Sample records for expert elicitation process

  1. Expert Elicitation Method Selection Process and Method Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2010-09-21

    Research on integrative modeling has gained considerable attention in recent years and expert opinion has been increasingly recognized as an important data source and modeling contributor. However, little research has systematically compared and evaluated expert elicitation methods in terms of their ability to link to computational models that capture human behavior and social phenomena. In this paper, we describe a decision-making process we used for evaluating and selecting a task specific elicitation method within the framework of integrative computational social-behavioral modeling. From the existing literature, we identified the characteristics of problems that each candidate method is well suited to address. A small-scale expert elicitation was also conducted to evaluate the comparative strength and weaknesses of the methods against a number of consensus-based decision criteria. By developing a set of explicit method evaluation criteria and a description characterizing decision problems for the candidate methods, we seek to gain a better understanding of the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of integrating elicitation methods with computational modeling techniques. This serves an important first step toward expanding our research effort and trajectory toward greater interdisciplinary modeling research of human behavior.

  2. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, K.J.

    1997-05-30

    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca Mountain site.

  3. Expert elicitation and the problem of detecting undeclared activities

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Sylvester, K. B. (Kori Budlong); Stanbro, W. D. (William D.)

    2002-01-01

    Measures applicable to the detection of undeclared activities are not well established, and their effectiveness is uncertain. To detect clandestine paths, the IAEA is still developing processes and procedures. As the Agency gains experience with new measures and with integrated safeguards, dealing with such problems may become more experience-based and perhaps more closely parallel the process with current safeguards where detection probabilities for the measures to be utilized on declared paths are well characterized. Whether or not this point will be reached for undeclared and mixed paths, the only tool that appears suitable at present for the purpose of generating a reasonable detection probability that can over time be tested against reality and, if necessary, adjusted is formal expert judgment, or expert elicitation. Formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. To provide a 'proof of principle' of this methodology for presentation to the Agency, experts in nuclear technology, nonproliferation, safeguards and open source information, as well as in formal expert elicitation processes, engaged in three illustrative expert elicitations on assessing information analysis as a means to detect undeclared activities. These elicitations were successful. This paper will discuss the process of and issues raised by the elicitations.

  4. Earthquakes and Tectonics Expert Judgment Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Perman, R.C.; Youngs, R.R. (Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Earthquakes and Tectonics Expert Judgement Excitation Project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to demonstrate methods for the excitation of expert judgement, and (2) to quantify the uncertainties associated with earthquake and tectonics issues for use in the EPRI-HLW performance assessment. Specifically, the technical issue considered is the probability of differential fault displacement through the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For this study, a strategy for quantifying uncertainties was developed that relies on the judgements of multiple experts. A panel of seven geologists and seismologists was assembled to quantify the uncertainties associated with earthquake and tectonics issues for the performance assessment model. A series of technical workshops focusing on these issues were conducted. Finally, each expert was individually interviewed in order to elicit his judgement regarding the technical issues and to provide the technical basis for his assessment. This report summarizes the methodologies used to elicit the judgements of the earthquakes and tectonics experts (termed specialists''), and summarizes the technical assessments made by the expert panel.

  5. Expert Knowledge Elicitations in a Procurement Card Context

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Expert Knowledge Elicitations in a Procurement Card Context: Towards Continuous Monitoring of the data fields have missing values #12;6 P-CARD MISUSE DETECTION - Analysis · Firm's Procurement Process:7829-7999) AND [Department_Name] NOT EQUAL "NATIONAL GOVERNMENT RELATIONS" AND [MCH_

  6. Web-based tool for expert elicitation of the variogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gosling, John Paul

    2013-02-01

    The variogram is the keystone of geostatistics. Estimation of the variogram is deficient and difficult when there are no or too few observations available due to budget constraints or physical and temporal obstacles. In such cases, expert knowledge can be an important source of information. Expert knowledge can also fulfil the increasing demand for an a priori variogram in Bayesian geostatistics and spatial sampling optimization. Formal expert elicitation provides a sound scientific basis to reliably and consistently extract knowledge from experts. In this study, we aimed at applying existing statistical expert elicitation techniques to extract the variogram of a regionalized variable that is assumed to have either a multivariate normal or lognormal spatial probability distribution from expert knowledge. To achieve this, we developed an elicitation protocol and implemented it as a web-based tool to facilitate the elicitation of beliefs from multiple experts. Our protocol has two main rounds: elicitation of the marginal probability distribution and elicitation of the variogram. The web-based tool has three main components: a web interface for expert elicitation and feedback; a component for statistical computation and mathematical pooling of multiple experts' knowledge; and a database management component. Results from a test case study show that the protocol is adequate and that the online elicitation tool functions satisfactorily. The web-based tool is free to use and supports scientists to conveniently elicit the variogram of spatial random variables from experts. The source code is available from the journal FTP site under the GNU General Public License.

  7. Expert Elicitation for Reliable System Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Bedford; John Quigley; Lesley Walls

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of expert judgement to support reliability assessments within the systems engineering design process. Generic design processes are described to give the context and a discussion is given about the nature of the reliability assessments required in the different systems engineering phases. It is argued that, as far as meeting reliability requirements is concerned, the whole

  8. Wind Energy Learning Curves for Reference in Expert Elicitations

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Wind Energy Learning Curves for Reference in Expert Elicitations Sarah Mangels, Erin Baker. Abstract: This study presents future projections of wind energy capacity and cost based on historical data. The study will be used during wind- energy expert elicitations (formal interviews aimed to quantify

  9. CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

    2012-10-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

  10. An Expert Elicitation Process in Support of Groundwater Model Evaluation for Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman Jenny,Pohlmann Karl

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is implementing corrective actions at facilities where nuclear-related operations were conducted in Nevada. Among the most significant sites being addressed are the locations of underground nuclear tests on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The process for implementing corrective actions for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) locations is defined in Appendix VI of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996, as amended). In broad terms, Appendix VI describes a Corrective Action Investigation followed by a Corrective Action Decision, and implementation of a Corrective Action Plan prior to closure. The Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) is farthest along in the UGTA corrective action process. It includes ten underground tests within the Frenchman Flat topographic basin, in the southeastern portion of the NNSS. Data have been collected from drilling exploration, hydrologic testing, and field and laboratory studies. Modeling has been completed at a variety of scales and focusing on a variety of flow and transport aspects ranging from regional boundary conditions to process dynamics within a single nuclear cavity. The culmination of the investigations is a transport model for the Frenchman Flat CAU (Stoller Navarro Joint Venture, 2009) that has undergone rigorous peer review and been accepted by the State of Nevada, setting the stage for the Corrective Action Decision and progression from the investigation phase to the corrective action phase of the project.

  11. The use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment: a seven step procedure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental health impact assessments often have to deal with substantial uncertainties. Typically, the knowledge-base is limited with incomplete, or inconsistent evidence and missing or ambiguous data. Consulting experts can help to identify and address uncertainties. Methods Formal expert elicitation is a structured approach to systematically consult experts on uncertain issues. It is most often used to quantify ranges for poorly known parameters, but may also be useful to further develop qualitative issues such as definitions, assumptions or conceptual (causal) models. A thorough preparation and systematic design and execution of an expert elicitation process may increase the validity of its outcomes and transparency and trustworthiness of its conclusions. Various expert elicitation protocols and methods exist. However, these are often not universally applicable, and need customization to suite the needs of a specific study. In this paper, we set out to develop a widely applicable method for the use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment. Results We present a practical yet flexible seven step procedure towards organising expert elicitation in the context of environmental health impact assessment, based on existing protocols. We describe how customization for specific applications is always necessary. In particular, three issues affect the choice of methods for a particular application: the types of uncertainties considered, the intended use of the elicited information, and the available resources. We outline how these three considerations guide choices regarding the design and execution of expert elicitation. We present signposts to sources where the issues are discussed in more depth to give the newcomer the insights needed to make the protocol work. The seven step procedure is illustrated using examples from earlier published elicitations in the field of environmental health research. Conclusions We conclude that, despite some known criticism on its validity, formal expert elicitation can support environmental health research in various ways. Its main purpose is to provide a temporary summary of the limited available knowledge, which can serve as a provisional basis for policy until further research has been carried out. PMID:20420657

  12. Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    At BGS, expert elicitation has been used to evaluate uncertainty of surveyed boundaries in several, common, geological scenarios. As a result, a 'collective' understanding of the issues surrounding each scenario has emerged. The work has provoked wider debate in three key areas: a) what can we do to resolve those scenarios where a 'consensus' of understanding cannot be achieved b) what does it mean for survey practices and subsequent use of maps in 3D models c) how do we communicate the 'collective' understanding of geological mapping (with or without consensus for specific scenarios). Previous work elicited expert judgement for uncertainty in six contrasting mapping scenarios. In five cases it was possible to arrive at a consensus model; in a sixth case experts with different experience (length of service, academic background) took very different views of the nature of the mapping problem. The scenario concerned identification of the boundary between two contrasting tills (one derived from Triassic source materials being red in colour; the other, derived from Jurassic materials being grey in colour). Initial debate during the elicitation identified that the colour contrast should provide some degree of confidence in locating the boundary via traditional auger-traverse survey methods. However, as the elicitation progressed, it became clear that the complexities of the relationship between the two Tills were not uniformly understood across the experts and the panel could not agree a consensus regarding the spatial uncertainty of the boundary. The elicitation process allowed a significant degree of structured knowledge-exchange between experts of differing backgrounds and was successful in identifying a measure of uncertainty for what was considered a contentious scenario. However, the findings have significant implications for a boundary-scenario that is widely mapped across the central regions of Great Britain. We will discuss our experience of the use of elicitation methodology and the implications of our results for further work at the BGS to quantify uncertainty in 2d and 3d products. In particular we will consider the impacts of surveyor 'experience' in how the elicitation process works.

  13. Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lee, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation. R. Lawley, M. Barron and K. Lee. NERC - British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK, NG12 5GG The boundaries mapped in traditional field geological survey are subject to a wide range of inherent uncertainties. A map at a survey-scale of 1:10,000 is created by a combination of terrain interpretation, direct observations from boreholes and exposures (often sparsely distributed), and indirect interpretation of proxy variables such as soil properties, vegetation and remotely sensed images. A critical factor influencing the quality of the final map is the skill and experience of the surveyor to bring this information together in a coherent conceptual model. The users of geological data comprising or based on mapped boundaries are increasingly aware of these uncertainties, and want to know how to manage them. The growth of 3D modelling, which takes 2D surveys as a starting point, adds urgency to the need for a better understanding of survey uncertainties; particularly where 2D mapping of variable vintage has been compiled into a national coverage. Previous attempts to apply confidence on the basis of metrics such as data density, survey age or survey techniques have proved useful for isolating single, critical, factors but do not generally succeed in evaluating geological mapping 'in the round', because they cannot account for the 'conceptual' skill set of the surveyor. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is using expert elicitation methods to gain a better understanding of uncertainties within the national geological map of Great Britain. The expert elicitation approach starts with the assumption that experienced surveyors have an intuitive sense of the uncertainty of the boundaries that they map, based on a tacit model of geology and its complexity and the nature of the surveying process. The objective of elicitation is to extract this model in a useable, quantitative, form by a robust and transparent procedure. At BGS expert elicitation is being used to evaluate the uncertainty of mapped boundaries in different common mapping scenarios, with a view to building a 'collective' understanding of the challenges each scenario presents. For example, a 'sharp contact (at surface) between highly contrasting sedimentary rocks' represents one level of survey challenge that should be accurately met by all surveyors, even novices. In contrast, a 'transitional boundary defined by localised facies-variation' may require much more experience to resolve (without recourse to significantly more sampling). We will describe the initial phase of this exercise in which uncertainty models were elicited for mapped boundaries in six contrasting scenarios. Each scenario was presented to a panel of experts with varied expertise and career history. In five cases it was possible to arrive at a consensus model, in a sixth case experts with different experience took different views of the nature of the mapping problem. We will discuss our experience of the use of elicitation methodology and the implications of our results for further work at the BGS to quantify uncertainty in map products. In particular we will consider the value of elicitation as a means to capture the expertise of individuals as they retire, and as the composition of the organization's staff changes in response to the management and policy decisions.

  14. The use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment: a seven step procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne B Knol; Pauline Slottje; Jeroen P van der Sluijs; Erik Lebret

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental health impact assessments often have to deal with substantial uncertainties. Typically, the knowledge-base is limited with incomplete, or inconsistent evidence and missing or ambiguous data. Consulting experts can help to identify and address uncertainties. METHODS: Formal expert elicitation is a structured approach to systematically consult experts on uncertain issues. It is most often used to quantify ranges for

  15. Branch technical position on the use of expert elicitation in the high-level radioactive waste program

    SciTech Connect

    Kotra, J.P.; Lee, M.P.; Eisenberg, N.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); DeWispelare, A.R. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Should the site be found suitable, DOE will apply to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for permission to construct and then operate a proposed geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. In deciding whether to grant or deny DOE`s license application for a geologic repository, NRC will closely examine the facts and expert judgment set forth in any potential DOE license application. NRC expects that subjective judgments of individual experts and, in some cases, groups of experts, will be used by DOE to interpret data obtained during site characterization and to address the many technical issues and inherent uncertainties associated with predicting the performance of a repository system for thousands of years. NRC has traditionally accepted, for review, expert judgment to evaluate and interpret the factual bases of license applications and is expected to give appropriate consideration to the judgments of DOE`s experts regarding the geologic repository. Such consideration, however, envisions DOE using expert judgments to complement and supplement other sources of scientific and technical information, such as data collection, analyses, and experimentation. In this document, the NRC staff has set forth technical positions that: (1) provide general guidelines on those circumstances that may warrant the use of a formal process for obtaining the judgments of more than one expert (i.e., expert elicitation); and (2) describe acceptable procedures for conducting expert elicitation when formally elicited judgments are used to support a demonstration of compliance with NRC`s geologic disposal regulation, currently set forth in 10 CFR Part 60. 76 refs.

  16. Carbon capture and storage: combining economic analysis with expert elicitations to inform climate policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin D Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M Keisler

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between R&D investments and technical change is inherently uncertain. In this paper we combine economics\\u000a and decision analysis to incorporate the uncertainty of technical change into climate change policy analysis. We present the\\u000a results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for technical change in carbon capture and storage. We find a significant\\u000a amount of disagreement between experts,

  17. Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

  18. Eliciting expert opinion on the effectiveness and practicality of interventions in the farm and rural environment to reduce human exposure to Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Cross, P; Rigby, D; Edwards-Jones, G

    2012-04-01

    Few hard data are available on emergent diseases. However, the need to mitigate and manage emergent diseases has prompted the use of various expert consultation and opinion elicitation methods. We adapted best-worst scaling (BWS) to elicit experts' assessment of the relative practicality and effectiveness of measures to reduce human exposure to E. coli O157. Cattle vaccination was considered the most effective and hand-washing was considered the most practical measure. BWS proved a powerful tool for expert elicitation as it breaks down a cognitively burdensome process into simple, repeated, tasks. In addition, statistical analysis of the resulting data provides a scaled set of scores for the measures, rather than just a ranking. The use of two criteria (practicality and effectiveness) within the BWS process allows the identification of subsets of measures judged as potentially performing well on both criteria, and conversely those judged to be neither effective nor practical. PMID:21733271

  19. Development of an Expert Judgement Elicitation and Calibration Methodology for Risk Analysis in Conceptual Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Keating, Charles; Conway, Bruce; Chytka, Trina

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive expert-judgment elicitation methodology to quantify input parameter uncertainty and analysis tool uncertainty in a conceptual launch vehicle design analysis has been developed. The ten-phase methodology seeks to obtain expert judgment opinion for quantifying uncertainties as a probability distribution so that multidisciplinary risk analysis studies can be performed. The calibration and aggregation techniques presented as part of the methodology are aimed at improving individual expert estimates, and provide an approach to aggregate multiple expert judgments into a single probability distribution. The purpose of this report is to document the methodology development and its validation through application to a reference aerospace vehicle. A detailed summary of the application exercise, including calibration and aggregation results is presented. A discussion of possible future steps in this research area is given.

  20. Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard

    SciTech Connect

    K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

    2006-05-10

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

  1. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  2. Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Abbott, M. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

  3. Infinite Mixtures of Gaussian Process Experts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Edward Rasmussen; Zoubin Ghahramani

    2001-01-01

    We present an extension to the Mixture of Experts (ME) model, where the individual experts are Gaussian Process (GP) regression models. Us- ing an input-dependent adaptation of the Dirichlet Process, we imple- ment a gating network for an infinite number of Experts. Inference in this model may be done efficiently using a Markov Chain relying on Gibbs sampling. The model

  4. Parameterizing Bayesian network Representations of Social-Behavioral Models by Expert Elicitation

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Whitney, Paul D.; White, Amanda M.

    2010-05-23

    Bayesian networks provide a general framework with which to model many natural phenomena. The mathematical nature of Bayesian networks enables a plethora of model validation and calibration techniques: e.g parameter estimation, goodness of fit tests, and diagnostic checking of the model assumptions. However, they are not free of shortcomings. Parameter estimation from relevant extant data is a common approach to calibrating the model parameters. In practice it is not uncommon to find oneself lacking adequate data to reliably estimate all model parameters. In this paper we present the early development of a novel application of conjoint analysis as a method for eliciting and modeling expert opinions and using the results in a methodology for calibrating the parameters of a Bayesian network.

  5. We’re only in it for the knowledge? A problem solving turn in environment and health expert elicitation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The FP6 EU HENVINET project aimed at synthesizing the scientific information available on a number of topics of high relevance to policy makers in environment and health. The goal of the current paper is to reflect on the methodology that was used in the project, in view of exploring the usefulness of this and similar methodologies to the policy process. The topics investigated included health impacts of the brominated flame retardants decabrominated diphenylether (decaBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), phthalates highlighting di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), nanoparticles, the impacts of climate change on asthma and other respiratory disorders, and the influence of environment health stressors on cancer induction. Methods Initially the focus was on identifying knowledge gaps in the state of the art in scientific knowledge. Literature reviews covered all elements that compose the causal chain of the different environmental health issues from emissions to exposures, to effects and to health impacts. Through expert elicitation, knowledge gaps were highlighted by assessing expert confidence using calibrated confidence scales. During this work a complementary focus to that on knowledge gaps was developed through interdisciplinary reflections. By extending the scope of the endeavour from only a scientific perspective, to also include the more problem solving oriented policy perspective, the question of which kind of policy action experts consider justifiable was addressed. This was addressed by means of a questionnaire. In an expert workshop the results of both questionnaires were discussed as a basis for policy briefs. Results The expert elicitation, the application of the calibrated confidence levels and the problem solving approach were all experienced as being quite challenging for the experts involved, as these approaches did not easily relate to mainstream environment and health scientific practices. Even so, most experts were quite positive about it. In particular, the opportunity to widen one’s own horizon and to interactively exchange knowledge and debate with a diversity of experts seemed to be well appreciated in this approach. Different parts of the approach also helped in focussing on specific relevant aspects of scientific knowledge, and as such can be considered of reflective value. Conclusions The approach developed by HENVINET was part of a practice of learning by doing and of interdisciplinary cooperation and negotiation. Ambitions were challenged by unforeseen complexities and difference of opinion and as no Holy Grail approach was at hand to copy or follow, it was quite an interesting but also complicated endeavour. Perfection, if this could be defined, seemed out of reach all the time. Nevertheless, many involved were quite positive about it. It seems that many felt that it fitted some important needs in current science when addressing the needs of policy making on such important issues, without anyone really having a clue on how to actually do this. Challenging questions remain on the quality of such approach and its product. Practice tells us that there probably is no best method and that the best we can do is dependent on contextual negotiation and learning from experiences that we think are relevant. PMID:22759503

  6. Expert Prior Elicitation and Bayesian Analysis of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Catherine Q.; Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Raghavan, Anita; O'Brien, Kieran S.; Ray, Kathryn J.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Porco, Travis C.; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To perform a Bayesian analysis of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I) using expert opinion as a prior belief. Methods. MUTT I was a randomized clinical trial comparing topical natamycin or voriconazole for treating filamentous fungal keratitis. A questionnaire elicited expert opinion on the best treatment of fungal keratitis before MUTT I results were available. A Bayesian analysis was performed using the questionnaire data as a prior belief and the MUTT I primary outcome (3-month visual acuity) by frequentist analysis as a likelihood. Results. Corneal experts had a 41.1% prior belief that natamycin improved 3-month visual acuity compared with voriconazole. The Bayesian analysis found a 98.4% belief for natamycin treatment compared with voriconazole treatment for filamentous cases as a group (mean improvement 1.1 Snellen lines, 95% credible interval 0.1–2.1). The Bayesian analysis estimated a smaller treatment effect than the MUTT I frequentist analysis result of 1.8-line improvement with natamycin versus voriconazole (95% confidence interval 0.5–3.0, P = 0.006). For Fusarium cases, the posterior demonstrated a 99.7% belief for natamycin treatment, whereas non-Fusarium cases had a 57.3% belief. Conclusions. The Bayesian analysis suggests that natamycin is superior to voriconazole when filamentous cases are analyzed as a group. Subgroup analysis of Fusarium cases found improvement with natamycin compared with voriconazole, whereas there was almost no difference between treatments for non-Fusarium cases. These results were consistent with, though smaller in effect size than, the MUTT I primary outcome by frequentist analysis. The accordance between analyses further validates the trial results. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00996736.) PMID:23702779

  7. Eliciting climate experts' knowledge to address model uncertainties in regional climate projections: a case study of Guanacaste, Northwest Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, I.; Steyn, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Global general circulation models typically cannot provide the detailed and accurate regional climate information required by stakeholders for climate adaptation efforts, given their limited capacity to resolve the regional topography and changes in local sea surface temperature, wind and circulation patterns. The study region in Northwest Costa Rica has a tropical wet-dry climate with a double-peak wet season. During the dry season the central Costa Rican mountains prevent tropical Atlantic moisture from reaching the region. Most of the annual precipitation is received following the northward migration of the ITCZ in May that allows the region to benefit from moist southwesterly flow from the tropical Pacific. The wet season begins with a short period of "early rains" and is interrupted by the mid-summer drought associated with the intensification and westward expansion of the North Atlantic subtropical high in late June. Model projections for the 21st century indicate a lengthening and intensification of the mid-summer drought and a weakening of the early rains on which current crop cultivation practices rely. We developed an expert elicitation to systematically address uncertainties in the available model projections of changes in the seasonal precipitation pattern. Our approach extends an elicitation approach developed previously at Carnegie Mellon University. Experts in the climate of the study region or Central American climate were asked to assess the mechanisms driving precipitation during each part of the season, uncertainties regarding these mechanisms, expected changes in each mechanism in a warming climate, and the capacity of current models to reproduce these processes. To avoid overconfidence bias, a step-by-step procedure was followed to estimate changes in the timing and intensity of precipitation during each part of the season. The questions drew upon interviews conducted with the regions stakeholders to assess their climate information needs. This study is part of the FuturAgua project funded by the Belmont Freshwater Security call. The expert opinions on expected changes in the seasonal precipitation pattern are being used to inform regional efforts to build drought resilience and to create and compare alternative water management strategies with the region's stakeholders.

  8. Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Granger Morgan; Louis F. Pitelka; Elena Shevliakova

    2001-01-01

    Detailed interviews were conducted with 11 leading ecologists to obtainindividualqualitative and quantitative estimates of the likely impact of a2 × [CO2] climate change onminimally disturbed forest ecosystems. Results display a much richer diversityof opinion thanis apparent in qualitative consensus summaries, such as those of the IPCC.Experts attachdifferent relative importance to key factors and processes such as soilnutrients, fire, CO2fertilization, competition,

  9. Methods for the elicitation and use of expert opinion in risk assessment: Phase 1, A critical evaluation and directions for future research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mosleh; V. M. Bier; G. Apostolakis

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to critically review and evaluate the elicitation and use of expert opinion in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in light of the available empirical and theoretical results on expert opinion use. PRA practice is represented by five case studies selected to represent a variety of aspects of the problem: assessments of component failure rates and

  10. Eliciting Univariate Probability Distributions Jeremy E. Oakley

    E-print Network

    Oakley, Jeremy

    Eliciting Univariate Probability Distributions Jeremy E. Oakley September 10, 2010 1 Introduction In this chapter we discuss the process of eliciting an expert's probability distribution: ex- tracting an expert beliefs with a probability distribution. We consider the case of a scalar continuous only, so

  11. Expert systems in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

  12. Training 'greeble' experts: a framework for studying expert object recognition processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Gauthier; Pepper Williams; Michael J. Tarr; James Tanaka

    1998-01-01

    Twelve participants were trained to be experts at identifying a set of 'Greebles', novel objects that, like faces, all share a common spatial configuration. Tests comparing expert with novice performance revealed: (1) a surprising mix of generalizability and specificity in expert object recognition processes; and (2) that expertise is a multi-faceted phenomenon, neither adequately described by a single term nor

  13. EXPERT ELICITATION WHITE PAPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA is frequently called upon to make decisions on complex environmental issues, and to make these decisions, analyses are required from a broad range of disciplines. In all of these analyses, uncertainty and variability exist in estimates of the values of key parameters and...

  14. Expert Systems as a Stimulus to Improved Process Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Beaverstock; E. H. Bristol; D. Fortin

    1985-01-01

    Whether Expert Systems are viewed as a fundamental principle for organizing and animating expert knowledge, a challenge to create much smarter computer software, a concept for organizing otherwise ill-structured systems, or a mildly fraudulent fad, their goal of capturing common sense reasoning in software correlates well with the structure of process control knowledge. Long ago, the process control field realized

  15. ELICITED EXPERT PERCEPTIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS AND ADAPTATION IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION THROUGH MENTAL MODELS APPROACH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Eiko; Kubota, Hiromi; Baba, Kenshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hanasaki, Naota

    Impacts of climate change have become obvious in agriculture and food production in Japan these days, and researches to adapt to their risks have been conducted as a key effort to cope with the climate change. Numerous scientific findings on climate change impacts have been presented so far; however, prospective risks to be adapted to and their management in the context of individual on-site situations have not been investigated in detail. The structure of climate change risks and their management vary depending on geographical and social features in the regions where the adaptation options should be applied; therefore, a practical adaptation strategy should consider actual on-site situations. This study intended to clarify climate change risks to be adapted to in the Japanese agricultural sector, and factors to be considered in adaptation options, for encouragement of decision-making on adaptation implementation in the field. Semi-structured individual interviews have been conducted with 9 multidisciplinary experts engaging in climate change impacts research in agricultural production, economics, engineering, policy, and so on. Based on the results of the interviews, and the latest literatures available for risk assessment and adaptation, an expert mental model including their perceptions which cover the process from climate change impacts assessment to adaptation has been developed. The prospective risks, adaptation options, and issues to be examined to progress the development of practical and effective adaptation options and to support individual or social decision-making, have been shown on the developed expert mental model. It is the basic information for developing social communication and stakeholders cooperations in climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture and food production in Japan.

  16. Expert model process control of composite materials in a press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Tony E.; Quinter, Suzanne R.; Abrams, Frances L.

    An expert model for the control of the press processing of thermoset composite materials has been developed. The knowledge base written using the PC PLUS expert system shell was interfaced with models written in FORTRAN. The expert model, which is running on a single computer with a single processor, takes advantage of the symbol-crunching capability of LISP and the number crunching capability of FORTRAN. The Expert Model control system is a qualitative-quantitative process automation (QQPA) system since it includes both quantitative model-based and qualitative rule-based expert system operations. Various physical and mechanical properties were measured from panels processed using the two cycles. Using QQPA, processing time has been reduced significantly without altering product quality.

  17. Methods to elicit experts' beliefs over uncertain quantities: application to a cost effectiveness transition model of negative pressure wound therapy for severe pressure ulceration.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta O; Bojke, Laura; Dumville, Jo; Iglesias, Cynthia; Cullum, Nicky; Claxton, Karl

    2011-08-30

    We can use decision models to estimate cost effectiveness, quantify uncertainty regarding the adoption decision and provide estimates of the value of further research. In many cases, the existence of only limited data with which to populate a decision model can mean that a cost-effectiveness analysis either does not proceed or may misrepresent the degree of uncertainty associated with model inputs. An example is the case of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) used to treat severe pressure ulceration, for which the evidence base is limited and sparse. There is, however, substantial practical experience of using this treatment and its comparators. We can capture this knowledge quantitatively to inform a cost-effectiveness model by eliciting beliefs from experts. This paper describes the design and conduct of an elicitation exercise to generate estimates of multiple uncertain model inputs and validate analytical assumptions for a decision model on the use of NPWT. In designing the exercise, the primary focus was the use of elicitation to inform decision models (multistate models), where representations of uncertain beliefs need to be probabilistically coherent. This paper demonstrates that it is feasible to collect formally elicited evidence to inform decision models. PMID:21748773

  18. Expert elicitation as a means to attribute 28 enteric pathogens to foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, and person-to-person transmission routes in Canada.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ainslie J; Thomas, M Kate; Pintar, Katarina D M

    2015-04-01

    Enteric illness contributes to a significant burden of illness in Canada and globally. Understanding its sources is a critical step in identifying and preventing health risks. Expert elicitation is a powerful tool, used previously, to obtain information about enteric illness source attribution where information is difficult or expensive to obtain. Thirty-one experts estimated transmission of 28 pathogens via major transmission routes (foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, person-to-person, and other) at the point of consumption. The elicitation consisted of a (snowball) recruitment phase; administration of a pre-survey to collect background information, an introductory webinar, an elicitation survey, a 1-day discussion, survey readministration, and a feedback exercise, and surveys were administered online. Experts were prompted to quantify changes in contamination at the point of entry into the kitchen versus point of consumption. Estimates were combined via triangular probability distributions, and medians and 90% credible-interval estimates were produced. Transmission was attributed primarily to food for Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp., all three Vibrio spp. categories explored, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Multisource pathogens (e.g., transmitted commonly through both water and food) such as Campylobacter spp., four Escherichia coli categories, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were also estimated as mostly foodborne. Water was the primary pathway for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., and person-to-person transmission dominated for six enteric viruses and Shigella spp. Consideration of the point of attribution highlighted the importance of food handling and cross-contamination in the transmission pathway. This study provides source attribution estimates of enteric illness for Canada, considering all possible transmission routes. Further research is necessary to improve our understanding of poorly characterized pathogens such as sapovirus and E. coli subgroups in Canada. PMID:25835810

  19. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelita C. Kelly; Lisa Basile; Troy Ames; Janice Watson; William Dallam

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and\\/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab

  20. Interpretation of the margin of exposure for genotoxic carcinogens - elicitation of expert knowledge about the form of the dose response curve at human relevant exposures.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan; Flari, Villie; Gosling, John Paul; Hart, Andy; Craig, Peter; Rushton, Lesley; Idahosa-Taylor, Ehi

    2013-07-01

    The general approach to risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens has been to advise reduction of exposure to "as low as reasonably achievable/practicable" (ALARA/P). However, whilst this remains the preferred risk management option, it does not provide guidance on the urgency or extent of risk management actions necessary. To address this, the "Margin of Exposure" (MOE) approach has been proposed. The MOE is the ratio between the point of departure for carcinogenesis and estimated human exposure. However, interpretation of the MOE requires implicit or explicit consideration of the shape of the dose-response curve at human relevant exposures. In a structured elicitation exercise, we captured expert opinion on available scientific evidence for low dose-response relationships for genotoxic carcinogens. This allowed assessment of: available evidence for the nature of dose-response relationships at human relevant exposures; the generality of judgments about such dose-response relationships; uncertainties affecting judgments on the nature of such dose-response relationships; and whether this last should differ for different classes of genotoxic carcinogens. Elicitation results reflected the variability in experts' views on the form of the dose-response curve for low dose exposure and major sources of uncertainty affecting the assumption of a linear relationship. PMID:23507349

  1. The impact of new data on an expert elicitation of the probability of volcanic intersection of the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, F. V.; Jenni, K. E.; Neiman, T.; Coppersmith, K.

    2008-12-01

    An expert elicitation completed in 1996 estimated the frequency of intersection by a dike of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. That assessment resulted in a mean annual frequency of intersection of 1.7e -8, or about 1 chance in 60 million per year. The expert panel primarily considered the past 5 million years of volcanic history when estimating the probability of intersection, and included in their assessment the possibility that at least a few volcanic centers were buried in alluvial basins near Yucca Mountain. The results of a regional aeromagnetic survey completed in 1999 suggested the potential for a higher number of buried volcanic centers than previously considered in the 1996 elicitation. Therefore, a new expert elicitation was convened in 2004 with the primary purpose of assessing the impact of buried volcanic centers on probability estimates. A major data-gathering effort completed in 2006 provided high-resolution aeromagnetic, drilling, and geochronology results that provided information on the number, location and age of buried basaltic centers near Yucca Mountain. Most buried basalt was determined to be of Miocene age. The youngest group of buried volcanic centers, 20-25 km south of Yucca Mountain, has an age of about 3.9 Ma. These results indicate that post-Miocene basaltic volcanism only occurred to the south and west of Yucca Mountain and not to the east, an important constraint in models that forecast the potential location of future volcanism. Other new data considered included the characteristics of dike swarms based on analog volcanoes, variations in crustal extension across the region, mantle tomography, and differences in calculated lithostatic pressure between basins and ranges. The new distribution for the annual frequency of intersection (5th and 95th percentiles of ~6e -10 and 1e -7) overlaps the 1996 distribution but is broader with more weight at both higher and lower values. This results in a slightly higher mean value and a slightly lower median value. The results are consistent with consideration of a broader range of conceptual models for the spatial and temporal behavior of volcanism, as well as more complex models of the geometry of volcanic events, all influenced in part by availability of new data.

  2. Business Process Elicitation, Modeling, and Reengineering: Teaching and Learning with Simulated Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeyaraj, Anand

    2010-01-01

    The design of enterprise information systems requires students to master technical skills for elicitation, modeling, and reengineering business processes as well as soft skills for information gathering and communication. These tacit skills and behaviors cannot be effectively taught students but rather experienced and learned by students. This…

  3. An expert system for natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, John F.

    1988-01-01

    A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

  4. Cellular defense processes regulated by pathogen-elicited receptor signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rongcong; Goldsipe, Arthur; Schauer, David B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2011-06-01

    Vertebrates are constantly threatened by the invasion of microorganisms and have evolved systems of immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens in the body. Initial sensing of microbial agents is mediated by the recognition of pathogens by means of molecular structures expressed uniquely by microbes of a given type. So-called 'Toll-like receptors' are expressed on host epithelial barrier cells play an essential role in the host defense against microbial pathogens by inducing cell responses (e.g., proliferation, death, cytokine secretion) via activation of intracellular signaling networks. As these networks, comprising multiple interconnecting dynamic pathways, represent highly complex multi-variate "information processing" systems, the signaling activities particularly critical for governing the host cell responses are poorly understood and not easily ascertained by a priori theoretical notions. We have developed over the past half-decade a "data-driven" computational modeling approach, on a 'cue-signal-response' combined experiment/computation paradigm, to elucidate key multi-variate signaling relationships governing the cell responses. In an example presented here, we study how a canonical set of six kinase pathways combine to effect microbial agent-induced apoptotic death of a macrophage cell line. One modeling technique, partial least-squares regression, yielded the following key insights: {a} signal combinations most strongly correlated to apoptotic death are orthogonal to those most strongly correlated with release of inflammatory cytokines; {b} the ratio of two key pathway activities is the most powerful predictor of microbe-induced macrophage apoptotic death; {c} the most influential time-window of this signaling activity ratio is surprisingly fast: less than one hour after microbe stimulation.

  5. The Expert Group Work Supervision Process: Apperception, Actions, and Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Deborah; Atieno Okech, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    The researchers conducted a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. This article's purpose is to report results that inform intentional practice and illustrate supervision interventions for group work supervisors. Results indicated that participants experienced an interactive…

  6. The hybrid image processing\\/expert image analysis system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung H. Kim; E. H. Park; C. Ntuen; K. H. Sohn; W. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze and interpret the X-ray image by using some knowledge base that relates objects within a scene to one another and to the scene background. Knowledge-based Image Analysis System (KIAS) is a prototype environment for image analysis and interpretation, KIAS consists of an image processing system and an expert system. It oversees

  7. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes were developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. The SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

  8. Rhythm evokes action: early processing of metric deviances in expressive music by experts and laymen revealed by ERP source imaging.

