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1

AE-5 end of mission tests report. [Explorer 55 satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spin up test and a TDRS tracking simulation were performed on the AE-5 spacecraft before its end of mission. the spin up test showed that the Body Horizon Scanner could be successfully used on other spacecraft with spin rates up to 10 RPM. the TDRS tracking simulation showed that an AE-5 type attitude control system could be successfully used to point the spacecraft towards a TDRS for the purpose of transmitting/relaying data via the TDRS.

Stengle, T. H.; Kissel, F.; Schaefer, J.; Kalil, F.

1981-01-01

2

Aerospace Systems Engineering Required (2) AE 542 Aerospace Systems Engineering I  

E-print Network

Aerospace Systems Engineering Required (2) AE 542 Aerospace Systems Engineering I AE 543 Aerospace Fundamentals Link to all online AE courses #12;Aerospace Systems Engineering Required (2) AE 542 Aerospace Systems Engineering I (F) AE 543 Aerospace Systems Engineering II (Sp) Breadth-SMM (choose 1): AE 420

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

3

15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2...2 Automated Export System (AES). The...the Automated Export System (AES). In order...other two options are electronic. Option 2 requires...nor a request for an extension from the agency...

2011-01-01

4

AE Intelligent Sensor Networks System Used in TeleMonitoring of Civil Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel AE intelligent sensor networks syste m. The system is composed of three parts: the wide band AE sensors, the real-time signal ac quisition and processing nodes and an intelligent information terminal. This system acquires AE events from the reinforced concrete structure through its wide band AE sensors, and then extracts the AE characteri stic parameters

Guanjun TONG; Fanjin KONG; Ruli WANG; Yanhong FU; Lili JIA

5

Automated Estimating System (AES), Version 5. 1, User's manual  

SciTech Connect

This document describes Version 5.1 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user though the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

Schwarz, R.K. (ed.); Holder, D.A.

1992-08-01

6

76 FR 1427 - AES Wind Generation, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EL11-14-000] AES Wind Generation, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint and...2006), filed a complaint against the California Independent System Operator Corporation (CAISO or...

2011-01-10

7

Exploration EVA System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, the President announced a new Vision for Space Exploration. NASA's Office of Exploration Systems has identified Extravehicular Activity (EVA) as a critical capability for supporting the Vision for Space Exploration. EVA is required for all phases of the Vision, both in-space and planetary. Supporting the human outside the protective environment of the vehicle or habitat and allow ing him/her to perform efficient and effective work requires an integrated EVA "System of systems." The EVA System includes EVA suits, airlocks, tools and mobility aids, and human rovers. At the core of the EVA System is the highly technical EVA suit, which is comprised mainly of a life support system and a pressure/environmental protection garment. The EVA suit, in essence, is a miniature spacecraft, which combines together many different sub-systems such as life support, power, communications, avionics, robotics, pressure systems and thermal systems, into a single autonomous unit. Development of a new EVA suit requires technology advancements similar to those required in the development of a new space vehicle. A majority of the technologies necessary to develop advanced EVA systems are currently at a low Technology Readiness Level of 1-3. This is particularly true for the long-pole technologies of the life support system.

Kearney, Lara

2004-01-01

8

Automated Estimating System (AES): Version 6.1: User`s manual. Revision 6  

SciTech Connect

This document describes Version 6.1 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of Central Engineering Services of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems,Inc. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user through the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

Schwarz, R.K. [ed.; Holder, D.A.

1996-03-01

9

Automated Estimating System (AES), Version 5.1, User`s manual. Revision 4  

SciTech Connect

This document describes Version 5.1 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user though the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

Schwarz, R.K. [ed.] [ed.; Holder, D.A.

1992-08-01

10

Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

1989-01-01

11

Advanced Exploration Systems Water Architecture Study Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems that enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near-term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness-level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near- and long-term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit Environmental Control and Life Support Systems definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as identifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II focused on the near-term space exploration objectives by establishing an International Space Station-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long-term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2013-01-01

12

Seismic exploration system improvement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a seismic exploration system having geophone locations along a survey line with at least one geophone connected to separate circuits connected to corresponding terminals of a roll-along common depth point switch. A means is described for identifying a specific one of the geophone locations as the switch changes connections, comprising means for superimposing a signal outside the useful range of seismic energy signals generated by the geophones on the one of the separate circuits connected to the specific geophone location whereby the location may be identified on the changed connection side of the switch.

Bearden, J.M.

1987-01-06

13

Exploration Medical System Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. f. Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management. g. Provide a better standard of healthcare for crew members through reductions in the time required by crew and ground personnel to provide medical treatment and the number of crew errors experienced during treatment.

Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

2014-01-01

14

Automated Estimating System (AES), Standard Value Update Program, user`s manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual contains instructions for operating the Standard Value Update Program. This program is operated and controlled by selected individuals in the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. It is used to control and standardized input into the Automated Estimating System (AES) Estimating program, a person computer-based software package designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates. The AES Estimating program is documented in a separate user`s manual.

Schwartz, R.K. [ed.; Holder, D.A.

1994-08-01

15

ME/AE 381 Mechanical and Aerospace Control Systems MINI CNC LABORATORY  

E-print Network

ME/AE 381 ­ Mechanical and Aerospace Control Systems MINI CNC LABORATORY The objective of this laboratory is to design controllers that will regulate the position of three linear axes in a table top CNC tracking controllers in the laboratory using the mini CNC Rapid Development System. Plot the linear axis

Landers, Robert G.

16

iPAS: AES Flight System Technology Maturation for Human Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to realize the vision of expanding human presence in space, NASA will develop new technologies that can enable future crewed spacecraft to go far beyond Earth orbit. These technologies must be matured to the point that future project managers can accept the risk of incorporating them safely and effectively within integrated spacecraft systems, to satisfy very challenging mission requirements. The technologies must also be applied and managed within an operational context that includes both on-board crew and mission support on Earth. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program is one part of the NASA strategy to identify and develop key capabilities for human spaceflight, and mature them for future use. To support this initiative, the Integrated Power Avionics and Software (iPAS) environment has been developed that allows engineers, crew, and flight operators to mature promising technologies into applicable capabilities, and to assess the value of these capabilities within a space mission context. This paper describes the development of the integration environment to support technology maturation and risk reduction, and offers examples of technology and mission demonstrations executed to date.

Othon, William L.

2014-01-01

17

Exploration geochemical technique for the determination of preconcentrated organometallic halides by ICP-AES  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An atomic absorption extraction technique which is widely used in geochemical exploration for the determination of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn has been modified and adapted to a simultaneous inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission instrument. the experimental and operating parameters are described for the preconcentration of the metals into their organometallic halides and for the determination of the metals. Lower limits of determination are equal to or improved over those for flame atomic absorption (except Au) and ICP results are very similar to the accepted AA values, with precision for the ICP data in excess of that necessary for exploration purposes.

Motooka, J.M.

1988-01-01

18

Desktop system for accounting, audit, and research in A&E.  

PubMed

The development of a database for audit, research, and accounting in accident and emergency (A&E) is described. The system uses a desktop computer, an optical scanner, sophisticated optical mark reader software, and workload management data. The system is highly flexible, easy to use, and at a cost of around 16,000 pounds affordable for larger departments wishing to move towards accounting. For smaller departments, it may be an alternative to full computerisation. PMID:9132200

Taylor, C J; Brain, S G; Bull, F; Crosby, A C; Ferguson, D G

1997-03-01

19

Exploration of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

1974-01-01

20

Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the carbon dioxide (CO2) removal hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program. A companion paper discusses development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations for this project.

Knox, James C.; Trinh, Diep; Gostowski, Rudy; King, Eric; Mattox, Emily M.; Watson, David; Thomas, John

2012-01-01

21

NASA: Solar System Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website offers a wide variety of space science-related activities, multimedia, and facts for people of all ages. The website presents the latest news and upcoming space science events. Students and educators can explore NASA's space missions by target, letter, year, and program. Individuals can learn about the history and future of robotic exploration of space through a pictorial timeline. In the Science and Technology link, visitors can find the latest science and technology features, NASA science highlights, science goals, and information on NASA scientists. Kids will enjoy the Roadtrip to Mars interactive module and interesting facts about the planets. Teachers can easily locate activities about the science behind the latest NASA headlines through the Fast Lesson Finder. Everyone can view the images and videos of the planets, spacecraft, technology, and additional subjects.

22

Strong Authentication for RFID Systems Using the AES Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an emerging technology which brings enormous productivity benefits in applications where objects have to be identified automatically. This paper presents issues concerning security and privacy of RFID systems which are heavily discussed in public. In contrast to the RFID community, which claims that cryptographic components are too costly for RFID tags, we describe a solution

Martin Feldhofer; Sandra Dominikus; Johannes Wolkerstorfer

2004-01-01

23

NASA: Solar System Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website offers a wide variety of space science-related activities, multimedia, and facts for people of all ages. The website presents the latest news and upcoming space science events. Students and educators can explore space missions by name, decade, target, and nation. In the Science and Technology link, visitors can find the latest science and technology features, NASA science highlights, as well as information about astrobiology and power and propulsion. Kids will enjoy the Alien Safari interactive module and interesting facts about the planets. Teachers can easily locate activities about the science behind the latest NASA headlines through the Fast Lesson Finder. Everyone can view the images and videos of the planets, spacecraft, technology, and additional subjects.

24

Phase stability in the systems AeAl(2-x)Mgx (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba): electron concentration and size controlled variations on the laves phase structural theme.  

PubMed

The systems AeAl(2-x)Mgx (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) display electron concentration induced Laves phase structural changes. However, the complete sequence MgCu2 --> MgNi2 --> MgZn2 with increasing x (decreasing electron count) is only observed for Ae = Ca. Compounds SrAl(2-x)Mgx (0 < x < or = 2) and BaAl(2-x)Mgx (x = 0.85 and 2.0) were synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction experiments. For the Sr system the structural sequence CeCu2 --> MgNi2 --> MgZn2 occurs with increasing Mg content x. Thus, larger Sr does not allow the realization of the MgCu2 structure at low x. For Ae = Ba a binary compound BaAl2 does not exist, but more Ba-rich Ba7Al13 forms. The reinvestigation of the crystal structure of Ba7Al13 by selected area and convergent beam electron diffraction in a transmission electron microscope revealed a superstructure, which subsequently could be refined from single X-ray diffraction data. The formula unit of the superstructure is Ba21Al40 (space group P31m, Z = 1, a = 10.568(1) angstroms, c = 17.205(6) angstroms). In Ba21Al40 a size match problem between Ba and Al present in Ba7Al13 is resolved. The structure of Ba7Al13 (Ba21Al40) can be considered as a Ba excess variant of the hexagonal MgNi2 Laves phase type structure. An incommensurately modulated variant of the MgNi2 structure is obtained for phases BaAl(2-x)Mgx with x = 0.8-1. At even higher Mg concentrations a structural change to the proper MgZn2 type structure takes place. PMID:15257605

Amerioun, Shahrad; Yokosawa, Tadahiro; Lidin, Sven; Häussermann, Ulrich

2004-07-26

25

Outer Solar System Exploration  

E-print Network

are similar to Uranus and Neptune #12;Oh the Places we'll Go · The outer solar system is target-rich. We'd like to learn more about volcanoes on Io, storms on Titan, the rings around Uranus and whether Ariel ocean and how to access it in the future ­ Uranus orbiter, to study an ice giant in our own solar system

Rathbun, Julie A.

26

Exobiology in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

Carle, Glenn C. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor); Huntington, Judith L. (editor)

1992-01-01

27

Exploring the Systems in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson, students use a systems thinking approach to explore the components and processes of ecosystems. They analyze both a hypothetical and a local ecosystem by identifying abiotic and biotic components and their relationships.

2007-08-09

28

Fission Systems for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, T.; Dorney, D. J.; Swint, Marion Shayne

2012-01-01

29

Cluster Chemistry in Electron-Poor Ae-Pt-Cd Systems (Ae=Ca, Sr, Ba): (Sr,Ba)Pt2Cd4, Ca6Pt8Cd16, and Its Known Antitype Er6Pd16Sb8  

SciTech Connect

Three new ternary polar intermetallic compounds, cubic Ca6Pt8Cd16, and tetragonal (Sr, Ba)Pt2Cd4 have been discovered during explorations of the Ae–Pt–Cd systems. Cubic Ca6Pt8Cd16 (Fm-3m, Z = 4, a = 13.513(1) Å) contains a 3D array of separate Cd8 tetrahedral stars (TS) that are both face capped along the axes and diagonally bridged by Pt atoms to generate the 3D anionic network Cd8[Pt(1)]6/2[Pt(2)]4/8. The complementary cationic surface of the cell consists of a face-centered cube of Pt(3)@Ca6 octahedra. This structure is an ordered ternary variant of Sc11Ir4 (Sc6Ir8Sc16), a stuffed version of the close relative Na6Au7Cd16, and a network inverse of the recent Er6Sb8Pd16 (compare Ca6Pt8Cd16). The three groups of elements each occur in only one structural version. The new AePt2Cd4, Ae = Sr, Ba, are tetragonal (P42/mnm,Z = 2, a ? 8.30 Å, c ? 4.47 Å) and contain chains of edge-sharing Cd4 tetrahedra along c that are bridged by four-bonded Ba/Sr. LMTO-ASA and ICOHP calculation results and comparisons show that the major bonding (Hamilton) populations in Ca6Pt8Cd16 and Er6Sb8Pd16 come from polar Pt–Cd and Pd–Sb interactions, that Pt exhibits larger relativistic contributions than Pd, that characteristic size and orbital differences are most evident for Sb 5s, Pt8, and Pd16, and that some terms remain incomparable, Ca–Cd versus Er–Pd.

Samal, Saroj L. [Ames Laboratory; Gulo, Fakhili [Ames Laboratory; Corbett, John D. [Ames Laboratory

2013-02-18

30

Cluster chemistry in electron-poor Ae-Pt-Cd systems (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba): (Sr,Ba)Pt2Cd4, Ca6Pt8Cd16, and its known antitype Er6Pd16Sb8.  

PubMed

Three new ternary polar intermetallic compounds, cubic Ca6Pt8Cd16, and tetragonal (Sr, Ba)Pt2Cd4 have been discovered during explorations of the Ae-Pt-Cd systems. Cubic Ca6Pt8Cd16 (Fm-3m, Z = 4, a = 13.513(1) Å) contains a 3D array of separate Cd8 tetrahedral stars (TS) that are both face capped along the axes and diagonally bridged by Pt atoms to generate the 3D anionic network Cd8[Pt(1)]6/2[Pt(2)]4/8. The complementary cationic surface of the cell consists of a face-centered cube of Pt(3)@Ca6 octahedra. This structure is an ordered ternary variant of Sc11Ir4 (Sc6Ir8Sc16), a stuffed version of the close relative Na6Au7Cd16, and a network inverse of the recent Er6Sb8Pd16 (compare Ca6Pt8Cd16). The three groups of elements each occur in only one structural version. The new AePt2Cd4, Ae = Sr, Ba, are tetragonal (P42/mnm,Z = 2, a ? 8.30 Å, c ? 4.47 Å) and contain chains of edge-sharing Cd4 tetrahedra along c that are bridged by four-bonded Ba/Sr. LMTO-ASA and ICOHP calculation results and comparisons show that the major bonding (Hamilton) populations in Ca6Pt8Cd16 and Er6Sb8Pd16 come from polar Pt-Cd and Pd-Sb interactions, that Pt exhibits larger relativistic contributions than Pd, that characteristic size and orbital differences are most evident for Sb 5s, Pt8, and Pd16, and that some terms remain incomparable, Ca-Cd versus Er-Pd. PMID:23418724

Samal, Saroj L; Gulo, Fakhili; Corbett, John D

2013-03-01

31

The Exploration Water Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

2006-01-01

32

Implementation of the AES as a Hash Function for Confirming the Identity of Software on a Computer System  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief overview of the implementation of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as a hash function for confirming the identity of software resident on a computer system. The PNNL Software Authentication team chose to use a hash function to confirm software identity on a system for situations where: (1) there is limited time to perform the confirmation and (2) access to the system is restricted to keyboard or thumbwheel input and output can only be displayed on a monitor. PNNL reviewed three popular algorithms: the Secure Hash Algorithm - 1 (SHA-1), the Message Digest - 5 (MD-5), and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and selected the AES to incorporate in software confirmation tool we developed. This paper gives a brief overview of the SHA-1, MD-5, and the AES and sites references for further detail. It then explains the overall processing steps of the AES to reduce a large amount of generic data-the plain text, such is present in memory and other data storage media in a computer system, to a small amount of data-the hash digest, which is a mathematically unique representation or signature of the former that could be displayed on a computer's monitor. This paper starts with a simple definition and example to illustrate the use of a hash function. It concludes with a description of how the software confirmation tool uses the hash function to confirm the identity of software on a computer system.

Hansen, Randy R.; Bass, Robert B.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Mileson, Nicholas D.

2003-01-20

33

MET3-AE system to support management of pediatric asthma exacerbation in the emergency department.  

PubMed

A decision making process behind the management of pediatric patients with asthma exacerbations in the Emergency Department includes three stages: data collection, diagnosis formulation and treatment planning. These stages are associated with activities involving different types of clinical knowledge: factual, conceptual and procedural. Effective decision support should span over the entire decision making process and facilitate the use of diversified clinical knowledge. In this paper we present MET3-AE - a point of care decision support system that satisfies this requirement. The system helps emergency physician collect data, evaluate exacerbation severity, plan corresponding treatment and retrieve clinical evidence associated with a given treatment plan. It was developed using ontology-driven and multi-agent methodologies and implemented with open source software. The system is accessible on tablet and desktop computers and smartphones, and it interacts with other hospital information systems. It was successfully verified in a simulated clinical setting and now it is undergoing testing in a teaching hospital. PMID:20841804

Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Farion, Ken; Sayyad Shirabad, Jelber

2010-01-01

34

AE 941.  

PubMed

AE 941 [Arthrovas, Neoretna, Psovascar] is shark cartilage extract that inhibits angiogenesis. AE 941 acts by blocking the two main pathways that contribute to the process of angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteases and the vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathway. When initial development of AE 941 was being conducted, AEterna assigned the various indications different trademarks. Neovastat was used for oncology, Psovascar was used for dermatology, Neoretna was used for ophthalmology and Arthrovas was used for rheumatology. However, it is unclear if these trademarks will be used in the future and AEterna appears to only be using the Neovastat trademark in its current publications regardless of the indication. AEterna Laboratories signed commercialisation agreements with Grupo Ferrer Internacional SA of Spain and Medac GmbH of Germany in February 2001. Under the terms of the agreement, AEterna has granted exclusive commercialisation and distribution rights to AE 941 in oncology to Grupo Ferrer Internacional for the Southern European countries of France, Belgium, Spain, Greece, Portugal and Italy. It also has rights in Central and South America. Medac GmbH will have marketing rights in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, Switzerland, Austria, Ireland, the Netherlands and Eastern Europe. In October 2002, AEterna Laboratories announced that it had signed an agreement with Australian healthcare products and services company Mayne Group for marketing AE 941 (as Neovastat) in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Mexico. In March 2003, AEterna Laboratories announced it has signed an agreement with Korean based LG Life Sciences Ltd for marketing AE 941 (as Neovastat) in South Korea. The agreement provides AEterna with upfront and milestone payments, as well as a return on manufacturing and sales of AE 941. AEterna Laboratories had granted Alcon Laboratories an exclusive worldwide licence for AE 941 for ophthalmic products. However, this licence has been terminated. In 1999, AEterna secured funding for AE 941, part of which is from Technology Partnerships Canada (TPC), a research support programme run by Canada's federal government. Industry Canada will contribute $Can 1 for every $Can3 spent by AEterna on the development of AE 941, up to a total figure of $Can29.4 million. AEterna will reimburse TPC upon commercialisation of AE 941-derived products as a royalty on income generated. In January 2004 AEterna announced that development of AE 941 would be focusing on non-small cell lung cancer and that development for renal cell carcinoma would be discontinued. AEterna had previously announced in January 2003, following its acquisition of Zentaris, that development of AE 941 would be "strictly focused" on renal and non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting that development for all other indications has been discontinued, at least for the foreseeable future. PMID:15293867

2004-01-01

35

Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

2004-01-01

36

Biospheres and solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

Paine, Thomas O.

1990-01-01

37

Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide better crew health via the reduction in crew errors, crew time, and ground time.

Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

2011-01-01

38

Solar System Exploration @ 50 Opportunity: Eagle Crater  

E-print Network

MRO CREDIT: U. Arizona / JPL / NASA #12;Solar System Exploration @ 50 Gale Crater and Mount Sharp Landslides Credits: HST / MRO STSci / U. Arizona / JPL / NASA #12;Solar System Exploration @ 50 Why Mars "Blueberries" MER 1October 25, 2012 MER CREDIT: NASA / JPL #12;Solar System Exploration @ 50 Opportunity

39

Exploring the Physical, Chemical and Thermal Characteristics of a New Potentially Insensitive High Explosive: RX-55-AE-5  

SciTech Connect

Current work at the Energetic Materials Center, EMC, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) includes both understanding properties of old explosives and measuring properties of new ones [1]. The necessity to know and understand the properties of energetic materials is driven by the need to improve performance and enhance stability to various stimuli, such as thermal, friction and impact insult. This review will concentrate on the physical properties of RX-55-AE-5, which is formulated from heterocyclic explosive, 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide, LLM-105, and 2.5% Viton A. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure a specific heat capacity, C{sub p}, of {approx} 0.950 J/g{center_dot} C and a thermal conductivity, {kappa}, of {approx} 0.475 W/m{center_dot} C. The LLNL kinetics modeling code Kinetics05 and the Advanced Kinetics and Technology Solutions (AKTS) code Thermokinetics were both used to calculate Arrhenius kinetics for decomposition of LLM-105. Both obtained an activation energy barrier E {approx} 180 kJ mol{sup -1} for mass loss in an open pan. Thermal mechanical analysis, TMA, was used to measure the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The CTE for this formulation was calculated to be {approx} 61 {micro}m/m{center_dot} C. Impact, spark, friction are also reported.

Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Turner, H C; Tran, T D

2006-06-05

40

76 FR 4089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Automated Export System (AES) Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to detect and prevent the export of certain items by unauthorized...require the mandatory filing of export information through the AES...being amended to reflect new export reporting requirements. The Census Bureau plans to publish a Notice of...

2011-01-24

41

NASA Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's program for the civilian exploration of space is a challenge to scientists and engineers to help maintain and further develop the United States' position of leadership in a focused sphere of space activity. Such an ambitious plan requires the contribution and further development of many scientific and technological fields. One research area essential for the success of these space exploration programs is Intelligent Robotic Systems. These systems represent a class of autonomous and semi-autonomous machines that can perform human-like functions with or without human interaction. They are fundamental for activities too hazardous for humans or too distant or complex for remote telemanipulation. To meet this challenge, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) has established an Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE). The Center was created with a five year $5.5 million grant from NASA submitted by a team of the Robotics and Automation Laboratories. The Robotics and Automation Laboratories of RPI are the result of the merger of the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering (ECSE) and the Research Laboratory for Kinematics and Robotic Mechanisms of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Mechanics (ME,AE,&M), in 1987. This report is an examination of the activities that are centered at CIRSSE.

1990-01-01

42

Comparative Analysis of Continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) Data, Acquired from 12 and 16 Bit Streaming Systems during Rock Deformation Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative analysis of continuous acoustic emission (AE) data acquired during a triaxial compression test, using a 12-bit and a 16-bit acquisition system, is presented. A cylindrical sample (diameter 50.1 mm and length 125 mm) of Berea sandstone was triaxally deformed at a confining pressure of 15 MPa and a strain rate of 1.6E-06 s-1. The sample was loaded differentially until failure occurred at approximately ?1 = 160 MPa. AE activity was monitored for the duration of the experiment by an array of 8 broadband piezoelectric transducers coupled to the rock sample. Raw signals were amplified by 40 dB using pre-amplifiers equipped with filter modules with a frequency passband of 100 kHz to 1 MHz. The amplifiers had a split output enabling the measured signal to be fed into a 12-bit and a 16-bit acquisition system. AE waveforms were continuously recorded at 10 MS/s on 8 data acquisition channels per system. Approximately 4,500 events were harvested and source located from the continuous data for each system. P-wave arrivals were automatically picked and event locations calculated using the downhill Simplex method and a time-varying transverse isotropic velocity model based on periodical surveys across the sample. Events detected on the 12-bit and 16-bit systems were compared both in terms of their P-wave picks and their source locations. In the early stages of AE activity, there appeared to be little difference between P-wave picks and hypocenter locations from both data sets. As the experiment progressed into the post-peak stress regime, which was accompanied by an increase in AE rate and amplitude, fewer events could be harvested from the 12-bit data compared to the 16-bit data. This is linked to the observation of a higher signal-to-noise ratio on AE waveforms harvested from the 16-bit stream compared to those from the 12-bit stream, which results in an easier identification of P-wave onsets. Similarly a higher confidence in source location is expected. Analysis of the continuous waveform data in both time and frequency domains was performed to analyse changes in AE energy and frequency content throughout the duration of the experiment. This analysis is particularly relevant as the sample approaches failure, as high rates of induced AE events make it difficult to harvest and analyse individual events. Changes in frequency content have been previously observed and associated with microcrack coalescence and the induction of large fractures both in the laboratory and in the monitoring of reservoir stimulations. The comparative analysis shows that the higher resolution in the 16-bit stream provides greater detail in the identification of onset times of sample failure and particularly the changes in amplitude in the different frequency bands.

Flynn, J.; Goodfellow, S. D.; Nasseri, M. H.; Reyes-Montes, J. M.; Young, R.

2013-12-01

43

Venus Exploration opportunities within NASA's Solar System Exploration roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science goals to understand the origin, history and environment of Venus have been driving international space exploration missions for over 40 years. Past missions include the Magellan and Pioneer-Venus missions by the US; the Venera program by the USSR; and the Vega missions through international cooperation. Furthermore, the US National Research Council (NRC), in the 2003 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Decadal Survey, identified Venus as a high priority target, thus demonstrating a continuing interest in Earth's sister planet. In response to the NRC recommendation, the 2005 NASA SSE Roadmap included a number of potential Venus missions arching through all mission classes from small Discovery, to medium New Frontiers and to large Flagship class missions. While missions in all of these classes could be designed as orbiters with remote sensing capabilities, the desire for scientific advancements beyond our current knowledge - including what we expect to learn from the ongoing ESA Venus Express mission - point to in-situ exploration of Venus.

Balint, Tibor; Thompson, Thomas; Cutts, James; Robinson, James

2006-01-01

44

Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Wireless Technologies and Human Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors describe ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionics architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers and from industry. This paper provides an overview of recent AAE efforts, with particular emphasis on the wireless technologies being evaluated under AES to support human spaceflight.

Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.; Lansdowne, Chatwin

2014-01-01

45

SIM_EXPLORE: Software for Directed Exploration of Complex Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physics-based numerical simulation codes are widely used in science and engineering to model complex systems that would be infeasible to study otherwise. While such codes may provide the highest- fidelity representation of system behavior, they are often so slow to run that insight into the system is limited. Trying to understand the effects of inputs on outputs by conducting an exhaustive grid-based sweep over the input parameter space is simply too time-consuming. An alternative approach called "directed exploration" has been developed to harvest information from numerical simulators more efficiently. The basic idea is to employ active learning and supervised machine learning to choose cleverly at each step which simulation trials to run next based on the results of previous trials. SIM_EXPLORE is a new computer program that uses directed exploration to explore efficiently complex systems represented by numerical simulations. The software sequentially identifies and runs simulation trials that it believes will be most informative given the results of previous trials. The results of new trials are incorporated into the software's model of the system behavior. The updated model is then used to pick the next round of new trials. This process, implemented as a closed-loop system wrapped around existing simulation code, provides a means to improve the speed and efficiency with which a set of simulations can yield scientifically useful results. The software focuses on the case in which the feedback from the simulation trials is binary-valued, i.e., the learner is only informed of the success or failure of the simulation trial to produce a desired output. The software offers a number of choices for the supervised learning algorithm (the method used to model the system behavior given the results so far) and a number of choices for the active learning strategy (the method used to choose which new simulation trials to run given the current behavior model). The software also makes use of the LEGION distributed computing framework to leverage the power of a set of compute nodes. The approach has been demonstrated on a planetary science application in which numerical simulations are used to study the formation of asteroid families.

Burl, Michael; Wang, Esther; Enke, Brian; Merline, William J.

2013-01-01

46

Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

47

Geologic exploration of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes that must have operated on the early Earth have been deduced from evidence from ancient surfaces of the Moon and planets. In particular, such comparative studies have demonstrated that only two geologic processes have been widespread throughout the history of the solar system: impact cratering and volcanism. Impact craters have formed throughout solar system history, indeed the planets

Wood

1987-01-01

48

Galileo: exploration of Jupiter's system  

SciTech Connect

The scientific objectives of the Galileo mission to the Jovian system is presented. Topics discussed include the history of the project, our current knowledge of the system, the objectives of interrelated experiments, mission design, spacecraft, and instruments. The management, scientists, and major contractors for the project are also given.

Johnson, T.V.; Yeates, C.M.; Colin, L.; Fanale, F.P.; Frank, L.; Hunten, D.M.

1985-06-01

49

Galileo: Exploration of Jupiter's system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific objectives of the Galileo mission to the Jovian system is presented. Topics discussed include the history of the project, our current knowledge of the system, the objectives of interrelated experiments, mission design, spacecraft, and instruments. The management, scientists, and major contractors for the project are also given.

Johnson, T. V.; Yeates, C. M.; Colin, L.; Fanale, F. P.; Frank, L.; Hunten, D. M.

1985-01-01

50

Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multidisciplinary concept of "bioinspired engineering of exploration systems" (BEES) is described, which is a guiding principle of the continuing effort to develop biomorphic explorers as reported in a number of articles in the past issues of NASA Tech Briefs. The intent of BEES is to distill from the principles found in successful nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods but that are accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological organisms. The intent is not just to mimic operational mechanisms found in a specific biological organism but to imbibe the salient principles from a variety of diverse bio-organisms for the desired crucial function. Thereby, we can build explorer systems that have specific capabilities endowed beyond nature, as they will possess a combination of the best nature-tested mechanisms for that particular function. The approach consists of selecting a crucial function, for example, flight or some selected aspects of flight, and develop an explorer that combines the principles of those specific attributes as seen in diverse flying species into one artificial entity. This will allow going beyond biology and achieving unprecedented capability and adaptability needed in encountering and exploring what is as yet unknown. A classification of biomorphic flyers into two main classes of surface and aerial explorers is illustrated in the figure, with examples of a variety of biological organisms that provide the inspiration in each respective subclass. Such biomorphic explorers may possess varied mobility modes: surface-roving, burrowing, hopping, hovering, or flying, to accomplish surface, subsurface, and aerial exploration. Preprogrammed for a specific function, they could serve as one-way communicating beacons, spread over the exploration site, autonomously looking for/at the targets of interest. In a hierarchical organization, these biomorphic explorers would report to the next level of exploration mode (say, a large conventional lander/rover) in the vicinity. A widespread and affordable exploration of new/hazardous sites at lower cost and risk would thus become possible by utilizing a faster aerial flyer to cover long ranges and deploying a variety of function- specific, smaller biomorphic explorers for distributed sensing and local sample acquisition. Several conceptual biomorphic missions for planetary and terrestrial exploration applications have been illustrated in "Surface-Launched Explorers for Reconnaissance/ Scouting" (NPO-20871), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 4 (April, 2002), page 69 and "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems," Journal of Space Mission Architecture, Issue 2, Fall 2000, pages 49-79.

Thakoor, Sanita

2003-01-01

51

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA webpage, Solar System Exploration, allows students to search missions by name, decade, nation, target, mission, and status. Topics: arial, atmospheric, flybys, impact, lander, orbiter, rover, Deep Space Network

1900-01-01

52

Design Space Exploration for The Beamformer System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design exploration strategy for the beamformer system, an exampleof a typical DSP system. In order to do so, we first define a parameterizeddesign template for the beamformer and for a FIR filter, since the filteringoperation is a part of the overall beamformer system. We then discuss someapproaches for varying the design parameters for the filter and the

Daniel D. Gajski; Smita Bakshi

1993-01-01

53

Collaborative Systems Thinking Research: Exploring systems thinking within teams  

E-print Network

, interrelationships, context and dynamics towards executing systems design". This type of thinking is critically on large scale endeavors, where collaborative systems thinking is especially critical to achieveCollaborative Systems Thinking Research: Exploring systems thinking within teams Caroline T. Lamb

de Weck, Olivier L.

54

Gasdynamic fusion propulsion system for space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open-ended fusion system in which a high-density plasma is confined and heated to thermonuclear temperatures is examined as a potential high specific power propulsion device that can be used for space exploration. With a collision mean free path much smaller than a characteristic dimension of the system, the plasma behaves much like a continuous medium (fluid) for which the

Terry Kammash; Myoung-Jae Lee

1995-01-01

55

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-01-01

56

Solar System Exploration: Paper Models for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA offers this website focusing on Solar System Exploration and projects for kids to build paper versions of the "super tough robots are out there exploring our solar system." Using colored, cut and folded pieces of paper, kids can construct models of Cassini, Galileo and many other spacecrafts. Along with the instructions (which need to be downloaded and printed), they provide a rating for level of difficulty as well as information on the spacecraft and its mission. A link to a website devoted to paper modeling provides some basic tips on paper model construction.

57

AE 400-level (choose 2): AE 420 Finite Element Analysis  

E-print Network

AE 400-level (choose 2): AE 420 Finite Element Analysis AE 451 Aeroelasticity AE 500-level (choose 410 Computational Aerodynamics AE 412 Viscous flow and Heat Transfer AE 416 Applied Aerodynamics AE Dynamics I ME 430 ONL: Failure of Engrg Materials TAM 514 ONL: Elastodynamics and Vibrations TAM 598 MSO

Gilbert, Matthew

58

Memory exploration for low power, embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In embedded system design, the designer has to choose an on- chip memory configuration that is suitable for a specific application. To aid in this design choice, we present a memory exploration strategy based on three performance metrics, namely, cache size, the number of processor cycles and the energy consumption. We show how the performance is affected by cache parameters

Wen-Tsong Shiue; Chaitali Chakrabarti

1999-01-01

59

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

60

Boeing Integrated Defense System : Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Exploration, a division of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, is a leading global supplier of reusable and human space systems and services. Headquartered in Houston, the organization comprises more than 4,000 people operating in five locations. The organization s legacy began in the late 1950s with the X-15, spanned to the Apollo missions of the 1960 and 70s, and continues today with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station.

