable project/product database to the project, product or the like.

2007-06-19

232

Elicitation using multiple price list formats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the properties of a popular method for eliciting choices and values from experimental subjects, the multiple price\\u000a list format. The main advantage of this format is that it is relatively transparent to subjects and provides simple incentives\\u000a for truthful revelation. The main disadvantages are that it only elicits interval responses, and could be susceptible to framing\\u000a effects. We

Steffen Andersen; Glenn W. Harrison; Morten Igel Lau; E. Elisabet Rutström

2006-01-01

233

Gamma flicker elicits positive affect without awareness.  

PubMed

High-frequency oscillations emerged as a neural code for both positive affect and fluent attentional processing from evolutionary simulations with artificial neural networks. Visual 50 Hz flicker, which entrains neural oscillations in the gamma band, has been shown to foster attentional switching, but can it also elicit positive affect? A three-faces display (2-female/1-male or 2-male/1-female) was preceded by a 50, 25, or 0 Hz flicker on the position of the odd-one-out (i.e., the target). Participants decided on the gender (Block 1) or on the subjective valence (Block 2) of this neutral target in an approach-avoidance task, which served as an implicit affective measure. Only the detection of 25 Hz flicker, but not of 50 Hz flicker, was above chance (Block 3). Faces primed by invisible 50 Hz flicker were explicitly evaluated more positively than with 25 Hz or 0 Hz. This gamma flicker also facilitated approach reactions, and inhibited avoidance reactions relative to 25 Hz and 0 Hz flicker in Blocks 1 and 2. Attentional switching was, moreover, enhanced by the 50 Hz flicker. According to the Affect-Gamma hypothesis, also in biological neural networks, high-frequency gamma oscillations may code for positive affect. PMID:22884774

Heerebout, Bram T; Tap, A E Yoram; Rotteveel, Mark; Phaf, R Hans

2013-03-01

234

Automation of Expert Tutoring System Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development and introduction of expert tutoring systems (ETS), or intelligent tutoring systems. Explains MONAP-PLUS, an example of an authoring tool for the design of an ETS that includes models of the subject domain, the learner, and the learning process; a user-friendly interface; and techniques for developing algorithmic…

Galeev, Ildar

1999-01-01

235

APPLICATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING  

EPA Science Inventory

Expert systems are a promising computer-based approach to helping environmental engineers solve difficult problems. A number of such systems have been developed to date in the areas of hazard assessment, modeling support, process failure diagnosis, and regulatory support. The US ...

236

Achieving Effective Communication during Requirements Elicitation - A Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Requirements elicitation is one of the most important and critical phase in software development. It is the moment in which\\u000a the users’ needs of a software system are captured, understood and validated. This is achieved through two-way communications\\u000a between users and requirement analysts. The process however is not so straightforward to accomplish. The problem of poor communication\\u000a among requirement analysts

Fares Anwar; Rozilawati Razali; Kamsuriah Ahmad

237

The Content Validation and Resource Development For a Course in Materials and Processes of Industry Through the Use of NASA Experts at Norfolk State College. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to develop a course in materials and processes of industry at Norfolk State College using Barton Herrscher's model of systematic instruction, a group of 12 NASA-Langley Research Center's (NASA-LRC) research engineers and technicians were recruited. The group acted as consultants in validating the content of the course and aided in…

Jacobs, James A.

238

Developing Research Priorities with a Cohort of Higher Education for Sustainability Experts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the results of a Delphi exercise used at the Halifax Consultation in which 35 experts representing 17 countries gathered to develop research priorities for the emerging field of higher education for sustainability (HES). Design/methodology/approach: The Delphi technique was used to elicit the…

Wright, Tarah S. A.

2007-01-01

239

Knowledge learning on fuzzy expert neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed fuzzy expert network is an event-driven, acyclic neural network designed for knowledge learning on a fuzzy expert system. Initially, the network is constructed according to a primitive (rough) expert rules including the input and output linguistic variables and values of the system. For each inference rule, it corresponds to an inference network, which contains five types of nodes: Input, Membership-Function, AND, OR, and Defuzzification Nodes. We propose a two-phase learning procedure for the inference network. The first phase is the competitive backpropagation (CBP) training phase, and the second phase is the rule- pruning phase. The CBP learning algorithm in the training phase enables the network to learn the fuzzy rules as precisely as backpropagation-type learning algorithms and yet as quickly as competitive-type learning algorithms. After the CBP training, the rule-pruning process is performed to delete redundant weight connections for simple network structures and yet compatible retrieving performance.

Fu, Hsin-Chia; Shann, J.-J.; Pao, Hsiao-Tien

1994-03-01

240

Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

1988-01-01

241

Building expert systems: Cognitive emulation  

SciTech Connect

This work explores the questions and issues surrounding the capacity of expert systems to emulate human thinking and problem-solving abilities, the extent to which this is possible, and the desirability and limitations involved in applying this new technology. Maintaining a balance between theoretical and practical issues, it reviews psychological research into human expert cognition and discusses the formal arguments for and against cognitive emulation in expert system design. Also analyzes in detail the factors likely to promote or constrain this strategy. Includes a critical survey of expert systems research which outlines the implications of the emulation approach to knowledge acquisition and representation.

Slatter, P.E.

1987-01-01

242

Personalised, predictive and preventive medication process in hospitals--still rather missing: professional opinion survey on medication safety in Czech hospitals (based on professional opinions of recognised Czech health care experts)  

PubMed Central

The survey had the following aims: (1) to rationalise the hypothesis that risks and losses relating to medication process' errors in Czech hospitals are at least comparable with the other developed countries and EU countries especially, (2) to get a valid professional opinion/estimate on the rate of adverse drug events happening in Czech hospitals, (3) to point out that medication errors represent real and serious risks and (4) to induce the hospital management readiness to execute fundamental changes and improvements to medication processes. We read through a lot of studies inquiring into hospitals' medication safety. Then, we selected the studies which brought reliable findings and formulated credible conclusions. Finally, we addressed reputable Czech experts in health care and asked them structured questions whether the studies' findings and conclusions corresponded with our respondents' own experience in the Czech hospital clinical practice and what their own estimates of adverse drug events' consequences were like. Based on the reputable Czech health care expert opinions/estimates, the rate of a false drug administration may exceed 5%, and over 7% of those cause serious health complications to Czech hospital inpatients. Measured by an average length of stay (ALOS), the Czech inpatients, harmed by a false drug administration, stay in hospital for more than 2.6?days longer than necessary. Any positive changes to a currently used, traditional, ways of drug dispensing and administration, along with computerisation, automation, electronic traceability, validation, or verification, must well pay off. Referring to the above results, it seems to be wise to follow the EU priorities in health and health care improvements. Thus, a right usage of the financial means provided by the EC—in terms of its new health programmes for the period 2014–2020 (e.g. Horizon 2020)—has a good chance of a good result in doing the right things right, at the right time and in the right way. All citizens of the EU may benefit using the best practice.

2014-01-01

243

Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model  

SciTech Connect

The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects.

Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

1999-04-01

244

Expert system training and control based on the fuzzy relation matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuzzy knowledge, that for which the terms of reference are not crisp but overlapped, seems to characterize human expertise. This can be shown from the fact that an experienced human operator can control some complex plants better than a computer can. Proposed here is fuzzy theory to build a fuzzy expert relation matrix (FERM) from given rules or/and examples, either in linguistic terms or in numerical values to mimic human processes of perception and decision making. The knowledge base is codified in terms of many implicit fuzzy rules. Fuzzy knowledge thus codified may also be compared with explicit rules specified by a human expert. It can also provide a basis for modeling the human operator and allow comparison of what a human operator says to what he does in practice. Two experiments were performed. In the first, control of liquid in a tank, demonstrates how the FERM knowledge base is elicited and trained. The other shows how to use a FERM, build up from linguistic rules, and to control an inverted pendulum without a dynamic model.

Ren, Jie; Sheridan, T. B.

1991-01-01

245

Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling.

Reece, Wendy Jane

1998-10-01

246

Technological emergencies expert system (TEES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide the graduate students, researchers, responsible personnel at major hazards installations (MHIs) with background on the technological emergencies, expert system (ES), and technological emergencies expert system (TEES) development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The design and development of an ES is achieved through six recommended phases. The assessment phase represents the problem feasibility and justifications. In TEES, the problem was

Ibrahim Mohamed Shaluf; Fakhru'l-Razi Ahamadun

2006-01-01

247

IUI MINING: HUMAN EXPERT GUIDANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, we propose a variation of Information Theoretic Network approach by using human expert guidance to mine IUI (Intra Uterine Insemination) data, a medical data set, and show the results. The results show that this new algorithm can give us the results better than the original Information Theoretic Network approach. The judgement is measured by the human experts' satisfactory

Suwimon Kooptiwoot; Muhammad Salam

2004-01-01

248

Expert Systems in Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

1989-01-01

249

Expert Systems and Document Handling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes significant attributes of expert systems, contrasts them to conventional computer systems, and provides an overview of the R1 expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to put together operational systems that meet customers' requirements. Document handling, particularly pictures and images in documents, is also briefly…

Edmonds, Ernest

1987-01-01

250

Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)

Nuclear Industry, 1991

1991-01-01

251

The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results indicate…

Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Rubel, Deborah

2009-01-01

252

The Expert Mathematician. Revised. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Expert Mathematician" is designed to help middle school students develop the thinking processes for mathematical applications and communication. A three-year program of instruction, "The Expert Mathematician" uses a software and consumable print materials package with 196 lessons that teach the "Logo" programming language. Each lesson ranges…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

253

Experience with an expert system for automated HAZOP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) analysis is the most widely used and recognized as the preferred safety analysis approach in the chemical process industry. A model-based framework and an expert system called HAZOPExpert has been developed recently for automating this analysis. The performance of HAZOPExpert was evaluated on a sour water stripper plant and a hydrotreator plant case studies. The expert

Ramesh Vaidhyanathan; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

1996-01-01

254

Verification of Qualitative properties of rule-based expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequently expert systems are being developed to operate in dynamic environments where they must reason about time-varying information and generate hypotheses, conclusions, and process inputs that can drastically influence the environment within which they operate. For instance, expert systems used for fault diagnosis and fault accomodation in nuclear power plants reason over sensor data and operator inputs, form fault hypotheses,

Alfonsus D. Lunardhi; Kevin M. Passino

1995-01-01

255

Building Natural Language Interfaces for Rule-based Expert Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss a semantics for translating natural language statements into facts of an underlying expert system, replacing the more conventional menu interface for gathering data from the user. We describe two issues that must be considered when building such an interface for an expert system. These issues are semantic processing of the user statements and the design

Galina Datskovsky Moerdler; Kathleen Mckeown; J. Robert Ensor

1987-01-01

256

Combining Probability Distributions From Experts in Risk Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the combination of experts' probability distributions in risk analysis, discussing a variety of combination methods and attempting to highlight the important conceptual and practical issues to be considered in designing a combination process in practice. The role of experts is important because their judgments can provide valuable information, particularly in view of the limited availability of “hard

Robert T. Clemen; Robert L. Winkler

1999-01-01

257

Figuring the World of Designing: Expert Participation in Elementary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present article was to analyze the interaction between elementary students and a professional design expert. The expert was present in the classroom, facilitating a collaborative lamp designing process together with the teacher. Using the notion of "figured worlds" (Holland et al. 1998), we explored how learning could be…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

258

Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expert system has been developed by The Aerospace Corporation, Space and Environment Technology Center for use in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to determine the probable cause of an anomaly from the following candidates: surface charging, bulk charging, single-event effects, total radiation dose, and space-plasma effects. Such anomalies depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local plasma and radiation environment (which is highly variable), the satellite-exposure time, and the hardness of the circuits and components in the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instrument's Personal Consultant Plus expert-system shell. The expert system's knowledgebase includes about 200 rules, as well as a number of databases that contain information on spacecraft and their orbits, previous spacecraft anomalies, and the environment.

Koons, Harry C.; Groney, David J.

1994-02-01

259

Engineering monitoring expert system's developer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

Lo, Ching F.

1991-01-01

260

Chylomicronemia Elicits Atherosclerosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective The risk of atherosclerosis in the setting of chylomicronemia has been a topic of debate. In this study, we examined susceptibility to atherosclerosis in Gpihbp1-deficient mice (Gpihbp1?/?), which manifest severe chylomicronemia as a result of defective lipolysis. Methods and Results Gpihbp1?/? mice on a chow diet have plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels of 2812 ± 209 and 319 ± 27 mg/dl, respectively. Even though nearly all of the lipids were contained in large lipoproteins (50–135 nm), the mice developed progressive aortic atherosclerosis. In other experiments, we found that both Gpihbp1-deficient “apo-B48–only” mice and Gpihbp1-deficient “apo-B100–only” mice manifest severe chylomicronemia. Thus, GPIHBP1 is required for the processing of both apo-B48– and apo-B100–containing lipoproteins. Conclusions Chylomicronemia causes atherosclerosis in mice. Also, we found that GPIHBP1 is required for the lipolytic processing of both apo-B48– and apo-B100–containing lipoproteins.

Weinstein, Michael M.; Yin, Liya; Tu, Yiping; Wang, Xuping; Wu, Xiaohui; Castellani, Lawrence W.; Walzem, Rosemary L.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Fong, Loren G.; Beigneux, Anne P.; Young, Stephen G.

2009-01-01

261

Expert system for control of anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process that converts organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide along with the production of bacterial matter. It is primarily used for waste and wastewater treatment but can also be used for energy production. Continuous anaerobic digesters are systems that present challenging control problems including the possibility that an unmeasured disturbance can change the sign of the steady-state process gain. An expert system is developed that recognizes changes in the sign of process gain and implements appropriate control laws. The sole on-line measured variable is the methane production rate, and the manipulated input is the dilution rate. The expert system changes the dilution rate according to one of four possible strategies: a constrained conventional set-point control law, a constant yield control law (CYCL) that is nearly optimal for the most common cause of change in the sign of the process gain, batch operation, or constant dilution rate. The algorithm uses a t test for determining when to switch to the CYCL and returns to the conventional set-point control law with bumpless transfer. The expert system has proved successful in several experimental tests: severe overload; mild, moderate, and severe underload; and addition of phenol in low and high levels. Phenol is an inhibitor that in high concentrations changes the sign of the process gain.

Pullammanappallil, P.C.; Svoronos, S.A.; Chynoweth, D.P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Lyberatos, G. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)] [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

1998-04-05

262

Elicitation of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of channel catfish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four chemicals were evaluated for elicitation of macrophages in peritoneal cavities of 250-300g healthy channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Cellular exudates were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 d following intraperitoneal injections with squalene, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), goat serum, thioglycollate, or as a control, phosphate-buffered saline. Injection with either squalene or FIA induced significantly greater (P ??? 0.0001) macrophage recruitment than the other chemicals. The effectiveness of squalene and FIA was compared further by macrophage collection daily for 7 d. Squalene and FIA elicited similarly high macrophage responses (P ??? 0.0450), the highest being 3.43 x 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 2.4 x l06) at 99% purity at day 2 and 2.1 X 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 0.7 x 106) at day 14 at 80% purity, respectively. In both experiments, the time after injection was not statistically significant, nor was there an interaction between time and chemicals. The occurrence of cells other than macrophages decreased with time to yield macrophage recoveries of 47-99% for squalene and 30-80% for FIA. Two subsets of macrophages were observed by means of flow cytometry. As demonstrated by chemiluminescence, the squalene-elicited cells produced high-energy oxygen compounds important to the phagocytic process.

Jenkins, J. A.; Klesius, P. H.

1998-01-01

263

Expert--novice differences in perception: how expert does the expert have to be?  

PubMed

Twelve expert and 15 novice badminton players viewed a film task which attempted to simulate the perceptual display of the sport of badminton. The film task varied in terms of visibility to either specific time periods of display information or to specific spatial areas of the display, and the subject's task was to determine whether the stroke being viewed had a cross-court or a down-the-line destination. In keeping with an earlier study (Abernethy and Russell, 1987a), expert players were shown to have a unique capability to decrease their prediction errors at an earlier point in the stroke sequence than could novices, but unlike the previous study this could not be attributed to the experts' superior use of arm cues. The robustness of expert--novice differences in perceptual strategy across changes in the level of expert--novice differentiation are discussed. PMID:2924219

Abernethy, B

1989-03-01

264

[Veterinarians as experts in court].  