    PubMed

    James, Clara E; Michel, Christoph M; Britz, Juliane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hauert, Claude-Alain

    2012-12-01

    To examine how musical expertise tunes the brain to subtle metric anomalies in an ecological musical context, we presented piano compositions ending on standard and deviant cadences (endings) to expert pianists and musical laymen, while high-density EEG was recorded. Temporal expectancies were manipulated by substituting standard "masculine" cadences at metrically strong positions with deviant, metrically unaccented, "feminine" cadences. Experts detected metrically deviant cadences better than laymen. Analyses of event-related potentials demonstrated that an early P3a-like component (~150-300 ms), elicited by musical closure, was significantly enhanced at frontal and parietal electrodes in response to deviant endings in experts, whereas a reduced response to deviance occurred in laymen. Putative neuronal sources contributing to the modulation of this component were localized in a network of brain regions including bilateral supplementary motor areas, middle and posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, associative visual areas, as well as in the right amygdala and insula. In all these regions, experts showed enhanced responses to metric deviance. Later effects demonstrated enhanced activations within the same brain network, as well as higher processing speed for experts. These results suggest that early brain responses to metric deviance in experts may rely on motor representations mediated by the supplementary motor area and motor cingulate regions, in addition to areas involved in self-referential imagery and relevance detection. Such motor representations could play a role in temporal sensory prediction evolved from musical training and suggests that rhythm evokes action more strongly in highly trained instrumentalists. PMID:21932257

  9. Neural processes distinguishing elite from expert and novice athletes.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Naito, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    This commentary builds on a companion article in which Kim et al compare brain activation in elite, expert, and novice archers during a simulated target aiming task (Kim et al. 2014. Cogn Behav Neurol. 27:173-182). With the archery study as our starting point, we address 4 neural processes that may be responsible in general for elite athletes' superior performance over experts and novices: neural efficiency, cortical expansion, specialized processes, and internal models. In Kim et al's study, the elite archers' brains showed more activity in the supplementary motor area and the cerebellum than those of the novices and experts, and showed minimal widespread activity, especially in frontal areas involved with executive control. Kim et al's results are consistent with the idea of specialized neural processes that help coordinate motor planning and control. As athletes become more skilled, these processes may mediate the reduction in widespread activity in regions mapping executive control, and may produce a shift toward more automated processing. Kim et al's finding that activity in the cerebellum rose with increasing skill is consistent both with expansion of the finger representational area in the cerebellum and with internal models that simulate how archers manipulate the bow and arrow when aiming. Kim et al prepare the way for testing of neuromodulation techniques to improve athletic performance, refine highly technical job skills, and rehabilitate patients. PMID:25539037

  10. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  11. Expert opinion in risk analysis; The NUREG-1150 methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hora, S.C.; Iman, R.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Risk analysis of nuclear power generation often requires the use of expert opinion to provide probabilistic inputs where other sources of information are unavailable or are not cost effective. In the Reactor Rise Reference Document (NUREG-1150), a methodology for the collection of expert opinion was developed. The resulting methodology presented by the author involves a ten-step process: selection of experts, selection of issues, preparation of issue statements, elicitation training, preparation of expert analyses by panel members, discussion of analyses, elicitation, recomposition and aggregation, and review by the panel members. These steps were implemented in a multiple meeting format that brought together experts from a variety of work places.

  12. Systems Theory for the civil engineer The design process: insights from expert system development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Denis Russell

    1991-01-01

    The drive to develop expert systems is forcing would-be developers to examine and make explicit the mental processes which experts use. Much of what an expert actually does is carried out intuitively and without any conscious thought. The procedures and mental processes used in civil engineering design involve a ‘creative phase’, where the design first takes shape and then ‘evolves’,

  13. Explainable expert systems: A research program in information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Cecile L.

    1993-01-01

    Our work in Explainable Expert Systems (EES) had two goals: to extend and enhance the range of explanations that expert systems can offer, and to ease their maintenance and evolution. As suggested in our proposal, these goals are complementary because they place similar demands on the underlying architecture of the expert system: they both require the knowledge contained in a system to be explicitly represented, in a high-level declarative language and in a modular fashion. With these two goals in mind, the Explainable Expert Systems (EES) framework was designed to remedy limitations to explainability and evolvability that stem from related fundamental flaws in the underlying architecture of current expert systems.

  14. Differences in the Educational Software Evaluation Process for Experts and Novice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokmak, Hatice Sancar; Incikabi, Lutfi; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar

    2012-01-01

    This comparative case study investigated the educational software evaluation processes of both experts and novices in conjunction with a software evaluation checklist. Twenty novice elementary education students, divided into groups of five, and three experts participated. Each novice group and the three experts evaluated educational software…

  15. Breadth in Design Problem Scoping: Using Insights from Experts to Investigate Student Processes. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morozov, Andrew; Kilgore, Deborah; Atman, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors used two methods for analyzing expert data: verbal protocol analysis (VPA) and narrative analysis. VPA has been effectively used to describe the design processes employed by engineering students, expert designers, and expert-novice comparative research. VPA involves asking participants to "think aloud" while…

  16. Integrating an Expert System And a Neural Network for Process Planning Mark Wilhelm, Alice E. Smith

    E-print Network

    Smith, Alice E.

    Integrating an Expert System And a Neural Network for Process Planning 1 Mark Wilhelm, Alice E. #12;2 Integrating an Expert System And a Neural Network for Process Planning 3 Mark Wilhelm, Alice E with an artificial neural network. The if/then rules create parts lists and process plans, while the neural network

  17. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Expert Readers' Main Idea Construction Processes. Outstanding Dissertation Monograph, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter

    A series of three studies examined the influence of prior knowledge on expert readers' main idea construction processes. Eight expert readers read texts from familiar and unfamiliar content domains, and gave verbal reports of the processes they used for constructing main ideas. Five distinct main idea construction processes were reported: (1)…

  18. A rule-based expert system approach to process selection for cast components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Er Ahmet; R. Dias

    2000-01-01

    A knowledge-based expert system at the discretion of casting product designers can be employed as a real-time expert advisor to assist product designers to achieve the correct casting design and select the most appropriate casting process for a given component. This paper proposes a rule-based expert system approach for casting process selection, and describes an ongoing rule prototype development. The

  19. Expert judgment in maintenance optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan M. van Noortwijk; A. Dekker; Roger M. Cooke; Thomas A. Mazzuchi

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive method for the use of expert opinion for obtaining lifetime distributions required for maintenance optimization is proposed. The method includes procedures for the elicitation of discretized lifetime distributions from several experts, the combination of the elicited expert opinion into a consensus distribution, and the updating of the consensus distribution with failure and maintenance data. The development of the

  20. Career Counseling Process: A Qualitative Analysis of Experts' Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiston, Susan C.; Lindeman, Dawn; Rahardja, Daryn; Reed, Jordan H.

    2005-01-01

    A consensual qualitative research methodology was used to analyze the career counseling cases of 12 noted vocational psychologists to identify common themes and factors. The findings indicated that the career counseling described by these experts often involved the same counseling or helping skills found in personal counseling or psychotherapy.…

  1. Expert system of a crude oil distillation unit for process optimization using neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo Chau-kuang Liau; Thomas Chung-Kuang Yang; Ming-te Tsai

    2004-01-01

    An expert system of crude oil distillation unit (CDU) was developed to carry out the process optimization on maximizing oil production rate under the required oil product qualities. The expert system was established using the expertise of a practical CDU operating system provided by a group of experienced engineers. The input operating variables of the CDU system were properties of

  2. Modelling health care processes for eliciting user requirements: a way to link a quality paradigm and clinical information system design.

    PubMed

    Staccini, P; Joubert, M; Quaranta, J F; Fieschi, D; Fieschi, M

    2001-12-01

    Healthcare institutions are looking at ways to increase their efficiency by reducing costs while providing care services with a high level of safety. Thus, hospital information systems have to support quality improvement objectives. The elicitation of the requirements has to meet users' needs in relation to both the quality (efficacy, safety) and the monitoring of all health care activities (traceability). Information analysts need methods to conceptualise clinical information systems that provide actors with individual benefits and guide behavioural changes. A methodology is proposed to elicit and structure users' requirements using a process-oriented analysis, and it is applied to the blood transfusion process. An object-oriented data model of a process has been defined in order to organise the data dictionary. Although some aspects of activity, such as 'where', 'what else', and 'why' are poorly represented by the data model alone, this method of requirement elicitation fits the dynamic of data input for the process to be traced. A hierarchical representation of hospital activities has to be found for the processes to be interrelated, and for their characteristics to be shared, in order to avoid data redundancy and to fit the gathering of data with the provision of care. PMID:11734381

  3. Identification and evaluation of scientific uncertainties related to fish and aquatic resources in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon - summary and interpretation of an expert-elicitation questionnaire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying areas of scientific uncertainty is a critical step in the adaptive management process (Walters, 1986; Runge, Converse, and Lyons, 2011). To identify key areas of scientific uncertainty regarding biologic resources of importance to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) convened Knowledge Assessment Workshops in May and July 2005. One of the products of these workshops was a set of strategic science questions that highlighted key areas of scientific uncertainty. These questions were intended to frame and guide the research and monitoring activities conducted by the GCMRC in subsequent years. Questions were developed collaboratively by scientists and managers. The questions were not all of equal importance or merit—some questions were large scale and others were small scale. Nevertheless, these questions were adopted and have guided the research and monitoring efforts conducted by the GCMRC since 2005. A new round of Knowledge Assessment Workshops was convened by the GCMRC in June and October 2011 and January 2012 to determine whether the research and monitoring activities conducted since 2005 had successfully answered some of the strategic science questions. Oral presentations by scientists highlighting research findings were a centerpiece of all three of the 2011–12 workshops. Each presenter was also asked to provide an answer to the strategic science questions that were specific to the presenter’s research area. One limitation of this approach is that these answers represented the views of the handful of scientists who developed the presentations, and, as such, they did not incorporate other perspectives. Thus, the answers provided by presenters at the Knowledge Assessment Workshops may not have accurately captured the sentiments of the broader group of scientists involved in research and monitoring of the Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Yet a fundamental ingredient of resilient decisionmaking and problem-solving is incorporation of a wide range of perspectives (Carpenter and others, 2009). To ensure that a wide range of scientists had an opportunity to weigh in on the strategic science questions, the GCMRC elicited additional perspectives through written questionnaires. Independently soliciting responses from scientists through questionnaires had the added advantage of allowing all scientists to freely and openly share their views on complex and controversial topics—something which may not have occurred in the group setting of the June 2011 Knowledge Assessment Workshop because of dominance by one or more scientists. The purpose of this report is to document and interpret the questionnaire responses.

  4. An Expert System to Support Clothing Design Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Santos; Francisco Rebelo

    2007-01-01

    In the context of expert systems technologies and human computer interaction, the goal of this project is to construct an\\u000a interactive design support to fashion designers when designing workwear or corporatewear clothes. This system will be fed\\u000a by a semantic database that describes the relations between function and clothes specific context of use under the user’s\\u000a perspective. This application will

  5. Experience, Learning, and the Process of Expert Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experience and its differential effects on the types of knowledge that drive\\u000a an auditor's expert-like behaviors during performance of field tasks. A descriptive model showing how the accessibility of\\u000a an auditor's environmental and strategic knowledge are affected by task experience is presented. Properties that account for\\u000a the accessibility of an auditor's knowledge are defined

  6. A formal methodology for acquiring and representing expert knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, N.M.; McDonald, J.E.

    1986-10-01

    The process of eliciting knowledge from human experts and representing that knowledge in an expert or knowledge-based system suffers from numerous problems. Not only is this process time-consuming and tedious, but the weak knowledge acquisition methods typically used (i.e., interviews and protocol analysis) are inadequate for eliciting tacit knowledge and may, in fact, lead to inaccuracies in the knowledge base. In addition, the intended knowledge representation scheme guides the acquisition of knowledge resulting in a representation-driven knowledge base as opposed to one that is knowledge-driven. In this paper, a formal methodology is proposed that employs techniques from the field of cognitive psychology to uncover expert knowledge as well as an appropriate representation of that knowledge. The advantages of such a methodology are discussed, as well as results from studies concerning the elicitation of concepts from experts and the assignment of labels to links in empirically derived semantic networks.

  7. Event-related potential N270 is elicited by mental conflict processing in human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuping Wang; Jian Kong; Xiaofu Tang; Ding Zhuang; Shunwei Li

    2000-01-01

    We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 15 subjects in order to elicit a N270 of arithmetic conflict. Subjects calculated an arithmetic problem and matched their calculation result to an answer digit. They pressed a button when the presented digit is a true answer (condition 1) and pressed another button when the answer is false (condition 2). ERP components of P90,

  8. Expert model for intelligent control of composite materials processing in a press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Tony E.; Quinter, Suzanne R.; Abrams, Frances L.

    1992-02-01

    An expert model for the in-process control of the press processing of thermoset composite materials has been developed. The knowledge base written using Personal Consultant Plus (PC Plus) expert system shell was interfaced with models written in FORTRAN. The expert model, which is running on a single computer with a single processor, takes advantage of the symbol crunching capability of the LISP computer language and the number crunching capability of FORTRAN. The expert model control system is a qualitative-quantitative process automation (QQPA) system since it includes both quantitative model-based and qualitative rule-based expert system operations. The feasibility of using models to determine the process state when sensors are not available or are malfunctioning was demonstrated. Hercules 3501-6/AS4 8-in x 8-in panels were processed in the heated-platens press, using both the standard cure cycle and the expert model control system. Various physical and mechanical properties were measured from panels processed using the two cycles. Using QQPA, processing time has been reduced significantly without altering product quality.

  9. Representation and processing of rule-based expert system using Petri nets: a viable framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Hura

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a useful and novel framework of representing and processing knowledge in a rule-based expert system. It provides a high level of interaction with domain expert for automating the construction and maintenance of rule-based system. The proposed approach uses the rich concepts of software engineering for maintaining the system and provides user-friendly environment for query processing and knowledge

  10. Process consistency in models: The importance of system signatures, expert knowledge, and process complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, M.; Fovet, O.; Ruiz, L.; Euser, T.; Gharari, S.; Nijzink, R.; Freer, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrological models frequently suffer from limited predictive power despite adequate calibration performances. This can indicate insufficient representations of the underlying processes. Thus, ways are sought to increase model consistency while satisfying the contrasting priorities of increased model complexity and limited equifinality. In this study, the value of a systematic use of hydrological signatures and expert knowledge for increasing model consistency was tested. It was found that a simple conceptual model, constrained by four calibration objective functions, was able to adequately reproduce the hydrograph in the calibration period. The model, however, could not reproduce a suite of hydrological signatures, indicating a lack of model consistency. Subsequently, testing 11 models, model complexity was increased in a stepwise way and counter-balanced by "prior constraints," inferred from expert knowledge to ensure a model which behaves well with respect to the modeler's perception of the system. We showed that, in spite of unchanged calibration performance, the most complex model setup exhibited increased performance in the independent test period and skill to better reproduce all tested signatures, indicating a better system representation. The results suggest that a model may be inadequate despite good performance with respect to multiple calibration objectives and that increasing model complexity, if counter-balanced by prior constraints, can significantly increase predictive performance of a model and its skill to reproduce hydrological signatures. The results strongly illustrate the need to balance automated model calibration with a more expert-knowledge-driven strategy of constraining models.

  11. In Experts, underlying processes that drive visuomotor adaptation are different than in Novices.

    PubMed

    Leukel, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Processes responsible for improvements in motor performance are often contrasted in an explicit and an implicit part. Explicit learning enables task success by using strategic (declarative) knowledge. Implicit learning refers to a change in motor performance without conscious effort. In this study, we tested the contribution of explicit and implicit processes in a visuomotor adaptation task in subjects with different expertise in the task they were asked to adapt. Thirty handball players (Experts) and 30 subjects without handball experience (Novices) participated. Three experiments tested visuomotor adaptation of a free throw in team handball using prismatic glasses. The difference between experiments was that in Experiment 2 and 3, contribution of explicit processes was prevented, whereas Experiment 1 allowed contribution of explicit and implicit processes. Retention was assessed in Experiment 3. There were three main findings: (i) contribution of explicit processes to adaptation was stronger in Experts than Novices (Experiment 1); (ii) adaptation took longer in Experts when preventing contribution of explicit processes (Experiment 2); and (iii) retention was stronger in Experts (Experiment 3). This study shows that learning processes involved in visuomotor adaptation change by expertise, with more involvement of explicit processes and most likely other implicit processes to adaptation in Experts. PMID:25713526

  12. In Experts, underlying processes that drive visuomotor adaptation are different than in Novices

    PubMed Central

    Leukel, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Processes responsible for improvements in motor performance are often contrasted in an explicit and an implicit part. Explicit learning enables task success by using strategic (declarative) knowledge. Implicit learning refers to a change in motor performance without conscious effort. In this study, we tested the contribution of explicit and implicit processes in a visuomotor adaptation task in subjects with different expertise in the task they were asked to adapt. Thirty handball players (Experts) and 30 subjects without handball experience (Novices) participated. Three experiments tested visuomotor adaptation of a free throw in team handball using prismatic glasses. The difference between experiments was that in Experiment 2 and 3, contribution of explicit processes was prevented, whereas Experiment 1 allowed contribution of explicit and implicit processes. Retention was assessed in Experiment 3. There were three main findings: (i) contribution of explicit processes to adaptation was stronger in Experts than Novices (Experiment 1); (ii) adaptation took longer in Experts when preventing contribution of explicit processes (Experiment 2); and (iii) retention was stronger in Experts (Experiment 3). This study shows that learning processes involved in visuomotor adaptation change by expertise, with more involvement of explicit processes and most likely other implicit processes to adaptation in Experts. PMID:25713526

  13. Regret-based Reward Elicitation for Markov Decision Processes Kevin Regan

    E-print Network

    Boutilier, Craig

    or domain expert can be difficult, e.g., cogni- tively demanding, computationally costly, or time consum (either Q(s, a) or V (s)): states can be viewed as good or bad based on their ability to make other good

  14. XCUT: A rule-based expert system for the automated process planning of machined parts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Brooks; K. E. Hummel; M. L. Wolf

    1987-01-01

    Automated process planning is becoming a popular research and development topic in engineering and applied artificial intelligence. It is generally defined as the automatic planning of the manufacturing procedures for producing a part from a CAD based product definition. An automated process planning system, XCUT, is currently being developed using rule-based expert system techniques. XCUT will generate process plans for

  15. Expert Models and Modeling Processes Associated with a Computer-Modeling Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, BaoHui; Liu, Xiufeng; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2006-01-01

    Holding the premise that the development of expertise is a continuous process, this study concerns expert models and modeling processes associated with a modeling tool called Model-It. Five advanced Ph.D. students in environmental engineering and public health used Model-It to create and test models of water quality. Using "think aloud" technique…

  16. A Sublanguage Approach to Natural Language Processing for an Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the development of an NLP (natural language processing) component for processing the free-text comments on life insurance applications for evaluation by an underwriting expert system. A sublanguage grammar approach with strong reliance on semantic word classes is described. Highlights include lexical analysis, adjacency analysis, and…

  17. Controlling Real-Time Processes On The Space Station With Expert Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinweber, David; Perry, John

    1987-02-01

    Many aspects of space station operations involve continuous control of real-time processes. These processes include electrical power system monitoring, propulsion system health and maintenance, environmental and life support systems, space suit checkout, on-board manufacturing, and servicing of attached vehicles such as satellites, shuttles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, orbital transfer vehicles and remote teleoperators. Traditionally, monitoring of these critical real-time processes has been done by trained human experts monitoring telemetry data. However, the long duration of space station missions and the high cost of crew time in space creates a powerful economic incentive for the development of highly autonomous knowledge-based expert control procedures for these space stations. In addition to controlling the normal operations of these processes, the expert systems must also be able to quickly respond to anomalous events, determine their cause and initiate corrective actions in a safe and timely manner. This must be accomplished without excessive diversion of system resources from ongoing control activities and any events beyond the scope of the expert control and diagnosis functions must be recognized and brought to the attention of human operators. Real-time sensor based expert systems (as opposed to off-line, consulting or planning systems receiving data via the keyboard) pose particular problems associated with sensor failures, sensor degradation and data consistency, which must be explicitly handled in an efficient manner. A set of these systems must also be able to work together in a cooperative manner. This paper describes the requirements for real-time expert systems in space station control, and presents prototype implementations of space station expert control procedures in PICON (process intelligent control). PICON is a real-time expert system shell which operates in parallel with distributed data acquisition systems. It incorporates a specialized inference engine with a specialized scheduling portion specifically designed to match the allocation of system resources with the operational requirements of real-time control systems. Innovative knowledge engineering techniques used in PICON to facilitate the development of real-time sensor-based expert systems which use the special features of the inference engine are illustrated in the prototype examples.

  18. Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method and system are disclosed for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 24 figs.

  19. A microanalytic study of self-regulated learning processes of expert, non-expert, and at-risk science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibenedetto, Maria K.

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation sought to examine differences in the self-regulated learning processes and beliefs of students who vary in their level of expertise in science and to investigate if there are gender differences. Participants were 51 ethnically diverse 11th grade students from three parochial high schools consisting of 34 females and 17 males. Students were grouped as either expert, non-expert, or at-risk based on the school's classification. Students were provided with a short passage on tornados to read and study. The two achievement measures obtained were the Tornado Knowledge Test : ten short-answer questions and the Conceptual Model Test : a question which required the students to draw and describe the three sequential images of tornado development from the textual description of the three phases. A microanalytic methodology was used which consists of asking a series of questions aimed at assessing students' psychological behaviors, feelings, and thoughts in each of Zimmerman's three phases of self-regulation: forethought, performance, and reflection. These questions were asked of the students while they were engaged in learning. Two additional measures were obtained: the Rating Student Self-Regulated Learning Outcomes: A Teacher Scale (RSSRL) and the Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning (SELF). Analysis of variance, chi square analysis, and post hoc test results showed significant expertise differences, large effect sizes, and positive linear trends on most measures. Regarding gender, there were significant differences on only two measures. Correlational analyses also revealed significant relations among the self-regulatory subprocesses across the three phases. The microanalytic measures were combined across the three phases and entered into a regression formula to predict the students' scores on the Tornado Knowledge Test. These self-regulatory processes explained 77% of the variance in the Tornado Knowledge Test, which was a significant and substantial effect. Prior to this investigation, there have been no studies which have tested Zimmerman's three phase model on an academic task, such as science, within an expertise framework. Implications from the present study suggest that students varying in expertise level in science achievement also vary in self-regulatory behavior, and that gender is not a significant factor.

  20. Chitosan-Elicited Callose Synthesis in Soybean Cells as a Ca2+-Dependent Process 1

    PubMed Central

    Köhle, Harald; Jeblick, Wolfgang; Poten, Frauke; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Kauss, Heinrich

    1985-01-01

    A new method for the rapid and quantitative fluorometric determination of callose is described. In suspension-cultured cells of Glycine max, synthesis of callose starts within 20 minutes of treatment with chitosan and parallels over hours the accumulation of 1,3-linked glucose in the wall. Poly-l-lysine also elicits callose synthesis. The effect of chitosan is enhanced by Polymyxin B at low concentrations; this antibiotic alone at higher concentrations can also induce callose synthesis. Callose synthesis is immediately stopped when external Ca2+ is bound by ethylene glycolbis-(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N?-tetraacetate or cation exchange beads, and partly recovers upon restoration of 15 micromolar Ca2+. Callose synthesis is observed only when membrane perturbation causing electrolyte leakage from the cells is induced by one of the above treatments. It does not appear to be due to de novo synthesis or proteolytic activation of 1,3-?-d-glucan synthase. It is concluded that this Ca2+-dependent enzyme is directly activated by the influx of Ca2+ occurring concomitantly with the leakage of cell constituents. This suggestion is also discussed in conjunction with the chitosan-induced synthesis of phytoalexin in the same cells. Images Fig. 5 PMID:16664095

  1. Efficient production of flavonoids in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with yeast polysaccharide elicitation and medium renewal process

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Zou, Liang; Zhang, Cai-Qiong; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Peng, Lian-Xin; Xiang, Da-Bing; Zhao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an excellent edible and medicinal crop, has been widely used as a daily diet and traditional medicine for a long time. The major functional components of Fagopyrum tataricum have been demonstrated to be flavonoids (i.e. rutin and quercetin), which had notable andioxidant, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and antitumor activities. Hairy root culture is a convenient and efficient plant tissue culture system for large scale production of bioactive metabolites. Objective: To enhance the functional flavonoids production in hairy root culture of F. tataricum. Materials and Methods: The elicitation treatment in combination with medium renewal strategy was applied for efficient promoting flavonoids production in F. tataricum hairy root cultures. Results: The exogenous yeast polysaccharide (YPS) elicitor notably stimulated the functional metabolites production in F. tataricum hairy root cultures, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. Combination with the YPS elicitation (200 mg/L) and medium renewal process, the maximal flavonoids yield was enhanced to 47.13 mg/L, about 3.2-fold in comparison with the control culture of 14.88 mg/L. Moreover, this research also revealed the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. These results indicated that the F. tataricum hairy root culture could be an effective system for rutin and quercetin production. PMID:25210309

  2. Psychology of developing and designing expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

  3. Visual Attention and Brain Processes That Underlie Expert Performance: Implications for Sport and Military Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M. Janelle; Bradley D. Hatfield

    2008-01-01

    Advances in methodology have allowed sport psychologists to broaden their understanding of expert performance through inclusion of physiological assessments of expertise (e.g., eye movements and bioelectric signals such as the electroencephalogram [EEG]). Innovations linking physiology, basic cognitive processes, and performance have illustrated the degree to which these techniques can converge on a finer-grained understanding of factors driving learning and performance

  4. An expert system with temporal reasoning for alarm processing in power system control centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. A. Vale; A. Machado e Moura

    1993-01-01

    The alarm lists presented to control center operators are usually difficult to interpret. The authors present an expert system that processes the alarm lists in Portuguese control centers. This system makes an intelligent synthesis of the available information and presents it in a flexible and structured way. It uses an original approach to deal with temporal reasoning and real-time constraints.

  5. An expert decision support system for monitoring and diagnosis of petroleum production and separation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine W. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Automation of operations of petroleum production and separation facilities are desirable because the plants are often located in remote areas difficult to access in the severe Prairie winters. This paper presents the development process of an expert decision support system for monitoring, control and diagnosis of a petroleum production and separation plant. Data from various components of the plant are

  6. Expert systems for knowledge management: crossing the chasm between information processing and sense making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yogesh Malhotra

    2001-01-01

    Based on insights from research in information systems, information science, business strategy and organization science, this paper develops the bases for advancing the paradigm of AI and expert systems technologies to account for two related issues: (a) dynamic radical discontinuous change impacting organizational performance; and (b) human sense-making processes that can complement the machine learning capabilities for designing and implementing

  7. Studying the Accuracy of Software Process Elicitation: The User Articulated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    Process models are often the basis for demonstrating improvement and compliance in software engineering organizations. A descriptive model is a type of process model describing the human activities in software development that actually occur. The purpose of a descriptive model is to provide a documented baseline for further process improvement…

  8. Vision expert system 3D-IMPRESS for automated construction of three dimensional image processing procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang-Rong Zhou; Akinobu Shimizu; Jun-ichi Hasegawa; Jun-ichiro Toriwaki; Takeshi Hara; Hiroshi Fujita

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a three dimensional (3D) image processing expert system called 3D-IMPRESS is presented. This system can automatically construct a 3D image processing procedure by using pairs of an original input image and a desired output figure called sample figure given by a user This paper describes the outline of 3D-IMPRESS and presents a method of procedure consolidation for

  9. Applying an integrated neuro-expert system model in a real-time alarm processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Rajiv; Dillon, Tharam S.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper we propose an integrated model which is derived from the combination of a generic neuro-expert system model, an object model, and unix operating system process (UOSP) model. This integrated model reflects the strengths of both artificial neural nets (ANNs) and expert systems (ESs). A formalism of ES object, ANN object, UOSP object, and problem domain object is used for developing a set of generic data structures and methods. These generic data structures and methods help us to build heterogeneous ES-ANN objects with uniform communication interface. The integrated model is applied in a real-time alarm processing system for a non-trivial terminal power station. It is shown how features like hierarchical/distributed ES/ANN objects, inter process communication, and fast concurrent execution help to cope with real-time system constraints like, continuity, data variability, and fast response time.

  10. The PWI (plutonium waste incinerator) expert system: Real time, PC-based process analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Smith, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    A real time, microcomputer-based expert system is being developed for a prototype plutonium waste incinerator (PWI) process at Du Pont's Savannah River Laboratory. The expert system will diagnose instrumentation problems, assist operator training, serve as a repository for engineering knowledge about the process, and provide continuous operation and performance information. A set of necessary operational criteria was developed from process and engineering constraints; it was used to define hardware and software needs. The most important criterion is operating speed because the analysis operates in real time. TURBO PROLOG by Borland International was selected. The analysis system is divided into three sections: the user-system interface, the inference engine and rule base, and the files representing the blackboard information center.

  11. Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shewhart, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

  12. Intracerebral source localization of mental process-related potentials elicited prior to mental sweating response in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saburo Homma; Yoshio Nakajima; Shinobu Toma; Toshihiko Ito; Tadahiko Shibata

    1998-01-01

    We measured the mental sweating response (MSR) and the skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA). Mental arithmetic or recall questions first elicited SSNA and then elicited MSR. MSR was used as the trigger point of time 0 ms to average EEGs. The averaged EEGs contained slow wave fluctuations, which occurred 5 s prior to the MSR onset. The current source locations

  13. A fuzzy expert system for aviation risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hadjimichael

    2009-01-01

    The Flight Operations Risk Assessment System (FORAS) is a risk modeling methodology which represents risk factors and their interrelationships as a fuzzy expert system. A FORAS risk model provides a quantitative relative risk index representing an estimate of the cumulative effects of potential hazards on a single flight operation. FORAS systematizes the process of eliciting human expertise, provides for a

  14. Deduction Electrified: ERPs Elicited by the Processing of Words in Conditional Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the ERP components associated with the processing of words that are critical to generating and rejecting deductive conditional Modus Ponens arguments ("If P then Q; P//"Therefore, "Q"). The generation of a logical inference is investigated by placing a verb in the minor premise that matches the one used in the antecedent of…

  15. An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

  16. Dispreferred adjective orders elicit brain responses associated with lexico-semantic rather than syntactic processing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how adjective ordering is used in language comprehension by crossing order preference and concreteness in phrases consisting of two adjectives and a noun. We used both more typical phrases in which the preferred order has a concrete second adjective (“exhaustive hardback encyclopedia”) and those with a concrete first adjective in the preferred order (“heavy informative encyclopedia“). We found that concreteness-related modulations of the ERP waveform were likely responsible for prior reports of increased positivity to dispreferred orders (interpreted as a syntactic P600-like effect). When concreteness is controlled, instead, we found that dispreferred orders are associated with larger N400s to the second adjective and following noun. This suggests that dispreferred adjective orders impact lexico-semantic predictability and the ability to generate mental images of the referent but do not result in syntactic processing difficulties. PMID:22885290

  17. Knowledge-based aerial image understanding systems and expert systems for image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, T.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses roles of artificial intelligence in the automatic interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The authors first discuss several image understanding systems for analyzing complex aerial photographs. The discussion is mainly concerned with knowledge representation and control structure in the aerial image understanding systems: a blackboard model for integrating diverse object detection modules, a symbolic model representation for three-dimensional object recognition, and integration of bottom-up and top-down analyses. Then, a model of expert systems for image processing is introduced that discussed which and what combinations of image processing operators are effective to analyze an image.

  18. Medical Knowledge Base Acquisition: The Role of the Expert Review Process in Disease Profile Construction

    PubMed Central

    Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli; Bankowitz, Richard A.; Giuse, Dario A.; Parker, Ronnie C.; Miller, Randolph A.

    1989-01-01

    In order to better understand the knowledge acquisition process, we studied the changes which a newly developed “preliminary” QMR disease profile undergoes during the expert review process. Changes in the ten most recently created disease profiles from the INTERNIST-1/QMR knowledge base were analyzed. We classified the changes which occurred during knowledge base construction by the type of change and the reason for the change. Observed changes to proposed findings could be grouped according to whether a change was needed to maintain consistency with the existing knowledge base, or because of disagreement over knowledge content with the domain expert. Out of 987 total proposed findings in the ten profiles, 233 findings underwent 274 changes, approximately one change for each three proposed findings. A total of 43% of the changes were additions or deletions of findings or links compared to the preliminary disease profile, and 33% of the changes were alterations in the numerical value of the evoking strength or frequency. A total of 126 (46%) of changes were required to maintain consistency of the knowledge base, whereas the remaining 148 (54%) changes were altered based on suggestions made by the domain expert based on domain content. The type of change (consistency vs. domain knowledge) was found to correlate both with the class of finding (newly constructed vs. previously used) and with the experience of the profiler (novice vs. experienced). These differences suggest that some but not all aspects of the disease profiling process can be improved upon with experience. Since it is generally agreed that the construction of a knowledge base depends heavily upon the knowledge acquisition process, this study provides some insight into areas of investigation for others interested in the construction of automated tools to aid the process of knowledge base construction. It also provides support for the observation that knowledge base construction has at least some component which improves with experience.

  19. How experts are chosen to inform public policy: can the process be improved?

    PubMed

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Drew, Christa; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Westring, M Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of the food supply has magnified the importance of ongoing research into nutrition and food safety issues that have significant impact on public health. At the same time, ethical questions have been raised regarding conflict of interest, making it more challenging to form the expert panels that advise government agencies and public health officials in formulating nutrition and food safety policy. Primarily due to the growing complexity of the interactions among government, industry, and academic research institutions, increasingly stringent conflict-of-interest policies may have the effect of barring the most experienced and knowledgeable nutrition and food scientists from contributing their expertise on the panels informing public policy. This paper explores the issue in some depth, proposing a set of principles for determining considerations for service on expert advisory committees. Although the issues around scientific policy counsel and the selection of advisory panels clearly have global applicability, the context for their development had a US and Canadian focus in this work. The authors also call for a broader discussion in all sectors of the research community as to whether and how the process of empaneling food science and nutrition experts might be improved. PMID:23415508

  20. Energy Efficiency Policy in Arizona Public Participation and Expert Consultation in the Policy Implementation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryck, Drew

    Many different levels of government, organizations, and programs actively shape the future of energy in Arizona, a state that lacks a comprehensive energy plan. Disparate actions by multiple actors may slow the energy policy process rather than expedite it. The absence of a state energy policy or plan raises questions about how multiple actors and ideas engage with state energy policy development and whether the absence of a comprehensive state plan can be understood. Improving how policy development is conceptualized and giving more focused attention to the mechanisms by which interested parties become involved in shaping Arizona energy policy. To explore these questions, I examine the future energy efficiency. Initially, public engagement mechanisms were examined for their role in policy creation from a theoretical perspective. Next a prominent public engagement forum that was dedicated to the topic of the Arizona's energy future was examined, mapping its process and conclusions onto a policy process model. The first part of this thesis involves an experimental expert consultation panel which was convened to amplify and refine the results of a public forum. The second part utilizes an online follow up survey to complete unfinished ideas from the focus group. The experiment flowed from a hypothesis that formal expert discussion on energy efficiency policies, guided by the recommendations put forth by the public engagement forum on energy in Arizona, would result in an increase in relevance while providing a forum for interdisciplinary collaboration that is atypical in today's energy discussions. This experiment was designed and evaluated utilizing a public engagement framework that incorporated theoretical and empirical elements. Specifically, I adapted elements of three methods of public and expert engagement used in policy development to create a consultation process that was contextualized to energy efficiency stakeholders in Arizona and their unique constraints. The goal of the consultation process was to refine preferences about policy options by expert stakeholders into actionable goals that could achieve advancement on policy implementation. As a corollary goal, the research set out to define implementation barriers, refine policy ideas, and operationalize Arizona-centric goals for the future of energy efficiency.