2007-12-12

61

A System of Systems Approach for Martian Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of systems is designed for characterization of the Martian atmosphere and exploration of lava tubes in preparation for human colonization. Multiple expendable deployable sensor packages ensure mission success with a high level of redundancy.

Semrud, E. B.; Evans, B. W.; Fredericks, B.; Wells, D.

2012-06-01

62

Major Map: Earth & Space Exploration (Exploration Systems Design) Bachelor of Science (B.S.)  

E-print Network

Major Map: Earth & Space Exploration (Exploration Systems Design) ­ Bachelor of Science (B Engineering for Space Missions 3 Grade of C CLAS Upper Division Science and Society 3 Grade of C Upper & Space Exploration (Exploration Systems Design) ­ Bachelor of Science (B.S.) College of Liberal Arts

Rhoads, James

63

AE 400-level (choose 2): AE 402 Orbital Mechanics  

E-print Network

(examples): ENG 461 ONL: Technology Entrepreneurship ENG 560 ONL: Managing Advanced Technol I ENG 561 ONL Propulsion AE 434 Rocket Propulsion AE 435 Electric Propulsion AE 510 Advanced Gas Dynamics AE 514 Boundary

Gao, Grace Xingxin

64

[Determination of inorganic elements in the soil-grass-animal system by sealed microwave digestion ICP-AES].  

PubMed

The contents of inorganic elements including K, Ca, Na, Mg, P, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, and Co in the soil-grass-animal mineral system from Qinghai Tibetan Plateau were determined by ICP-AES using high pressure system-sealed microwave digestion. The sample of soil was digested with HNO3-HF-H2O2 acids system, but others including pasture, animal fur, liver, and serum were digested with HNO3-H2O2 acids system. The operation would be simplified and the blank value would be decreased with the above acids systems. The results were proved to be reliable with the relative standard deviation being 0.271%-2.633% for Ca, 2.971%-4.854% for Co, 0.372%-2.874% for Cu, 0.600%-3.683% for Fe, 0.347%-2.829% for K, 0.626%-2.593% for Mg, 0.705%-4.828% for Mn, 2.946%-4.622% for Mo, 0.689%-3.621% for Na, 0.422%-3.890% for P, and 0.143%-4.622% for S, 0.166%-2.399% for Zn, and all of them were less than 5% for all the elements, and the recovery being 97.1%-101.4% for Ca, 93.5%-112.5% for Co, 95.2%-104.0% for Cu, 96.9%-104.2% for Fe, 96.1%-105.6% for K, 96.2%-102.8% for Mg, 91.5%-108.9% for Mn, 95.0%-113.5% for Mo, 95.2%-101.8% for Na, 94.7%-100.7% for P, 98.3%-108.4% for S, and 97.5%-102.0% for Zn by adding standard recovery experiment. The results of determination were proved that the method of sealed microwave digestion ICP-AES was sensitive, precise, easy to operate and rapid for the determination of inorganic elements in the soil-grass-animal mineral system, and could satisfy the sample examination request. The methods and results were meaningful to research on the soil-pasture-animal mineral system including the contents of mineral elements, the circulation of mineral elements, the interaction, and the application of mineral additive. PMID:20384164

Xin, Guo-Sheng; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Xu-Sheng; Long, Rui-Jun

2010-02-01

65

Exotic propulsion systems - A space exploration imperative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment is given to the need for and use of unusual propulsion systems in the forthcoming development of space vehicles. The requirements of lunar and Martian outposts are set forth, and the expected delta velocities, vehicle masses, and specific energy levels are listed. Exotic propulsion systems are considered that can provide the specific impulse levels needed for the scenarios discussed. Discussed are antimatter propulsion, teleportation, and antigravity machines, and the theoretical and practical implications of their development and use are mentioned. The use of antiprotons in medical treatment and materials processing is explained and extended to the propulsion application. The paper demonstrates the potential of exotic propulsion systems to contribute to space exploration.

Haloulakos, V. E.

1992-07-01

66

Micro and Nano Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of micro and nano systems in Space exploration. Included are: an explanation of the rationales behind nano and micro technologies for space exploration, a review of how the devices are fabricated, including details on lithography with more information on Electron Beam (E-Beam) lithography, and X-ray lithography, a review of micro gyroscopes and inchworm Microactuator as examples of the use of MicroElectoMechanical (MEMS) technology. Also included is information on Carbon Nanotubes, including a review of the CVD growth process. These micro-nano systems have given rise to the next generation of miniature X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence instruments, mass spectrometers, and terahertz frequency vacuum tube oscillators and amplifiers, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope. The nanotechnology has also given rise to coating technology, such as silicon nanotip anti-reflection coating.

Manohara, Harish

2007-01-01

67

Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) is a project under the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element managed by the Human Research Program (HRP). The vision for the EMSD is to utilize ISS as a test bed to show that several medical technologies needed for an exploration mission and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making can be integrated into a single system and used by the on-orbit crew in an efficient and meaningful manner. Objectives: a) Reduce and even possibly eliminate the time required for on-orbit crew and ground personnel (which include Surgeon, Biomedical Engineer (BME) Flight Controller, and Medical Operations Data Specialist) to access and move medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information using an intuitive and crew-friendly software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management framework and architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities.

Chin, Duane

2012-01-01

68

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems NASA Advisory Council Demonstrations ETD ­ Exploration Technology Development STMD ­ Space Technology Mission Directorate GCD - Game-on" surface exploration and in- space operations, including crew excursion vehicles, advanced space suits

Waliser, Duane E.

69

Exploring Solar Systems Across the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the value of exploring our solar system and others in the Universe. Learners will investigate, compare, and describe patterns in Solar System data. They will then hypothesize about the formation of the Solar System based on data and explain how extrasolar planets can be discovered. In the first activity, the students investigate Solar System data to find clues to how our planetary system was formed. By the end of the activity, the students come to understand that other stars form just like the Sun, and, therefore, many stars could have planets around them. The second activity examines how scientists can find these extrasolar planets. By observing the behavior of a model star-planet system, the students come to understand that it is possible to see the effect a planet has on its parent star even if the planet cannot be seen directly. By comparing the properties of our Solar System with other planetary systems, we can gain a deeper understanding of planetary systems across the Universe.

70

Exploring Exploring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will investigate, discuss, and determine why humans have always explored the world (and now space) around them. Students determine these reasons for exploration through a class discussion. In the first activity, students use the Internet to examine the characteristics of past explorers and why they conducted their exploration. The students then examine why current explorers - including the students themselves - want to explore other worlds in the Solar System. By the end of the lesson, the students can conclude that no matter what or when we explore - past, present, or future - the reasons for exploration are the same; the motivation for exploration is universal.

71

Microarray assays for solar system exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of evidence of extinct and extant life is a key issue in astrobiological research, particularly with respect to future exploration of the solar system. Simple life forms may have evolved and developed on planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa. At this point in time, tests whether life once was or still is present can only be carried out by means of in situ experiments. Here, we discuss the potential and advantages of immunological concepts for life detection and the development of a miniaturized automated immunoassay flight device.

Steele, Andrew; Toporski, Jan; McKay, David S.; Schweitzer, Mary; Pincus, Seth; Pérez-Mercader, Juan; Parro García, Victor

2001-08-01

72

The Mars Exploration Rover Instrument Positioning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During Mars Exploration Rover (MER) surface operations, the scientific data gathered by the in situ instrument suite has been invaluable with respect to the discovery of a significant water history at Meridiani Planum and the hint of water processes at work in Gusev Crater. Specifically, the ability to perform precision manipulation from a mobile platform (i.e., mobile manipulation) has been a critical part of the successful operation of Spirit and Opportunity rovers. As such, this paper describes the MER Instrument Positioning System that allows the in situ instruments to operate and collect their important science data using a robust, dexterous robotic arm combined with visual target selection and autonomous software functions.

Baumgartner, Eric T.; Bonitz, Robert G.; Shiraishi, Lori R.; Melko, Joseph P.; Leger, P. Chris

2005-01-01

73

Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide "single button" intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system onboard the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System, along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System, this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard

2012-01-01

74

Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide single button intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system on-board the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System [1] , along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System [2] , this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA s Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

Haddock, Angie; Stetson, Howard K.

2012-01-01

75

Space Launch System for Exploration and Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability enabling diverse deep space missions. The exploration class vehicle launches larger payloads farther in our solar system and faster than ever before. The vehicle's 5 m to 10 m fairing allows utilization of existing systems which reduces development risks, size limitations and cost. SLS lift capacity and superior performance shortens mission travel time. Enhanced capabilities enable a myriad of missions including human exploration, planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary defense and commercial space exploration endeavors. Human Exploration: SLS is the first heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of transporting crews beyond low Earth orbit in over four decades. Its design maximizes use of common elements and heritage hardware to provide a low-risk, affordable system that meets Orion mission requirements. SLS provides a safe and sustainable deep space pathway to Mars in support of NASA's human spaceflight mission objectives. The SLS enables the launch of large gateway elements beyond the moon. Leveraging a low-energy transfer that reduces required propellant mass, components are then brought back to a desired cislunar destination. SLS provides a significant mass margin that can be used for additional consumables or a secondary payloads. SLS lowers risks for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission by reducing mission time and improving mass margin. SLS lift capacity allows for additional propellant enabling a shorter return or the delivery of a secondary payload, such as gateway component to cislunar space. SLS enables human return to the moon. The intermediate SLS capability allows both crew and cargo to fly to translunar orbit at the same time which will simplify mission design and reduce launch costs. Science Missions: A single SLS launch to Mars will enable sample collection at multiple, geographically dispersed locations and a low-risk, direct return of Martian material. For the Europa Clipper mission the SLS eliminates Venus and Earth flybys, providing a direct launch to the Jovian system, arriving four years earlier than missions utilizing existing launch vehicles. This architecture allows increased mass for radiation shielding, expansion of the science payload and provides a model for other outer planet missions. SLS provides a direct launch to the Uranus system, reducing travel time by two years when compared to existing launch capabilities. SLS can launch the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST 16 m) to SEL2, providing researchers 10 times the resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope and up to 300 times the sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope. SLS is the only vehicle capable of deploying telescopes of this mass and size in a single launch. It simplifies mission design and reduces risks by eliminating the need for multiple launches and in-space assembly. SLS greatly shortens interstellar travel time, delivering the Interstellar Explorer to 200 AU in about 15 years with a maximum speed of 63 km/sec--13.3 AU per year (Neptune orbits the sun at an approximate distance of 30 AU ).

Klaus, K.

2013-12-01

76

A Water Recovery System Evolved for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new water recovery system designed towards fulfillment of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is presented. This water recovery system is an evolution of the current state-of-the-art system. Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing technology to higher levels of optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold: Volatile organic contaminants will be removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase, and vapor compression distillation technology will be used to process the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treatment of the various waste streams by VCD will reduce the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follow, and on the aqueous-phase volatile removal assembly further downstream. Incorporating these advantages will reduce the weight, volume, and power requirements of the system, as well as resupply.

ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Perry, Jay L.; Carter, Donald L.

2006-01-01

77

Exploring the Planets: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers information that will allow students to see just how big each planet and its major satellites are relative to each other in the scale model of the Solar System. Students will see where the planets are in relation to the Sun and to each other and learn just how big the Sun is compared to all the planets in our Solar System. Sections at this site include Planetary Physical Data, Planetary Satellites Physical Data, Relative Sizes of the Planets, Relative Planetary Distances from the Sun, and the Size of the Sun. In addition, each planet has an individual online section that gives an overview of what has been learned through imagery and data obtained from Earth-based and spacecraft exploration.

78

The Advanced Exploration Systems Water Recovery Project: Innovation on 2 Fronts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA looks forward to sending humans farther away from Earth, we will have to develop a transportation architecture that is highly reliable and that can sustain life for long durations without the benefit of Earth s proximity for continuous resupply or even operational guidance. NASA has consistently been challenged with performing great feats of innovation, but particularly in this time of economic stress, we are challenged to go farther with less. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects were implemented to address both of these needs by not only developing innovative technologies, but by incorporating innovative management styles and processes that foster the needed technical innovation given a small amount of resources. This presentation explains how the AES Water Recovery Project is exhibiting innovation on both fronts; technical and process. The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is actively engineering innovative technologies in order to maximize the efficiency of water recovery. The development of reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support (ECLS) is critical to enable long-duration human missions outside of low-Earth orbit. Recycling of life support consumables is necessary to reduce resupply mass and provide for vehicle autonomy. To address this, the WRP is working on a rotary distiller that has shown enhanced performance over the state-of-the-art (SOA). Additionally, the WRP is looking at innovative ways to address issues present in the state-of-the-art (SOA) systems pertaining to toxicity and calcium scale buildup. As an AES project, the WRP has a more streamlined Skunk Works like approach to technology development intended to reduce overhead but achieve a more refined end product. The project has incorporated key partnerships between NASA centers as well as between NASA and industry. A minimal project management style has been implemented such that risks are managed and milestones tracked without overburdening the team with reporting demands that take them away from their work. A lean Systems Engineering (SE) approach has been implemented where project objectives are defined and vetted early without overprescribing the process or limiting the ability to innovate. Finally, we are working with existing flight hardware support organizations like operations, safety, materials and others to impact the system design at the breadboard level. This type of early input is a key to ensuring that the technologies are developed on the right track to becoming space flight worthy.

Sarguisingh, Miriam M.; Neumeyer, Derek; Shull, Sarah

2012-01-01

79

Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A profound question for scientists, philosophers and, indeed, all humans concerns how the solar system originated and subsequently evolved. To understand the solar system's formation, it is necessary to document fully the chemical and physical makeup of its components today, particularly those parts thought to retain clues about primordial conditions and processes.] In the past decade, our knowledge of the outermost, or trans-neptunian, region of the solar system has been transformed as a result of Earth-based observations of the Pluto-Charon system, Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune and its satellite Triton, and recent discoveries of dozens of bodies near to or beyond the orbit of Neptune. As a class, these newly detected objects, along with Pluto, Charon, and Triton, occupy the inner region of a hitherto unexplored component of the solar system, the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is believed to be a reservoir of primordial objects of the type that formed in the solar nebula and eventually accreted to form the major planets. The Kuiper Belt is also thought to be the source of short-period comets and a population of icy bodies, the Centaurs, with orbits among the giant planets. Additional components of the distant outer solar system, such as dust and the Oort comet cloud, as well as the planet Neptune itself, are not discussed in this report. Our increasing knowledge of the trans-neptunian solar system has been matched by a corresponding increase in our capabilities for remote and in situ observation of these distant regions. Over the next 10 to 15 years, a new generation of ground- and space-based instruments, including the Keck and Gemini telescopes and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, will greatly expand our ability to search for and conduct physical and chemical studies on these distant bodies. Over the same time span, a new generation of lightweight spacecraft should become available and enable the first missions designed specifically to explore the icy bodies that orbit 30 astronomical units (AU) or more from the Sun. The combination of new knowledge, plus the technological capability to greatly expand this knowledge over the next decade or so, makes this a particularly opportune time to review current understanding of the trans-neptunian solar system and to begin planning for the future exploration of this distant realm. Based on current knowledge, studies of trans-neptunian objects are important for a variety of reasons that can be summarized under five themes: (1) Exploration of new territory; (2) reservoirs of primitive materials; (3) Processes that reveal the solar system's origin and evolution; (4) Links to extrasolar planets; and (5) prebiotic chemistry. These five themes are not on an equal footing. The first three are well-established areas of scientific investigation and are backed up by a substantial body of observational and theoretical understanding. The last two, however are more speculative. They are included here because they raise a number of interesting possibilities that seem particularly suited to an interdisciplinary approach uniting planetary scientists with their colleagues in the astrophysical and life science communities. Although not considered in any detail in this report, the distant outer solar system also has direct relevance to Earth and the other terrestrial planets because it is the source of comets that bring volatiles into the inner solar system. The resulting inevitable impacts between comets and other planetary bodies can play major roles in the evolution of life as suggested by, for example, the Cretaceous-tertiary boundary bolide and the extinction of the dinosaurs.

1998-01-01

80

Crystal structure and bonding in BaAu5Ga2 and AeAu4+xGa3-x (Ae = Ba and Eu): hexagonal diamond-type Au frameworks and remarkable cation/anion partitioning in the Ae-Au-Ga systems.  

PubMed

Five new polar intermetallic compounds in the Ae-Ga-Au system (Ae = Ba, Eu), BaAu(5)Ga(2) (I), BaAu(4.3)Ga(2.7) (II), Ba(1.0)Au(4.5)Ga(2.4 )(III), EuAu(4.8)Ga(2.2) (IV), and Eu(1.1)Au(4.4)Ga(2.2) (V), have been synthesized and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. I crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system with a large unit cell [Pearson symbol oP64; Pnma, Z = 8, a = 8.8350(5) Å, b = 7.1888(3)Å, c = 20.3880(7) Å], whereas all other compounds are hexagonal [hP24; P6?2m, Z = 3, a = 8.54-8.77(1) Å, c = 7.19-7.24(1) Å]. Both structures contain mutually orthogonal layers of Au(6) hexagons in chair and boat conformations, resulting in a hexagonal diamond-like network. Ae atoms and additional (Au/Ga)(3) groups are formally encapsulated by (Au(6))(2) distorted hexagonal prisms formed of three edge-sharing hexagons in the boat conformation or, alternatively, lie between two Au(6) hexagons in the chair conformation. The (Au/Ga)(3) groups can be substituted by Ae atoms in some of the hexagonal structures with no change to the structural symmetry. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations using linear-muffin-tin-orbital methods on idealized models "BaAu(5)Ga(2)" and "BaAu(4)Ga(3)" show both compounds to be metallic with evident pseudogaps near the corresponding Fermi levels. The integrated crystal orbital Hamilton populations are dominated by Au-Au and Au-Ga orbital interactions, although Ba-Au and Ba-Ga contributions are significant. Furthermore, Au-Au interactions vary considerably along different directions in the unit cells, with the largest values for the hexagons in the boat conformation and the lowest values for those in the chair conformation. II revealed that partial substitution of Au atoms in the hexagonal diamond net by a post-transition element (Ga) may occur in this family, whereas the sizes of the (Au/Ga)(3) groups and strong Ba-Au covalent interactions allow for their mutual replacement in the voids. PMID:25494103

Smetana, Volodymyr; Steinberg, Simon; Card, Nathan; Mudring, Anja-Verena; Miller, Gordon J

2015-02-01

81

Biology-Inspired Explorers for Space Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building upon three innovative technologies, each of which received a NTR award from NASA, a specific explorer is described. This "robot" does away with conventional gears, levers, pulleys,.... And uses "Muscle Materials" instead; these shape-memory materials, formerly in the Nickel-Titanium family, but now in the much wider class of ElectroActivePolymers(EAP), have the ability to precisely respond to pre"programmed" shape changes upon application of an electrical input. Of course, the pre"programs" are at the molecular level, much like in biological systems. Another important feature is the distributed power. That is, the power use in the "limbs" is distributed, so that if one "limb" should fail, the others can still function. The robot has been built and demonstrated to the media (newspapers and television). The fundamental control aspects are currently being worked upon, and we expect to have a more complete mathematical description of its operation. Future plans, and specific applications for reliable planetary exploration will be outlined.

Ramohalli, Kumar; Lozano, Peter; Furfaro, Roberto

2002-01-01

82

Logistics Modeling for Lunar Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extensive logistics required to support extended crewed operations in space make effective modeling of logistics requirements and deployment critical to predicting the behavior of human lunar exploration systems. This paper discusses the software that has been developed as part of the Campaign Manifest Analysis Tool in support of strategic analysis activities under the Constellation Architecture Team - Lunar. The described logistics module enables definition of logistics requirements across multiple surface locations and allows for the transfer of logistics between those locations. A key feature of the module is the loading algorithm that is used to efficiently load logistics by type into carriers and then onto landers. Attention is given to the capabilities and limitations of this loading algorithm, particularly with regard to surface transfers. These capabilities are described within the context of the object-oriented software implementation, with details provided on the applicability of using this approach to model other human exploration scenarios. Some challenges of incorporating probabilistics into this type of logistics analysis model are discussed at a high level.

Andraschko, Mark R.; Merrill, R. Gabe; Earle, Kevin D.

2008-01-01

83

Modular design space exploration framework for embedded systems  

E-print Network

Modular design space exploration framework for embedded systems S. Ku¨ nzli, L. Thiele and E. Zitzler Abstract: Design space exploration is introduced as one of the major tasks in embedded system is to review existing approaches to design space exploration of embedded systems and to describe a generic

Zitzler, Eckart

84

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System  

E-print Network

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System Explore Diverse Worlds How did the outer planets mold the solar system and create habitable worlds? OPAG Report DRAFT 4 November 2014 #12;2 Outline of this document is to frame the science objectives for exploration of the outer solar system. It is consistent

Rathbun, Julie A.

85

AES chemunex ADIAFOOD detection system for Listeria spp. environmental sample testing.  

PubMed

The ADIAFOOD Detection System for the detection of Listeria species from environmental surfaces is based on real-time PCR technology and allows rapid pathogen detection within 21 h. The strength of the ADIAFOOD technology resides in its ability to rapidly and accurately detect Listeria species present on surfaces, such as stainless steel, plastic, ceramic, and sealed concrete. The technology is easy to use and versatile. PMID:22649931

Plante, Daniel; Côté, Yvan P; Giovannetti, Louisiane

2012-01-01

86

Exploring Myelin Dysfunction in Multiple System Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, yet fatal neurodegenerative disease that presents clinically with autonomic failure in combination with parkinsonism or cerebellar ataxia. MSA impacts on the autonomic nervous system affecting blood pressure, heart rate and bladder function, and the motor system affecting balance and muscle movement. The cause of MSA is unknown, no definitive risk factors have been identified, and there is no cure or effective treatment. The definitive pathology of MSA is the presence of ?-synuclein aggregates in the brain and therefore MSA is classified as an ?-synucleinopathy, together with Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Although the molecular mechanisms of misfolding, fibrillation and aggregation of ?-synuclein partly overlap with other ?-synucleinopathies, the pathological pathway of MSA is unique in that the principal site for ?-synuclein deposition is in the oligodendrocytes rather than the neurons. The sequence of pathological events of MSA is now recognized as abnormal protein redistributions in oligodendrocytes first, followed by myelin dysfunction and then neurodegeneration. Oligodendrocytes are responsible for the production and maintenance of myelin, the specialized lipid membrane that encases the axons of all neurons in the brain. Myelin is composed of lipids and two prominent proteins, myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein. In vitro studies suggest that aberration in protein distribution and lipid transport may lead to myelin dysfunction in MSA. The purpose of this perspective is to bring together available evidence to explore the potential role of ?-synuclein, myelin protein dysfunction, lipid dyshomeostasis and ABCA8 in MSA pathogenesis. PMID:25548533

Wong, Joanna H.; Halliday, Glenda M.

2014-01-01

87

Exploration system technology aspects in the exploration programme of the European Space Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within its exploration programme Aurora, the European Space Agency is preparing activities for human exploration of the solar system to be implemented in the next 5–10 years. These activities will be based on a long-term plan for exploration with a horizon of 30 years. As ESA is convinced that exploration can only be done via international collaboration, this long-term plan

Richard Fisackerly; Claus-Juergen Reimers; Alain Pradier

2006-01-01

88

Exploring our outer solar system - The Giant Planet System Observers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As space-faring peoples now work together to plan and implement future missions that robotically prepare for landing humans to explore the Moon, and later Mars, the time is right to develop evolutionary approaches for extending this next generation of exploration beyond Earth's terrestrial planet neighbors to the realm of the giant planets. And while initial fly-by missions have been hugely successful in providing exploratory surveys of what lies beyond Mars, we need to consider now what robotic precursor mission capabilities we need to emplace that prepare us properly, and comprehensively, for long-term robotic exploration, and eventual human habitation, beyond Mars to the outer reaches of our solar system. To develop practical strategies that can establish prioritized capabilities, and then develop a means for achieving those capabilities within realistic budget and technology considerations, and in reasonable timeframes, is our challenge. We suggest one component of such an approach to future outer planets exploration is a series of Giant Planets System Observer (GPSO) missions that provide for long- duration observations, monitoring, and relay functions to help advance our understanding of the outer planets and thereby enable a sound basis for planning their eventual exploration by humans. We envision these missions as being comparable to taking Hubble-class remote-sensing facilities, along with the space physics capabilities of long-lived geospace and heliospheric missions, to the giant planet systems and dedicating long observing lifetimes (HST, 16 yr.; Voyagers, 29 yr.) to the exhaustive study and characterization of those systems. GPSO missions could feature 20-yr+ extended mission lifetimes, direct inject trajectories to maximize useful lifetime on target, placement strategies that take advantage of natural environment shielding (e.g., Ganymede magnetic field) where possible, orbit designs having favorable planetary system viewing geometries, comprehensive broadband remote sensing capabilities, a complementary and redundant science instrument suite, fully autonomous operations, high bandwidth science data downlink, advanced solar power technologies (supplemented where necessary), functional interfaces that are compatible with future small fly-by missions, and fail-safe features for mission operations and planetary protection, 1 among other considerations. We describe in this paper one example of a GPSO-type mission our team has been formulating as a practical approach that addresses many of the most highly-rated future science exploration needs in the Jovian system, including the exploration of Europa, observation of Io and Ganymede, and characterization of the Jovian atmosphere. We call this mission concept the Ganymede Exploration Observer with Probes (GEOP), and describe its architecture, mission design, system features, science capabilities, key trades, and notional development plan for implementation within the next decade. 2

Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Sturner, S. J.; Pitman, J. T.

89

Mineralogical basis for the interpretation of multi-element (ICP-AES), oxalic acid, and aqua regia partial digestions of stream sediments for reconnaissance exploration geochemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have applied partial digestion procedures, primarily oxalic acid and aqua regia leaches, to several regional geochemical reconnaissance studies carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analytical methods. We have chosen to use these two acids because the oxalic acid primarily attacks those compounds formed during secondary geochemical processes, whereas aqua regia will digest the primary sulfide phases as well as secondary phases. Application of the partial digestion technique has proven superior to total digestion because the concentration of metals in hydromorphic compounds and the sulfides is enhanced relative to the metals bound in the unattacked silicate phases. The aqua regia digestion attacks and leaches metals from the mafic chain silicates and the phyllosilicates (coordination number of VI or more), yielding a characteristic geochemical signature, but does not leach appreciable metal from many other silicates. In order to interpret the results from these leach studies, we have initiated an investigation of a large suite of hand-picked mineral separates. The study includes analyses of about two hundred minerals representing the common rock-forming minerals as well as end-member compositions of various silicates, oxides, sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, and some vanadates, molybdates, tungstates, and phosphates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of leaching by acids of particular lattice sites in specific mineral structures. ?? 1987.

Church, S.E.; Mosier, E.L.; Motooka, J.M.

1987-01-01

90

Cross Cutting Structural Design for Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The challenge of our new National Space Policy and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) is keyed to the development of more effective space access and transportation systems. Optimizing in-space systems through innovative cross cutting structural designs that reduce mass, combine functional requirements and improve performance can significantly advance spacecraft designs to meet the ever growing demands of our new National Space Policy. Dependence on limited structural designs is no longer an option. We must create robust materials, forms, function and evolvable systems. We must advance national policy objectives in the design, development, test and operation of multi-billion dollar new generation crew capsules by enabling them to evolve in meeting the requirements of long duration missions to the moon and mars. This paper discusses several current issues and major design drivers for consideration in structural design of advanced spacecraft systems. Approaches to addressing these multifunctional requirements is presented as well as a discussion on utilizing Functional Analysis System Technique (FAST) in developing cross cutting structural designs for future spacecraft. It will be shown how easy it is to deploy such techniques in any conceptual architecture definition or ongoing preliminary design. As experts in merging mission, safety and life support requirements of the frail human existence into robust vehicle and habitat design, we will conquer the final frontier, harness new resources and develop life giving technologies for mankind through more innovative designs. The rocket equation tells us that a reduction in mass optimizes our propulsive results. Primary and secondary structural elements provide for the containment of gases, fluids and solids; translate and sustain loads/impacts; conduct/radiate thermal energy; shield from the harmful effects of radiation; provide for grounding/bonding of electrical power systems; compartmentalize operational functions; and provide physical interface with multiple systems. How can we redefine, combine, substitute, rearrange and otherwise modify our structural systems to reduce mass? New technologies will be needed to fill knowledge gaps and propagate new design methods. Such an integrated process is paramount in maintaining U.S. leadership and in executing our national policy goals. The cross cutting process can take many forms, but all forms will have a positive affect on the demanding design environment through initial radical thinking. The author will illustrate such cross cutting results achievable through a formal process called FAST. The FAST example will be used to show how a multifunctional structural system concept for long duration spacecraft might be generated.

Semmes, Edmund B.

2007-01-01

91

Active Thermal Control System Development for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has been actively developing technologies that will enable future missions or will provide significant improvements over the state of the art technologies. These technologies have are targeted for application on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), or Orion, and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

Westheimer, David

2007-01-01

92

Towards Efficient Design Space Exploration of Heterogeneous Embedded Media Systems  

E-print Network

Towards Efficient Design Space Exploration of Heterogeneous Embedded Media Systems A.D. Pimentel, S are developing a modeling and simulation environment which aims at efficient design space exploration simulation practice for the design space exploration of heterogeneous embedded systems architectures

Pimentel, Andy D.

93

A Computer Based Educational and Career Exploration System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The actual workings of the Educational and Career Exploration System (ECES) are described. The functions of the system are divided into three general phases: (1) an occupational information bank for exploring occupations; (2) an educational information bank for exploring training programs and educational areas of study; and (3) a junior…

Minor, Frank J.

94

Systems Verification using Randomized Exploration of Large State Spaces  

E-print Network

Systems Verification using Randomized Exploration of Large State Spaces Nazha Abed, Stavros, but considerable, state space exploration with little memory and time requirements. 1 Introduction To verify system the amount of memory necessary for states storage or reducing the state space to explore. Examples

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

MULTI-OBJECTIVE DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM PLATFORMS  

E-print Network

MULTI-OBJECTIVE DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM PLATFORMS Jan Madsen, Thomas K. Stidsen framework. Section 6 present the design space exploration case study of a smart phone. Finally, we present

96

Matrix Methods for Optimal Manifesting of Multinode Space Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

This paper presents matrix-based methods for determining optimal cargo manifests for space exploration. An exploration system is defined as a sequence of in-space and on-surface transports between multiple nodes coupled ...

Grogan, Paul Thomas

97

Whipple: Exploring the Solar System Beyond Neptune  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whipple is a Discovery-class mission that will explore the outer Solar System by searching for the occultations of bright (R<14) stars by small bodies. Whipple will test current theoretical models of the origin of our Solar System by studying directly the populations of small objects that lie beyond the orbit of Neptune, including the Kuiper Belt and scattered disk, the region surrounding Sedna, and the Oort Cloud. Whipple will measure size distributions as a function of (three dimensional) position for these populations. These data will help elucidate the process of formation of macroscopic bodies in the primitive solar system, the history of giant planet migration, and the interactions of planet scattering with the local stellar environment that led to the population of the Oort Cloud, and possibly during the first few million years, of the Sedna region. Whipple will employ a photometer comprising a Schmidt-Cassegrain optical design with a 77 cm aperture, imaging onto a focal plane subtending 37 square degrees. The focal plane will comprise nine CMOS devices that can be read out at high cadence. The spacecraft will be launched into an Earth-leading solar orbit, and will be able to stare at fields distributed over a wide range of ecliptic latitudes and longitudes. Whipple will image star fields and produce high signal-to-noise photometric light curves for stars at a variety of cadences: 10,000 stars at 40 Hz, 20,000 stars at 20 Hz, or 40,000 stars at 10 Hz. These light curves will be examined on the spacecraft for possible events of interest, which will then be transmitted to ground for further analysis.

Alcock, Charles; Whipple Science Team

2010-10-01

98

NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project strives to enable a largely mission-independent cradle-to-grave-to-cradle approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. The goals are to engineer logistics materials, common crew consumables, and container configurations to meet the following five basic goals: 1. Minimize intrinsic logistics mass and improve ground logistics flexibility. 2. Allow logistics components to be directly repurposed for on-orbit non-logistics functions (e.g., crew cabin outfitting) thereby indirectly reducing mass/volume. 3. Compact and process logistics that have not been directly repurposed to generate useful on-orbit components and/or compounds (e.g., radiation shielding, propellant, other usable chemical constituents). 4. Enable long-term stable storage and disposal of logistics end products that cannot be reused or repurposed (e.g., compaction for volume reduction, odor control, and maintenance of crew cabin hygienic conditions). 5. Allow vehicles in different mission phases to share logistics resources. This paper addresses the work being done to meet the second goal, the direct repurposing of logistics components to meet other on-orbit needs, through a strategy termed Logistics to Living (L2L). L2L has several areas but can be defined as repurposing or converting logistical items (bags, containers, foam, components, etc.) into useful crew items or life support augmentation on-orbit after they have provided their primary logistics function. The intent is that by repurposing items, dedicated crew items do not have to be launched and overall launch mass is decreased. For non-LEO missions, the vehicle interior volume will be relatively fixed so L2L will enable this volume to be used more effectively through reuse and rearrangement of logistical components. Past work in the area of L2L has already conceptually developed several potential technologies [Howe, Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

2012-01-01

99

Comparison of theory and in situ observations for electron and ion distributions in the near wake of the Explorer 31 and AE-C satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of electron density, plasma potential, and mean ion mass from the Explorer 31 satellite, and measurements of ion current, plasma potential, and ion composition from the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite were used in a comparative study with Parker's theory regarding the charged particle distribution in the near wake of an ionospheric satellite (1976). It is shown that theory and experiment agree fairly well in the angle-of-attack range between 90 and 135 deg. In the maximum rarefaction zone (between 145 and 180 deg), however, the theoretical model overestimates the measured ion depletion by several orders of magnitude. A comparison between theory and the Explorer 31 electron measurements shows that the theory again overestimates the electron depletion. These discrepancies are mainly due to the use of a steady-state theory and a single ion equation (using a mean ion mass). Improved agreement between theory and experiment can be obtained by the use of the time-dependent Vlasov-Poisson equations with separate equations for the various ion species.

Samir, U.; Fontheim, E. G.