PubMed

General veterinarians such as veterinary officers act as experts at court. They are in so far part of the evidence. Due to his experience the veterinary expert shall give systematical uniform principles concerning even domains adjacent to the field of animal protection such as protection of animal epidemics and food cases, verifiable by science and university research. Examples for expert's topics as well as the requirements of expert reports are shown. According to paragraph 15 II Tierschutzgesetz (Animal Protection Act), as well as according to paragraph paragraph 63, 76 Ordnungswidrigkeitengesetz the experts participation in the proceeding is necessary. In consideration of paragraph paragraph 74, 22 Strafprozessordnung (Code of Criminal Proceedure) conflicts may arise because the veterinarian officer is self-contained investigator, witness as well as expert in the same proceeding. In general the veterinarian officer, who has been involved in the investigations must be excluded from expert activity in the same case. The veterinarian officers have to solve this problem by seperating tasks and functions within one legal case. PMID:15195954

Ort, J D

2004-03-01

265

The making of expert clinicians: reflective practice.  

PubMed

Debriefing is a rigorous reflection process which helps trainees recognize and resolve clinical and behavioral dilemmas raised by a clinical case. This approach emphasizes eliciting trainees'assumptions about the situation and their reasons for performing as they did (mental models). It analyses their impact on actions, to understand if it is necessary to maintain them or construct new ones that may lead to better performance in the future. It blends evidence and theory from education research, the social and cognitive sciences, and experience drawn from conducting and teaching debriefing to clinicians worldwide, on how to improve professional effectiveness through "reflective practice". PMID:24439667

Maestre, J M; Szyld, D; Del Moral, I; Ortiz, G; Rudolph, J W

2014-05-01

266

Rule-Based Expert Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rule-based systems (also known as production systems or expert systems) are the simplest form of artificial intelligence. A rule based system uses rules as the knowledge representation for knowledge\\u000a coded into the system [1][3][4] [13][14][16][17][18][20]. The definitions of rule-based system depend almost entirely on expert\\u000a systems, which are system that mimic the reasoning of human expert in solving a knowledge

Crina Grosan; Ajith Abraham

267

CASWW Central Asia Experts Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Harvard Forum for Central Asian Studies, this site will prove useful to graduate students and scholars of Central Asia. The site was created to facilitate access for policy-makers, the press, and others to scholars with the appropriate expertise in Central Asian Studies. The Directory features those who have indicated their willingness to be contacted for expert consultations, and their listing will include a brief description of their qualifications. It organizes experts by name, topic, location, and under several headings: Politics and International Relations, Economy, Social Issues, and Cultural and Historical Background. The site is still soliciting experts for inclusion, and a link to the questionnaire is provided.

268

Expert Witness: A system for developing expert medical testimony  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert Witness in an expert system designed to assist attorneys and medical experts in determining the merit of medical malpractice claims in the area of obstetrics. It substitutes the time of the medical expert with the time of a paralegal assistant guided by the expert system during the initial investigation of the medical records and patient interviews. The product of the system is a narrative transcript containing important data, immediate conclusions from the data, and overall conclusions of the case that the attorney and medical expert use to make decisions about whether and how to proceed with the case. The transcript may also contain directives for gathering additional information needed for the case. The system is a modified heuristic classifier and is implemented using over 600 CLIPS rules together with a C-based user interface. The data abstraction and solution refinement are implemented directly using forward chaining production and matching. The use of CLIPS and C is essential to delivering a system that runs on a generic PC platform. The direct implementation in CLIPS together with locality of inference ensures that the system will scale gracefully. Two years of use has revealed no errors in the reasoning.

Lewandowski, Raymond; Perkins, David; Leasure, David

1994-01-01

269

Video Elicitation of the Semiotic Self.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the power of video recording to elicit the thinking of teachers as they reflect on their teaching practices. Draws on the work of Wiley (1994), which identified the internal conversation as a critical feature of the semiotic self. (Author/VWL)

Stockall, Nancy

2001-01-01

270

Elicited Imitation in Second Language Acquisition Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review surveys theoretical and empirical evidence about elicited imitation (EI) as a measure of second language (L2) learners’ performance. Different from natural imitation, where children repeat utterances without request in a natural setting, EI requires participants to hear and then repeat a sentence that usually includes a target grammatical structure in a laboratory setting. EI is assumed to be

Lorena Jessop; Wataru Suzuki; Yasuyo Tomita

2007-01-01

271

WEAPONS AS AGGRESSION-ELICITING STIMULI  

Microsoft Academic Search

TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STIMULI COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH AGGRESSION CAN ELICIT AGGRESSIIVE RESPONSES FROM PEOPLE READY TO ACT AGGRESSIVELY. 100 MALE UNIVERSITY SS RECEIVED EITHER 1 OR 7 SHOCKS, SUPPOSEDLY FROM A PEER, AND WERE THEN GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOCK THIS PERSON. IN SOME CASES A RIFLE AND REVOLVER WERE NEAR THE SHOCK KEY. THESE WEAPONS WERE SAID TO

LEONARD BERKOWITZ; ANTHONY LEPAGE

1967-01-01

272

Assessing Coral Reef Condition: Eliciting Community Meanings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photographs depicting a gradient of coral reef condition associated with anchor damage were assessed and described by 76 research participants. The participants were divided into two groups: those with and those without occupational experience of coral reefs. Three important meanings ascribed to coral reefs were elicited. The most important meaning was “evaluation,” whether the scenes were perceived positively or negatively.

Elizabeth A. Dinsdale; D. Mark Fenton

2006-01-01

273

Expert system for generating fuel movement procedures  

SciTech Connect

Commercial nuclear power reactors are required by federal law and their operating license to track and control the movement of nuclear fuel. Planning nuclear fuel movements during a refueling outage by hand is a tedious process involving an initial state and final state separated by physical and administrative constraints. Since the initial and final states as well as all constraints are known, an expert computer system for planning this process is possible. Turkey Point station worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-selected vendor to implement such a system. Over the course of a 2-yr period, the EPRI Fuel Shuffle Planning System evolved from a high-tech word processor to an expert system capable of planning all fuel movement sequences required to refuel a nuclear reactor core. Turkey Point site is composed to two pressurized water reactor units owned and operated by Florida Power and Light Company.

Hendrickson, J.P. (Florida Power and Light Co., Juno Beach (United States))

1991-01-01

274

Expert system development for probabilistic load simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A knowledge based system LDEXPT using the intelligent data base paradigm was developed for the Composite Load Spectra (CLS) project to simulate the probabilistic loads of a space propulsion system. The knowledge base approach provides a systematic framework of organizing the load information and facilitates the coupling of the numerical processing and symbolic (information) processing. It provides an incremental development environment for building generic probabilistic load models and book keeping the associated load information. A large volume of load data is stored in the data base and can be retrieved and updated by a built-in data base management system. The data base system standardizes the data storage and retrieval procedures. It helps maintain data integrity and avoid data redundancy. The intelligent data base paradigm provides ways to build expert system rules for shallow and deep reasoning and thus provides expert knowledge to help users to obtain the required probabilistic load spectra.

Ho, H.; Newell, J. F.

1991-01-01

275

Spacecraft command and control using expert systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

1994-11-01

276

Rule groupings in expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, expert system shells do not address software engineering issues for developing or maintaining expert systems. As a result, large expert systems tend to be incomprehensible, difficult to debug or modify, and almost impossible to verify or validate Partitioning rule-based systems into rule groups which reflect the underlying subdomains of the problem should enhance the comprehensibility, maintainability, and reliability of expert-system software. In this paper, we investigate methods to semi-automatically structure a CLIPS rule base e into groups of rules that carry related information. We discuss three different distance metrics for measuring the relatedness of rules and describe two clustering algorithms based on these distance metrics. The results of our experiment with three sample rule bases are also presented.

Mehrotra, Mala; Johnson, Sally C.

1990-01-01

277

Expert systems in clinical microbiology.  

PubMed

This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

2011-07-01

278

Ask the Experts -- September 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's "Ask the Experts" column, the Experts respond to the following thought-provoking questions: "If water boils at 100�C, how can a glass full of water evaporate at room temperature, about 20-25�C? "Why do glaciers look blue?" and "How many substances, besides water, are less dense in their solid state than in their liquid state?"

2006-09-01

279

An expert system for shuttle and satellite radar tracker scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This expert system automates and optimizes radar tracker selection for shuttle missions. The expert system is written in the FORTRAN and C languages on an HP9000. It is portable to any UNIX machine having both ANSI-77 FORTRAN and C language compilers. It is a rule based expert system that selects tracking stations from the S-band and C-band radar stations and the TDRSS east and TDRSS west satellites under a variety of conditions. The expert system was prototyped on the Symbolics in the Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) and ZetaLisp. After the prototype demonstrated an acceptable automation of the process of selecting tracking stations to support the orbit determination requirements of Shuttle missions, the basic ART rules of the prototype were ported to the HP9000 computer using the CLIPS language. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based expert system language written in C. Prior to the development of this expert system the selection process was a tedious manual process and expensive in terms of human resources. Manual tracking station selection required from 1 to 2 man weeks per mission; whereas the expert system can complete the selection process in about 2 hours.

Mitchell, Paul

1988-01-01

280

Expert system prototype developments for NASA-KSC business and engineering applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prototype expert systems developed for a variety of NASA projects in the business/management and engineering domains are discussed. Business-related problems addressed include an assistant for simulating launch vehicle processing, a plan advisor for the acquisition of automated data processing equipment, and an expert system for the identification of customer requirements. Engineering problems treated include an expert system for detecting potential ignition sources in LOX and gaseous-oxygen transportation systems and an expert system for hazardous-gas detection.

Ragusa, James M.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

1988-01-01

281

Computer security plan development using an expert system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Computer Security Plan Assistant (SPA) is an expert system for reviewing Department of Energy (DOE) Automated Data Processing (ADP) Security Plans. DOE computer security policies require ADP security plans to be periodically reviewed and updated by al...

W. J. Hunteman R. Evans M. Brownstein L. Chapman

1990-01-01

282

Auditory Evoked Fields Elicited by Spectral, Temporal, and Spectral-Temporal Changes in Human Cerebral Cortex  

PubMed Central

Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral–temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral–temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30–50?ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously.

Okamoto, Hidehiko; Teismann, Henning; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo

2012-01-01

283

Adding Multiple Exposure Planning and Expert System Technology in the Scientist's Expert Assistant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past year and a half, the Scientist's Expert Assistant Team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the Space Telescope Science Institute has been prototyping visual and expert system tools to support General Observer proposal development for the Hubble Space Telescope and the Next Generation Space Telescope. A year ago at ADASS '98 (Koratkar & Grosvenor 1999) the SEA team demonstrated SEA's Java-based visual target tuning and exposure calculation capabilities. At that time, SEA supported only a single exposure. Since then the team has been focusing on visit and orbit planning. We added a graphical orbit planning tool and a rule-based assistant to help determine dithering patterns. This paper describes our approach to multiple exposure planning and expert system use within the SEA. The techniques used (both visual and rule-based) and the lessons learned in the process are also discussed.

Wolf, K. R.

284

Inventing and Testing Models: Using Model-Eliciting Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By Joan Garfield, Robert delMas and Andrew Zieffler, University of Minnesota What are Model-Eliciting Activities? Model-Eliciting Activities (MEAs) are activities that encourage students to invent and test models. ...

Zieffler, Andrew

285

Weather forecasting expert system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather forecasting is critical to both the Space Transportation System (STS) ground operations and the launch/landing activities at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current launch frequency places significant demands on the USAF weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility (CCFF), who currently provide the weather forecasting for all STS operations. As launch frequency increases, KSC's weather forecasting problems will be great magnified. The single most important problem is the shortage of highly skilled forecasting personnel. The development of forecasting expertise is difficult and requires several years of experience. Frequent personnel changes within the forecasting staff jeopardize the accumulation and retention of experience-based weather forecasting expertise. The primary purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to ameliorate this shortage of experts by capturing aria incorporating the forecasting knowledge of current expert forecasters into a Weather Forecasting Expert System (WFES) which would then be made available to less experienced duty forecasters.

1985-01-01

286

Nickel cadmium battery expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

1986-01-01

287

Rhetorical Consequences of the Computer Society: Expert Systems and Human Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expert systems are computer programs that solve selected problems by modelling domain-specific behaviors of human experts. These computer programs typically consist of an input/output system that feeds data into the computer and retrieves advice, an inference system using the reasoning and heuristic processes of human experts, and a knowledge…

Skopec, Eric Wm.

288

Applications of fuzzy sets to rule-based expert system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems of implementing rule-based expert systems using fuzzy sets are considered. A fuzzy logic software development shell is used that allows inclusion of both crisp and fuzzy rules indecision making and process control problems. Results are given that compare this type of expert system to a human expert in some specific applications. Advantages and disadvantages of such systems are discussed.

Lea, Robert N.

1989-01-01

289

Continuing Education Article Expert Systems for Decision Making in Agriculture Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge based expert systems have been using in different fields of life like medicine, process controlling etc. Similarly, these systems are also being used in agriculture field in which different tasks from irrigation to harvesting are included. Expert System assists people in the making of environmentally sound and economically viable farm management decisions. Expert system can also be used as

FAWAD BAIG; NAIMA NAWAZ

290

Applications of fuzzy sets to rule-based expert system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems of implementing rule-based expert systems using fuzzy sets are considered. A fuzzy logic software development shell is used that allows inclusion of both crisp and fuzzy rules in decision making and process control problems. Results are given that compare this type of expert system to a human expert in some specific applications. Advantages and disadvantages of such systems are discussed.

Lea, Robert N.

1989-01-01

291

Twenty years of mixture of experts.  

PubMed

In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the mixture of experts (ME). We discuss the fundamental models for regression and classification and also their training with the expectation-maximization algorithm. We follow the discussion with improvements to the ME model and focus particularly on the mixtures of Gaussian process experts. We provide a review of the literature for other training methods, such as the alternative localized ME training, and cover the variational learning of ME in detail. In addition, we describe the model selection literature which encompasses finding the optimum number of experts, as well as the depth of the tree. We present the advances in ME in the classification area and present some issues concerning the classification model. We list the statistical properties of ME, discuss how the model has been modified over the years, compare ME to some popular algorithms, and list several applications. We conclude our survey with future directions and provide a list of publicly available datasets and a list of publicly available software that implement ME. Finally, we provide examples for regression and classification. We believe that the study described in this paper will provide quick access to the relevant literature for researchers and practitioners who would like to improve or use ME, and that it will stimulate further studies in ME. PMID:24807516

Yuksel, Seniha Esen; Wilson, Joseph N; Gader, Paul D

2012-08-01

292

Parallelism in backward-chained expert systems - Experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many applications which may be done by an expert system in real time, if the system is capable of real-time response. The LISP and PROLOG-based expert systems have typically been too slow for real-time response. This has led to an effort to use other languages, the development of fast pattern matching techniques and other methods of improving the speed of expert systems. Another approach to developing faster expert systems is to make use of the emerging parallel processing computer technology. A further use for parallelism is to allow reasonable response time for large knowledge bases. The size of knowledge bases may become as large as 20,000 chunks of knowledge (and more) in the near future in medical and space applications. This paper describes the use of parallel processing in the EMYCIN backward chained rule-based model.

Hall, Lawrence O.

1990-01-01

293

Expert Finding by Means of Plausible Inferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert finding has become an important retrieval task. Expert finding is about finding people rather than documents and the goal is to retrieve a ranked list of candidates\\/experts with expertise on a given topic. In this paper, we describe an expert- finding system that reasons about the relevance of a candidate to a given expertise area. The system utilizes plausible

Maryam Karimzadehgan; Geneva G. Belford; Farhad Oroumchian

2008-01-01

294

The linguistic construction of expert identity in professor-student discussions of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how participation in a verbal exchange during an inquiry-based classroom activity allows three college students and their science instructor to use linguistic signs (choices of words, grammatical structures, discursive structures, prosody and poetic discourse) to construct authority and expertise. Our work explores linguistic and interactional processes of identification (the dynamic construction and transaction of expert identity) and examines how discursive strategies adopted by the professor at different moments of the verbal exchange influence the students' subsequent discursive practices and perceptions of authority. We adopt a dialogic, socio-constructivist perspective on identity, viewing personal identities as being partially constructed via interactional positioning. Our findings reveal that the attainment of expertise involves two different types of language-mediated processes: the transmission of a professional vision or intension and the emergence of a perception of agency among students. The former is centered on referential-denotative meanings of speech (elicitation of standard account and operational definition) while the latter requires effective use of pragmatic-performative functions of speech (non-evaluative and more than minimal recipient practices). Consideration is given to the need for science instructors to be able to utilize pragmatic functions of language strategically to encourage students to position themselves within the identity of science expertise.

Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Sadler, Troy D.; Suslak, Daniel F.

2007-01-01

295

Teacher Stress: An Expert Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed experts (n=226) on teacher stress and burnout to determine relevance of 49 teacher stress items to their overall concepts of teacher stress. Items rated as most relevant dealt with feeling unable to cope and experiencing physical exhaustion; the least were related to student motivation problems. (Author/NB)

Fimian, Michael J.

1987-01-01

296

Ask the Experts -- Summer 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The questions presented in this month's Ask the Experts section include, Can a chemical equation have two correct ways to balance it? and Why is the first electron shell in atomic structure designated with "K" (K, L, M, N...) rather than "A"?

2005-07-01

297

A rock classification expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system to classify rock mass is described. The knowledge of experts is divided into two parts: the knowledge about the classification according to main parameters, and the knowledge about the evaluation of those parameters. The principle of classification is based on the fuzzy set theory. A scheme that calculates two agendas, or structure sets, plays an important role in

Tian Shengfeng; Zhang Qing; Mo Yuanbin

1988-01-01

298

What Is an "Expert Student?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests that conventional methods of teaching may, at best, create pseudo-experts--students whose expertise, to the extent they have it, does not mirror the expertise needed for real-world thinking inside or outside of the academic disciplines schools normally teach. It is suggested that teaching for "successful intelligence" may…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2003-01-01

299

The Expert System for Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Expert System for Thermodynamics (TEST) is a web-based software platform used to analyze thermofluids problems, verify hand calculations, pursue what-if scenarios, visualize thermal systems, and conduct other investigations in thermodynamics. Site materials include problem sets, examples, animations, and calculating tools to be used in solving problems. There is also a tutorial and visual tour of the platform.

Bhattacharjee, Subrata

300

Experts look at thermal performance  

SciTech Connect

Energy-management experts answer questions on the performance and effectiveness of thermal insulation. They offer suggestions on determining how much and which kind of insulation to use, the effectiveness of energy-efficiency standards, the information obtained from research programs, and continuing research needs. Convincing management that insulation will be cost-effective continues to be a significant barrier. (DCK)

Lawn, J.

1982-03-01

301

Expert Practice in Physical Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the dimensions of clinical expertise in physical therapy prac- tice across 4 clinical specialty areas: geriatrics, neurology, orthopedics, and pediatrics. Subjects. Subjects were 12 peer-designated expert physical therapists nominated by the leaders of the American Physical Therapy Association sections for geriatrics, neurology, orthopedics, and pediatrics. Methods. Guided by

Gail M Jensen; Jan Gwyer; Katherine F Shepard; Laurita M Hack

2000-01-01

302

Ask the Experts -- February 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Ask the Experts column, the following questions are addressed, "Why does the Moon show phases when viewed from Earth, but Earth always looks the same from the Moon, with only the top half illuminated?" and "Why are there two tides per day; i.e., why is there a side of the Earth facing away from the Moon?

2006-02-01

303

Ask an Expert with Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses electronic mail use in elementary/secondary education focusing on a comparison/review of award-winning Internet-based Virtual Reference Desk Exemplary Services (Ask Dr. Math, Ask A Volcanologist, How Things Work, AskERIC, Mad Scientist, Shamu, and American Art) that provide ask-an-expert question and answer services. Home pages, delivery…

Ekhaml, Leticia

1999-01-01

304

Ask the Experts -- October 2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Ask the Experts column, the following thought-provoking question is addressed: "Why did mother nature use uracil to replace thymine in mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid)? What is the advantage of using U instead of T in the RNA?"

2006-10-01

305

Expert Systems for Reference Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

Parrot, James R.

1986-01-01

306

Accelerated Corrosion Expert Simulator (ACES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a complete vehicle corrosion simulation and modeling tool called ACES (Accelerated Corrosion Expert Simulator) that has a high degree of correlation to actual accelerated corrosion durability test (ACDT) data. The system imports existing 3-D geometric models of full vehicles. An integrity check is conducted to determine if there are missing or improper entities or properties and a

C. Thomas Savell; I. Carl Handsy; Pete Ault; Larry Thompson; Robert M. Hathaway; David A. Lamb

307

Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

308

Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

2011-10-01

309

An expert system based intelligent control scheme for space bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system based intelligent control scheme is being developed for the effective control and full automation of bioreactor systems in space. The scheme developed will have the capability to capture information from various resources including heuristic information from process researchers and operators. The knowledge base of the expert system should contain enough expertise to perform on-line system identification and thus be able to adapt the controllers accordingly with minimal human supervision.

San, Ka-Yiu

1988-01-01

310

A state transition model for rule-based expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation describes a State Transition Model (STM) for building real-time, continuous-operation, transaction-processing expert systems for the maintenance of complex physical systems. An STM enhances the expressiveness of rule-based systems by making control knowledge explicit. The author has augmented the traditional rule-based production system architecture with a state transition model to develop a framework for building hybrid expert systems. The

Dube

1989-01-01

311

Rule-based expert systems in strategic market management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic market management (SMM) is the process of establishing a sustainable competitive advantage. Essential cause-effect relationships in SMM are mostly logical, the problem-solving semi- or unstructured, and available knowledge mostly imprecise and incomplete. Recent studies have shown that expert systems show significant promise for improving the basis and conceptual framework for decision-making in a strategic market management context. Expert systems

P. Walden

1992-01-01

312

Alarm calls elicit predator-specific physiological responses  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids regulate glucose concentrations and responses to unpredictable events, while also modulating cognition. Juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) learn to respond to whistle and trill alarm calls, warning of aerial and terrestrial predators, respectively, shortly after emerging from natal burrows at one month of age. Alarm calls can cause physiological reactions and arousal, and this arousal, coupled with watching adult responses, might help juveniles learn associations between calls and behavioural responses. I studied whether young show differential cortisol responses to alarm and non-alarm calls, using playbacks of U. beldingi whistles, trills, squeals (a conspecific control vocalization) and silent controls. Trills elicited very high cortisol responses, and, using an individual's response to the silent control as baseline, only their response to a trill was significantly higher than baseline. This cortisol increase would provide glucose for extended vigilance and escape efforts, which is appropriate for evading terrestrial predators which hunt for long periods. Although whistles do not elicit a cortisol response, previous research has shown that they do result in bradycardia, which enhances attention and information processing. This is a novel demonstration of two physiological responses to two alarm calls, each appropriate to the threats represented by the calls.

Mateo, Jill M.

2010-01-01

313

Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life.  

PubMed

A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues. PMID:22008232

Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Brambilla, Paolo; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agostoni, Carlo

2011-12-01

314

Expert control of air-conditioning plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expert controller for air-conditioning plant is developed using a predictive control approach. The design of the predictive control algorithm is based on prior knowledge of the plant and a rule-based supervisor is used to optimize the control performance. A simple model of the air-conditioning system is derived that has parameters which are easily related to the operating conditions of the process. Safety factors are introduced to account for the uncertainty in the prior knowledge and nonlinearities in the plant. Constraints imposed by the operation of the plant are incorporated directly in the control algorithm.

Ling, K. V.; Dexter, A. L.

1994-05-01

315

Implementation of rule-based expert systems for time-critical applications using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of constructing a neural-network-based expert system from a given AND\\/OR inference net is examined. The major purpose of such an approach is to make use of the parallel-processing capabilities of neural networks in implementing expert systems for classifications. In order to provide a clear view of the design process of the proposed neural network expert systems an example

P. A. Ramamoorthy; S. Huang

1989-01-01

316

Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems: Will They Change the Library? Papers Presented at the Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (27th, Urbana, Illinois, March 25-27, 1990). Illinois, March 25-27, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the 12 conference papers presented in this proceedings focus on the present and potential capabilities of artificial intelligence and expert systems as they relate to a wide range of library applications, including descriptive cataloging, technical services, collection development, subject indexing, reference services, database searching,…

Lancaster, F. W., Ed.; Smith, Linda C., Ed.

317

The Appropriateness of Renal Angioplasty. The ANPARIA Software: A Multidisciplinary Expert Panel Approach  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) is an invasive technique that is costly and involves the risk of complications and renal failure. The ability of PTRA to reduce the administration of antihypertensive drugs has been demonstrated. A potentially greater benefit, which nevertheless remains to be proven, is the deferral of the need for chronic dialysis. The aim of the study (ANPARIA) was to assess the appropriateness of PTRA to impact on the evolution of renal function. A standardized expert panel method was used to assess the appropriateness of medical treatment alone or medical treatment with revascularization in various clinical situations. The choice of revascularization by either PTRA or surgery was examined for each clinical situation. Analysis was based on a detailed literature review and on systematically elicited expert opinion, which were obtained during a two-round modified Delphi process. The study provides detailed responses on the appropriateness of PTRA for 1848 distinct clinical scenarios. Depending on the major clinical presentation, appropriateness of revascularization varied from 32% to 75% for individual scenarios (overal 48%). Uncertainty as to revascularization was 41% overall. When revascularization was appropriate, PTRA was favored over surgery in 94% of the scenarios, except in certain cases of aortic atheroma where sugery was the preferred choice. Kidney size >7 cm, absence of coexisting disease, acute renal failure, a high degree of stenosis ({>=}70%), and absence of multiple arteries were identified as predictive variables of favorable appropriateness ratings. Situations such as cardiac failure with pulmonary edema or acute thrombosis of the renal artery were defined as indications for PTRA. This study identified clinical situations in which PTRA or surgery are appropriate for renal artery disease. We built a decision tree which can be used via Internet: the ANPARIA software (http://www.chu-clermontferrand.fr/anpariahttp://www.chu-clermontferrand.fr/anparia/). In numerous clinical situations uncertainty remains as to whether PTRA prevents deterioration of renal function.

Gerbaud, Laurent; Manhes, Geraud; Debourse, Juliette; Gouby, Gerald, E-mail: ggouby@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Glanddier, Phyllis-Yvonne [CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Hotel-Dieu, Service d'epidemiologie, economie de la sante et prevention (France); Vader, John-Paul [Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland); Boyer, Louis, E-mail: lboyer@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Deteix, Patrice [Universite d'Auvergne, Faculte de Medecine (France)

2008-11-15

318

Utilizing expert systems for satellite monitoring and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft analysts in the spacecraft control center for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite are currently utilizing a fault-isolation expert system developed to assist in the isolation and correction of faults in the communications link. This system, the communication link expert assistance resource (CLEAR), monitors real time spacecraft and ground systems performance parameters in search of configuration discrepancies and communications link problems. If such a discrepancy or problem is isolated, CLEAR alerts the analyst and provides advice on how to resolve the problem swiftly and effectively. The CLEAR system is the first real time expert system to be used in the operational environment of a satellite control center at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Clear has not only demonstrated the utility and potential of an expert system in the demanding environment of a satellite control center, but also has revealed many of the pitfalls and deficiencies of development of expert systems. One of the lessons learned from this and other initial expert system projects is that prototypes can often be developed quite rapidly, but operational expert systems require considerable effort. Development is generally a slow, tedious process that typically requires the special skills of trained programmers. Due to the success of CLEAR and several other systems in the control center domain, a large number of expert systems will certainly be developed to support control center operations during the early 1990's. To facilitate the development of these systems, a project was initiated to develop an integrated, domain-specific tool, the generic spacecraft analyst assistent (GenSAA), that alows the spacecraft analysts to rapidly create simple expert systems themselves. By providing a highly graphical point-and-select method of system development, GenSAA allows the analyst to utilize and/or modify previously developed rule bases and system components; thus, facilitating software reuse and reducing development time and effort.

Hughes, Peter M.

1991-01-01

319

Experts bodies, experts minds: How physical and mental training shape the brain  

PubMed Central

Skill learning is the improvement in perceptual, cognitive, or motor performance following practice. Expert performance levels can be achieved with well-organized knowledge, using sophisticated and specific mental representations and cognitive processing, applying automatic sequences quickly and efficiently, being able to deal with large amounts of information, and many other challenging task demands and situations that otherwise paralyze the performance of novices. The neural reorganizations that occur with expertise reflect the optimization of the neurocognitive resources to deal with the complex computational load needed to achieve peak performance. As such, capitalizing on neuronal plasticity, brain modifications take place over time-practice and during the consolidation process. One major challenge is to investigate the neural substrates and cognitive mechanisms engaged in expertise, and to define “expertise” from its neural and cognitive underpinnings. Recent insights showed that many brain structures are recruited during task performance, but only activity in regions related to domain-specific knowledge distinguishes experts from novices. The present review focuses on three expertise domains placed across a motor to mental gradient of skill learning: sequential motor skill, mental simulation of the movement (motor imagery), and meditation as a paradigmatic example of “pure” mental training. We first describe results on each specific domain from the initial skill acquisition to expert performance, including recent results on the corresponding underlying neural mechanisms. We then discuss differences and similarities between these domains with the aim to identify the highlights of the neurocognitive processes underpinning expertise, and conclude with suggestions for future research.

Debarnot, Ursula; Sperduti, Marco; Di Rienzo, Franck; Guillot, Aymeric

2014-01-01

320

ELICIT Multistrike: Adapting ELICIT to Study Collaboration and Decision Making for Time-Sensitive Strikes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long distance collaboration is an increasingly important aspect of command and control (C2). It is not always possible, or desirable, for all relevant experts and decision makers to be collocated during time-sensitive missions. However, geographic distanc...

J. Ockerman M. Thomas N. Bos N. Koterba W. Fitzpatrick

2011-01-01

321

IRES: image retrieval expert system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image Retrieval Expert System (IRES), a knowledge-based system for automatic image retrieval, is being prototyped at the University of Arizona (U of A). IRES is to couple with the distributed database system designed for Structured PACS (S-PACS)1 to achieve the high system performance required by radiologists. IRES encompasses the "intelligence" of multiple expert radiologists. The system will predict and migrate the "old" images needed for comparison purposes during radiological exam readings from slower or remote storage devices to the local buffers of workstations. The use of IRES with the PACS Distributed Database System (DDBS) is expected to shorten the PACS system response time, save the time of radiologists in selecting films, minimize the turnaround time of the exam interpretation function, and increase diagnostic effectiveness by providing relevant images automatically. This paper presents the implementation details of this IRES prototype.

Liu Sheng, Olivia R.; Wang, Hui-Chin; Garcia, Hong-Mei C.

1990-08-01

322

The neural organization of perception in chess experts.  

PubMed

The human visual system responds to expertise, and it has been suggested that regions that process faces also process other objects of expertise including chess boards by experts. We tested whether chess and face processing overlap in brain activity using fMRI. Chess experts and novices exhibited face selective areas, but these regions showed no selectivity to chess configurations relative to other stimuli. We next compared neural responses to chess and to scrambled chess displays to isolate areas relevant to expertise. Areas within the posterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex, and right temporal cortex were active in this comparison in experts over novices. We also compared chess and face responses within the posterior cingulate and found this area responsive to chess only in experts. These findings indicate that the configurations in chess are not strongly processed by face-selective regions that are selective for faces in individuals who have expertise in both domains. Further, the area most consistently involved in chess did not show overlap with faces. Overall, these results suggest that expert visual processing may be similar at the level of recognition, but need not show the same neural correlates. PMID:21635936

Krawczyk, Daniel C; Boggan, Amy L; McClelland, M Michelle; Bartlett, James C

2011-07-20

323

Ask the Experts -- December 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experts give their "spin" on physical science concepts as they answer the question, "What does "spin" refer to in particle physics? Why is this concept necessary?" and "My physics teacher tells me that when I go around a sharp curve in my car, there is no force causing me to move away from the center of curvature. So what is happening to make me feel as if I am sliding toward the outside?

2005-12-01

324

ATS displays: A reasoning visualization tool for expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reasoning visualization is a useful tool that can help users better understand the inherently non-sequential logic of an expert system. While this is desirable in most all expert system applications, it is especially so for such critical systems as those destined for space-based operations. A hierarchical view of the expert system reasoning process and some characteristics of these various levels is presented. Also presented are Abstract Time Slice (ATS) displays, a tool to visualize the plethora of interrelated information available at the host inferencing language level of reasoning. The usefulness of this tool is illustrated with some examples from a prototype potable water expert system for possible use aboard Space Station Freedom.