  1. Processes in construction of failure management expert systems from device design information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Lance, Nick

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes the tasks and problem solving methods used by an engineer in constructing a failure management expert system from design information about the device to te diagnosed. An expert test engineer developed a trouble-shooting expert system based on device design information and experience with similar devices, rather than on specific expert knowledge gained from operating the device or troubleshooting its failures. The construction of the expert system was intensively observed and analyzed. This paper characterizes the knowledge, tasks, methods, and design decisions involved in constructing this type of expert system, and makes recommendations concerning tools for aiding and automating construction of such systems.

  2. An expert system with temporal reasoning for alarm processing in power system control centers

    SciTech Connect

    Vale, Z.A.; Machado e Moura, A. (Univ. of Porto (Portugal))

    1993-08-01

    The alarm lists presented to Control Center operators are usually of difficult interpretation. When a disturbance occurs in the Power System, several thousands alarms may arrive in a short period of time. Human operators are not able to process all the information and, in this situation, an important alarm may be ignored causing serious difficulties to the fault diagnosis and power restoration. In this paper the authors present an Expert System that processes the alarm lists in Portuguese Control Centers. This system makes an intelligent synthesis of the available information and presents it in a more flexible and structured way. It uses an original approach to deal with temporal reasoning and real-time constraints. The system incorporates an explanation module that enables its use as a tutor for novice operators.

  3. PRODIAG: Combined expert system/neural network for process fault diagnosis. Volume 2, Code manual

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1995-09-01

    We recommend the reader first review Volume 1 of this document, Code Theory, before reading Volume 2. In this volume we make extensive use of terms and concepts described and defined in Volume 1 which are not redefined here to the same extent. To try to reduce the amount of redundant information, we have restricted this volume to the presentation of the expert system code and refer back to the theory described in Volume 1 when necessary. Verification and validation of the results are presented in Volume 3, Application, of this document. Volume 3 also presents the implementation of the component characteristics diagnostic approach through artificial neural networks discussed in Volume 1. We decided to present the component characteristics approach in Volume 3, as opposed to write a separate code manual for it, because the approach, although general, requires a case-by-case analysis. The purpose of this volume is to present the details of the expert system (ES) portion o the PRODIAG process diagnostic program. In addition, we present here the graphical diagnostics interface (GDI) and illustrate the combined use of the ES and GDI with a sample problem. For completeness, we provide the file names of all files, programs and major subroutines of these two systems, ES and GDI, and their corresponding location in the Reactor Analysis Division (RA) computer network and Reactor Engineering Division (RE) computer network as of 30 September 1995.

  4. Parahippocampal cortex is involved in material processing via echoes in blind echolocation experts.

    PubMed

    Milne, Jennifer L; Arnott, Stephen R; Kish, Daniel; Goodale, Melvyn A; Thaler, Lore

    2015-04-01

    Some blind humans use sound to navigate by emitting mouth-clicks and listening to the echoes that reflect from silent objects and surfaces in their surroundings. These echoes contain information about the size, shape, location, and material properties of objects. Here we present results from an fMRI experiment that investigated the neural activity underlying the processing of materials through echolocation. Three blind echolocation experts (as well as three blind and three sighted non-echolocating control participants) took part in the experiment. First, we made binaural sound recordings in the ears of each echolocator while he produced clicks in the presence of one of three different materials (fleece, synthetic foliage, or whiteboard), or while he made clicks in an empty room. During fMRI scanning these recordings were played back to participants. Remarkably, all participants were able to identify each of the three materials reliably, as well as the empty room. Furthermore, a whole brain analysis, in which we isolated the processing of just the reflected echoes, revealed a material-related increase in BOLD activation in a region of left parahippocampal cortex in the echolocating participants, but not in the blind or sighted control participants. Our results, in combination with previous findings about brain areas involved in material processing, are consistent with the idea that material processing by means of echolocation relies on a multi-modal material processing area in parahippocampal cortex. PMID:25086210

  5. Architecture For The Optimization Of A Machining Process In Real Time Through Rule-Based Expert System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Serrano; Luis Carlos González; Francisco Jesús Martín

    2009-01-01

    Under the project SENSOR-IA which has had financial funding from the Order of Incentives to the Regional Technology Centers of the Counsil of Innovation, Science and Enterprise of Andalusia, an architecture for the optimization of a machining process in real time through rule-based expert system has been developed. The architecture consists of an acquisition system and sensor data processing engine

  6. Comparing knowledge elicitation techniques: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Schweickert; A. M. Burton; N. K. Taylor; E. N. Corlett; N. R. Shadbolt; A. P. Hedgecock

    1987-01-01

    Three knowledge elicitation techniques were used to extract knowledge bases from experts on lighting for industrial inspection tasks. The techniques were: I a structured interview; II ‘twenty questions’ —imputing rules from information requests; and III a card sort. The first two techniques generate protocols, and in these cases two knowledge engineers independently extracted production rules from the protocols. In the

  7. Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) Quality Assurance (QA)/Data Accounting (DA) expert systems: Transition from prototypes to operational systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basile, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historial records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

  8. Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) quality assurance (QA)/data accounting (DA) expert systems - Transition from prototypes to operational systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basile, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historical records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

  9. Breast Implant–associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Updated Results from a Structured Expert Consultation Process

    PubMed Central

    Predmore, Zachary S.; Mattke, Soeren; van Busum, Kristin; Gidengil, Courtney A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite increased cases published on breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), important clinical issues remain unanswered. We conducted a second structured expert consultation process to rate statements related to the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of this disease, based on their interpretation of published evidence. Methods: A multidisciplinary panel of 12 experts was selected based on nominations from national specialty societies, academic department heads, and recognized researchers in the United States. Results: Panelists agreed that (1) this disease should be called “BIA-ALCL”; (2) late seromas occurring >1 year after breast implantation should be evaluated via ultrasound, and if a seroma is present, the fluid should be aspirated and sent for culture, cytology, flow cytometry, and cell block to an experienced hematopathologist; (3) surgical removal of the affected implant and capsule (as completely as possible) should occur, which is sufficient to eradicate capsule-confined BIA-ALCL; (4) surveillance should consist of clinical follow-up at least every 6 months for at least 5 years and breast ultrasound yearly for at least 2 years; and (5) BIA-ALCL is generally a biologically indolent disease with a good prognosis, unless it extends beyond the capsule and/or presents as a mass. They firmly disagreed with statements that chemotherapy and radiation therapy should be given to all patients with BIA-ALCL. Conclusions: Our assessment yielded consistent results on a number of key, incompletely addressed issues regarding BIA-ALCL, but additional research is needed to support these statement ratings and enhance our understanding of the biology, treatment, and outcomes associated with this disease. PMID:25674377

  10. Combined expert system/neural networks method for process fault diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1995-08-15

    A two-level hierarchical approach for process fault diagnosis of an operating system employs a function-oriented approach at a first level and a component characteristic-oriented approach at a second level, where the decision-making procedure is structured in order of decreasing intelligence with increasing precision. At the first level, the diagnostic method is general and has knowledge of the overall process including a wide variety of plant transients and the functional behavior of the process components. An expert system classifies malfunctions by function to narrow the diagnostic focus to a particular set of possible faulty components that could be responsible for the detected functional misbehavior of the operating system. At the second level, the diagnostic method limits its scope to component malfunctions, using more detailed knowledge of component characteristics. Trained artificial neural networks are used to further narrow the diagnosis and to uniquely identify the faulty component by classifying the abnormal condition data as a failure of one of the hypothesized components through component characteristics. Once an anomaly is detected, the hierarchical structure is used to successively narrow the diagnostic focus from a function misbehavior, i.e., a function oriented approach, until the fault can be determined, i.e., a component characteristic-oriented approach. 9 figs.

  11. SP-100 shield design automation process using expert system and heuristic search techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Marcille, T.F.; Protsik, R.; Deane, N.A.; Hoover, D.G. (General Electric Company, Astro Space Division, P.O. Box 530954 M/C S15, San Jose, California 95153-5354 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    The SP-100 shield subsystem design process has been modified to utilize the GE Corporate Reserch and Development program, ENGINEOUS (Tong 1990). ENGINEOUS is a software system that automates the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis programs in the engineering design process. The shield subsystem design process incorporates a nuclear subsystems design and performance code, a two-dimensional neutral particle transport code, several input processors and two general purpose neutronic output processors. Coupling these programs within ENGINEOUS provides automatic transition paths between applications, with no source code modifications. ENGINEOUS captures human design knowledge, as well as information about the specific CAE applications and stores this information in knowledge base files. The knowledge base information is used by the ENGINEOUS expert system to drive knowledge directed and knowledge supplemented search modules to find an optimum shield design for a given reactor definition, ensuring that specified constraints are satisfied. Alternate designs, not accommodated in the optimization design rules, can readily be explored through the use of a parametric study capability.

  12. Size determines whether specialized expert processes are engaged for recognition of faces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Shafai, Fakhri; Oruc, Ipek

    2014-01-01

    Many influential models of face recognition postulate specialized expert processes that are engaged when viewing upright, own-race faces, as opposed to a general-purpose recognition route used for nonface objects and inverted or other-race faces. In contrast, others have argued that empirical differences do not stem from qualitatively distinct processing. We offer a potential resolution to this ongoing controversy. We hypothesize that faces engage specialized processes at large sizes only. To test this, we measured recognition efficiencies for a wide range of sizes. Upright face recognition efficiency increased with size. This was not due to better visibility of basic image features at large sizes. We ensured this by calculating efficiency relative to a specialized ideal observer unique to each individual that incorporated size-related changes in visibility and by measuring inverted efficiencies across the same range of face sizes. Inverted face recognition efficiencies did not change with size. A qualitative face inversion effect, defined as the ratio of relative upright and inverted efficiencies, showed a complete lack of inversion effects for small sizes up to 6°. In contrast, significant face inversion effects were found for all larger sizes. Size effects may stem from predominance of larger faces in the overall exposure to faces, which occur at closer viewing distances typical of social interaction. Our results offer a potential explanation for the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the special status of faces. PMID:25052697

  13. Practice Guidance for Buprenorphine for the Treatment of Opioid Use Disorders: Results of an Expert Panel Process

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Carrie M.; Lindsay, Dawn; Williams, Jessica; Ayers, Amanda; Schuster, James; Cilia, Alyssa; Flaherty, Michael T.; Mandell, Todd; Gordon, Adam J.; Stein, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although numbers of physicians credentialed to prescribe buprenorphine has increased over time, many credentialed physicians may be reluctant to treat individuals with opioid use disorders due to discomfort with prescribing buprenorphine. Though prescribing physicians are required to complete a training course, many have questions about buprenorphine and treatment guidelines have not been updated to reflect clinical experience in recent years. We report on an expert panel process to update and expand buprenorphine guidelines. Methods We identified candidate guidelines through expert opinion and a review of the literature and used a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to assess the validity of the candidate guidelines. An expert panel completed two rounds of rating, with a meeting to discuss the guidelines between the first and second rating. Results Through the rating process, expert panel members rated 90 candidate guideline statements across eight domains, including candidacy for buprenorphine treatment, dosing of buprenorphine, psychosocial counseling, and treatment of co-occurring depression and anxiety. A total of 65 guideline statements (72%) were rated as valid. Expert panel members had agreement in some areas, such as the treatment of co-occurring mental health problems, but disagreement in others, including the appropriate dosing of buprenorphine given patient complexities. Conclusions Through an expert panel process, we developed an updated and expanded set of buprenorphine treatment guidelines; this additional guidance may increase credentialed physicians’ comfort with prescribing buprenorphine to patients with opioid use disorders. Future efforts should focus on appropriate dosing guidance and ensuring that guidelines can be adapted to a variety of practice settings. PMID:25844527

  14. Meeting of Experts on the Psychological Development of Children and Implications for the Educational Process. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    This final report of "Meeting of Experts" summarizes the major issues raised by participants of the spring 1974 UNESCO meeting on the psychological development of children from birth to 6 years of age and implications for the educational process. Five position papers, presented by individuals representing a broad range of interests and expertise…

  15. Using probability boxes to model elicited information: a case study.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, V J; Roelofs, W

    2013-09-01

    Governments are responsible for making policy decisions, often in the face of severe uncertainty about the factors involved. Expert elicitation can be used to fill information gaps where data are not available, cannot be obtained, or where there is no time for a full-scale study and analysis. Various features of distributions for variables may be elicited, for example, the mean, standard deviation, and quantiles, but uncertainty about these values is not always recorded. Distributional and dependence assumptions often have to be made in models and although these are sometimes elicited from experts, modelers may also make assumptions for mathematical convenience (e.g., assuming independence between variables). Probability boxes (p-boxes) provide a flexible methodology to analyze elicited quantities without having to make assumptions about the distribution shape. If information about distribution shape(s) is available, p-boxes can provide bounds around the results given these possible input distributions. P-boxes can also be used to combine variables without making dependence assumptions. This article aims to illustrate how p-boxes may help to improve the representation of uncertainty for analyses based on elicited information. We focus on modeling elicited quantiles with nonparametric p-boxes, modeling elicited quantiles with parametric p-boxes where the elicited quantiles do not match the elicited distribution shape, and modeling elicited interval information. PMID:23231722

  16. Emotion elicitation using films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

    1995-01-01

    Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

  17. Estimating structural collapse fragility of generic building typologies using expert judgment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.; Perkins, David M.; Aspinall, Willy P.; Kiremidjian, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    The structured expert elicitation process proposed by Cooke (1991), hereafter referred to as Cooke's approach, is applied for the first time in the realm of structural collapse-fragility assessment for selected generic construction types. Cooke's approach works on the principle of objective calibration scoring of judgments couple with hypothesis testing used in classical statistics. The performance-based scoring system reflects the combined measure of an expert's informativeness about variables in the problem are under consideration, and their ability to enumerate, in a statistically accurate way through expressing their true beliefs, the quantitative uncertainties associated with their assessments. We summarize the findings of an expert elicitation workshop in which a dozen earthquake-engineering professionals from around the world were engaged to estimate seismic collapse fragility for generic construction types. Development of seismic collapse fragility-functions was accomplished by combining their judgments using weights derived from Cooke's method. Although substantial effort was needed to elicit the inputs of these experts successfully, we anticipate that the elicitation strategy described here will gain momentum in a wide variety of earthquake seismology and engineering hazard and risk analyses where physical model and data limitations are inherent and objective professional judgment can fill gaps.

  18. Expert systems in the control of animal cell culture processes: Potentials, functions, and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantin B. Konstantinov; Weichang Zhou; Fred Golini; Wei-Shou Hu

    1994-01-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced systems for bioprocess monitoring and control has become an area of intensive research. Along with traditional techniques, there are several new approaches which are increasingly being applied to bioprocess operations. Among these, of special note is expert system technology, which provides possibilities for the design of efficient bioprocess control systems with new functional

  19. Neural correlates of motion processing through echolocation, source hearing, and vision in blind echolocation experts and sighted echolocation novices.

    PubMed

    Thaler, L; Milne, J L; Arnott, S R; Kish, D; Goodale, M A

    2014-01-01

    We have shown in previous research (Thaler L, Arnott SR, Goodale MA. PLoS One 6: e20162, 2011) that motion processing through echolocation activates temporal-occipital cortex in blind echolocation experts. Here we investigated how neural substrates of echo-motion are related to neural substrates of auditory source-motion and visual-motion. Three blind echolocation experts and twelve sighted echolocation novices underwent functional MRI scanning while they listened to binaural recordings of moving or stationary echolocation or auditory source sounds located either in left or right space. Sighted participants' brain activity was also measured while they viewed moving or stationary visual stimuli. For each of the three modalities separately (echo, source, vision), we then identified motion-sensitive areas in temporal-occipital cortex and in the planum temporale. We then used a region of interest (ROI) analysis to investigate cross-modal responses, as well as laterality effects. In both sighted novices and blind experts, we found that temporal-occipital source-motion ROIs did not respond to echo-motion, and echo-motion ROIs did not respond to source-motion. This double-dissociation was absent in planum temporale ROIs. Furthermore, temporal-occipital echo-motion ROIs in blind, but not sighted, participants showed evidence for contralateral motion preference. Temporal-occipital source-motion ROIs did not show evidence for contralateral preference in either blind or sighted participants. Our data suggest a functional segregation of processing of auditory source-motion and echo-motion in human temporal-occipital cortex. Furthermore, the data suggest that the echo-motion response in blind experts may represent a reorganization rather than exaggeration of response observed in sighted novices. There is the possibility that this reorganization involves the recruitment of "visual" cortical areas. PMID:24133224

  20. Expertise transfer, knowledge elicitation, and delayed recall in a design context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NATHALIE BONNARDEL

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for knowledge elicitation that may contribute to effective expertise transfer from human experts to knowledge-based systems. The method was applied to knowledge transfer in an aerospace design context. Knowledge was transferred directly from an expert designer to both expert and novice “receivers” of information. Transfer occurred in a natural way, without intervention from a

  1. The Naturally Processed CD95L Elicits a c-Yes\\/Calcium\\/PI3K-Driven Cell Migration Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien Tauzin; Benjamin Chaigne-Delalande; Eric Selva; Nadine Khadra; Sophie Daburon; Cécile Contin-Bordes; Patrick Blanco; Jacques Le Seyec; Thomas Ducret; Laurent Counillon; Jean-François Moreau; Paul Hofman; Pierre Vacher; Patrick Legembre

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by chronic inflammatory disorders display high amounts of soluble CD95L. This homotrimeric ligand arises from the cleavage by metalloproteases of its membrane-bound counterpart, a strong apoptotic inducer. In contrast, the naturally processed CD95L is viewed as an apoptotic antagonist competing with its membrane counterpart for binding to CD95. Recent reports pinpointed that activation of CD95 may attract myeloid

  2. Causality Assessment in Drug-Induced Liver Injury Using a Structured Expert Opinion Process: Comparison to the Roussel-Uclaf Causality Assessment Method

    PubMed Central

    Rockey, Don C.; Seeff, Leonard B.; Rochon, James; Freston, James; Chalasani, Naga; Bonacini, Maurizio; Fontana, Robert J.; Hayashi, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is largely a diagnosis of exclusion and is therefore challenging. The US Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) prospective study used two methods to assess DILI causality: a structured expert opinion process and the Roussel-Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM). Causality assessment focused on detailed clinical and laboratory data from patients with suspected DILI. The adjudication process used standardized numerical and descriptive definitions and scored cases as definite, highly likely, probable, possible, or unlikely. Results of the structured expert opinion procedure were compared with those derived by the RUCAM approach. Among 250 patients with suspected DILI, the expert opinion adjudication process scored 78 patients (31%) as definite, 102 (41%) as highly likely, 37 (15%) as probable, 25 (10%) as possible, and 8 (3%) as unlikely. Among 187 enrollees who had received a single implicated drug, initial complete agreement was reached for 50 (27%) with the expert opinion process and for 34 (19%) with a five-category RUCAM scale (P = 0.08), and the two methods demonstrated a modest correlation with each other (Spearman's r = 0.42, P = 0.0001). Importantly, the RUCAM approach substantially shifted the causality likelihood toward lower probabilities in comparison with the DILIN expert opinion process. Conclusion The structured DILIN expert opinion process produced higher agreement rates and likelihood scores than RUCAM in assessing causality, but there was still considerable interobserver variability in both. Accordingly, a more objective, reliable, and reproducible means of assessing DILI causality is still needed. PMID:20512999

  3. Counter-regulation triggered by emotions: positive/negative affective states elicit opposite valence biases in affective processing.

    PubMed

    Schwager, Susanne; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether counter-regulation in affective processing is triggered by emotions. Automatic attention allocation to valent stimuli was measured in the context of positive and negative affective states. Valence biases were assessed by comparing the detection of positive versus negative words in a visual search task (Experiment 1) or by comparing interference effects of positive and negative distractor words in an emotional Stroop task (Experiment 2). Imagining a hypothetical emotional situation (Experiment 1) or watching romantic versus depressing movie clips (Experiment 2) increased attention allocation to stimuli that were opposite in valence to the current emotional state. Counter-regulation is assumed to reflect a basic mechanism underlying implicit emotion regulation. PMID:23237331

  4. An Ecological Analysis of the Herbivory-Elicited JA Burst and Its Metabolism: Plant Memory Processes and Predictions of the Moving Target Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Stork; Celia Diezel; Rayko Halitschke; Ivan Gális; Ian T. Baldwin; Magnus Holm

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundRapid herbivore-induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation is known to mediate many induced defense responses in vascular plants, but little is known about how JA bursts are metabolized and modified in response to repeated elicitations, are propagated throughout elicited leaves, or how they directly influence herbivores.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe found the JA burst in a native population of Nicotiana attenuata to be highly

  5. Using PC-based shells to write an expert assistance for use with the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process ENgineering) computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J.; Luger, G.F.; Bretz, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Many engineers argue against using expert systems to solve problems because of the relatively high cost of specialized LISP machines and the large expert system shells written for them. This paper demonstrates how small, but useful, expert systems can be written with inexpensive shells and run on inexpensive personal computers (PCs). Two such shells are CLIPS and EXSHELL. CLIPS, developed by NASA, is a forward-chaining, rule-based system. It is written in the C language, but the rules are entered in a LISP-like format. EXSHELL, developed by the Computer Science Department at the University of New Mexico, is a backward-chaining, rule-based system written in PROLOG. Each of these shells was used to write an expert assistant to aid the design engineer in using the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process ENgineering) computer code. ASPEN is a large computer code used to design chemical plants and refineries. Among other things, ASPEN computes mass and energy balances for the plant design. Unfortunately, an expert, or several experts, are required to use ASPEN to its full potential. For example, choosing the proper thermodynamic package to represent a given process is important in developing the correct mass and energy balances. An ASPEN user may be an expert in plant design, yet may not be expert enough at thermodynamics to pick the proper package from the many offered by ASPEN. CLIPS and EXSHELL were used to develop a useful expert assistant to help process plant designers pick the proper thermodynamic package to be used with particular operating conditions at various points in the ASPEN plant simulation. This paper also demonstrates the utility and ease of use of these inexpensive shells and compares the approach used by each. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Functional Analysis Systems Technique (F.A.S.T.) as a Group Knowledge Elicitation Method for Model Building

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Bartolomei; T. Miller; Wright-Patterson AFB OH

    Information gathering is the most important and often the most difficult phase of dynamic system model building. Many methods have been proposed to elicit knowledge from systems experts. Most modelers avoid the social and political barriers found in group elicitation and have focused on various interviewing techniques. If properly employed, group elicitation can be an effective and extremely efficient method

  7. Using expert models in human reliability analysis-a dependence assessment method based on fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Podofillini, Luca; Dang, Vinh; Zio, Enrico; Baraldi, Piero; Librizzi, Massimo

    2010-08-01

    In human reliability analysis (HRA), dependence analysis refers to assessing the influence of the failure of the operators to perform one task on the failure probabilities of subsequent tasks. A commonly used approach is the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP). The assessment of the dependence level in THERP is a highly subjective judgment based on general rules for the influence of five main factors. A frequently used alternative method extends the THERP model with decision trees. Such trees should increase the repeatability of the assessments but they simplify the relationships among the factors and the dependence level. Moreover, the basis for these simplifications and the resulting tree is difficult to trace. The aim of this work is a method for dependence assessment in HRA that captures the rules used by experts to assess dependence levels and incorporates this knowledge into an algorithm and software tool to be used by HRA analysts. A fuzzy expert system (FES) underlies the method. The method and the associated expert elicitation process are demonstrated with a working model. The expert rules are elicited systematically and converted into a traceable, explicit, and computable model. Anchor situations are provided as guidance for the HRA analyst's judgment of the input factors. The expert model and the FES-based dependence assessment method make the expert rules accessible to the analyst in a usable and repeatable way, with an explicit and traceable basis. PMID:20497396

  8. CABPRO: An expert system for process planning multiwire cables. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R.M.

    1994-04-01

    CABPRO (CABle PROcessor) is a set of computer programs using Artificial Intelligence programming to automatically generate process plans and work instructions in support of the manufacture of multiwire cables. Development of these programs required selecting appropriate hardware and software tools, defining engineering process planning activities, acquiring and representing process planning knowledge, and creating a prototype system. A successful prototype was developed and demonstrated.

  9. Elicitation of natural language representations of uncertainty using computer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R.; Travis, C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation is an important aspect of risk analysis. Knowledge about risks must be accurately elicited from experts for use in risk assessments. Knowledge and perceptions of risks must also be accurately elicited from the public in order to intelligently perform policy analysis and develop and implement programs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing computer technology to effectively and efficiently elicit knowledge from experts and the public. This paper discusses software developed to elicit natural language representations of uncertainty. The software is written in Common Lisp and resides on VAX Computers System and Symbolics Lisp machines. The software has three goals, to determine preferences for using natural language terms for representing uncertainty; likelihood rankings of the terms; and how likelihood estimates are combined to form new terms. The first two goals relate to providing useful results for those interested in risk communication. The third relates to providing cognitive data to further our understanding of people's decision making under uncertainty. The software is used to elicit natural language terms used to express the likelihood of various agents causing cancer in humans and cancer resulting in various maladies, and the likelihood of everyday events. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. PRODIAG: Combined expert system/neural network for process fault diagnosis. Volume 1, Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E.

    1995-09-01

    The function of the PRODIAG code is to diagnose on-line the root cause of a thermal-hydraulic (T-H) system transient with trace back to the identification of the malfunctioning component using the T-H instrumentation signals exclusively. The code methodology is based on the Al techniques of automated reasoning/expert systems (ES) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The research and development objective is to develop a generic code methodology which would be plant- and T-H-system-independent. For the ES part the only plant or T-H system specific code requirements would be implemented through input only and at that only through a Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (PID) database. For the ANN part the only plant or T-H system specific code requirements would be through the ANN training data for normal component characteristics and the same PID database information. PRODIAG would, therefore, be generic and portable from T-H system to T-H system and from plant to plant without requiring any code-related modifications except for the PID database and the ANN training with the normal component characteristics. This would give PRODIAG the generic feature which numerical simulation plant codes such as TRAC or RELAP5 have. As the code is applied to different plants and different T-H systems, only the connectivity information, the operating conditions and the normal component characteristics are changed, and the changes are made entirely through input. Verification and validation of PRODIAG would, be T-H system independent and would be performed only ``once``.

  11. Queryable Expert Systems David Tanzer

    E-print Network

    Mohri, Mehryar

    #12;Abstract Interactive rule-based expert systems, which work by "interviewing" their users, haveQueryable Expert Systems by David Tanzer A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of into query-processing for interactive expert systems. In our query paradigm, the user describes

  12. Queryable Expert Systems David Tanzer

    E-print Network

    Mohri, Mehryar

    #12; Abstract Interactive rule­based expert systems, which work by ``interviewing'' their users, haveQueryable Expert Systems by David Tanzer A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of into query­processing for interactive expert systems. In our query paradigm, the user describes

  13. Expert networks in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruska, S. I.; Dalke, A.; Ferguson, J. J.; Lacher, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based expert systems may be structurally and functionally mapped onto a special class of neural networks called expert networks. This mapping lends itself to adaptation of connectionist learning strategies for the expert networks. A parsing algorithm to translate C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rules into a network of interconnected assertion and operation nodes has been developed. The translation of CLIPS rules to an expert network and back again is illustrated. Measures of uncertainty similar to those rules in MYCIN-like systems are introduced into the CLIPS system and techniques for combining and hiring nodes in the network based on rule-firing with these certainty factors in the expert system are presented. Several learning algorithms are under study which automate the process of attaching certainty factors to rules.

  14. Heat exchanger demonstration expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagby, D. G.; Cormier, R. A.

    1988-05-01

    A real-time expert system intended for detecting and diagnosing faults in a 20 kW microwave transmitter heat exchanger is described. The expert system was developed on a LISP machine, Incorporated (LMI), Lambda Plus computer using Process Intelligent Control (PICON) software. The Heat Exhanger Expert System was tested and debugged. Future applications and extensions of the expert system to transmitters, masers, and antenna subassemblies are discussed.

  15. A computational system for process design of injection moulding: Combining blackboard-based expert system and case-based reasoning approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Kwong; G. F. Smith

    1998-01-01

    The process design of injection moulding involves the selection of the injection moulding machine, mould design, production scheduling, cost estimation, and determination of injection moulding parameters. Expert system approaches have been attempted to derive the process solution for injection moulding in the past few years. However, this approach has been found to be incapable of determining the injection moulding parameters

  16. Knowledge Acquisifion (1991) 3, 157-173 Detecting and correcting errors in rule-based expert

    E-print Network

    Pazzani, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    errors in rule-based expert systems, to isolate the blame for these errors to a small number of rules in interviewing domain experts to elicit the knowledge required to instantiate a rule-based expert system, but doKnowledge Acquisifion (1991) 3, 157-173 Detecting and correcting errors in rule-based expert

  17. Using an expert panel to validate a requirements process improvement model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Beecham; Tracy Hall; Carol Britton; Michaela Cottee; Austen Rainer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present components of a newly developed software process improvement model that aims to represent key practices in requirements engineering (RE). Our model is developed in response to practitioner needs highlighted in our empirical work with UK software development companies. We have now reached the stage in model development where we need some independent feedback as to

  18. Understanding a basic biological process: Expert and novice models of meiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    Central to secondary and college-level biology instruction is the development of student understanding of a number of subcellular processes. Yet some of the most crucial are consistently cited as the most difficult components of biology to learn. Among these is meiosis. In this article I report on the meiosis models utilized by five individuals at each of three levels of expertise in genetics as each reasoned about this process in an individual interview setting. Detailed characterization of individual meiosis models and comparison among models revealed a set of biologically correct features common to all individuals' models as well as a variety of model flaws (i.e., meiosis misunderstandings) which are categorized according to type and level of expertise. These results are suggestive of both sources of various misunderstandings and factors that might contribute to the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis. Each of these is addressed in relation to their respective implications for instruction.

  19. Expert Seeker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Becerra

    2003-01-01

    Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or hobbies). Unify myriad collections of data into Web-enabled repository that could easily be searched for relevant data.

  20. Expert Biogeographers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marsha Bednarski

    2006-04-01

    Instead of having students read about biomes in a textbook, why not have them become expert biogeographers? Once students have learned what a biogeographer does through an on-line search, they will take on the role as expert biogeographer. In this hypothetical scenario, they have been hired by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to research a land biome area. As researchers, they will be required to do a variety of inquiry-based tasks, which are outlined in the article.

  1. The Effects of Word Processing Software on User Satisfaction: An Empirical Study of Micro, Mini, and Mainframe Computers Using an Interactive Artificial Intelligence Expert-System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushinek, Avi; Rushinek, Sara

    1984-01-01

    Describes results of a system rating study in which users responded to WPS (word processing software) questions. Study objectives were data collection and evaluation of variables; statistical quantification of WPS's contribution (along with other variables) to user satisfaction; design of an expert system to evaluate WPS; and database update and…

  2. Consensus standards for the process of cancer care: a modified expert panel method applied to head and neck cancer. South and West Expert Tumour Panel for Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Birchall, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    There are many pressures to improve the standard of care delivered to cancer patients, including the reforms subsequent to the Calman-Hine report. The establishment of standards is a prerequisite for audit, benchmarking and certification of cancer centres and units. Randomized trials of head and neck cancer are uncommon, and other forms of evidence often conflicting. In the south and west of England, a multidisciplinary expert panel consensus method has been applied to the development of standards. A panel representative of specialties involved in the process of care at all three levels, plus social medicine and lay members, was constructed. A model for the process of care was developed consisting of activity areas. For each activity, a near exhaustive list of tasks and standards was established. A three-iteration method with statistical group response was then used to refine the standards. The same method was also applied to the production of a minimum data set for registration, recording and audit. The resulting standards will be regularly reviewed. We have developed a model of the care process, and an expert panel methodology that is applicable to a wide range of problems in clinical oncology. PMID:9667669

  3. Asking the right questions to elicit product requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Wang; Yong Zeng

    2009-01-01

    Eliciting precise and comprehensive product requirements from customers is of critical importance for the success of product development. In this paper, a generic process is proposed for eliciting product requirements by asking questions based on linguistic analysis. The linguistic analysis transforms a text into a graphic language called recursive object model (ROM). Two types of questions are asked in the

  4. Being an Expert Mathematics Online Tutor: What Does Expertise Entail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinovic, Dragana

    2009-01-01

    This article is derived from the qualitative portion of a larger study conducted on mathematics websites that provide expert volunteer help. Data consist of tutoring logs of five expert tutors from two help sites, plus interviews with these tutors. The researcher has employed theories about expertise in the educational domain to elicit details of…

  5. Rule Management in Expert Database Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arie Segev; J. Leon Zhao

    1994-01-01

    Expert database systems combine database and expert systems technologies to support the effective management of both rules and data. This paper studies rule processing strategies in expert database systems involving rules that are conditional on joins of relational data. Auxiliary constructs for processing join rules are proposed, and a framework of join rule processing strategies is developed. Cost functions of

  6. Uncertainty in mapped geological boundaries held by a national geological survey:eliciting the geologists' tacit error model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-06-01

    It is generally accepted that geological line work, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses, etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for geological boundaries mapped by geologists of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced BGS geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicited distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering line work or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of line work.

  7. Nutrition Expert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

  8. a New Method for Fmeca Based on Fuzzy Theory and Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Yoong-Tae; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jin-O.

    2008-10-01

    Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) is one of most widely used methods in modern engineering system to investigate potential failure modes and its severity upon the system. FMECA evaluates criticality and severity of each failure mode and visualize the risk level matrix putting those indices to column and row variable respectively. Generally, those indices are determined subjectively by experts and operators. However, this process has no choice but to include uncertainty. In this paper, a method for eliciting expert opinions considering its uncertainty is proposed to evaluate the criticality and severity. In addition, a fuzzy expert system is constructed in order to determine the crisp value of risk level for each failure mode. Finally, an illustrative example system is analyzed in the case study. The results are worth considering in deciding the proper policies for each component of the system.

  9. Expert systems in seismic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, L.R.

    1985-02-01

    Artificial intelligence research has produced few practical results in most of its branches. However, expert systems in limited fields of expertise are potentially practical and cost-effective tools in many fields of exploration geophysics. Recent breakthroughs, such as writing expert systems in languages less exotic than Lisp, have made it possible to install a practical expert system on even the smallest computer. A recently published expert system written in Forth compiles a rule base into very compact code, and then uses it to reach decisions based on data supplied by the user. Such a system makes it possible for a small computer to be the geophysicist's advisor on many different subjects, because one expert system can use any number of rule bases. The expert system then becomes a practical tool for standardizing the decision-making process, even in comparatively trivial areas.