1981-01-01

100

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems NASA Advisory Council capabilities to enable human and robotic exploration: Deep Space Habitation Capability: Enable the crew the crew to conduct "hands-on" surface exploration and in-space operations outside habitats and vehicles

Waliser, Duane E.

101

Exploration Systems Town Hall Meeting - Duration: 48:04.  

NASA Video Gallery

Doug Cooke, Associate Administrator for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, discusses the future during a question and answer session with employees at NASA Headquarters on April 19, 2010.

102

A New Direction for NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Combining Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. As part of the SSERVI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. This talk will describe the research efforts of the new nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. complement of the Institute and how we will engage the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships.

Bailey, B.; Daou, D.; Schmidt, G.; Pendleton, Y.

2014-04-01

103

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF SYMBIOTIC STARS. VIII. ORBITS FOR THREE S-TYPE SYSTEMS: AE ARAE, Y CORONAE AUSTRALIS, AND SS 73-147  

SciTech Connect

With new infrared radial velocities we have computed orbits of the M giants in three southern S-type symbiotic systems. AE Ara and SS 73-147 have circular orbits with periods of 803 and 820 days, respectively. The eccentric orbit of Y CrA has a period that is about twice as long, 1619 days. Except for CH Cyg it is currently the S-type symbiotic system with the longest period for which a spectroscopic orbit has been determined. The Paschen {delta} emission line velocities of AE Ara are nearly in antiphase with the M giant absorption feature velocities and result in a mass ratio of 2.7. Emission lines in the 1.005 {mu}m region for the other two symbiotic systems are not good proxies for the hot components in those systems. There is no evidence that these three symbiotics are eclipsing. With spectral classes of M5.5 or M6, the three giants presumably also have velocity variations that result from pulsations, but we have been unable to identify specific pulsation periods in the absorption line velocity residuals.

Fekel, Francis C. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Boulevard, Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Wood, Peter R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)], E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu, E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu, E-mail: joyce@noao.edu, E-mail: wood@mso.anu.edu.au

2010-04-15

104

In situ measurements of plasma drift velocity and enhanced NO/+/ in the auroral electrojet by the Bennett spectrometer on AE-C. [Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous measurements of ion composition and plasma drift velocity by the Bennett mass spectrometer on the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite reveal a direct correlation between enhancements in NO(+) concentration and ion drift velocity in the southern auroral oval. Low altitude (137 to 250 km) data obtained between 1700 and 2400 hr magnetic local time on October 22, 1974, reveal a region of westward plasma flow at velocities up to 1.3 km/s between 62 and 68 deg invariant latitude, with corresponding NO(+) enhancements of up to a factor of 20. A narrow region of reverse flow at about 0.9 km/s was also measured. These drift observations are consistent with convective flow patterns derived from electric field measurements, and their correlation with NO(+) appears to support the suggestion that NO(+) enhancements would be expected in regions of drift owing to the dependence on ion energy of the reaction O(+) + N2 yields NO(+) + N.

Brinton, H. C.

1975-01-01

105

The Space Launch System: NASA's Exploration Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powerful, versatile, and capable vehicle for entirely new missions to deep space. Vital to NASA's exploration strategy and the Nation's space agenda. Safe, affordable, and sustainable. Engaging the U.S. aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Competitive opportunities for innovations that affordably upgrade performance. Successfully meeting milestones in preparation for Preliminary Design Review in 2013. On course for first flight in 2017.

Blackerby, Christopher; Cate, Hugh C., III

2013-01-01

106

Constraints-driven design space exploration for distributed embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for design space exploration for distributed embedded systems. The method is based on constraint logic programming (CLP) and make it possible to model distributed embedded systems and design requirements using finite domain constraints. Design space exploration tools can then use this model to find different solutions satisfying constraints. An advantage of this method is

Krzysztof Kuchcinski

2001-01-01

107

Exploration of the Outer Solar System by Stellar Occultations  

E-print Network

Exploration of the Outer Solar System by Stellar Occultations Franc¸oise Roques Æ Yannick Boissel Æ occultations are a powerful method for exploring the outer solar system, where faintness and small angular. Unique kilometric spatial resolutions or better can be reached through that method. Occultations usually

Widemann, Thomas

108

Intelligent Systems: Shaping the Future of Aeronautics and Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become important for NASA's future roles in Aeronautics and Space Exploration. Intelligent systems will enable safe, cost and mission-effective approaches to air& control, system design, spacecraft autonomy, robotic space exploration and human exploration of Moon, Mars, and beyond. In this talk, we will discuss intelligent system technologies and expand on the role of intelligent systems in NASA's missions. We will also present several examples of which some are highlighted m this extended abstract.

Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Lohn, Jason; Kaneshige, John

2004-01-01

109

Resistance to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in ae3 ?/? mice, deficient in the AE3 Cl?/HCO3? exchanger  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac hypertrophy is central to the etiology of heart failure. Understanding the molecular pathways promoting cardiac hypertrophy may identify new targets for therapeutic intervention. Sodium-proton exchanger (NHE1) activity and expression levels in the heart are elevated in many models of hypertrophy through protein kinase C (PKC)/MAPK/ERK/p90RSK pathway stimulation. Sustained NHE1 activity, however, requires an acid-loading pathway. Evidence suggests that the Cl?/HCO3? exchanger, AE3, provides this acid load. Here we explored the role of AE3 in the hypertrophic growth cascade of cardiomyocytes. Methods AE3-deficient (ae3 ?/? ) mice were compared to wildtype (WT) littermates to examine the role of AE3 protein in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Mouse hearts were assessed by echocardiography. As well, responses of cultured cardiomyocytes to hypertrophic stimuli were measured. pH regulation capacity of ae3 ?/? and WT cardiomyocytes was assessed in cultured cells loaded with the pH-sensitive dye, BCECF-AM. Results ae3 ?/? mice were indistinguishable from wild type (WT) mice in terms of cardiovascular performance. Stimulation of ae3 ?/? cardiomyocytes with hypertrophic agonists did not increase cardiac growth or reactivate the fetal gene program. ae3 ?/? mice are thus protected from pro-hypertrophic stimulation. Steady state intracellular pH (pHi) in ae3 ?/? cardiomyocytes was not significantly different from WT, but the rate of recovery of pHi from imposed alkalosis was significantly slower in ae3 ?/? cardiomyocytes. Conclusions These data reveal the importance of AE3-mediated Cl?/HCO3? exchange in cardiovascular pH regulation and the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Pharmacological antagonism of AE3 is an attractive approach in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25047106

2014-01-01

110

Exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

1999-01-01

111

Exploring Structure and Function in Biological Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson, students analyze structure and function relationships at different levels of organization in nonbiological systems and then perform a similar analysis using biological systems.

2007-08-09

112

Exploring Ice in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module includes several lessons aimed at introducing ice science to students. In the first activity, students share personal ice experience stories through drawing, telling, and writing. This enables the teacher to diagnose personal conceptions about ice. Then students explore a big block of ice. They ask and record their questions and start an ice science notebook. Depending on the nature of the questions, the teacher selects appropriate follow-up activities. Other lessons include: Ice Melts,Ice Floats,Ice Flows, Ice is a Mineral, Life in Icy Places, and Ice in Space. Each lesson includes a kinesthetic activity where students mime and act out ice science concepts, creating a science performance laboratory. These experiences lay the foundation for deeper conceptual understanding in later school years. All lessons include extensive background information, a list of national standards addressed, suggested curriculum extensions, a list of resources and photo gallery.

113

Fast Instruction Memory Hierarchy Power Exploration for Embedded Systems  

E-print Network

Fast Instruction Memory Hierarchy Power Exploration for Embedded Systems Nikolaos Kroupis1 hierarchies, because many cache memory parameters should be explored. Exhaustive search of design space using. This chapter provides fast and accurate estimates of a multi-level instruction memory hierarchy. Using a detail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Participatory Exploration: The Role of the User Contribution System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation explores how NASA can apply the global shift in demographics, the popularity of collaborative technology and the desire for participation to the future of space exploration. Included in this is a review of the evolution of work, the engagement gap, user contribution systems and a case study concerning the "digital astronaut".

Skytland, Nicholas G.

2009-01-01

115

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

2004-01-01

116

Exploring Embedded-Systems Architectures with Artemis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because embedded systems mostly target mass production and often run on batteries, they should be cheap to realize and power efficient. In addition, they require a high degree of programmability to provide real-time performance for multiple applications and standards. However, performance requirements as well as cost and power-consumption constraints demand that substantial parts of these systems be implemented in dedicated

Andy D. Pimentel; Louis O. Hertzberger; Paul Lieverse; Pieter Van Der Wolf; Ed F. Deprettere

2001-01-01

117

Human System Drivers for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of DRM4 in terms of the human system includes the ability to meet NASA standards, the inclusion of the human system in the design trade space, preparation for future missions and consideration of a robotic precursor mission. Ensuring both the safety and the performance capability of the human system depends upon satisfying NASA Space Flight Human System Standards.1 These standards in turn drive the development of program-specific requirements for Near-earth Object (NEO) missions. In evaluating DRM4 in terms of these human system standards, the currently existing risk models, technologies and biological countermeasures were used. A summary of this evaluation is provided below in a structure that supports a mission architecture planning activities. 1. Unacceptable Level of Risk The duration of the DRM4 mission leads to an unacceptable level of risk for two aspects of human system health: A. The permissible exposure limit for space flight radiation exposure (a human system standard) would be exceeded by DRM4. B. The risk of visual alterations and abnormally high intracranial pressure would be too high. 1

Kundrot, Craig E.; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John B.

2010-01-01

118

Commonality analysis for exploration life support systems  

E-print Network

Commonality, defined practically as the use of similar technologies to deliver similar functions across a range of different complex systems, offers opportunities to improve the lifecycle costs of portfolios of complex ...

Cunio, Phillip M

2008-01-01

119

Telecommunications systems evolution for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the evolution of telecommunication systems at Mars. It reviews the telecommunications capabilities, technology and limiting factors of current and planned Mars orbiters from Mars Global Surveyor to the planned Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO).

Noreen, Gary; De Paula, Ramon P.; Edwards, Charles D. Jr; Komarek, Thomas; Edwards, Bernard L.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Kerridge, Stuart J.; Diehl, Roger; Franklin, Stephen F.

2003-01-01

120

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

121

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

122

As of October 17, 2012 Solar System Exploration @50  

E-print Network

Exploration Erik M. Conway (JPL): Dreaming Of Mars Sample Return, From Viking To The Mars Science Laboratory W To The Saturnian System Robert Pappalardo (JPL): Revealing Europa's Ocean 11:30 am ­ 1:00 pm Lunch and conversation

123

"Solar System Exploration @ 50" Second Announcement Note Change of Dates  

E-print Network

/military, etc., one to another. · The relationship between robotic exploration and human spaceflight. · Managing. · The development of theories about planetary science, solar system origins and implications for other worlds

124

Ares V: Application to Solar System Scientific Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following sections describe Ares V performance and its payoff to a wide array of potential solar system exploration missions. Application to potential Astrophysics missions is addressed in Reference 3.

Reh, Kim; Spilker, Tom; Elliott, John; Balint, Tibor; Donahue, Ben; McCormick, Dave; Smith, David B.; Tandon, Sunil; Woodcock, Gordon

2008-01-01

125

Solar System Exploration: Galileo Legacy Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched from the Kennedy Space Center on October 18th, 1989, the Galileo spacecraft "changed the way we look at our solar system." This is NASAâ??s website for the Galileo spacecraft's mission to Jupiter. Galileo was the first to measure Jupiter's atmosphere with a descent probe and the first to conduct long-term observations of the Jovian system from orbit. It found evidence of subsurface saltwater on Europa, Ganymede and Callisto and revealed the intensity of volcanic activity on Io. These photos, as well as others from this mission, are available at this site maintained by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

126

Exploring the Dynamics of Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Dave Bice provides links to chapters of a book on learning about Earth systems by modeling them. The guide uses a program called STELLA, which runs on Macs and PCs. Topics covered include an introduction to earth sciences, modelling with STELLA, the rock cycle and the carbon cycle, among others.

Dave Bice

127

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our galaxy - the Milky Way - is a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the center like a pinwheel. Our solar system is in the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Our Sun is one of about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. And our galaxy is just one of roughly 1

1900-01-01

128

Medical and technology requirements for human solar system exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measures that need to be taken to cope with the health problems posed by zero gravity and radiation in manned solar system exploration missions are discussed. The particular systems that will be used aboard Space Station Freedom are addressed, and relevant human factors problems are examined. The development of a controlled ecological life support system is addressed.

Nicogossian, Arnauld; Harris, Leonard; Couch, Lana; Sulzman, Frank; Gaiser, Karen

1989-01-01

129

Picking a Planet, Exploring Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is the year 2025 and a large company, Z-Tech, wants to put a hotel in space having it orbit around one of the planets in our solar system. Our 5th grade class has been given a very important job. We have to search for the perfect location for the hotel. Our job is to report back to the company with the planet that is the best place for an orbiting hotel. The Task: You are to write a report recommending which planet should be chosen. Your report should include pictures of the planet you recommended. Here are the questions you should answer in order to report back to Z-Tech with your recommendation. * Which planet will be the ...

Chari

2008-11-23

130

The Rosetta Mission - Exploring Solar System Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Rosetta Mission, ESA’s first Planetary Cornerstone, is a rendezvous mission with a comet nucleus combining an Orbiter with a Lander. Rosetta is on its way to meet Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It will go in orbit around the comet nucleus when it is still far away from the Sun, and escort it for more than a year along its pre- and post-perihelion orbit. With the 12 scientific instruments on board the Orbiter, Rosetta will investigate the nucleus and the inner coma as well as their evolution as a function of increasing and decreasing solar flux input. Moreover, the Lander Philae will get down onto the surface of the nucleus at a time when it is still at a low state of activity, and analyse comet nucleus material in-situ with the 10 instruments on board. Launched in 2004 Rosetta has already completed all four gravity assists (3 at Earth, 1 at Mars) that were necessary to acquire the orbital energy needed to rendezvous and go in orbit around the comet nucleus. After the second and third Earth gravity assist Rosetta performed close fly-bys at the main-belt asteroids (2867) Steins and (21) Lutetia. Both have turned out to be extraordinary, hence a very good choice for close inspection. The spacecraft is now in hibernation while moving further into the outer solar system. It will wake up on 20 January 2014, at 4.5 AU heliocentric distance to proceed to its rendezvous. Rosetta will reach the comet in May 2014 and go into close orbit in September 2014. The landing of Philae is planned for 11 November 2014 at a heliocentric distance of 3 AU. After a five-day prime Lander mission, both the Orbiter and the Lander will enter the routine scientific phase, escorting the comet to perihelion and beyond.

Schulz, Rita; O'Rourke, L.; Altobelli, N.; Grieger, B.; Kueppers, M.

2012-10-01

131

Exploring the Inner Solar System During IPA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, both the MESSENGER mission to Mercury and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to orbit the Moon will use key mission milestones to engage the public. For the MESSENGER mission key millstones will be the release to the public of data from the Oct 6th 2008, flyby and the Sept 29th 2009 third and last Mercury flyby before MESSENGER orbits Mercury in 2011. IYA activities will include participating in 365 Days of Astronomy podcasts, making the second flyby data publicly available and exciting the public with images from the third flyby. The data from the first flyby can be seen in a variety of locations across the country on Science on a Sphere. During IYA, the MESSENGER mission will also be reaching a wide variety of audiences through social media networking such as Facebook and Twitter. Informal education communities will be able to include Mercury data in their IYA programming through the distribution of MESSENGER data through the NASA Museum Alliance. The LRO mission will return the public's attention to our nearest neighbor, the Moon, in 2009. As a result, the public will see high resolution images of the Moon never seen before. LRO will also engage the public in the lunar observation program. Starting in early 2009, LRO and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) will be launched, and will continue their science missions throughout IYA. The public will be encouraged to make observations of the Moon during critical maneuvers for the LRO and LCROSS missions, including the LCROSS encounter, impacting the Moon which will occur in 2009. These events will help shift the public's attention to the Moon, and highlight the role our nearest neighbor plays in helping scientists learn about the early history of our Solar System. In addition to viewing LRO images and observing the Moon, the public can learn about the Moon, LRO, LCROSS, and past lunar missions virtually via the "Return to the Moon Hall" on CoLab Island in Second Life. As with MESSENGER, LRO will also be featured on Facebook, Twitter and the Museum Alliance.

Weir, H. M.; Stockman, S. A.; Carter, B. L.; Bleacher, L. V.

2008-12-01

132

ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

2010-09-01

133

Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

Palaszewski, Bryan

2015-01-01

134

Nanotube-based Sensors and Systems for Outer Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct sensing and processing at the nanometer scale offer NASA the opportunity to expand its capabilities in deep space exploration, particularly for the search for signatures of life, the analysis of planetary oceans and atmospheres, and communications systems. Carbon nanotubes, with their unique mechanical, electrical, and radiation-tolerant properties, are a promising tool for this exploration. We are developing devices based on carbon nanotubes, including sensors, actuators, and oscillators. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Noca, F.; Hunt, B. D.; Hoenk, M. E.; Choi, D.; Kowalczyk, R.; Williams, R.; Xu, J.; Koumoutsakos, P.

2001-01-01

135

Space Medicine Issues and Healthcare Systems for Space Exploration Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews issues of health care in space. Some of the issues reviewed are: (1) Physiological adaptation to microgravity, partial gravity, (2) Medical events during spaceflight, (3) Space Vehicle and Environmental and Surface Health Risks, (4) Medical Concept of Operations (CONOPS), (4a) Current CONOPS & Medical Hardware for Shuttle (STS) and ISS, (4b) Planned Exploration Medical CONOPS & Hardware needs, (5) Exploration Plans for Lunar Return Mission & Mars, and (6) Developing Medical Support Systems.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeff

2007-01-01

136

Petrologic Constraints on Amorphous and Crystalline Magnesium Silicates: Dust Formation and Evolution in Selected Herbig Ae/Be Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and "amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry" around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting "astronomical nomenclature" and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the "Principle of Actualism" that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite ± tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A.

2013-07-01

137

PETROLOGIC CONSTRAINTS ON AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE MAGNESIUM SILICATES: DUST FORMATION AND EVOLUTION IN SELECTED HERBIG Ae/Be SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory surveys provided a wealth of data on the Mg-silicate minerals (forsterite, enstatite), silica, and ''amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry'' around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These incredible findings do not resonate with the mainstream Earth Sciences because of (1) disconnecting ''astronomical nomenclature'' and the long existing mineralogical and petrologic terminology of minerals and amorphous materials, and (2) the fact that Earth scientists (formerly geologists) are bound by the ''Principle of Actualism'' that was put forward by James Hutton (1726-1797). This principle takes a process-oriented approach to understanding mineral and rock formation and evolution. This paper will (1) review and summarize the results of laboratory-based vapor phase condensation and thermal annealing experiments, (2) present the pathways of magnesiosilica condensates to Mg-silicate mineral (forsterite, enstatite) formation and processing, and (3) present mineralogical and petrologic implications of the properties and compositions of the infrared-observed crystalline and amorphous dust for the state of circumstellar disk evolution. That is, the IR-observation of smectite layer silicates in HD142527 suggests the break-up of asteroid-like parent bodies that had experienced aqueous alteration. We discuss the persistence of amorphous dust around some young stars and an ultrafast amorphous to crystalline dust transition in HD 163296 that leads to forsterite grains with numerous silica inclusions. These dust evolution processes to form forsterite, enstatite {+-} tridymite could occur due to amorphous magnesiosilica dust precursors with a serpentine- or smectite-dehydroxylate composition.

Rietmeijer, Frans J. M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1-University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-001 (United States); Nuth, Joseph A., E-mail: fransjmr@unm.edu [Astrochemistry Laboratory, Solar System Exploration Division, Code 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-07-01

138

The CAPA Integrative Online System for College Major Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career assessment has advanced on several fronts, enabling a CAPA integrative online system for exploring college majors with unprecedented precision and utility. The key inventories in the system are the CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI), with its 6 general and 27 specific scales, and the CAPA Interest Inventory, with its 6 general and 35 specific…

Betz, Nancy E.; Borgen, Fred H.

2010-01-01

139

Multiple-Agent Air/Ground Autonomous Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous systems of multiple-agent air/ground robotic units for exploration of the surfaces of remote planets are undergoing development. Modified versions of these systems could be used on Earth to perform tasks in environments dangerous or inaccessible to humans: examples of tasks could include scientific exploration of remote regions of Antarctica, removal of land mines, cleanup of hazardous chemicals, and military reconnaissance. A basic system according to this concept (see figure) would include a unit, suspended by a balloon or a blimp, that would be in radio communication with multiple robotic ground vehicles (rovers) equipped with video cameras and possibly other sensors for scientific exploration. The airborne unit would be free-floating, controlled by thrusters, or tethered either to one of the rovers or to a stationary object in or on the ground. Each rover would contain a semi-autonomous control system for maneuvering and would function under the supervision of a control system in the airborne unit. The rover maneuvering control system would utilize imagery from the onboard camera to navigate around obstacles. Avoidance of obstacles would also be aided by readout from an onboard (e.g., ultrasonic) sensor. Together, the rover and airborne control systems would constitute an overarching closed-loop control system to coordinate scientific exploration by the rovers.

Fink, Wolfgang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Tarbell, Mark; Dohm, James M.

2007-01-01

140

An inertial fusion propulsion scheme for solar system exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel fusion scheme that combines the favorable aspects of both inertial and magnetic confinement approaches is analyzed as a propulsion device for potential utilization in solar system exploration. Using an appropriate set of equations for the plasma dynamics and the magnetic nozzle, we assess the system's propulsive capability by applying the results to a round trip mission to Mars.

Terry Kammash; David L. Galbraith

1991-01-01

141

An inertial fusion propulsion scheme for solar system exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes a novel fusion scheme that combines the favorable aspects of both inertial and magnetic confinement approaches as a propulsion device for potential application in solar system exploration. An appropriate set of equations for the plasma dynamics and the magnetic nozzle is used to assess the system's propulsive capability by applying the results to a round trip mission

Terry Kammash; David L. Galbraith

1991-01-01

142

The Exploration of Titan and the Saturnian System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede)

Athena Coustenis

2010-01-01

143

Exploring an MDA approach to health care information systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the potential of the model-driven architecture (MDA) in health care information systems development Methods An MDA is conceptualized and developed for a health clinic system to track patient information. A prototype of the MDA is implemented using an advanced MDA tool. The UML provides the underlying modeling support in the form of the class diagram. The PIM

Wullianallur Raghupathi; Amjad Umar

144

Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor web to collect the scientific data needed to further exploration is a major and efficient asset to any exploration effort. This is true not only for lunar and planetary environments, but also for interplanetary and liquid environments. Such a system would also have myriad direct commercial spin-off applications. The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web or HEAP-SW like the ANTS concept is a Sensor Web concept. The HEAP-SW is conceptually and practically a very different system. HEAP-SW is applicable to any environment and a huge range of exploration tasks. It is a very robust, low cost, high return, solution to a complex problem. All of the technology for initial development and implementation is currently available. The HEAP Sensor Web or HEAP-SW consists of three major parts, The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platforms or HEAP, the Sensor Web or SW and the immobile Data collection and Uplink units or DU. The HEAP-SW as a whole will refer to any group of mobile agents or robots where each robot is a mobile data collection unit that spends most of its time acting in concert with all other robots, DUs in the web, and the HEAP-SWs overall Command and Control (CC) system. Each DU and robot is, however, capable of acting independently. The three parts of the HEAP-SW system are discussed in this paper. The Goals of the HEAP-SW system are: 1) To maximize the amount of exploration enhancing science data collected; 2) To minimize data loss due to system malfunctions; 3) To minimize or, possibly, eliminate the risk of total system failure; 4) To minimize the size, weight, and power requirements of each HEAP robot; 5) To minimize HEAP-SW system costs. The rest of this paper discusses how these goals are attained.

Stoffel, A. William; VanSteenberg, Michael E.

2004-01-01

145

Optimizing AES for Embedded Devices and Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

for Wireless Systems and Applications at Purdue University GoalsGoals Software-based AES-128 at Zigbee bitrate430 Written in C for maximum portability Software-based AES-128 at Zigbee bitrate (250 kbps) MinimalColumns Change uint8_t buffers to uint16_t #12;5 ExperimentExperiment Softbaugh DZ1611 Zigbee Demo Board ROM

Bagchi, Saurabh

146

Advanced Ion Propulsion Technology for Solar System Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the examination ofadvanced solar electric propulsion technologies to determine their potential benefits for projected nearandmid-term solar system exploration missions. The advanced technologies include high performancederivatives of the technology, quarter-scale NSTAR systems, and direct-drive Hall-effect thrusterwith anode layer systems and are compared to a baseline represented by the ion propulsion systemtill fly on DS1. The results of this

John R. Brophy

147

Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

1996-08-01

148

Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

1996-01-01

149

Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage  

ScienceCinema

The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

Rogers, Matt

2013-05-29

150

Nuclear power systems for lunar and Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems whether solar, chemical or nuclear to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems have been identified as critical needs for these missions. These mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements, and the power system options considered are discussed. The significant potential benefits of nuclear power are identified for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

Sovie, R. J.; Bozek, J. M.

1990-01-01

151

Nuclear power systems for lunar and Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems whether solar, chemical or nuclear to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems have been identified as critical needs for these missions. These mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements, and power system options considered are discussed. The significant potential benefits of nuclear power are identified for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

Sovie, R. J.; Bozek, J. M.

1990-01-01

152

Nuclear power systems for Lunar and Mars exploration  

SciTech Connect

Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems - whether solar, chemical or nuclear - to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems were identified as critical needs for these missions. This paper discusses these mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements; the power system options considered and identifies the significant potential benefits of nuclear power for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

Sovie, R.J.; Bozek, J.M.

1994-09-01

153

Viterbi's Impact on the Exploration of the Solar System  

E-print Network

Viterbi's Impact on the Exploration of the Solar System #12;#12;Proof of Optimality of Orthogonal the likelihood function for the q paths: (0, az, a, . . * 4, 0, a2, a3, ... ad, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a - 1, az, a3, . . . ad for each of the qK-l possible vectors (az, a3 . . . ar;). It thus performs q

Abu-Mostafa, Yaser S.

154

Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) Exploring the emergence of  

E-print Network

Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) Exploring the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants JPL D-67959, Task Order NMO711062 15 November 2010 2010 Joint Jupiter Science Definition Team Report to NASA #12;2010 Joint Jupiter Science Definition Team Report to NASA November 15, 2010 ii Part

Rathbun, Julie A.

155

A New Version of Rough Set Exploration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new version of the Rough Set Exploration System - a software tool featuring a library of methods and a graphical user interface supporting variety of rough-set-based computations. Meth- ods, features and abilities of the implemented software are discussed and illustrated with a case study in data analysis.

Jan G. Bazan; Marcin S. Szczuka; Jakub Wroblewski

2002-01-01

156

Radioisotope-based Nuclear Power Strategy for Exploration Systems Development  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power will play an important role in future exploration efforts. Its benefits pertain to practically all the different timeframes associated with the Exploration Vision, from robotic investigation of potential lunar landing sites to long-duration crewed missions on the lunar surface. However, the implementation of nuclear technology must follow a logical progression in capability that meets but does not overwhelm the power requirements for the missions in each exploration timeframe. It is likely that the surface power infrastructure, particularly for early missions, will be distributed in nature. Thus, nuclear sources will have to operate in concert with other types of power and energy storage systems, and must mesh well with the power architectures envisioned for each mission phase. Most importantly, they must demonstrate a clear advantage over other non-nuclear options (e.g., solar power, fuel cells) for their particular function. This paper describes a strategy that does this in the form of three sequential system developments. It begins with use of radioisotope generators currently under development, and applies the power conversion technology developed for these units to the design of a simple, robust reactor power system. The products from these development efforts would eventually serve as the foundation for application of nuclear power systems for exploration of Mars and beyond.

Schmidt, George R.; Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2006-01-20

157

NonAxiomatic Reasoning System ---Exploring the Essence of Intelligence  

E-print Network

Non­Axiomatic Reasoning System --- Exploring the Essence of Intelligence Pei Wang Submitted interested in artificial intelligence in the early 1980s, when I was an undergraduate student an open­minded advisor. Though Professor Hofstadter did not share all my opinions about intelligence, he

Indiana University

158

Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

2004-01-01

159

Office of Exploration Systems March 2 -3, 2004  

E-print Network

technologies required for further space exploration also will improve the Nation's other space activities searches for habitable environments around other stars 13. Demonstrate power, propulsion, life support Systems Rear Admiral Craig E. Steidle (Ret.) Program Overview #12;2 2004 President's Vision for Space

Rathbun, Julie A.

160

Exploring social network effects on popularity biases in recommender systems  

E-print Network

- ty and different configurations of social behavior. Keywords Popularity, social networks, evaluationExploring social network effects on popularity biases in recommender systems Rocío Cañamares Informática {rocio.canamares,pablo.castells}@uam.es ABSTRACT Recommending items ranked by popularity has been

161

Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several sub-elements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles' thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids.

Stephan, Ryan A.

2010-01-01

162

Atmosphere Explorer control system software (version 2.0)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atmosphere Explorer Control System (AECS) was developed to provide automatic computer control of the Atmosphere Explorer spacecraft and experiments. The software performs several vital functions, such as issuing commands to the spacecraft and experiments, receiving and processing telemetry data, and allowing for extensive data processing by experiment analysis programs. The AECS was written for a 48K XEROX Data System Sigma 5 computer, and coexists in core with the XDS Real-time Batch Monitor (RBM) executive system. RBM is a flexible operating system designed for a real-time foreground/background environment, and hence is ideally suited for this application. Existing capabilities of RBM have been used as much as possible by AECS to minimize programming redundancy. The most important functions of the AECS are to send commands to the spacecraft and experiments, and to receive, process, and display telemetry data.

Mocarsky, W.; Villasenor, A.

1973-01-01

163

Architectural exploration and optimization of local memory in embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded processor-based systems allow for the tailoring of the on-chip memory architecture based on application-specific requirements. We present an analytical strategy for exploring the on-chip memory architecture for a given application, based on a memory performance estimation scheme. The analytical technique has the important advantage of enabling a fast evaluation of candidate memory architectures in the early stages of system

Preeti Ranjan Panda; Nikil D. Dutt; Alexandru Nicolau

1997-01-01

164

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

165

Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

2001-01-01

166

A Modular Robotic System with Applications to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular robotic systems offer potential advantages as versatile, fault-tolerant, cost-effective platforms for space exploration, but a sufficiently mature system is not yet available. We describe the possible applications of such a system, and present prototype hardware intended as a step in the right direction. We also present elements of an automated design and optimization framework aimed at making modular robots easier to design and use, and discuss the results of applying the system to a gait optimization problem. Finally, we discuss the potential near-term applications of modular robotics to terrestrial robotics research.

Hancher, Matthew D.; Hornby, Gregory S.

2006-01-01

167

A method for tradespace exploration of systems of systems  

E-print Network

Systems of Systems (SoS) are a current focus of many organizations interested in integrating assets and utilizing new technology to create multi-component systems that deliver value over time. The dynamic composition of ...

Chattopadhyay, Debarati

2009-01-01

168

Visualization of Computer Architecture Simulation Data for System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Visualization of Computer Architecture Simulation Data for System-level Design Space Exploration and design space exploration of multi-core embedded systems. Our results show that our multivariate space. Keywords: Computer architecture simulation, design space exploration, exploratory visualization

Pimentel, Andy D.

169

Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs.

Biringer, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Bartine, D.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Buden, D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Foreman, J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Harrison, S. (Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-01-01

170

Service-Oriented Architecture for Space Exploration Robotic Rover Systems  

E-print Network

Currently, industrial sectors are transforming their business processes into e-services and component-based architectures to build flexible, robust, and scalable systems, and reduce integration-related maintenance and development costs. Robotics is yet another promising and fast-growing industry that deals with the creation of machines that operate in an autonomous fashion and serve for various applications including space exploration, weaponry, laboratory research, and manufacturing. It is in space exploration that the most common type of robots is the planetary rover which moves across the surface of a planet and conducts a thorough geological study of the celestial surface. This type of rover system is still ad-hoc in that it incorporates its software into its core hardware making the whole system cohesive, tightly-coupled, more susceptible to shortcomings, less flexible, hard to be scaled and maintained, and impossible to be adapted to other purposes. This paper proposes a service-oriented architecture fo...

Bassil, Youssef

2012-01-01

171

NASA Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under construction today, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS), managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, will provide a robust new capability for human and robotic exploration beyond Earth orbit. The vehicle's initial configuration, sched will enable human missions into lunar space and beyond, as well as provide game-changing benefits for space science missions, including offering substantially reduced transit times for conventionally designed spacecraft. From there, the vehicle will undergo a series of block upgrades via an evolutionary development process designed to expedite mission capture as capability increases. The Space Launch System offers multiple benefits for a variety of utilization areas. From a mass-lift perspective, the initial configuration of the vehicle, capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), will be the world's most powerful launch vehicle. Optimized for missions beyond Earth orbit, it will also be the world's only exploration-class launch vehicle capable of delivering 25 t to lunar orbit. The evolved configuration, with a capability of 130 t to LEO, will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown. From a volume perspective, SLS will be compatible with the payload envelopes of contemporary launch vehicles, but will also offer options for larger fairings with unprecedented volume-lift capability. The vehicle's mass-lift capability also means that it offers extremely high characteristic energy for missions into deep space. This paper will discuss the impacts that these factors - mass-lift, volume, and characteristic energy - have on a variety of mission classes, particularly human exploration and space science. It will address the vehicle's capability to enable existing architectures for deep-space exploration, such as those documented in the Global Exploration Roadmap, a capabilities-driven outline for future deep-space voyages created by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, which represents 14 of the world's space agencies. In addition, this paper will detail this new rocket's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS Program is currently building a global infrastructure asset that will provide robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

172

Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

Hossain, S. G. M.

173

NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

174

State Space Exploration of RT Systems in the Cloud  

E-print Network

The growing availability of distributed and cloud computing frameworks make it possible to face complex computational problems in a more effective and convenient way. A notable example is state-space exploration of discrete-event systems specified in a formal way. The exponential complexity of this task is a major limitation to the usage of consolidated analysis techniques and tools. We present and compare two different approaches to state-space explosion, relying on distributed and cloud frameworks, respectively. These approaches were designed and implemented following the same computational schema, a sort of map & fold. They are applied on symbolic state-space exploration of real-time systems specified by (a timed extension of) Petri Nets, by readapting a sequential algorithm implemented as a command-line Java tool. The outcome of several tests performed on a benchmarking specification are presented, thus showing the convenience of cloud approaches.