Selig, William John; Johannes, James D.

1990-01-01

325

Genetic medicine: an experiment in community-expert interaction.  

PubMed Central

This project tested a two-way model of communication between lay groups and experts about genetic medicine in Perth, Western Australia. Focus group discussion with community group participants was followed by a communication workshop between community group participants and experts. Four groups of concerns or themes emerged from discussion: clinical considerations; legislative concerns; research priorities, and ethical and wider considerations. Community group concerns are not always met by the actions of "experts". This is, in part, because of the differing life-worlds of each group. However, the communication workshop showed the potential of two-way communication for both lay and expert members in understanding the others' viewpoint. Further, the approach developed here offers one possible way for community groups to participate in a substantial way in policy formulation processes.

Schibeci, R; Barns, I; Shaw, R; Davison, A

1999-01-01

326

Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

Kreinovich, Vladik

1993-01-01

327

Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.  

PubMed

Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings. PMID:22420229

Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

2011-01-01

328

Parasympathetic Stimulation Elicits Cerebral Vasodilatation in Rat  

PubMed Central

Forebrain arteries receive nitroxidergic input from parasympathetic ganglionic fibers that arise from the pterygopalatine ganglia. Previous studies have shown that ganglionic stimulation in some species led to cerebral vasodilatation while interruption of those fibers interfered with vasodilatation seen during acute hypertension. Because the ganglionic fibers are quite delicate and are easily damaged when the ganglia are approached with published techniques we sought to develop a method that allowed clear exposure of the ganglia and permitted demonstration of cerebral vasodilatation with electrical stimulation of the ganglia in the rat. We had found that an orbital approach during which the eye was retracted for visualization of the ganglion precluded eliciting vasodilatation with ganglionic stimulation. In the current study approaching the ganglion through an incision over the zygomatic arch provided clear exposure of the ganglion and stimulation of the ganglion with that approach led to vasodilatation.

Talman, William T.; Corr, Julie; Dragon, Deidre Nitschke; Wang, DeQiang

2010-01-01

329

Parasympathetic stimulation elicits cerebral vasodilatation in rat.  

PubMed

Forebrain arteries receive nitroxidergic input from parasympathetic ganglionic fibers that arise from the pterygopalatine ganglia. Previous studies have shown that ganglionic stimulation in some species led to cerebral vasodilatation while interruption of those fibers interfered with vasodilatation seen during acute hypertension. Because the ganglionic fibers are quite delicate and are easily damaged when the ganglia are approached with published techniques we sought to develop a method that allowed clear exposure of the ganglia and permitted demonstration of cerebral vasodilatation with electrical stimulation of the ganglia in the rat. We had found that an orbital approach during which the eye was retracted for visualization of the ganglion precluded eliciting vasodilatation with ganglionic stimulation. In the current study approaching the ganglion through an incision over the zygomatic arch provided clear exposure of the ganglion and stimulation of the ganglion with that approach led to vasodilatation. PMID:17275420

Talman, William T; Corr, Julie; Nitschke Dragon, Deidre; Wang, DeQiang

2007-05-30

330

Assessing pragmatic skills in elicited production.  

PubMed

In developing a test of pragmatic skills for children ages 4 to 9 years, we focused on a number of functional language skills that are important for children's success in early schooling and for the development of fluent reading and writing. They included (1) wh-question asking, (2) communicative role taking, (3) linking events in a cohesive narrative, and (4) articulating the mental states of the characters in a story. All of the proposed items provide specific referential support and pragmatic motivation for the forms and content to be produced by the child. The pictured materials and elicitation prompts constrain the range of appropriate utterances, so the children's productions are more easily scored than an open-ended spontaneous speech sample. All tasks described show a clear developmental trend, a clear separation between the performance of typically developing and language-impaired children, and no performance differences between African American English- and Mainstream American English-speaking children. PMID:15088233

de Villiers, Peter

2004-02-01

331

Mylohyoid late responses elicited with intraoral stimulation.  

PubMed

Many disorders affect the trigeminal nerve, highlighting the need for electrodiagnostic methods to evaluate this cranial nerve. The purpose of this study was to develop and refine clinical nerve conduction techniques for examining mylohyoid late responses and to establish normative clinical data. Intraoral stimulation of the mylohyoid nerve was performed on normal volunteers using a pediatric stimulator taped to a tongue depressor. Mylohyoid direct and late responses were recorded with surface electrodes over the mylohyoid muscles. Mylohyoid late responses with supraorbital nerve stimulation and blink reflexes were also elicited. Fifty-four subjects, 65% females, with an average age of 39.2 (standard deviation, 13.4) yr, were studied. Direct mylohyoid responses were elicited in all subjects with a mean of 1.8 (standard deviation, 0.3) ms and amplitude of 4.1 (standard deviation, 1.4) mV. Late responses occurred in 94% ipsilaterally at an average latency of 32.4 (standard deviation, 6.5) ms and in 90% contralaterally at 32.4 (standard deviation, 5.6) ms. Two distinct late responses, the second occurring at an average of 72.3 (standard deviation, 12.4) ms with intraoral stimulation were noted in 25% of subjects. Only 11% of subjects had mylohyoid late responses with supraorbital stimulation. Blink (R1) reflexes occurred in 89% (10.9 ms; standard deviation, 0.7 ms), ipsilateral R2 responses in 88% (35.2 ms; standard deviation, 3.4 ms), and contralateral R2 responses in 69% (36.2 ms; standard deviation, 4.0 ms). Mylohyoid late responses are present in most normal subjects. The neuroanatomical pathways mediating these responses require delineation. These nerve conduction techniques may be useful in evaluating patients with suspected trigeminal nerve disorders. PMID:9923423

Dillingham, T R

1999-01-01

332

Hindlimb unloading elicits anhedonia and sympathovagal imbalance.  

PubMed

The hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rat model elicits cardiovascular deconditioning and simulates the physiological adaptations to microgravity or prolonged bed rest in humans. Although psychological deficits have been documented following bed rest and spaceflight in humans, few studies have explored the psychological effects of cardiovascular deconditioning in animal models. Given the bidirectional link established between cardiac autonomic imbalance and psychological depression in both humans and in animal models, we hypothesized that hindlimb unloading would elicit an alteration in sympathovagal tone and behavioral indexes of psychological depression. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats confined to 14 days of HU displayed anhedonia (a core feature of human depression) compared with casted control (CC) animals evidenced by reduced sucrose preference (CC: 81 +/- 2.9% baseline vs. HU: 58 +/- 4.5% baseline) and reduced (rightward shift) operant responding for rewarding electrical brain stimulation (CC: 4.4 +/- 0.3 muA vs. 7.3 +/- 1.0 muA). Cardiac autonomic blockade revealed elevated sympathetic [CC: -54 +/- 14.1 change in (Delta) beats/min vs. HU: -118 +/- 7.6 Delta beats/min] and reduced parasympathetic (CC: 45 +/- 11.8 Delta beats/min vs. HU: 8 +/- 7.3 Delta beats/min) cardiac tone in HU rats. Heart rate variability was reduced (CC: 10 +/- 1.4 ms vs. HU: 7 +/- 0.7 ms), and spectral analysis of blood pressure indicated loss of total, low-, and high-frequency power, consistent with attenuated baroreflex function. These data indicate that cardiovascular deconditioning results in sympathovagal imbalance and behavioral signs consistent with psychological depression. These findings further elucidate the pathophysiological link between cardiovascular diseases and affective disorders. PMID:18635876

Moffitt, Julia A; Grippo, Angela J; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-10-01

333

Application of an expert system to optimize reservoir performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main challenge of oil displacement by an injected fluid, such as in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes, is to reduce the cost and improve reservoir performance. An optimization methodology, combined with an economic model, is implemented into an expert system to optimize the net present value of full field development with an EOR process. The approach is automated and

Ridha Gharbi

2005-01-01

334

Small expert systems as intelligent modules of programmable logic controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors deal with the possibility of and the benefits from building a small rule-based expert system which can be incorporated in a programmable logic controller (PLC) intelligent control module to provide simultaneous and efficient processing of both logic control problems and special feedback control tasks. The required exchange of information between the module and either the process or the

S. A. Manesis; A. J. Grammaticos

1992-01-01

335

Ontological leveling and elicitation for complex industrial transactions  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an agent-oriented mechanism that uses a central ontology as a means to conduct complex distributed transactions. This is done by instantiating a template object motivated solely by the ontology, then automatically and explicitly linking each temple element to an independently constructed interface component. Validation information is attached directly to the links so that the agent need not know a priori the semantics of data validity, merely how to execute a general validation process to satisfy the conditions given in the link. Ontological leveling is critical: all terms presented to informants must be semantically coherent within the central ontology. To illustrate this approach in an industrial setting, they discuss an existing implementation that conducted international commercial transactions on the World-Wide Web. Agents operating within a federated architecture construct, populate by Web-based elicitation, and manipulate a distributed composite transaction object to effect transport of goods over the US/Mexico border.

Phillips, L.R.; Goldsmith, S.Y.; Spires, S.V.

1998-11-01

336

A Method of Elicitation Teaching for Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To counter the problems existing in the process of object-oriented analysis and design teaching, the application necessity of the society and the status of the present IT intellectuals, this article points out a method of elicitation teaching for object-oriented analysis and design curriculum. And after application, the result shows that it can sufficiency motivate the students' studying enthusiasm and improve

Huiqiang Lin; Caixing Liu; Piyuan Lin

2008-01-01

337

Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

2011-01-01

338

Conformational Nature of the Borrelia burgdorferi Decorin Binding Protein A Epitopes That Elicit Protective Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decorin binding protein A (DbpA) has been shown by several laboratories to be a protective antigen for the prevention of experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection in the mouse model of Lyme borreliosis. However, different recombinant forms of the antigen having either lipidated amino termini, approximating the natural secretion and posttranslational processing, or nonprocessed cytosolic forms have elicited disparate levels of protection

NANCY D. ULBRANDT; DAVID R. CASSATT; NITA K. PATEL; WILLIAM C. ROBERTS; CHRISTINE M. BACHY; CHRISTINE A. FAZENBAKER; MARK S. HANSON

2001-01-01

339

EEG activities during elicited sleep onset REM and NREM periods reflect different mechanisms of dream generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To be the first to compare EEG power spectra during sleep onset REM periods (SOREMP) and sleep onset NREM periods (NREMP) in normal individuals and relate this to dream appearance processes underlying these different types of sleep periods. Methods: Eight healthy undergraduates spent 7 consecutive nights in the sleep lab including 4 nights for SOREMP elicitation using the Sleep

Tomoka Takeuchi; Robert D. Ogilvie; Timothy I. Murphy; Anthony V. Ferrellie

340

EEG activities during elicited sleep onset REM and NREM periods reflect different mechanisms of dream generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To be the first to compare EEG power spectra during sleep onset REM periods (SOREMP) and sleep onset NREM periods (NREMP) in normal individuals and relate this to dream appearance processes underlying these different types of sleep periods.Methods: Eight healthy undergraduates spent 7 consecutive nights in the sleep lab including 4 nights for SOREMP elicitation using the Sleep Interruption

Tomoka Takeuchi; Robert D Ogilvie; Timothy I Murphy; Anthony V Ferrelli

2003-01-01

341

Expert System Model Using Predicate Transition Nets,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Predicate Transition Net model of expert systems with fuzzy logic is proposed as a means for dealing with uncertainty. Attention is focused on consultant expert systems which use the production rules formalism to represent knowledge. Models of the basic...

D. M. Perdu A. H. Levis

1988-01-01

342

An expert system for restructurable control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work in progrss on an expert system which restructures and tunes control systems online in real-time is presented. The expert system coordinates the different methods involved in redesigning and implementing the control strategies due to plant changes.

Litt, Jonathan

1988-01-01

343

Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

Olmstadt, William J.

2000-01-01

344

Mine detection training based on expert skill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies show that soldiers' mine detection capabilities with the PSS-12 hand-held detector are substandard and that their probabilities of detecting (PD) low-metal mines are dangerously low. Highly experienced PSS-12 operators, however, achieve PDS over 0.90 on high- and low-metal anti- tank (AT) and anti-personnel (AP) mines. Significantly, experts' detection techniques differ from conventional military PSS-12 operating procedures. We report three studies investigating whether instruction based on expert skill could bridge the observed performance gap. Basic research on human expertise has shown that instruction based on detailed scientific analyses of experts' behaviors and thought processes boosts skill acquisition dramatically. These studies tested the effects of an experimental detection training program based on knowledge and techniques learned from analysis of PSS-12 expertise. In Study I soldiers who had completed standard mine detection training participated as operators/trainees. This experiment used a pretest-posttest design. Mine simulants served as targets in testing gand training. Targets simulate d5 different mines and represented high- and low-metal AT and AP mine types. Pretest performance failed to distinguish the treatment and control groups. Both achieved very low PDs on low metal mines. Treatment-group soldiers then received approximately 15 hours of experimental, hands-on training. Posttest results showed that the treatment groups PD on minimal metal targets was more than 6 times that of the control group. Study 2 tested a subset of the treated soldiers in the same setting, now wearing body armor. Results replicated those of Study 1. Study 3 tested treatment group soldiers on real mine targets. Several mines from each mine type were used. The surface of the test lanes was expected to increase detection difficulty. Soldiers nonetheless achieved an aggregate PD of 0.97 and showed significant improvement in detecting low-metal mines.

Staszewski, James J.; Davison, Alan

2000-08-01

345

Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

1989-01-01

346

Explanation production by expert planners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the explanation capability of expert systems is usually listed as one of the distinguishing characteristics of these systems, the explanation facilities of most existing systems are quite primitive. Computer generated explanations are typically produced from canned text or by direct translation of the knowledge structures. Explanations produced in this manner bear little resemblance to those produced by humans for similar tasks. The focus of our research in explanation is the production of justifications for decisions by expert planning systems. An analysis of justifications written by people for planning tasks has been taken as the starting point. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. First, analysis of the information content of the justifications will provide a basis for deciding what knowledge must be represented if human-like justifications are to be produced. Second, an analysis of the textual organization of the justifications will be used in the development of a mechanism for selecting and organizing the knowledge to be included in a computer-produced explanation. This paper describes a preliminary analysis done of justifications written by people for a planning task. It is clear that these justifications differ significantly from those that would be produced by an expert system by tracing the firing of production rules. The results from the text analysis have been used to develop an augmented phrase structured grammar (APSG) describing the organization of the justifications. The grammar was designed to provide a computationally feasible method for determining textual organization that will allow the necessary information to be communicated in a cohesive manner.

Bridges, Susan; Jhannes, James D.

1988-01-01

347

Expert system for train control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The train energy model (TEM), a general train simulator developed at the Association of American Railroads, is widely used in the railroad industry. Recently, a new train controller, the general automatic train-controller (GAT), has been developed for TEM. In the GAT, the 'intelligence' or 'expertise' is a set of 'if-then' train-handling rules in an external file. The expert system for train control presented in this paper is a slightly simplified version of the GAT. The main thesis of this paper is: simple, unchained rules are adequate for complex train control. Thus, an 'inference engine' using forward chaining is not required.

Drish, William F.

1995-08-01

348

Expert systems in logistics: an application to bulk cargo movement  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation assesses the contribution expert systems could make to transportation research and practice, addressing particularly the issues of preserving and disseminating heuristic procedures used by management in logistics. The work focuses on the analysis of the opportunity for, and the potential benefits of, applying expert-system technology to transportation management, and stresses the use of microcomputers as the most suitable option for future activity in expert-system development. A case study was included to validate the analyses and conclusions drawn from the research. Findings demonstrate that the benefits expected from this expert-system application are attainable through its real-life implementation. They also indicate that expert systems can be effectively applied to formalize the heuristics used to perform transportation procurement activities, in order to substantially increase productivity in decision making, and to complement and enhance methods and efforts used in training activities. Expert-system tools may be thought of as worthy, feasible options for helping the process of decision making in transportation- and logistics-related activities.

Braun, A.O.

1987-01-01

349

An Expert System for Miscible Gasflooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The input data sets for compositional simulators include a large number of parameters that must be assigned carefully to represent the petroleum reservoir with an appropriate model and to make accurate and efficient simulations. With emerging expert-system technology, The University of Texas Input Parameter Selection Expert System (UTINPUT) has been developed on a workstation using NEXPERT OBJECT, an expert-system shell.