  10. Long-term Expertise with Artificial Objects Increases Visual Competition with Early Face Categorization Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Rossion; Daniel Collins; Valérie Goffaux; Tim Curran

    2007-01-01

    The degree of commonality between the perceptual mech- anisms involved in processing faces and objects of expertise is intensely debated. To clarify this issue, we recorded occipito- temporal event-related potentials in response to faces when con- currently processing visual objects of expertise. In car experts fixating pictures of cars, we observed a large decrease of an evoked potential elicited by

  11. Surgical experts: born or made?

    PubMed

    Sadideen, Hazim; Alvand, Abtin; Saadeddin, Munir; Kneebone, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The concept of surgical expertise and the processes involved in its development are topical, and there is a constant drive to identify reliable measures of expert performance in surgery. This review explores the notion of whether surgical experts are "born" or "made", with reference to educational theory and pertinent literature. Peer-reviewed publications, books, and online resources on surgical education, expertise and training were reviewed. Important themes and aspects of expertise acquisition were identified in order to better understand the concept of a surgical expert. The definition of surgical expertise and several important aspects of its development are highlighted. Innate talent plays an important role, but is insufficient on its own to produce a surgical expert. Multiple theories that explore motor skill acquisition and memory are relevant, and Ericsson's theory of the development of competence followed by deliberate self-practice has been especially influential. Psychomotor and non-technical skills are necessary for progression in the current climate in light of our training curricula; surgical experts are adaptive experts who excel in these. The literature suggests that surgical expertise is reached through practice; surgical experts are made, not born. A deeper understanding of the nature of expert performance and its development will ensure that surgical education training programmes are of the highest possible quality. Surgical educators should aim to develop an expertise-based approach, with expert performance as the benchmark. PMID:23838344

  12. Expert systems software for civil engineering applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard N. Palmer; Brian W. Mar

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems offer a new and valuable approach to the problem of modelling civil engineering systems. This paper examines the advantages that expert systems offer over more conventional forms of computer programming and describes the components of such systems. It also suggests areas of application for which expert systems are likely to be successful and discusses the process of knowledge

  13. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G

    2008-08-01

    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies are needed to better understand the explosion risks of UXO. PMID:18627542

  14. Text Mining and Natural Language Processing Approaches for Automatic Categorization of Lay Requests to Web-Based Expert Forums

    PubMed Central

    Reincke, Ulrich; Michelmann, Hans Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Background Both healthy and sick people increasingly use electronic media to obtain medical information and advice. For example, Internet users may send requests to Web-based expert forums, or so-called “ask the doctor” services. Objective To automatically classify lay requests to an Internet medical expert forum using a combination of different text-mining strategies. Methods We first manually classified a sample of 988 requests directed to a involuntary childlessness forum on the German website “Rund ums Baby” (“Everything about Babies”) into one or more of 38 categories belonging to two dimensions (“subject matter” and “expectations”). After creating start and synonym lists, we calculated the average Cramer’s V statistic for the association of each word with each category. We also used principle component analysis and singular value decomposition as further text-mining strategies. With these measures we trained regression models and determined, on the basis of best regression models, for any request the probability of belonging to each of the 38 different categories, with a cutoff of 50%. Recall and precision of a test sample were calculated as a measure of quality for the automatic classification. Results According to the manual classification of 988 documents, 102 (10%) documents fell into the category “in vitro fertilization (IVF),” 81 (8%) into the category “ovulation,” 79 (8%) into “cycle,” and 57 (6%) into “semen analysis.” These were the four most frequent categories in the subject matter dimension (consisting of 32 categories). The expectation dimension comprised six categories; we classified 533 documents (54%) as “general information” and 351 (36%) as a wish for “treatment recommendations.” The generation of indicator variables based on the chi-square analysis and Cramer’s V proved to be the best approach for automatic classification in about half of the categories. In combination with the two other approaches, 100% precision and 100% recall were realized in 18 (47%) out of the 38 categories in the test sample. For 35 (92%) categories, precision and recall were better than 80%. For some categories, the input variables (ie, “words”) also included variables from other categories, most often with a negative sign. For example, absence of words predictive for “menstruation” was a strong indicator for the category “pregnancy test.” Conclusions Our approach suggests a way of automatically classifying and analyzing unstructured information in Internet expert forums. The technique can perform a preliminary categorization of new requests and help Internet medical experts to better handle the mass of information and to give professional feedback. PMID:19632978

  15. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  16. Integrating machine learning with knowledge acquisition through direct interaction with domain experts

    E-print Network

    Webb, Geoff

    Integrating machine learning with knowledge acquisition through direct interaction with domain, Australia Abstract Knowledge elicitation from experts and empirical machine learning are two distinct apprentices have provided environments in which a knowledge engineer may collaborate with a machine learning

  17. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  18. Expert assessments of the cost of light water small modular reactors.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Ahmed; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger

    2013-06-11

    Analysts and decision makers frequently want estimates of the cost of technologies that have yet to be developed or deployed. Small modular reactors (SMRs), which could become part of a portfolio of carbon-free energy sources, are one such technology. Existing estimates of likely SMR costs rely on problematic top-down approaches or bottom-up assessments that are proprietary. When done properly, expert elicitations can complement these approaches. We developed detailed technical descriptions of two SMR designs and then conduced elicitation interviews in which we obtained probabilistic judgments from 16 experts who are involved in, or have access to, engineering-economic assessments of SMR projects. Here, we report estimates of the overnight cost and construction duration for five reactor-deployment scenarios that involve a large reactor and two light water SMRs. Consistent with the uncertainty introduced by past cost overruns and construction delays, median estimates of the cost of new large plants vary by more than a factor of 2.5. Expert judgments about likely SMR costs display an even wider range. Median estimates for a 45 megawatts-electric (MWe) SMR range from $4,000 to $16,300/kWe and from $3,200 to $7,100/kWe for a 225-MWe SMR. Sources of disagreement are highlighted, exposing the thought processes of experts involved with SMR design. There was consensus that SMRs could be built and brought online about 2 y faster than large reactors. Experts identify more affordable unit cost, factory fabrication, and shorter construction schedules as factors that may make light water SMRs economically viable. PMID:23716682

  19. Antibodies elicited by a virosomally formulated Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen-5 derived peptide detect the processed 47 kDa fragment both in sporozoites and merozoites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji L. Okitsu; Francesca Boato; Markus S. Mueller; Dong Bo Li; Denise Vogel; Nicole Westerfeld; Rinaldo Zurbriggen; John A. Robinson; Gerd Pluschke

    2007-01-01

    Serine repeat antigen-5 (SERA5) is a candidate antigen for inclusion into a malaria subunit vaccine. During merozoite release and reinvasion the 120kDa SERA5 precursor protein (P120) is processed, and a complex consisting of an N-terminal 47kDa (P47) and a C-terminal 18kDa (P18) processing product associates with the surface of merozoites. This complex is thought to be involved in merozoite invasion

  20. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  1. An overview of the national immunization policy making process: the role of the Korea expert committee on immunization practices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs has increased due to the presence of multiple health priorities, limited human resources, expensive vaccines, and limited funds. Countries should establish a group of national experts to advise their Ministries of Health. So far, many nations have formed their own National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In the Republic of Korea, the Korea Expert Committee on Immunization Practices (KECIP), established by law in the early 1990s, has made many important technical recommendations to contribute to the decline in vaccine preventable diseases and currently functions as a NITAG. It includes 13 core members and 2 non-core members, including a chairperson. Core members usually come from affiliated organizations in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, microbiology, preventive medicine, nursing and a representative from a consumer group, all of whom serve two year terms. Non-core members comprise two government officials belonging to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) and the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Meetings are held as needed, but at least twice a year, and sub-committees are formed as a resource for gathering, analyzing, and preparing information for the KECIP meetings. Once the sub-committees or the KCDC review the available data, the KECIP members discuss each issue in depth and develop recommendations, usually by a consensus in the meeting. The KECIP publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. KECIP's role is essentially consultative and the implementation of their recommendations may depend on the budget or current laws. PMID:22359523

  2. Speech spectrogram expert

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  3. Assessing volcanic hazard at Yucca Mountain using expert judgment

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Perman, R.C. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Nesbit, J. [Department of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    A study to assess the probability of a future volcanic event disrupting the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, termed the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) project, is being sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This assessment, which is focused on the volcanic hazard at the site, expressed as the probability of disruption of the potential repository, will eventually provide input to an assessment of volcanic risk, which expresses the probability of radionuclide release due to volcanic disruption. To ensure that a wide range of approaches are considered in the hazard analysis, judgments of members of an expert panel will be elicited. The results of the individual elicitations will be combined to develop an integrated assessment of the volcanic hazard that reflects the diversity of scientific interpretations. This paper outlines the hazard model components and the procedures for eliciting expert judgments.

  4. Remarks on the assessment, representation, aggregation and utilization of expert opinion

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, T.L.

    1980-04-01

    This report considers the relevance of recent ideas in the foundations of probability to the rational use of expert opinion in the design of a nuclear waste repository, and the assessment of its performance. The main probability concepts introduce are those of modal (probably A), comparative (A is at least as probable as B) and interval-valued (the lower probability of A is P(A) and the upper probability of A is P(anti A)) probabilities. We then outline an approach first using comparative probability to model the resuls of binary elicitation of an expert's opinions concerning repository uncertainties and then employing interval-valued probability to represent comparative probability in a computationally convenient form. We further consider the issue of aggregating or amalgamating the responses of several experts, and we emphasize the need to preserve some measure of the disagreements among the experts. The resulting aggregated interval-valued representation of the responses concerning the uncertainties surrounding the performance of a nuclear waste repository design can then be used to numerically assess this performance in a manner parallel to that of utility theory. Utility theory is the basis for statistical decision theory. Our recommendations can only be tentative, and research is recommended to gain some working experience with the results of the proposed decision-making process in the repostory design context.

  5. Differences and similarities among experts’ opinions on Salmonella enterica dynamics in swine pre-harvest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina D. C Stärk; Anne Wingstrand; Jan Dahl; Vibeke Møgelmose; Danilo M. A Lo Fo Wong

    2002-01-01

    A workshop was conducted to elicit expert opinion on infection status and transmission of salmonella in pigs at the farm of origin, during transport and during lairage. A second objective was to compare opinions regarding risk factors for salmonella introduction and control at the farm level between experts from different countries. Thirty-six experts from 11 countries filled in a paper-and-pencil

  6. Results from the Second Forum on the Future Role of the Human in the Forecast Process. Part II: Cognitive Psychological Aspects of Expert Weather Forecasters

    E-print Network

    Schultz, David

    : Cognitive Psychological Aspects of Expert Weather Forecasters NEIL A. STUART* NOAA/National Weather Service on the cognitive psychological aspects of expert weather forecasters. The first presentation discussed the learning and is discussed in Stuart et al. (2006a). The second session addressed the cognitive psychological aspects

  7. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  8. Visual MMN elicited by orientation changes of faces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Miao, Danmin; Zhao, Lun

    2014-09-01

    Faces are socially very important visual objects and the detection of a change in faces is an essential evolutionary skill. To investigate whether configural computation of faces automatically occurs under non-attentional condition, visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) elicited by deviant orientation (90° vs. 0°) of faces was analyzed using the equi-probable paradigm which eliminated the low-level refractory effects. Fourteen participants were tested and schematic face stimuli were used. In comparison with control face stimuli, the deviant orientation of faces elicited larger N170 and smaller P2. During the time range between 100-300 ms post stimulus onset, face orientation changes elicited occipital-temporal distributed vMMN. The source analysis of face-MMN showed that it was generated in both temporal and frontal lobes. These data supported the hypotheses that the disruption of facial configuration processing caused by inverted faces is relatively independent of attentional resources. PMID:25164356

  9. Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) Elicited by Novel Stimuli

    E-print Network

    Kutas, Marta

    Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) Elicited by Novel Stimuli during SentenceProcessing" MARTA at San Diego La Jolla, California 92093 Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have proven reviews see Donchin et al., 1978; Picton et al., 1979). One of the more prominent of these ERPs following

  10. Eliciting Design Patterns for E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retalis, Symeon; Georgiakakis, Petros; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2006-01-01

    Design pattern creation, especially in the e-learning domain, is a highly complex process that has not been sufficiently studied and formalized. In this paper, we propose a systematic pattern development cycle, whose most important aspects focus on reverse engineering of existing systems in order to elicit features that are cross-validated through…

  11. Delegating Decisions to Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hao; Suen, Wing

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of delegation with self-interested and privately informed experts. A team of experts with extreme but opposite biases is acceptable to a wide range of decision makers with diverse preferences, but the value of expertise from such a team is low. A decision maker wants to appoint experts who are less partisan than he is in order…

  12. Liquid-Oxygen Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, John R., Jr.; Delaune, Carl I.

    1988-01-01

    Complicated system monitored for equipment failures. Report summarizes structure, capabilities, and development history of Liquid-Oxygen Expert System (LES). Designed to detect immediately signs of trouble among measurements fed into current Launch Processing System (LPS). LES contains three elements: knowledge base, constraint mechanism, and diagnoser. Output of LES in form of written reports.

  13. Expert system application education project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  14. Local Experts in Social Media 

    E-print Network

    Bachani, Vandana

    2013-12-04

    The problem of finding topic experts on social networking sites has been a continued topic of research. This thesis addresses the problem of identifying local experts in social media systems like Twitter. Local experts are experts with a topical...

  15. Cooperative expert system reasoning for waste remediations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a ``team`` of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product.

  16. Cooperative expert system reasoning for waste remediations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a team'' of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product.

  17. Testing expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. L.; Stachowitz, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Software quality is of primary concern in all large-scale expert system development efforts. Building appropriate validation and test tools for ensuring software reliability of expert systems is therefore required. The Expert Systems Validation Associate (EVA) is a validation system under development at the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center. EVA provides a wide range of validation and test tools to check correctness, consistency, and completeness of an expert system. Testing a major function of EVA. It means executing an expert system with test cases with the intent of finding errors. In this paper, we describe many different types of testing such as function-based testing, structure-based testing, and data-based testing. We describe how appropriate test cases may be selected in order to perform good and thorough testing of an expert system.

  18. Expert systems for the analytical laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    de Monchy, A.R.; Forster, A.R.; Arretteig, J.R., Le, L.; Deming, S.N.

    1988-12-01

    For the past several years, analytical chemists have been exploring the potential uses of expert systems in analytical chemistry. In some cases the results have been excellent but in others the results have been discouraging. Some of the discouragement may have come from an incomplete understanding of what expert systems are and why they cannot always be applied successfully. An expert system is a computer program that emulates the problem-solving process of human experts. Because there are many such computer programs, there are many types of expert systems. The differences among these systems are attributable to the different ways human knowledge is represented and manipulated in the programs. Along with natural language processing and robotics, the field of expert systems is generally considered to lie within the larger artificial intelligence (AI) domain. In this A/C INTERFACE, the authors will examine two different types of expert systems and consider how they could be used in the analytical laboratory. They will also discuss some of the realities of developing and using expert systems.

  19. EASy: Expert authorizations system

    SciTech Connect

    Altfeld, J. [Brightware, Inc., Roswell, GA (United States); Landon, D.F.; Daniels, C.J. [Equifax Check Services, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Equifax Check Services provides retail merchants and other businesses with quality decisions concerning the acceptability. risk. or fraudulence of customer checks. The greatest percentage of these decisions are provided automatically through on-line links with point-of-sale terminals. When a transaction is suspect, a referral notice is generated directing the merchant to call one of Equifax Check Services` authorization centers for additional processing. This processing considers a wide variety of information unavailable through online processing, thereby giving consumers the greatest possible benefit of doubt prior to declining checks. These high-risk authorizations had historically been handled using a legacy mainframe system involving a high degree of manual intervention. Authorizations agents would complete a lengthy, rigorous training regimen, and be monitored as to their performance. Pursuit of service excellence caused Equifax, in conjunction with Brightware Corporation, to develop the Expert Authorization System (EASy), a rule-based solution for check authorizations that uses an innovative twist on a standard blackboard architecture. EASy was deployed and is used today by as many as 300 concurrent users. By encapsulating extensive domain knowledge, EASy has effectively eliminated authorization errors, provided consistent and replicable decisions, reduced elapsed time to a decision, and reduced the average agent training time from 4-6 weeks to 3 days.

  20. Towards reasoning visualization in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selig, William John; Johannes, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of ongoing research to develop visualization paradigms for expert systems reasoning processes. The results are based in part on a prototype implementation that is being developed to visualize the reasoning processes of a rule-based forward chaining expert system. The research is based on the premise that the presentation of information at the highest applicable conceptual level will enhance the assimilation of that information. Hierarchical levels in both the syntactic and semantic levels of reasoning in expert systems are described in detail.

  1. Expert opinion in risk analysis; The NUREG-1150 methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Hora; R. L. Iman

    1989-01-01

    Risk analysis of nuclear power generation often requires the use of expert opinion to provide probabilistic inputs where other sources of information are unavailable or are not cost effective. In the Reactor Rise Reference Document (NUREG-1150), a methodology for the collection of expert opinion was developed. The resulting methodology presented by the author involves a ten-step process: selection of experts,

  2. Timeline hidden Markov experts for time series prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Wang; Peter Whigham; Da Deng; Martin Purvis

    2003-01-01

    A modularised connectionist model, based on the mixture of experts (ME) algorithm for time series prediction, is introduced. A group of connectionist modules learn to be local experts over some commonly appeared states in a time series. The dynamics for combining the experts is a hidden Markov process, in which the states of a time series are regarded as states

  3. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  4. Expert system for estimating LWR plutonium production

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    An Artificial Intelligence-Expert System called APES (Analysis of Proliferation by Expert System) has been developed and tested to permit a non proliferation expert to evaluate the capability and capacity of a specified LWR reactor and PUREX reprocessing system for producing and separating plutonium even when system information may be limited and uncertain. APES employs an expert system coded in LISP and based upon an HP-RL (Hewlett Packard-Representational Language) Expert System Shell. The user I/O interface communicates with a blackboard and the knowledge base which contains the quantitative models required to describe the reactor, selected fission product production and radioactive decay processes, Purex reprocessing and ancillary knowledge.

  5. Expert systems as a mindtool to facilitate mental model learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Dale Mason-Mason; Martin A. Tessmer

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the question, Does the process of constructing an expert system model of a hydraulic drum\\u000a braking system promote the formation of expert-like mental models? Thirty-three participants in three countries, who reported\\u000a no knowledge of the subject domain in which the expert system was to be created, read encyclopedia extracts, viewed graphics,\\u000a and then created small expert

  6. Expert system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The expert system is a computer program which attempts to reproduce the problem-solving behavior of an expert, who is able to view problems from a broad perspective and arrive at conclusions rapidly, using intuition, shortcuts, and analogies to previous situations. Expert systems are a departure from the usual artificial intelligence approach to problem solving. Researchers have traditionally tried to develop general modes of human intelligence that could be applied to many different situations. Expert systems, on the other hand, tend to rely on large quantities of domain specific knowledge, much of it heuristic. The reasoning component of the system is relatively simple and straightforward. For this reason, expert systems are often called knowledge based systems. The report expands on the foregoing. Section 1 discusses the architecture of a typical expert system. Section 2 deals with the characteristics that make a problem a suitable candidate for expert system solution. Section 3 surveys current technology, describing some of the software aids available for expert system development. Section 4 discusses the limitations of the latter. The concluding section makes predictions of future trends.

  7. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  8. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  9. Computational Approaches to Preference Elicitation Darius Braziunas

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    building autonomous agents that can act on behalf of a user. Artificial intelligence researchers have, preference elicitation emerges as one of the more important current challenges in artificial intelligence 4.4 Conjoint analysis

  10. Interaction of Text Variables and Processing Strategies for Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Expert Readers. Prose Learning Series, Research Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Rice, G. Elizabeth

    A study examined how the text variables of organizational plan (top-level structure), emphasis plan (implemented through signalling devices), and presence of details influenced the selection of reading strategies by adults. Subjects--149 young, middle aged, and older expert readers--read and recalled in writing two expository prose passages of 388…

  11. Constitutional rights and hypnotically elicited testimony.

    PubMed

    Newman, A W; Thompson, J W

    1999-01-01

    Despite the former popularity of hypnosis as a way of "improving" eyewitness memory, many courts almost always regard the use of this testimony to be inadmissible, whereas others allow it only when strict procedural guidelines have been followed. Although the U.S. Supreme Court recognized a defendant's constitutional right to admit his own hypnotically elicited testimony, others have recognized a constitutional basis to exclude hypnotically elicited testimony in most other circumstances. PMID:10212035

  12. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. PMID:21787073

  13. Expert systems - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.C.; Miller, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This is the 1987 updated version of expert systems which includes diverse areas such as CAD/CAM, business management, robotics, welding, computer hardware and software support, electronic design, medicine, insurance, transportation, and maintenance. AI Language Compilers are also inventoried. This handbook is designed to give an overview of the entire field and to assist the reader in sorting through the hundreds of expert systems which are developed to identify cost-effective tools and applications for in-house implementation.

  14. Approaching threats elicit a freeze-like response in humans.

    PubMed

    Sagliano, Laura; Cappuccio, Angela; Trojano, Luigi; Conson, Massimiliano

    2014-02-21

    Freezing is one of the most widely recognized defensive reactions to approaching threats in animals. Here we tested whether the same stimuli can elicit freeze-like responses in healthy humans as well. We used a modified version of the two-frame apparent motion paradigm, in which both size and location of a stimulus within a background were manipulated; by these means, participants perceived the stimuli as approaching or receding. In Experiment 1, we showed that implicitly processed approaching threats (e.g., spiders or snakes) elicited a stronger freeze-like response (operationalized as slower reaction times) with respect to receding threats; freezing was significantly related to higher levels of participants' state anxiety. In Experiment 2, approaching/threatening animals were explicitly judged as more threatening than receding ones. Finally, in two further control experiments we observed that the same manipulation of stimuli's size and location, but in absence of apparent motion, did not affect freezing (Experiment 3) or explicit threat judgements (Experiment 4). The present findings demonstrated that approaching threats are critical to elicit freezing in humans, in line with animals' behaviour. PMID:24373990

  15. Developing Research Priorities with a Cohort of Higher Education for Sustainability Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tarah S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the results of a Delphi exercise used at the Halifax Consultation in which 35 experts representing 17 countries gathered to develop research priorities for the emerging field of higher education for sustainability (HES). Design/methodology/approach: The Delphi technique was used to elicit the…

  16. Teaching Evaluations and Comments of Pre-Service Music Teachers regarding Expert and Novice Choral Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Price, Harry E.; Schroeder, Linda K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if pre-service music educators could discriminate between novice and expert choral directors irrespective of the proficiency of the choral ensemble. A secondary purpose was to compare study results elicited in the USA with those from participants in Europe, South America and Asia. Previous research…

  17. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  18. Validation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachowitz, Rolf A.; Combs, Jacqueline B.

    1988-01-01

    The validation of expert systems (ESs) has only recently become an active AI research topic. Current approaches have concentrated mainly on the validation of rule properties of such systems. The efforts presented improves on current methods by also exploiting the structural and semantic information of such systems. To increase programmer productivity, more and more companies have begun exploiting the advent of AI technology by developing applications using ES shells or other AI-based high level program generators. The architecture, functionality, and future goals of Expert Systems Validation are described along with the features that have been implemented for and in Automated Reasoning Tool, the ES shell presented.

  19. Hybrid Expert Systems In Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark J.; Gregory, Paul J.

    1987-04-01

    Vision systems capable of inspecting industrial components and assemblies have a large potential market if they can be easily programmed and produced quickly. Currently, vision application software written in conventional high-level languages such as C or Pascal are produced by experts in program design, image analysis, and process control. Applications written this way are difficult to maintain and modify. Unless other similar inspection problems can be found, the final program is essentially one-off redundant code. A general-purpose vision system targeted for the Visual Machines Ltd. C-VAS 3000 image processing workstation, is described which will make writing image analysis software accessible to the non-expert both in programming computers and image analysis. A significant reduction in the effort required to produce vision systems, will be gained through a graphically-driven interactive application generator. Finally, an Expert System will be layered on top to guide the naive user through the process of generating an application.

  20. The Principles of Designing an Expert System in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salekhova, Lailya; Nurgaliev, Albert; Zaripova, Rinata; Khakimullina, Nailya

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals general didactic concepts of the Expert Systems (ES) development process in the educational area. The proof of concept is based on the example of teaching the 8th grade Algebra subject. The main contribution in this work is the implementation of innovative approaches in analysis and processing of data by expert system as well as…

  1. Eliciting Domain Knowledge in Handwritten Digit Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuan Trung Nguyen

    2005-01-01

    Pattern recognition methods for complex structured objects such as handwritten characters often have to deal with vast search spaces. Developed techniques, despite significant advancement in the last decade, still face some performance barriers. We believe that additional knowl- edge about the structure of patterns, elicited from humans perceptions, will help improve the recognition's performance, especially when it comes to classify

  2. WEAPONS AS AGGRESSION-ELICITING STIMULI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEONARD BERKOWITZ; ANTHONY LEPAGE

    1967-01-01

    TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STIMULI COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH AGGRESSION CAN ELICIT AGGRESSIIVE RESPONSES FROM PEOPLE READY TO ACT AGGRESSIVELY. 100 MALE UNIVERSITY SS RECEIVED EITHER 1 OR 7 SHOCKS, SUPPOSEDLY FROM A PEER, AND WERE THEN GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOCK THIS PERSON. IN SOME CASES A RIFLE AND REVOLVER WERE NEAR THE SHOCK KEY. THESE WEAPONS WERE SAID TO

  3. Expert system training and control based on the fuzzy relation matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Jie; Sheridan, T. B.

    1991-01-01

    Fuzzy knowledge, that for which the terms of reference are not crisp but overlapped, seems to characterize human expertise. This can be shown from the fact that an experienced human operator can control some complex plants better than a computer can. Proposed here is fuzzy theory to build a fuzzy expert relation matrix (FERM) from given rules or/and examples, either in linguistic terms or in numerical values to mimic human processes of perception and decision making. The knowledge base is codified in terms of many implicit fuzzy rules. Fuzzy knowledge thus codified may also be compared with explicit rules specified by a human expert. It can also provide a basis for modeling the human operator and allow comparison of what a human operator says to what he does in practice. Two experiments were performed. In the first, control of liquid in a tank, demonstrates how the FERM knowledge base is elicited and trained. The other shows how to use a FERM, build up from linguistic rules, and to control an inverted pendulum without a dynamic model.

  4. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  5. Quantifying expert athlete knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Storm J. Russell; John H. Salmela

    1992-01-01

    Recent research in sport psychology has focused on the role of the athlete's knowledge base in defining high-level sport performance. However, few studies have attempted to examine this knowledge directly, largely because of the methodological challenges involved (Allard & Burnett, 1985). One effective approach to investigating expertise in other domains has been to examine ways in which experts sort and

  6. Where Experts Come From.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne D.

    Studies of over 100 chess players at varying skill levels and ages show the ways in which experts and nonexperts differ in problem-solving strategies. Important differences are found at all stages of problem solving. The most significant differences appear to be before and after the evaluation of alternatives ("sizing up" the problem, generating…

  7. Performance Evaluation Using Expert Elicitation and Long Term Environmental Monitoring Optimization for Long Term Stewardship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Moore; Jack Ditmars; Barbara Minsker; James Bachmaier

    Long term environmental monitoring is a critical component of stewardship for three reasons: (1) data provide ongoing evidence of environmental compliance and protection of the public and the environment; (2) the monitoring program, in part, determines the life cycle cost and extent of stewardship; and (3) the monitoring program provides a framework to develop trust and agreement between the site

  8. Eliciting Information from Experts on the Likelihood of Rapid Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel W. Arnell; Emma L. Tompkins; W. Neil Adger

    2005-01-01

    The threat of so-called rapid or abrupt climate change has generated considerable public interest because of its potentially significant impacts. The collapse of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation or the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, for example, would have potentially catastrophic effects on temperatures and sea level, respectively. But how likely are such extreme climatic changes? Is it possible actually to

  9. RELIABILITY OF TWO REMUS-100 AUVS BASED ON FAULT LOG ANALYSIS AND ELICITED EXPERT JUDGMENT

    E-print Network

    Griffiths, Gwyn

    in the open literature of detailed fault histories of commercial AUVs from which an assessment of their reliability can be made. In this paper, we declare the fault history of two REMUS-100 AUVs manufactured mitigation methods are explored, and recommendations made for reviewing the fault history data using

  10. Waste package degradation expert elicitation panel: Input on the corrosion of CRM alloy C-22

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J. C., LLNL

    1998-02-26

    The overall electrolyte concentration in the NFE environment is expected to be somewhere between 1X and saturated J-13 well water. This covers more than three orders-of-magnitude in chloride anion concentration. The pH of this solution is expected to be somewhere between 5 and 10. Exposed patches of the CRM could see this environment.

  11. Lessons Learned The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Coppersmith; R. C. Perman; R. R. Youngs

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968

  12. Waste package degradation expert elicitation panel: input on corrosion of CRM alloy C-22

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J. C.,LLNL

    1998-03-30

    The overall electrolyte concentration in the NFE environment is expected to be somewhere between 1X and saturated J-13 well water. This covers more than three orders-of-magnitude in chloride anion concentration. The pH of this solution is expected to be somewhere between 5 and 1O. Exposed patches of the CRM could see this environment.

  13. An artificial maieutic approach for eliciting experts' knowledge in multi-agent simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Sempé; Minh Nguyen-Duc; Alain Boucher; Alexis Drogoul

    2005-01-01

    Models of human behaviours used in multi-agent simulations are limited by the ability of introspection of the social actors: some of their knowledge (reflexes, habits, non-formalized expertise) cannot be extracted through interviews. In this paper, we propose an artificial maieutic approach to extract such pieces of knowledge, by helping the actors to better understand, and sometimes formulate, their own behaviours.

  14. Differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis an expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Creider, R.D.; Sundar Singh, P.S. [Texas A& M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Nasal congestion is a common problem for many people. It is a symptom of chronic sinusitis and also a characteristic of allergic rhinitis. Individuals frequently confuse sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. The expert system described below will diagnose the problem to be either rhinitis or sinusitis. In this paper we describe the expert system, the need for such an expert system and the process of developing the system.

  15. Overproduction timing errors in expert dancers.

    PubMed

    Minvielle-Moncla, Joëlle; Audiffren, Michel; Macar, Françoise; Vallet, Cécile

    2008-07-01

    The authors investigated how expert dancers achieve accurate timing under various conditions. They designed the conditions to interfere with the dancers' attention to time and to test the explanation of the interference effect provided in the attentional model of time processing. Participants were 17 expert contemporary dancers who performed a freely chosen duration while walking and executing a bilateral cyclic arm movement over a given distance. The dancers reproduced that duration in different situations of interference. The process yielded temporal overproductions, validating the attentional model and extending its application to expert populations engaged in complex motor situations. The finding that the greatest overproduction occurred in the transfer-with-improvisation condition suggests that improvisation within a time deadline requires specific training. PMID:18628106

  16. Expert Secondary Inclusive Classroom Management 

    E-print Network

    Montague, Marcia

    2011-02-22

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the management practices of expert secondary general education teachers in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, expert teachers of classrooms who included students ...

  17. An expert system for optimal gear design

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    By properly developing the mathematical model, numerical optimization can be used to seek the best solution for a given set of geometric constraints. The process of determining the non-geometric design variables is automated by using symbolic computation. This gear-design system is built according to the AGMA standards and a survey of gear-design experts. The recommendations of gear designers and the information provided by AGMA standards are integrated into knowledge bases and data bases. By providing fast information retrieval and design guidelines, this expert system greatly streamlines the spur gear design process. The concept of separating the design space into geometric and non-geometric variables can also be applied to the design process for general mechanical elements. The expert-system techniques is used to simulate a human designer to optimize the process of determining non-geometric parameters, and the numerical optimization is used to identify for the best geometric solution. The combination of the expert-system technique with numerical optimization essentially eliminates the deficiencies of both methods and thus provides a better way of modeling the engineering design process.

  18. Empirical analysis for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.

    1985-01-01

    This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant for rheumatology.

  19. Empirical analysis for expert systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Politakis

    1985-01-01

    This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant

  20. Expert systems in psychiatry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph A. Morelli; Joseph Do Bronzino; John W. Goethe

    1987-01-01

    Existing computer-based decision aids in the areas of psychiatric diagnosis and consultation are reviewed, and the prospects for expert system development within the mental health field are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon the decision-making models used in these systems rather than on their particular application area. The decision-making paradigms discussed are (1) data bank analysis, (2) statistical pattern recognition, (3)

  1. ALICE Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, C.; Carena, F.

    2014-06-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in different system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by regular shifters during the next data taking period.

  2. Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Wendy Jane

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling.

  3. Application of expert system for arrhythmia analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Dhok; S. A. Ladhake

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an effective application of expert system for analysis Cardiac disorder like arrhythmia. An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a bioelectrical signal which records the heart's electrical activity verses time. It is an important diagnostic tool for assessing heart functions. The technique used is feature extraction and neural network for signal analysis. The processed signal source came from the MIT-BIH

  4. APPLICATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expert systems are a promising computer-based approach to helping environmental engineers solve difficult problems. A number of such systems have been developed to date in the areas of hazard assessment, modeling support, process failure diagnosis, and regulatory support. The US ...

  5. Autonomous Sonar Classification Using Expert Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald P. Brutzman; Mark A. Compton; Yutaka Kanayama

    1992-01-01

    (408) 656-2149 work, (408) 656-2595 fax Abstract - An expert system can process active sonar returns, perform geometric analysis and autonomously classify detected underwater objects. Autonomous classification of objects is an essential requirement for independent operation by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Most AUVs are only capable of rudimentary sensor analysis, since standard approaches to evaluation and classification of sonar data

  6. Modal reasoning for uncertain information in expert system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiajia Miao; Aiping Li; Guoyou Chen; Jia Yan; Zhijian Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty information is in many information processing systems, such as data integration system, and expert systems, and so on. There is a contradiction, reasoning detailed information on system requirements can be the most accurate results, while the expert system input is uncertain. So how to reason using uncertain information, and get good results, is our main concern, but also the

  7. GRAPE: An Expert Review Assignment Component for Scientific Conference

    E-print Network

    Di Mauro, Nicola

    GRAPE: An Expert Review Assignment Component for Scientific Conference Management Systems Nicola Di {ndm, basile, ferilli}@di.uniba.it Abstract. This paper describes GRAPE, an expert component for a sci the possibility to use these preferences. This paper describes GRAPE (Global Review Assignment Processing Engine

  8. Combining Probability Distributions From Experts in Risk Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T. Clemen; Robert L. Winkler

    1999-01-01

    Abstract This paper concerns the combination of experts’ probability distributions in risk analysis, discussing a variety of combination methods,and attempting to highlight the important conceptual and practical issues to be considered in designing a combination process in practice. The role of experts is important because their judgments can provide valuable information, particularly in view of the limited availability of “hard

  9. Building Natural Language Interfaces for Rule-based Expert Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Galina Datskovsky Moerdler; Kathleen Mckeown; J. Robert Ensor

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a semantics for translating natural language statements into facts of an underlying expert system, replacing the more conventional menu interface for gathering data from the user. We describe two issues that must be considered when building such an interface for an expert system. These issues are semantic processing of the user statements and the design

  10. Verification of Qualitative properties of rule-based expert systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonsus D. Lunardhi; Kevin M. Passino

    1995-01-01

    Frequently expert systems are being developed to operate in dynamic environments where they must reason about time-varying information and generate hypotheses, conclusions, and process inputs that can drastically influence the environment within which they operate. For instance, expert systems used for fault diagnosis and fault accomodation in nuclear power plants reason over sensor data and operator inputs, form fault hypotheses,

  11. The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Rubel, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results indicate…

  12. An expert system for the dyeing recipes determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Convert; L. Schacher; P. Viallier

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the modelization of the reasoning of an expert in dyeing. The dyeing operation is one of the latest stage in the whole textile process which alters the intrinsic properties of the articles. At present, there are expert systems for dyeing industries. Most of them have been developed by dyes and chemical auxiliary suppliers, and these tools

  13. A computational model for inference chains in expert systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozsef Sziray

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the calculations performed in the reasoning process of rule-based expert systems, where inference chains are applied. It presents a logic model for representing the rules and the rule base of a given system. Also, the fact base of the same expert system is involved in the logic model. The proposed equivalent representation manifests itself in a

  14. Figuring the World of Designing: Expert Participation in Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to analyze the interaction between elementary students and a professional design expert. The expert was present in the classroom, facilitating a collaborative lamp designing process together with the teacher. Using the notion of "figured worlds" (Holland et al. 1998), we explored how learning could be…

  15. The Expert Mathematician. Revised. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "The Expert Mathematician" is designed to help middle school students develop the thinking processes for mathematical applications and communication. A three-year program of instruction, "The Expert Mathematician" uses a software and consumable print materials package with 196 lessons that teach the "Logo" programming language. Each lesson ranges…

  16. An expert system for guiding image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z P; Pun, T; Pellegrini, C

    1990-01-01

    Application of image segmentation to biomedical research is now customary. Due to the existence of a rich heuristic knowledge, many users have no deep experience in this field. It is therefore necessary to integrate knowledge-based techniques with image segmentation operators. The purpose of our expert system is to guide users in image segmentation. Its main functions are: suggest a reasonable overall scheme of processing and recommend appropriate operators and algorithms at each stage. The characteristics of this expert system are presented: (a) interaction with users: through "conversation," the expert system acquires the informations about a given problem; (b) use of belief values which indicate users' descriptions about the image characteristics. By associating image features with belief values, the system gets the informations about the image appearance and makes inference more effectively; (c) local backtracking strategy, which allows the expert system to repeatedly search for a better solution until a satisfactory result is obtained; (d) integrating with an image analysis package, users can directly execute the operations recommended by the expert system. A practical application of the system is then shown in details. Finally, our opinions in designing such a system are discussed. PMID:2306694

  17. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  18. Expert system for scheduling simulation lab sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Chet

    1990-01-01

    Implementation and results of an expert system used for scheduling session requests for the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are discussed. Weekly session requests are received from astronaut crew trainers, procedures developers, engineering assessment personnel, software developers, and various others who wish to access the computers, scene generators, and other simulation equipment available to them in the SES lab. The expert system under discussion is comprised of a data acquisition portion - two Pascal programs run on a personal computer - and a CLIPS program installed on a minicomputer. A brief introduction to the SES lab and its scheduling background is given. A general overview of the system is provided, followed by a detailed description of the constraint-reduction process and of the scheduler itself. Results from a ten-week trial period using this approach are discussed. Finally, a summary of the expert system's strengths and shortcomings are provided.