Bellettini, Carlo; Capra, Lorenzo; Monga, Mattia

2012-01-01

175

ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

176

Local memory exploration and optimization in embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded processor-based systems allow for the tailoring of the on-chip memory architecture based on application specific requirements. We present an analytical strategy for exploring the on-chip memory architecture for a given application, based on a memory performance estimation scheme. The analytical technique has the important advantage of enabling a fast evaluation of candidate memory architectures in the early stages of

Preeti Ranjan Panda; Nikil D. Dutt; Alexandru Nicolau

1999-01-01

177

Framework for the Parametric System Modeling of Space Exploration Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a methodology for performing architecture definition and assessment prior to, or during, program formulation that utilizes a centralized, integrated architecture modeling framework operated by a small, core team of general space architects. This framework, known as the Exploration Architecture Model for IN-space and Earth-to-orbit (EXAMINE), enables: 1) a significantly larger fraction of an architecture trade space to be assessed in a given study timeframe; and 2) the complex element-to-element and element-to-system relationships to be quantitatively explored earlier in the design process. Discussion of the methodology advantages and disadvantages with respect to the distributed study team approach typically used within NASA to perform architecture studies is presented along with an overview of EXAMINE s functional components and tools. An example Mars transportation system architecture model is used to demonstrate EXAMINE s capabilities in this paper. However, the framework is generally applicable for exploration architecture modeling with destinations to any celestial body in the solar system.

Komar, David R.; Hoffman, Jim; Olds, Aaron D.; Seal, Mike D., II

2008-01-01

178

NASA Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach Activity Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation is an overview of the Solar System Exploration EPO activities funded by the Office of Space Science (OSS) from June 1999 to May 2000, and how these activities fit into the OSS strategy. Traditionally, OSS has been involved in education primarily by contributing to the development of the scientific and technical workforce. Under the current OSS EPO strategy, this role is expanded to reach more audiences, including the formal education community, informal education organizations, and the general public. The Solar System Exploration EPO approach uses partnerships to leverage resources and increase our reach. Our partnerships include a strong emphasis on the involvement of the scientific community. Our SSE missions and research are the key to engaging our audiences by making Solar System Exploration part of the human experience. This presentation will feature some unique contributions of the missions for engaging our audiences through mission events in the next year. That will be followed by illustrations of how we partner, both internally between missions, and externally.

Lowes, L.; Miner, E.; Betrue, R.

2000-12-01

179

NEXT Ion Propulsion System Configurations and Performance for Saturn System Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successes of the Cassini\\/Huygens mission have heightened interest to return to the Saturn system with focused robotic missions. The desire for a sustained presence at Titan, through a dedicated orbiter and in-situ vehicle, either a lander or aerobot, has resulted in definition of a Titan Explorer flagship mission as a high priority in the Solar System Exploration Roadmap. The

Scott W. Benson; John P. Riehl; Steven R. Oleson

2007-01-01

180

NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near-Earth objects (NEOs), which > 95% are asteroidal bodies, Phobos, Deimos, Mars, and beyond. The HEDS technology roadmap will strategically guide NASA and other U.S. Government agency technology investments that will result in capabilities enabling human exploration missions to diverse destinations generating high returns on investments.

Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

2011-01-01

181

The Jupiter System Observer: Exploring the Origins of Planetary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jupiter System Observer (JSO) is one of four studies commissioned by NASA's Science Mission Directorate to examine the potential science return from a flagship-class mission to the outer solar system. JSO is a long-duration mission that will study the entire Jupiter system, focusing on both its individual components, including Jupiter's atmosphere, rocky and icy moons, rings, and magnetospheric phenomena, and the interactions between them. The wealth of data to be returned by JSO will enable a fuller understanding of a variety of magnetospheric, atmospheric, and geological processes, and will illuminate the question of how planetary systems form and evolve. The science team has outlined a number of significant science goals that can be accomplished by a spacecraft that tours the Jovian system for several years before ultimately ending up in Ganymede orbit. Ganymede was selected as the final destination for JSO because of its unique place in the Jovian system and the solar system - it is only the third body known to have its own dynamo-generated magnetic field. Ganymede is thought to contain a subsurface ocean and exhibits a surface with a variety of older and younger terrains, making it an excellent target for understanding the formation and evolution of icy satellites. Long-term monitoring of Jupiter's atmosphere and rings, Io's volcanism and torus, and high-resolution flyby imaging of Europa, Callisto and Io will enable an unprecedented study of the Jovian system as a solar system analog, and enables cross-cutting scientific objectives in the fields of atmospheres, geology, magnetospheres, and geophysics.

Prockter, Louise; Senske, D.; Collins, G. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hendrix, A.; Hibbitts, C.; Kivelson, M.; Schubert, G.; Showman, A.; Turtle, E.; Williams, D.

2007-10-01

182

Enabling Exploration Through the International Docking System Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publically available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

Hatfield, Caris A.

2011-01-01

183

Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the 'next generation' of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration.

Clark, John S.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Pellaccio, Dennis G.

1992-01-01

184

Design Space Exploration of incompletely specified Embedded Systems by Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

Design Space Exploration of incompletely specified Embedded Systems by Genetic Algorithms Stephan design space exploration algorithm, which jointly determines a complete set of Pareto optimal for new modules in a single optimization run. This design space exploration method is based

Huss, Sorin A.

185

NASA's RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set. Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could support NASA's RPS technology development planning, and provide an understanding of fuel need trades over the next three decades.

Balint, Tibor S.

2007-01-01

186

Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Constellation program is an organization within NASA whose mission is to create the new generation of spacecraft that will replace the Space Shuttle after its planned retirement in 2010. In the event of a catastrophic failure on the launch pad or launch vehicle during ascent, the successful use of the launch abort system will allow crew members to escape harm. The Flight Test Office is the organization within the Constellation project that will flight-test the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office has proposed six tests that will demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests will be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and are similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. An overview of the launch abort system flight tests for the Orion crew exploration vehicle is given. Details on the configuration of the first pad abort flight test are discussed. Sample flight trajectories for two of the six flight tests are shown.

Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

2007-01-01

187

Overview of an Integrated Medical System for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with addressing the risk of unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of inflight medical capabilities. The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) is a project within the ExMC element aimed at reducing this risk by improving the medical capabilities available for exploration missions. The EMSD project will demonstrate, on the ground and on ISS, the integration of several components felt to be essential to the delivery of medical care during long ]duration missions outside of low Earth orbit. The components of the EMSD include the electronic medical record, assisted medical procedure software, medical consumables tracking technology and RFID ] tagged consumables, video conferencing capability, ultrasound device and probes (ground demonstration only), peripheral biosensors, and the software to allow communication among the various components (middleware). This presentation seeks to inform our international partners of the goals and objectives of the EMSD and to foster collaboration opportunities related to this and future projects.

Watkins, Sharmila; Rubin, David

2013-01-01

188

Thermal Protection Materials Technology for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To fulfill the President s Vision for Space Exploration - successful human and robotic missions between the Earth and other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - NASA must reduce trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that payload and scientific experiment capabilities are maximized. As a collaboration among NASA Centers, this project will generate products that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in optimization of vehicle weights, and provide the material and process templates for development of human-rated qualification and certification Thermal Protection System (TPS) plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on technologies that reduce vehicle weight by minimizing the need for propellant. These missions use the destination planet s atmosphere to slow the spacecraft. Such mission profiles induce heating environments on the spacecraft that demand thermal protection heatshields. This program offers NASA essential advanced thermal management technologies needed to develop new lightweight nonmetallic TPS materials for critical thermal protection heatshields for future spacecraft. Discussion of this new program (a December 2004 new start) will include both initial progress made and a presentation of the work to be preformed over the four-year life of the program. Additionally, the relevant missions and environments expected for Exploration Systems vehicles will be presented, along with discussion of the candidate materials to be considered and of the types of testing to be performed (material property tests, space environmental effects tests, and Earth and Mars gases arc jet tests).

Valentine, Peter G.; Lawerence, Timtohy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

2005-01-01

189

An inertial fusion propulsion scheme for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper analyzes a novel fusion scheme that combines the favorable aspects of both inertial and magnetic confinement approaches as a propulsion device for potential application in solar system exploration. An appropriate set of equations for the plasma dynamics and the magnetic nozzle is used to assess the system's propulsive capability by applying the results to a round trip mission to Mars. It is found that such a device would allow a massive vehicle to make the journey in less than five months. It is shown that catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel results in a somewhat poorer propulsion performance than deuterium-tritium though at a significantly lower neutron production. The velocity increment generated by this system and the corresponding trip time are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Irving and Blum (1959).

Kammash, Terry; Galbraith, David L.

1991-01-01

190

Gravity waves in the thermosphere observed by the AE satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric Explorer (AE) satellite data were used to investigate the spectra characteristics of wave-like structure observed in the neutral and ionized components of the thermosphere. Power spectral analysis derived by the maximum entropy method indicate the existence of a broad spectrum of scale sizes for the fluctuations ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers.

Gross, S. H.; Reber, C. A.; Huang, F. T.

1983-01-01

191

Pipe Explorer{trademark} surveying system. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals.

Not Available

1999-06-01

192

Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

2008-01-01

193

Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2009-01-01

194

Towards Multi-application Workload Modeling in Sesame for System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Towards Multi-application Workload Modeling in Sesame for System-level Design Space Exploration and simulation framework aims at early and thus efficient system-level design space exploration of embedded design space exploration. Such early design space exploration is of eminent importance as early design

Pimentel, Andy D.

195

Quenches and crunchs: Does the system explore in aging the same part of the configuration space explored in equilibrium ?  

E-print Network

Numerical studies are providing novel information on the physical processes associated to physical aging. The process of aging has been shown to consist in a slow process of explorations of deeper and deeper minima of the system potential energy surface. In this article we compare the properties of the basins explored in equilibrium with those explored during the aging process both for sudden temperature changes and for sudden density changes. We find that the hypothesis that during the aging process the system explores the part of the configuration space explored in equilibrium holds only for shallow quenches or for the early aging dynamics. At longer times, systematic deviations are observed. In the case of crunches, such deviations are much more apparent.

Stefano Mossa; Giancarlo Ruocco; Francesco Sciortino; Piero Tartaglia

2001-07-06

196

Multiphase Flow Technology Impacts on Thermal Control Systems for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Two-Phase Flow Facility (TPHIFFy) Project focused on bridging the critical knowledge gap by developing and demonstrating critical multiphase fluid products for advanced life support, thermal management and power conversion systems that are required to enable the Vision for Space Exploration. Safety and reliability of future systems will be enhanced by addressing critical microgravity fluid physics issues associated with flow boiling, condensation, phase separation, and system stability. The project included concept development, normal gravity testing, and reduced gravity aircraft flight campaigns, in preparation for the development of a space flight experiment implementation. Data will be utilized to develop predictive models that could be used for system design and operation. A single fluid, two-phase closed thermodynamic loop test bed was designed, assembled and tested. The major components in this test bed include: a boiler, a condenser, a phase separator and a circulating pump. The test loop was instrumented with flow meters, thermocouples, pressure transducers and both high speed and normal speed video cameras. A low boiling point surrogate fluid, FC-72, was selected based on scaling analyses using preliminary designs for operational systems. Preliminary results are presented which include flow regime transitions and some observations regarding system stability.

McQuillen, John; Sankovic, John; Lekan, Jack

2006-01-01

197

Performance Assessment of the Exploration Water Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new water recovery system architecture designed to fulfill the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Exploration Policy has been tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This water recovery system architecture evolved from the current state-of-the-art system developed for the International Space Station (ISS). Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing system optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold. First, volatile organic compounds (VOC) are removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase. Second, vapor compression distillation (VCD) technology processes the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removing VOCs from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treating the various waste streams by VCD reduces the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follows, as well as the aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation process further downstream. This paper documents the results of testing this new architecture.

Carter. D. Layne; Tabb, David; Perry, Jay

2008-01-01

198

Crew Exploration Vehicle Potable Water System Verification Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stored water system on the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) will supply the crew with potable water for: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain the quality of the water, transferred from the orbiter to the International Space Station, stored in contingency water containers. In the CEV water system, a depletion of the ionic silver biocide is expected due to ionic silver-plating onto the surfaces of materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for long-term missions that do not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point-of-use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform the testing that will help alleviate concerns related to the CEV water system.

Tuan, George; Peterson, Laurie J.; Vega, Leticia M.

2010-01-01

199

Utilizing Radioisotope Power Systems for Human Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration has a goal of sending crewed missions to the lunar surface as early as 2015 and no later than 2020. The use of nuclear power sources could aid in assisting crews in exploring the surface and performing In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) activities. Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) provide constant sources of electrical power and thermal energy for space applications. RPSs were carried on six of the crewed Apollo missions to power surface science packages, five of which still remain on the lunar surface. Future RPS designs may be able to play a more active role in supporting a long-term human presence. Due to its lower thermal and radiation output, the planned Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) appears particularly attractive for manned applications. The MCNPX particle transport code has been used to model the current SRG design to assess its use in proximity with astronauts operating on the surface. Concepts of mobility and ISRU infrastructure were modeled using MCNPX to analyze the impact of RPSs on crewed mobility systems. Strategies for lowering the radiation dose were studied to determine methods of shielding the crew from the RPSs.

Schreiner, Timothy M.

2005-01-01

200

Ares V: Application to solar system scientific exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Ares V launch vehicle will provide levels of performance unseen since the days of Apollo. This capability, like the Saturn V before it, is being developed primarily in support of lunar exploration missions. However, the tremendous jump in performance offered by the Ares V launch system has tremendous potential for the furtherance of robotic solar system exploration missions as well. Preliminary performance assessments indicate that Ares V could deliver 5 times the payload to Mars as compared to the most capable US expendable launch vehicle available today. Beyond Mars, the outer planets offer a number of high-priority investigations with compelling science. Presently, missions to these destinations are only achievable using indirect flights with gravity assist trajectories and, in many cases, suffer from long flight times. An Ares V with an upper stage could capture these missions using direct flights with shorter interplanetary transfer times that would enable extensive in situ investigations and possibly the return of samples to Earth. This paper lays out an estimate of Ares V performance for moderate and high C3 missions, and goes on to discuss a range of revolutionary mission concepts that could be enabled by this significant increase in launch capability.

Elliott, John; Spilker, Thomas; Reh, Kim; Balint, Tibor; Smith, David; Woodcock, Gordon

2010-02-01

201

Fission Power System Technology for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA is conducting a project to mature Fission Power System (FPS) technology. A primary project goal is to develop viable system options to support future NASA mission needs for nuclear power. The main FPS project objectives are as follows: 1) Develop FPS concepts that meet expected NASA mission power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. 2) Establish a hardware-based technical foundation for FPS design concepts and reduce overall development risk. 3) Reduce the cost uncertainties for FPS and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. 4) Generate the key products to allow NASA decisionmakers to consider FPS as a preferred option for flight development. In order to achieve these goals, the FPS project has two main thrusts: concept definition and risk reduction. Under concept definition, NASA and DOE are performing trade studies, defining requirements, developing analytical tools, and formulating system concepts. A typical FPS consists of the reactor, shield, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD). Studies are performed to identify the desired design parameters for each subsystem that allow the system to meet the requirements with reasonable cost and development risk. Risk reduction provides the means to evaluate technologies in a laboratory test environment. Non-nuclear hardware prototypes are built and tested to verify performance expectations, gain operating experience, and resolve design uncertainties.

Mason, Lee; Houts, Michael

2011-01-01

202

Directed-polymer systems explored via their quantum analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium statistical mechanics of classical directed polymers in D+1 dimensions is well known to be equivalent to the imaginary-time quantum dynamics of a quantum many-particle system in D spatial dimensions, with polymer con gurations corresponding to particle world-lines. This equivalence motivates the application of techniques originally designed for one-dimensional many-particle quantum systems to the exploration of many-polymer systems, as first recognized and exploited by P.-G. de Gennes [J. Chem. Phys. 48, 2257 (1968)]. In two dimensions, interactions give rise to an emergent polymer fluid, and I shall examine how topological constraints on this polymer fluid (e.g., due to uncrossable pins or barriers) and their geometry give rise to strong, entropy-driven forces. I shall also apply quantum techniques such as Bethe's Ansatz and bosonization to shed light on the structure of the polymer system. These techniques allow us to examine how polymer system correlations, thermodynamic properties, and response to impurities are influenced by strong polymer-polymer interactions. In three dimensions, polymers wind around one another and polymer topology may be incorporated via coupling to a Chern-Simons fi eld. As I discuss, this approach reveals the somewhat reduced role played by interactions in this higher-dimensional setting, leading to qualitatively diff erent polymer correlations, thermodynamic properties, and response to impurities.

Rocklin, David Z.

203

Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Approach to Enterprise Risk Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Division has implemented an innovative approach to Enterprise Risk Management under a unique governance structure and streamlined integration model. ESD's mission is to design and build the capability to extend human existence to deep space. The Enterprise consists of three Programs: Space Launch System (SLS), Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO). The SLS is a rocket and launch system that will be capable of powering humans, habitats, and support systems to deep space. Orion will be the first spacecraft in history capable of taking humans to multiple destinations within deep space. GSDO is modernizing Kennedy's spaceport to launch spacecraft built and designed by both NASA and private industry. ESD's approach to Enterprise Risk Management is commensurate with affordability and a streamlined management philosophy. ESD Enterprise Risk Management leverages off of the primary mechanisms for integration within the Enterprise. The Enterprise integration approach emphasizes delegation of authority to manage and execute the majority of cross-program activities and products to the individual Programs, while maintaining the overall responsibility for all cross-program activities at the Division. The intent of the ESD Enterprise Risk Management approach is to improve risk communication, to avoid replication and/or contradictory strategies, and to minimize overhead process burden. This is accomplished by the facilitation and integration of risk information within ESD. The ESD Division risks, Orion risks, SLS risks, and GSDO risks are owned and managed by the applicable Program. When the Programs have shared risks with multiple consequences, they are jointly owned and managed. When a risk is associated with the integrated system that involves more than one Program in condition, consequence, or mitigation plan, it is considered an Exploration Systems Integration (ESI) Risk. An ESI risk may require visibility and risk handling by multiple organizations. The Integrated Risk Working Group (IRWG) is a small team of Risk experts that are responsible for collaborating and communicating best practices. In addition, the forum facilitates proper integration of risks across the Enterprise. The IRWG uses a Continuous Risk Management approach for facilitating the identification, analysis, planning, tracking, and controlling of ESI Risks. The ESD Division, Programs, and Integrated Task Teams identify ESI Risks. The IRWG maintains a set of metrics for understanding Enterprise Risk process and the overall Risk Posture. The team is also actively involved in the modeling of risk for Enterprise Performance Management. With the Enterprise being constrained in Schedule and Budget, and with significant technical complexity, the appropriate use of Risk Management techniques is crucial to the success of the Enterprise. The IRWG achieves this through the modified approach, providing a forum for collaboration on risks that cross boundaries between the separate entities.

Bauder, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

204

Exploration of geothermal systems using hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible near infrared (VNIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), and thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing has long been used for geothermal exploration. Specific focus on the TIR region (8-12 ?m) has resulted in major-rock-forming mineral classes being identified and their areal percentages to be more easily mapped due in part to the linear mixing behavior of TIR emission. To understand the mineral compositional and thermal distribution of active geothermal surfaces systems, hyperspectral TIR data from the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) airborne sensor were acquired over the Salton Sea, CA geothermal fields by The Aerospace Corporation on March 26, 2009 and April 6, 2010. SEBASS collects 128 wavelength channels at ~ 1 m spatial resolution. Such high resolution data are rarely available for this type of scientific analysis and enabled the identification of rare mineral assemblages associated with the geothermally-active areas. One surface unit with a unique spectrum, believed to be a magnesium sulfate of unknown hydration state, was identified for the first time in the SEBASS data. The abundance and distribution of this mineral varied between 2009 and 2010 likely due to the precipitation conditions. Data obtained by the SEBASS sensor were also regressed to the 32 channel spectral resolution of the Mineral and Gas Identifier (MAGI) airborne sensor in order to test sensitivity limits. At this lower spectral resolution, all surface minerals were still effectively identified and therefore validated data at MAGI resolution are still very effective for accurate surface compositional mapping. A similar approach used at active geothermal areas in other semi-arid regions around the world has the potential to better characterize transient mineralogy, identify "indicators minerals", understand the influence of surface and ground water, and ultimately to locate new geothermal targets for future exploration. Furthermore, new Mineral and Gas Identification (MAGI) data serve as an excellent precursor for future spaceborne TIR data such as the system proposed for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) instrument.

Reath, Kevin A.; Ramsey, Michael S.

2013-09-01

205

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial

Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Rector, Tony; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

2008-01-01

206

A personal exploration of the German hospice system.  

PubMed

While on vacation in Germany, I explored the German hospice system and its differences from that in the United States. I conducted an informal survey asking 10 individuals who were not associated with hospice work, about end-of-life issues. Knowledge of the hospice movement and of advance directives was found to be quite low. Through contact with German hospice associations, I learned that the modern German hospice movement was inspired by the British example. After a difficult beginning, the German hospice system is growing steadily. Professional providers of end-of-life care are paid according to the traditional fee-for-service system. As suggested by the World Health Organization, pain management is provided according to the three-step analgesic ladder. Physician-assisted suicide is illegal as it is in the United States. A federal self-determination law has not yet been enacted. Overall, the German hospice system has many similarities and a few interesting dissimilarities with that in the United States. PMID:8850817

Farnon, C

1996-01-01

207

The application of spread-spectrum system in the area of remote space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the great success of satellite application and aerospace engineering,China has formally startedup moon exploration project,in the future China will execute exploration of more remote object.In this paper, combining the development step of Chinese deep space exploration, the author introduces the current situation of deep exploration techniques home and abroad, meanwhile the author briefly compares the advantage and disadvantage of spread-spectrum deep exploration system and USB deep exploration system, and the author also briefly describes the important status of intending spread-spectrum deep exploration system in the area of deep space exploration. According to the characteristic of deep space exploration, this paper analyzes the problem and key techniques such as spread-spectrum measurement system of remote space orbit, reception of the weak signal and high efficient coding and decoding, super large aperture antenna and antenna array combination technique, high power control amplifier technique, insulating of transmitting and receiving signals applied in deep space exploration,at the same time,the author proposes evolution suggestion of spread-spectrum exploration technique applied in deep space exploration. Meanwhile,through combining the current situation of spread-spectrum exploration system home and abroad,the author analyzes a few key techniques of spread-spectrum exploration system applied in deep space exploration.

Wang, Fengyu; Wang, Xiaonan

2009-12-01

208

(abstract) Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AES is a low-cost analog of the TES downlooking modes. Because AES operates at ambient temperature, limb-viewing is not possible. The first flight of AES took place in April 1994 on the NASA P3B aircraft out of Wallops Island, VA. While planned as an engineering test flight, spectra were successfully acquired both over the Atlantic Ocean and the area of the Great Dismal Swamp on the Virginia-North Carolina border. At this writing (July 1994), a second series of flights on the NASA DC8 aircraft out of Ames RC,CA is in progress. By the time of the workshop, a third series using the NASA C130 should have been accomplished.

Beer, Reinhard

1994-01-01

209

Design space exploration for multiprocessor-based embedded systems  

E-print Network

Design space exploration is the process of obtaining the optimal design out of all possible design alternatives. The design-space becomes very large when the target architecture consists of heterogeneous components, and it is not possible to explore...

Mohanty, Debashis

2001-01-01

210

On the Calibration of Abstract Performance Models for System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

On the Calibration of Abstract Performance Models for System-level Design Space Exploration Andy D-level design as they facilitate early architectural design space exploration. An impor- tant precondition design space exploration. Such early design space exploration is of eminent importance as early design

Pimentel, Andy D.

211

UWB Tracking System Design for Lunar/Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a design effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar/Mars rovers during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. The UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties such as high data rate, fine time resolution, low power spectral density, and multipath immunity. A two-cluster prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Angle Of Arrival (AOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. An AOA technique using the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) information is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. After the UWB radio at each cluster is used to obtain the TDOA estimates from the UWB signal sent from the target, the TDOA data is converted to AOA data to find the angle of arrival, assuming this is a far field application. Since the distance between two clusters is known, the target position is computed by a simple triangulation. Simulations show that the average tracking error at a range of 610 meters is 2.7595 meters, less than 0.5% of the tracking range. Outdoor tests to track the SCOUT vehicle (The Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed) near the Meteor Crater, Flagstaff, Arizona were performed on September 12-13, 2005. The tracking performance was obtained with less than 1% tracking error at ranges up to 2000 feet. No RF interference with on-board GPS, video, voice and telemetry systems was detected. Outdoor tests demonstrated the UWB tracking capability.

Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia

2006-01-01

212

Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of exploration at the destinations. Finally, interstellar trip times are assessed at milli-g acceleration levels.

Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

2014-01-01

213

Introducing NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and the moons of Mars. Comprised of competitively selected teams across the U.S., a growing number of international partnerships around the world, and a small central office located at NASA Ames Research Center, the institute advances collaborative research to bridge science and exploration goals. As a virtual institute, SSERVI brings unique skills and collaborative technologies for enhancing collaborative research between geographically disparate teams. SSERVI is jointly funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate and the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. Current U.S. teams include: Dr. Jennifer L. Heldmann, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; Dr. William Farrell, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; Prof. Carlé Pieters, Brown University, Providence, RI; Prof. Daniel Britt, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL; Prof. Timothy Glotch, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY; Dr. Mihaly Horanyi, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Dr. Ben Bussey, Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD; Dr. David A. Kring, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX; and Dr. William Bottke, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO. Interested in becoming part of SSERVI? SSERVI Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) awards are staggered every 2.5-3yrs, with award periods of five-years per team. SSERVI encourages those who wish to join the institute in the future to engage current teams and international partners regarding potential collaboration, and to participate in focus groups or current team activities now. Joining hand in hand with international partners is a winning strategy for raising the tide of Solar System science around the world. Non-U.S. science organizations can propose to become either Associate or Affiliate members on a no-exchange-of-funds basis. Current international partners include: Canada, Germany, Israel, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. Discussions are ongoing to bring several more partners into the fold. These partnerships have impacted lunar science in a number of ways, resulting in such efforts and groups as the Pan-European Lunar Science Consortium and the Canadian Sudbury Field School. For more information visit sservi.nasa.gov

Pendleton, Yvonne

214

Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System Misha Krassovski and Tom Boden Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production each year at global, regional, and national spatial scales. These estimates are vital to climate change research given the strong evidence suggesting fossil-fuel emissions are responsible for unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. The CDIAC fossil-fuel emissions time series are based largely on annual energy statistics published for all nations by the United Nations (UN). Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil-fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751 before the Industrial Revolution. From these core fossil-fuel CO2 emission time series, CDIAC has developed a number of additional data products to satisfy modeling needs and to address other questions aimed at improving our understanding of the global carbon cycle budget. For example, CDIAC also produces a time series of gridded fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates and isotopic (e.g., C13) emissions estimates. The gridded data are generated using the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011) and provide monthly and annual estimates for 1751-2008 at 1° latitude by 1° longitude resolution. These gridded emission estimates are being used in the latest IPCC Scientific Assessment (AR4). Isotopic estimates are possible thanks to detailed information for individual nations regarding the carbon content of select fuels (e.g., the carbon signature of natural gas from Russia). CDIAC has recently developed a relational database to house these baseline emissions estimates and associated derived products and a web-based interface to help users worldwide query these data holdings. Users can identify, explore and download desired CDIAC fossil-fuel CO2 emissions data. This presentation introduces the architecture and design of the new relational database and web interface, summarizes the present state and functionality of the Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Database and Exploration System, and highlights future plans for expansion of the relational database and interface.

Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.

2012-04-01

215

Supporting exploration and collaboration in scientific workflow systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the amount of observation data captured everyday increases, running scientific workflows will soon become a fundamental step of scientific inquiry. Current scientific workflow systems offer ways to link together data, software and computational resources, but often accomplish this by requiring a deep understanding of the system with a steep learning curve. Thus, there is a need to lower user adoption barriers for workflow systems and improve the plug-and-play functionality of these systems. We created a system that allows the user to easily create and share workflows, data and algorithms. Our goal of lowering user adoption barriers is to support discoveries and to provide means for conducting research more efficiently. Current paradigms for workflow creation focus on the visual programming using a graph based metaphor. This can be a powerful metaphor in the hands of expert users, but can become daunting when graphs become large, the steps in the graph include engineering level steps such as loading and visualizing data, and the users are not very familiar with all the possible tools available. We present a different method of workflow creation that co- exists with the standard graph based editors. The method builds on exploratory interface using a macro- recording style, and focuses on the data being analyzed during the step by step creation of the workflow. Instead of storing data in system specific data structures, the use of more flexible open standards that are platform independent would create systems that are easier to extend and that provide a simple interface for external applications to query and analyze the data and metadata produced. We have explored and implemented a system that stores workflows and related metadata using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) metadata model and that is build on top of the Tupelo data and metadata archiving system. The scientific workflow system connects to shared content repositories, where users can easily share data, workflows, algorithms and annotations. Examples of the above methodologies will be illustrated using a prototype workflow solution called Cyberintegrator and a use case scenario being developed by the Corpus Christi Bay WATERS Network test bed (a group of collaborating domain scientists from Texas and Illinois) involving monitoring, predicting and understanding of the hypoxia problem in Corpus Christi Bay.

Marini, L.; Kooper, R.; Bajcsy, P.; Myers, J.

2007-12-01

216

Exploring No-SQL alternatives for ALMA monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. This paper describes the experience gained after several years working with the monitoring system, which has a strong requirement of collecting and storing up to 150K variables with a highest sampling rate of 20.8 kHz. The original design was built on top of a cluster of relational database server and network attached storage with fiber channel interface. As the number of monitoring points increases with the number of antennas included in the array, the current monitoring system demonstrated to be able to handle the increased data rate in the collection and storage area (only one month of data), but the data query interface showed serious performance degradation. A solution based on no-SQL platform was explored as an alternative to the current long-term storage system. Among several alternatives, mongoDB has been selected. In the data flow, intermediate cache servers based on Redis were introduced to allow faster streaming of the most recently acquired data to web based charts and applications for online data analysis.

Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Merino, Patricio; Peña, Leonel; Bartsch, Marcelo; Aguirre, Alvaro; Ibsen, Jorge

2014-07-01

217

Exploring flexible strategies in engineering systems using screening models : applications to offshore petroleum projects  

E-print Network

Engineering Systems, such as offshore petroleum exploration and production systems, generally require a significant amount of capital investment under various technical and market uncertainties. Choosing appropriate designs ...

Lin, Jijun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

218

An Exploration Space Control As Intelligent Assistance In Enabling Systems  

E-print Network

In order to support learning-by-exploration involving the understanding of domain concepts/knowledge and the skills in domain related tasks, it is necessary to provide facilities which enable learners to explore domain with less restriction, and to consider intelligent assistance which adequately limits the learning space (called exploration space). Although there have existed already such intelligent assistant methods such as navigation, information tailoring, etc., these are not always sharable and reusable among designers and developers. This paper proposes a new concept of Exploration Space Control to generalize the educational tasks of supporting exploration. Following this concept, this paper also provides preliminary vocabulary for describing Exploration Space Control and a design rationale for implementing Exploration Space Control as an intelligent component. In addition, the paper describes the application of the design rationale in InterSim project, which project aims to facilitate learning structure and functionality of organs and to improve appropriate skills in diagnosing and treating the related diseases.

Akihiro Kashihara; Kinshuk; Reinhard Oppermann; Rossen Rashev; Helmut Simm

1997-01-01

219

Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then assessed the likelihood and consequences of each risk against each DRM, using three levels of likelihood (Low: less than or equal to 0.1%; Medium: 0.1%–1.0%; High: greater than or equal to 1.0%) and four levels of consequence ranging from Very Low (temporary or insignificant) to High (death, loss of mission, or significant reduction to length or quality of life). Quantitative evidence from clinical, operational, and research sources were used whenever available. Qualitative evidence was used when quantitative evidence was unavailable. Expert opinion was used whenever insufficient evidence was available. Results: A set of 30 risks emerged that will require further mitigation efforts before being accepted by the Agency. The likelihood by consequence risk assessment process provided a means of prioritizing among the risks identified. For each of the high priority risks, a plan was developed to perform research, technology, or standards development thought necessary to provide suitable reduction of likelihood or consequence to allow agency acceptance. Conclusion: The HSRB process has successfully identified a complete set of risks to human space travelers on planned exploration missions based on the best evidence available today. Risk mitigation plans have been established for the highest priority risks. Each risk will be reassessed annually to track the progress of our risk mitigation efforts.

Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

2015-01-01

220

Drill System Development for the Lunar Subsurface Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaching the cold traps at the lunar poles and directly sensing the subsurface regolith is a primary goal of lunar exploration, especially as a means of prospecting for future In Situ Resource Utilization efforts. As part of the development of a lunar drill capable of reaching a depth of two meters or more, Honeybee Robotics has built a laboratory drill system with a total linear stroke of 1 meter, capability to produce as much as 45 N-m of torque at a rotational speed of 200 rpm, and a capability of delivering maximum downforce of 1000 N. Since this is a test-bed, the motors were purposely chosen to be relative large to provide ample power to the drill system (the Apollo drill was a 500 Watt drill, i.e. not small in current standards). In addition, the drill is capable of using three different drilling modes: rotary, rotary percussive and percussive. The frequency of percussive impact can be varied if needed while rotational speed can be held constant. An integral part of this test bed is a vacuum chamber that is currently being constructed. The drill test-bed is used for analyzing various drilling modes and testing different drill bit and auger systems under low pressure conditions and in lunar regolith simulant. The results of the tests are used to develop final lunar drill design as well as efficient drilling protocols. The drill was also designed to accommodate a downhole neutron spectrometer for measuring the amount of hydrated material in the area surrounding the borehole, as well as downhole temperature sensors, accelerometers, and electrical properties tester. The presentation will include history of lunar drilling, challenges of drilling on the Moon, a description of the drill and chamber as well as preliminary drilling test results conducted in the ice-bound lunar regolith simulant with a variety of drill bits and augers systems.