S. A. Khan; G. A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

1993-01-01

350

KASER: knowledge amplification by structured expert randomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper and attached video, we present a third-generation expert system named Knowledge Amplification by Structured Expert Randomization (KASER) for which a patent has been filed by the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, CA (SSC SD). KASER is a creative expert system. It is capable of deductive, inductive, and mixed derivations. Its qualitative creativity is realized by

Stuart Harvey Rubin; S. N. Jayaram Murthy; Michael H. Smith; Ljiljana Trajkovic

2004-01-01

351

Rethinking Expert Testimony in Education Rights Litigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Courts often rely on the testimony of experts to understand arguments and implications in education rights litigation. But expert testimony, and statistical testimony in particular, can offer a false sense of security for the unwary. This article uses expert testimony offered in two recent desegregation cases to consider whether sufficient…

Welner, Kevin G.; Kupermintz, Haggai

2004-01-01

352

Generalized vague soft expert set theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of generalized vague soft expert set and its operations are studied. Also, the multi-opinion of generalized vague soft expert set in a decision making problem with uncertainty is introduced. The basic operations of generalized vague soft expert set theory, namely, complement, subset, union, intersection, "AND" and "OR" operations are defined.

Alhazaymeh, Khaleed; Hassan, Nasruddin

2013-11-01

353

A middle man approach to knowledge acquisition in expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Weed Control Advisor (WCA) is a robust expert system that has been successfully implemented on an IBM AT class microcomputer in CLIPS. The goal of the WCA was to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an economical, efficient, user friendly system through which Texas rice producers could obtain expert level knowledge regarding herbicide application for weed control. During the development phase of the WCA, an improved knowledge acquisition method which we call the Middle Man Approach (MMA) was applied to facilitate the communication process between the domain experts and the knowledge engineer. The MMA served to circumvent the problems associated with the more traditional forms of knowledge acquisition by placing the Middle Man, a semi-expert in the problem domain with some computer expertise, at the site of system development. The middle man was able to contribute to system development in two major ways. First, the Middle Man had experience working in rice production and could assume many of the responsibilities normally performed by the domain experts such as explaining the background of the problem domain and determining the important relations. Second, the Middle Man was familiar with computers and worked closely with the system developers to update the rules after the domain experts reviewed the prototype, contribute to the help menus and explanation portions of the expert system, conduct the testing that is required to insure that the expert system gives the expected results answer questions in a timely way, help the knowledge engineer structure the domain knowledge into a useable form, and provide insight into the end user's profile which helped in the development of the simple user friendly interface. The final results were not only that both time expended and costs were greatly reduced by using the MMA, but the quality of the system was improved. This papa will introduce the WCA system and then discuss traditional knowledge acquisition along with some of the problems often associated with it, the MMA methodology, and its application to the WCA development.

Jordan, Janice A.; Lin, Min-Jin; Mayer, Richard J.; Sterle, Mark E.

1990-01-01

354

Expert scientific judgment and cancer risk assessment: a pilot study of pharmacokinetic data  

SciTech Connect

When high-dose tumor data are extrapolated to low doses, it is typically assumed that the dose of a carcinogen delivered to target cells is proportional to the dose administered to test animals, even at exposure levels below the experimental range. Since pharmacokinetic data are becoming available that in some cases question the validity of this assumption, risk assessors must decide whether to maintain the standard assumption. A pilot study of formaldehyde is reported that was undertaken to demonstrate how expert scientific judgment can help guide a controversial risk assessment where pharmacokinetic data are considered inconclusive. Eight experts on pharmacokinetic data were selected by a formal procedure, and each was interviewed personally using a structured interview protocol. The results suggest that expert scientific opinion is polarized in this case, a situation that risk assessors can respond to with a range of risk characterizations considered biologically plausible by the experts. Convergence of expert opinion is likely in this case if several specific research strategies are executed in a competent fashion. Elicitation of expert scientific judgment is a promising vehicle for evaluating the quality of pharmacokinetic data, expressing uncertainty in risk assessment, and fashioning a research agenda that offers possible forging of scientific consensus.

Hawkins, N.C.; Graham, J.D.

1988-12-01

355

Expert stakeholder attitudes and support for alternative water sources in a groundwater depleted region.  

PubMed

The main objectives of this research were to quantify the risks/benefits and impacts of alternative water sources (AWSs) as perceived by expert stakeholders and to evaluate the overall support for multiple AWSs by expert stakeholders. The St. Johns River (SJR) basin, FL, USA was chosen as a case study for AWSs because it is a fresh groundwater depleted region and there are ongoing activities related to water supply planning. Expert stakeholders included federal, state, and local governments, public utilities, consulting engineering and industry, and environmental and social non-governmental organizations. AWSs under consideration in the SJR basin include surface water, desalination, water reclamation, and water conservation. A two-phase research approach was followed that focused on expert stakeholders. First, an elicitation study was used to identify salient beliefs about AWSs. Open-ended questions were asked about the risks/benefits of AWSs in terms of the three pillars of sustainability: ecological, economic, and human health impacts. Second, an online survey was constructed using beliefs identified during the elicitation study. The online survey was used to quantify attitudes toward and overall support for AWSs. The salient beliefs of expert stakeholders were dominated by the ecological pillar of sustainability. The support of expert stakeholders for AWSs, from least favorable to most favorable, was surface water withdrawals

Boyer, Treavor H; Overdevest, Christine; Christiansen, Lisa; Ishii, Stephanie K L

2012-10-15

356

Shape-specific activation of occipital cortex in an early blind echolocation expert.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that an early-blind echolocating individual (EB) showed robust occipital activation when he identified distant, silent objects based on echoes from his tongue clicks (Thaler, Arnott, & Goodale, 2011). In the present study we investigated the extent to which echolocation activation in EB's occipital cortex reflected general echolocation processing per se versus feature-specific processing. In the first experiment, echolocation audio sessions were captured with in-ear microphones in an anechoic chamber or hallway alcove as EB produced tongue clicks in front of a concave or flat object covered in aluminum foil or a cotton towel. All eight echolocation sessions (2 shapes×2 surface materials×2 environments) were then randomly presented to him during a sparse-temporal scanning fMRI session. While fMRI contrasts of chamber versus alcove-recorded echolocation stimuli underscored the importance of auditory cortex for extracting echo information, main task comparisons demonstrated a prominent role of occipital cortex in shape-specific echo processing in a manner consistent with latent, multisensory cortical specialization. Specifically, relative to surface composition judgments, shape judgments elicited greater BOLD activity in ventrolateral occipital areas and bilateral occipital pole. A second echolocation experiment involving shape judgments of objects located 20° to the left or right of straight ahead activated more rostral areas of EB's calcarine cortex relative to location judgments of those same objects and, as we previously reported, such calcarine activity was largest when the object was located in contralateral hemispace. Interestingly, other echolocating experts (i.e., a congenitally blind individual in Experiment 1, and a late blind individual in Experiment 2) did not show the same pattern of feature-specific echo-processing calcarine activity as EB, suggesting the possible significance of early visual experience and early echolocation training. Together, our findings indicate that the echolocation activation in EB's occipital cortex is feature-specific, and that these object representations appear to be organized in a topographic manner. PMID:23391560

Arnott, Stephen R; Thaler, Lore; Milne, Jennifer L; Kish, Daniel; Goodale, Melvyn A

2013-04-01

357

Expert system validation in prolog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline

1988-01-01

358

ESKAPE/CF: A knowledge-acquisition tool for expert systems using cognitive feedback. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The major bottleneck in the construction of expert systems is the time-consuming process of acquiring knowledge from experts. Automated knowledge acquisition tools have demonstrated the ability to reduce the time required to construct expert system knowledge bases and are supported by both knowledge engineers and experts. However, due to limitations in their underlying psychological paradigms, existing tools may not be well-suited to extracting semantic or procedural knowledge from an expert. This thesis designs and implements an Expert System Knowledge Acquisition and Policy Evaluation tool using Cognitive Feedback (ESKAPE/CF), based on Lens model techniques which have demonstrated effectiveness in capturing policy knowledge. The system is designed to be used interactively by an expert to reduce the historically lengthy interactions with a knowledge engineer. Additionally, the use of cognitive feedback techniques should enable the system to capture expertise that has heretofore been unobtainable by existing knowledge acquisition tools.

Connor, J.W.

1991-03-01

359

An expert system to perform on-line controller tuning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system which tunes a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller on-line for a single-input-single-output multiple-lag process with dead time is described. The expert system examines features of the previous transient responses and their corresponding sets of controller parameters. It determines a new set of controller gains to obtain a more desirable time response. This technique can be used to determine and implement a different set of PID gains for each operating regime and, once in steady state, the system can be used to find optimal parameters for load disturbance rejection. The expert system can be applied to any system of the specified form (aerospace, industrial, etc.) and can be expanded to include additional process models.

Litt, Jonathan S.

1990-01-01

360

System for empirical experimentation with expert knowledge  

SciTech Connect

SEEK is a system which has been developed to give interactive advice about rule refinement during the design of an expert system. The advice takes the form of suggestions for possible experiments in generalizing or specializing rules in an expert model that has been specified based on reasoning rules cited by the expert. Case experience, in the form of stored cases with known conclusions, is used to interactively guide the expert in refining the rules of a model. The design framework of SEEK consists of a tabular model for expressing expert-modeled rules and a general consultation system for applying a model to specific cases. This approach has proven particularly valuable in assisting the expert in a domain where two diagnoses are difficult to distinguish. Examples are given from an expert consultation system being developed for rheumatology. 12 references.

Politakis, P.; Weiss, S.M.

1982-01-01

361

Introducing Forum Theatre to Elicit and Advocate Children's Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eliciting and advocating the voice of the child remains at the heart of international political agenda and also remains a central role for educational psychologists (EPs). Previous research indicates that EPs tend to use language-based methods for eliciting and advocating views of children. However, these approaches are often limited. Taking a…

Hammond, Nick

2013-01-01

362

Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

2010-01-01

363

Cannabis cue-elicited craving and the reward neurocircuitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cue-elicited craving or the intense desire to consume a substance following exposure to a conditioned drug cue is one of the primary behavioral symptoms of substance use disorders (SUDs). While the concept of cue-elicited craving is well characterized in alcohol and other substances of abuse, only recently has it been described in cannabis. A review of the extant literature has

Francesca M. Filbey; Samuel J. DeWitt

364

Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

2008-01-01

365

CRN5EXP: Expert system for statistical quality control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Expert System CRN5EXP is to assist in checking the quality of the coils at two very important mills: Hot Rolling and Cold Rolling in a steel plant. The system interprets the statistical quality control charts, diagnoses and predicts the quality of the steel. Measurements of process control variables are recorded in a database and sample statistics such as the mean and the range are computed and plotted on a control chart. The chart is analyzed through patterns using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) and a forward chaining technique to reach a conclusion about the causes of defects and to take management measures for the improvement of the quality control techniques. The Expert System combines the certainty factors associated with the process control variables to predict the quality of the steel. The paper presents the approach to extract data from the database, the reason to combine certainty factors, the architecture and the use of the Expert System. However, the interpretation of control charts patterns requires the human expert's knowledge and lends to Expert Systems rules.

Hentea, Mariana

1991-01-01

366

Aerothermodynamics of EXPERT Control Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the ESA flight experiment EXPERT the major aerothermodynamic phenomena around two control surfaces and their cavities have been investigated with experimental and numerical methods. The flow upstream of the flap is characterized by Payload 7 of CIRA using heat flux sensors. The instrumentation of the C/SiC flap and cavity will allow measuring the surface temperature, pressure and the heat flux rate using high temperature sensors (Payload 6 of DLR). The rear surface temperature distribution of one of the flaps will be measured with an infrared (IR) camera (Payload 8 of RUAG). This data will be used to compute the front surface heat flux distribution using an inverse method analysis. Characterization tests in the SCIROCCO facility will allow calibrating the complete measurement system and data reduction software, since in contrast to the flight the front surface temperature of the flap will be measured with an additional IR camera of the facility.

Gülhan, A.; Pereira, C.; Di Clemente, M.; Fertig, M.; Vos, J.

2011-08-01

367

Some considerations for the expert witness in cases involving birth defects.  

PubMed

Individuals serving as experts in litigation involving birth defects typically find that their scientific training has not prepared them well. A greater understanding of the choices and pitfalls involved can assist such individuals in promoting the legal process. Experts should carefully evaluate the evidence and should not become involved unless they have the needed expertise. Experts must understand what they will be asked to testify about and be completely comfortable with any positions that they may be asked to support. Experts must obtain the necessary facts, never merely relying on information from the retaining attorney. Experts should not make statements they cannot support, and they must be willing to say, "I don't know." Experts should not merely ignore facts that weaken their positions, but must be willing to take them into account. Although the court may require only that an accused agent be "more likely than not" the cause of a birth defect, experts must use recognized scientific principles, and the judge will decide what evidence is admissible. Experts must be willing to examine enormous amounts of information, and they should be organized, carefully filing information received. Experts must be both willing and able to spend large amounts of time in preparation, consultation, travel, deposition, court, and even "bookkeeping." It should be realized that the expert's role in birth defects litigation is essential, however, and knowledge of what experts should and should not do should aid in the promotion of justice. PMID:8075516

Hood, R D

1994-01-01

368

Affective Monitoring: A Generic Mechanism for Affect Elicitation  

PubMed Central

In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavor to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark

2012-01-01

369

Program for Experimentation With Expert Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CERBERUS is forward-chaining, knowledge-based system program useful for experimentation with expert systems. Inference-engine mechanism performs deductions according to user-supplied rule set. Information stored in intermediate area, and user interrogated only when no applicable data found in storage. Each assertion posed by CERBERUS answered with certainty ranging from 0 to 100 percent. Rule processor stops investigating applicable rules when goal reaches certainty of 95 percent or higher. Capable of operating for wide variety of domains. Sample rule files included for animal identification, pixel classification in image processing, and rudimentary car repair for novice mechanic. User supplies set of end goals or actions. System complexity decided by user's rule file. CERBERUS written in FORTRAN 77.

Engle, S. W.

1986-01-01

370

Probability Encoding of Hydrologic Parameters for Basalt. Elicitation of Expert Opinions from a Panel of Five Consulting Hydrologists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Columbia River basalts underlying the Hanford Site in Washington State are being considered as a possible location for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. To investigate the feasibility of a repository at this site, the hydrologic para...

A. K. Runchal M. W. Merkhofer E. Olmsted J. D. Davis

1984-01-01

371

Elicitation of lignin peroxidase in Streptomyces lividans  

SciTech Connect

Using a novel starch-based medium (DJMM) which elicits high expression of lignin peroxidase (ALiP-P3) from Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, significant levels of ALiP-P3 (between 1135 and 1784 nmol/g cell-min) were excreted by S. lividans TK23, TK24, and TK64 with the supernatants capable of degrading dichlorophenol (these strains were previously reported to produce low levels of LiP). The S. lividans wild-type strains produced 1/9 to 1/6 the cell-specific LiP activity previously detected in S. viridosporus T7A cultures grown in the same starch-based medium; however, by using DJMM to increase the cell density, the volumetric activity of wild-type S. lividans TK23, TK24, and TK64 strains was increased 11- to 20-fold compared to cultivations in a yeast-extract-based medium. Consequently, this increase of LiP production allows the direct analysis of LiP activity in the supernatants of these strains without the need for enzyme concentration through ultrafiltration. Immunoblot analysis verified that a single 56.5 kDa band, secreted by all three strains, was extremely similar in size and immunologic reactivity to the 59.5 kDa ALiP-P3 isoform of S. viridosporus T7A. In addition, Western blot analysis was used to show that a previously cloned 4.1 kb chromosomal fragment of S. viridosporus T7A DNA did not contain the ALiP-P3 structural genes. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Yee, D.C.; Wood, T.K. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1996-08-01

372

NASA ground terminal communication equipment automated fault isolation expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prototype expert systems are described that diagnose the Distribution and Switching System I and II (DSS1 and DSS2), Statistical Multiplexers (SM), and Multiplexer and Demultiplexer systems (MDM) at the NASA Ground Terminal (NGT). A system level fault isolation expert system monitors the activities of a selected data stream, verifies that the fault exists in the NGT and identifies the faulty equipment. Equipment level fault isolation expert systems are invoked to isolate the fault to a Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) level. Input and sometimes output data stream activities for the equipment are available. The system level fault isolation expert system compares the equipment input and output status for a data stream and performs loopback tests (if necessary) to isolate the faulty equipment. The equipment level fault isolation system utilizes the process of elimination and/or the maintenance personnel's fault isolation experience stored in its knowledge base. The DSS1, DSS2 and SM fault isolation systems, using the knowledge of the current equipment configuration and the equipment circuitry issues a set of test connections according to the predefined rules. The faulty component or board can be identified by the expert system by analyzing the test results. The MDM fault isolation system correlates the failure symptoms with the faulty component based on maintenance personnel experience. The faulty component can be determined by knowing the failure symptoms. The DSS1, DSS2, SM, and MDM equipment simulators are implemented in PASCAL. The DSS1 fault isolation expert system was converted to C language from VP-Expert and integrated into the NGT automation software for offline switch diagnoses. Potentially, the NGT fault isolation algorithms can be used for the DSS1, SM, amd MDM located at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

Tang, Y. K.; Wetzel, C. R.