  19. How Expert Advice Influences Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Biele, Guido; Korn, Christoph W.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2012-01-01

    People often use expert advice when making decisions in our society, but how we are influenced by this advice has yet to be understood. To address this, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provided expert and novice advice to participants during an estimation task. Participants reported that they valued expert advice more than novice advice, and activity in the ventral striatum correlated with this valuation, even before decisions with the advice were made. When using advice, participants compared their initial opinion to their advisor’s opinion. This comparison, termed the “opinion difference”, influenced advice utilization and was represented in reward-sensitive brain regions. Finally, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex integrated both the size of the opinion difference and the advisor’s level of expertise, and average activity in this area correlated with mean advice utilization across participants. Taken together, these findings provide neural evidence for how advice engenders behavioral change during the decision-making process. PMID:23185425

  20. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  1. Building the BIKE: Development and Testing of the Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Izci, Kemal; McClure, Bruce

    2014-10-01

    Identifying students' conceptual scientific understanding is difficult if the appropriate tools are not available for educators. Concept inventories have become a popular tool to assess student understanding; however, traditionally, they are multiple choice tests. International science education standard documents advocate that assessments should be reform based, contain diverse question types, and should align with instructional approaches. To date, no instrument of this type targeting student conceptions in biotechnology has been developed. We report here the development, testing, and validation of a 35-item Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE) that includes a mix of question types. The BIKE was designed to elicit student thinking and a variety of conceptual understandings, as opposed to testing closed-ended responses. The design phase contained nine steps including a literature search for content, student interviews, a pilot test, as well as expert review. Data from 175 students over two semesters, including 16 student interviews and six expert reviewers (professors from six different institutions), were used to validate the instrument. Cronbach's alpha on the pre/posttest was 0.664 and 0.668, respectively, indicating the BIKE has internal consistency. Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability among the 6,525 total items was 0.684 indicating substantial agreement among scorers. Item analysis demonstrated that the items were challenging, there was discrimination among the individual items, and there was alignment with research-based design principles for construct validity. This study provides a reliable and valid conceptual understanding instrument in the understudied area of biotechnology.

  2. Expert system prototype developments for NASA-KSC business and engineering applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, James M.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

    1988-01-01

    Prototype expert systems developed for a variety of NASA projects in the business/management and engineering domains are discussed. Business-related problems addressed include an assistant for simulating launch vehicle processing, a plan advisor for the acquisition of automated data processing equipment, and an expert system for the identification of customer requirements. Engineering problems treated include an expert system for detecting potential ignition sources in LOX and gaseous-oxygen transportation systems and an expert system for hazardous-gas detection.

  3. MushroomExpert.Com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kuo, Michael

    Developed by amateur mycologist Dr. Michael Kuo with contributions from amateur and professional mycologists, MushroomExpert.Com is an excellent resource for a wide variety of mushroom enthusiasts. The site provides a genus and species index and search engine for detailed information on, and quality up-close photos of, over 330 North American Mushrooms. Individual species pages include brief sections on Habitat, Cap, Stem, and Microscopic Features-to name a few. The site also provides information for beginners, as well as sections on Studying Mushrooms, Edibility, a Morel Data Collection Project, and more.

  4. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  5. Ask the Experts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scientific American's Ask The Experts Web site (last mentioned in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is worth mentioning again as a great resource for mid and upper-level science classes. Divided into categories like Astronomy, Biology, Environment, and Medicine, students can submit their own questions or read answers to questions posed by other inquisitive minds. Some of the more recent questions include "If T. rex fell, how did it get up, given its tiny arms and low center of gravity", "How do seedless fruit arise and how are they propagated?", and "How do you get laryngitis?" The site is continually adding answers to a variety of interesting questions.

  6. Ask the Experts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scientific American's Ask The Experts Web site is worth mentioning again as a great resource for mid and upper-level science classes. Divided into categories like Astronomy, Biology, Environment, and Medicine, students can submit their own questions or read answers to questions posed by other inquisitive minds. Some of the more recent questions include "If T. rex fell, how did it get up, given its tiny arms and low center of gravity", "How do seedless fruit arise and how are they propagated?", and "How do you get laryngitis?" The site is continually adding answers to a variety of interesting questions.

  7. Basics, Tools, and Examples Expert Systems

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    systems may or may not have learning components. Wikipedia, 2011 #12;Rule Based Expert Systems OriginatedBasics, Tools, and Examples Expert Systems #12;Expert System Definition An expert system normally one or more human experts would need to be consulted. Expert systems are most common in a specific

  8. Concert hall acoustics assessment with individually elicited attributes.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Patynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Vertanen, Heikki; Tervo, Sakari

    2011-08-01

    Concert hall acoustics was evaluated with a descriptive sensory analysis method by employing an individual vocabulary development technique. The goal was to obtain sensory profiles of three concert halls by eliciting perceptual attributes for evaluation and comparison of the halls. The stimuli were gathered by playing back anechoic symphony music from 34 loudspeakers on stage in each concert hall and recording the sound field with a microphone array. Four musical programs were processed for multichannel 3D sound reproduction in the actual listening test. Twenty screened assessors developed their individual set of attributes and performed a comparative evaluation of nine seats, three in each hall. The results contain the distinctive groups of elicited attributes and show good agreement within assessors, even though they applied individual attributes when rating the samples. It was also found that loudness and distance gave the strongest perceptual direction to the principal component basis. In addition, the study revealed that the perception of reverberance is related to the size of the space or to the enveloping reverberance, depending on the assessor. PMID:21877799

  9. Calculating the Information Content of an Information Process for a Domain Expert Using Shannon's Mathematical Theory of Communication: A Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of information as a process focuses on a conceptual exercise for calculating the information content of an information process. Topics include Bertram Brookes' fundamental equation; Claude Shannon's mathematical theory of communication; set of a priori alternatives; knowledge structures; and an example of an archaeologist's information…

  10. Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lin, Jianyan; Qian, Miao K; Lee, Kang

    2015-11-01

    Widespread cheating can undermine rules that are necessary for maintaining social order. Preventing cheating can be a challenge, especially with regard to children, who as a result of their limited executive function skills may have particular difficulty with resisting temptation to cheat. We examined one approach designed to help children resist this temptation: eliciting a verbal commitment to not cheat. We tested 4- to 7-year-olds (total N=330) and found that starting at 5years of age, a verbal commitment to not cheat led to a substantial reduction in cheating. The results suggest that verbal commitments can be used to help children overcome temptations and comply with rules. PMID:26074407

  11. Elicitation of plant hypersensitive response by bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    He, Sheng Yang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-11-01

    There appears to be two types of plant cell death associated with pathogen infections: a rapid death localized at the site of infection during an incompatible interaction between a resistant plant and an avirulent pathogen, and a slow normosensitive plant cell death that spreads beyond the site of infection during compatible interactions involving a susceptible plant and a virulent, necrogenic pathogen. Both can lead to a systemic, broad-spectrum resistance response called SAR, which is effective against subsequent infection by the same or different pathogens. This report describes how bacteria elicit hypersensitive cell death. 40 refs., 2 figs.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATIONS WITHIN A COOPERATIVE KNOWLEDGE-BASED WORKBENCH

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    DEVELOPMENT OF IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATIONS WITHIN A COOPERATIVE KNOWLEDGE-BASED WORKBENCH Solving an Image Processing problem involves three main categories of experts: experts from the domain of application (biologists, geographers...), Image Processing experts and designer-programmers. Domain experts

  13. "Auctoritas" psychiatric expert system shell.

    PubMed

    Kovács, M; Juranovics, J

    1995-01-01

    We present a short description of a complex psychiatric computer expert system, including functions that help the physicians and the hospital staff in the administrative, diagnostic, therapeutic, statistical, and scientific work. There are separate data-storing, health insurance-supporting, or simple advisory programs, but we can not avail a system--in our country--that provides us with all these functions together. Hence the aim of our program is to produce a universal computer system that makes the patients' long distance follow-up possible. Our diagnostic expert system shell, which is appropriate for using the symptoms and criteria scheme of the internationally accepted diagnostic systems such as DSM and ICD, helps to archive homogeneous, up-to-date psychiatric nosology; this is essential for the correct diagnostic, statistical, and scientific work. Let us introduce our expert system. It consists of four parts: administration, diagnostic decision support system, activities concerning treatment, and statistics. The part called "Administration" contains all data about actual and emitted in-patients and out-patients, including their particulars and data necessary for health insurance (duration of treatment, diagnosis); here we find and edit medical documents. The most important part of the "Auctoritas" system is the "Diagnostic decision support system." In practice, expert systems use decision trees with yes-no logic, fuzzy logic, and pattern matching on the basis of the method of deduction; and backward chaining or forward chaining on the basis of the direction of deduction. Our system uses the methods of fuzzy logic and backward chaining. In other medical disciplines, good results are achieved by applying the pattern matching method; to make validity and verification researches, however, these systems are inappropriate. The diagnoses relying on the up-to-date psychiatric diagnostic systems--DSM-IV and ICD-X--are based on classical logic and can be correctly validated and verified. Hence we have chosen the fuzzy logic, which is the up-to-date extension of classical logic and influences the validity and verification researches, for the construction of our system. The diagnostic part is a shell that can be filled up optionally with knowledge bases of the DSM-IV, ICD-X, or other diagnostic systems and has the following structure. The diagnostic course is biphased as we can differ symptoms and criteria (duration of the illness, aethyological factors). We managed to extend the traditional applications using yes-no logic with three factors that make the system more sensitive and flexible. These are the scaling, sorting by importance of symptoms, and reliability-validity results. The "scaling" means that the physician scales the input symptoms by severity; this influences the statistical probability of the possible diagnoses. "Sorting by importance" is gauging certain symptoms by importance in a syndrome. Finally the third point, "reliability-validity results," means taking account of the latest validity values of a certain disorder of the used diagnostic system--according to the latest validity researches--and the diagnostical reliability of our expert system. The "Activity concerning treatment" is a practical part of our program that contents the examination and therapy scheduling and monitoring results. Under the point of "Statistics," we can prepare all data of the patients in various ways. In summary, the "Auctoritas" computer system is a global database managing the newly-developed advisory system; it is appropriate for managing a complete hospital network system for the continuing individual long-distance observation of patients. It collects all the necessary information of one patient in one file. The long-term benefit is that it can compile and process large amounts of information about the patients and help physicians come to scientific conclusions for research and publications. PMID:8591608

  14. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  15. Deploying expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1989-01-01

    As the Department of Defense Ada mandate begins to be enforced actively, interest in deploying expert systems in Ada has increased. A prototype Ada based expert system tool is introduced called ART/Ada. This prototype was built to support research into the language and operational issues of expert systems in Ada. ART/Ada allows applications of a conventional expert system tool called ART-IM (Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management) to be deployed in various Ada environments with efficient use of time and space. ART-IM, a C-based expert system tool, is used to generate Ada source code which is compiled and linked with an Ada base inference engine to produce an Ada executable image. ART/Ada will be used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom Program testbeds.

  16. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  17. Modelling experts’ judgments on soil compaction to derive decision rules for soil protection—A case study from Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Tobias; Olaf Tietje

    2007-01-01

    Soil compaction has been recognized as a serious environmental problem, and therefore its prevention is incorporated in the soil protection legislations of many countries. Implementation of these legislations needs decision rules and thresholds to assess the state and risk of soil compaction. The following contribution presents the results of a Delphi survey among Swiss soil experts eliciting their personal experience

  18. Expert systems for satellite stationkeeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekaru, M. M.; Wright, M. A.

    The feasibility of implementing artificial intelligence on satellites is evaluated, with the aim of using an onboard expert system to perform effective stationkeeping functions without assistance from the ground. The Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS III) is used as an example. The cost for implementing a satellite stationkeeping expert system is analyzed. A ground-based expert system could reduce the current number of support personnel for the stationkeeping task. Results of analyzing a possible flight system are quite promising. An expert system for satellite stationkeeping seems feasible, appears cost-effective, and offers increased satellite endurance through autonomous operations.

  19. Building expert systems: Cognitive emulation

    SciTech Connect

    Slatter, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    This work explores the questions and issues surrounding the capacity of expert systems to emulate human thinking and problem-solving abilities, the extent to which this is possible, and the desirability and limitations involved in applying this new technology. Maintaining a balance between theoretical and practical issues, it reviews psychological research into human expert cognition and discusses the formal arguments for and against cognitive emulation in expert system design. Also analyzes in detail the factors likely to promote or constrain this strategy. Includes a critical survey of expert systems research which outlines the implications of the emulation approach to knowledge acquisition and representation.

  20. Eliciting symptoms interpreted as normal by patients with early-stage lung cancer: could GP elicitation of normalised symptoms reduce delay in diagnosis? Cross-sectional interview study

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, Lucy; Pope, Catherine; Corner, Jessica; Leydon, Geraldine; Banerjee, Anindo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate why symptoms indicative of early-stage lung cancer (LC) were not presented to general practitioners (GPs) and how early symptoms might be better elicited within primary care. Design, setting and participants A qualitative cross-sectional interview study about symptoms and help-seeking in 20 patients from three south England counties, awaiting resection of LC (suspected or histologically confirmed). Analysis drew on principles of discourse analysis and constant comparison to identify processes involved in interpretation and communication about symptoms, and explain non-presentation. Results Most participants experienced health changes possibly indicative of LC which had not been presented during GP consultations. Symptoms that were episodic, or potentially caused by ageing or lifestyle, were frequently not presented to GPs. In interviews, open questions about health changes/symptoms in general did not elicit these symptoms; they only emerged in response to closed questions detailing specific changes in health. Questions using disease-related labels, for example, pain or breathlessness, were less likely to elicit symptoms than questions that used non-disease terminology, such as aches, discomfort or ‘getting out of breath’. Most participants described themselves as feeling well and were reluctant to associate potentially explained, non-specific or episodic symptoms with LC, even after diagnosis. Conclusions Patients with early LC are unlikely to present symptoms possibly indicative of LC that they associate with normal processes, when attending primary care before diagnosis. Faced with patients at high LC risk, GPs will need to actively elicit potential LC symptoms not presented by the patient. Closed questions using non-disease terminology might better elicit normalised symptoms. PMID:23166137

  1. A Method of Elicitation Teaching for Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiqiang Lin; Caixing Liu; Piyuan Lin

    2008-01-01

    To counter the problems existing in the process of object-oriented analysis and design teaching, the application necessity of the society and the status of the present IT intellectuals, this article points out a method of elicitation teaching for object-oriented analysis and design curriculum. And after application, the result shows that it can sufficiency motivate the students' studying enthusiasm and improve

  2. Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

  3. Child's Play: Using Techniques Developed to Elicit Requirements from Children with Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Millard; Paula Lynch; Karina Tracey

    1998-01-01

    Tools and techniques for requirements elicitation are generally unsuitable for use with children and for innovative and futuristic developments. Using case studies, the paper explores practical methods to get requirements for future technologies from children. Techniques such as scenario building, role playing and storyboarding proved successful in involving children in the requirements process and stimulating innovation. The paper looks at

  4. Capturing expert knowledge for threatened species assessments: a case study using NatureServe conservation status ranks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Tracey J.; Master, Lawrence L.; Hammerson, Geoffrey A.

    2004-10-01

    Assessments for assigning the conservation status of threatened species that are based purely on subjective judgements become problematic because assessments can be influenced by hidden assumptions, personal biases and perceptions of risks, making the assessment process difficult to repeat. This can result in inconsistent assessments and misclassifications, which can lead to a lack of confidence in species assessments. It is almost impossible to understand an expert's logic or visualise the underlying reasoning behind the many hidden assumptions used throughout the assessment process. In this paper, we formalise the decision making process of experts, by capturing their logical ordering of information, their assumptions and reasoning, and transferring them into a set of decisions rules. We illustrate this through the process used to evaluate the conservation status of species under the NatureServe system (Master, 1991). NatureServe status assessments have been used for over two decades to set conservation priorities for threatened species throughout North America. We develop a conditional point-scoring method, to reflect the current subjective process. In two test comparisons, 77% of species' assessments using the explicit NatureServe method matched the qualitative assessments done subjectively by NatureServe staff. Of those that differed, no rank varied by more than one rank level under the two methods. In general, the explicit NatureServe method tended to be more precautionary than the subjective assessments. The rank differences that emerged from the comparisons may be due, at least in part, to the flexibility of the qualitative system, which allows different factors to be weighted on a species-by-species basis according to expert judgement. The method outlined in this study is the first documented attempt to explicitly define a transparent process for weighting and combining factors under the NatureServe system. The process of eliciting expert knowledge identifies how information is combined and highlights any inconsistent logic that may not be obvious in subjective decisions. The method provides a repeatable, transparent, and explicit benchmark for feedback, further development, and improvement.

  5. The SIGNAL expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Struve, R. [SIGNAL Versicherungen, Dortmund (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The SIGNAL insurance companies have developed an expert system for the support of its customer sales service. It was introduced at the end of 1993 and is currently used by approximately 500 customer service representatives. It involves a counseling system, which enables customer sales personnel to produce high-quality benefit analyses at the point of sale. It is not only an information system for the agent but involves the customer in an active role (through the implementation of sales talks, the conscious visualization of facts, the generation of natural language explanations etc.). Thus, the customer is not faced with a fait accompli but is actively involved in solving the problem. To meet these requirements, several Al techniques are used, as described further below. The application has increased sales efficiency, optimized customer contact time and decreased training requirements. The system is developed with KEE (and reimplemented in Allegro CL/PC) and runs on notebooks with 8 MB RAM.

  6. Bloggers as experts: feed distillation using expert retrieval models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krisztian Balog; Maarten De Rijke; Wouter Weerkamp

    2008-01-01

    We address the task of (blog) feed distillation: to find blogs that are principally devoted to a given topic. The task may be viewed as an association finding task, between topics and bloggers. Under this view, it resembles the expert finding task, for which a range of models have been proposed. We adopt two language modeling- based approaches to expert

  7. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. PMID:25132396

  8. Design of a New Practical Expert Fuzzy Controller in Central Air Conditioning Control System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingfang Du; Tongshun Fan; Wei Su; Hongxing Li

    2008-01-01

    The improved control algorithm in central air conditioning control system is discussed in this paper. Based on a number of practical projects, a primary theory model of expert fuzzy logic controller is established. The expert control ideal is applied in the framework design process of the air conditioning control system. The boundaries of membership function are decided by expert experience,

  9. INDUCING PARAMETERS OF A DECISION TREE FOR EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL MCESE BYGENETICALGORITHM

    E-print Network

    Franek, Frantisek

    and develop a decision­support expert system for a given problem. We have designed and built a software toolINDUCING PARAMETERS OF A DECISION TREE FOR EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL MCESE BYGENETICALGORITHM I. Bruha) called McESE (McMaster Expert System Environ­ ment) that processes a set of production (decision) rules

  10. Rhetorical Consequences of the Computer Society: Expert Systems and Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    Expert systems are computer programs that solve selected problems by modelling domain-specific behaviors of human experts. These computer programs typically consist of an input/output system that feeds data into the computer and retrieves advice, an inference system using the reasoning and heuristic processes of human experts, and a knowledge…

  11. Abstract --The topics of this research cover all phases of expert identification

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    a challenge. How to proceed then since the largest part of them does not appear in bibliographic databases. We take the case of Vietnamese experts as example, pointing out cultural characteristic features of a database, using Natural Language processing to identify experts and get a visual rendering of experts

  12. Ontological leveling and elicitation for complex industrial transactions

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.R.; Goldsmith, S.Y.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-11-01

    The authors present an agent-oriented mechanism that uses a central ontology as a means to conduct complex distributed transactions. This is done by instantiating a template object motivated solely by the ontology, then automatically and explicitly linking each temple element to an independently constructed interface component. Validation information is attached directly to the links so that the agent need not know a priori the semantics of data validity, merely how to execute a general validation process to satisfy the conditions given in the link. Ontological leveling is critical: all terms presented to informants must be semantically coherent within the central ontology. To illustrate this approach in an industrial setting, they discuss an existing implementation that conducted international commercial transactions on the World-Wide Web. Agents operating within a federated architecture construct, populate by Web-based elicitation, and manipulate a distributed composite transaction object to effect transport of goods over the US/Mexico border.

  13. Methodological approach to a re-usable fuzzy expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.O.

    1986-01-01

    A methodology for the development of expert systems is proposed and developed. Expert systems are examined and classified into three major groups. The imprecision inherent in many expert's domains is addressed with the use of fuzzy set theory. Fuzzy relations are used for knowledge representation and the inference process. Knowledge acquisition is also addressed in the relational context. All aspects of the system may be seen in the context of fuzzy relations which provide a powerful consistency. The developed methodology allows the construction of an expert system that has no domain knowledge built into it. This allows the system to be used in different domains with only the knowledge base being updated. The author applied the methodology to develop a multi-knowledge source expert system that incorporates fuzzy reasoning techniques. A blackboard is used for communication and the system may be distributed across several processors. Successful examples of the systems operation are shown.

  14. Being an expert witness in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Edward A.

    2015-02-01

    Gathering your own data and coming to your own conclusion through scientific research and discovery is the most important principle to remember when being an expert witness in geomorphology. You can only be questioned in deposition and trial in your area of expertise. You are qualified as an expert by education, knowledge, and experience. You will have absolutely nothing to fear from cross-examination if you are prepared and confident about your work. Being an expert witness requires good communication skills. When you make a presentation, speak clearly and avoid jargon, especially when addressing a jury. Keep in mind that when you take on a case that may eventually go to court as a lawsuit, the entire process, with appeals and so forth, can take several years. Therefore, being an expert may become a long-term commitment of your time and energy. You may be hired by either side in a dispute, but your job is the same - determine the scientific basis of the case and explain your scientific reasoning to the lawyers, the judge, and the jury. Your work, including pre-trial investigations, often determines what the case will be based on. The use of science in the discovery part of an investigation is demonstrated from a California case involving the Ventura River, where building of a flood control levee restricted flow to a narrower channel, increasing unit stream power as well as potential for bank erosion and landsliding.

  15. Ask the Experts - February 2007

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-02-01

    In this month's Ask the Experts column, the Experts address the following two questions: Does the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle serve as the basis for Chaos theory? and Why doesn't the United States use the metric system, also known as the System International, as other countries do? It was supposed to be in use by the 1980s. What happened?

  16. TRC: An expert system compiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel D. Kary; Paul L. Juell

    1986-01-01

    TRC is a compiler that is useful in building expert systems. The input is a rule based language. The output is a set of C language procedures. The principal advantages of TRC over existing expert system construction tools are speed of execution and portability of the code generated by TRC. The name TRC is an acronym for Translate Rules to

  17. Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuclear Industry, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)

  18. Why Testing Experts Hate Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.

    1999-01-01

    The objections of testing experts to standardized testing are evaluated. The report begins with a foreword by Chester E. Finn, Jr., followed by an executive summary and an introduction. Four case studies include: (1) experts' opposition to high-stakes testing in Texas; (2) in North Carolina; (3) concerns raised in connection with the National…

  19. Idea Bank: Ask the Experts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Burgmayer

    2011-01-01

    Want to learn something new about your teaching? Or discover what's really working in your classroom? Ask the experts! No, not teachers or administrators, the real experts: your students. By the time they reach high school, students have logged over 12,00

  20. The linguistic construction of expert identity in professor-student discussions of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Sadler, Troy D.; Suslak, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how participation in a verbal exchange during an inquiry-based classroom activity allows three college students and their science instructor to use linguistic signs (choices of words, grammatical structures, discursive structures, prosody and poetic discourse) to construct authority and expertise. Our work explores linguistic and interactional processes of identification (the dynamic construction and transaction of expert identity) and examines how discursive strategies adopted by the professor at different moments of the verbal exchange influence the students' subsequent discursive practices and perceptions of authority. We adopt a dialogic, socio-constructivist perspective on identity, viewing personal identities as being partially constructed via interactional positioning. Our findings reveal that the attainment of expertise involves two different types of language-mediated processes: the transmission of a professional vision or intension and the emergence of a perception of agency among students. The former is centered on referential-denotative meanings of speech (elicitation of standard account and operational definition) while the latter requires effective use of pragmatic-performative functions of speech (non-evaluative and more than minimal recipient practices). Consideration is given to the need for science instructors to be able to utilize pragmatic functions of language strategically to encourage students to position themselves within the identity of science expertise.

  1. Expert system development for probabilistic load simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, H.; Newell, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge based system LDEXPT using the intelligent data base paradigm was developed for the Composite Load Spectra (CLS) project to simulate the probabilistic loads of a space propulsion system. The knowledge base approach provides a systematic framework of organizing the load information and facilitates the coupling of the numerical processing and symbolic (information) processing. It provides an incremental development environment for building generic probabilistic load models and book keeping the associated load information. A large volume of load data is stored in the data base and can be retrieved and updated by a built-in data base management system. The data base system standardizes the data storage and retrieval procedures. It helps maintain data integrity and avoid data redundancy. The intelligent data base paradigm provides ways to build expert system rules for shallow and deep reasoning and thus provides expert knowledge to help users to obtain the required probabilistic load spectra.

  2. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  3. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  4. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koons, Harry C.; Groney, David J.

    1994-02-01

    An expert system has been developed by The Aerospace Corporation, Space and Environment Technology Center for use in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to determine the probable cause of an anomaly from the following candidates: surface charging, bulk charging, single-event effects, total radiation dose, and space-plasma effects. Such anomalies depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local plasma and radiation environment (which is highly variable), the satellite-exposure time, and the hardness of the circuits and components in the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instrument's Personal Consultant Plus expert-system shell. The expert system's knowledgebase includes about 200 rules, as well as a number of databases that contain information on spacecraft and their orbits, previous spacecraft anomalies, and the environment.

  5. Assessing fault rapture hazard for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Demonstration of a methodology using expert judgements

    SciTech Connect

    Perman, R.C.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Shaw, R.A. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    As part of the Electric Power Research Institute`s High Level Waste (EPRI HLW) performance assessment, we have developed and demonstrated a methodology to estimate the magnitude and likelihood of earthquake-related fault rupture that could affect the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A panel of seven earth sciences experts was selected to develop estimates of the probability of fault displacement through the repository, as well as to quantify the uncertainties associated with the assessment. A series of technical workshops focusing on the issues and involving expert judgement elicitation were conducted. Each expert was individually interviewed to elicit his judgement regarding the technical issues and to provide the technical basis for his assessment. The study illustrates a methodology for quantifying uncertainties associated with a complex technical issue that has been the subject of diversity of opinion.

  6. Expert Systems notes by: Eyal Amir

    E-print Network

    Amir, Eyal

    , in contrast to the common­sense knowledge. The first expert systems were mostly rule­based, but others in examplifying our distinctions and general analysis of Expert Systems. 2 Rule Based Rules based expert systemsExpert Systems notes by: Eyal Amir April 4, 1997 Abstract An Expert System is... This summary tries

  7. Proceedings of expert systems in government symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Karna, K.N.; Parsaye, K.; Silverman, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a symposium in expert systems in government. Topics covered in the symposium include: knowledge aquisition; expert systems in nuclear industry; management of uncertainty in expert systems; diagnosis and fault analysis; inexact and statistical measures; expert systems implementations; next generation expert system shells; and, parallel architectures for symbolic programs.

  8. Using expert systems to analyze ATE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Jim

    1994-01-01

    The proliferation of automatic test equipment (ATE) is resulting in the generation of large amounts of component data. Some of this component data is not accurate due to the presence of noise. Analyzing this data requires the use of new techniques. This paper describes the process of developing an expert system to analyze ATE data and provides an example rule in the CLIPS language for analyzing trip thresholds for high gain/high speed comparators.

  9. Expert system aid for military finance

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.D.; Emrich, M.L.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Meador, M.

    1987-09-14

    Historically, budget preparation processes have been difficult to accomplish. Errors and inconsistencies cause problems for the analyst during budget review. This paper discusses the development and testing of an expert system to aid budget preparation. The prototyping tool, its capabilities, and their application are discussed. Shown are the pilot testing procedures and their role in system development. Current status and enhancements (including software updates and future testing) are also presented. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Elicited Priors for Bayesian Model Specifications in Political Science Research

    E-print Network

    Gill, Jeff

    Elicited Priors for Bayesian Model Specifications in Political Science Research Jeff Gill in Bayesian political science research. These are a form of prior information produced by previous knowledge implications. Currently, there is no work in political science that articulates elicited priors in a Bayesian

  11. An Experimental Study of Belief Learning Using Elicited Beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaw Nyarko; Andrew Schotter

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates belief learning. Unlike other investigators who have been forced to use observable proxies to approximate unobserved beliefs, we have, using a belief elicitation procedure (proper scoring rule), elicited subject beliefs directly. As a result we were able to perform a more direct test of the proposition that people behave in a manner consistent with belief learning. What

  12. An Experimental Study of Belief Learning Using Elicited Beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaw Nyarko; Andrew Schotter

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates belief learning. Unlike other investigators who have been forced to use observable proxies to approximate unobserved beliefs, we have, using a belief elicitation procedure (proper scoring rule), elicited subject beliefs directly. As a result we were able to perform a more direct test of the proposition that people behave in a manner consistent with belief learning. What

  13. Eliciting and aggregating subjective judgements: same experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.F.; Bryson, M.C.; Waller, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    An introductory review of the literature on eliciting and aggregating subjective judgements is provided. Six direct numerical methods for eliciting subjective probabilities over continuous variables are compared using four types of stimuli. The comparison is based on an experiment conducted at Los Alamos. Six mathematical aggregation rules for providing consensus point and confidence interval judgements are also compared. Some simple conclusions are stated.

  14. A Prototype of Information Requirement Elicitation in m-Commerce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoh Peter In; Kuncara Aji Sukasdadi

    2003-01-01

    Information requirement elicitation (IRE) is a context-aware and personalized wireless web service to elicit user information requirements through interactive choice prompts. The authors developed a prototype of IRE and demonstrated its operations in an imagined m-Commerce scenario. This article also gives the result of a preliminary usability study.

  15. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

  16. Implementation of rule-based expert systems for time-critical applications using neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Ramamoorthy; S. Huang

    1989-01-01

    The process of constructing a neural-network-based expert system from a given AND\\/OR inference net is examined. The major purpose of such an approach is to make use of the parallel-processing capabilities of neural networks in implementing expert systems for classifications. In order to provide a clear view of the design process of the proposed neural network expert systems an example

  17. Expert evidence, the adversary system, and the jury.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions have been made about the competence of juries in dealing with expert evidence. I review the types of expert evidence that jurors hear and the impact of adversary legal procedure on the form and manner in which evidence is presented. Empirical research indicates that jurors understand the adversary process, that they do not automatically defer to the opinions of experts, and that their verdicts appear to be generally consistent with external criteria of performance. Conflicts between the American adversary system and changes in trial procedures that might assist the jury in its task are also considered here. PMID:16030330

  18. The Appropriateness of Renal Angioplasty. The ANPARIA Software: A Multidisciplinary Expert Panel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbaud, Laurent; Manhes, Geraud; Debourse, Juliette; Gouby, Gerald, E-mail: ggouby@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Glanddier, Phyllis-Yvonne [CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Hotel-Dieu, Service d'epidemiologie, economie de la sante et prevention (France); Vader, John-Paul [Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland); Boyer, Louis, E-mail: lboyer@chu-clermontferrand.fr; Deteix, Patrice [Universite d'Auvergne, Faculte de Medecine (France)

    2008-11-15

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) is an invasive technique that is costly and involves the risk of complications and renal failure. The ability of PTRA to reduce the administration of antihypertensive drugs has been demonstrated. A potentially greater benefit, which nevertheless remains to be proven, is the deferral of the need for chronic dialysis. The aim of the study (ANPARIA) was to assess the appropriateness of PTRA to impact on the evolution of renal function. A standardized expert panel method was used to assess the appropriateness of medical treatment alone or medical treatment with revascularization in various clinical situations. The choice of revascularization by either PTRA or surgery was examined for each clinical situation. Analysis was based on a detailed literature review and on systematically elicited expert opinion, which were obtained during a two-round modified Delphi process. The study provides detailed responses on the appropriateness of PTRA for 1848 distinct clinical scenarios. Depending on the major clinical presentation, appropriateness of revascularization varied from 32% to 75% for individual scenarios (overal 48%). Uncertainty as to revascularization was 41% overall. When revascularization was appropriate, PTRA was favored over surgery in 94% of the scenarios, except in certain cases of aortic atheroma where sugery was the preferred choice. Kidney size >7 cm, absence of coexisting disease, acute renal failure, a high degree of stenosis ({>=}70%), and absence of multiple arteries were identified as predictive variables of favorable appropriateness ratings. Situations such as cardiac failure with pulmonary edema or acute thrombosis of the renal artery were defined as indications for PTRA. This study identified clinical situations in which PTRA or surgery are appropriate for renal artery disease. We built a decision tree which can be used via Internet: the ANPARIA software (http://www.chu-clermontferrand.fr/anpariahttp://www.chu-clermontferrand.fr/anparia/). In numerous clinical situations uncertainty remains as to whether PTRA prevents deterioration of renal function.

  19. Rule-Based Expert Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crina Grosan; Ajith Abraham

    \\u000a Rule-based systems (also known as production systems or expert systems) are the simplest form of artificial intelligence. A rule based system uses rules as the knowledge representation for knowledge\\u000a coded into the system [1][3][4] [13][14][16][17][18][20]. The definitions of rule-based system depend almost entirely on expert\\u000a systems, which are system that mimic the reasoning of human expert in solving a knowledge

  20. Expert systems for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Holman, J G; Cookson, M J

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems, also known as intelligent knowledge based systems (IKBS), are computer programs which act as decision-support systems. They are currently being applied to a number of medical domains, most notably diagnosis and treatment planning. Their function is to assist the medical practitioner by giving ready access to the levels of skill shown by experts in a particular field. Much research effort has been expended but few systems have reached routine medical use. This paper presents a tutorial introduction to expert systems in medicine, explaining the basis of the technology, its current limitations and its prospective uses. PMID:3316658

  1. Expert Witness: A system for developing expert medical testimony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Raymond; Perkins, David; Leasure, David

    1994-01-01

    Expert Witness in an expert system designed to assist attorneys and medical experts in determining the merit of medical malpractice claims in the area of obstetrics. It substitutes the time of the medical expert with the time of a paralegal assistant guided by the expert system during the initial investigation of the medical records and patient interviews. The product of the system is a narrative transcript containing important data, immediate conclusions from the data, and overall conclusions of the case that the attorney and medical expert use to make decisions about whether and how to proceed with the case. The transcript may also contain directives for gathering additional information needed for the case. The system is a modified heuristic classifier and is implemented using over 600 CLIPS rules together with a C-based user interface. The data abstraction and solution refinement are implemented directly using forward chaining production and matching. The use of CLIPS and C is essential to delivering a system that runs on a generic PC platform. The direct implementation in CLIPS together with locality of inference ensures that the system will scale gracefully. Two years of use has revealed no errors in the reasoning.