Zacny, Kris; Davis, Kiel; Paulsen, Gale; Roberts, Dustyn; Wilson, Jack; Hernandez, Wilson

221

First principles studies on the structural, elastic, electronic properties and heats of formation of MgeAE (AE Ca, Sr, Ba) intermetallics  

E-print Network

of states of eight MgeAE (AE ¼ Ca, Sr, Ba) intermetallic compounds. The ob- tained results indicate ¼ Ca, Sr, Ba) systems intermetallic compounds have generated significant interests over the past fewe9] for the eight Mg intermetallic compounds. Moreover, investigations focused on the elastic

Melnik, Roderick

222

Design Space Exploration for Partially Reconfigurable Architectures in Real-Time Systems$  

E-print Network

Design Space Exploration for Partially Reconfigurable Architectures in Real-Time Systems$ Fran, enabling Design Space Exploration (DSE) at the early stages of the development. FoRTReSS can be completely: Reconfigurable Architecture, Design Space Exploration, Real-Time Systems, Partial Reconfiguration, Field

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

Interleaving Methods for Hybrid System-level MPSoC Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Interleaving Methods for Hybrid System-level MPSoC Design Space Exploration Roberta Piscitelli, The Netherlands Email: {r.piscitelli,a.d.pimentel}@uva.nl Abstract--System-level design space exploration (DSE with the number of parameters, traditional design space exploration (DSE) methods fall short. As a consequence

Pimentel, Andy D.

224

Signature-based Calibration of Analytical Performance Models for System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

. The Sesame system-level simulation framework targets efficient de- sign space exploration of embedded, they can be applied at the early stages of design to perform, for example, Design Space Exploration (DSE-level design space exploration of embedded multimedia systems, allowing rapid performance evaluation

Pimentel, Andy D.

225

Visualization of Multi-Objective Design Space Exploration for Embedded Systems  

E-print Network

Visualization of Multi-Objective Design Space Exploration for Embedded Systems Toktam Taghavi, Andy and simulate systems and their components to explore the wide range of design choices. Such design space exploration is especially needed during the early design stages, where the design space is at its largest. Due

Pimentel, Andy D.

226

System-level MP-SoC Design Space Exploration Using Tree Visualization  

E-print Network

System-level MP-SoC Design Space Exploration Using Tree Visualization Toktam Taghavi, Andy D. Keywords-- Design space exploration, multimedia MP-SoC de- sign, visualization, evolutionary algorithms. I and simulation environment is developed for the efficient design space exploration of multimedia embedded systems

Pimentel, Andy D.

227

Design of an unmanned Martian polar exploration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an unmanned Martian polar exploration system is presented. The system elements include subsystems for transportation of material from earth to Mars, study of the Martian north pole, power generation, and communications. Early next century, three Atlas 2AS launch vehicles will be used to insert three Earth-Mars transfer vehicles, or buses, into a low-energy transfer orbit. Capture at Mars will be accomplished by aerobraking into a circular orbit. Each bus contains four landers and a communications satellite. Six of the twelve total landers will be deployed at 60 deg intervals along 80 deg N, and the remaining six landers at 5 deg intervals along 30 deg E from 65 deg N to 90 deg N by a combination of retrorockets and parachutes. The three communications satellites will be deployed at altitudes of 500 km in circular polar orbits that are 120 deg out of phase. These placements maximize the polar coverage of the science and communications subsystems. Each lander contains scientific equipment, two microrovers, power supplies, communications equipment, and a science computer. The lander scientific equipment includes a microweather station, seismometer, thermal probe, x-ray spectrometer, camera, and sounding rockets. One rover, designed for short-range (less than 2 km) excursions from the lander, includes a mass spectrometer for mineral analysis, an auger/borescope system for depth profiling, a deployable thermal probe, and charge coupled device cameras for terrain visualization/navigation. The second rover, designed for longer-range (2-5 km) excursions from the lander, includes radar sounding/mapping equipment, a seismometer, and laser ranging devices. Power for all subsystems is supplied by a combination of solar cells, Ni-H batteries, and radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Communications are sequenced from rovers, sounding rockets, and remote sensors to the lander, then to the satellites, through the Deep Space Network to and from earth.

Baldwin, Curt; Chitwood, Denny; Demann, Brian; Ducheny, Jordan; Hampton, Richard; Kuhns, Jesse; Mercer, Amy; Newman, Shawn; Patrick, Chris; Polakowski, Tony

1994-01-01

228

Solar Power System Evaluated for the Human Exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric power system is a crucial element of any mission for the human exploration of the Martian surface. The bulk of the power generated will be delivered to crew life support systems, extravehicular activity suits, robotic vehicles, and predeployed in situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment. In one mission scenario, before the crew departs for Mars, the ISRU plant operates for 435 days producing liquefied methane and oxygen for ascent-stage propellants and water for crew life support. About 200 days after ISRU production is completed, the crew arrives for a 500-day surface stay. In this scenario, the power system must operate for a total of 1130 days (equivalent to 1100 Martian "sols"), providing 400 MW-hr of energy to the ISRU plant and up to 18 kW of daytime user power. A photovoltaic power-generation system with regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage has been under study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The conceptual power system is dominated by the 4000- m2 class photovoltaic array that is deployed orthogonally as four tent structures, each approximately 5 m on a side and 100-m long. The structures are composed of composite members deployed by an articulating mast, an inflatable boom, or rover vehicles, and are subsequently anchored to the ground. Array panels consist of thin polymer membranes with thin-film solar cells. The array is divided into eight independent electrical sections with solar cell strings operating at 600 V. Energy storage is provided by regenerative fuel cells based on hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen and oxygen reactants are stored in gaseous form at 3000 psi, and the water produced is stored at 14.7 psi. The fuel cell operating temperature is maintained by a 40-m2 deployable pumped-fluid loop radiator that uses water as the working fluid. The power management and distribution (PMAD) architecture features eight independent, regulated 600-Vdc channels. Power management and distribution power cables use various gauges of copper conductors with ethylene tetrafluoroethylene insulation. To assess power system design options and sizing, we developed a dedicated Fortran code to predict detailed power system performance and estimate system mass. This code also modeled the requisite Mars surface environments: solar insolation, Sun angles, dust storms, dust deposition, and thermal and ultraviolet radiation. Using this code, trade studies were performed to assess performance and mass sensitivities to power system design parameters (photovoltaic array geometry and orientation) and mission parameters (landing date and landing site latitude, terrain slope, and dust storm activity). Mission analysis cases were also run. Power results are shown in this graph for an analysis case with a September 1, 2012, landing date; 18.95 North latitude landing site; two seasonal dusts storms; and tent arrays. To meet user load requirements and the ISRU energy requirement, an 8-metric ton (MT) power system and 4000-m2 photovoltaic array area were required for the assumed advanced CuInS2 thin-film solar cell technology. In this figure, the top curve is the average daytime photovoltaic array power, the middle curve is average daytime user load power, and the bottom curve is nighttime power. At mission day 1, daytime user power exceeds 120 kW before falling off to 80 kW at the end of the mission. Throughout the mission, nighttime user power is set to the nighttime power requirement. In this analysis, "nighttime" is defined as the 13- to 15-hr period when array power output is below the daytime power requirement. During dust storms, power system capability falls off dramatically so that by mission day 900, a daily energy balance cannot be maintained. Under these conditions, the ISRU plant is placed in standby mode, and the regenerative fuel cell energy storage is gradually discharged to meet user loads.

Kerslake, Thomas W.

2000-01-01

229

IBEX: Exploring the Edge of Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a poster that outlines the major mission highlights of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is mapping the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium, the material between the stars. This poster complements other informal education materials related to the IBEX spacecraft.

2013-01-10

230

Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production at global, regional, and national spatial scales. The CDIAC emission time series estimates are based largely on annual energy statistics published at the national level by the United Nations (UN). CDIAC has developed a relational database to house collected data and information and a web-based interface to help users worldwide identify, explore and download desired emission data. The available information is divided in two major group: time series and gridded data. The time series data is offered for global, regional and national scales. Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). The gridded data presents annual and monthly estimates. Annual data presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2008 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2011), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these tabular, national, mass-emissions data and distribute them spatially on a one degree latitude by one degree longitude grid. The within-country spatial distribution is achieved through a fixed population distribution as reported in Andres et al. (1996). This presentation introduces newly build database and web interface, reflects the present state and functionality of the Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Database and Exploration System as well as future plans for expansion.

Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

2012-12-01

231

Exploring the Earth System through online interactive models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper level Earth Science students commonly have a strong background of mathematical training from Math courses, however their ability to use mathematical models to solve Earth Science problems is commonly limited. Their difficulty comes, in part, because of the nature of the subject matter. There is a large body of background ';conceptual' and ';observational' understanding and knowledge required in the Earth Sciences before in-depth quantification becomes useful. For example, it is difficult to answer questions about geological processes until you can identify minerals and rocks and understand the general geodynamic implications of their associations. However, science is fundamentally quantitative. To become scientists students have to translate their conceptual understanding into quantifiable models. Thus, it is desirable for students to become comfortable with using mathematical models to test hypotheses. With the aim of helping to bridging the gap between conceptual understanding and quantification I have started to build an interactive teaching website based around quantitative models of Earth System processes. The site is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students and spans a range of topics that will continue to grow as time allows. The mathematical models are all built for the students, allowing them to spend their time thinking about how the ';model world' changes in response to their manipulation of the input variables. The web site is divided into broad topics or chapters (Background, Solid Earth, Ocean and Atmosphere, Earth history) and within each chapter there are different subtopic (e.g. Solid Earth: Core, Mantle, Crust) and in each of these individual webpages. Each webpage, or topic, starts with an introduction to the topic, followed by an interactive model that the students can use sliders to control the input to and watch how the results change. This interaction between student and model is guided by a series of multiple choice questions that the student answers and immediately gets feedback whether the answer is correct or not. This way the students can ensure they understand the concepts before moving on. A discussion forum for the students to discuss the topics is in development and each page has a feedback option to allow both numerical (1-10) and written feedback on how useful the webpage was. By the end of exploring any given process students are expected to understand how the different parameters explored by the model interact to control the results. They should appreciate why the controlling equations look the way they do (all equations needed to develop the models are present in the introduction) and how these interact to control the results. While this is no substitute to students undertaking the calculations for themselves this approach allows a much wider range of topics to be explored quantitatively than if the students have to code all models themselves.

Coogan, L. A.

2013-12-01

232

On the mass transfer in AE Aquarii  

E-print Network

The observed properties of the close binary AE Aqr indicate that the mass transfer in this system operates via the Roche lobe overflow mechanism, but the material transferred from the normal companion is neither accreted onto the surface of the white dwarf nor stored in a disk around its magnetosphere. As previously shown, such a situation can be realized if the white dwarf operates as a propeller. At the same time, the efficiency of the propeller action by the white dwarf is insufficient to explain the rapid braking of the white dwarf, which implies that the spin-down power is in excess of the bolometric luminosity of the system. To avoid this problem we have simulated the mass-transfer process in AE Aqr assuming that the observed braking of the white dwarf is governed by a pulsar-like spin-down mechanism. We show that the expected H_alpha Doppler tomogram in this case resembles the tomogram observed from the system. We find that the agreement between the simulated and the observed tomograms is rather good provided the mean value of the mass-transfer rate ~5x10^16 g/s. Three spatially separated sources of H_alpha emission can be distinguished within this approach. The structure of the tomogram depends on the relative contributions of these sources to the H_alpha emission and is expected to vary from night to night.

N. R. Ikhsanov; V. V. Neustroev; N. G. Beskrovnaya

2004-11-25

233

How to Extend the Capabilities of Space Systems for Long Duration Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For sustainable Exploration Missions the need exists to assemble systems-of-systems in space, on the Moon or on other planetary surfaces. To fulfill this need new and innovative system architecture is needed that can be satisfied with the present lift capability of existing rocket technology without the added cost of developing a new heavy lift vehicle. To enable ultra-long life missions with minimum redundancy and lighter mass the need exists to develop system soft,i,are and hardware reconfigurability, which enables increasing functionality and multiple use of launched assets while at the same time overcoming any components failures. Also the need exists to develop the ability to dynamically demate and reassemble individual system elements during a mission in order to work around failed hardware or changed mission requirements. Therefore to meet the goals of Space Exploration Missions in hiteroperability and Reconfigurability, many challenges must be addressed to transform the traditional static avionics architecture into architecture with dynamic capabilities. The objective of this paper is to introduce concepts associated with reconfigurable computer systems; review the various needs and challenges associated with reconfigurable avionics space systems; provide an operational example that illustrates the needs applicable to either the Crew Exploration Vehicle or a collection of "Habot like" mobile surface elements; summarize the approaches that address key challenges to acceptance of a Flexible, Intelligent, Modular and Affordable reconfigurable avionics space system.

Marzwell, Neville I.; Waterman, Robert D.; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

234

An operations and command systems for the extreme ultraviolet explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About 40% of the budget of a scientific spacecraft mission is usually consumed by Mission Operations & Data Analysis (MO&DA) with MO driving these costs. In the current practice, MO is separated from spacecraft design and comes in focus relatively late in the mission life cycle. As a result, spacecraft may be designed that are very difficult to operate. NASA centers have extensive MO expertise but often lessons learned in one mission are not exploited for other parallel or future missions. A significant reduction of MO costs is essential to ensure a continuing and growing access to space for the scientific community. We are addressing some of these issues with a highly automated payload operations and command system for an existing mission, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). EUVE is currently operated jointly by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), responsible for spacecraft operations, and the Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Astrophysics (CEA) of the University of California, Berkeley, which controls the telescopes and scientific instruments aboard the satellite. The new automated system is being developed by a team including personnel from the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA). An important goal of the project is to provide AI-based technology that can be easily operated by nonspecialists in AI. Another important goal is the reusability of the techniques for other missions. Models of the EUVE spacecraft need to be built both for planning/scheduling and for monitoring. In both cases, our modeling tools allow the assembly of a spacecraft model from separate sub-models of the various spacecraft subsystems. These sub-models are reusable; therefore, building mission operations systems for another small satellite mission will require choosing pre-existing modules, reparametrizing them with respect to the actual satellite telemetry information, and reassembling them in a new model. We briefly describe the EUVE mission and indicate why it is particularly suitable for the task. Then we briefly outline our current work in mission planning/scheduling and spacecraft and instrument health monitoring.

Muscettola, Nicola; Korsmeyer, David J.; Olson, Eric C.; Wong, Gary

1994-01-01

235

Exploring the Inner Solar System - Duration: 55:56.  

NASA Video Gallery

Chief Scientist of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Dr. Jim Garvin, takes us on a journey of Earth, the moon, and our neighboring planets. Why does space matter? Why is exploring these destinati...

236

Exploration Systems Development Division Quarterly - Duration: 11:38.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA is continuing to make great strides towards sending humans farther than we have ever gone before. Take a look at the work being done by teams all across the nation on NASAâ??s exploration prog...

237

Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise  

PubMed Central

While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25?000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature. PMID:19528024

Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

2009-01-01

238

Model-Driven Design-Space Exploration for Embedded Systems: The Octopus Toolset  

E-print Network

Model-Driven Design-Space Exploration for Embedded Systems: The Octopus Toolset Twan Basten1 Design-Space Exploration (DSE) toolset that aims to leverage existing modeling, analysis, and DSE tools- ferent application domains and easy reuse of tools across domains. Key words: Design-space exploration

Vaandrager, Frits

239

Optimizing a Superscalar System using Multi-objective Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Optimizing a Superscalar System using Multi-objective Design Space Exploration Horia Calborean by several parameters is using methods for Automatic Design Space Exploration (ADSE). Recently we developed a Framework for Automatic Design Space Explorations focused on micro-architectural optimizations

Vintan, Lucian N.

240

A Case for Visualization-integrated System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

A Case for Visualization-integrated System-level Design Space Exploration Andy D. Pimentel Computer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Email: andy@science.uva.nl Abstract. Design space exploration plays an essential and ef- fective exploration tools in the early stages of design, where the design space is largest

Pimentel, Andy D.

241

Logistics Information Systems for Human Space Exploration: State of the Art and Emerging Technologies  

E-print Network

Logistics Information Systems for Human Space Exploration: State of the Art and Emerging an overview of the current state of the art in logistics management for space exploration focused difficulties in mission planning for interplanetary human space exploration is logistics management

de Weck, Olivier L.

242

OpenCV based computer vision of deep-sea visual exploration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-sea visual exploration system plays an important role in the area of deep-sea expedition. Because of the harsh ocean environment, the deep-sea visual exploration system may face many problems such as high press of deep sea, instantaneous impact, deep-sea surge, local high temperature etc. Therefore, most current deep-sea visual exploration systems are not practicable. In this paper, considering the strongpoint

Liu Jing-Biao; Cai Wen-Yu

2008-01-01

243

Exploring the weak limit of gravity at Solar System scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision tracking of multiple spacecraft in the outer Solar System has shown an unmodelled perturbation, consisting of a small, constant, radial acceleration directed towards the Sun. Since its detection, a great deal of work has been devoted to explaining this Pioneer effect, both in terms of spacecraft-generated systematics and external physical causes. Its continuing importance is found in the fact that it has been impossible to explain away the effect through conventional means. This leaves open the possibility, however unlikely, that new physics is represented in the effect. This new physics, in turn, would be connected intimately to gravity with huge implications across astrophysics and beyond. With this as motivation, this dissertation investigates two areas related to the Pioneer effect. The first goal is to investigate the use of planets, comets, and asteroids to determine the reality of the Pioneer effect through precision astrometry. Here, we showed that asteroids can be used to evaluate the gravitational field in the outer Solar System. The observations can be conducted with modest allocations of telescope time, and would provide a definitive answer to the question within the next 20 years. In assessing current knowledge of Pluto's orbit, we determined that it is not known well enough at present to preclude the existence of the Pioneer effect. We also showed that comets are not ideal candidates for measuring gravity in the outer Solar System, although some present intriguing observational targets for related reasons. Finally, we showed that Pan-STARRS and LSST are likely to lead to a capability to test gravity in the outer Solar System in the near future. The second goal of the dissertation involved exploring two general mechanisms for explaining the Pioneer effect. The first approach involved investigating the effective mass density that would be produced in the Solar System as a result of the capture of elementary particle dark matter by means of a hypothetical weak interaction between the dark matter particles and the matter of the Sun. The second approach involved three body capture of dark matter from the Galactic halo into Solar orbit. The three bodies interacting are the Galactic barycenter, the Sun, and the dark matter particle. In this phase of the dissertation, we showed that capture of Galactic dark matter into Solar orbit by a weak interaction with Solar matter does not accumulate dark matter in the region where the Pioneer effect manifests itself. It is possible that it does accumulate at smaller distances, however. Similarly, we showed that three body gravitational capture is not feasible as a cause of the Pioneer effect either. Dark matter captured by this mechanism would occur generally at distances far greater than that needed to cause the Pioneer anomaly. Thus, neither mechanism for capture of dark matter into Solar orbit sufficed to explain the Pioneer effect. Finally, we discuss a number of future research areas that became apparent during the course of the research.

Page, Gary L.

244

Exploring Planetary System Evolution Through High-Contrast Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct imaging of circumstellar disks provides unique information about planetary system construction and evolution. Several hundred nearby main-sequence stars are known to host debris disks, which are produced by mutual collisions of orbiting planetesimals during a phase thought to coincide with terrestrial planet formation. Therefore, detection of the dust in such systems through scattered near-infrared starlight offers a view of the circumstellar environment during the epoch of planet assembly. We have used ground-based coronagraphic angular differential imaging (ADI) with Keck NIRC2 and Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) to investigate disk structures that may act as signposts of planets. ADI and its associated image processing algorithms (e.g., LOCI) are powerful tools for suppressing the stellar PSF and quasistatic speckles that can contaminate disk signal. However, ADI PSF-subtraction also attenuates disk surface brightness in a spatially- and parameter-dependent manner, thereby biasing photometry and compromising inferences regarding the physical processes responsible for the dust distribution. To account for this disk "self-subtraction," we developed a novel technique to forward model the disk structure and compute a self-subtraction map for a given ADI-processed image. Applying this method to NIRC2 near-IR imaging of the HD 32297 debris disk, we combined the high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of ADI data with unbiased photometry to measure midplane curvature in the edge-on disk and a break in the disk's radial brightness profile. Such a break may indicate the location of a planetesimal ring that is a source of the light-scattering micron-sized grains. For the HD 61005 debris disk, we examined similar data together with GPI 1.6-micron polarization data and detected the dust ring's swept-back morphology, brightness asymmetry, stellocentric offset, and inner clearing. To study the physical mechanism behind these features, we explored how eccentricity and mutual inclination affect disk morphology by constructing self-subtracted scattered-light models (using our forward-modeling technique) and comparing them with complementary NIRC2 (several-arcsecond scales) and GPI (high S/N close to the star) observations.

Esposito, Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Gpies Team

2015-01-01

245

Massive young disks around Herbig Ae stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Herbig Ae stars (HAe) are the precursors of Vega-type systems, hence crucial objects in planet formation studies. Thus far, only a few disks associated with HAe stars have been studied using millimetre interferometers. Aims: Our aim is to determine the dust evolution and the lifetime of the disks associated with Herbig Ae stars. Methods: We imaged the continuum emission at ~3 mm and ~1.3 mm of the Herbig Ae/Be stars BD+61154, RR Tau, VY Mon, and LkH? 198 using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These stars are in the upper end of the stellar mass range of the Herbig Ae stars (M? > 3 M?). Our measurements were used to complete the spectral energy distribution (SED). The modelling of the SED, in particular the FIR-mm part, allows us to determine the masses and dust properties of these disks. Results: We detected the disks associated with BD+61154, RR Tau, and VY Mon with disk masses of 0.35 M?, 0.05 M?, and 0.40 M?, respectively. The disk around LkH? 198 was not detected with an upper limit to the disk mass of 0.004 M?. We detected, however, the disks associated with the younger stellar objects LkH? 198-IR and LkH? 198-mm that are located in the vicinity of LkH? 198. The fitting of the mm part of the SED reveal that the grains in the mid-plane of the disks around BD+61154, RR Tau, and VY Mon have sizes of ~1-1000 ?m. Therefore, grains have not grown to centimetre sizes in these disks yet. Conclusions: These massive (M? > 3 M?) and young (~1 Myr) HAe stars are surrounded by massive (? 0.04 M?) disks with grains of micron-millimetre sizes. Although grain growth is proceeding in these disks, their evolutionary stage is prior to the formation of planetesimals. These disks are less evolved than those detected around T Tauri and Herbig Be stars. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).The data used for the maps of Fig. 1 (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A50

Boissier, J.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Fuente, A.; Berné, O.; Bachiller, R.; Neri, R.; Ginard, D.

2011-07-01

246

Cascade Distillation System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

2014-01-01

247

Fireball models for flares in AE Aquarii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the flaring behaviour of the cataclysmic variable AE Aqr in the context of the `magnetic propeller' model for this system. The flares are thought to arise from collisions between high-density regions in the material expelled from the system after interaction with the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of the white dwarf. We calculate the first quantitative models for the flaring and calculate the time-dependent emergent optical spectra from the resulting hot, expanding ball of gas. We compare the results under different assumptions to observations and derive values for the mass, length-scale and temperature of the material involved in the flare. We see that the fits suggest that the secondary star in this system has Population II composition.

Pearson, K. J.; Horne, Keith; Skidmore, Warren

2003-02-01

248

Solar Mesosphere Explorer optical-mechanical systems engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission overview of the Solar Mesosphere Explorer is presented along with design analysis and summaries of results. The Solar Mesosphere Explorer is a spin stabilized satellite carrying a complement of four Ebert-Fastie spectrometers and a four-channel Mersenne radiometer. Description of the spectrometer is given including a telescope and its aberrations. The radiometer is also described with consideration given to isothermal and thermal design, a Winston paraboloid, and optical tolerances. These five instruments are for measuring the earth's ozone density and distribution and providing quantitative data about those processes which govern the formation and destruction of ozone.

Gause, K. A.; Stuart, J. R.

1979-01-01

249

In-Situ Production of Solar Power Systems for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current proposals for developing an extended human presence, beyond space stations, on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of non-terrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in-situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through on-going research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. One of the most important elements of a human planetary base is power production. Lunar samples and geophysical measurements returned by the Apollo missions provide detailed data on the composition and physical characteristics of the lunar materials and environment. Based on this knowledge and extrapolations of terrestrial industrial experience it is clear that several types of solar-to-electric converters can be manufactured on the Moon. It is conceivable that well over 90% of a solar-to- electric power system could be made from lunar materials. Production and utilization of photovoltaic devices for solar energy production on Earth is primarily driven by the market economy. On Earth a production plant for photovoltaic devices is intimately linked to the planets massive industrial base. A selection of off the shelf refined materials are available as well as cheap fast transportation on demand. The processes takes place (except for the few seconds reprieve in shot towers etc.) under one gravity, with solar radiation significantly modulated by weather, and under conditions where one atmosphere is free and high vacuum is cumbersome and expensive. Off Earth, on lunar or Mars bases, the cost of photovoltaic power is driven by transport costs - Earth launch, deep space transport, landing on the planetary surface. Thus there is a premium for processes that are materials self-sufficient or for closed loop in-situ processes. The lack of differentiated ores on the Moon, and lack of explored minerals on Mars and interplanetary space give a premium to universal/non-ore-specific mineral extractive processes. Initially a semiconductor/photovoltaic production facility will build on no conveniently located industrial base, further increasing the premium on closed loop self sufficient processes.

Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.

1999-01-01

250

New techniques in astrodynamics for moon systems exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA and NASA scientific missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems will answer fundamental questions on the habitability of icy worlds. The missions include unprecedented challenges, as the spacecraft will be placed in closed, stable orbits near the surface of the moons. This thesis presents methods to design trajectories that tour the moons and ultimately insert the spacecraft into orbits around them, while mitigating the mission costs and/or risks. A first technique is the endgame, a sequence of moon flyby preceding the orbit insertion. Historically, the endgame is designed with two approaches with different results: the vinfinity-leveraging transfer (VILT) approach leads to high-Deltav (hundreds of m/s), short time-of-flight (months) endgames, while the multi-body approach leads to low-Deltav (tens of m/s), long time-of-flight (years) endgames. This work analyzes and develops both approaches. We introduce a fast design method to automatically compute VILT endgames, which were previously designed in an ad-hoc manner. We also derive an important simple quadrature formula for the minimum Deltav attainable with this approach. This formula is the first important result of this work, as it provides a lower bound for assessment studies. We explain and develop the complex multi-body approach introducing the Tisserand-Poincare (T-P) graph, which is the second important result of this work. It provides a link between the two approaches, and shows the intersections between low-energy trajectories around different moons. With the T-P graph we design a five-month transfer between low-altitude orbits at Europa and Ganymede, using almost half the Deltav of the Hohmann transfer. We then focus on missions to low-mass moons, like Enceladus. We show that nontangent VILT (an extension of the traditional VILT) significantly reduce the Deltav while maintaining a satisfactory transfer time (< 4 years in the Saturn system). With a new design method we compute a 52 gravity-assist trajectory from Titan to Enceladus. The time of flight is 2.7 years, and the Deltav is almost 10 times better then the Titan-Enceladus Hohmann-like transfer. This trajectory and the design method are the third important contribution of this work; they enable a new class of missions which were previously considered unfeasible. Finally we study the capture problem, which seeks chaotic trajectories with multiple orbit insertion opportunities. We explore the solution space extending the design techniques used by ESA for the BepiColombo mission capture to Mercury. Such problems are better modeled in the spatial, elliptic, restricted three-body problem, which we analyze in detail. We define new regions of motions and to compute new families of periodic orbits and their stability properties. This analysis is the fourth important contribution of this work. Finally we show that capture trajectories shadow the manifolds of special periodic and quasi periodic orbits. This is the last important contribution of this report, as if both explains the complex dynamics of capture trajectories, and suggests new ways to design them.

Campagnola, Stefano

251

An alternative approach to solar system exploration planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning for the future exploration of the solar system has involved the structuring of a series of missions that address major scientific objectives at a minimum runout cost for the entire endeavor. In many cases, however, the optimal structuring of a program that would minimize the runout cost would entail an unacceptable high annual funding. Our actual planning must consider the planning wedge imposed on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It is vital that a plan be structured that copes with the annual restraint. If we do not recognize this, our plan will not be realized and a queing problem will result, thus negating all of our planning efforts. This paper presents ideas as to how planetary initiatives can be structured, wherein the peak annual funding is minimized. One vital aspect in the plan is to have a transportation capability that can launch a mission in any planetary opportunity. Solar electric propulsion can provide this capability. Another cost reduction approach would be to structure a mission set in a time sequenced fashion that could utilize essentially the same spacecraft for the implementation of several missions. This opportunity does exist. A third technique would be to fulfill a scientific objective in several sequential missions rather than attempt to accomplish all of the objectives with one mission. This approach might be applied to a mission currently in the planning stage designated the Saturn Orbiter Dual Probe mission. The current concept involves the delivery of a Saturn probe, a Titan probe, and a Saturn Orbiter by a one Shuttle launch. In this case, the orbiter must serve as a relay station for both probes; map the magnetosphere of Saturn; conduct a survey of Saturn's major satellites; and perform the planetological observation of Saturn itself. This mission entails the development of a complex spacecraft that would be required to have a fairly long life due to the extended mission operations at the benefit of accomplishing the mission with one launch. An alternate approach would be to break the mission into two separate elements. We could, for example, launch a Saturn orbiter carrying a Saturn entry probe. After serving as a communications relay system for the Saturn probe, the orbiter would then be specialized to map the magnetosphere of Saturn. A second launch would involve the delivery of a Titan probe by another orbiter where after delivery the orbiter would conduct the planetological observation of Saturn and its satellites. For the split-launch option, the runout cost for the two missions would be greater than the single launch option. However, optimum structuring of the two missions could materially reduce the peak annual funding. This paper presents data on the estimated cost on a year by year basis of a mission set structured to minimize the runout cost with no concern as to the peak annual funding as compared to a mission set that would yield the same scientific objectives in a slightly longer time span wherein the annual peak funding would be minimized. The consequences of this revised plan are analyzed.

Herman, Daniel H.; Niehoff, John C.; Spadoni, Daniel J.

252

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems related to an unmanned exploration of the planet Mars by means of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle are investigated. These problems include: design, construction and evaluation of the vehicle itself and its control and operating systems. More specifically, vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, propulsion, hazard detection systems, terrain sensing and modelling, obstacle detection concepts, path selection, decision-making systems, and chemical analyses of samples are studied. Emphasis is placed on development of a vehicle capable of gathering specimens and data for an Augmented Viking Mission or to provide the basis for a Sample Return Mission.

Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. Y.

1975-01-01

253

SEEDEEP: A System for Exploring and Querying Scientific Deep Web Data Sources  

E-print Network

SEEDEEP: A System for Exploring and Querying Scientific Deep Web Data Sources Fan Wang Gagan that are hidden behind query forms, thus forming what is re- ferred to as the deep web. In this paper, we propose SEEDEEP, a System for Exploring and quErying scientific DEEP web data sources. SEEDEEP is able

Agrawal, Gagan

254

Exploration System Mission Directorate and Constellation Program Support for Analogue Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vision: To create a cross-cutting Earth-based program to minimize cost and risk while maximizing the productivity of planetary exploration missions, by supporting precursor system development and carrying out system integration, testing, training, and public engagement as an integral part of the Vision for Space Exploration.

Hoffman, Stephen J.; Voels, Stephen A.; Gerty, Christopher E.

2008-01-01

255

Human Research ProgramHuman Research Program Human System Risk in Exploration and  

E-print Network

Human Research ProgramHuman Research Program Human System Risk in Exploration and the Human Research Program 21SEP10 1HRP Risk Process ­ D Grounds #12;Human Research ProgramHuman Research Program Human System Risks in Exploration Missions 21SEP10 2HRP Risk Process ­ D.Grounds Presentation contents

Waliser, Duane E.

256

Design Space Pruning through Hybrid Analysis in System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

Design Space Pruning through Hybrid Analysis in System-level Design Space Exploration Roberta with the number of parameters, traditional design space exploration methods fall short. This has prompted of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Email: {r.piscitelli,a.d.pimentel}@uva.nl Abstract--System-level design space

Pimentel, Andy D.

257

Towards Efficient Design Space Exploration of Heterogeneous Embedded Media Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern signal processing and multimedia embedded systems increas- ingly have heterogeneous system architectures. In these systems, programmable processors provide flexibility to support multiple applications, while dedicated hardware blocks provide high performance for time-critical application tasks. The heterogeneity of these embedded systems and the varying demands of their grow- ing number of target applications greatly complicate the system design. As part

Andy D. Pimentel; Simon Polstra; Frank Terpstra; A. W. Van Halderen; Joseph E. Coffland; Louis O. Hertzberger

2002-01-01

258

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks have been under study: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of a dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer sybsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

1972-01-01

259

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars are reported. Problem areas include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis, terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. These tasks are summarized: vehicle model design, mathematical model of vehicle dynamics, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electrochemical controls, remote control, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer subsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, and chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. V.; Yerazunis, S. W.

1973-01-01

260

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following tasks related to the design, construction, and evaluation of a mobile planetary vehicle for unmanned exploration of Mars are discussed: (1) design and construction of a 0.5 scale dynamic vehicle; (2) mathematical modeling of vehicle dynamics; (3) experimental 0.4 scale vehicle dynamics measurements and interpretation; (4) vehicle electro-mechanical control systems; (5) remote control systems; (6) collapsibility and deployment concepts and hardware; (7) design, construction and evaluation of a wheel with increased lateral stiffness, (8) system design optimization; (9) design of an on-board computer; (10) design and construction of a laser range finder; (11) measurement of reflectivity of terrain surfaces; (12) obstacle perception by edge detection; (13) terrain modeling based on gradients; (14) laser scan systems; (15) path selection system simulation and evaluation; (16) gas chromatograph system concepts; (17) experimental chromatograph separation measurements and chromatograph model improvement and evaluation.

Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Moyer, W. R.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

1973-01-01

261

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

2011-01-01

262

Fission Technology for Exploring and Utilizing the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation space systems will build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost,

Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbub, Ivana; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

263

New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

NONE

1995-12-08

264

Adverse Effects (AEs) of Topical NSAIDs in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis (OA): a Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective To systematically review the literature on reported adverse effects (AEs) associated with topical NSAID use in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A systematic search of Medline (1950 to November 2009), Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases, Dissertation and American College of Rheumatology Meeting Abstracts was performed to identify original randomized controlled trials, case reports, observational studies, editorials or dissertations reporting AEs from topical NSAIDs in older adults with OA. Information was sought on study and participant characteristics, detailed recording of application site and systemic AEs as well as withdrawals due to AEs. Results The initial search yielded 953 articles of which 19 met eligibility criteria. Subjects receiving topical NSAIDs reported up to 39.3% application site AEs, and up to 17.5% systemic AEs. Five cases of warfarin potentiation with topical agents were reported; 1 resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding. In formal trials, the withdrawal rate from AEs ranged from 0-21% in the topical agents, 0-25% in the oral NSAIDs, and 0-16% in the placebo group. Conclusion In summary, although topical NSAIDs are safer than oral NSAIDs (fewer severe gastrointestinal AEs), a substantial proportion of older adults report systemic AEs with topical agents. Moreover, the withdrawal rate due to AEs with topical agents is comparable to that of oral NSAIDs. Given the safety profile and withdrawal rates described in this study, further data are needed to determine the incremental benefits of topical NSAIDs compared to other treatment modalities in older adults with OA. PMID:20360183

Makris, UE.; Kohler, MJ.; Fraenkel, L.

2010-01-01

265

NEXT Ion Propulsion System Configurations and Performance for Saturn System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successes of the Cassini/Huygens mission have heightened interest to return to the Saturn system with focused robotic missions. The desire for a sustained presence at Titan, through a dedicated orbiter and in-situ vehicle, either a lander or aerobot, has resulted in definition of a Titan Explorer flagship mission as a high priority in the Solar System Exploration Roadmap. The discovery of active water vapor plumes erupting from the tiger stripes on the moon Enceladus has drawn the attention of the space science community. The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system is well suited to future missions to the Saturn system. NEXT is used within the inner solar system, in combination with a Venus or Earth gravity assist, to establish a fast transfer to the Saturn system. The NEXT system elements are accommodated in a separable Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) module, or are integrated into the main spacecraft bus, depending on the mission architecture and performance requirements. This paper defines a range of NEXT system configurations, from two to four thrusters, and the Saturn system performance capability provided. Delivered mass is assessed parametrically over total trip time to Saturn. Launch vehicle options, gravity assist options, and input power level are addressed to determine performance sensitivities. A simple two-thruster NEXT system, launched on an Atlas 551, can deliver a spacecraft mass of over 2400 kg on a transfer to Saturn. Similarly, a four-thruster system, launched on a Delta 4050 Heavy, delivers more than 4000 kg spacecraft mass. A SEP module conceptual design, for a two thruster string, 17 kW solar array, configuration is characterized.

Benson, Scott W.; Riehl, John P.; Oleson, Steven R.

2007-01-01

266

Exploration Planetary Surface Structural Systems: Design Requirements and Compliance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Surface Systems Project developed system concepts that would be necessary to establish and maintain a permanent human presence on the Lunar surface. A variety of specific system implementations were generated as a part of the scenarios, some level of system definition was completed, and masses estimated for each system. Because the architecture studies generally spawned a large number of system concepts and the studies were executed in a short amount of time, the resulting system definitions had very low design fidelity. This paper describes the development sequence required to field a particular structural system: 1) Define Requirements, 2) Develop the Design and 3) Demonstrate Compliance of the Design to all Requirements. This paper also outlines and describes in detail the information and data that are required to establish structural design requirements and outlines the information that would comprise a planetary surface system Structures Requirements document.

Dorsey, John T.

2011-01-01

267

Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

Bloomfield, H.S.

1987-12-01

268

Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

Bloomfield, Harvey S.

1987-01-01

269

Tradespace exploration for space system architectures : a weighted graph framework  

E-print Network

Many systems undergo significant architecture-level change during their lifecycles as a result of exogenous system disturbances (e.g. budget reduction or changes in stakeholder requirements), failure to develop critical ...

Davison, Peter Leslie

2014-01-01

270

Meeting the Challenges of Exploration Systems: Health Management Technologies for Aerospace Systems With Emphasis on Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays all require an ISHM system that can span distinct yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation, and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and applied health management system technologies to aerospace propulsion systems for almost two decades. Lessons learned from past activities help define the approach to proper ISHM development: sensor selection- identifies sensor sets required for accurate health assessment; data qualification and validation-ensures the integrity of measurement data from sensor to data system; fault detection and isolation-uses measurements in a component/subsystem context to detect faults and identify their point of origin; information fusion and diagnostic decision criteria-aligns data from similar and disparate sources in time and use that data to perform higher-level system diagnosis; and verification and validation-uses data, real or simulated, to provide variable exposure to the diagnostic system for faults that may only manifest themselves in actual implementation, as well as faults that are detectable via hardware testing. This presentation describes a framework for developing health management systems and highlights the health management research activities performed by the Controls and Dynamics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It illustrates how those activities contribute to the development of solutions for Integrated System Health Management.

Melcher, Kevin J.; Sowers, T. Shane; Maul, William A.

2005-01-01

271

To Explore Embedded System Education for Developing Local Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of embedded systems has been promoted by the advancement of semiconductor technology. It has been widely applied in various areas. This also makes embedded system education face a challenge for our university how to meet the needs of these enterprises in Zhejiang Province. On the basis of analyzing the local enterprise's needs of embedded system engineer, this paper

Shoudong Shi; Rangding Wang; Jiangbo Qian

2010-01-01

272

Efficient system design space exploration using machine learning techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer manufacturers spend a huge amount of time, resources, and money in designing new systems and newer configurations, and their ability to reduce costs, charge competitive prices and gain market share depends on how good these systems perform. In this work, we develop predictive models for estimating the performance of systems by using performance numbers from only a small fraction

Berkin Özisikyilmaz; Gokhan Memik; Alok N. Choudhary

2008-01-01

273

Metrics for design space exploration of heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of designing heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems. The focus is on a step of the design flow: the definition of innovative metrics for the analysis of the system specification to statically identify the most suitable processing elements class for each system functionality. Experimental results are also included, to show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed

Donatella Sciuto; Fabio Salice; Luigi Pomante; William Fornaciari

2002-01-01

274

Survey of intra- and intermission flexibility in space exploration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly common objective in the design of new space systems is the property of flexibility, or the capability to easily modify a system after it has been fielded in response to a changing environment or changing requirements. The body of research on this topic has been growing, but substantial work remains in developing metrics for characterizing system flexibility and

Jarret M. Lafleur; Joseph H. Saleh

2010-01-01

275

Exploring Software Systems — Ph.D. Dissertation Synopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software evolution is required to keep a software system in sync with the ever-changing needs of the system's users and environment. An unfortunate side-effect of evolution is that it often causes the knowledge about a system to degrade, which in turn impedes further evolution. In the dissertation, we investigate techniques and tools that help remedy this situation by supporting the

Leon Moonen

276

Exploration of a "Closed System": The Galileo Thermometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will observe and try to interpret a "closed system," a system which allows the transfer of energy in and out, but not the exchange of material. They will realize that work can be done within the closed system as a result of the transfer of energy into the system even though nothing within the closed system was physically touched. Students will also exercise their understanding of density, and the relationships among density, volume and temperature. In addition, they develop their ability to make observations, a tentative interpretation (hypothesis) from those observations, and a plan to test that interpretation.

Kim Kastens

277

Beyond Earth's boundaries: Human exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an annual report describing work accomplished in developing the knowledge base that will permit informed recommendations and decisions concerning national space policy and the goal of human expansion into the solar system. The following topics are presented: (1) pathways to human exploration; (2) human exploration case studies; (3) case study results and assessment; (4) exploration program implementation strategy; (5) approach to international cooperation; (6) recommendations; and (7) future horizons.

1991-01-01

278

A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

2004-01-01

279

Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

2014-01-01

280

Life Support System Technologies for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Mars Life Support Test series successfully demonstrated integration and operation of advanced technologies for closed-loop life support systems, including physicochemical and biological subsystems. Increased closure was obtained when targeted technologies, such as brine dewatering subsystems, were added to further process life support system byproducts to recover resources. Physicochemical and biological systems can be integrated satisfactorily to achieve desired levels of closure. Imbalances between system components, such as differences in metabolic quotients between human crews and plants, must be addressed. Each subsystem or component that is added to increase closure will likely have added costs, ranging from initial launch mass, power, thermal, crew time, byproducts, etc., that must be factored into break even analysis. Achieving life support system closure while maintaining control of total mass and system complexity will be a challenge.

Ewert, Michael K.

2007-01-01

281

Revised planetary protection policy for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to control contamination of planets by terrestrial microorganisms and organic constituents, U.S. planetary missions have been governed by a planetary protection (or planetary quarantine) policy which has changed little since 1972. This policy has recently been reviewed in light of new information obtained from planetary exploration during the past decade and because of changes to, or uncertainties in, some parameters used in the existing quantitative approach. On the basis of this analysis, a revised planetary protection policy with the following key features is proposed: deemphasizing the use of mathematical models and quantitative analyses; establishing requirements for target planet/mission type (i.e., Orbiter, Lander, etc.) combinations; considering sample return missions a separate category; simplifying documentation; and imposing implementing procedures (i.e., trajectory biasing, cleanroom assembly, spacecraft sterilization, etc.) by exception, i.e., only if the planet/mission combination warrants such controls.

Devincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P. D.

1984-01-01

282

Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter and Trojan Asteroid Explorer in EJSM (Europa Jupiter System Mission)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) is an international mission to explore and Jupiter, its satellites and magnetospheric environment in 2020s. EJSM consists of (1) The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) by NASA, (2) the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) by ESA, and (3) the Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO) studied by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). In February 2009, NASA and ESA decided

Sho Sasaki; Masaki Fujimoto; Takeshi Takashima; Hajime Yano; Yasumasa Kasaba; Yukihiro Takahashi; Jun Kimura; Yuichi Tsuda; Ryu Funase; Osamu Mori

2010-01-01

283

A composite computational model of liver glucose homeostasis. Part 2: Exploring system behaviour  

E-print Network

ForReview Only A composite computational model of liver glucose homeostasis. Part 2: Exploring-DISCIPLINARY SCIENCES Keywords: computational modeling, glucose homeostasis, liver, bifurcation analysis http glucose homeostasis. Part 2: Exploring system behaviour T. Sumner4 , J. Hetherington1,2 , R.M. Seymour1

Finkelstein, Anthony

284

The AE-8 trapped electron model environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The machine sensible version of the AE-8 electron model environment was completed in December 1983. It has been sent to users on the model environment distribution list and is made available to new users by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). AE-8 is the last in a series of terrestrial trapped radiation models that includes eight proton and eight electron versions. With the exception of AE-8, all these models were documented in formal reports as well as being available in a machine sensible form. The purpose of this report is to complete the documentation, finally, for AE-8 so that users can understand its construction and see the comparison of the model with the new data used, as well as with the AE-4 model.

Vette, James I.

1991-01-01

285

A baseball exploration system using spatial pattern recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a lot of research efforts in baseball video processing, little work has been done in analyzing the detailed process and ball movement of the batting content. This paper proposes a novel system to automatically summarize the progress of each batting in baseball videos. Utilizing the strictly-defined specifications of the baseball field, the system recognizes the spatial patterns in each

Hua-tsiing Chen; Ming-ho Hsiao; Hsuan-sheng Chen; Wen-Jiin Tsai; Suh-yin Lee

2008-01-01

286

Mated Flight Control Issues for Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several unique issues related to mated flight control have been broadly identified. These issues include redundancies in subsystems, controllability, command and control authority distribution, information flow across elements, and changes and variability in system characteristics due to variable mated configurations during operations. Architectural options for mated flight control are discussed in the context of evolving space systems.

Lim, Kyong B.; Markley, F. Landis; Whorton, Mark S.

2006-01-01

287

Hierarchical design space exploration for a class of digital systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an architectural synthesis approach for a widely used class of digital systems characterized by inherent regularity in their description. This approach relies on a novel modeling or abstraction of the problem domain to facilitate a hierarchical solution method. The modeling is based on exploiting the inherent regularity in the system description to cluster its behavioral operations. The

D. Sreenivasa Rao; Fadi J. Kurdahi

1993-01-01

288

Spacewalker: Automated Design Space Exploration for Embedded Computer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of automated design of a computer system for an embedded application. The computer system to be designed consists of a VLIW processor and\\/or a customized systolic array, along with a cache subsystem comprising a data cache, instruction cache and second-level unified cache. Several algorithms for \\

Greg Snider

2001-01-01

289

Visual Exploration of Large-Scale System Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of reverse engineering is to obtain a mental model of software systems. However, evolution adds another dimension to their implicit complexity, effectively making them moving targets: The evolution of software systems still remains an intangible and complex process. Metrics have been extensively used to quantify various facets of evolution, but even the usage of complex metrics often leads

Richard Wettel; Michele Lanza

2008-01-01

290

SP100 space reactor power system for lunar, Mars, and robotic exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SP-100 power system is described which was developed for three missions, namely, Pluto Orbiter with nuclear electric propulsion; human-rated surface reactor power system for lunar and Mars exploration; and earth surveillance with an integrated nuclear electric propulsion system. The reactor power systems technology is being developed to meet these requirements so that the technical database, design tools, and specifications

Jack F. Mondt

1992-01-01

291

Emergency Oxygen System Evaluation for Exploration PLSS Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) emergency oxygen system is being reexamined for the next generation of suits. These suits will be used for transit to Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and to Mars as well as on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Currently, the plan is that there will be two different sets of suits, but there is a strong desire for commonality between them for construction purposes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate what the emergency PLSS requirements are and how they might best be implemented. Options under consideration are enlarging the tanks on the PLSS, finding an alternate method of storage/delivery, or providing additional O2 from an external source. The system that shows the most promise is the cryogenic oxygen system with a composite dewar which uses a buddy system to split the necessary oxygen between two astronauts.

Heather, Paul; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Conger, Bruce

2006-01-01

292

Exploring Complex Systems Aspects of Blackout Risk and Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Electric power transmission systems are a key infrastructure, and blackouts of these systems have major consequences for the economy and national security. Analyses of blackout data suggest that blackout size distributions have a power law form over much of their range. This result is an indication that blackouts behave as a complex dynamical system. We use a simulation of an upgrading power transmission system to investigate how these complex system dynamics impact the assessment and mitigation of blackout risk. The mitigation of failures in complex systems needs to be approached with care. The mitigation efforts can move the system to a new dynamic equilibrium while remaining near criticality and preserving the power law region. Thus, while the absolute frequency of blackouts of all sizes may be reduced, the underlying forces can still cause the relative frequency of large blackouts to small blackouts to remain the same. Moreover, in some cases, efforts to mitigate small blackouts can even increase the frequency of large blackouts. This result occurs because the large and small blackouts are not mutually independent, but are strongly coupled by the complex dynamics.

Newman, David E [University of Alaska; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2011-01-01

293

Exploration Systems Health Management Facilities and Testbed Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentation Agenda : (1) Technology Maturation Pipeline (The Plan) (2) Cryogenic testbed (and other KSC Labs) (2a) Component / Subsystem technologies (3) Advanced Technology Development Center (ATDC) (3a) System / Vehic1e technologies (4) EL V Flight Experiments (Flight Testbeds).

Wilson, Scott; Waterman, Robert; McCleskey, Carey

2004-01-01

294

EXPLORATION OF THE ROAD DATABASE FOR NAVIGATION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some new methods for analyzing geo-referenced statistical data are presented in this paper. These methods have combined the techniques of exploratory data analysis with algorithms for data mining. They have been integrated in a prototype software system developed at the Technical University of Munich in cooperation with Navigation Technologies (NavTech) GmbH. The system serves the purpose of value-adding the road

Lichun SUI; Liqiu MENG

2001-01-01

295

Systems and Technologies for Space Exploration: the regional project STEPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aerospace technology network of Piemonte represents ˜25% of the italian capacity and handles a comprehensive spectrum of products (aircraft, propulsion, satellites, space station modules, avionics. components, services...). The cooperation between the Comitato Distretto Aerospaziale Piemonte and the European Regional Development Fund 2007-2013 has enabled Regione Piemonte to launch three regional Projects capable to enhance the synergy and competitiveness of the network, among which: STEPS - Sistemi e Tecnologie per l'EsPlorazione Spaziale, a joint development of technologies for robotic and human Space Exploration by 3 large Industries, 27 SMEs, 3 Universities and one public Research Centre. STEPS develops virtual and hardware demonstrators for a range of technologies to do with a Lander's descent and soft landing, and a Rover's surface mobility, of both robotic and manned equipment on Moon and Mars. It also foresees the development of Teleoperations labs and Virtual Reality environments and physical simulations of Moon and Mars surface conditions and ground. Mid-way along STEPS planned development, initial results in several technology domains are available and are presented in this paper.

Boggiatto, D.; Moncalvo, D.

296

Light Activated Serotonin for Exploring Its Action in Biological Systems  

PubMed Central

Summary Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in regulating mood, appetite, memory, learning, pain, and establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry in embryonic development. To explore the role of 5-HT in a variety of physiological contexts, we have created two forms of “caged” 5-HT, BHQ-O-5HT and BHQ-N-5HT. When exposed to 365- or 740-nm light, BHQ-O-5HT releases 5-HT through 1- or 2-photon excitation, respectively. BHQ-O-5HT mediated changes in neural activity in cultured primary sensory neurons from mouse and the trigeminal ganglion and optic tectum of intact zebrafish larvae in the form of high amplitude spiking in response to light. In Xenopus laevis embryos, 5-HT released from BHQ-O-5HT upon exposure to light increased the occurrence of LR patterning defects. Maximal rates of LR defects were observed when 5-HT was released at stage 5 compared to stage 8. These experiments show the potential for BHQ-caged serotonins in studying 5-HT-regulated physiological processes. PMID:24333002

Rea, Adam C.; Vandenberg, Laura N.; Ball, Rebecca E.; Snouffer, Ashley A.; Hudson, Alicia G.; Zhu, Yue; McLain, Duncan E.; Johnston, Lindsey L.; Lauderdale, James D.; Levin, Michael; Dore, Timothy M.

2013-01-01

297

The Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System of the Face: A Model Explored  

PubMed Central

Regional differences in the integument of the body are explained, at least in part, by differences in fascial arrangements. In the face, where the skin is more mobile due to the action of the underlying facial muscles, fascial organisation is important for support and separation of muscle groups. This study used bequeathed cadaver material to investigate a current model of the SMAS proposed by Macchi et al., the original boundaries of which were explored and extended using both histology and gross dissection. As a clearly identifiable structure spanning the lateral and midface, the SMAS in the specimen supported the model proposed by Macchi et al. The three main findings that support the model were the layered morphological appearance of the SMAS, its progression from fibrous to aponeurotic in a lateral to medial direction, and the enveloping of the zygomaticus musculature. Extension beyond the proposed model into the temporal region was observed, but nasal and forehead regions showed no evidence of SMAS, while its presence in the cervical platysma region remained inconclusive. Fascial and soft tissue variability was considerable within facial regions of the examined specimen, helping to explain the debate around the SMAS in the literature. PMID:24294524

Broughton, M.; Fyfe, G. M.

2013-01-01

298

Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems: a horizon sensor/attitude reference system based on the dragonfly Ocelli for Mars exploration applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of Bio-inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) is to distill the principles found in successful, nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods, but accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological oganisms.

Thakoor, S.; Zornetzer, S.; Hine, B.; Chahl, J.; Stange, G.

2002-01-01

299

Cradle-to-Grave Logistic Technologies for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration missions under study are very limited by the launch mass capacity of exiting and planned vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Consequently, crew item logistical mass is typically competing with vehicle systems for mass allocation. NASA is Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing four logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable used crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion supply gases. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as the mission duration increases. This paper provides a description, benefits, and challenges of the four technologies under development and a status of progress at the mid ]point of the three year AES project.

Broyan, James L.; Ewert, Michael K.; Shull, Sarah

2013-01-01

300

Unique abilities of hopper spacecraft to enable national objectives for solar system exploration  

E-print Network

In comparison with conventional and other conceived approaches, hopper spacecraft offer unique advantages in exploring Solar System objects beyond Earth. The present work began with a survey - based on documents from the ...

Lanford, Ephraim Robert

2011-01-01

301

Development of a mechanical counter pressure Bio-Suit System for planetary exploration  

E-print Network

Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is critical for human spaceflight and particularly for human planetary exploration. The MIT Man Vehicle Laboratory is developing a Bio-Suit EVA System, based on mechanical counterpressure ...

Sim, Zhe Liang

2006-01-01

302

Exploring coherent transport through ?-stacked systems for molecular electronic devices.  

PubMed

Understanding electron transport across ?-stacked systems can help to elucidate the role of intermolecular tunneling in molecular junctions and potentially with the design of high-efficiency molecular devices. Here we show how conjugation length and substituent groups influence the electron transport and thermoelectric response in the ?-stacked structures by investigating five representative stacked molecular junctions. We found that a ?-stacked system of two substituted anthracenes exhibits good thermopower and a high power factor, suggesting that increased conjugation can enhance the thermoelectric response. The fully eclipsed structure of quinhydrone exhibits a high power factor at the minimum energy structure and could thus be a better candidate in a thermoelectric device compared with the other ?-stacked systems considered. PMID:25283989

Li, Qian; Solomon, Gemma C

2014-01-01

303

Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

2003-01-01

304

In-ice acoustic positioning system for the Enceladus Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IceMole, a combination of melting and drilling probe, which is able to move and steer through ice and take samples while doing so, can be used to install instruments in ice. In addition to the inertial navigation system, the ice-craft will be equipped with an acoustic positioning system, composed of receivers in the probe itself and several emitters (pinger) on the glacier surface. It will determine the position of the IceMole by measuring the signal propagation time and trilateration, which requires a solid knowledge of the propagation of acoustic signals in ice. A method to determine these properties during the operation of the IceMole will be developed. Here we will give an overview over the goals of the project and the design of the IceMole. We will present the status of the development of the acoustic positioning system and show the results of simulations on the positioning accuracy.

Hoffmann, Ruth; EnEx Collaboration

2013-05-01

305

Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer optical system: lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is a NASA astrophysics satellite designed to produce high resolution spectra in the far-ultraviolet (90.5-118.7 nm bandpass) with a high effective area (20-70 cm2) and low background detector. It was launched on a three-year mission in June 1999 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. The satellite has been performing routine science observations since December 1999. FUSE contains four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic primary mirrors which illuminate separate Rowland circle spectrograph channels equipped with holographically ruled diffraction gratings and microchannel plate detectors. Fine error sensors (slit jaw cameras) operating in the visible on two of the channels are used for target acquisition and guiding. The FUSE mission was first proposed in the late 1980s, and experienced several major conceptual changes prior to fabrication, assembly, and testing, which lasted from 1996 through 1999. During the program, we realized both positive and negative aspects to our design and processes that may apply to other space missions using telescopes and spectrographs. The specific topics we address are requirements, design, component specification, integration, and verification. We also discuss on-orbit alignment and focus. These activities were complicated by unexpected levels of motion between the optical elements, and the logistical problems associated with limited ground contact passes in low Earth orbit. We have developed methods to characterize the motions and mitigate their resultant effects on the science data through a combination of observing techniques and modifications to the data reduction software.

Conard, Steven J.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Evans, Jordan P.; Friedman, Scott D.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Moos, H. Warren; Ohl, Raymond G.; Sahnow, David J.

2000-12-01

306

Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

1992-01-01

307

Marketing strategy and marketing performance measurement system: Exploring the relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Though marketing performance measurement has long been a concern for literature and companies, the relationship between marketing strategy and marketing performance measurement system (MPMS) design is a substantially uncovered topic. This paper endorses Coviello et al. [Coviello, N. E., Brodie, R. J. and Munro, H. J. (1997) Understanding contemporary marketing: Development of a classification scheme. Journal of Marketing Management,

Lucio Lamberti; Giuliano Noci

2010-01-01

308

On the Evolution of Rough Set Exploration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the next version (ver. 2.1) of the Rough Set Ex- ploration System - a software tool featuring a library of methods and a graphical user interface supporting variety of rough-set-based and re- lated computations. Methods, features and abilities of the implemented software are discussed and illustrated with examples in data analysis and decision support.

Jan G. Bazan; Marcin S. Szczuka; Arkadiusz Wojna; Marcin Wojnarski

2004-01-01

309

Astrobiology as an Integrating Theme in Solar System Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discipline of astrobiology examines (i) the origin and evolution of life on Earth and the detailed interplay between biological and planetary evolution, (ii) the evolution of our solar system and the potential and actual distribution of life within it, (iii) the occurrence of planets around other stars and their potential for life, and (iv) the interplay between each of

B. M. Jakosky

2003-01-01

310

Exploring the Solar System with a Human Orrery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the fundamental learning goals of introductory astronomy is for the students to gain some perspective on the scale and structure of the solar system. Many astronomy teachers have laid out the planets along a long strip of paper or across a school grounds or campus. Other activities that investigate the motion of the planets are often…

Newbury, Peter

2010-01-01

311

Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into students'…

Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

2012-01-01

312

Exploring the use of ERP systems by SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays most of large companies have been using an ERP system, thus ERP vendors are moving their attention toward small and medium enterprises (SMEs), by offering simplified and cheaper solutions. Such an approach is mostly due to SMEs' lack of internal competence and resources, while most of large companies have been investing time, money and human resources to modify their

M. Tagliavini; P. Faverio; A. Ravarini; F. Pigni; G. Buonanno

313

Radioisotope Power Systems for In-situ Exploration of Titan and Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the timeline for the robotic in situ investigation of Titan and Venus, and the use of radioisotope power systems in this exploration. The atmospheric and surface conditions of both sites are reviewed. The presentation also examines the conceptual design of the Venus Mobile Explorer and the Titan orbiter and in situ explorer. After this the presentation reviews the radioisotope power systems for each of the vehicles, with some explanation of the different requirements based on the vastly different environments that they would be investigating

Balint, Tibor S.

2006-01-01

314

Analysis of Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project is developing a modular approach to spacecraft power systems for exploration beyond Earth orbit. AMPS is intended to meet the need of reducing the cost of design development, test and integration and also reducing the operational logistics cost of supporting exploration missions. AMPS seeks to establish modular power building blocks with standardized electrical, mechanical, thermal and data interfaces that can be applied across multiple exploration vehicles. The presentation discusses the results of a cost analysis that compares the cost of the modular approach against a traditional non-modular approach.

Oeftering, Richard; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Ray

2014-01-01

315

Using C to build a satellite scheduling expert system: Examples from the Explorer platform planning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, many expert systems were developed in a LISP environment and then ported to the real world C environment before the final system is delivered. This situation may require that the entire system be completely rewritten in C and may actually result in a system which is put together as quickly as possible with little regard for maintainability and further evolution. With the introduction of high performance UNIX and X-windows based workstations, a great deal of the advantages of developing a first system in the LISP environment have become questionable. A C-based AI development effort is described which is based on a software tools approach with emphasis on reusability and maintainability of code. The discussion starts with simple examples of how list processing can easily be implemented in C and then proceeds to the implementations of frames and objects which use dynamic memory allocation. The implementation of procedures which use depth first search, constraint propagation, context switching and a blackboard-like simulation environment are described. Techniques for managing the complexity of C-based AI software are noted, especially the object-oriented techniques of data encapsulation and incremental development. Finally, all these concepts are put together by describing the components of planning software called the Planning And Resource Reasoning (PARR) shell. This shell was successfully utilized for scheduling services of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite since May 1987 and will be used for operations scheduling of the Explorer Platform in November 1991.

Mclean, David R.; Tuchman, Alan; Potter, William J.

1991-01-01

316

Active thermal control systems for lunar and Martian exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several ATCS options including heat pumps, radiator shading devices, and single-phase flow loops were considered. The ATCS chosen for both lunar and Martian habitats consists of a heat pump integral with a nontoxic fluid acquisition and transport loop, and vertically oriented modular reflux-boiler radiators. The heat pump operates only during the lunar day. The lunar and Martian transfer vehicles have an internal single-phase water-acquisition loop and an external two-phase ammonia rejection system with rotating inflatable radiators. The lunar and Martian excursion vehicles incorporate internal single-phase water acquisition, which is connected via heat exchangers to external body-mounted single-phase radiators. A water evaporation system is used for the transfer vehicles during periods of high heating.

Ewert, Michael K.; Petete, Patricia A.; Dzenitis, John

1990-01-01

317

Visualization and exploration for recommender systems in enterprise organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recommender systems seek to predict the interest a user would find in an item, person or social element they had not yet considered, based upon the properties of the item, the user's past experience and similar users. However, recommended items are often presented to the user with no context and no ability to influence the results. We present a novel visualization technique for recommender systems in which, a user can see the items recommended for him, and understand why they were recommended. Focusing on a user, we render a planar visualization listing a set of recommended items. The items are organized such that similar items reside nearby on the screen, centered around realtime generated categories. We use a combination of iconography, text and tag clouds, with maximal use of screen real estate, and keep items from overlapping to produce our results. We apply our visualization to expert relevance maps in the enterprise and a book recommendation system for consumers. The latter is based on Shelfari, a social network for reading and books.

Karni, Z.; Shapira, L.

2013-03-01

318

Exploring the Outer Solar System with the ESSENCE Supernova Survey  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21{sup o} < {beta} < -5{sup o}), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I {approx} 23.1 and R {approx} 23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC{sub 414}, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS{sub 422} and 2007 TA{sub 418} have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the 'extended' or 'detached' scattered disk, 2004 VN{sub 112}, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only {approx}2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.

Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Arraki, K.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kaib, N.A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aguilera, C.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Blackman, J.W.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Blondin, S.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Challis, P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Clocchiatti, A.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol.; Covarrubias, R.; /Kyushu Sangyo U.; Damke, G.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Davis, T.M.; /Bohr Inst. /Queensland U.; Filippenko, A.V.; /UC, Berkeley; Foley, R.J.; /UC, Berkeley; Garg, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Garnavich, P.M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hicken, M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Jha, S.; /Harvard U. /SLAC; Kirshner, R.P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Krisciunas, K.; /Notre Dame U. /Texas A-M; Leibundgut, B.; /Munich, Tech. U. /UC, Berkeley /NOAO, Tucson /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Fermilab /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Chile U., Santiago /Ohio State U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Harvard U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Munich, Tech. U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Texas A-M /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

2011-11-10

319

Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

1998-01-01

320

Wave-powered small-scale generation systems for ocean exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our initial investigation of an inertial power generation system, designed for use in small, low-power, long-endurance ocean exploration robots. The system recovers small amounts of power from the movements caused by ocean waves. The primary focus of the investigation to date has been the development of efficient power recovery system electronics that extract useful power from a

Phill Brown; D. Hardisty; T. C. A. Molteno

2006-01-01

321

Automated bottleneck-driven design-space exploration of media processing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media processing systems often have limited re- sources and strict performance requirements. An implementation must meet those design constraints while minimizing resource usage and energy consumption. Design-space exploration tech- niques help system designers to pinpoint bottlenecks in a system for a given configuration. The trade-offs between performance and resources in the design space can guide designers to tailor and tune

Yang Yang; Marc Geilen; Twan Basten; Sander Stuijk; Henk Corporaal

2010-01-01

322

Nuclear Electric Propulsion: A “Better, Safer, Cheaper” Transportation System for Human Exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for “split-sprint” human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology

John S. Clark; Jeffrey A. George; Leon P. Gefert; Michael P. Doherty; Robert J. Sefcik

1994-01-01

323

Nuclear Electric Propulsion: A ``Better, Safer, Cheaper'' Transportation System for Human Exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for ``split-sprint'' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology

John S. Clark; Jeffrey A. George; Leon P. Gefert; Michael P. Doherty; Robert J. Sefcik

1994-01-01

324

Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology

John S. Clark; Jeffrey A. George; Leon P. Gefert; Michael P. Doherty; Robert J. Sefcik

1994-01-01

325

Using Genetic Algorithms to Explore Pattern Recognition in the Immune System  

E-print Network

Using Genetic Algorithms to Explore Pattern Recognition in the Immune System DRAFT July 28, 1993 an immune system model based on binary strings. The purpose of the model is to study the pattern recognition processes and learning that take place at both the individual and species levels in the immune system

Forrest, Stephanie

326

Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable Systems: Technology for Sustainable, Reliable, Effective, and Affordable Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to execute the Vision for Space Exploration, we must find ways to reduce cost, system complexity, design, build, and test times, and at the same time increase flexibility to satisfy multiple functions. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable System (MARS) technologies promise to set the stage for the delivery of system elements that form the building blocks of increasingly ambitious missions

Jaime Esper

2005-01-01

327

Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes Supervisors: Dr D in the early solar system and the processes that have led to the formation of the terrestrial planets. Stable an effective approach for unravelling the complex chemistry of the early solar system as recorded in meteorites

Henderson, Gideon

328

GSFC Information Systems Technology Developments Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration will guide NASA's future human and robotic space activities. The broad range of human and robotic missions now being planned will require the development of new system-level capabilities enabled by emerging new technologies. Goddard Space Flight Center is actively supporting the Vision for Space Exploration in a number of program management, engineering and technology areas. This paper provides a brief background on the Vision for Space Exploration and a general overview of potential key Goddard contributions. In particular, this paper focuses on describing relevant GSFC information systems capabilities in architecture development; interoperable command, control and communications; and other applied information systems technology/research activities that are applicable to support the Vision for Space Exploration goals. Current GSFC development efforts and task activities are presented together with future plans.

Hughes, Peter; Dennehy, Cornelius; Mosier, Gary; Smith, Dan; Rykowski, Lisa

2004-01-01

329

Exploring Area/Delay Tradeoffs in an AES FPGA Implementation  

E-print Network

­ the development process for FPGAs is extremely effective in terms of time- to-market and overall cost when-round Layout Intra-round Layout Technology Mapping Fig. 1. Top-down block cipher design methodology

Choudhary, Alok

330

A Comparison of Electric Propulsion Systems for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth-Mars trajectories for multiple solar-powered spacecraft configurations were generated using Hall and ion propulsion systems utilizing the Direct Trajectory Optimization Method. Payload and power trades versus trip time were examined. Performance was compared for purely interplanetary flight and interplanetary flight with estimated spiral in to Mars orbit. Evaluating current ion and Hall thruster technologies, similar payload masses were delivered by each at equivalent trip times, but with the Hall thruster operating at a power level 10 kilowatts, on average, less than the ion thruster. The power difference for equivalent payload delivered should result in a significant cost savings.