1990-01-01

373

Planning Perspectives by Academic, Business, Lay, and Teacher Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive processes of planning operationalize many of the metacognitive abilities necessary for transfer of knowledge. A telephone survey of 30 adults and Delphi methodology were used to explore the vocabulary and content of the mental representations of the nature and function of planning as perceived by experts in cognitive psychology…

Herbert, Margaret E.; Dionne, Jean-Paul

374

Automated Tools for Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Automated Scoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As automated scoring of complex constructed-response examinations reaches operational status, the process of evaluating the quality of resultant scores, particularly in contrast to scores of expert human graders, becomes as complex as the data itself. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination (ARE), this article explores the…

Williamson, David M.; Bejar, Isaac I.; Sax, Anne

2004-01-01

375

An expert system for dryer selection using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dryer selection can have a major impact on product quality, particularly in the case of thermally sensitive materials such as foodstuffs. This paper discusses some of the principal factors that influence this process. The use of a fuzzy expert system as an aid in the preliminary selection of a batch dryer is described. This incorporates a novel ‘multiple goal’ approach

Haitham M. S. Lababidi; Christopher G. J. Baker

1999-01-01

376

An integrated approach to facilities layout using expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops an expert systems approach to define appropriate layouts of machining facilities under specific combinations of manufacturing and materials handling systems. The knowledge base incorporates six factors relating product variety and quantity, degrees of flexibility, level of automation, materials handling system, work-in-process and environmental considerations. The EXSYS system program has been used to manipulate the knowledge base. The

G. ABDOU; S. P. DUTTA

1990-01-01

377

An expert system that performs a satellite station keepimg maneuver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and characteristics of a prototype expert system, Expert System for Satellite Orbit Control (ESSOC), capable of providing real-time spacecraft system analysis and command generation for a geostationary satellite are described. The ESSOC recommends appropriate commands that reflect both the changing spacecraft condition and previous procedural action. An internal knowledge base stores satellite status information and is updated with processed spacecraft telemetry. Procedural structure data are encoded in production rules. Structural methods of knowledge acquisition and the design and performance-enhancing techniques that enable ESSOC to operate in real time are also considered.

Linesbrowning, M. Kate; Stone, John L., Jr.

1987-01-01

378

Long-term conditions. 3: Being an expert patient.  

PubMed

This third article in the series focusing on long-term conditions explores the patient perspective. Drawing on the experiences of seven people affected by a variety of long-term conditions, it illustrates how the journey towards being an expert patient is often lengthy and traumatic. Pre- and post-diagnosis phases are narrated, and the process of becoming an expert patient described. The articles suggests that there is significant potential for the development of a reciprocal relationship between patients and health professionals framed by mutual learning and advice. PMID:16493308

Mayor, Vina

2006-02-01

379

Neural network based expert system for compressor stall monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research is designed to apply a new information processing technology, artificial neural networks, to monitoring compressor stall. The outputs of neural networks support the dynamic knowledge data base of an expert system. This is the open-loop mode to avoid compressor stall. The integration of a control system with neural networks is the closed-loop mode in stall avoidance. The feasibility of the concept has been demonstrated for the compressor of 16-foot transonic/supersonic propulsion wind tunnels. The construction of a prototpye expert system has been initiated.

Lo, Ching F.; Shi, G. Z.

1991-01-01

380

Model-based expert systems for linac computer controls  

SciTech Connect

The use of machine modeling and beam simulation programs for the control of accelerator operation has become standard practice. The success of a model-based control operation depends on how the parameter to be controlled is measured, how the measured data is analyzed, how the result of the analysis is interpreted, and how a solution is implemented. There is considerable interest in applying expert systems technology that can automate all of these processes. The design of an expert system to control the beam trajectory in linear accelerators will be discussed as an illustration of this approach. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Lee, M.J.

1988-09-01

381

Automatic Scoring of Virtual Mastoidectomies Using Expert Examples  

PubMed Central

Purpose Automatic scoring of resident performance on a virtual mastoidectomy simulation system is needed to achieve consistent and efficient evaluations. By not requiring immediate expert intervention, the system provides a completely objective assessment of performance as well as a self-driven user assessment mechanism. Methods An iconic temporal bone with surgically important regions defined into a fully partitioned segmented dataset was created. Comparisons between expert-drilled bones and student-drilled bones were computed based on gradations with both Euclidean and Earth Mover’s Distance. Using the features derived from these comparisons, a decision tree was constructed. This decision tree was used to determine scores of resident surgical performance. The algorithm was applied on multiple expert comparison bones and the scores averaged to provide reliability metric. Results The reliability metrics for the multi-grade scoring system are better in some cases than previously reported binary classification metrics. The two scoring methods given provide a trade-off between accuracy and speed. Conclusions Comparison of virtually drilled bones with expert examples on a voxel level provides sufficient information to score them and provide several specific quality metrics. By merging scores from different expert examples, two related metrics were developed; one is slightly faster and less accurate, while a second is more accurate but takes more processing time.

Kerwin, Thomas; Wiet, Gregory; Stredney, Don; Shen, Han-Wei

2012-01-01

382

Practical and legal aspects of forensic autopsy expert team operations.  

PubMed

Finnish forensic experts have investigated remains of the victims of alleged mass violence in the former Yugoslavia in 1996 under the mandate of the United Nations, and in 1998 and 1999 under the mandate of the European Union. The investigative documents later were surrendered to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). The indictments issued by the ICTY include charges even against the highest authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This study describes the experience gained in organising forensic expert team operations in a foreign state by the Finnish team. The establishment and operation of a forensic expert team in a foreign state involve, among other things, legal issues, often related to differing legal systems. From an independent forensic expert team, great objectivity and self-constraint are expected. Moreover, a clear and sufficiently detailed agreement on the mandate of the team and on the possibility for unhindered and safe access of the experts to the alleged mass graves, as well as the assembling and briefing of the team members and provision of the necessary equipment should be completed before the beginning of the mission. Furthermore, the application of adequate and internationally recognised methods for processing and documenting the examination is essential for team's credibility. PMID:12935699

Rainio, J; Lalu, K; Ranta, H; Takamaa, K; Penttilä, A

2001-12-01

383

On the Competence and Incompetence of Experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread and unexceptional use of the term “expert” suggests that there is general public acceptance of the validity\\u000a of the concept of an expert. For example, in news reports of particular “specialist” areas such as foreign politics, economics,\\u000a and transport disasters, it is quite routine for particular individuals, presented as experts, to be explicitly consulted,\\u000a and asked for their

Peter Ayton

384

CLEAR: Communications Link Expert Assistance Resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communications Link Expert Assistance Resource (CLEAR) is a real time, fault diagnosis expert system for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission Operations Room (MOR). The CLEAR expert system is an operational prototype which assists the MOR operator/analyst by isolating and diagnosing faults in the spacecraft communication link with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) during periods of realtime data acquisition. The mission domain, user requirements, hardware configuration, expert system concept, tool selection, development approach, and system design were discussed. Development approach and system implementation are emphasized. Also discussed are system architecture, tool selection, operation, and future plans.

Hull, Larry G.; Hughes, Peter M.

1987-01-01

385

Self-assembling influenza nanoparticle vaccines elicit broadly neutralizing H1N1 antibodies.  

PubMed

Influenza viruses pose a significant threat to the public and are a burden on global health systems. Each year, influenza vaccines must be rapidly produced to match circulating viruses, a process constrained by dated technology and vulnerable to unexpected strains emerging from humans and animal reservoirs. Here we use knowledge of protein structure to design self-assembling nanoparticles that elicit broader and more potent immunity than traditional influenza vaccines. The viral haemagglutinin was genetically fused to ferritin, a protein that naturally forms nanoparticles composed of 24 identical polypeptides. Haemagglutinin was inserted at the interface of adjacent subunits so that it spontaneously assembled and generated eight trimeric viral spikes on its surface. Immunization with this influenza nanoparticle vaccine elicited haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres more than tenfold higher than those from the licensed inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, it elicited neutralizing antibodies to two highly conserved vulnerable haemagglutinin structures that are targets of universal vaccines: the stem and the receptor binding site on the head. Antibodies elicited by a 1999 haemagglutinin-nanoparticle vaccine neutralized H1N1 viruses from 1934 to 2007 and protected ferrets from an unmatched 2007 H1N1 virus challenge. This structure-based, self-assembling synthetic nanoparticle vaccine improves the potency and breadth of influenza virus immunity, and it provides a foundation for building broader vaccine protection against emerging influenza viruses and other pathogens. PMID:23698367

Kanekiyo, Masaru; Wei, Chih-Jen; Yassine, Hadi M; McTamney, Patrick M; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Whittle, James R R; Rao, Srinivas S; Kong, Wing-Pui; Wang, Lingshu; Nabel, Gary J

2013-07-01

386

Expert Systems: An Overview for Teacher-Librarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of expert systems for teacher librarians. Highlights include artificial intelligence and expert systems; the development of the MYCIN medical expert system; rule-based expert systems; the use of expert system shells to develop a specific system; and how to select an appropriate application for an expert system. (11 references)…

Orwig, Gary; Barron, Ann

1992-01-01

387

Expert Panel Opinion and Global Sensitivity Analysis for Composite Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite indicators aggregate multi-dimensional processes into simplified concepts often aiming at underpinning the development\\u000a of data-driven narratives for policy consumption. Due to methodological issues, doubts are often raised about the robustness\\u000a of the composite indicators and the significance of the associated policy messages. In this paper we use expert panel information\\u000a (derived from budget allocation and analytic hierarchy process) on

M. Saisana; A. Saltelli

388

Adaptive capture of expert behavior  

SciTech Connect

The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

1994-08-01

389

Environment-Driven Threats Elicitation for Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The popularity and complexity of web application present challenges to the security implementation for web engineering. Threat\\u000a elicitation is an indispensable step for developers to identify the possible threats to the web applications in the early\\u000a phase of software development. In this context, a novel approach is proposed to ease the threats elicitation for web application\\u000a by using a defined

Hui Guan; Weiru Chen; Lin Liu; Hongji Yang

390

The Tacit Dimension of User Tasks: Elicitation and Contextual Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional task-elicitation techniques provide prepared structures for acquiring and representing knowledge about user tasks.\\u000a As different users might perceive work tasks quite differently, normative elicitation and representation schemes do not necessarily\\u000a lead to accurate support of individual users. If the individual perception of tasks should guide the development of user interfaces\\u000a personal constructs have to be taken into account. They

Jeannette Hemmecke; Chris Stary

2006-01-01

391

An Ontological Approach to Requirements Elicitation Technique Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too many systems constructed by the software industry fail to meet users’ needs. Requirements elicitation is the set of activities\\u000a performed to understand users’ needs for a system. Although most texts focus on a few elicitation techniques, there are numerous\\u000a variations of these basic techniques. So, the question arises, how can an analyst understand all these techniques and their\\u000a variations?

Ann M. Hickey; Alan M. Davis

392

Expert Systems and Their Applications in LIS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the components and capabilities of expert systems, discusses the use of such systems in library information applications, and outlines research being done in this area. A project aimed at the development of an expert system for referral services is described in detail, and implications for future research are discussed. (CLB)

Vickery, Alina; Brooks, Helen

1987-01-01

393

Expert systems: The cold fusion of marketing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a tremendous interest in the development and use of expert systems (ES), and marketing activities have not been immune to such enthusiasm. The degree of enthusiasm expressed is often strongly at variance with reality. The purpose of this paper is to give a moderating view on the role of expert systems in marketing.The paper begins with a

Chris Dubelaar; Paul N. Finlay; David Taylor

1991-01-01

394

Expert Holistic Nurses’ Advice to Nursing Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purposes of this study were to describe the advice that expert holistic nurses gave to nursing students regarding the theory and practice of holistic nursing and to describe nursing students’ experience and perceptions of their interaction with the experts. Design: This was a qualitative descriptive study. Methods: Nursing students who attended the 2008 and 2009 conferences of the

Glenda Christiaens; Jo Ann Abegglen; Andrea Gardner

2010-01-01

395

Knowledge-based expert systems for manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 33 papers. Some of the titles are: Object-oriented modeling of robot hands; Rule-based derivation for kinematic design; Construction techniques for factory floor expert systems; The analysis of complex manufacturing data using expert diagnostic browsing; and Applying linguistic knowledge to engineering notes.

Lu, S.C.Y.; Komanduri, R.

1987-01-01

396

Expert System Rules from CAD Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert systems are attractive for a variety of plant fault diagnosis applications because of their use of symbolic reasoning to narrow possibilities quickly. Programming expert systems, however, requires a manual, post hoc analysis of fault conditions. This paper presents a conceptual design for translating CAD databases in a format called Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) into diagnostic rule bases. The

William G. Beazley

1986-01-01

397

Online Islamic Medication Expert Systems (OIMES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose an overview framework for the design and implementation of online rule-based Expert Systems for Islamic medication. This Online Islamic Medication Expert Systems (OIMES) focuses on physical and inner illnesses. The knowledge base of the proposed ES shall contain exhaustively the types of illness or sickness together with their related cures or treatments\\/therapies, obtained exclusively from the Quran

Hanita Bt Daud; Low Tan Jung; Rohiza Ahmad

2008-01-01

398

An expert system for restructurable control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work in progress on an expert system which restructures and tunes control systems on-line is presented. The expert system coordinates the different methods for redesigning and implementing the control strategies due to system changes. The research is directed toward aircraft and jet engine applications. The implementation is written in LISP and is currently running on a special purpose LISP machine.

Litt, Jonathan

1988-01-01

399

Expert system technology for the military  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the applications of expert systems to complex military problems. A brief description of needs for expert systems in the military arena is given. A short tutorial on some of the elements of an expert system is found in Appendix I. An important aspect of expert systems concerns using uncertain information and ill-defined procedures. Many of the general techniques of dealing with uncertainty are described in Appendix II. These techniques include Bayesian certainty factors, Dempster-Shafer theory of uncertainty, and Zadeh's fuzzy set theory. The major portion of the paper addresses specific expert system examples such as resource allocation, identification of radar images, maintenance and troubleshooting of electronic equipment, and the interpretation and understanding of radar images. Extensions of expert systems to incorporate learning are examined in the context of military intelligence to determine the disposition, location, and intention of the adversary. The final application involves the use of distributed communicating cooperating expert systems for battle management. Finally, the future of expert systems and their evolving capabilities are discussed.

Franklin, J.E.; Carmody, C.L.; Buteau, B.L.; Keller, K.; Levitt, T.S.