  2. The Expert Project Management System (EPMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, Barry G.; Diakite, Coty

    1986-01-01

    Successful project managers (PMs) have been shown to rely on 'intuition,' experience, and analogical reasoning heuristics. For new PMs to be trained and experienced PMs to avoid repeating others' mistakes, it is necessary to make the knowledge and heuristics of successful PMs more widely available. The preparers have evolved a model of PM thought processes over the last decade that is now ready to be implemented as a generic PM aid. This aid consists of a series of 'specialist' expert systems (CRITIC, LIBRARIAN, IDEA MAN, CRAFTSMAN, and WRITER) that communicate with each other via a 'blackboard' architecture. The various specialist expert systems are driven to support PM training and problem solving since any 'answers' they pass to the blackboard are subjected to conflict identification (AGENDA FORMULATOR) and GOAL SETTER inference engines.

  3. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie

    1990-01-01

    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)

  4. Rule groupings in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala; Johnson, Sally C.

    1990-01-01

    Currently, expert system shells do not address software engineering issues for developing or maintaining expert systems. As a result, large expert systems tend to be incomprehensible, difficult to debug or modify, and almost impossible to verify or validate Partitioning rule-based systems into rule groups which reflect the underlying subdomains of the problem should enhance the comprehensibility, maintainability, and reliability of expert-system software. In this paper, we investigate methods to semi-automatically structure a CLIPS rule base e into groups of rules that carry related information. We discuss three different distance metrics for measuring the relatedness of rules and describe two clustering algorithms based on these distance metrics. The results of our experiment with three sample rule bases are also presented.

  5. Partial belief and expert testimony

    E-print Network

    Briggs, Rachael (Rachael Amy)

    2009-01-01

    My dissertation investigates two questions from within a partial belief framework: First, when and how should deference to experts or other information sources be qualified? Second, how closely is epistemology related to ...

  6. Expert Systems in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the “big three”: Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

  7. Rule-based expert systems in strategic market management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Walden

    1992-01-01

    Strategic market management (SMM) is the process of establishing a sustainable competitive advantage. Essential cause-effect relationships in SMM are mostly logical, the problem-solving semi- or unstructured, and available knowledge mostly imprecise and incomplete. Recent studies have shown that expert systems show significant promise for improving the basis and conceptual framework for decision-making in a strategic market management context. Expert systems

  8. A state transition model for rule-based expert systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dube

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation describes a State Transition Model (STM) for building real-time, continuous-operation, transaction-processing expert systems for the maintenance of complex physical systems. An STM enhances the expressiveness of rule-based systems by making control knowledge explicit. The author has augmented the traditional rule-based production system architecture with a state transition model to develop a framework for building hybrid expert systems. The

  9. Application of Expert Systems to Industrial Utility Equipment Optimization 

    E-print Network

    Hayes,S.; Burton,K.; O'Sullivan,D.

    2014-01-01

    Commissioning Process” 2005). In (Pacas and Villwock 2008), a model based expert system using a frequency response analysis method was developed for a primary purpose of commissioning electrical drives. In the context of this paper, optimisation refers...) “Model-based fault diagnosis in electric drives using machine learning,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 11(3), 290–303. Pacas, M., Villwock, S. (2008) “Development of an expert system for identification, commissioning and monitoring...

  10. Using Bayesian Network to Develop Drilling Expert Systems 

    E-print Network

    Alyami, Abdullah

    2012-10-19

    was developed to control solids in drilling fluids using flow charts, (Pandey and Osisanya 2004). An underbalanced drilling expert system based on fuzzy logic was developed to perform screening decisions. These decisions include whether to use underbalanced... on Fuzzy logic was developed. The expert system included a screening process for planning multilateral well candidates, lateral completion and junction level. Flow charts were linked to a computer program, Garrouch et al. (2004). 4 The purpose...

  11. Cellular defense processes regulated by pathogen-elicited receptor signaling

    E-print Network

    Wu, Rongcong

    Vertebrates are constantly threatened by the invasion of microorganisms and have evolved systems of immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens in the body. Initial sensing of microbial agents is mediated by the recognition ...

  12. Eliciting Change in Maltreating Fathers: Goals, Processes, and Desired Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena L.; Francis, Karen J.; Kelly, Tim; Reid, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    There has been a growing recognition of the need to provide appropriate intervention services to fathers who have been abusive in their families. This paper highlights four specific treatment goals for fathers who maltreat their children, along with therapeutic strategies necessary to accomplish desired outcomes. These goals were developed as part…

  13. Defensive Prediction with Expert Advice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Vovk

    2005-01-01

    The theory of prediction with expert advice usually deals with finite or finite-dimensional pools of experts. In this paper we give similar results for pools of decision rules belonging to an infinite-dimensional functional space which we call the Fermi-Sobolev space. For example, it is shown that for a wide class of loss functions (including the standard square, ab- solute, and

  14. Expert judgments about RD&D and the future of nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Anadón, Laura D; Bosetti, Valentina; Bunn, Matthew; Catenacci, Michela; Lee, Audrey

    2012-11-01

    Probabilistic estimates of the cost and performance of future nuclear energy systems under different scenarios of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending were obtained from 30 U.S. and 30 European nuclear technology experts. We used a novel elicitation approach which combined individual and group elicitation. With no change from current RD&D funding levels, experts on average expected current (Gen. III/III+) designs to be somewhat more expensive in 2030 than they were in 2010, and they expected the next generation of designs (Gen. IV) to be more expensive still as of 2030. Projected costs of proposed small modular reactors (SMRs) were similar to those of Gen. IV systems. The experts almost unanimously recommended large increases in government support for nuclear RD&D (generally 2-3 times current spending). The majority expected that such RD&D would have only a modest effect on cost, but would improve performance in other areas, such as safety, waste management, and uranium resource utilization. The U.S. and E.U. experts were in relative agreement regarding how government RD&D funds should be allocated, placing particular focus on very high temperature reactors, sodium-cooled fast reactors, fuels and materials, and fuel cycle technologies. PMID:23002786

  15. Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Erin D.; Chon, Haewon; Keisler, Jeffrey M.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion batteries. Averaging across experts we find that U.S. government expenditures of $150 M/year lead to a 66% chance of achieving a battery that costs less than $200/kWh, and a 20% chance for a cost of $90/kWh or less. Reducing the cost of batteries from a baseline of $384 to $200 could lead to a savings in the cost of reducing greenhouse gases of about $100 billion in 2050.

  16. EDNA: Expert fault digraph analysis using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixit, Vishweshwar V.

    1990-01-01

    Traditionally fault models are represented by trees. Recently, digraph models have been proposed (Sack). Digraph models closely imitate the real system dependencies and hence are easy to develop, validate and maintain. However, they can also contain directed cycles and analysis algorithms are hard to find. Available algorithms tend to be complicated and slow. On the other hand, the tree analysis (VGRH, Tayl) is well understood and rooted in vast research effort and analytical techniques. The tree analysis algorithms are sophisticated and orders of magnitude faster. Transformation of a digraph (cyclic) into trees (CLP, LP) is a viable approach to blend the advantages of the representations. Neither the digraphs nor the trees provide the ability to handle heuristic knowledge. An expert system, to capture the engineering knowledge, is essential. We propose an approach here, namely, expert network analysis. We combine the digraph representation and tree algorithms. The models are augmented by probabilistic and heuristic knowledge. CLIPS, an expert system shell from NASA-JSC will be used to develop a tool. The technique provides the ability to handle probabilities and heuristic knowledge. Mixed analysis, some nodes with probabilities, is possible. The tool provides graphics interface for input, query, and update. With the combined approach it is expected to be a valuable tool in the design process as well in the capture of final design knowledge.

  17. Expert Systems notes by: Eyal Amir

    E-print Network

    Amir, Eyal

    to the common-sense knowledge. The first expert systems were mostly rule-based, but others with model in examplifying our distinctions and general analysis of Expert Systems. 2 Rule Based Rules based expert Expert Systems notes by: Eyal Amir

  18. An Explanation Facility for Today's Expert Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Wick; James R. Slagle

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss explanation facility types found in most expert systems and shells used today, referring to these as practice systems, since they represent current practice in expert system work. Practice systems include nonresearch expert systems (being developed every day in industry) as well as nonresearch expert system shells. They maintain that an extensive explanation facility meeting the obligations of

  19. Expert systems - New approaches to computer-aided engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dym, C. L.

    This paper provides an overview of the burgeoning new field of expert (knowledge-based) systems. This survey is tutorial in nature, intended to convey the gestalt of such systems to engineers who are newly exposed to the field. The discussion includes definitions, basic concepts, expert system architecture, descriptions of some of the programming tools and environments with which knowledge-based systems can be built, and approaches to knowledge acquisition. Some currently extant expert systems are described en passant, including a few developed for engineering purposes. Comments follow on the engineering of knowledge, as both cultural and social processes. The paper closes with an assessment of the roles that expert systems can play in engineering analysis, design, planning, and education.

  20. ATS displays: A reasoning visualization tool for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selig, William John; Johannes, James D.

    1990-01-01

    Reasoning visualization is a useful tool that can help users better understand the inherently non-sequential logic of an expert system. While this is desirable in most all expert system applications, it is especially so for such critical systems as those destined for space-based operations. A hierarchical view of the expert system reasoning process and some characteristics of these various levels is presented. Also presented are Abstract Time Slice (ATS) displays, a tool to visualize the plethora of interrelated information available at the host inferencing language level of reasoning. The usefulness of this tool is illustrated with some examples from a prototype potable water expert system for possible use aboard Space Station Freedom.

  1. Positive and negative ultrasonic social signals elicit opposing firing patterns in rat amygdala.

    PubMed

    Parsana, Ashwini J; Li, Nanxin; Brown, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are ethologically-essential social signals. Under natural conditions, 22kHz USVs and 50kHz USVs are emitted in association with negative and positive emotional states, respectively. Our first experiment examined freezing behavior elicited in naïve Sprague-Dawley rats by a 22kHz USV, a 50kHz USV, and frequency-matched tones. None of the stimuli elicited freezing, which is the most commonly-used index of fear. The second experiment examined single-unit responses to these stimuli in the amygdala (AM), which is well-known for its role in innate and acquired fear responses. Among 127 well-discriminated single units, 82% were auditory-responsive. Elicited firing patterns were classified using a multi-dimensional scheme that included transient (phasic) responses to the stimulus onsets and/or offsets as well as sustained (tonic) responses during the stimulus. Tonic responses, which are not ordinarily evaluated in AM, were 4.4-times more common than phasic responses. The 22kHz stimuli tended to elicit tonic increases in the firing rates, whereas the 50kHz stimuli more often elicited tonic decreases in firing rates. These opposing tonic responses correspond with the ethological valence of USVs in the two frequency bands. Thus, a relatively-small sample of single-unit responses in AM furnished a more sensitive index of emotional valence than freezing behavior. Latency analysis suggested that stimuli in the two frequency bands are processed through different pathways to AM. One possible interpretation is that phasic responses in AM reflect the detection of a stimulus change, whereas tonic responses indicate the valence of the detected stimulus. PMID:21911010

  2. A gene mapping expert system.

    PubMed

    Galland, J; Skolnick, M H

    1990-08-01

    Expert systems are now commonly developed to solve practical problems. Nevertheless, genetics has just begun to benefit from this new technology, since genetic expert systems are extremely rare and often purely experimental. A prototype for risk calculation in pedigrees was developed at the University of Utah, using a commercial frames/rules developmental shell (Intelligence Compiler), which runs on an IBM PC. When small data sets were used, the implementation functioned well, but it could not handle larger data sets. Performance became a major issue, with two possible solutions. The first possibility would have been to port the system to a more powerful machine, and the second would have been to use several different shells or languages, each efficiently representing a specific type of knowledge. Neither of these solutions was applicable in this case. From this experience, we learned that performance, portability, and modifiability were three major requirements for genetic expert systems. To achieve these goals, we implemented the gene mapping expert system GMES: (GMES is unrelated to the gene mapping system, GMS in Lisp combined with a frame/object shell (FROBS). We were able to efficiently represent, control, and optimize a gene mapping experiment, achieving portability by building GMES on top of a C-based version of Common Lisp. Lisp combined with the FROBS expert system shell permitted a declarative representation of each of the components of the experiment, resulting in a transplant specification of the problem within a maintainable system. PMID:2394090

  3. Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds

    E-print Network

    Baker, David

    demonstrate the elicitation of structure- specific antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 epitope of the broadly. The ability of structural biology to provide atomic-level definition of antibody­ antigen interactions

  4. Using expert opinion to identify risk factors important to infectious salmon-anemia (ISA) outbreaks on salmon farms in Maine, USA and New Brunswick, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Gustafson; S. K. Ellis; C. A. Bartlett

    2005-01-01

    Thirty industry or regulatory professionals, with extensive experience in the local infectious salmon-anemia (ISA) epidemic, were queried on their opinions regarding the spread and impact of ISA in Maine, USA and New Brunswick, Canada. Subjective probability-estimation techniques were used to elicit likelihood ratios (LR) for risk factors of potential relevance to the epidemic. Experts were asked to answer questions based

  5. Measuring impatience: Elicited discount rates and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendra N. McLeish; Robert J. Oxoby

    2007-01-01

    We explore the extent to which elicited discount rates and self-reported impulsivity measure the same behavioral characteristic. We elicit discount rates using monetary rewards and a self-reported measure of impulsiveness (the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11). Although researchers have utilized these measures to infer aspects of intertemporal preferences, we find no significant correlation between discount rates and the BIS-11 except when

  6. ESKAPE/CF: A knowledge-acquisition tool for expert systems using cognitive feedback. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    The major bottleneck in the construction of expert systems is the time-consuming process of acquiring knowledge from experts. Automated knowledge acquisition tools have demonstrated the ability to reduce the time required to construct expert system knowledge bases and are supported by both knowledge engineers and experts. However, due to limitations in their underlying psychological paradigms, existing tools may not be well-suited to extracting semantic or procedural knowledge from an expert. This thesis designs and implements an Expert System Knowledge Acquisition and Policy Evaluation tool using Cognitive Feedback (ESKAPE/CF), based on Lens model techniques which have demonstrated effectiveness in capturing policy knowledge. The system is designed to be used interactively by an expert to reduce the historically lengthy interactions with a knowledge engineer. Additionally, the use of cognitive feedback techniques should enable the system to capture expertise that has heretofore been unobtainable by existing knowledge acquisition tools.

  7. Verification and Validation Issues in Expert and Database Systems: The Expert Systems Perspective

    E-print Network

    Coenen, Frans

    the expert systems V&V community, namely: errors and anomalies in rule bases, error detection and remedial ac. Expert Systems Expert systems typically comprise a rule base and an in­ ference mechanism. RulesVerification and Validation Issues in Expert and Database Systems: The Expert Systems Perspective

  8. Differential Task Effects on N400 and P600 Elicited by Semantic and Syntactic Violations

    PubMed Central

    Shmuilovich, Olga; Martíenz, Pilar Casado; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Syntactic violations in sentences elicit a P600 component in the event-related potential, which is frequently interpreted as signaling reanalysis or repair of the sentence structure. However, P600 components have been reported also for semantic and combined semantic and syntactic violations, giving rise to still other interpretations. In many of these studies, the violation might be of special significance for the task of the participants; however there is a lack of studies directly targeting task effects on the P600. Here we repeated a previously published study but using a probe verification task, focusing on individual words rather than on sentence correctness and directly compared the results with the previous ones. Although a (somewhat smaller) N400 component occurred also in the present study, we did not observe a parietal P600 component. Instead, we found a late anterior negativity. Possibly, the parietal P600 observed in sentence acceptability paradigms relates to the target value of the violations or to late sentence structure-specific processes that are more task-sensitive than the N400 and which are or not initiated in the probe verification task. In any case the present findings show a strong dependency of P600-eliciting processes from attention to the sentences context whereas the N400 eliciting processes appear relatively robust. PMID:24614675

  9. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  10. Expert system for D&B tunnel construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Yu; J. C. Chern

    To improve the technology for drill and blast tunnel construction in Taiwan, an expert system consisted of data bank, tool bank and decision making auxiliary system has been developed. Various tools can be used efficiently in carrying out data collection, processing, analysis and evaluation work required in the tunneling process. Using the successful tunnel case histories data learned from the

  11. Elicitation of Casbene Synthetase Activity in Castor Bean 1

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Robert J.; West, Charles A.

    1982-01-01

    Endopolygalacturonase isolated from culture filtrates of the fungus Rhizopus stolonifer was shown previously to act as an elicitor of biosynthetic capacity for the antifungal agent, casbene, in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings (S.-C. Lee, C.A. West 1981 Plant Physiology 67:633-639). Selective amidation of exposed carboxyl groups of the pure fungal endopolygalacturonase using intermediate activation with a water-soluble carbodiimide under mild conditions leads to inactivation of its enzymic activity. Tests of active and partially inactivated preparations of the enzyme reveal a close correlation between the levels of catalytic and elicitor activities. This suggests that the catalytic activity of the enzyme is necessary for its function as an elicitor. Treatment of the cell-free particulate fraction of homogenates of castor bean seedlings with the active fungal endopolygalacturonase results in the production of a heat-stable, water-soluble component which is highly active as an elicitor of casbene synthetase activity. Several additional lines of evidence, including the susceptibility of the heat-stable elicitor fraction to partial inactivation following prolonged treatment with endopolygalacturonase, indicate that the heat-stable elicitor is most likely a pectic fragment of the plant cell wall and that it is a required intermediate in the process of elicitation of casbene synthetase activity by the fungal endopolygalacturonase. PMID:16662367

  12. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Resource allocations and expert systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-12

    The work performed to meet the requirement of this task is a continuing effort, evolving toward a general-purpose reasoning tool. The idea here is to build a more-powerful general expert system than the previous one. Towards that, this new Bayesian inference engine is based on the work done by Pearl and Kim. The advantages of this new inference engine over the previous one are that the representation of the knowledge is more compact and the inferencing is suitable for parallel processing. The inference engine is written in Franz lisp on VAX machine. All the code and a typescript of how to load and use the system is attached.

  14. Use of expert opinion for animal disease decisions: an example of foot-and-mouth disease status designation.

    PubMed

    Garabed, R B; Perez, A M; Johnson, W O; Thurmond, M C

    2009-11-01

    When data representing a preferred measurement of risk cannot be obtained, as is often the case for global animal diseases, decisions that affect millions of people and their animals are typically made based on expert opinion. Expert opinion can be and has been used to address the critical lack of data existing for prevalence and incidence of many global diseases, including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). However, when a conclusion based on expert opinion applies to a topic as sensitive as FMD, which has tremendous economic, political, and social implications, care should be taken to understand the accuracy of and differences in the opinion data. The differences in experts' opinions and the relative accuracy of an expert opinion elicitation for "diagnosing" country-level FMD presence were examined for the years 1997-2003 using Bayesian methods. A formal survey of eight international FMD experts revealed that individual experts had different opinions as to the probability of finding FMD in a country. However, a weighted average of the experts' responses was relatively accurate (91% sensitivity and 85% specificity) at identifying the FMD status of a country, compared to using a method that employed information available from World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The most apparent disagreements between individual experts and available information were found for Indonesia, South Korea, and South America, and, in general, the experts seemed to believe that countries in South Asia were more likely to be positive than other countries that reported FMD cases to OIE. This study highlights new methodology that offers a standardized, quantitative, and systematic means by which expert opinion can be used and assessed. PMID:19651451

  15. For reprint orders, please contact reprints@expert-reviews.com 133ISSN 1473-7167 2011 Expert Reviews Ltdwww.expert-reviews.com

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    Reviews Ltdwww.expert-reviews.com Editorial 10.1586/ERP.11.4 Are there implications for quality of care tourism there is clearly a potential for supplier-induced demand, whereby the supplier determines both on the quality, processes and outcomes of particular treatments are beginning to emerge, including fertility

  16. Creating Expert Problem Solving Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Eccles; Paul T. Groth

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how human-technology interaction in modern ambient technology environments can be best informed by conceptualizing of such environments as problem solving systems. Typically, such systems comprise multiple human and technological agents that meet the demands imposed by problem constraints through dynamic collaboration. A key assertion is that the design of expert problem solving systems can benefit from an

  17. Expert thinking and environmental institutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janne Hukkinen

    1999-01-01

    The paper explores environmental institutions that facilitate the trial and error search for sustainable development. The argumentation refers to four case studies of environmental management in the US, Europe, and China. To diagnose the institutional constraints of environmental management, the studies focus on the mental models with which experts understand environmental problems and justify their efforts to fix the problems.

  18. Expert Practice in Physical Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail M Jensen; Jan Gwyer; Katherine F Shepard; Laurita M Hack

    2000-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the dimensions of clinical expertise in physical therapy prac- tice across 4 clinical specialty areas: geriatrics, neurology, orthopedics, and pediatrics. Subjects. Subjects were 12 peer-designated expert physical therapists nominated by the leaders of the American Physical Therapy Association sections for geriatrics, neurology, orthopedics, and pediatrics. Methods. Guided by

  19. Expert's Guide to Financing College

    E-print Network

    Portman, Douglas

    flexibility in planning your college finances. To learn more, visit www.privatecollege529.com. Prepaid Tuition Plan Similar to the Private College 529 Plan, the University of Rochester's Prepaid Tuition Plan allowsExpert's Guide to Financing College #12;How do you know an education is worth the money? You

  20. The Expert System for Thermodynamics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Subrata Bhattacharjee

    The Expert System for Thermodynamics (TEST) is a web-based software platform used to analyze thermofluids problems, verify hand calculations, pursue what-if scenarios, visualize thermal systems, and conduct other investigations in thermodynamics. Site materials include problem sets, examples, animations, and calculating tools to be used in solving problems. There is also a tutorial and visual tour of the platform.

  1. Strategic Planning for Expert Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Moulin; UniversM Lava

    1990-01-01

    Some lessons drawn from experience in devising a master plan introducing expert system technology at La Laurentienne, Mutuelle d'Assurance, a Canadian mutual-benefit insurance company, are presented. The organizational setting and the approach used to develop the master plan are described. The evaluation of potential applications is discussed

  2. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A. (Army Construction Engineering Research Labs., Champaign, IL (United States)); Park, Y.T. (Soong Sil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1994-12-01

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system has been developed for troubleshooting cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with a database that stores inventory and field measurement information and flags problem areas. The system is described, and examples of troubleshooting using the system are presented.

  3. Teacher Stress: An Expert Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimian, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed experts (n=226) on teacher stress and burnout to determine relevance of 49 teacher stress items to their overall concepts of teacher stress. Items rated as most relevant dealt with feeling unable to cope and experiencing physical exhaustion; the least were related to student motivation problems. (Author/NB)

  4. Memory-based pre-attentive auditory N1 elicited by sound movement.

    PubMed

    Ohoyama, Keiko; Motomura, Eishi; Inui, Koji; Nishihara, Makoto; Otsuru, Naofumi; Oi, Motoyasu; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Okada, Motohiro

    2012-07-01

    Quickly detecting changes in the surrounding environment is one of the most important functions of sensory processing. Comparison of a new event with preceding sensory conditions is necessary for the change-detection process. A sudden change in a continuous sound elicits auditory evoked potentials that peak approximately 100 ms after the onset of the change (Change-N1). In the present study, we recorded Change-N1 under an oddball paradigm in 19 healthy subjects using an abruptly moving sound (SM-stimulus) as a deviant stimulus and investigated effects of the probability of the SM-stimulus to reveal whether Change-N1 is a memory-based response. We compared the amplitude and latency of Change-N1 elicited by the SM-stimulus among three probability conditions (33, 50 and 100%). As the probability of the SM-stimulus decreased, the amplitude of Change-N1 increased and its latency decreased. The present results indicate that the preceding sensory history affects Change-N1 elicited by the SM-stimulus. PMID:22525281

  5. Danger and disease: electrocortical responses to threat- and disgust-eliciting images.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Michael G; Holman, Alexis; Rabinak, Christine A; Macnamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Phan, K Luan

    2013-11-01

    Previous research suggests facilitated processing of evolutionarily significant stimuli (e.g., depictions of erotica, mutilation, threat), as reflected by augmented event-related potentials (ERPs), including the early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP). Evolutionary models suggest that images that evoke disgust should be high in motivational salience, but evidence that the EPN and LPP are enhanced by disgusting images is lacking. Prior studies have employed only a small number of disgusting images that were limited in the types of content depicted. In the current study, participants viewed larger sets of disgusting, threatening, and neutral images with more varied content while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Results showed that disgusting and threatening images elicited equivalent LPPs, which were both significantly increased relative to LPPs elicited by neutral images. EPN amplitudes were augmented for both disgusting and threatening relative to neutral images, though significantly more for disgust. These findings offer initial evidence that the EPN and the LPP are sensitive to disgust-eliciting pictures and that these pictures may receive processing that is at least on par with that of threatening images. Limitations of the current study and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23938878

  6. NESSUS/EXPERT - An expert system for probabilistic structural analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, H.; Palmer, K.; Fink, P.

    1988-01-01

    An expert system (NESSUS/EXPERT) is presented which provides assistance in using probabilistic structural analysis methods. NESSUS/EXPERT is an interactive menu-driven expert system that provides information to assist in the use of the probabilistic finite element code NESSUS/FEM and the fast probability integrator. NESSUS/EXPERT was developed with a combination of FORTRAN and CLIPS, a C language expert system tool, to exploit the strengths of each language.

  7. An expert system to perform on-line controller tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system which tunes a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller on-line for a single-input-single-output multiple-lag process with dead time is described. The expert system examines features of the previous transient responses and their corresponding sets of controller parameters. It determines a new set of controller gains to obtain a more desirable time response. This technique can be used to determine and implement a different set of PID gains for each operating regime and, once in steady state, the system can be used to find optimal parameters for load disturbance rejection. The expert system can be applied to any system of the specified form (aerospace, industrial, etc.) and can be expanded to include additional process models.

  8. Experts at play: Understanding and designing for expert skill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Brown; Eric Laurier

    As computer games have increased in popularity, gameplay has gained renewed attention within HCI as a genera of human-computer-interaction. Drawing on phenomen- ological accounts of expert skill, this paper examines the gameplay of Counter-Strike, one popular online game. While Counter-Strike at first appearance may seem an unsophisticated pursuit, players display complex skills developed through many hours of concerted play. Using

  9. CRN5EXP: Expert system for statistical quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentea, Mariana

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the Expert System CRN5EXP is to assist in checking the quality of the coils at two very important mills: Hot Rolling and Cold Rolling in a steel plant. The system interprets the statistical quality control charts, diagnoses and predicts the quality of the steel. Measurements of process control variables are recorded in a database and sample statistics such as the mean and the range are computed and plotted on a control chart. The chart is analyzed through patterns using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) and a forward chaining technique to reach a conclusion about the causes of defects and to take management measures for the improvement of the quality control techniques. The Expert System combines the certainty factors associated with the process control variables to predict the quality of the steel. The paper presents the approach to extract data from the database, the reason to combine certainty factors, the architecture and the use of the Expert System. However, the interpretation of control charts patterns requires the human expert's knowledge and lends to Expert Systems rules.

  10. Family Stories: Eliciting Tolerance and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Melanie Anne Dillett

    2009-01-01

    The past and present provide an important reference to understanding the circumstances and cultural differences that assist in the development of our methods of interaction. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to provide a process of personal self-reflection of experiences by which administrators, school officials, staff, and faculty can…

  11. [Professional and ethical medical expert quality].

    PubMed

    Ivekovi?, Renata

    2008-01-01

    The work of court experts, including those of medical profession, is ruled by Regulations on standing court experts. The Regulations determine requirements for performing the job of court expertise, rights and duties of court experts, awards and remuneration for their work. The ethical codex determines relation of experts to performance of expertise, to court and parties, to colleagues court experts and to the community. The expert must obey the rules on performance of the expertise, complete all his duties, protect respectability of all court experts, and justify trust of legal authorities. In relationship with the court, the expert must respond to court summons, give his finding and opinion, and come to hearing summons. PMID:19146190

  12. Do expert systems impact taxpayer behavior?

    E-print Network

    Olshewsky, Steven J.

    2004-09-30

    Individuals are increasingly using expert system tax programs as a substitute for paid professionals when preparing their income tax returns. This study examines ways that expert systems encourage the same aggressive results documented when paid...

  13. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  14. Eliciting Self-Explanations Improves Understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelene T. H. Chi; Nicholas De Leeuw; Mei-hung Chiu; Christian Lavancher

    1994-01-01

    Learning involves the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Generating explanations to oneself (self-explaining) facilitates that integration process. Previously, self-explanation has been shown to improve the acquisition of problem-solvi ng skills when studying worked-out examples. This study extends that finding, showing that self-explanation can also be facilitative when it is explicitly promoted, in the context of learning declarative knowledge

  15. Internet-Based Expert Systems Ralph Grove

    E-print Network

    Grove, Ralph

    Internet-Based Expert Systems Ralph Grove Indiana University of Pennsylvania Computer Science Dept;2 Internet-Based Expert Systems Abstract The Internet offers a large potential for delivery of various of the Internet has grown, its value as a medium for the delivery of expert systems in particular has increased

  16. Fuzzy Expert Systems Jonathan M. Garibaldi

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    for a medical application. The expert system framework considered here is restricted to rule-based systemsFuzzy Expert Systems Jonathan M. Garibaldi Automated Scheduling, OptimisAtion and Planning (ASAP system for financial forecasting and the other will be a real example of a fuzzy expert system

  17. MRI Grant Program: Expert Tips & Tricks

    E-print Network

    Wang, Bing

    MRI Grant Program: Expert Tips & Tricks to Nab Expensive Instrumentation WHITE PAPER Sponsored by: #12;White Paper: MRI Grant Program: Expert Tips & Tricks to Nab Expensive Instrumentation Principal Investigators Association | www.principalinvestigators.org 2 White Paper -- "MRI Grant Program: Expert Tips

  18. System for empirical experimentation with expert knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Politakis; S. M. Weiss

    1982-01-01

    SEEK is a system which has been developed to give interactive advice about rule refinement during the design of an expert system. The advice takes the form of suggestions for possible experiments in generalizing or specializing rules in an expert model that has been specified based on reasoning rules cited by the expert. Case experience, in the form of stored

  19. The Experts in Electronic Evidence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The ATETV project delivers web-based videos to connect students to careers in advanced technology. In this episode of ATETV, we learn about the work that computer forensic examiners do. Companies hire these experts to help recover and protect their data. Seeing the practical applications of what they are learning will be helpful for current students. Running time for the episode is 2:18.

  20. Ask the Experts -- December 2005

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-01

    The Experts give their "spin" on physical science concepts as they answer the question, "What does "spin" refer to in particle physics? Why is this concept necessary?" and "My physics teacher tells me that when I go around a sharp curve in my car, there is no force causing me to move away from the center of curvature. So what is happening to make me feel as if I am sliding toward the outside?

  1. Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Nigel

    virus (CCHFV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) into the EU from other parts of the world, with African, which in- fect humans include Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus will increase the risk of incursions of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

  2. Waste package degradation expert elicitation panel: Input on the corrosion of CRM alloy C-22. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.

    1998-02-26

    The overall electrolyte concentration in the NFE environment is expected to be somewhere between 1X and saturated J-13 well water. This covers more than three orders-of-magnitude in chloride anion concentration. The pH of this solution is expected to be somewhere between 5 and 10. Exposed patches of the CRM could see this environment.

  3. Waste package degradation expert elicitation panel: Input on the corrosion of CRM alloy C-22. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.

    1998-03-14

    The overall electrolyte concentration in the NFE environment is expected to be somewhere between 1X and saturated J-13 well water. This covers more than three orders-of-magnitude in chloride anion concentration. The pH of this solution is expected to be somewhere between 5 and 10. Exposed patches of the CRM could see this environment.

  4. A method to elicit aggressive feelings and behaviour via provocation.

    PubMed

    Bond, A; Lader, M

    1986-02-01

    A technique is described which elicits hostility via provocation in a competitive reaction time task incorporating a predetermined failure rate of 50%. When the subject loses he is exposed to a white noise which increases in intensity through the experiment. When he wins he is able to administer one of 8 levels of noise to his opponent. Heart rate and skin conductance level and fluctuations were monitored throughout the experiment. Self-ratings of mood, aggression and anxiety were completed both pre and post task. It was found that the task elicited hostility which could be measured behaviourally, physiologically and emotionally. PMID:3697459

  5. Effects of adaptation to shock on shock-elicited aggression 

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Thomas Andrew

    1971-01-01

    Major Subject: Psychology 0 R 0 R EFFECTS OF ADAPTATION TO SHOCK ON SHOCK-ELICITED AGGRESSION fbi a z H o 0 g CC W z C 5 a N A Thesis by THO. 'LAS ANDREN BUCHANAN Approved as to style and content by: airman oz Comm ~ t ) ( Hea f D... in monkeys and rats by punishing with electric shock even though shock is the aggression eliciting stimulus (Azrin, 1970; Roberts and Blase, 1971) . However, as a punishing stimulus, shock may have the disadvantage of pro- ducing: (1) unauthorized escape...

  6. Biologically inspired robots elicit a robust fear response in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G.; Butail, Sachit; Macr?, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to three fear-evoking stimuli. In a binary choice test, zebrafish are exposed to a live allopatric predator, a biologically-inspired robot, and a computer-animated image of the live predator. A target tracking algorithm is developed to score zebrafish behavior. Unlike computer-animated images, the robotic and live predator elicit a robust avoidance response. Importantly, the robotic stimulus elicits more consistent inter-individual responses than the live predator. Results from this effort are expected to aid in hypothesis-driven studies on zebrafish fear response, by offering a valuable approach to maximize data-throughput and minimize animal subjects.

  7. Onboard navigation rendezvous expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocen, Michelle

    1991-01-01

    The Onboard Navigation rendezvous expert system is designed to aid the ground flight controller in monitoring the shuttle onboard navigation system. The system is designed to keep track of the navigation sensors and relative state vectors. In addition, the system also keeps an event log and fills out forms usually handled by the flight controller. This expert system is one of the few rendezvous specific systems being developed for the Mission Control Center. The expert system has been in development for six years. Through these years the system has seen hardware, software, and personnel changes. Initial development was done by the Information Systems Directorate (ISD) and Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at Johnson Space Center. As of October 1, 1991 the system has been turned over to MOD. The system is completely developed except for some minor adjustments to the user interface. The rule base is in the verification stage with total certification of the system due to be completed by May 1992. Test cases for verification are obtained by saving data used for flight controller integrated simulations. The actual data comes from both the shuttle mission simulator and the Mission Control Center Computer. So far no actual flight data has been available. This paper covers all aspects of the system from the development history to the current hardware, software, and use of the system.

  8. Onboard navigation rendezvous expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocen, Michelle

    The Onboard Navigation rendezvous expert system is designed to aid the ground flight controller in monitoring the shuttle onboard navigation system. The system is designed to keep track of the navigation sensors and relative state vectors. In addition, the system also keeps an event log and fills out forms usually handled by the flight controller. This expert system is one of the few rendezvous specific systems being developed for the Mission Control Center. The expert system has been in development for six years. Through these years the system has seen hardware, software, and personnel changes. Initial development was done by the Information Systems Directorate (ISD) and Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at Johnson Space Center. As of October 1, 1991 the system has been turned over to MOD. The system is completely developed except for some minor adjustments to the user interface. The rule base is in the verification stage with total certification of the system due to be completed by May 1992. Test cases for verification are obtained by saving data used for flight controller integrated simulations. The actual data comes from both the shuttle mission simulator and the Mission Control Center Computer. So far no actual flight data has been available. This paper covers all aspects of the system from the development history to the current hardware, software, and use of the system.