Fiehler, Douglas; Oleson, Steve

2003-01-01

331

Human Exploration Systems and Mobility Capability Roadmap Progress Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: Capability Roadmap Team. Capability Description and Capability Breakdown Structure. Benefits of the Human Systems and Mobility Capability. Roadmap Process and Approach. Drivers and Assumptions for the whole team. Current State-of-the-Art, Assumptions and Requirements will be covered in the appropriate sections. Capability Presentations by Leads under Roadmap (Repeated for each capability under roadmap). Capability Description, Benefits, Current State-of-the-Art. Capability Requirements and Assumptions. Roadmap for Capability. Capability Readiness Level. Technology Readiness Level. Figures of Merit. Summary of Top Level Capability. Significant Technical Challenges. Summary and Forward Work.

Culbert, Chris; Taylor, Jeff

2005-01-01

332

Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration missions under study are very limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Consequently, crew item logistical mass is typically competing with vehicle systems for mass allocation. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing five logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable used crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as the mission duration increases. This paper provides a description and the challenges of the five technologies under development and the estimated overall mission benefits of each technology.

Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

2014-01-01

333

Systems approach to explore components and interactions in the presynapse  

PubMed Central

The application of proteomic techniques to neuroscientific research provides an opportunity for a greater understanding of nervous system structure and function. As increasing amounts of neuroproteomic data become available, it is necessary to formulate methods to integrate these data in a meaningful way to obtain a more comprehensive picture of neuronal subcompartments. Furthermore, computational methods can be used to make biologically relevant predictions from large proteomic datasets. Here, we applied an integrated proteomics and systems biology approach to characterize the presynaptic nerve terminal. For this, we carried out proteomic analyses of presynaptically enriched fractions, and generated a presynaptic literature-based protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. We combined these with other proteomic analyses to generate a core list of 117 presynaptic proteins, and used graph theory-inspired algorithms to predict 92 additional components and a presynaptic complex containing 17 proteins. Some of these predictions were validated experimentally, indicating that the computational analyses can identify novel proteins and complexes in a subcellular compartment. We conclude that the combination of techniques (proteomics, data integration, and computational analyses) used in this study are useful in obtaining a comprehensive understanding of functional components, especially low-abundance entities and/or interactions in the presynaptic nerve terminal. PMID:19562802

Abul-Husn, Noura S.; Bushlin, Ittai; Morón, José A.; Jenkins, Sherry L.; Dolios, Georgia; Wang, Rong; Iyengar, Ravi; Ma'ayan, Avi; Devi, Lakshmi A.

2009-01-01

334

Crew systems: integrating human and technical subsystems for the exploration of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration missions will require combining human and technical subsystems into overall "crew systems" capable of performing under the rigorous conditions of outer space. This report describes substantive and conceptual relationships among humans, intelligent machines, and communication systems, and explores how these components may be combined to complement and strengthen one another. We identify key research issues in the combination of humans and technology and examine the role of individual differences, group processes, and environmental conditions. We conclude that a crew system is, in effect, a social cyborg, a living system consisting of multiple individuals whose capabilities are extended by advanced technology.

Connors, M. M.; Harrison, A. A.; Summit, J.

1994-01-01

335

Exploring Manycore Multinode Systems for Irregular Applications with FPGA Prototyping  

SciTech Connect

We present a prototype of a multi-core architecture implemented on FPGA, designed to enable efficient execution of irregular applications on distributed shared memory machines, while maintaining high performance on regular workloads. The architecture is composed of off-the-shelf soft-core cores, local interconnection and memory interface, integrated with custom components that optimize it for irregular applications. It relies on three key elements: a global address space, multithreading, and fine-grained synchronization. Global addresses are scrambled to reduce the formation of network hot-spots, while the latency of the transactions is covered by integrating an hardware scheduler within the custom load/store buffers to take advantage from the availability of multiple executions threads, increasing the efficiency in a transparent way to the application. We evaluated a dual node system irregular kernels showing scalability in the number of cores and threads.

Ceriani, Marco; Palermo, Gianluca; Secchi, Simone; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

2013-04-29

336

Exploring dynamics of unstable many-body systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work we acquaint reader with the Continuum Shell Model (CSM), which is a proper theoretical tool for the description of physics of unstable systems. We describe the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian of the CSM and concentrate on specific aspects of dynamics using realistic examples. The continuum effects are discussed in the case of weakly bound heavy oxygen isotopes, where inclusion of continuum coupling is necessary to improve the traditional nuclear shell model techniques. Physics of overlapping resonances is illustrated using recent experimental information on {sup 8}B nucleus. In the limit of strong continuum coupling the many-body states restructure relative to continuum leading to a few very broad super-radiant states, while at the same time other states become narrow and nearly decoupled from decay. The recent observations of very broad alpha clustering states in {sup 18}O is one of the most transparent manifestations of super-radiance.

Volya, Alexander [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States); Zelevinsky, Vladimir [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

2014-10-15

337

Solar System Exploration - Probing Below the Surface of Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of this classroom activity, students will record and graph temperature data to learn about the search for water on Mars. Using models of frozen and ice-free "soils" constructed from readily available materials (a list is provided), they will examine (by periodically measuring temperature and graphing the results) how the ice content of the Martian soil affects the rate at which a warm probe will cool. This activity is part of NASA's Solar System Educators Program, a nationwide network of teachers who lead workshops that show other teachers how to successfully incorporate NASA materials and research into their classes. This activity is correlated to National Science Education Standards and NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics.

2004-07-21

338

Architecting the Communication and Navigation Networks for NASA's Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. A key objective of the missions is to grow, through a series of launches, a system of systems communication, navigation, and timing infrastructure at minimum cost while providing a network-centric infrastructure that maximizes the exploration capabilities and science return. There is a strong need to use architecting processes in the mission pre-formulation stage to describe the systems, interfaces, and interoperability needed to implement multiple space communication systems that are deployed over time, yet support interoperability with each deployment phase and with 20 years of legacy systems. In this paper we present a process for defining the architecture of the communications, navigation, and networks needed to support future space explorers with the best adaptable and evolable network-centric space exploration infrastructure. The process steps presented are: 1) Architecture decomposition, 2) Defining mission systems and their interfaces, 3) Developing the communication, navigation, networking architecture, and 4) Integrating systems, operational and technical views and viewpoints. We demonstrate the process through the architecture development of the communication network for upcoming NASA space exploration missions.

Bhassin, Kul B.; Putt, Chuck; Hayden, Jeffrey; Tseng, Shirley; Biswas, Abi; Kennedy, Brian; Jennings, Esther H.; Miller, Ron A.; Hudiburg, John; Miller, Dave; Jeffries, Alan; Sartwell, Tom

2007-01-01

339

On the origin of the peculiar cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nova-like variable AE Aquarii is a close binary system containing a red dwarf and a magnetized white dwarf rotating with the period of 33 s. A short spin period of the white dwarf is caused by an intensive mass exchange between the system components during a previous epoch. We show that a high rate of disk accretion onto the white dwarf surface resulted in temporary screening of its magnetic field and spin-up of the white dwarf to its present spin period. Transition of the white dwarf to the ejector state occurred at a final stage of the spin-up epoch after its magnetic field had emerged from the accreted plasma due to diffusion. In the frame of this scenario AE Aqr represents a missing link in the chain of Polars evolution and the white dwarf resembles a recycled pulsar.

Beskrovnaya, N. G.; Ikhsanov, N. R.

2015-02-01

340

Biomorphic Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

Thakoor, Sarita

1999-01-01

341

Measuring acoustic properties of snow in view of using AE for estimating snow stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic emission (AE) technique is commonly used for non destructive testing of heterogeneous, natural materials such as limestone, wood, or ice. The AE method therefore seems a promising tool for estimating the stability of avalanche prone snow slopes. Two prerequisites for performing acoustic field measurements are the coupling of the AE sensors (ultrasonic range) to the snow and a perception about the acoustic transmission properties of snow. For these purposes we performed laboratory measurements where we recorded an acoustic reference signal (pencil lead fracture) after having travelled through a snow column of 0.4 m height. The best coupling of the AE sensors to the snow column could be obtained by attaching the sensors with silicon to a thin (1 mm) aluminium plate which was frozen onto the snow. Within the frequency range studied (10 kHz - 1 MHz) we found the least attenuation at 30 kHz, suggesting this a suitable frequency for recording AE within snow. The acoustic velocities measured ranged from 290 to 530 m/s, increasing with density. These velocities are close to the acoustic velocity in air, suggesting that for our snow densities (270 to 310 kg/m3) the main part (most of the energy) of the AE transmitted in snow travels through the pore space. We used the results of our laboratory measurements to design an acoustic measurement system in the field. In an outlook we present these ongoing AE measurements in an avalanche prone snow slope.

Reiweger, Ingrid; Steiner, Kevin; Dual, Jürg; Schweizer, Jürg

2013-04-01

342

Moving Towards a Common Ground and Flight Data Systems Architecture for NASA's Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has embarked on an ambitious effort to return man to the moon and then on to Mars. The Exploration Vision requires development of major new space and ground assets and poses challenges well beyond those faced by many of NASA's recent programs. New crewed vehicles must be developed. Compatible supply vehicles, surface mobility modules and robotic exploration capabilities will supplement the manned exploration vehicle. New launch systems will be developed as well as a new ground communications and control infrastructure. The development must take place in a cost-constrained environment and must advance along an aggressive schedule. Common solutions and system interoperability and will be critical to the successful development of the Exploration data systems for this wide variety of flight and ground elements. To this end, NASA has assembled a team of engineers from across the agency to identify the key challenges for Exploration data systems and to establish the most beneficial strategic approach to be followed. Key challenges and the planned NASA approach for flight and ground systems will be discussed in the paper. The described approaches will capitalize on new technologies, and will result in cross-program interoperability between spacecraft and ground systems, from multiple suppliers and agencies.

Rader. Steve; Kearney, Mike; McVittie, Thom; Smith, Dan

2006-01-01

343

MATISSE: the ASDC tool to access and visualize Solar System exploration data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time planetary exploration data are generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e., common ftp repositories where the user needs to manually search the data by browsing into the directories. However, because of the increasing size of archives, this method is becoming very time consuming, subtracting time to the scientific part of the work. Therefore the ASI Science Data Center Solar System Exploration (ASDC-SSE) group started to implement a tool software to access and visualize data of the planetary exploration mission, thus reducing the time spent looking for the data and, finally, allowing datafusion. The tool, named MATISSE (Multi-instrument Advanced Tool for the Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), during its first year of development has been mainly devoted to data from the ESA Rosetta mission but recently, thanks to its modular structure, it has been expanded to include NASA Dawn data (VIR instrument).

Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Palomba, E.; Antonelli, L. A.; Giommi, P.

2014-04-01

344

OEXP exploration studies technical report. Volume 3: Special reports, studies, and indepth systems assessments  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Exploration (OEXP) at NASA has been tasked with defining and recommending alternatives for an early 1990's national decision on a focused program of manned exploration of the Solar System. The Mission analysis and System Engineering (MASE) group, which is managed by the Exploration Studies Office at the Johnson Space Center, is responsible for coordinating the technical studies necessary for accomplishing such a task. This technical report, produced by the MASE, describes the process used to conduct exploration studies and discusses the mission developed in a case study approach. The four case studies developed in FY88 include: (1) a manned expedition to PHOBOS; (2) a manned expedition to MARS; (3) a lunar surface observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution. The final outcome of this effort is a set of programmatic and technical conclusions and recommendations for the following year's work.

Roberts, B.B.; Bland, D.

1988-12-01

345

The Role of Lunar Development in Human Exploration of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of the solar system can be said to have begun with the Apollo landings on the Moon. The Apollo Project was publicly funded with the narrow technical objective of landing human beings on the Moon. The transportation and life support systems were specialized technical designs, developed in a project management environment tailored to that objective. Most scenarios for future human exploration assume a similar long-term commitment of public funds to a narrowly focused project managed by a large, monolithic organization. Advocates of human exploration of space have not yet been successful in generating the political momentum required to initiate such a project to go to the Moon or to Mars. Alternative scenarios of exploration may relax some or all of the parameters of organizational complexity, great expense, narrow technical focus, required public funding, and control by a single organization. Development of the Moon using private investment is quite possibly a necessary condition for alternative scenarios to succeed.

Mendell, Wendell W.

1999-01-01

346

OEXP exploration studies technical report. Volume 3: Special reports, studies, and indepth systems assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Exploration (OEXP) at NASA has been tasked with defining and recommending alternatives for an early 1990's national decision on a focused program of manned exploration of the Solar System. The Mission analysis and System Engineering (MASE) group, which is managed by the Exploration Studies Office at the Johnson Space Center, is responsible for coordinating the technical studies necessary for accomplishing such a task. This technical report, produced by the MASE, describes the process used to conduct exploration studies and discusses the mission developed in a case study approach. The four case studies developed in FY88 include: (1) a manned expedition to PHOBOS; (2) a manned expedition to MARS; (3) a lunar surface observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution. The final outcome of this effort is a set of programmatic and technical conclusions and recommendations for the following year's work.

Roberts, Barney B.; Bland, Dan

1988-01-01

347

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

2010-01-01

348

2010 NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate: Lunabotics Mining Competition Systems Engineering Paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fast growing approach in determining the best design concept for a problem is to hold a competition in which the rules are based on requirements similar to the actual problem. By going public with such competitions, sponsoring entities receive some of the most innovative engineering solutions in a fraction of the time and cost it would have taken to develop such concepts internally. Space exploration is a large benefactor of such design competitions as seen by the results of X-Prize Foundation and NASA lunar excavation competitions [1]. The results of NASA's past lunar excavator challenges has led to the need for an effective means of collecting lunar regolith in the absence of human beings. The 2010 Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Lunar Excavation Challenge was created "to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, or STEM, in a competitive environment that may result in innovative ideas and solutions, which could be applied to actual lunar excavation for NASA." [2]. The ESMD Challenge calls for "teams to use telerobotics or autonomous operations to excavate at least 10kg of lunar regolith simulant in a 15 minute time limit" [2]. The Systems Engineering approach was used in accordance with Auburn University's mechanical engineering senior design course (MECH 4240-50) to develop a telerobotic lunar excavator, seen in Fig. 1, that fulfilled requirements imposed by the NASA ESMD Competition Rules. The goal of the senior design project was to have a validated lunar excavator that would be used in the NASA ESMD lunar excavation challenge.

2010-01-01

349

Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

350

Developing Crew Health Care and Habitability Systems for the Exploration Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss the specific mission architectures associated with the NASA Exploration Vision and review the challenges and drivers associated with developing crew health care and habitability systems to manage human system risks. Crew health care systems must be provided to manage crew health within acceptable limits, as well as respond to medical contingencies that may occur during exploration missions. Habitability systems must enable crew performance for the tasks necessary to support the missions. During the summer of 2005, NASA defined its exploration architecture including blueprints for missions to the moon and to Mars. These mission architectures require research and technology development to focus on the operational risks associated with each mission, as well as the risks to long term astronaut health. This paper will review the highest priority risks associated with the various missions and discuss NASA s strategies and plans for performing the research and technology development necessary to manage the risks to acceptable levels.

Laurini, Kathy; Sawin, Charles F.

2006-01-01

351

SystemCoDesigner: automatic design space exploration and rapid prototyping from behavioral models  

Microsoft Academic Search

SystemCoDesigner is an ESL tool developed at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany. SystemCoDesigner offers a fast design space exploration and rapid prototyping of behavioral Sys- temC models. Together with Forte Design Systems, a fully auto- mated approach was developed by integrating behavioral synthesis into the design flow. Starting from a behavioral SystemC model, hardware accelerators can be generated automatically using

Christian Haubelt; Thomas Schlichter; Joachim Keinert; Mike Meredith

2008-01-01

352

Space transportation systems, launch systems, and propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of transportation and propulsion options for Mars exploration missions are analyzed. As part of Project Outreach, RAND received and evaluated 350 submissions in the launch vehicle, space transportation, and propulsion areas. After screening submissions, aggregating those that proposed identical or nearly identical concepts, and eliminating from further consideration those that violated known physical princples, we had reduced the total number of viable submissions to 213. In order to avoid comparing such disparate things as launch vehicles and electric propulsion systems, six broad technical areas were selected to categorize the submissions: space transportation systems; earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems; chemical propulsion; nuclear propulsion; low-thrust propulsion; and other. To provide an appropriate background for analyzing the submissions, an extensive survey was made of the various technologies relevant to the six broad areas listed above. We discuss these technologies with the intent of providing the reader with an indication of the current state of the art, as well as the advances that might be expected within the next 10 to 20 years.

Garber, T.; Hiland, J.; Orletsky, D.; Augenstein, B.; Miller, M.

1991-01-01

353

Integral Reinforcement Learning for Continuous-Time Input-Affine Nonlinear Systems With Simultaneous Invariant Explorations.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on a class of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms, named integral RL (I-RL), that solve continuous-time (CT) nonlinear optimal control problems with input-affine system dynamics. First, we extend the concepts of exploration, integral temporal difference, and invariant admissibility to the target CT nonlinear system that is governed by a control policy plus a probing signal called an exploration. Then, we show input-to-state stability (ISS) and invariant admissibility of the closed-loop systems with the policies generated by integral policy iteration (I-PI) or invariantly admissible PI (IA-PI) method. Based on these, three online I-RL algorithms named explorized I-PI and integral Q-learning I, II are proposed, all of which generate the same convergent sequences as I-PI and IA-PI under the required excitation condition on the exploration. All the proposed methods are partially or completely model free, and can simultaneously explore the state space in a stable manner during the online learning processes. ISS, invariant admissibility, and convergence properties of the proposed methods are also investigated, and related with these, we show the design principles of the exploration for safe learning. Neural-network-based implementation methods for the proposed schemes are also presented in this paper. Finally, several numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:25163070

Lee, Jae Young; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

2014-08-22

354

Exploring Flexible Strategies in Engineering Systems Using Screening Models Applications to Offshore Petroleum Projects  

E-print Network

to Offshore Petroleum Projects by Jijun Lin B.E., Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics Flexible Strategies in Engineering Systems Using Screening Models Applications to Offshore Petroleum, such as offshore petroleum exploration and production systems, generally require a significant amount of capital

de Weck, Olivier L.

355

A Touring Machine: Prototyping 3D Mobile Augmented Reality Systems for Exploring the Urban Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a prototype system that combines together the overlaid 3D graphics of augmented reality with the untethered freedom of mobile computing. The goal is to explore how these two technologies might together make possible wearable computer systems that can support users in their everyday interactions with the world. We introduce an application that presents information about our univer- sity's

Steven Feiner; Blair Macintyre; Tobias Höllerer; Anthony Webster

1997-01-01

356

Operationalizing sustainability: exploring options for environmentally friendly flower bulb production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current production systems for flower bulbs in the Netherlands employ considerable quantities of pesticides and nutrients per unit area. In 1993, an association of growers and environmentalists set out to design new farming systems that meet environmental objectives in addition to economic objectives. To support the design process, an explorative study was carried out to bring together the fragmented agronomic

Walter A. H. Rossing; Jan Eelco Jansma; Frank J. De Ruijter; Jan Schans

1997-01-01

357

The Impact of System-of-Care Participation on School Functioning: Exploring Caregiver and Teacher Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is some evidence that systems of care are associated with improved outcomes for the children and youths who participate; however, little research has been conducted on how these approaches affect student functioning in school. In this study, the authors explored the relationship between participation in the Dawn Project system of care and…

Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Meyer, Lakeisha D.; Somers, John W.

2006-01-01

358

Definition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems  

E-print Network

Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems By Bryan K. Smith Submitted to the System Design, expansion and screening of Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power concepts capable of achieving planetaryDefinition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear

359

Immune system changes during simulated planetary exploration on Devon Island, high arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during spaceflight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions have yet to be established. Also, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of

Brian Crucian; Pascal Lee; Raymond Stowe; Jeff Jones; Rainer Effenhauser; Raymond Widen; Clarence Sams

2007-01-01

360

Understanding the Chena Hot Springs, Alaska, geothermal system using temperature and pressure data from exploration boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chena Hot Springs is a small, moderate temperature, deep circulating geothermal system, apparently typical of those associated to hot springs of interior Alaska. Multi-stage drilling was used in some exploration boreholes and was found to be useful for understanding subsurface flow characteristics and developing a conceptual model of the system. The results illustrate how temperature profiles illuminate varying pressure versus

Kamil Erkan; Gwen Holdmann; Walter Benoit; David Blackwell

2008-01-01

361

Exploration Strategies for Model-based Learning in Multi-agent Systems  

E-print Network

with other agents who may be potential partners, or alternatively, competing opponents. Designing & Markovitch levels of knowledge. For such a system an agent should be designed to efficiently interactExploration Strategies for Model-based Learning in Multi-agent Systems David Carmel and Shaul

Markovitch, Shaul

362

A Systematic Approach to Exploring Embedded System Architectures at Multiple Abstraction Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sheer complexity of today's embedded systems forces designers to start with modeling and simulating system components and their interactions in the very early design stages. It is therefore imperative to have good tools for exploring a wide range of design choices, especially during the early design stages, where the design space is at its largest. This paper presents an

Andy D. Pimentel; Cagkan Erbas; Simon Polstra

2006-01-01

363

Engineering America's Future in Space: Systems Engineering Innovations for Sustainable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews systems engineering innovations for Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. The contents include: 1) NASA's Exploratoin Roadmap; 2) Launch Vehicle Comparisons; 3) Designing the Ares I and Ares V in House; 4) Exploring the Moon; and 5) Systems Engineering Adds Value Throughout the Project Lifecycle.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Caruso, Pamela W.; Jones, Carl P.

2008-01-01

364

Edinburgh Research Explorer Systems analysis of immune responses in Marek's disease virus-  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Systems analysis of immune responses in Marek's disease virus- infected, Nair, V, Burt, DW & Kaiser, P 2011, 'Systems analysis of immune responses in Marek's disease virus policy The University of Edinburgh has made every reasonable effort to ensure that Edinburgh Research

Millar, Andrew J.

365

Monitoring Induced Seismicity with AE Sensors : The Influence of Unknown Calibration Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect that an uncalibrated acoustic-emission (AE) sensor has on amplitude and magnitude using data of the JAGUARS project. The JAGUARS project recorded mining-induced seismicity in Mponeng Gold mine in Carletonville, South Africa in the frequency range 1 kHz < f < 180 kHz combining AE-sensors and accelerometers. Advanced monitoring of induced seismicity in underground structures sometimes includes today the use of high-frequency (f >> 1 kHz) AE monitoring systems. High-frequency monitoring allows the detection of seismic fractures on the centimeter scale and provides therefore important information about the migration of instabilities in the rock. Whereas the temporal-spatial analysis of seismic events recorded with AE sensors provides stable results, the analysis of source parameters including the estimation of magnitudes remains more challenging, because AE sensors are normally not well calibrated and exploit resonance frequencies to allow for high sensitivity. In our study the AE sensors are first calibrated in the frequency range 1kHz to 17 kHz relative to the well calibrated accelerometer. The calibration is possible due to the close employment of both sensor types, which allows to extract the sensor response (including the coupling effect) using signal deconvolution. We estimate three main resonance frequencies at about 2.5 kHz, 6 kHz and 10 kHz. Furthermore we calculate the directivity effect of the AE-sensor that influences the amplitude of the signal by up to - 15 dB. Second, we calculate the effect of the instrument response on the amplitude and the calculation of magnitude by studying synthetic data. We show the significant uncertainty that is introduced owing to the AE sensor response and conclude that source parameters often have high uncertainties and are not reliable for statistcal analsis if the instrument response of the recording AE sensor is not known.

Plenkers, Katrin; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Krüger, Frank

2013-04-01

366

An Optimized S-Box Circuit Architecture for Low Power AES Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing the power consumption of AES circuits is a critical problem when the circuits are used in low power embedded systems.\\u000a We found the S-Boxes consume much of the total AES circuit power and the power for an S-Box is mostly determined by the number\\u000a of dynamic hazards. In this paper, we propose a low-power S-Box circuit architecture: a multi-stage

Sumio Morioka; Akashi Satoh

2002-01-01

367

AES Encryption and Decryption Using Direct3D 10 API  

E-print Network

Current video cards (GPUs - Graphics Processing Units) are very programmable, have become much more powerful than the CPUs and they are very affordable. In this paper, we present an implementation for the AES algorithm using Direct3D 10 certified GPUs. The graphics API Direct3D 10 is the first version that allows the use of integer operations, making from the traditional GPUs (that works only with floating point numbers), General Purpose GPUs that can be used for a large number of algorithms, including encryption. We present the performance of the symmetric key encryption algorithm - AES, on a middle range GPU and on a middle range quad core CPU. On the testing system, the developed solution is almost 3 times faster on the GPU than on one single core CPU, showing that the GPU can perform as an efficient cryptographic accelerator.

Chiuta, Adrian Marius

2012-01-01

368

Abstract--The design of today's embedded systems involves a complex Design Space Exploration (DSE) process. Typically,  

E-print Network

Abstract--The design of today's embedded systems involves a complex Design Space Exploration (DSE of Multi-Objective Design spacE eXploration), to realize the search dynamics of a MOEA and to visualize--Design space exploration, embedded systems, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, visualization I

Pimentel, Andy D.

369

Reuniting the Solar System: Integrated Education and Public Outreach Projects for Solar System Exploration Missions and Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar System Exploration Education Forum has worked for five years to foster Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) cooperation among missions and programs in order to leverage resources and better meet the needs of educators and the public. These efforts are coming together in a number of programs and products and in '2004 - The Year of the Solar System.' NASA's practice of having independent E/PO programs for each mission and its public affairs emphasis on uniqueness has led to a public perception of a fragmented solar system exploration program. By working to integrate solar system E/PO, the breadth and depth of the solar system exploration program is revealed. When emphasis is put on what missions have in common, as well as their differences, each mission is seen in the context of the whole program.

Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Klug, Sheri

2003-01-01

370

Environmental Controls and Life Support System (ECLSS) Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

Stambaugh, Imelda; Sankaran, Subra

2010-01-01

371

Environmental Controls and Life Support System Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

Stambaugh, Imelda C.; Rodriguez, Branelle; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

2012-01-01

372

Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently in the process of decommissioning and dismantling many of its nuclear materials processing facilities that have been in use for several decades. Site managers throughout the DOE complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means to characterize, remediate and recycle or dispose of hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. The DOE discovered that standard characterization methods were inadequate for its pipes, drains, and ducts because many of the systems are buried or encased. In response to the DOE`s need for a more specialized characterization technique, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) developed the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system through a DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) contract administered through the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The purpose of this report is to serve as a comprehensive overview of all phases of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} development project. The report is divided into 6 sections. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, including the operating principles of using an inverting membrane to tow sensors into pipes. The basic components of the characterization system are also described. Descriptions of the various deployment systems are given in Section 3 along with descriptions of the capabilities of the deployment systems. During the course of the development project 7 types of survey instruments were demonstrated with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} and are a part of the basic toolbox of instruments available for use with the system. These survey tools are described in Section 4 along with their typical performance specifications. The 4 demonstrations of the system are described chronologically in Section 5. The report concludes with a summary of the history, status, and future of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system in Section 6.

Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

1997-09-30

373

Properties of AE indices derived from real-time global simulation and their implications for solar wind-magnetosphere coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere (S-M-I) coupling system was used to calculate auroral electrojet (AE) indices. This simulation reproduces the magnetic field configurations in the magnetosphere, magnetospheric convection, and field-aligned currents (FACs) using the upstream boundary conditions with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind speed, temperature, and proton number density measured by the ACE spacecraft. The electrical potential at 3 RE (Earth radii) from the center of the Earth is mapped on the ionosphere. The ionospheric currents are deduced from Ohm's law to match the divergence of Pedersen and Hall currents from FACs. The AE indices are obtained from the magnetic field perturbation caused by the simulated ionospheric currents. We compared the simulated AE indices for 247 d with the AE indices deduced from the magnetic variations at up to 12 stations located around the auroral latitude. The results show that the simulated AE reproduces the observed AE indices well. Of the 247 d, 64% had cross-correlation coefficients of more than 0.5. We also found that the simulated AE indices do not correlate well with the observed AE indices when the standard deviations of variations in the observed AE indices are less than 100 nT. When variations in the AE indices are small, some of the short-period perturbations of the electromagnetic energy flowing from the solar wind into the magnetosphere is absorbed or filtered in the real S-M-I coupling system by some mechanism that is not included in our MHD simulation and that the resulting fluctuation in the AE indices is damped compared with the simulation.

Kitamura, K.; Shimazu, H.; Fujita, S.; Watari, S.; Kunitake, M.; Shinagawa, H.; Tanaka, T.

2008-03-01

374

A Sensitivity-Based Design Space Exploration Methodology for Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a system-level design methodology for the efficient exploration of the architectural parameters of the memory sub-systems, from the energy-delay joint perspective. The aim is to find the best configuration of the memory hierarchy without performing the exhaustive analysis of the parameters space. The target system architecture includes the processor, separated instruction and data caches, the

WILLIAM FORNACIARI; DONATELLA SCIUTO; CRISTINA SILVANO; VITTORIO ZACCARIA

2002-01-01

375

Opportunities within NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate for Engineering Students and Faculty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) launched two new Educational Projects: (1) The ESMID Space Grant Student Project ; and (2) The ESM1D Space Grant Faculty Project. The Student Project consists of three student opportunities: exploration-related internships at NASA Centers or with space-related industry, senior design projects, and system engineering paper competitions. The ESMID Space Grant Faculty Project consists of two faculty opportunities: (1) a summer faculty fellowship; and (2) funding to develop a senior design course.

Garner, Lesley

2008-01-01

376

Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

Abell, Paul A.

2011-01-01

377

Gaining system design knowledge by systematic design space exploration with graph based design languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual design phase in the design of complex systems such as satellite propulsion systems heavily relies on an exploration of the feasible design space. This exploration requires both: topological changes in the potential system architecture and consistent parametrical changes in the dimensioning of the existing system components. Since advanced engineering design techniques nowadays advocate a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach, graph-based design languages which embed a superset of MBSE-features are consequently used in this work to systematically explore the feasible design space. Design languages allow the design knowledge to be represented, modeled and executed using model-based transformations and combine this among other features with constraint processing techniques. The execution of the design language shown for the satellite propulsion systems in this work yields topologically varied designs (i.e. the selection of a monergol, a diergol or a coldgas system) with consistent parameters. Based on an a posteriori performance analysis of the automatically generated system designs, novel system knowledge (most notably in form of so-called "topology change points") can be gained and extracted from the original point cloud of numerical results.

Schmidt, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan

2014-10-01

378

Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

2013-03-01

379

High-temperature nuclear closed Brayton cycle power conversion system for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Exploration Initiative has stated goals of colonizing the moon and conducting manned exploration of the planet Mars. Unlike previous ventures into space, both manned and unmanned, large quantities of electrical power will be required to provide the energy for lunar base sustenance and for highly efficient propulsion systems for the long trip to Mars and return. Further, the requirement for electrical power of several megawatts will necessitate the use of nuclear reactor driven power conversion systems. This paper discusses a particle bed reactor closed Brayton cycle space power system that uses advanced materials technology to achieve a high-temperature, low-specific-weight modular system capable of providing the requisite electrical power for both a lunar base and a Mars flight vehicle propulsion system.

Brandes, Donald J.

380

High-temperature nuclear closed Brayton cycle power conversion system for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has stated goals of colonizing the moon and conducting manned exploration of the planet Mars. Unlike previous ventures into space, both manned and unmanned, large quantities of electrical power will be required to provide the energy for lunar base sustenance and for highly efficient propulsion systems for the long trip to mars and return. Further, the requirement for electrical power of several megawatts will necessitate the use of nuclear reactor driven power conversion systems. This paper discusses a particle bed reactor closed Brayton cycle space power system that uses advanced materials technology to achieve a high-temperature, low-specific-weight modular system capable of providing the requisite electrical power for both a lunar base and a Mars flight vehicle propulsion system.

Brandes, Donald J.

1991-01-01

381

High-temperature nuclear closed Brayton cycle power conversion system for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has stated goals of colonizing the moon and conducting manned exploration of the planet Mars. Unlike previous ventures into space, both manned and unmanned, large quantities of electrical power will be required to provide the energy for lunar base sustenance and for highly efficient propulsion systems for the long trip to mars and return. Further, the requirement for electrical power of several megawatts will necessitate the use of nuclear reactor driven power conversion systems. This paper discusses a particle bed reactor closed Brayton cycle space power system that uses advanced materials technology to achieve a high-temperature, low-specific-weight modular system capable of providing the requisite electrical power for both a lunar base and a Mars flight vehicle propulsion system.

Brandes, D.J. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, Garrett Fluid Systems Division, 1300 West Warner Road, Tempe, Arizona 85284-2896 (US))

1991-01-05

382

Operation and performance of the mars exploration rover imaging system on the martian surface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Imaging System on the Mars Exploration Rovers has successfully operated on the surface of Mars for over one Earth year. The acquisition of hundreds of panoramas and tens of thousands of stereo pairs has enabled the rovers to explore Mars at a level of detail unprecedented in the history of space exploration. In addition to providing scientific value, the images also play a key role in the daily tactical operation of the rovers. The mobile nature of the MER surface mission requires extensive use of the imaging system for traverse planning, rover localization, remote sensing instrument targeting, and robotic arm placement. Each of these activity types requires a different set of data compression rates, surface coverage, and image acquisition strategies. An overview of the surface imaging activities is provided, along with a summary of the image data acquired to date. ?? 2005 IEEE.

Maki, J.N.; Litwin, T.; Schwochert, M.; Herkenhoff, K.

2005-01-01

383

Using C to build a satellite scheduling expert system: Examples from the Explorer Platform planning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A C-based artificial intelligence (AI) development effort which is based on a software tools approach is discussed with emphasis on reusability and maintainability of code. The discussion starts with simple examples of how list processing can easily be implemented in C and then proceeds to the implementations of frames and objects which use dynamic memory allocation. The implementation of procedures which use depth first search, constraint propagation, context switching, and blackboard-like simulation environment are described. Techniques for managing the complexity of C-based AI software are noted, especially the object-oriented techniques of data encapsulation and incremental development. Finally, all these concepts are put together by describing the components of planning software called the Planning And Resource Reasoning (PARR) Shell. This shell was successfully utilized for scheduling services of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite since May of 1987 and will be used for operations scheduling of the Explorer Platform in Nov. of 1991.

Mclean, David R.; Tuchman, Alan; Potter, William J.