1988-10-01

400

Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

2004-01-01

401

Expert system interaction with existing analysis codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling expert systems with existing engineering analysis codes is a promising area in the field of artificial intelligence. The added intelligence can provide for easier and less costly use of the code and also reduce the potential for code misuse. This paper will discuss the methods available to allow interaction between an expert system and a large analysis code running

V. H. Ransom; R. K. Fink; W. J. Bertch; R. A. Callow

1986-01-01

402

Student Revision with Peer and Expert Reviewing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study we found that students receiving feedback from multiple peers improve their writing quality more than students receiving feedback from a single expert. The present study attempted to explain that finding by analyzing the feedback types provided by experts and peers, how that feedback was related to revisions, and how revisions…

Cho, Kwangsu; MacArthur, Charles

2010-01-01

403

Predicting the World Cup 2002 in soccer: Performance and confidence of experts and non-experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the forecasting performance and confidence of experts and non-experts. 251 participants with four different levels of knowledge of soccer (ranging between expertise and almost ignorance) took part in a survey and predicted the outcome of the first round of World Cup 2002. The participating experts (i.e., sport journalists, soccer fans, and soccer coaches) and the non-experts were

Patric Andersson; Jan Edman; Mattias Ekman

2005-01-01

404

Experts in Fast-Ball Sports Reduce Anticipation Timing Cost by Developing Inhibitory Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between expertise in movement correction and rate of movement reprogramming within limited time periods, and to clarify the specific cognitive processes regarding superior reprogramming ability in experts. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in baseball experts (n = 7) and…

Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mori, Shiro

2012-01-01

405

TKR-tool: An Expert System for Total Knee Replacement Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

TKR-tool is an expert system for Total Knee Replacement that gives advice and assists patient management at every stage of the TKR process from preoperatory and postoperatory evaluation to patient follow-up. The system uses temporal reasoning to manage the patient's history. Expert system advise includes patient category and scoring according to different studies, accurate parameters for TKR surgery success, postoperatory

J. Heras; Ramón P. Otero

1995-01-01

406

The Differential Influence of Decision Characteristics on the Information Acquisition of Expert and Novice Decision Makers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine how task and environmental characteristics differentially affectthe decision processes of novice and expert decision makers. Specifically, we consider howdecision importance, accountability and complexity influence the information acquisitionprocesses of manager and student subjects in a strategic business decision task. Based on priorresearch on expert decision making, we formulate hypotheses about whether these three decisioncharacteristics will affect

Bruce R. Klemz

407

DEVELOPMENT OF A FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEM FOR THE SELECTION OF BATCH DRYERS FOR FOODSTUFFS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of dryers is an art in which knowledge, experience and science all play important roles. Historically, dryer selection has been made by experts on the basis of their extensive knowledge. However, in recent years, computer-based techniques have been developed, which have the potential of at least partially deskilling this process. Of the various possibilities, fuzzy expert systems, in

C. G. J. BAKER; H. M. S. LABABIDI

2000-01-01

408

Implementation and results of a prototype expert system on strategic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expertise and experience are key factors for experts in strategic analysis in order to give advice on strategic matters such as the strength or the competitive position of an enterprise. They are able to reason with uncertain or incomplete knowledge. Expert systems may be able to do the same if this heuristic knowledge can be modeled and processed properly. This

Swaan Arons de H; Philip Waalewijn; Magali Flaes

1998-01-01

409

An expert system for screening enhanced oil recovery methods  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates how a small expert system can be written with inexpensive shells (CLIPS and EXSHELL) and run on inexpensive personal computers. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based system written in the C language. Rules are entered in a LISP-like format. EXSHELL is a backward-chaining rule-based system written in the PROLOG language. These shells were used to write a small expert system, an expert assistant, which is used to help petroleum engineers screen possible enhanced oil recovery candidate processes. Though the final candidate process is selected on the basis of an economic evaluation, the expert assistant greatly reduces the amount of work involved. The system selects the optimal collection of paths to the solutions and is easily updated as new data become available. This paper also demonstrates the utility and ease of use of these inexpensive shells, compares the approach used by each, and demonstrates the relative advantages of forward-chaining versus backward-chaining for this problem. 11 refs.

Parkinson, W.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Luger, G.F. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Bretz, R.E.; Osowski, J.J. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (USA). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

1990-01-01

410

Repeated stimuli elicit diminished high-gamma electrocorticographic responses.  

PubMed

In the phenomenon of repetition suppression (RS), when a person views a stimulus, the neural activity involved in processing that item is relatively diminished if that stimulus had been previously viewed. Previous noninvasive imaging studies mapped the prevalence of RS for different stimulus types to identify brain regions involved in representing a range of cognitive information. However, these noninvasive findings are challenging to interpret because they do not provide information on how RS relates to the brain's electrophysiological activity. We examined the electrophysiological basis of RS directly using brain recordings from implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrodes in neurosurgical patients. Patients performed a memory task during ECoG recording and we identified high-gamma signals (65-128 Hz) that distinguished the neuronal representation of specific memory items. We then compared the neural representation of each item between novel and repeated viewings. This revealed the presence of RS, in which the neuronal representation of a repeated item had a significantly decreased amplitude and duration compared with novel stimuli. Furthermore, the magnitude of RS was greatest for the stimuli that initially elicited the largest activation at each site. These results have implications for understanding the neural basis of RS and human memory by showing that individual cortical sites exhibit the largest RS for the stimuli that they most actively represent. PMID:23867555

Rodriguez Merzagora, Anna; Coffey, Thomas J; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Litt, Brian; Baltuch, Gordon; Jacobs, Joshua

2014-01-15

411

Microbial community changes elicited by exposure to cyanobacterial allelochemicals.  

PubMed

An increasing body of evidence points out that allelopathy may be an important process shaping microbial communities in aquatic ecosystems. Cyanobacteria have well-documented allelopathic properties, mainly derived from the evaluation of the activity of allelopathic extracts or pure compounds towards monocultures of selected target microorganisms. Consequently, little is known regarding the community dynamics of microorganisms associated with allelopathic interactions. In this laboratory-based study, a Microcystis spp.-dominated microbial community from a freshwater lake was exposed, for 15 days, to exudates from the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain LEGE 05292 in laboratory conditions. This cyanobacterium is known to produce the allelochemicals portoamides, which were among the exuded compounds. The community composition was followed (by means of polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and microscopic analyses) and compared to that of a non-exposed situation. Following exposure, clear differences in the community structure were observed, in particular for cyanobacteria and unicellular eukaryotic taxa. Interestingly, distinct Microcystis genotypes present in the community were differentially impacted by the exposure, highlighting the fine-scale dynamics elicited by the exudates. These results support a role for cyanobacterial allelochemicals in the structuring of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:21947429

Leão, Pedro N; Ramos, Vitor; Vale, Micaela; Machado, João P; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

2012-01-01

412

EMMA: The expert system for munition maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expert Missile Maintenance Aid (EMMA) is a first attempt to enhance maintenance of the tactical munition at the field and depot level by using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The ultimate goal of EMMA is to help a novice maintenance technician isolate and diagnose electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical equipment faults to the board/chassis level more quickly and consistently than the best human expert using the best currently available automatic test equipment (ATE). To this end, EMMA augments existing ATE with an expert system that captures the knowledge of design and maintenance experts. The EMMA program is described, including the evaluation of field-level expert system prototypes, the description of several study tasks performed during EMMA, and future plans for a follow-on program. This paper will briefly address several study tasks performed during EMMA. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans for a follow-on program and other areas of concern.

Mullins, Barry E.

1988-01-01

413

Expert systems not only for the Japanese  

SciTech Connect

The fifth generation of computers is under development in Japan. This generation will incorporate an expert system, which is supposed to provide expert information to non-experts, hereby acting like a human brain. The present technological standard and the functioning of such equipment is described. Particular attention is given to the research and development studies for the design, storage and updating of the information centre. Apparently, expert systems are suitable for all specific fields, provided that certain, properly adjusted, rules can be established. In case, the Japanese are successful with their project of the fifth computer generation technology development, the extent and the effect of expert system application will increase radically in future. This development has to be watched by the Europeans most carefully.

Leiffer, J.

1983-06-01

414

CLIPS: An expert system building tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 3,300 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as a basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

Riley, Gary

1991-01-01

415

PSG-EXPERT - AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF SLEEP DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes PSG-EXPERT, an expert system in the domain of sleep disorders exploring polysomnographic data. The developed software tool is addressed from two points of view: (1)- as an integrated environment for the development of diagnosis-oriented expert systems; (2)- as an auxiliary diagnosis tool in the particular domain of sleep disorders. Developed over a Windows platform, this software tool

Ana FRED; Joaquim FILIPE; Markku PARTINEN; Teresa PAIVA

416

A Web-Based Delphi Study for Eliciting Helpful Criteria in the Positive Diagnosis of Hemophagocytic Syndrome in Adult Patients  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of the reactive form of hemophagocytic syndrome in adults remains particularly difficult since none of the clinical or laboratory manifestations are specific. We undertook a study in order to elicit which features constitute helpful criteria for a positive diagnosis. In this Delphi study, the features investigated in the questionnaire and the experts invited to participate in the survey were issued from a bibliographic search. The questionnaire was iteratively proposed to experts via a web-based application with a feedback of the results observed at the preceding Delphi round. Experts were asked to label each investigated criterion in one of the following categories: absolutely required, important, of minor interest, or not assessable in the routine practice environment. A positive consensus was a priori defined as at least 75% answers observed in the categories absolutely required and important. The questionnaire investigated 26 criteria and 24 experts originating from 13 countries participated in the second and final Delphi round. A positive consensus was reached for the nine following criteria: unilineage cytopenia, bicytopenia, pancytopenia, presence of hemophagocytosis pictures on a bone marrow aspirate or on a tissue biopsy, high ferritin level, fever, organomegaly, presence of a predisposing underlying disease, and high level of lactate dehydrogenase. A negative consensus was reached for 13 criteria, and an absence of consensus was observed for 4 criteria. The study constitutes the first initiative to date for defining international guidelines devoted to the positive diagnosis of the reactive form of hemophagocytic syndrome.

Hejblum, Gilles; Lambotte, Olivier; Galicier, Lionel; Coppo, Paul; Marzac, Christophe; Aumont, Cedric; Fardet, Laurence

2014-01-01

417

A web-based delphi study for eliciting helpful criteria in the positive diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome in adult patients.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of the reactive form of hemophagocytic syndrome in adults remains particularly difficult since none of the clinical or laboratory manifestations are specific. We undertook a study in order to elicit which features constitute helpful criteria for a positive diagnosis. In this Delphi study, the features investigated in the questionnaire and the experts invited to participate in the survey were issued from a bibliographic search. The questionnaire was iteratively proposed to experts via a web-based application with a feedback of the results observed at the preceding Delphi round. Experts were asked to label each investigated criterion in one of the following categories: absolutely required, important, of minor interest, or not assessable in the routine practice environment. A positive consensus was a priori defined as at least 75% answers observed in the categories absolutely required and important. The questionnaire investigated 26 criteria and 24 experts originating from 13 countries participated in the second and final Delphi round. A positive consensus was reached for the nine following criteria: unilineage cytopenia, bicytopenia, pancytopenia, presence of hemophagocytosis pictures on a bone marrow aspirate or on a tissue biopsy, high ferritin level, fever, organomegaly, presence of a predisposing underlying disease, and high level of lactate dehydrogenase. A negative consensus was reached for 13 criteria, and an absence of consensus was observed for 4 criteria. The study constitutes the first initiative to date for defining international guidelines devoted to the positive diagnosis of the reactive form of hemophagocytic syndrome. PMID:24710079

Hejblum, Gilles; Lambotte, Olivier; Galicier, Lionel; Coppo, Paul; Marzac, Christophe; Aumont, Cédric; Fardet, Laurence

2014-01-01

418

An incentive approach to eliciting probabilities. Research report  

SciTech Connect

A decision-maker (e.g., the Nuclear Regulatory Commission) seeks an expert's probabilities for uncertain quantities of interest (e.g., a seismologist's forecast of earthquakes), and wants the expert's reward to depend on the accuracy of the predictions. Assume that the expert compares compensation schemes on the basis of the expected utility of the dollar payoffs, and is willing to reveal his utility function for money. A reward is called proper if the expert is never encouraged to state probabilities he does not truly believe. It is strictly proper if he is, in fact, encouraged to state his beliefs. The reward procedure suggested in this paper uses the expert's stated probabilities and utility function to select from a set of possible payoffs. This procedure is always proper, but may not be strictly proper . If the preferred payoff is independent of the outcome whenever the decision-maker and expert agree on the probabilities, then they are said to be jointly risk-averse. (For example, if the decision-maker agrees to play bookie to a risk-averse expert, then they are jointly risk-averse.) In this case, the reward is shown to be strictly proper, as long as they don't disagree too much, so the expert can gain from researching the problem and carefully assessing his probabilities. In addition, the expert would prefer to make the bet more detailed, distinguishing between finer grain events, whenever such detail exposes new differences of opinion.

Shachter, R.D.

1982-07-01

419

Bayesian area-to-point kriging using expert knowledge as informative priors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Area-to-point (ATP) kriging is a common geostatistical framework to address the problem of spatial disaggregation or downscaling from block support observations (BSO) to point support (PoS) predictions for continuous variables. This approach requires that the PoS variogram is known. Without PoS observations, the parameters of the PoS variogram cannot be deterministically estimated from BSO, and as a result, the PoS variogram parameters are uncertain. In this research, we used Bayesian ATP conditional simulation to estimate the PoS variogram parameters from expert knowledge and BSO, and quantify uncertainty of the PoS variogram parameters and disaggregation outcomes. We first clarified that the nugget parameter of the PoS variogram cannot be estimated from only BSO. Next, we used statistical expert elicitation techniques to elicit the PoS variogram parameters from expert knowledge. These were used as informative priors in a Bayesian inference of the PoS variogram from BSO and implemented using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. ATP conditional simulation was done to obtain stochastic simulations at point support. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) atmospheric temperature profile data were used in an illustrative example. The outcomes from the Bayesian ATP inference for the Matérn variogram model parameters confirmed that the posterior distribution of the nugget parameter was effectively the same as its prior distribution; for the other parameters, the uncertainty was substantially decreased when BSO were introduced to the Bayesian ATP estimator. This confirmed that expert knowledge brought new information to infer the nugget effect at PoS while BSO only brought new information to infer the other parameters. Bayesian ATP conditional simulations provided a satisfactory way to quantify parameters and model uncertainty propagation through spatial disaggregation.

Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Pebesma, Edzer

2014-08-01

420

Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Elicitation of antibodies against targets that are immunorecessive, cryptic, or transient in their native context has been a challenge for vaccine design. Here we demonstrate the elicitation of structure-specific antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 epitope of the broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5. This conformationally flexible region of gp41 assumes mostly helical conformations but adopts a kinked, extended structure when bound by antibody 2F5. Computational techniques were employed to transplant the 2F5 epitope into select acceptor scaffolds. The resultant “2F5-epitope scaffolds” possessed nanomolar affinity for antibody 2F5 and a range of epitope flexibilities and antigenic specificities. Crystallographic characterization of the epitope scaffold with highest affinity and antigenic discrimination confirmed good to near perfect attainment of the target conformation for the gp41 molecular graft in free and 2F5-bound states, respectively. Animals immunized with 2F5-epitope scaffolds showed levels of graft-specific immune responses that correlated with graft flexibility (p < 0.04), while antibody responses against the graft—as dissected residue-by-residue with alanine substitutions—resembled more closely those of 2F5 than sera elicited with flexible or cyclized peptides, a resemblance heightened by heterologous prime-boost. Lastly, crystal structures of a gp41 peptide in complex with monoclonal antibodies elicited by the 2F5-epitope scaffolds revealed that the elicited antibodies induce gp41 to assume its 2F5-recognized shape. Epitope scaffolds thus provide a means to elicit antibodies that recognize a predetermined target shape and sequence, even if that shape is transient in nature, and a means by which to dissect factors influencing such elicitation.

Ofek, Gilad; Guenaga, F. Javier; Schief, William R.; Skinner, Jeff; Baker, David; Wyatt, Richard; Kwong, Peter D.

2010-01-01

421

Family Stories: Eliciting Tolerance and Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past and present provide an important reference to understanding the circumstances and cultural differences that assist in the development of our methods of interaction. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to provide a process of personal self-reflection of experiences by which administrators, school officials, staff, and faculty can…

Dukes, Melanie Anne Dillett

2009-01-01

422

Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho® compared with other supposed causal factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho®, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J. P.

2010-01-01

423

Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

424

An expert system for dispersion model interpretation  

SciTech Connect

A prototype expert system designed to diagnose dispersion model uncertainty is described in this paper with application to a puff transport model. The system obtains qualitative information from the model user and through an expert-derived knowledge base, performs a rating of the current simulation. These results can then be used in combination with dispersion model output for deciding appropriate evacuation measures. Ultimately, the goal of this work is to develop an expert system that may be operated accurately by an individual uneducated in meteorology or dispersion modeling. 5 refs., 3 figs

Skyllingstad, E.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.

1988-10-01

425

The selection of experts evaluating health projects for the EU Sixth Framework Program.  