  9. Processing Negativity: An Evoked-Potential Reflection of Selective Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naatanen, Risto

    1982-01-01

    Studies of selective attention using evoked-potential techniques in humans are reviewed and evaluated. These studies disclose so-called processing negativity, an endogenous negative brain potential elicited by the delivery of stimuli which elicit attention. (Author/MP)

  10. Expert Update VV&I in Expert and Database Systems VALIDATION, VERIFICATION AND INTEGRITY ISSUES

    E-print Network

    Coenen, Frans

    the expert systems community [Coenen 98]. Although the technology of Rule­Based Systems has become more of elements of this technology for simplifying certain operations concerning rule based expert systems. NoteExpert Update VV&I in Expert and Database Systems VALIDATION, VERIFICATION AND INTEGRITY ISSUES

  11. Scientists in the courtroom: basic pointers for the expert scientific witness.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, D L; Kalman, D

    1994-01-01

    The need for expert and unbiased participation in legal proceedings by physicians, industrial hygienists, toxicologists, environmental scientists, regulators, and similar professionals is hampered by lack of familiarity with the requirements of expert testimony and lack of opportunities for professional training in this activity. Drawing on material developed in a continuing education course offered by the University of Washington, we describe the role and process of being an expert witness and provide basic information regarding good professional practices pertaining to the testifying expert role. PMID:7895706

  12. Expert System Knowledge Acquisition for Domains of Medical Workup: An Augmented Transition Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Perry L.; Blumenfrucht, Steven J.; Rose, John R.; Rothschild, Michael; Weltin, Gregory; Swett, Henry A.; Mars, Nicolass J.I.

    1986-01-01

    HYDRA is a knowledge acquisition tool designed to assist in the construction of expert systems which critique medical workup. HYDRA is designed to guide the domain expert through the process of assembling the knowledge needed to critique workup, and simultaneously to help structure the critiquing system itself. There is a clear need for computer-based tools to help a domain expert assure that the knowledge in an expert system is accurate, consistent, and complete. HYDRA demonstrates one approach to providing such a capability.

  13. Sherlock Holmes an expert's view of expertise Didierjean Andre1

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show overlooked by current research. For over a century, numerous studies in psychology have aimed-mail: Andre.Didierjean@univ-fcomte.fr). The British Psychological Society 109 British Journal of Psychology

  14. UNDERSTANDING PROOF: TRACKING EXPERTS' DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING OF AN UNFAMILIAR

    E-print Network

    Wilensky, Uri

    that experts already understand well. #12;ANALYTIC FRAMEWORK In both the formulation and the analysis of the identifying aspects of expertise is the ability one has to deconstruct and reconstruct mathematical knowledge was developed using a bottom-up iterative process (Clement, 2000), though connections to existing literature

  15. Experts Fear Handwriting Will become a Lost Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    Educators and experts say students still need to learn penmanship, even in a digital age. Handwriting still has a place in the digital age, its proponents say, and they hoped that what they billed as a "summit" on the subject at a conference would spotlight their case for the enduring value of handwriting in the learning process. The Washington…

  16. The Right Expert at the Right Time and Place

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Serdyukov; Ling Feng; Arthur H. Van Bunningen; Sander Evers; Harold Van Heerde; Peter M. G. Apers; Maarten M. Fokkinga; Djoerd Hiemstra

    2008-01-01

    We propose a unified and complete solution for expert finding in organizations, including not only expertise identification, but also expertise selection functionality. The latter two include the use of implicit and explicit preferences of users on meeting each other, as well as localization and planning as important auxiliary processes. We also propose a solution for privacy protection, which is urgently

  17. An automated diagnostic expert system for diesel engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Autar

    1996-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of diesel engines can be a tedious time-consuming process, resulting in extended downtime, thus reducing productivity and increasing operational cost. This problem can be accentuated when experienced expert maintenance personnel are in short supply and also when the rate of development of new-generation engines using leading edge technology does not permit maintenance personnel to keep up with this

  18. Siblings and Buddies: Providing Expert Advice about Starting School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of child experts (siblings and buddies) in young children's transition to school. Drawing on two recent studies, that sought the perspectives of children, educators and family members about effective supports at this time, we explore the roles of other children in the processes and practices of transition.…

  19. The Visual Language of Experts in Graphic Design Henry Lieberman

    E-print Network

    The Visual Language of Experts in Graphic Design Henry Lieberman Media Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Mass. USA lieber@media.mit.edu ABSTRACT Graphic designers and other is communicated between humans in graphic design. Nowhere is the process of design communication more critical

  20. Overview of expert systems applications in Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Leech, W.J.; Casadei, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Expert system applications have been introduced in several nuclear fuel activities, including engineering and manufacturing. This technology has been successfully implemented on the manufacturing floors to provide on-line process control at zirconium tubing and fuel fabrication plants. This paper provides an overview of current applications at Westinghouse with respect to fuel fabrication, zirconium tubing, zirconium production, and core design.

  1. Photolithography expert system for improved estimation of IC critical area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark P. Chia; Gerard A. Allan; Anthony J. Walton

    1998-01-01

    In the manufacturing of IC the yield of the process is an important factor in estimating the cost. The calculation of critical area plays a key role in helping to determine the expected yield. This paper will demonstrate the use of a system, that will evolve into an expert system which can estimate the affects of photolithography on critical area.

  2. Psychotherapy integration as practiced by experts.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Enith E; Arnkoff, Diane B; Glass, Carol R; Schottenbauer, Michele A

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-four psychotherapists who were experts in psychotherapy integration and had a mean of 32 years of clinical experience completed a questionnaire assessing their practice history and fidelity to various psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, humanistic, and family systems theories. They then completed the 100-item Psychotherapy Process Q set (Jones, Hall, & Parke, 1991) modified to be a self-report questionnaire, based on a client they had treated using integrative therapy. Most therapists reported some influence of all 4 orientations, but almost three-quarters indicated that only 1 was a salient influence. Principal components factor analysis revealed 4 factors representing 4 integrative practice styles, which were then correlated with prior prototypes of cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and interpersonal therapies. The first factor, accounting for just over half the variance, most resembled cognitive-behavioral therapy. The second factor shared elements of several orientations, whereas the third factor most resembled psychodynamic therapy. The responses of more than half the therapists loaded on more than 1 factor. Findings demonstrate a diversity of theoretical influences and practices among these experts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22121845

  3. A neural network hybrid expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    When knowledge-based expert rules, equations, and proprietary languages extend Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD CAM) software, previously designed mechanisms can be scaled to satisfy new design requirements in the shortest time. However, embedded design alternatives needed by design engineers during the product conception and rework stages are lacking, and an operator is required who has a thorough understanding of the intended design and the how-to expertise needed to create and optimize the mechanisms. By applying neural network technology to build an expert system, a robust design supervisor system emerged which automated the embedded intellectual operations (e.g. questioning, identifying, selecting, and coordinating the design process) to (1) select the best mechanisms necessary to design a power transmission gearbox from proven solutions; (2) aid the inexperienced operator in developing complex design solutions; and (3) provide design alternatives which add back-to-the-drawing board capabilities to knowledge-based mechanical CAD/CAM software programs. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Optical expert system based on matrix-algebraic formulation.

    PubMed

    Jau, J Y; Kiamilev, F; Fainman, Y; Esener, S; Lee, S H

    1988-12-15

    This paper describes an expert system paradigm based on matrix algebra. The knowledge base of the expert system is stored in binary matrices, while the learning and inference processes are done by matrix algebra operations. This method is highly parallel and can take full advantage of the inherent parallelism and connectivity of optics. An optoelectronic architecture that implements this system is presented. In addition, the method is compared with the sequential search methods written in the programming language PROLOG to illustrate their differences and commonalities. PMID:20539715

  5. YUCSA: A CLIPS expert database system to monitor academic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toptsis, Anestis A.; Ho, Frankie; Leindekar, Milton; Foon, Debra Low; Carbonaro, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The York University CLIPS Student Administrator (YUCSA), an expert database system implemented in C Language Integrated Processing System (CLIPS), for monitoring the academic performance of undergraduate students at York University, is discussed. The expert system component in the system has already been implemented for two major departments, and it is under testing and enhancement for more departments. Also, more elaborate user interfaces are under development. We describe the design and implementation of the system, problems encountered, and immediate future plans. The system has excellent maintainability and it is very efficient, taking less than one minute to complete an assessment of one student.

  6. Towards a science of expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Developments in the field of AI are discussed. The components and applications of expert systems, which are computer systems designed to simulate the problem-solving behavior of a person expert in a narrow field, are examined. Two types of expert systems, shallow and deep, are described and examples are given. A logic programming system, rule-based system, and framed-based system are utilized as means of representing the expert system's data base. The limitations of expert systems are considered. 5 references.

  7. Reasoning visualization in expert systems—the applicability of algorithm animation techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William John Selig; James D. Johannes

    1990-01-01

    Visualization of the reasoning process of an expert system can be useful in many situations. Unfortunately, no current expert system development environment presents us with this visualization. The problem is three-fold. First, the information presented typically contains too much detail. It is presented at the wrong conceptual level. Second, the information desired is not always available. Third, even when the

  8. Expert Finding Systems for Organizations: Problem and Domain Analysis and the DEMOIR Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawit Yimam SEID; Alfred KOBSA

    2002-01-01

    Computer systems that augment the process of finding the right expert for a given problem in an organization or world-wide are becoming feasible more than ever before, thanks to the prevalence of corporate Intranets and the Internet. This paper investigates such systems in two parts. We first explore the expert finding problem in depth, review and analyze existing systems in

  9. The Right Expert at the Right Time and Place from expertise identification to expertise selection

    E-print Network

    The Right Expert at the Right Time and Place from expertise identification to expertise selection, The Netherlands arthur@vanbunningen.com Abstract. We propose a unified and complete solution for expert find- ing as localization and planning as important auxiliary processes. We also pro- pose a solution for privacy protection

  10. The research and design of knowledge base on oracle expert system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanqiang Ge; Xiangzheng Wang; Aimin Wang

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the review and summarize of the past experts' textual experience, this study provided the oracle textual method with the trinity features of word, text and graphics of oracle. According to reasoning process of oracle auxiliary textual, and combining with expert knowledge of the system, the study established the characteristic properties corpus and case base of oracle

  11. Cognitive support methods for multi-criteria expert decision Raymond Bisdor *

    E-print Network

    Bisdorff, Raymond

    d ra ft d ra ft Cognitive support methods for multi-criteria expert decision making Raymond Bisdor for supporting an expert de- cision maker in her/his daily decision practice. The ®rst part of the paper deals making; Cognitive decision support; Man±machine cooperation; Human centered processes 1. Introductory

  12. Mechanisms and Neural Basis of Object and Pattern Recognition: A Study with Chess Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilalic, Merim; Langner, Robert; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Comparing experts with novices offers unique insights into the functioning of cognition, based on the maximization of individual differences. Here we used this expertise approach to disentangle the mechanisms and neural basis behind two processes that contribute to everyday expertise: object and pattern recognition. We compared chess experts and…

  13. INDUCING PARAMETERS OF A DECISION TREE FOR EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL MCESE BY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    E-print Network

    Franek, Frantisek

    INDUCING PARAMETERS OF A DECISION TREE FOR EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL MCESE BY GENETIC ALGORITHM I. Bruha-mail: {bruha | franya}@mcmaster.ca KEYWORDS Expert system shell, genetic algorithms, rule-based sys- tems for the whole knowledge base. Genetic algorithms comprise a long process of evolution of a large population

  14. Risk Communication: Involvement, Uncertainty, and Control's Effect on Information Scanning and Monitoring by Expert Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Robert L.; Gay, Christine Diana

    1997-01-01

    Posits that most risk communication studies ignore the professional role and communication processes of technical experts. Focuses on one group of technical experts, industrial hygienists, with specific attention to the impact of cognitive involvement, uncertainty, and control on their communication. Indicates that hygienists who are employed in…

  15. Experts in Fast-Ball Sports Reduce Anticipation Timing Cost by Developing Inhibitory Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mori, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between expertise in movement correction and rate of movement reprogramming within limited time periods, and to clarify the specific cognitive processes regarding superior reprogramming ability in experts. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in baseball experts (n = 7) and…

  16. Expert system on a chip: an engine for real-time approximate reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Togai; Hiroyuki Watanabe

    1986-01-01

    The role of inferencing with uncertainty is becoming more important in rule-based expert systems (ES), since knowledge given by a human expert is often uncertain or imprecise. We have succeeded in designing a VLSI chip which can perform an entire inference process based on fuzzy logic. The design of the VLSI fuzzy inference engine emphasizes simplicity, extensibility, and efficiency (operational

  17. Formalization and representation of expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tausner, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Based on a critical analysis of the canonical forms of expert systems, definitions of classical forward-chaining production rule-based expert systems and classical backward-chaining production rule based expert systems are isolated as the fundamental basic definitions of an expert system. Two representation theorems are presented for the two fundamental types of expert systems defined. Both the classical forward-chaining production rule based expert systems and classical backward chaining production rule based expert systems are shown to be representable as type 3 languages (finite state automata). The pragmatic usefulness of the finite state representation of an expert system is established in the design of a multilevel expert system for general systems problems solving. A type 3 language is used to encapsulate the knowledge base and reasoning strategies of the front-end of the expert system, thus representing the front-end as a deterministic finite automation. This provides a new approach to the problem of interfacing multilevel expert systems.

  18. Web-based expert system for foundry pollution prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2004-02-01

    Pollution prevention is a complex task. Many small foundries lack the in-house expertise to perform these tasks. Expert systems are a type of computer information system that incorporates artificial intelligence. As noted in the literature, they provide a means of automating specialized expertise. This approach may be further leveraged by implementing the expert system on the internet (or world-wide web). This will allow distribution of the expertise to a variety of geographically-dispersed foundries. The purpose of this research is to develop a prototype web-based expert system to support pollution prevention for the foundry industry. The prototype system identifies potential emissions for a specified process, and also provides recommendations for the prevention of these contaminants. The system is viewed as an initial step toward assisting the foundry industry in better meeting government pollution regulations, as well as improving operating efficiencies within these companies.

  19. A framework for building real-time expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is an example of complex systems that require both traditional and artificial intelligence (AI) real-time methodologies. It was mandated that Ada should be used for all new software development projects. The station also requires distributed processing. Catastrophic failures on the station can cause the transmission system to malfunction for a long period of time, during which ground-based expert systems cannot provide any assistance to the crisis situation on the station. This is even more critical for other NASA projects that would have longer transmission delays (e.g., the lunar base, Mars missions, etc.). To address these issues, a distributed agent architecture (DAA) is proposed that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and AI. The proposed testbed for DAA is an autonomous power expert (APEX) which is a real-time monitoring and diagnosis expert system for the electrical power distribution system of the space station.

  20. The Expert Witness in Medical Malpractice Litigation

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Physicians may find serving as an expert witness to be interesting, intellectually stimulating, and financially beneficial. However, potential expert witnesses should be aware of the increased legal scrutiny being applied to expert witness testimony in medical malpractice litigation. In the past, expert witnesses received absolute immunity from civil litigation regarding their testimony. This is no longer the case. Expert witnesses may be subject to disciplinary sanctions from professional organizations and state medical boards. In addition, emerging case law is defining the legal duty owed by the expert witness to the litigating parties. Orthopaedic surgeons who serve as expert witnesses should be familiar with the relevant Standards of Professionalism issued by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. PMID:19052827

  1. System for empirical experimentation with expert knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.; Weiss, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    SEEK is a system which has been developed to give interactive advice about rule refinement during the design of an expert system. The advice takes the form of suggestions for possible experiments in generalizing or specializing rules in an expert model that has been specified based on reasoning rules cited by the expert. Case experience, in the form of stored cases with known conclusions, is used to interactively guide the expert in refining the rules of a model. The design framework of SEEK consists of a tabular model for expressing expert-modeled rules and a general consultation system for applying a model to specific cases. This approach has proven particularly valuable in assisting the expert in a domain where two diagnoses are difficult to distinguish. Examples are given from an expert consultation system being developed for rheumatology. 12 references.

  2. A Study of the Affective Responses Elicited by Occupational Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Craig G.

    1976-01-01

    The semantic differential was used to assess the properties of affect elicited by occupational stimuli. Vocationally committed men studying medicine, business, and engineering responded to a semantic differential containing occupational concepts. Results show a semantic space for all three groups composed of three orthogonal dimensions of affect…

  3. Using Storytelling to Elicit Design Guidance for Medical Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Gausepohl; Woodrow W. Winchester; James D. Arthur; Tonya Smith-Jackson

    2011-01-01

    Medical device designers must understand the complex context of use within a health care environment to ensure product usability. Designers must overcome domain-specific obstacles during usability research, such as patient privacy standards, which prevent designers from observing practitioners in context. In this project, we investigated storytelling as an alternative elicitation method for medical device requirements when direct observations are limited

  4. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

  5. Neural pathways mediating hypothalamically elicited flight behavior in the cat.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, S A; Siegel, A

    1984-07-23

    This study has sought to identify hypothalamic pathways mediating flight behavior in the cat. Flight behavior, characterized by an initial pupillary dilatation and followed by vigorous attempts to leap out of the observation chamber, was elicited primarily by electrical stimulation of the medial preoptic region and dorsomedial hypothalamus, and to a lesser extent from the perifornical region. A [14C]-2-deoxyglucose analysis was utilized to examine brain regions functionally activated by stimulation of hypothalamic sites which elicited flight behavior. In a second series of experiments, [3H]leucine injected into regions surrounding electrode tips from which flight had previously been elicited, permitted identification of pathways arising from such functionally characterized sites. We describe for the first time pathways arising from the hypothalamus which mediate flight behavior. In spite of individual variation in placement of electrodes eliciting flight, a consistent pattern of labeling was observed following injection of either [14C]-2-deoxyglucose systemically or [3H]amino acids into the hypothalamus. The primary rostral target structures receiving inputs from flight electrode sites included the nuclei of the diagonal band, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial amygdaloid nucleus, lateral septal nucleus, and anterior medial preoptico-hypothalamus. Caudal to the level of stimulation, the principal target nuclei involved the centrum medianum-parafascicular complex and the midbrain central gray substance. Possible roles of these nuclear regions in organization and regulation of flight behavior is discussed. PMID:6466976

  6. Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology with Elicited Oral Response Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.; Davies, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) scored elicited oral response (EOR) tests to assess the speaking ability of English language learners. It also examined the relationship between ASR-scored EOR and other language proficiency measures and the ability of the ASR to rate speakers without bias to gender or native…

  7. Cloning of tobacco genes that elicit the hypersensitive response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik E. Karrer; Roger N. Beachy; Curtis A. Holt

    1998-01-01

    We used a functional screening method to isolate genes whose products elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) pathway of defense against plant pathogens. A cDNA library derived from tobacco leaves undergoing the HR was cloned into a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based expression vector. Infectious transcripts were generated and used to inoculate tobacco plants lacking the N resistance gene (genotype Xanthi nn).

  8. Microreview Elicitation and suppression of microbe-associated

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    constant threat from a wide range of microor- ganisms in their natural habitat. Without the adaptive immuneMicroreview Elicitation and suppression of microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity­microbe interactions that coevolved dynamically. As in animals, the primary plant innate immunity is immediately

  9. Creating a Framework: Art Therapy Elicits the Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…

  10. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  11. Interactive Elicitation of Opinion for a Normal Linear Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph B. Kadane; James M. Dickey; Robert L. Winkler; Wayne S. Smith; Stephen C. Peters

    1980-01-01

    This article describes the mathematical theory underlying an interactive computer program for eliciting the hyperparameters of a subjective conjugate distribution for the multiple linear regression model with the usual normal error structure. Although the methods are heuristic, they are shown to produce hyperparameter estimates satisfying the constraints satisfied by the hyperparameters themselves. An application is given to the problem of

  12. PMI: Knowledge Elicitation and De Bono's Thinking Tools

    E-print Network

    Easterbrook, Steve

    PMI: Knowledge Elicitation and De Bono's Thinking Tools M-M. Portmann & S. M. Easterbrook School@cogs.susx.ac.uk> Abstract. Much attention in knowledge acquisition has been directed at the question "What is Knowledge arrangements of knowledge, and discuss how having knowledge about something can be used to avoid thinking

  13. Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

  14. Eliciting Students' Beliefs about Who Is Good at Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morge, Shelby P.

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights a series of activities designed to elicit students' mathematics-related beliefs, particularly those related to gender. As a result of the activities, females in upper-level classes rated themselves as having less confidence than males, and viewing a movie clip was sufficient for some students to modify their descriptions of…

  15. Informatics Systems and Modelling Case Studies of Expert Interviews

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Informatics Systems and Modelling ­ Case Studies of Expert Interviews Leopold Lehner1, Johannes interviews were conducted in order to identify relevant compe- tencies empirically concerning informatics conducted with different expert groups (experts of informatics, experts of didac- tics of informatics

  16. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho® compared with other supposed causal factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho®, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

  17. Agreement of experts and non-experts in a desktop exercise evaluating exposure to asthmagens in the cotton and textile, and other industries.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Christine; Money, Annemarie; Agius, Raymond; de Vocht, Frank

    2015-03-01

    In the absence of personal exposure measurements, expert assessment, generally on a case-by-case basis, is often used to estimate exposures. However, the decision processes of individual experts when making assessments are unknown, making it difficult to assess the quality of these assessments or to compare different assessments to each other. We conducted a study in primarily the textile and cotton industries, but also in baking, metal work, and agriculture industries in which we assessed agreement between experts assessing intensity and probability of exposure in the absence of exposure measurements to compare how well their performance compares to agreement of non-desktop-based exercises reported in literature. In addition, agreement was compared with that of non-experts undertaking the same exercise, and results were further stratified to assess the impact of factors expected of affected assessments. Intraclass correlation coefficients of absolute agreement (ICC1) and consistency (ICC3) between raters were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a probabilistic simulation methodology developed previously. Fourteen occupational hygienists and exposure assessors with complete data for all 48 job descriptions and 8 non-experts participated. Although confidence intervals about correlation-coefficient differences are not reported, the individual limits were found to be so broad as to suggest that no statistically significant comparisons can be made. Nevertheless, preliminary observations are presented here as suggested by the computed means. Absolute agreement between expert raters was fair-good, but was somewhat better for intensity (ICC1 = 0.61) than for probability (ICC1 = 0.44) of exposure and was better for experts than non-experts. Estimated sensitivity was 0.95 and specificity 0.82 for intensity, and 0.91 and 0.78 for probability of exposure, respectively. Stratification for factors hypothesized to affect agreement did not show statistically significant differences, but consistent patterns of point estimates indicated that agreement between raters (both expert on non-experts) dropped for medium levels of information compared with little or extensive information. Inclusion of a photo or video generally improved agreement between experts but not between non-experts, whereas the year of the job description had no influence on the assessments. These data indicate that the desktop exposure assessment exercise was of similar quality to previously reported levels of agreement. Agreements between experts' assessments were independent of the time period of the job and can be improved by inclusion of visual material. Agreement between experts as well as the non-experts does not increase with the detail of provided job information. PMID:25324562

  18. Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

  19. World Ocean Assessment experts needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    The United Nations (UN) is inviting interested scientists to apply to be members of an international pool of 1000-2000 experts who will be authors and reviewers of its first World Ocean Assessment (WOA) report, slated for completion in 2014. The UN anticipates that subsequent WOA reports will be generated on a 5-year cycle. The first report will include more than 50 subjects grouped within four main themes: marine environment and understanding of the ocean's role in the global integrated Earth system, food security and safety, human activities that influence the ocean or are influenced by the ocean, and marine biological diversity. A scientific and technical summary is also planned.

  20. Expert Systems: An Overview for Teacher-Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Gary; Barron, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of expert systems for teacher librarians. Highlights include artificial intelligence and expert systems; the development of the MYCIN medical expert system; rule-based expert systems; the use of expert system shells to develop a specific system; and how to select an appropriate application for an expert system. (11 references)…

  1. Expert-System Consultant To Operating Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Astrid E.; Pinkowski, Patrick P.; Adler, Richard M.; Hosken, R. Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence aids engineers and technicians in controlling and monitoring complicated systems. Operations Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA) software is developmental suite of expert-system computer programs helping engineers and technicians operating from number of computer workstations to control and monitor spacecraft during prelaunch and launch phases of operation. OPERA designed to serve as consultant to operating engineers and technicians. It preprocesses incoming data, using expertise collected from conglomerate of specialists in design and operation of various parts of system. Driven by menus and mouse-activated commands. Modified versions of OPERA used in chemical-processing plants, factories, banks, and other enterprises in which there are distributed-computer systems including computers that monitor or control other computers.

  2. Tactually elicited prey acquisition behavior in the frog, Rana pipiens , and a comparison with visually elicited behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Comer; Paul Grobstein

    1981-01-01

    1.Leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), both blinded and intact, will turn and snap in response to tactile stimulation.2.The response to tactile stimuli is directed toward the site of stimulation. For rostral stimuli it consists of a snap; for caudal stimuli the response involves a body reorientation without a snap. In these respects tactually elicited prey acquisition behavior (Fig. 2) closely resembles

  3. Preliminary assessment of fault rupture hazard at the Yucca Mountain Site based on expert judgement

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R.; Perman, R.C. [Geomatrix Consultants Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Shaw, R.A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The judgements of seven earth science experts were elicited to quantify the uncertainties associated with the likelihood of fault displacement through the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain during the 10,000 year post-closure period. Each expert identified one or more approaches to modeling fault rupture hazard, regional tectonic models, locations of sources of fault displacement, maximum earthquake magnitudes or maximum coseismic displacement for each source, the likelihood of fault rupture through the repository, and the amount of displacement. The experts generally identified two basic approaches to assessing the hazard: first estimating the location and probability of earthquake occurrence and then the associated fault displacements; and considering only the location and probability of fault displacement directly. A wide variety of tectonic models were some level of credibility, ranging from high-angle planar faults to detachments separating strike-slip faults at depth from normal faults in the shallow crust. Recently acquired geologic data were relied on heavily to estimate the size of past displacements and their recurrence rates. Uncertainties were estimated for each component of the experts` models and the aggregated results are expressed as a probability distribution on the annual frequency of canister failure.

  4. The Shrinkage Model And Expert System Of Plastic Lens Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Rong-Seng

    1988-06-01

    Shrinkage causes both the appearance & dimension defects of the injected plastic lens. We have built up a model of state equations with the help of finite element analysis program to estimate the volume change (shrinkage and swelling) under the combinations of injection variables such as pressure and temperature etc., then the personal computer expert system has been build up to make that knowledge conveniently available to the user in the model design, process planning, process operation and some other work. The domain knowledge is represented by a R-graph (Relationship-graph) model which states the relationships of variables & equations. This model could be compare with other models in the expert system. If the user has better model to solve the shrinkage problem, the program will evaluate it automatically and a learning file will be trigger by the expert system to teach the user to update their knowledge base and modify the old model by this better model. The Rubin's model and Gilmore's model have been input to the expert system. The conflict has been solved both from the user and the deeper knowledge base. A cube prism and the convex lens examples have been shown in this paper. This program is written by MULISP language in IBM PC-AT. The natural language provides English Explaination of know why and know how and the automatic English translation for the equation rules and the production rules.

  5. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  6. Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8+ T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, M.; Robinson, H.; Wang, R.; Kong, W.-P.; Kanekiyo, M.; Akahata, W.; Xu, L.; Matsuo, K.; Natarajan, K.; Asher, T. E.; Price, D. A.; Douek, D. C.; Margulies, D. H.; Nabel, G. J.

    2009-08-15

    Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.

  7. Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8plus T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    M Honda; R Wang; W Kong; M Kanekiyo; Q Akahata; L Xu; K Matsuo; K Natarajan; H Robinson; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.

  8. Expert system for ultrasonic flaw detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, A. N.; Suri, S. C.; Bageshwar, M. S.

    An expert system designed for ultrasonic flaw detection is described. The expert system includes the following main knowledge-based utilities: equipment knowledge utility, test and auxiliary equipment utility, equipment maintenance utility, and equipment fault-diagnosis utility. The expert system is expected to be beneficial in terms of enhancing equipment utilization, substantially reducing shut-downs, and contributing to the development of human resources. A block diagram of the system is included.

  9. Expert system for ultrasonic flaw detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Agarwal; S. C. Suri; M. S. Bageshwar

    1992-01-01

    An expert system designed for ultrasonic flaw detection is described. The expert system includes the following main knowledge-based utilities: equipment knowledge utility, test and auxiliary equipment utility, equipment maintenance utility, and equipment fault-diagnosis utility. The expert system is expected to be beneficial in terms of enhancing equipment utilization, substantially reducing shut-downs, and contributing to the development of human resources. A

  10. Using Visualization Techniques and Gamification to Involve Users in Requirements Elicitation

    E-print Network

    da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

    Using Visualization Techniques and Gamification to Involve Users in Requirements Elicitation Diogo of visualization techniques and gamification. Requirements visualizations are used to stimulate stakeholders and increase their awareness about requirements. Social visualization and gamification of the elicitation

  11. Applications of expert systems for satellite autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciarlo, A.; Donzelli, P.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of the on-board application of expert systems in artificial satellites are discussed. The activities of the study, which include the implementation of two prototypes on a dedicated artificial intelligence machine, are described. The general implications of the experience are then discussed. These concern the interrelationship between the expert system and the architecture of the satellite and the expert system's impact on the mission definition phase of the satellite lifecycle. The main obstacles that need to be overcome before operational use of onboard expert systems can take place are discussed.

  12. Hindsight bias in medicolegal expert reports.

    PubMed

    Hugh, Thomas B; Tracy, G Douglas

    2002-03-18

    Malpractice litigation is now a substantial cost in the provision of healthcare. Despite new attitudes of Australian courts towards medical evidence, expert reports remain the cornerstone of most medical negligence cases. There is evidence that hindsight bias, which may cause the expert to simplify, trivialise and criticise retrospectively the decisions of the treating doctor, is inevitable when the expert knows there has been an adverse outcome. If possible, outcome information should be withheld from experts providing reports. If outcome information is not withheld, courts should be made aware of the probability of hindsight bias. PMID:11999261

  13. Subfornical Organ: Site of Drinking Elicitation by Angiotensin II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Simpson; Aryeh Routtenberg

    1973-01-01

    Angiotensin II applied directly to the subfornical organ in a dose as small as 0.1 nanogram elicited short-latency drinking behavior in water-sated rats. Lesions in the body of this structure blocked drinking induced by angiotensin II applied to the basal telencephalon (including preoptic area). These results call attention to the subfornical organ as an important central nervous structure involved in

  14. Epigenetic remodeling combined with photodynamic therapy elicits anticancer immune responses.

    PubMed

    Wachowska, Malgorzata; Gabrysiak, Magdalena; Golab, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been shown to induce strong immunity against tumor cells expressing exogenous tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including P1A antigen. Cancer cells can evade the immune system by epigenetic silencing of TAAs, while DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) can restore the expression of silenced or downregulated TAA. Thus, epigenetic remodeling with 5-aza-dC combined with PDT can elicit robust and durable antitumor immunity. PMID:25057447

  15. Using Root Cause Data Analysis for Requirements and Knowledge Elicitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Xia Jin; John Hajdukiewicz; Geoffrey Ho; Donny Chan; Yong-ming Kow

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a technique, called Knowledge FMEA, for distilling textual raw data which is useful\\u000a for requirements collection and knowledge elicitation. The authors first give some insights into the diverse characteristics\\u000a of textual raw data which can lead to higher complexity in analysis and may result in some gaps in interpreting the interviewees’\\u000a world

  16. Effects of adaptation to shock on shock-elicited aggression

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Thomas Andrew

    1971-01-01

    were not statistically significant, graphical analysis (Fig. 3, p. 31) revealed a tendency for the opaque partition conditon (i. e. , no visual contact during adaptation) to be more effective in adapting rats to foot-shock. It was noted during...EFFECTS OF ADAPTATION TO SHOCK ON SHOCK-ELICITED AGGRESSION A THESIS THONAS ANDREW BUCHANAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1971...

  17. Novelty-elicited mismatch negativity in patients with schizophrenia on admission and discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ina Grzella; Bernhard W. Müller; Robert D. Oades; Stefan Bender; Ulrich Schall; Dieter Zerbin; Jörg Wolstein; Gudrun Sartory

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Given recent reports of differences between mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by always novel sounds (novelty-elicited MMN) and that elicited by repeated rare deviants (conventional MMN), we investigated novelty-elicited MMN and P3a in patients with schizophrenia before and after a nonstandard- ized inpatient treatment. Design: Electrophysiological and clinical assessment of patients on admission and discharge from hospital. Assessment of control

  18. A Dredging Knowledge-Base Expert System for Pipeline Dredges with Comparison to Field Data 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Derek Alan

    2011-02-22

    A Pipeline Analytical Program and Dredging Knowledge{Base Expert{System (DKBES) determines a pipeline dredge's production and resulting cost and schedule. Pipeline dredge engineering presents a complex and dynamic process necessary to maintain...

  19. Can a Novice Be Viewed as an Expert Upside-Down?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, Ian M.

    2001-01-01

    An appreciation of the relationship between novice and expert knowledge frameworks may help develop an understanding of the process of transition from one to the other. Recommends the use of concept mapping. (DDR)

  20. Radiologists: The Unsuspecting Subject Matter Experts.

    PubMed

    McGann, Camille; Miaullis, Aaron; Page, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The social and political climates are changing rapidly in the United States and the world at large. The threat of a chemical, biologic, radiologic, and/or nuclear event is a rising concern to many. The current Ebola crisis has shed light on health care providers' preparedness for such an event. Radiologists, including radiation oncologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and all radiology subspecialists are considered "subject matter experts" in this area and are likely to be called upon in response to a radiation incident. Although others, such as radiation safety officers, provide important expertise, the clinical leadership will be the responsibility of physicians and other health care providers. However, many radiologists are unaware that they are considered subject matter experts who may be called on to assist, should their local hospital's emergency department need to take care of casualties from a radiation incident. A mass-casualty situation with hundreds of patients would require the immediate assistance of all available medical providers. Radiologists are primed and positioned to take the lead in ensuring preparedness of their local hospital and community, through emergency planning for a radiologic incident, given their combined medical and radiation physics knowledge. Therefore, increasing the skills of radiologists first is the more prudent approach in such planning. This preparation can be done through understanding of the critical components of such scenarios: the threat, types of radiation incidents, contamination, detection, decontamination, and acute radiation syndrome and its treatment. Once the necessary knowledge supplementation has been completed, radiologists can participate in educating their fellow medical colleagues and health care staff, and assist in the radiation-related aspects of an "all hazards" emergency department response, decreasing "radiophobia" in the process. PMID:25890886

  1. Elicitation, cognitive bias, and herding 1 An introduction to prior information derived from probabilistic

    E-print Network

    Elicitation, cognitive bias, and herding 1 An introduction to prior information derived from probabilistic judgements: Elicitation of knowledge, cognitive bias and herding Michelle C. Baddeley1 Andrew reality (in cases where one exists). #12;Elicitation, cognitive bias, and herding 2 Introduction

  2. Statistical analysis of elicitation strategies for thiarubrine A production in hairy root cultures of Ambrosia artemisiifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G Bhagwath; M. A Hjortsø

    2000-01-01

    Elicitation strategies were studied for yield enhancement of thiarubrine A, a secondary metabolite and a potential pharmaceutical, produced by hairy root cultures of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Abiotic elicitation was performed using vanadyl sulfate solution and biotic elicitation using autoclaved cell wall filtrates of the fungi Protomyces gravidus, a pathogen of A. artemisiifolia and Botrytis cinereae. The factors considered were age of

  3. Parental styles of narrative elicitation: effect on children's narrative structure and content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole Peterson; Allyssa McCabe

    1992-01-01

    Two contrastive studies of personal experience narration in two mother-child pairs are reported. The relationship between patterns of narrative elicitation and the children's developing narrative skill are investigated. Three sets of data were analysed: mother's utterances during mother-child elicitation, children's spontaneously provided contextual orientation in narratives elicited by a neutral researcher when the children were between 27 and 44 months

  4. Sample Size for Measuring Grammaticality in Preschool Children from Picture-Elicited Language Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a shorter language sample elicited with fewer pictures (i.e., 7) would yield a percent grammatical utterances (PGU) score similar to that computed from a longer language sample elicited with 15 pictures for 3-year-old children. Method: Language samples were elicited by asking forty…

  5. On the mechanism of apoplastic H 2 O 2 production during lignin formation and elicitation in cultured spruce cells—peroxidases after elicitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Kärkönen; Tino Warinowski; Teemu H. Teeri; Liisa Kaarina Simola; Stephen C. Fry

    2009-01-01

    A cell culture of Picea abies (L.) Karst. was used for studies of H2O2 generation during constitutive extracellular lignin formation and after elicitation by cell wall fragments of a pathogenic\\u000a fungus, Heterobasidium parviporum. Stable, micromolar levels of H2O2 were present in the culture medium during lignin formation. Elicitation induced a burst of H2O2, peaking at ca. 90 min after elicitation. Of

  6. Background noise decreases both prepulse elicitation and inhibition of acoustic startle blink responding.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Terry D; Noto, Joseph V; Fox, Melissa A; Franklin, Joseph C

    2006-05-01

    Prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) has proved to be useful in distinguishing between schizophrenia patients and normal controls, although not all studies in this area find such group differences. One reason for this inconsistency may be the fact that some research labs present the startle eliciting and inhibiting stimuli over a steady background noise (70 dB), whereas others present stimuli in ambient noise conditions (30-56 dB). The present study tested the impact of background noise (30, 50, and 70 dB) on PPI in normal college adults, with prepulses at intensities of 75, 80, and 85 dB, and with prepulse rise times of 1 or 10 ms. Background noise decreased the amount of PPI caused by the prepulses, and also decreased the ability of the prepulses to themselves elicit blink responses. We conclude that background noise interferes with the processing of the prepulse, attenuating its effect as both an elicitor and inhibitor of the startle reflex. By elevating the difficulty of prepulse processing, this attenuation may be a necessary condition for observing differences in PPI between patient and control groups. PMID:16303226

  7. [Medical expert opinion--credibility, ethics, remuneration].