1991-01-01

384

Revolutionary Design for Astronaut Exploration — Beyond the Bio-Suit System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bio-Suit System is designed to revolutionize human space exploration by providing enhanced astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) locomotion and performance based on the concepts of a `second skin' capability. The novel Bio-Suit concept provides an overall exploration system realized through symbiotic relationships between a suite of advanced technologies, creative design, human modeling and analysis, and new mission operations techniques. By working at the intersection of engineering, design, life sciences and operations, new emergent capabilities and interrelationships result for applications to space missions, medical rehabilitation, and extreme sports activities. In many respects, the Bio-Suit System mimics Nature (biomimetics). For example, the second skin is capable of augmenting our biological skin by providing mechanical counter-pressure. We have designed and tested prototypes that prove mechanical counter-pressure feasibility. The `epidermis' of our second skin suit is patterned from 3D laser scans that incorporate human skin strain field maps for maximum mobility and natural movements, while requiring minimum energy expenditure for exploration tasks. We provide a technology roadmap for future design, pressure production and technology investments for the Bio-Suit System. Woven into the second skin are active materials to enhance human performance as well as to provide necessary performance metrics (i.e., energy expenditure). Wearable technologies will be embedded throughout the Bio-Suit System to place the explorer in an information-rich environment enabling real-time mission planning, prediction, and visualization. The Bio-Suit System concept augments human capabilities by coupling human and robotic abilities into a hybrid of the two, to the point where the explorer is hardly aware of the boundary between innate human performance and robotic activities.

Newman, Dava J.; Canina, Marita; Trotti, Guillermo L.

2007-01-01

385

Exploration Platform in the Earth-Moon Libration System Based on ISS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past two years on concepts using ISS development methods and residual assets to support a broad range of exploration missions. These concepts have matured along with planning details for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to allow serious consideration for a platform located in the Earth-Moon Libration (EML) system. This platform would provide a flexible basis for future exploration missions and would significantly reduce costs because it will enable re-use of expensive spacecraft and reduce the total number of launches needed to accomplish these missions. ISS provides a robust set of methods which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. We will show how ISS can be used to reduce risk and improve operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit through the development of a new Exploration Platform based in the EML system. The benefits of using the EML system as a gateway will be presented along with additional details of a lunar exploration mission concept. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. We will show how technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the new exploration challenge. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Finally, we will describe how the EML Platform could be built and deployed and how International access for crew and cargo could be provided.

Raftery, Michael; Derechin, Alexander

2012-01-01

386

JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer): a European-led mission to the Jupiter system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The former ESA-NASA EJSM-Laplace mission is being reformulated by ESA as a European-led single spacecraft mission to the Jovian system. The concept has been recently renamed JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer). The new mission is based on the design of the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) - the ESA flight element of EJSM-Laplace.

Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Titov, D. V.; Erd, C.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Coradini, A.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; van Hoolst, T.; Lebreton, J.-P.

2011-10-01

387

Educational and Career Exploration System: Report of a Two-Year Field Trial.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report traces the earliest field trials and later developments of the Educational and Career Exploration System (ECES), a computer-based learning environment to be used as a part of the educational and vocational guidance services in secondary schools. ECES includes a set of experiences in which the student considers his own educationally and…

Myers, Roger A.; And Others

388

Summary of studies on space solar power systems of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been conducting studies on space solar power systems (SSPS) using microwave and laser beams for years since FY1998 organizing a special committee and working groups. In case of microwave based SSPS, the solar energy must be converted to electricity and then converted to a microwave beam. The on-ground rectifying antenna

M. Mori; Y. Saito

2004-01-01

389

Toward Systems Biology in Brown Algae to Explore Acclimation and Adaptation to the Shore Environment  

E-print Network

Toward Systems Biology in Brown Algae to Explore Acclimation and Adaptation to the Shore,2 Catherine Boyen,1,2 and Anne Siegel4,5 Abstract Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly siliculosus as a model organism for brown algae has represented a framework in which several omics techniques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

390

Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars—III: studies of system reliability and maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission

W. W. Mendell; R. P. Heydorn

2004-01-01

391

Unlocking the Black Box: Exploring the Link between High-Performance Work Systems and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a growing body of literature linking systems of high-performance work practices to organizational performance outcomes, recent research has pushed for examinations of the underlying mechanisms that enable this connection. In this study, based on a large sample of Welsh public-sector employees, we explored the role of several individual-level…

Messersmith, Jake G.; Patel, Pankaj C.; Lepak, David P.

2011-01-01

392

THE HEXATONIC SYSTEMS UNDER NEO-RIEMANNIAN THEORY: AN EXPLORATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL  

E-print Network

THE HEXATONIC SYSTEMS UNDER NEO-RIEMANNIAN THEORY: AN EXPLORATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF MUSIC KENNETH OSHITA Abstract. Neo-Riemannian theory developed as the mathematical analysis of musical harmonies, but of sound- ing atonal. Neo-Riemannian theory not only allowed for the mathematical

May, J. Peter

393

EXPLORING THE PROCESS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ASPECTS OF E-GOVERNMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the challenges that local government face in the UK when implementing fully integrated public services. The authors examine the degree of integration and harmonisation required between various stakeholders in government for the effective delivery of e-services. While process and information systems integration are identified in the literature as key challenges for realising fully functional e-government services; an

Patel Riten

394

Multiple Embedded Inequalities and Cultural Diversity in Educational Systems: A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the social construction of cultural diversity in education, with a view to social justice. It examines how educational systems organize ethno-cultural difference and how this process contributes to inequalities. Theoretical resources are drawn from social philosophy as well as from recent developments in social organisation…

Verhoeven, Marie

2011-01-01

395

Human support issues and systems for the space exploration initiative: Results from Project Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analyses and evaluations of the Human Support panel are discussed. The Human Support panel is one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program. Submissions to the Human Support panel were in the following areas: radiation protection; microgravity; life support systems; medical care; and human factors (behavior and performance).

Aroesty, J.; Zimmerman, R.; Logan, J.

1991-01-01

396

Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD: from bees to BEES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of Bio-inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) is to distill the principles found in successful, nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods, but accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological organisms.

Thakoor, S.; Zornetzer, S.; Hine, B.; Chahl, J.; Werblin, F.; Srinivasan, M. V.; Young, L.

2003-01-01

397

Exploring the Optimal Replication Strategy in P2P-VoD Systems: Characterization and  

E-print Network

1 Exploring the Optimal Replication Strategy in P2P-VoD Systems: Characterization and Evaluation Weijie Wu, Student Member, IEEE, and John C.S. Lui, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--P2P-Video-on-Demand (P2P time, content providers of P2P-VoD services also need to make sure that the service is operated

Lui, John C.S.

398

Exploring the Optimal Replication Strategy in P2P-VoD Systems: Characterization and Evaluation  

E-print Network

Exploring the Optimal Replication Strategy in P2P-VoD Systems: Characterization and Evaluation Email: {wjwu,cslui}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract-- Content providers of P2P-Video-on-Demand (P2P- Vo2P-VoD content providers to reduce peers' access to the content server so as to reduce the operating

Lui, John C.S.

399

Rapid Design Space Exploration of Application Specific Heterogeneous Pipelined Multiprocessor Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a rapid design methodology to create a pipeline of processors to execute streaming applications. The methodology seeks a system with the smallest area while its runtime is within a specified runtime constraint. Initially, a heuristic is used to rapidly explore a large number of processor configurations to find the near Pareto front of the design space, and

Haris Javaid; Aleksandar Ignjatovic; Sri Parameswaran

2010-01-01

400

Retargetable profiling for rapid, early system-level design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast and accurate estimation is critical for exploration of any design space in general. As we move to higher levels of abstraction, estimation of complete system designs at each level of abstraction is needed. Estimation should provide a variety of useful metrics relevant to design tasks in different domains and at each stage in the design process.In this paper, we

Lukai Cai; Andreas Gerstlauer; Daniel Gajski

2004-01-01

401

Classroom Response Systems: Using Task Technology Fit to Explore Impact Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study is to determine how students are impacted by the use of Classroom Response System (CRS) technology. This research explores the nature of the outcomes experienced by students and their perceptions on the leading pedagogy and practices for using CRS technology in the classroom. The research is both quantitative and…

Jones, Kenneth D., II.

2010-01-01

402

Exploring Students' Understanding of Ordinary Differential Equations Using Computer Algebraic System (CAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are one of the important topics in engineering mathematics that lead to the understanding of technical concepts among students. This study was conducted to explore the students' understanding of ODEs when they solve ODE questions using a traditional method as well as a computer algebraic system, particularly…

Maat, Siti Mistima; Zakaria, Effandi

2011-01-01

403

Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

404

A multitasking behavioral control system for the Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER)  

SciTech Connect

The design of a multitasking behavioral control system for the Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) is described. The control system design attempts to ameliorate some of the problems noted by some researchers when implementing subsumption or behavioral control systems, particularly with regard to multiple processor systems and real-time operations. The architecture is designed to allow both synchronous and asynchronous operations between various behavior modules by taking advantage of intertask communications channels, and by implementing each behavior module and each interconnection node as a stand-alone task. The potential advantages of this approach over those previously described in the field are discussed. An implementation of the architecture is planned for a prototype Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) currently under development, and is briefly described.

Klarer, P.

1994-03-01

405

On the question of calculating the free energies of biomolecular systems: how much of phase space is actually explored?  

E-print Network

that the phase space exploration is a very slow process that has the time scale of hundreds of nanoseconds even differ in the rates of the phase space exploration. During these periods the rates remain the same calculation, is various methods of artificial increas- ing the phase space area explored by the system

Nerukh, Dmitry

406

Destination Deimos: A Design Reference Architecture for Initial Human Exploration of the Mars System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two biggest challenges to successful human operations in interplanetary space are flight dynamics, constrained by the cold hard physics of the rocket equation, and bioastronautics, the psychophysiological realities of human adaptation, or lack thereof, to the deep space environment. Without substantial innovation in project/mission architecture and vehicle design, human exploration of the Mars system could be problematic for decades. Although a human landing on Mars is inevitable, humans-in-the-loop telerobotic exploration from the outer Martian moon Deimos is the best way to begin. Precursor robotic missions for reconnaissance and local site preparation will be required.

Logan, James S.; Adamo, D. R.

2011-01-01

407

Exploring the Edge of Our Solar System: IBEX Mission (Poster Back)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster outlines the major mission highlights of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is designed to map the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium. This poster supports a full length planetarium show about the IBEX mission and the boundary of the Solar System. Each short activity/product helps to build awareness and engagement in the science and engineering aspects of the mission that are reinforced as visitors choose to participate in more activities, including viewing the Show and mission website.

408

Wearing on Her Nerves Exploring the Interrelation between the Nervous and Muscular Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study is designed to integrate important aspects of the nervous and muscular system portions of an anatomy and physiology course. Students follow the story of “Kathy,” whose symptoms involve both sensory and motor components of the nervous system. The students must recognize the key factors of nerve transmission, examine where there could be interruption, and recognize how the interruption would affect body function. They also need to identify the role that the nervous system plays in muscular function. Through the case, students explore the relationship between both body systems, consider how one affects the other, and discover how function can be affected by external factors.

Kathleen G. Brown

2011-01-01

409

A Titan Explorer Mission Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion and Chemical Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission and Systems analyses were performed for a Titan Explorer Mission scenario utilizing medium class launch vehicles, solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) for primary interplanetary propulsion, and chemical propulsion for capture at Titan. An examination of a range of system factors was performed to determine their affect on the payload delivery capability to Titan. The effect of varying the launch vehicle, solar array power, associated number of SEPS thrusters, chemical propellant combinations, tank liner thickness, and tank composite overwrap stress factor was investigated. This paper provides a parametric survey of the aforementioned set of system factors, delineating their affect on Titan payload delivery, as well as discussing aspects of planetary capture methodology.

Cupples, Michael; Coverstone, Vicki

2003-01-01

410

Scotty, I Need More Power - The Fission System Gateway to Abundant Power for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In planning and in crisis, electrical power has been a key consideration when humans venture into space. Since the 1950's, nuclear fission (splitting of atoms) power has been a logical alternative in both fact and fiction, due to its ability to provide abundant power with high energy density, reliability, and immunity to severe environments. Bringing space fission power to a state of readiness for exploration has depended on clearing the hurdle of technology readiness demonstration. Due to the happy coincidence of heritage from prior space fission development efforts such as the Prometheus program, foresight from NASA's Exploration Mission Systems Directorate in the mid-2000's, and relative budget stability through the late 2000's, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE), with their industry partners, are poised to push through to this objective. Hardware for a 12 kWe non-nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit is being fabricated now on a schedule that will enable a low-cost demonstration of technology readiness in the mid-2010s, with testing beginning as early as 2012. With space fission power system technology demonstrated, exploration mission planners will have the flexibility to respond to a broad variety of missions and will be able to provide abundant power so that future explorers will, in planning or crisis, have the power they need when they most need it.

Palac, Donald T.

2011-01-01

411

Cytosolic H+ microdomain developed around AE1 during AE1-mediated Cl?/HCO3? exchange  

PubMed Central

Abstract Microdomains, regions of discontinuous cytosolic solute concentration enhanced by rapid solute transport and slow diffusion rates, have many cellular roles. pH-regulatory membrane transporters, like the Cl?/HCO3? exchanger AE1, could develop H+ microdomains since AE1 has a rapid transport rate and cytosolic H+ diffusion is slow. We examined whether the pH environment surrounding AE1 differs from other cellular locations. As AE1 drives Cl?/HCO3? exchange, differences in pH, near and remote from AE1, were monitored by confocal microscopy using two pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins: deGFP4 (GFP) and mNectarine (mNect). Plasma membrane (PM) pH (defined as ?1 ?m region around the cell periphery) was monitored by GFP fused to AE1 (GFP.AE1), and mNect fused to an inactive mutant of the Na+-coupled nucleoside co-transporter, hCNT3 (mNect.hCNT3). GFP.AE1 to mNect.hCNT3 distance was varied by co-expression of different amounts of the two proteins in HEK293 cells. As the GFP.AE1–mNect.hCNT3 distance increased, mNect.hCNT3 detected the Cl?/HCO3? exchange-associated cytosolic pH change with a time delay and reduced rate of pH change compared to GFP.AE1. We found that a H+ microdomain 0.3 ?m in diameter forms around GFP.AE1 during physiological HCO3? transport. Carbonic anhydrase isoform II inhibition prevented H+ microdomain formation. We also measured the rate of H+ movement from PM GFP.AE1 to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), using mNect fused to the cytosolic face of ER-resident calnexin (CNX.mNect). The rate of H+ diffusion through cytosol was 60-fold faster than along the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane. The pH environment surrounding pH regulatory transport proteins may differ as a result of H+ microdomain formation, which will affect nearby pH-sensitive processes. PMID:21300752

Johnson, Danielle E; Casey, Joseph R

2011-01-01

412

Impact of solar system exploration on theories of chemical evolution and the origin of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of solar system exploration on theories regarding chemical evolution and the origin of life is examined in detail. Major findings from missions to Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan are reviewed and implications for prebiotic chemistry are discussed. Among the major conclusions are: prebiotic chemistry is widespread throughout the solar system and universe; chemical evolution and the origin of life are intimately associated with the origin and evolution of the solar system; the rate, direction, and extent of prebiotic chemistry is highly dependent upon planetary characteristics; and continued exploration will increase understanding of how life originated on earth and allow better estimates of the likelihood of similar processes occurring elsewhere.

Devincenzi, D. L.

1983-01-01

413

Into the thermosphere: The atmosphere explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need to study the lower thermosphere with the new instrument, data handling, and spacecraft technology available in the 1960s led to the formulation and establishment of the Atmospheric Explorer program. This book provides an overview of this program with particular emphasis on the AE3, AE4, and AE5 satellites, which represent early examples of problem-dedicated missions. Both the satellites and their instrumentation on the one hand and the experimental and scientific considerations in studying the thermosphere on the other are discussed.

Burgess, Eric; Torr, Douglass

1987-01-01

414

System for Multiplexing Acoustic Emission (AE) Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic monitoring device has at least two acoustic sensors with a triggering mechanism and a multiplexing circuit. After the occurrence of a triggering event at a sensor, the multiplexing circuit allows a recording component to record acoustic emissions at adjacent sensors. The acoustic monitoring device is attached to a solid medium to detect the occurrence of damage.

Prosser, William H. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Gorman, Michael R. (Inventor); Scales, Edgar F. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

415

AES Huntington Beach Generation Station Surf Zone  

E-print Network

: establishing a sampling and monitoring plan for a period of 14 weeks; sampling surface water and inplant waterH, temperature, salinity, conductivity, DO, turbidity, and ammonia); conducting bacterial source and to quantitatively predict the potential impact of the AES HBGS on the beach; monitor temperature and salinity

416

Performance Comparison of the AES Submissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal goal guiding the design of any encryption algorithm must be security. In the real world, however, performance and implementation cost are always of concern. Making the assumption that the major AES candidates are secure (a big assumption, to be sure, but one that is best dealt with in another paper), the most important properties the algorithms will be

Bruce Schneier; John Kelsey; Doug Whiting; David Wagner; Chris Hall; Niels Ferguson

1999-01-01

417

Human Factors Engineering as a System in the Vision for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to accomplish NASA's Vision for Exploration, while assuring crew safety and productivity, human performance issues must be well integrated into system design from mission conception. To that end, a two-year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to develop a systematic method for including the human as a system in NASA's Vision for Exploration. The specific goals of this project are to review current Human Systems Integration (HSI) standards (i.e., industry, military, NASA) and tailor them to selected NASA Exploration activities. Once the methods are proven in the selected domains, a plan will be developed to expand the effort to a wider scope of Exploration activities. The methods will be documented for inclusion in NASA-specific documents (such as the Human Systems Integration Standards, NASA-STD-3000) to be used in future space systems. The current project builds on a previous TDP dealing with Human Factors Engineering processes. That project identified the key phases of the current NASA design lifecycle, and outlined the recommended HFE activities that should be incorporated at each phase. The project also resulted in a prototype of a webbased HFE process tool that could be used to support an ideal HFE development process at NASA. This will help to augment the limited human factors resources available by providing a web-based tool that explains the importance of human factors, teaches a recommended process, and then provides the instructions, templates and examples to carry out the process steps. The HFE activities identified by the previous TDP are being tested in situ for the current effort through support to a specific NASA Exploration activity. Currently, HFE personnel are working with systems engineering personnel to identify HSI impacts for lunar exploration by facilitating the generation of systemlevel Concepts of Operations (ConOps). For example, medical operations scenarios have been generated for lunar habitation in order to identify HSI requirements for the lunar communications architecture. Throughout these ConOps exercises, HFE personnel are testing various tools and methodologies that have been identified in the literature. A key part of the effort is the identification of optimal processes, methods, and tools for these early development phase activities, such as ConOps, requirements development, and early conceptual design. An overview of the activities completed thus far, as well as the tools and methods investigated will be presented.

Whitmore, Mihriban; Smith, Danielle; Holden, Kritina

2006-01-01

418

Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with 'reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower 'initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power, and small NEP systems for interplanetary probes. System upgrades are expected to evolve that will result in even shorter trip times, improved payload capabilities, and enhanced safety and reliability.

Clark, John S.; George, Jeffrey A.; Gefert, Leon P.; Doherty, Michael P.; Sefcik, Robert J.

1994-01-01

419

Air and Water System (AWS) Design and Technology Selection for the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The specific objectives are to identify the most probable air and water technologies for the vision for space exploration and to identify the alternate technologies that might be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary first cut systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then define the functional architecture, review the International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and discuss alternate technologies. The life support requirements for air and water are well known. The results of the mass flow and mass balance analysis help define the system architectural concept. The AWS includes five subsystems: Oxygen Supply, Condensate Purification, Urine Purification, Hygiene Water Purification, and Clothes Wash Purification. AWS technologies have been evaluated in the life support design for ISS node 3, and in earlier space station design studies, in proposals for the upgrade or evolution of the space station, and in studies of potential lunar or Mars missions. The leading candidate technologies for the vision for space exploration are those planned for Node 3 of the ISS. The ISS life support was designed to utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) hardware to the maximum extent possible. The SSF final technology selection process, criteria, and results are discussed. Would it be cost-effective for the vision for space exploration to develop alternate technology? This paper will examine this and other questions associated with AWS design and technology selection.

Jones, Harry; Kliss, Mark

2005-01-01

420

Lunar Exploration: Opening a Window into the History and Evolution of the Inner Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar geological record contains a rich archive of the history of the inner Solar System, including information relevant to understanding the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and our local cosmic environment. This paper provides a brief review of lunar exploration to-date, and describes how future exploration initiatives will further advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon, the Earth-Moon system, and of the Solar System more generally. It is concluded that further advances will require the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the lunar surface. Some of these scientific objectives can be achieved robotically, for example by in situ geochemical and geophysical measurements and through carefully targeted sample return missions. However, in the longer term, we argue that lunar science would greatly benefit from renewed human operations on the surface of the Moon, such as would be facilitated by implementing the recently proposed Global Exploration Roadmap.

Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.

2014-08-01

421

Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion - a basic Tool for the manned Exploration of the Solar System  

SciTech Connect

Humanity has started to explore space more than 40 years ago. Numerous spacecraft have left the Earth in this endeavour, but while unmanned spacecraft were already sent out on missions, where they would eventually reach the outer limits of the Solar System, manned exploration has always been confined to the tiny bubble of the Earth's gravitational well, stretching out at maximum to our closest celestial companion - the Moon - during the era of the Apollo programme in the late 60's and early 70's. When mankind made its giant leap, the exploration of our cosmic neighbour was seen as the initial step for the manned exploration of the whole Solar System. Consequently ambitious research and development programmes were undertaken at that time to enable what seemed to be the next logical steps: the establishment of a permanent settled base on the Moon and the first manned mission to Mars in the 80's. Nuclear space power and propulsion played an important role in these entire future scenarios, hence ambitious development programmes were undertaken to make these technologies available. Unfortunately the 70's-paradigm shift in space policies did not only bring an end to the Apollo programme, but it also brought a complete halt to all of these technology programmes and confined the human presence in space to a tiny bubble including nothing more than the Earth's sphere and a mere shell of a few hundred kilometres of altitude, too small to even include the Moon. Today, after more than three decades, manned exploration of the Solar System has become an issue again and so are missions to Moon and Mars. However, studies and analyses show that all of these future plans are hampered by today's available propulsion systems and by the problematic of solar power generation at distances at and beyond of Mars, a problem, however, that can readily be solved by the utilisation of space nuclear reactors and propulsion systems. This paper intends to provide an overview on the various fission- and fusion-based Nuclear Power and Propulsion system concepts and tries to compare these systems' different working principles and technical implementations with each other. The overview and comparison will be complemented by a closer look at ongoing activities related to research and development in this area and by an outlook on what kind of systems might be employed to carry the first astronauts to Mars and beyond. (autho0008.

Frischauf, Norbert; Hamilton, Booz Allen [ESA/ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, P.O. Box 29, NL-2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)

2004-07-01

422

A Delphi-Based Framework for systems architecting of in-orbit exploration infrastructure for human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current debate in the U.S. Human Spaceflight Program focuses on the development of the next generation of man-rated heavy lift launch vehicles. While launch vehicle systems are of critical importance for future exploration, a comprehensive analysis of the entire exploration infrastructure is required to avoid costly pitfalls at early stages of the design process. This paper addresses this need by presenting a Delphi-Based Systems Architecting Framework for integrated architectural analysis of future in-orbit infrastructure for human space exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The paper is structured in two parts. The first part consists of an expert elicitation study to identify objectives for the in-space transportation infrastructure. The study was conducted between November 2011 and January 2012 with 15 senior experts involved in human spaceflight in the United States and Europe. The elicitation study included the formation of three expert panels representing exploration, science, and policy stakeholders engaged in a 3-round Delphi study. The rationale behind the Delphi approach, as imported from social science research, is discussed. Finally, a novel version of the Delphi method is presented and applied to technical decision-making and systems architecting in the context of human space exploration. The second part of the paper describes a tradespace exploration study of in-orbit infrastructure coupled with a requirements definition exercise informed by expert elicitation. The uncertainties associated with technical requirements and stakeholder goals are explicitly considered in the analysis. The outcome of the expert elicitation process portrays an integrated view of perceived stakeholder needs within the human spaceflight community. Needs are subsequently converted into requirements and coupled to the system architectures of interest to analyze the correlation between exploration, science, and policy goals. Pareto analysis is used to identify architectures of interest for further consideration by decision-makers. The paper closes with a summary of insights and develops a strategy for evolutionary development of the exploration infrastructure of the incoming decades. The most important result produced by this analysis is the identification of a critical irreducible ambiguity undermining value delivery for the in-space transportation infrastructure of the next three decades: destination choice. Consensus on destination is far from being reached by the community at large, with particular reference to exploration and policy stakeholders. The realization of this ambiguity is a call for NASA to promote an open forum on this topic, and to develop a strong case for policy makers to incentivize investments in the human spaceflight industry in the next decades.

Aliakbargolkar, Alessandro; Crawley, Edward F.

2014-01-01

423

A Geothermal GIS for Nevada: Defining Regional Controls and Favorable Exploration Terrains for Extensional Geothermal Systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial analysis with a GIS was used to evaluate geothermal systems in Nevada using digital maps of geology, heat flow, young faults, young volcanism, depth to groundwater, groundwater geochemistry, earthquakes, and gravity. High-temperature (>160??C) extensional geothermal systems are preferentially associated with northeast-striking late Pleistocene and younger faults, caused by crustal extension, which in most of Nevada is currently oriented northwesterly (as measured by GPS). The distribution of sparse young (160??C) geothermal systems in Nevada are more likely to occur in areas where the groundwater table is shallow (<30m). Undiscovered geothermal systems may occur where groundwater levels are deeper and hot springs do not issue at the surface. A logistic regression exploration model was developed for geothermal systems, using young faults, young volcanics, positive gravity anomalies, and earthquakes to predict areas where deeper groundwater tables are most likely to conceal geothermal systems.

Coolbaugh, M.F.; Taranik, J.V.; Raines, G.L.; Shevenell, L.A.; Sawatzky, D.L.; Bedell, R.; Minor, T.B.

2002-01-01

424

Challenges in verification and validation of autonomous systems for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration applications offer a unique opportunity for the development and deployment of autonomous systems, due to limited communications, large distances, and great expense of direct operation. At the same time, the risk and cost of space missions leads to reluctance to taking on new, complex and difficult-to-understand technology. A key issue in addressing these concerns is the validation of autonomous systems. In recent years, higher-level autonomous systems have been applied in space applications. In this presentation, we will highlight those autonomous systems, and discuss issues in validating these systems. We will then look to future demands on validating autonomous systems for space, identify promising technologies and open issues.

Brat, Guillaume; Jonsson, Ari

2005-01-01

425

Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Building a Better Approach for (Human) Spaceflight Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of Avionics is advancing far more rapidly in terrestrial applications than in space flight applications. Spaceflight Avionics are not keeping pace with expectations set by terrestrial experience, nor are they keeping pace with the need for increasingly complex automation and crew interfaces as we move beyond Low Earth Orbit. NASA must take advantage of the strides being made by both space-related and terrestrial industries to drive our development and sustaining costs down. This paper describes ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionic architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. Results from the AAE project's FY13 efforts are discussed, along with the status of FY14 efforts and future plans.

Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Hames, Kevin L.; Vitalpur, Sharada V.

2014-01-01

426

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Feed Forward Internal Peer Review Slide Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 mt. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia M. (Editor)

2011-01-01

427

A field gas chromatograph using technology developed for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace gas analysis is an integral part of biospheric studies. Analytical instruments, primarily gas chromatographs (GC), are capable of measuring gases and volatiles to the ppb-level in real time. Trace gases significant in the study of biocycles include nitrous oxide, hydrogen sulfide, other nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as methane and ethylene. The concept of a field gas chromatograph is derived from technology being pursued in the design of ultra-compact instruments for solar system exploration. The instrument breadboard incorporates the specialized porous column packings and the highly sensitive metastable ionization detector developed by the Solar System Exploration Office. These parts ensure a broad capability for which the analysis of ambient N2O is one example. A commercial, portable gas chromatograph is currently being extensively modified to incorporate analytical concepts and components derived from flight GC technology. Data storage devices suitable for field use are presently being studied.

Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. E.; Carle, Glenn C.

1985-01-01

428

The diagnosis of the crust, and AE earthquake precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diagnosis of the state of the crust is fundamental for earthquake hazard assessment, much in advance with respect to the catastrophe of the system. Earthquake precursors are symptoms of a very complicate natural reality, and unavoidably require a multidisciplinary monitoring. The focus in on three main items: (i) magnitude of the event, (ii) epicentral area, (iii) timing. Acoustic emission (AE) is very effective for the timing concern. The leading rationale of the problem and its algorithms are briefly presented and discussed, on the basis of several exploited applications. References Gregori et al.,in press, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Gregori et al.,in press, Strain

Gregori, Giovanni P.; Paparo, Gabriele; Poscolieri, Maurizio; de Simone, Sara; Rafanelli, Claudio; Manganelli, Ilaria; Gallo, Veronica

2010-05-01

429

REPORT: RHRDUN05_S1 UCSD AES -0021  

E-print Network

REPORT: RHRDUN05_S1 UCSD AES - 0021 REGISTERED STUDENTS BY COLLEGE AND MAJOR INCLUDES ALL MAJORS MARSHALL COLLEGE #12;REPORT: RHRDUN05_S1 UCSD AES - 0021 REGISTERED STUDENTS BY COLLEGE AND MAJOR INCLUDES / SBJUNIORSPHMREOTH FRNEW FRDEPT DESC #12;REPORT: RHRDUN05_S1 UCSD AES - 0021 REGISTERED STUDENTS BY COLLEGE AND MAJOR

Tsien, Roger Y.

430

Exploring the FDA adverse event reporting system to generate hypotheses for monitoring of disease characteristics.  

PubMed

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a database for postmarketing drug safety monitoring and influences changes in FDA safety guidance documents such as drug labels. The number of cases in the FAERS has rapidly increased with the improvement of submission methods and data standards and thus has become an important resource for regulatory science. Although the FAERS has been predominantly used for safety signal detection, this study explored its utility for disease characteristics. PMID:24448476

Fang, H; Su, Z; Wang, Y; Miller, A; Liu, Z; Howard, P C; Tong, W; Lin, S M

2014-05-01

431

Social Acceptance of Negotiation Support Systems: Scenario-based Exploration with Focus Groups and Online Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate people{\\\\textquoteright}s attitudes toward the possible use of negotiation support systems (NSS) in different social contexts and the consequences for their design. To explore functional requirements and social acceptance in different use contexts, we followed a three-step approach. In the first step, we conducted a number of focus groups with negotiation experts. Second, we conducted focus groups with potential

Alina Pommeranz; Pascal Wiggers; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Catholijn M. Jonker

2011-01-01

432

Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists.

Palaszewski, Bryan

2014-01-01

433

An alternative approach to solar system exploration providing safety of human mission to Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

For systematic human Mars exploration, meeting crew safety requirements, it seems perspective to assemble into a spacecraft: an electrical rocket, a well-shielded long-term life support system, and a manipulator-robots operating in combined “presence effect” and “master-slave” mode. The electrical spacecraft would carry humans to the orbit of Mars, providing short distance (and low signal time delay) between operator and robot-manipulators,

J. I. Gitelson; S. I. Bartsev; V. V. Mezhevikin; V. A. Okhonin

2003-01-01

434

Review of Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Integrated Hazard Development Process. Appendices; Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chief Engineer of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Office requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent assessment of the ESD's integrated hazard development process. The focus of the assessment was to review the integrated hazard analysis (IHA) process and identify any gaps/improvements in the process (e.g. missed causes, cause tree completeness, missed hazards). This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

Smiles, Michael D.; Blythe, Michael P.; Bejmuk, Bohdan; Currie, Nancy J.; Doremus, Robert C.; Franzo, Jennifer C.; Gordon, Mark W.; Johnson, Tracy D.; Kowaleski, Mark M.; Laube, Jeffrey R.

2015-01-01

435

Review of Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Integrated Hazard Development Process. Volume 1; Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chief Engineer of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Office requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent assessment of the ESD's integrated hazard development process. The focus of the assessment was to review the integrated hazard analysis (IHA) process and identify any gaps/improvements in the process (e.g., missed causes, cause tree completeness, missed hazards). This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

Smiles, Michael D.; Blythe, Michael P.; Bejmuk, Bohdan; Currie, Nancy J.; Doremus, Robert C.; Franzo, Jennifer C.; Gordon, Mark W.; Johnson, Tracy D.; Kowaleski, Mark M.; Laube, Jeffrey R.

2015-01-01

436

Directed Evolution: A Historical Exploration into an Evolutionary Experimental System of Nanobiotechnology, 1965–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the history of nanotechnology from the perspective of protein engineering, which differs from the history\\u000a of nanotechnology that has arisen from mechanical and materials engineering; it also demonstrates points of convergence between\\u000a the two. Focusing on directed evolution—an experimental system of molecular biomimetics that mimics nature as an inspiration\\u000a for material design—this study follows the emergence of

Eun-Sung Kim

2008-01-01

437

Design space exploration algorithm for heterogeneous multi-processor embedded system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-chip multi-processor embedded system becomesnowadays a feasible and very interesting option. What isneeded however is an environment that supports the designerin transforming an algorithmic specification into a suitableparallel implementation. In this paper we present anddemonstrate an important component of such an environment - an efficient design space exploration algorithm. The algorithm can be used to semi-automatically find the bestparallelization of

Ireneusz Karkowski; Henk Corporaal

1998-01-01

438

“Below their notice”: Exploring women's subjective experiences of cancer system exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The experiences that marginalized breast cancer populations have in common are rarely considered. Methods. The authors look across 3 qualitative studies to explore the experiences of older, lower-income, and Aboriginal women diagnosed\\u000a with cancer and treated by the cancer care system in Ontario, Canada. Results. The research examines critical moments in participants' narratives that parallel one another and are

Judy Gould; Christina Sinding; Terry L. Mitchell; Diana L. Gustafson; Ito Peng; Patti McGillicuddy; Margaret I. Fitch; Jane Aronson; Linda Burhansstipanov

2009-01-01

439

New Propulsion Technologies For Exploration of the Solar System and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to implement the ambitious science and exploration missions planned over the next several decades, improvements in in-space transportation and propulsion technologies must be achieved. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs. Future missions will require 2 to 3 times more total change in velocity over their mission lives than the NASA Solar Electric Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) demonstration on the Deep Space 1 mission. Rendezvous and return missions will require similar investments in in-space propulsion systems. New opportunities to explore beyond the outer planets and to the stars will require unparalleled technology advancement and innovation. The Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) is investing in technologies to achieve a factor of 10 reduction in the cost of Earth orbital transpo