PubMed

AIM: The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development (FP) are the European Union's funding programmes for research in Europe. The study analyses the features of external experts involved in evaluating the research proposals in FP6 (years 2003-2006) in the area of Life Sciences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Experts were analysed with respect to nationality, gender, organisational affiliation and rotation. The correlations between the number of experts by nationality and scientific research indicators were also explored. RESULT: Experts from 70 countries participated, with 70% coming from 10 countries. The gender composition was relatively stable, with approximately 30% of female experts. The majority of experts came from higher education establishments (51%) and 12% from industry. About 40% of experts participated in the evaluation process two or more times. The number of experts by nationality was linearly correlated with gross national income (r?=?0.95, p?experts for Italy (312) and Belgium (155) were higher than predicted by this regression model (231 and 71 respectively). CONCLUSION: The expert panels involved were balanced with respect to nationalities, whereas the gender distribution was lower than the target. There was a satisfactory degree of rotation of experts between evaluation rounds. The percentage of experts from industry was lower than expected. PMID:21957333

Quaglio, Gianluca; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Olesen, Ole F; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

2011-10-01

426

Learning in practice for becoming a professional forensic expert.  

PubMed

The study explores the professional development of future forensic experts. Specifically, it investigates how the forensic expert trainees learn through the internal training program at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science with a focus on the supervision at work. The findings are drawn from an ethnographical study where five trainees and their supervisors have been observed and interviewed. By drawing on a socio cultural perspective on learning, the results show that supervision is crucial for professional development. Two types of activities and relations define how supervision is implemented. There is a "transitional movement" in how supervision is staged depending on the trainees' gradual changes in participation in the work practice and increased experience. Forensic experts need skills and know-how to make wise and impartial judgments, i.e. a kind of tacit professional practical knowledge, as well as the skill to communicate with other professionals. However, the development of a professional language is somewhat unspoken or planned. Becoming a forensic expert is a learning process in practice where supervision plays a decisive role in maintaining the professional knowledge in the judicial system. Therefore, supervision for supervising might be a valuable support for supervisors. PMID:22727266

Köpsén, Susanne; Nyström, Sofia

2012-10-10

427

SSME fault monitoring and diagnosis expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system, called LEADER, has been designed and implemented for automatic learning, detection, identification, verification, and correction of anomalous propulsion system operations in real time. LEADER employs a set of sensors to monitor engine component performance and to detect, identify, and validate abnormalities with respect to varying engine dynamics and behavior. Two diagnostic approaches are adopted in the architecture of LEADER. In the first approach fault diagnosis is performed through learning and identifying engine behavior patterns. LEADER, utilizing this approach, generates few hypotheses about the possible abnormalities. These hypotheses are then validated based on the SSME design and functional knowledge. The second approach directs the processing of engine sensory data and performs reasoning based on the SSME design, functional knowledge, and the deep-level knowledge, i.e., the first principles (physics and mechanics) of SSME subsystems and components. This paper describes LEADER's architecture which integrates a design based reasoning approach with neural network-based fault pattern matching techniques. The fault diagnosis results obtained through the analyses of SSME ground test data are presented and discussed.

Ali, Moonis; Norman, Arnold M.; Gupta, U. K.

1989-01-01

428

Danger and disease: electrocortical responses to threat- and disgust-eliciting images.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests facilitated processing of evolutionarily significant stimuli (e.g., depictions of erotica, mutilation, threat), as reflected by augmented event-related potentials (ERPs), including the early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP). Evolutionary models suggest that images that evoke disgust should be high in motivational salience, but evidence that the EPN and LPP are enhanced by disgusting images is lacking. Prior studies have employed only a small number of disgusting images that were limited in the types of content depicted. In the current study, participants viewed larger sets of disgusting, threatening, and neutral images with more varied content while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Results showed that disgusting and threatening images elicited equivalent LPPs, which were both significantly increased relative to LPPs elicited by neutral images. EPN amplitudes were augmented for both disgusting and threatening relative to neutral images, though significantly more for disgust. These findings offer initial evidence that the EPN and the LPP are sensitive to disgust-eliciting pictures and that these pictures may receive processing that is at least on par with that of threatening images. Limitations of the current study and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23938878

Wheaton, Michael G; Holman, Alexis; Rabinak, Christine A; Macnamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Phan, K Luan

2013-11-01

429

Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

Lawlor, Joseph

430

Development of Sets of Patient Health Outcome Criteria by Panels of Nurse Experts. Final Report Project No. 7. January 1 - June 30, 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven prototype sets of outcome criteria for seven specific critical patient populations were developed by nurse experts to serve as models for nurses, and eight to ten nurse experts were identified for each population. The group process used to generate ...

M. J. Zimmer N. M. Lang D. I. Miller

1974-01-01

431

Development of Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides ...

S. G. Shiva

1990-01-01

432

32 CFR 516.49 - Expert witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Release...is authorized to deny a request for expert testimony, which decision may be appealed to Litigation Division. (b) Exception...

2013-07-01

433

Start Tornado Preparation Now, Expert Advises  

MedlinePLUS

... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Disaster Preparation and Recovery Tornadoes MONDAY, April 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Tornado season ... threatened, an expert says. If conditions are right, tornadoes can occur in every state in the United ...

434

Comparison of experts and non-experts in throwing darts based on optimization criteria.  

PubMed

Acquiring skillful movements of experts is a difficult task in many fields. Since non-experts often fail to find out how to improve their skill, it is desirable to find quantitative indices of skillful movements that clarify the difference between experts and non-experts. If we find quantitative indices, we can develop an adaptive training system using the indices. In this study, we quantitatively compare dart-throwing movements between experts and non-experts based on their scores, motions, and EMG signals. First, we show that the variance of upper-limb motion trajectories of the experts is significantly smaller than that of the non-experts. Then, we show that the displacement and the variance of the shoulder of the experts are also significantly smaller than those of the non-experts. The final result is the highlight of this study. We investigated their upper-limb motions from the viewpoint of trajectory optimization. In this study, we focus on two popular optimization criteria, i.e., sum of squared jerk over a trajectory and sum of squared joint-torque change over a trajectory. We present that the sum of squared joint torques of the subjects was negatively correlated with their scores (p < 0.05), whereas the other criteria were not. PMID:19963775

Obayashi, Chihiro; Tamei, Tomoya; Imai, Akira; Shibata, Tomohiro

2009-01-01

435

Debugging expert systems using a dynamically created hypertext network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The labor intensive nature of expert system writing and debugging motivated this study. The hypothesis is that a hypertext based debugging tool is easier and faster than one traditional tool, the graphical execution trace. HESDE (Hypertext Expert System Debugging Environment) uses Hypertext nodes and links to represent the objects and their relationships created during the execution of a rule based expert system. HESDE operates transparently on top of the CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) rule based system environment and is used during the knowledge base debugging process. During the execution process HESDE builds an execution trace. Use of facts, rules, and their values are automatically stored in a Hypertext network for each execution cycle. After the execution process, the knowledge engineer may access the Hypertext network and browse the network created. The network may be viewed in terms of rules, facts, and values. An experiment was conducted to compare HESDE with a graphical debugging environment. Subjects were given representative tasks. For speed and accuracy, in eight of the eleven tasks given to subjects, HESDE was significantly better.

Boyle, Craig D. B.; Schuette, John F.

1991-01-01

436

Using naturally produced speech to elicit the mismatch negativity.  

PubMed

The mismatch negativity (MMN) was recorded from 10 young adults with normal hearing using naturally produced speech contrasts. Consonant-place and vowel-height contrasts were examined in consonant-vowel (CV) syllables by pairing either the consonant /t/ or /p/ with the vowel /I/ or /E/. Vowel-height was also examined as a pseudovowel; one cycle of the vowel segment of a CV was extracted and replicated over 200 msec. A total of five contrasts were examined: vowel-height following /p/, vowel-height following /t/, consonant-place preceding /E/, consonant-place preceding /I/, and pseudovowels. Significant MMN responses were elicited from all five contrasts, albeit with different amplitudes, latencies, and waveform morphology. The pseudovowel elicited the most well-defined MMN with the greatest amplitude and was found to be significantly different from the other four contrasts. Naturally produced speech stimuli appear to be viable stimuli for eliciting the MMN. PMID:8652862

Sandridge, S A; Boothroyd, A

1996-04-01

437

22 CFR 172.9 - Prohibition on providing expert or opinion testimony.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCESS; PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN RESPONSE TO COURT ORDERS, SUBPOENAS, NOTICES OF DEPOSITIONS, REQUESTS FOR ADMISSIONS, INTERROGATORIES, OR SIMILAR REQUESTS OR DEMANDS IN CONNECTION WITH FEDERAL OR STATE LITIGATION; EXPERT...

2013-04-01

438

Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

2008-01-01

439

AbstFinder, a prototype abstraction finder for natural language text for use in requirements elicitation: design, methodology, and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to help solve the problems of requirements elicitation, this paper motivates and describes a new approach, based on traditional signal processing methods, for finding abstractions in natural language text. The design of AbstFinder, an implementation of the approach, and the evaluation of its effectiveness on an industrial-strength example are described

Leah Goldin; Daniel M. Berry

1994-01-01

440

Expert systems to aid in wind farm operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expert system is a knowledge-based program that provides solutions to problems in a specific domain by mimicking the behavior of a human expert. Expert systems can have several advantages over traditional programming methods; however, developing an exp...

L. L. Schluter F. Nateghian G. F. Luger

1991-01-01

441

TES: A modular systems approach to expert system development for real-time space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major goal of the Space Station era is to reduce reliance on support from ground based experts. The development of software programs using expert systems technology is one means of reaching this goal without requiring crew members to become intimately familiar with the many complex spacecraft subsystems. Development of an expert systems program requires a validation of the software with actual flight hardware. By combining accurate hardware and software modelling techniques with a modular systems approach to expert systems development, the validation of these software programs can be successfully completed with minimum risk and effort. The TIMES Expert System (TES) is an application that monitors and evaluates real time data to perform fault detection and fault isolation tasks as they would otherwise be carried out by a knowledgeable designer. The development process and primary features of TES, a modular systems approach, and the lessons learned are discussed.

Cacace, Ralph; England, Brenda

1988-01-01

442

Classical pattern recall tests and the prospective nature of expert performance.  

PubMed

It is well established that experts are particularly adept at recalling and/or recognizing the key features of domain-relevant patterns. We compared the recall performance of expert and novice basketball players when viewing static and moving patterns. A novel method of analysis was used where the accuracy of the participants in recalling player positions was compared to actual player positions both at the final frame of pattern presentation and at 50 successive 40 ms increments thereafter. Experts encoded the locations of the players in both the static and moving patterns significantly further in advance of their actual finishing point than did nonexperts. Experts' use of an anticipatory encoding process, which was of a magnitude unmatched by nonexperts, suggests that many previous investigations may have underestimated the extent of the expert advantage in pattern recall. PMID:22414197

Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

2012-01-01

443

Equating an expert system to a classifier in order to evaluate the expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strategy to evaluate an expert system is formulated. The strategy proposed is based on finding an equivalent classifier to an expert system and evaluate that classifier with respect to an optimal classifier, a Bayes classifier. Here it is shown that for the rules considered an equivalent classifier exists. Also, a brief consideration of meta and meta-meta rules is included. Also, a taxonomy of expert systems is presented and an assertion made that an equivalent classifier exists for each type of expert system in the taxonomy with associated sets of underlying assumptions.

Odell, Patrick L.

1989-01-01

444

Expert system for on-board satellite scheduling and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Expert System is described which Rockwell Satellite and Space Electronics Division (S&SED) is developing to dynamically schedule the allocation of on-board satellite resources and activities. This expert system is the Satellite Controller. The resources to be scheduled include power, propellant and recording tape. The activities controlled include scheduling satellite functions such as sensor checkout and operation. The scheduling of these resources and activities is presently a labor intensive and time consuming ground operations task. Developing a schedule requires extensive knowledge of the system and subsystems operations, operational constraints, and satellite design and configuration. This scheduling process requires highly trained experts anywhere from several hours to several weeks to accomplish. The process is done through brute force, that is examining cryptic mnemonic data off line to interpret the health and status of the satellite. Then schedules are formulated either as the result of practical operator experience or heuristics - that is rules of thumb. Orbital operations must become more productive in the future to reduce life cycle costs and decrease dependence on ground control. This reduction is required to increase autonomy and survivability of future systems. The design of future satellites require that the scheduling function be transferred from ground to on board systems.

Barry, John M.; Sary, Charisse

1988-01-01

445

Multidisciplinary Expert-aided Analysis and Design (MEAD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MEAD Computer Program (MCP) is being developed under the Multidisciplinary Expert-Aided Analysis and Design (MEAD) Project as a CAD environment in which integrated flight, propulsion, and structural control systems can be designed and analyzed. The MCP has several embedded computer-aided control engineering (CACE) packages, a user interface (UI), a supervisor, a data-base manager (DBM), and an expert system (ES). The supervisor monitors and coordinates the operation of the CACE packages, the DBM; the ES, and the UI. The DBM tracks the control design process. Models created or installed by the MCP are tracked by date and version, and results are associated with the specific model version with which they were generated. The ES is used to relieve the control engineer from tedious and cumbersome tasks in the iterative design process. The UI provides the capability for a novice as well as an expert to utilize the MCP easily and effectively. The MCP version 2(MCP-2.0) is fully developed for flight control system design and analysis. Propulsion system modeling, analysis, and simulation is also supported; the same is true for structural models represented in state-space form. The ultimate goal is to cover the integration of flight, propulsion, and structural control engineering, including all discipline-specific functionality and interfaces. The current MCP-2.0 components and functionality are discussed.

Hummel, Thomas C.; Taylor, James

1989-01-01

446

Expert consultation on risk factors for introduction of infectious pathogens into fish farms.  

PubMed

An expert consultation was conducted to provide quantitative parameters required to inform risk-based surveillance of aquaculture holdings for selected infectious hazards. The hazards were four fish diseases endemic in some or several European countries: infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and koi herpes virus disease (KHD). Experts were asked to provide estimates for the relative importance of 5 risk themes for the hazard to be introduced into and infect susceptible fish at the destination. The 5 risk themes were: (1) live fish and egg movements; (2) exposure via water; (3) on-site processing; (4) short distance mechanical transmission and (5) distance independent mechanical transmission. The experts also provided parameter estimates for hazard transmission pathways within the themes. The expert consultation was undertaken in a 2 step approach: an online survey followed by an expert consultation meeting. The expert opinion indicated that live fish movements and exposure via water were the major relevant risk themes. Experts were recruited from several European countries and thus covered a range of farming systems. Therefore, the outputs from the expert consultation have relevance for the European context. PMID:24780587

Oidtmann, Birgit C; Peeler, Edmund J; Thrush, Mark A; Cameron, Angus R; Reese, R Allan; Pearce, Fiona M; Dunn, Peter; Lyngstad, Trude M; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Brun, Edgar; Stärk, Katharina D C

2014-08-01

447

Expert systems and their use in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

In the operation of a nuclear power plant, great quantities of numeric, symbolic, and quantitative information are handled by the reactor operators even during routine operation. The sheer magnitude of the number of process parameters and systems interactions poses difficulties for the operators, particularly during abnormal or emergency situations. Recovery from an upset situation depends upon the facility with which available raw data can be converted into, and assimilated as, meaningful knowledge. In operating a nuclear power plant, people are sometimes affected by fatigue, stress, emotion, and environmental factors that may have varying degrees of influence on their performance. Expert systems provide a method of removing some of the uncertainty from operator decisions by providing expert advice and rapid access to a large information base. 74 refs., 2 tabs.

Uhrig, R.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1990-12-31

448

PVEX: An expert system for producibility/value engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PVEX is described as an expert system that solves the problem of selection of the material and process in missile manufacturing. The producibility and the value problem has been deeply studied in the past years, and was written in dBase III and PROLOG before. A new approach is presented in that the solution is achieved by introducing hypothetical reasoning, heuristic criteria integrated with a simple hypertext system and shell programming. PVEX combines KMS with Unix scripts which graphically depicts decision trees. The decision trees convey high level qualitative problem solving knowledge to users, and a stand-alone help facility and technical documentation is available through KMS. The system developed is considerably less development costly than any other comparable expert system.

Lam, Chun S.; Moseley, Warren

1991-01-01

449

Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

2009-01-01

450

Bacterial elicitation and evasion of plant innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on plant responses to bacterial attack has identified extracellular and intracellular host receptors that recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns and more specialized virulence proteins, respectively. These findings have shed light on our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which bacteria elicit host defences and how pathogens have evolved to evade or suppress these defences.

Robert B. Abramovitch; Jeffrey C. Anderson; Gregory B. Martin

2006-01-01

451
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