    PubMed

    Sahar, Avraham

    2007-07-01

    Israeli Law requires a Personal Injury Claim to be supported by an Expert Medical Opinion. Such evidence provides the Court with information essential for the evaluation of scientific material, which is beyond the Court's "judicial knowledge". Incongruent Expert Opinions are not necessarily the result of deceit. Experts are entitled to differences in their respective evaluation and interpretation of data and conflicting medical opinions may be legitimate. The Court's duty and prerogative is to select the "legally correct" opinion. The sole tool at the Court's disposal is precise and logical thinking, aided by principles set by the U.S. Supreme Court for the evaluation of scientific evidence, and adopted by the Israeli Court. The choice of the "correct" opinion centers on it's objectivity. A court-appointed expert is not necessarily an effective solution. Remuneration of the expert by the interested party increases the level of mistrust. The difficult questions concerning the credibility of an opinion arise as the result of insufficient specific expertise of the witness, presentation by a pretender to expertise or plain misrepresentation of data, excerpts of literature etc. Such transgressions are best exposed by the opposing party's expert and attorney. The court has effective means for the control of such behavior. The fraudulent expert witness is neither immune to criminal prosecution, nor to civil suit. IMA's Code of Ethics for Experts is adequate. Expert's fees should be consistent with the effort involved, as well as with the expert's rank and experience. Any linkage of fees to the outcome of the procedure should be prohibited, as well as the intervention of "contractors". Attempts to limit experts' fees, may result in the abstention of the most knowledgeable specialists from such duties. The blame for a false opinion does not lie with the paying party, it is mostly the witness who is responsible. PMID:17803167

  8. RETEX (RElay Testing EXpert): an expert system for analysis of relay testing data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ymg Sun; Chen-Chug Liu; Richard D. Christie; J. Nordstrom; M. Hofmann; G. Stemler; I. Thurein

    1991-01-01

    A new expert system application to power system protective relay evaluation testing, a crucial but time-consuming engineering task, is presented. An expert system called RETEX (relay testing expert) has been developed as a computer aid for analysis of relay testing data. A knowledge base for relay testing data analysis has been developed. A relay logic model is used to determine

  9. Development of an On-Line Expert System: Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor

    E-print Network

    Sopocy, D. M.; Henry, R. E.; Gehl, S.; Divakaruni, S. M.

    An on-line expert system for fossil-fueled power plants, the "Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor," is being developed. This expert system will operate on a microcomputer and will interface with existing plant data acquisition and/or thermal...

  10. Data Expert System An expert system for the database with idea of new generation language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pramila Dangwal

    Expert System has a formal definition of system having collection of data from the expertise of particular field on specific topic. This research work is on the expert system of data. Here expert means a very peculiar system to manipulate & maintain data. We are well aware of the word DBMS & RDBMS, which stores the data in two dimensional

  11. Development of an On-Line Expert System: Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor 

    E-print Network

    Sopocy, D. M.; Henry, R. E.; Gehl, S.; Divakaruni, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    An on-line expert system for fossil-fueled power plants, the "Heat Rate Degradation Expert System Advisor," is being developed. This expert system will operate on a microcomputer and will interface with existing plant data acquisition and/or thermal...

  12. TES: A modular systems approach to expert system development for real-time space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacace, Ralph; England, Brenda

    1988-01-01

    A major goal of the Space Station era is to reduce reliance on support from ground based experts. The development of software programs using expert systems technology is one means of reaching this goal without requiring crew members to become intimately familiar with the many complex spacecraft subsystems. Development of an expert systems program requires a validation of the software with actual flight hardware. By combining accurate hardware and software modelling techniques with a modular systems approach to expert systems development, the validation of these software programs can be successfully completed with minimum risk and effort. The TIMES Expert System (TES) is an application that monitors and evaluates real time data to perform fault detection and fault isolation tasks as they would otherwise be carried out by a knowledgeable designer. The development process and primary features of TES, a modular systems approach, and the lessons learned are discussed.

  13. A Model Expert System For Machine Failure Diagnosis (MED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liqun, Yin

    1987-05-01

    MED is a model expert system for machine failure diagnosis. MED can help the repairer quickly determine milling machine electrical failure. The key points in MED are a simple method to deal with the "subsequent visit" problem in machine failure diagnosis, a weighted list to interfere in the control of AGENDA to imitate an expert's continuous thinking process and to keep away erratic questioning and problem running away caused by probabilistic reasoning, the structuralized AGENDA, the characteristics of machine failure diagnosis and people's thinking pattern in faulure diagnosis. The structuralized AGENDA gives an idea to supply a more powerful as well as flexible control strategy in best-first search by using AGENDA. The "subsequent visit" problem is a very complicated task to solve, it will be convenient to deal with it by using a simple method to keep from consuming too much time in urgent situations. Weighted list also gives a method to improve control in inference of expert system. The characteristics of machine failure diagnosis and people's thinking pattern are both important for building a machine failure diagnosis expert system. When being told failure phenomena, MED can determine failure causes through dialogue. MED is written in LISP and run in UNIVAC 1100/10 and IBM PC/XT computers. The average diagnosis time per failure is 11 seconds to CPU, 2 minites to terminal operation, and 11 minites to a skilful repairer.

  14. Expert systems: The cold fusion of marketing?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Dubelaar; Paul N. Finlay; David Taylor

    1991-01-01

    There is currently a tremendous interest in the development and use of expert systems (ES), and marketing activities have not been immune to such enthusiasm. The degree of enthusiasm expressed is often strongly at variance with reality. The purpose of this paper is to give a moderating view on the role of expert systems in marketing.The paper begins with a

  15. An expert system for restructurable control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan

    1988-01-01

    Work in progress on an expert system which restructures and tunes control systems on-line is presented. The expert system coordinates the different methods for redesigning and implementing the control strategies due to system changes. The research is directed toward aircraft and jet engine applications. The implementation is written in LISP and is currently running on a special purpose LISP machine.

  16. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  17. Understanding cultural heritage experts' information seeking needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alia Amin; Jacco Van Ossenbruggen; Lynda Hardman; Annelies Van Nispen

    2008-01-01

    We report on our user study on the information seeking behavior of cultural heritage experts and the sources they use to carry out search tasks. Seventeen experts from nine cultural heritage institutes in the Netherlands were interviewed and asked to answer questionnaires about their daily search activities. The interviews helped us to bet- ter understand their search motivations, types, sources

  18. Expert System Detects Power-Distribution Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1994-01-01

    Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) computer program is prototype expert-system program detecting faults in electrical-power-distribution system. Assists human operators in diagnosing faults and deciding what adjustments or repairs needed for immediate recovery from faults or for maintenance to correct initially nonthreatening conditions that could develop into faults. Written in Lisp.

  19. An expert system for network management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim Hariri; Kamal Jabbour

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a generalized architecture for an expert system to manage the resources of a computer network and\\/or a distributed system. The authors apply the proposed architecture to construct an expert system for allocating the resources needed by a task in a distributed computing environment. The resources are allocated such that the system load and the average delay of

  20. Expert Performance: Its Structure and Acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Anders Ericsson; Neil Charness

    1994-01-01

    Counter to the common belief that expert performance reflects innate abilities and capacities, recent research in different domains of expertise has shown that expert performance is predominantly mediated by acquired complex skills and physiological adaptations. For elite performers, supervised practice starts at very young ages and is maintained at high daily levels for more than a decade. The effects of

  1. EMMA: The expert system for munition maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Barry E.

    1988-01-01

    Expert Missile Maintenance Aid (EMMA) is a first attempt to enhance maintenance of the tactical munition at the field and depot level by using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The ultimate goal of EMMA is to help a novice maintenance technician isolate and diagnose electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical equipment faults to the board/chassis level more quickly and consistently than the best human expert using the best currently available automatic test equipment (ATE). To this end, EMMA augments existing ATE with an expert system that captures the knowledge of design and maintenance experts. The EMMA program is described, including the evaluation of field-level expert system prototypes, the description of several study tasks performed during EMMA, and future plans for a follow-on program. This paper will briefly address several study tasks performed during EMMA. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans for a follow-on program and other areas of concern.

  2. Multiple strategies of reasoning for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yuchuan; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    In expert systems the heuristics used for combining the weight of evidence can be based on probabilistic, fuzzy set, or subjective confidence factors. Although the underlying assumptions for each of the methods differ, it can be shown that there are correspondences between them and that it is possible to develop a model of expert reasoning for medical consultation using any one of the methods. The authors have developed a system for representing expert knowledge, called ESMES, which is an outgrowth of the expert scheme developed earlier at Rutgers. ESMES allows the use of alternative strategies in the solution of a consultation problem. The authors report on the performance of ESMES for a prototype glaucoma consultation model, using reasoning mechanisms similar to those of the expert, MYCIN, Internist I, and Prospector systems. 9 references.

  3. Expert consultation on risk factors for introduction of infectious pathogens into fish farms.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, Birgit C; Peeler, Edmund J; Thrush, Mark A; Cameron, Angus R; Reese, R Allan; Pearce, Fiona M; Dunn, Peter; Lyngstad, Trude M; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Brun, Edgar; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2014-08-01

    An expert consultation was conducted to provide quantitative parameters required to inform risk-based surveillance of aquaculture holdings for selected infectious hazards. The hazards were four fish diseases endemic in some or several European countries: infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and koi herpes virus disease (KHD). Experts were asked to provide estimates for the relative importance of 5 risk themes for the hazard to be introduced into and infect susceptible fish at the destination. The 5 risk themes were: (1) live fish and egg movements; (2) exposure via water; (3) on-site processing; (4) short distance mechanical transmission and (5) distance independent mechanical transmission. The experts also provided parameter estimates for hazard transmission pathways within the themes. The expert consultation was undertaken in a 2 step approach: an online survey followed by an expert consultation meeting. The expert opinion indicated that live fish movements and exposure via water were the major relevant risk themes. Experts were recruited from several European countries and thus covered a range of farming systems. Therefore, the outputs from the expert consultation have relevance for the European context. PMID:24780587

  4. Seismic source characterization of the Alpine foreland in the context of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by PEGASOS Expert Group 1 (EG1a)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan M. Schmid; Dario Slejko

    2009-01-01

    Seismic source characterization is performed as part of the PEGASOS project for the assessment of the seismic hazard at the\\u000a 4 sites of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plants. The analysis is performed according to the Level 4 procedures for expert elicitation\\u000a defined in the guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Committee whereby the quantification of uncertainties plays a crucial\\u000a role.

  5. Eliciting knowledge on soft flood-risk management strategies in the Ukrainian Tisza river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, D.; Kuptsova, S.; Bharwani, S.; Fischer, M. E.; Downing, T. E.

    2009-04-01

    This paper focuses on a participatory knowledge elicitation process (KnETs) to explore decision-making criteria regarding ‘soft' techniques for flood risk management in the Ukrainian Tisza river basin. Communities in this region are faced with frequent floods and limited governmental budgets to cope with flood impacts. To identify the potential for soft flood protection measures as opposed to traditional technical solutions, we explored the decision-making heuristics of village council heads and the conditions under which they do or do not prepare for a flood event. Tacit knowledge, which is often unconscious and therefore difficult to describe, is complex to uncover through conventional interview techniques. To address this issue, a participatory process has been designed to reveal this knowledge without losing its connection to the context in which it is applied. That is, the KnETs process has been designed to understand context-relevant adaptive strategies and the reasons they are chosen in a natural resource management context. The process can be adapted to explore the contextual specificities of many situations ranging from flood and drought risk management to livelihood choices and the adaptation options considered in each set of circumstances. This interdisciplinary approach integrates ethnographic methods from the social sciences domain with classical computer science knowledge engineering techniques to address current bottlenecks (related to time and resource requirements) in both areas of research. This provides a participatory process, from knowledge elicitation to knowledge representation, verification and validation, providing a greater clarity of local data and thus possibly a greater understanding of social vulnerability and adaptive behaviour in flood situations.

  6. Bothered by abstractness or engaged by cohesion? Experts' explanations enhance novices' deep-learning.

    PubMed

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing. PMID:25437792

  7. Debugging expert systems using a dynamically created hypertext network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Craig D. B.; Schuette, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The labor intensive nature of expert system writing and debugging motivated this study. The hypothesis is that a hypertext based debugging tool is easier and faster than one traditional tool, the graphical execution trace. HESDE (Hypertext Expert System Debugging Environment) uses Hypertext nodes and links to represent the objects and their relationships created during the execution of a rule based expert system. HESDE operates transparently on top of the CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) rule based system environment and is used during the knowledge base debugging process. During the execution process HESDE builds an execution trace. Use of facts, rules, and their values are automatically stored in a Hypertext network for each execution cycle. After the execution process, the knowledge engineer may access the Hypertext network and browse the network created. The network may be viewed in terms of rules, facts, and values. An experiment was conducted to compare HESDE with a graphical debugging environment. Subjects were given representative tasks. For speed and accuracy, in eight of the eleven tasks given to subjects, HESDE was significantly better.

  8. Generic satellite monitoring expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Loretta A.

    1994-12-01

    Air Force Satellite Operations is undergoing major changes. Operators no longer receive detailed satellite training, instead they are taught basic fundamentals of satellite operations and expected to control multiple multimillion dollar satellites. The need is clear. An efficient and economical automated system is necessary to assist the satellite operator in the daily tasks of maintaining these DOD priority resources. Satellite intelligent controllers have been under R&D since the early 1980's to meet this need. These systems, however, have focused on the control of one constellation of satellites. In a military striving for efficiency and lower costs, developing a unique intelligent controller for each satellite constellation is unaffordable. This research provided support for the concept of a generic satellite intelligent controller, through the development of a prototype expert system. This capability would allow a generic rule-base to operate and maintain multiple satellite systems. The initial prototype detected anomalies on one subsystem of two different satellites. After the third satellite prototype was created, a third satellite was analyzed to show support for the viability of the satellite prototype. More research is necessary, but this thesis has created support for the concept of generic satellite controller and has laid the foundation for future extensions.

  9. Eliciting candidate anatomical routes for protein interactions: a scenario from endocrine physiology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this paper, we use: i) formalised anatomical knowledge of connectivity between body structures and ii) a formal theory of physiological transport between fluid compartments in order to define and make explicit the routes followed by proteins to a site of interaction. The underlying processes are the objects of mathematical models of physiology and, therefore, the motivation for the approach can be understood as using knowledge representation and reasoning methods to propose concrete candidate routes corresponding to correlations between variables in mathematical models of physiology. In so doing, the approach projects physiology models onto a representation of the anatomical and physiological reality which underpins them. Results The paper presents a method based on knowledge representation and reasoning for eliciting physiological communication routes. In doing so, the paper presents the core knowledge representation and algorithms using it in the application of the method. These are illustrated through the description of a prototype implementation and the treatment of a simple endocrine scenario whereby a candidate route of communication between ANP and its receptors on the external membrane of smooth muscle cells in renal arterioles is elicited. The potential of further development of the approach is illustrated through the informal discussion of a more complex scenario. Conclusions The work presented in this paper supports research in intercellular communication by enabling knowledge?based inference on physiologically?related biomedical data and models. PMID:23590598

  10. Anger Elicitation in Tonga and Germany: The Impact of Culture on Cognitive Determinants of Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Spada, Hans; Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Traber, Simone; Rauss, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive appraisal of an event is crucial for the elicitation and differentiation of emotions, and causal attributions are an integral part of this process. In an interdisciplinary project comparing Tonga and Germany, we examined how cultural differences in attribution tendencies affect emotion assessment and elicitation. Data on appraising causality and responsibility and on emotional responses were collected through questionnaires based on experimentally designed vignettes, and were related to culture-specific values, norms, and the prevailing self-concept. The experimental data support our hypothesis that – driven by culturally defined self-concepts and corresponding attribution tendencies – members of the two cultures cognitively appraise events in diverging manners and consequently differ in their emotional responses. Ascription of responsibility to self and/or circumstances, in line with a more interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of shame, guilt, and sadness, whereas ascription of responsibility to others, in line with a less interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of anger. These findings support the universal contingency hypothesis and help to explain cultural differences in this domain on a fine-grained level. PMID:23112780

  11. Expert vs. novice: Problem decomposition/recomposition in engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ting

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences of using problem decomposition and problem recomposition among dyads of engineering experts, dyads of engineering seniors, and dyads of engineering freshmen. Fifty participants took part in this study. Ten were engineering design experts, 20 were engineering seniors, and 20 were engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within an hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design session, members participated in a group interview. This study used protocol analysis as the methodology. Video and audio data were transcribed, segmented, and coded. Two coding systems including the FBS ontology and "levels of the problem" were used in this study. A series of statistical techniques were used to analyze data. Interview data and participants' design sketches also worked as supplemental data to help answer the research questions. By analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data, it was found that students used less problem decomposition and problem recomposition than engineer experts in engineering design. This result implies that engineering education should place more importance on teaching problem decomposition and problem recomposition. Students were found to spend less cognitive effort when considering the problem as a whole and interactions between subsystems than engineer experts. In addition, students were also found to spend more cognitive effort when considering details of subsystems. These results showed that students tended to use dept-first decomposition and experts tended to use breadth-first decomposition in engineering design. The use of Function (F), Behavior (B), and Structure (S) among engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen was compared on three levels. Level 1 represents designers consider the problem as an integral whole, Level 2 represents designers consider interactions between subsystems, and Level 3 represents designers consider details of subsystems. The results showed that students used more S on Level 1 and 3 but they used less F on Level 1 than engineering experts. The results imply that engineering curriculum should improve the teaching of problem definition in engineering design because students need to understand the problem before solving it.

  12. Unattractive infant faces elicit negative affect from adults.

    PubMed

    Schein, Stevie S; Langlois, Judith H

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and adult affect by investigating whether differing levels of infant facial attractiveness elicit facial muscle movement correlated with positive and negative affect from adults (N=87) using electromyography. Unattractive infant faces evoked significantly more corrugator supercilii and levator labii superioris movement (physiological correlates of negative affect) than attractive infant faces. These results suggest that unattractive infants may be at risk for negative affective responses from adults, though the relationship between those responses and caregiving behavior remains elusive. PMID:25658199

  13. Cut! that’s a wrap: regulating negative emotion by ending emotion-eliciting situations

    PubMed Central

    Vujovic, Lara; Opitz, Philipp C.; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Urry, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the potentially powerful set of emotion regulation (ER) processes that target emotion-eliciting situations. We thus studied the decision to end emotion-eliciting situations in the laboratory. We hypothesized that people would try to end negative situations more frequently than neutral situations to regulate distress. In addition, motivated by the selection, optimization, and compensation with ER framework, we hypothesized that failed attempts to end the situation would prompt either (a) greater negative emotion or (b) compensatory use of a different ER process, attentional deployment (AD). Fifty-eight participants (18–26 years old, 67% women) viewed negative and neutral pictures and pressed a key whenever they wished to stop viewing them. After key press, the picture disappeared (“success”) or stayed (“failure”) on screen. To index emotion, we measured corrugator and electrodermal activity, heart rate, and self-reported arousal. To index overt AD, we measured eye gaze. As their reason for ending the situation, participants more frequently reported being upset by high- than low-arousal negative pictures; they more frequently reported being bored by low- than high-arousal neutral pictures. Nevertheless, participants’ negative emotional responding did not increase in the context of ER failure nor did they use overt AD as a compensatory ER strategy. We conclude that situation-targeted ER processes are used to regulate emotional responses to high-arousal negative and low-arousal neutral situations; ER processes other than overt AD may be used to compensate for ER failure in this context. PMID:24592251

  14. 77 FR 33619 - Certification of Substance Abuse Experts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ...NRC-2011-0220] Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. The NRC determined that...organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. The NRC received...

  15. Marcus Hutter -1 -Online Prediction Bayes versus Experts Online Prediction

    E-print Network

    Hutter, Marcus

    Marcus Hutter - 1 - Online Prediction ­ Bayes versus Experts Online Prediction: Bayes versus;Marcus Hutter - 2 - Online Prediction ­ Bayes versus Experts Table of Contents · Sequential/online prediction: Setup · Bayesian Sequence Prediction (Bayes) · Prediction with Expert Advice (PEA) · PEA Bounds

  16. Structuring Knowledge for Expert System Solutions. Part 1: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabinger, R. Scott

    1988-01-01

    This introductory article defines and delimits expert systems. The discussion covers the concepts of artificial intelligence, the components of an expert system, and the significance of expert systems when compared to more traditional decision making tools. (CLB)

  17. Perceptual symbols of creativity: coldness elicits referential, warmth elicits relational creativity.

    PubMed

    Ijzerman, Hans; Leung, Angela K-y; Ong, Lay See

    2014-05-01

    Research in the cognitive and social psychological science has revealed the pervading relation between body and mind. Physical warmth leads people to perceive others as psychological closer to them and to be more generous towards others. More recently, physical warmth has also been implicated in the processing of information, specifically through perceiving relationships (via physical warmth) and contrasting from others (via coldness). In addition, social psychological work has linked social cues (such as mimicry and power cues) to creative performance. The present work integrates these two literatures, by providing an embodied model of creative performance through relational (warm = relational) and referential (cold = distant) processing. The authors predict and find that warm cues lead to greater creativity when 1) creating drawings, 2) categorizing objects, and 3) coming up with gifts for others. In contrast, cold cues lead to greater creativity, when 1) breaking set in a metaphor recognition task, 2) coming up with new pasta names, and 3) being abstract in coming up with gifts. Effects are found across different populations and age groups. The authors report implications for theory and discuss limitations of the present work. PMID:24530552

  18. Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sharon M; Ribero, Dario; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Kokudo, Norihiro; Miyazaki, Masaru; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree on consensus statements. The treatment of ICC requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize survival. Biopsy is not necessary if the surgeon suspects ICC and is planning curative resection, although biopsy should be obtained before systemic or locoregional therapies are initiated. Assessment of resectability is best accomplished using cross-sectional imaging [computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)], but the role of positron emission tomography (PET) is unclear. Resectability in ICC is defined by the ability to completely remove the disease while leaving an adequate liver remnant. Extrahepatic disease, multiple bilobar or multicentric tumours, and lymph node metastases beyond the primary echelon are contraindications to resection. Regional lymphadenectomy should be considered a standard part of surgical therapy. In patients with high-risk features, the routine use of diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended. The preoperative diagnosis of combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) by imaging studies is extremely difficult. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment, but survival is worse than in HCC alone. There are no adequately powered, randomized Phase III trials that can provide definitive recommendations for adjuvant therapy for ICC. Patients with high-risk features (lymphovascular invasion, multicentricity or satellitosis, large tumours) should be encouraged to enrol in clinical trials and to consider adjuvant therapy. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine represents the standard-of-care, front-line systemic therapy for metastatic ICC. Genomic analyses of biliary cancers support the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26172134

  19. Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Mansour, John C; Aloia, Thomas A; Crane, Christopher H; Heimbach, Julie K; Nagino, Masato; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree consensus statements. It was established that the treatment of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize the chances for both durable survival and effective palliation. An adequate diagnostic and staging work-up includes high-quality cross-sectional imaging; however, pathologic confirmation is not required prior to resection or initiation of a liver transplant trimodal treatment protocol. The ideal treatment for suitable patients with resectable hilar malignancy is resection of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as resection of the involved ipsilateral liver. Preoperative biliary drainage is best achieved with percutaneous transhepatic approaches and may be indicated for patients with cholangitis, malnutrition or hepatic insufficiency. Portal vein embolization is a safe and effective strategy for increasing the future liver remnant (FLR) and is particularly useful for patients with an FLR of <30%. Selected patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma should be evaluated for a standard trimodal protocol incorporating external beam and endoluminal radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and liver transplantation. Post-resection chemoradiation should be offered to patients who show high-risk features on surgical pathology. Chemoradiation is also recommended for patients with locally advanced, unresectable hilar cancers. For patients with locally recurrent or metastatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma, first-line chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin is recommended based on multiple Phase II trials and a large randomized controlled trial including a heterogeneous population of patients with biliary cancers. PMID:26172136

  20. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  1. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) Early Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the Early Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. Early and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for eliciting admissions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25844517

  2. Tactile stimulation of the oropharynx elicits sympathoexcitation in conscious humans

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Matthew D.; Mast, Jessica L.; Cui, Jian; Heffernan, Matthew J.; McQuillan, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Tactile stimulation of the oropharynx (TSO) elicits the gag reflex and increases heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in anesthetized patients. However, the interaction between upper-airway defense reflexes and the sympathetic nervous system has not been investigated in conscious humans. In Experiment 1, beat-by-beat measurements of HR, MAP, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were measured during TSO and tactile stimulation of the hard palate (Sham) in the supine posture. In Experiment 2, TSO was performed before (pre) and after (post) inhalation of 4% lidocaine via nebulizer. Rate pressure product (RPP) was determined. Compared with Sham, TSO elicited the gag reflex and increased RPP [absolute change (?)36 ± 6 vs. 17 ± 5%], MSNA (?122 ± 39 vs. 19 ± 19%), and RVR (?55 ± 11 vs. 4 ± 4%). This effect occurred within one to two cardiac cycles of TSO. The ?MAP (12 ± 3 vs. 6 ± 1 mmHg) and the ?HR (10 ± 3 vs. 3 ± 3 beats/min) were also greater following TSO compared with Sham. Lidocaine inhalation blocked the gag reflex and attenuated increases in MAP (?pre: 16 ± 2; ?post: 5 ± 2 mmHg) and HR (?pre: 12 ± 3; ?post: 2 ± 2 beats/min) in response to TSO. When mechanically stimulated, afferents in the oropharynx not only serve to protect the airway but also cause reflex increases in MSNA, RVR, MAP, and HR. An augmented sympathoexcitatory response during intubation and laryngoscopy may contribute to perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23599399

  3. Use of discrete choice experiments to elicit preferences.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M; Bate, A; Eastmond, C J; Ludbrook, A

    2001-09-01

    This paper considers the application of discrete choice experiments for eliciting preferences in the delivery of health care. Drawing upon the results from a recently completed systematic review, the paper summarises the application of this technique in health care. It then presents a case study applying the technique to rheumatology outpatient clinics. 200 patients were questioned about the importance of six attributes: staff seen (junior doctor or specialist nurse); time in waiting area; continuity of contact with same staff; provision of a phone-in/advice service; length of consultation; and change in pain levels. The systematic review indicated that discrete choice experiments have been applied to a wide number of areas and a number of methodological issues have been addressed. Consistent with this literature, the case study found evidence of both rationality and theoretical validity of responses. The approach was used to establish the relative importance of different attributes, how individuals trade between these attributes, and overall benefit scores for different clinic configurations. The value of attributes was estimated in terms of time, and this was converted to a monetary measure using the value of waiting time for public transport. Discrete choice experiments represent a potentially useful instrument for eliciting preferences. Future methodological work should explore issues related to the experimental design of the study, methods of data collection and analysis, and satisfaction with the economic axioms of the instrument. Collaborative work with psychologists and qualitative researchers will prove useful in this research agenda. PMID:11533440

  4. Hypoglycemic activity of withanolides and elicitated Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Jonathan; Rosenberg, Rivka; Smotrich, Avinoam; Hanuš, Lumír; Bernstein, Nirit

    2015-08-01

    Withania somnifera, known in India as Asghawhanda, is used traditionally to treat many medical problems including diabetes and has demonstrated therapeutic activity in various animal models as well as in diabetic patients. While much of W. somnifera's therapeutic activity is attributed to withanolides, their role in the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera has not been adequately studied. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera extract and purified withanolides, as well as the effect of various elicitors on this activity. W. somnifera leaf and root extracts increased glucose uptake in myotubes and adipocytes in a dose dependent manner, with the leaf extract more active than the root extract. Leaf but not root extract increased insulin secretion in basal pancreatic beta cells but not in stimulated cells. Six withanolides isolated from W. somnifera were tested for anti-diabetic activity based on glucose uptake in skeletal myotubes. Withaferin A was found to increase glucose uptake, with 10?M producing a 54% increase compared with control, suggesting that withaferin A is at least partially responsible for W. somnifera's anti-diabetic activity. Elicitors applied to the root growing solutions affected the physiological state of the plants, altering membrane leakage or osmotic potential. Methyl salicylate and chitosan increased withaferin A content by 75% and 69% respectively, and extracts from elicited plants increased glucose uptake to a higher extent than non-elicited plants, demonstrating a correlation between increased content of withaferin A and anti-diabetic activity. PMID:25796090

  5. Modelling diagnosis in physical therapy: a blackboard framework and models of experts and novices.

    PubMed

    James, G A

    2007-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to explore clinical reasoning in physical therapy and to highlight the similarities and differences by modelling the diagnostic phase of clinical reasoning. An experimental design comparing expert and novice physical therapists was utilized. Concurrent verbal protocols detailing the clinical reasoning about standardized case material were elicited. A framework for modelling diagnosis was specified and provided the parameters for analysis. The diagnostic utterances were classified as cues or hypotheses and the knowledge utilized was identified. The experts recruited significantly more knowledge than the novices (p = 0.01) and used more cues (p < 0.01). Their diagnoses were more accurate when compared to the original diagnosis. This difference between the experts and novices was reflected in the differences shown in the models (p < 0.01). The differences between these subjects focused upon the knowledge recruitment, which impacted on the accuracy of the diagnosis. The novices' inaccurate or non-existent diagnoses led to poor quality of treatment prescription. Modelling proved to be a useful way of representing these differences. PMID:17536772

  6. Expert PC Troubleshooter With Fuzzy-Logic And Self-Learning Support

    E-print Network

    Bassil, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Expert systems use human knowledge often stored as rules within the computer to solve problems that generally would entail human intelligence. Today, with information systems turning out to be more pervasive and with the myriad advances in information technologies, automating computer fault diagnosis is becoming so fundamental that soon every enterprise has to endorse it. This paper proposes an expert system called Expert PC Troubleshooter for diagnosing computer problems. The system is composed of a user interface, a rule-base, an inference engine, and an expert interface. Additionally, the system features a fuzzy-logic module to troubleshoot POST beep errors, and an intelligent agent that assists in the knowledge acquisition process. The proposed system is meant to automate the maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) process, and free-up human technicians from manually performing routine, laborious, and timeconsuming maintenance tasks. As future work, the proposed system is to be parallelized so as to boo...

  7. SSME fault monitoring and diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Moonis; Norman, Arnold M.; Gupta, U. K.

    1989-01-01

    An expert system, called LEADER, has been designed and implemented for automatic learning, detection, identification, verification, and correction of anomalous propulsion system operations in real time. LEADER employs a set of sensors to monitor engine component performance and to detect, identify, and validate abnormalities with respect to varying engine dynamics and behavior. Two diagnostic approaches are adopted in the architecture of LEADER. In the first approach fault diagnosis is performed through learning and identifying engine behavior patterns. LEADER, utilizing this approach, generates few hypotheses about the possible abnormalities. These hypotheses are then validated based on the SSME design and functional knowledge. The second approach directs the processing of engine sensory data and performs reasoning based on the SSME design, functional knowledge, and the deep-level knowledge, i.e., the first principles (physics and mechanics) of SSME subsystems and components. This paper describes LEADER's architecture which integrates a design based reasoning approach with neural network-based fault pattern matching techniques. The fault diagnosis results obtained through the analyses of SSME ground test data are presented and discussed.

  8. Expert systems guide biological phosphorus removal

    SciTech Connect

    Krichten, D.J.; Wilson, K.D.; Tracy, K.D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    There is a large body of knowledge regarding optimum control strategies for new secondary wastewater treatment technology using an anaerobic selector to provide biological phosphorus removal. However, because the selector technology is new and the concepts differ somewhat from those used in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, a method of communicating this knowledge to plant operators is needed. Traditional methods such as classroom training and operating manuals are of limited effectiveness. The commonplace availability and low cost of the personal computer (PC) makes it practical to use a computer program to communicate the type of information required to control a wastewater treatment plant. Knowledge-based systems technology, commonly referred to as expert systems (ES) technology, is easy to use, provides useful information regarding a consistent control strategy, relieves the anxiety associated with learning a new process,' and provides instruction for inexperienced personnel. ES technology does not require special formatted input and is therefore easily accessible. All information required by the program is readily available through routine laboratory analysis, common plant instrumentation, or direct user observation. The program was designed for all levels of computer users and will run on all IBM-compatible or Apple MacIntosh systems.

  9. Real-world natural language interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cullingford, R.E.; Selfridge, M.

    1983-01-01

    ACE (academic counseling experiment) is a natural-language text processing system currently under development at the University of Connecticut as a testbed for work in real-world conversational interaction with rule-based expert systems. ACE is designed to perform the tasks of a faculty advisor of undergraduate engineering students who intend to be computer science majors at the university. The key problem for a conversational system of this sort is robust understanding, the ability to cope with ungrammatical, ellipsed, and otherwise variant, but responsive, input. The paper outlines ACE's current status and the progress toward testing it with real users. The authors believe it represents a technology which can be applied to a wide variety of rule-based expert systems. 22 references.

  10. School Construction Management: Expert Administrators Speak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents expert opinion on school construction management communication concerning educational needs, obtaining consensus among diverse groups, and envisioning what schools must offer in the future. Why furniture issues are also important is highlighted. (GR)

  11. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...

  12. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...

  13. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...which he or she may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may be otherwise ordered by...

  14. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...

  15. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...

  16. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...which he or she may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may be otherwise ordered by...

  17. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...which he or she may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may be otherwise ordered by...

  18. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...which he or she may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may be otherwise ordered by...

  19. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...which he or she may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may be otherwise ordered by...

  20. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...may draw inferences based upon hypothetically stated facts or offer opinions from facts involving scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the...