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1

Performance evaluation of Automatic Extraction System. Volume II. Performance evaluation of the AES. Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Mine Service Company's Automatic Extraction System (AES) was the first hardware development of Automatic Remote Controlled Continuous Miner (ARCCM) researchers. The AES was designed to be a continuous mining system that combined the cutting and loading functions with complete roof control, auxiliary ventilation, and environmental controls. The AES machine used the well developed framework of a Marietta 3080

R. L. Frantz; R. H. King; D. L. Bartsch

1980-01-01

2

Submillimetre Observations of Herbig Ae\\/be Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-main-sequence, intermediate-mass stars have been observed in continuum emission between 0.35 and 1.3 mm in an effort to study the geometrical distribution of circumstellar dust. Flux measurements were made for a total of 13 Herbig Ae\\/Be systems, and the use of eight filter bandpasses has now essentially filled-in much of the submm portion of the spectral energy distributions of these

V. Mannings

1994-01-01

3

AE's perspective in designing the turbine bypass system  

SciTech Connect

Application of a turbine bypass (TB) system in power plant generation goes back to the early 40's. Since that time, design improvements have been continuously pursued and implemented. The TB system with capacities ranging from 10% to 100% boiler maximum continuous rating (MCR) has been used in fossil power plants. (Some nuclear power plants are also provided with the turbine bypass systems with about 25% MCR capacity.) The TB system is more commonly applied in European and Asian fossil power plants where unit load cycling is a design consideration. A turbine bypass system allows independent boiler/turbine operation, thus enhancing the unit capability to operate at house load, change load rapidly and start up quickly after a shutdown period and/or following a full load rejection. The TB system also minimizes safety valve actuation during a transient condition. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the design and selection of the TB system from the perspective of the AE and to describe the impact of this system on the other major power plant systems.

Fisher, B.C.; Jocson, A.T.; Kimura, J.S. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States))

1991-01-01

4

Exploration EVA System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, the President announced a new Vision for Space Exploration. NASA's Office of Exploration Systems has identified Extravehicular Activity (EVA) as a critical capability for supporting the Vision for Space Exploration. EVA is required for all phases of the Vision, both in-space and planetary. Supporting the human outside the protective environment of the vehicle or habitat and allow ing him/her to perform efficient and effective work requires an integrated EVA "System of systems." The EVA System includes EVA suits, airlocks, tools and mobility aids, and human rovers. At the core of the EVA System is the highly technical EVA suit, which is comprised mainly of a life support system and a pressure/environmental protection garment. The EVA suit, in essence, is a miniature spacecraft, which combines together many different sub-systems such as life support, power, communications, avionics, robotics, pressure systems and thermal systems, into a single autonomous unit. Development of a new EVA suit requires technology advancements similar to those required in the development of a new space vehicle. A majority of the technologies necessary to develop advanced EVA systems are currently at a low Technology Readiness Level of 1-3. This is particularly true for the long-pole technologies of the life support system.

Kearney, Lara

2004-01-01

5

Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

1989-01-01

6

Advanced Exploration Systems Water Architecture Study Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems that enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near-term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness-level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near- and long-term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit Environmental Control and Life Support Systems definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as identifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II focused on the near-term space exploration objectives by establishing an International Space Station-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long-term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2013-01-01

7

Exploration Medical System Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. f. Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management. g. Provide a better standard of healthcare for crew members through reductions in the time required by crew and ground personnel to provide medical treatment and the number of crew errors experienced during treatment.

Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

2014-01-01

8

Data mining based full ceramic bearing fault diagnostic system using AE sensors.  

PubMed

Full ceramic bearings are considered the first step toward full ceramic, oil-free engines in the future. No research on full ceramic bearing fault diagnostics using acoustic emission (AE) sensors has been reported. Unlike their steel counterparts, signal processing methods to extract effective AE fault characteristic features and fault diagnostic systems for full ceramic bearings have not been developed. In this paper, a data mining based full ceramic bearing diagnostic system using AE based condition indicators (CIs) is presented. The system utilizes a new signal processing method based on Hilbert Huang transform to extract AE fault features for the computation of CIs. These CIs are used to build a data mining based fault classifier using a k-nearest neighbor algorithm. Seeded fault tests on full ceramic bearing outer race, inner race, balls, and cage are conducted on a bearing diagnostic test rig and AE burst data are collected. The effectiveness of the developed fault diagnostic system is validated using real full ceramic bearing seeded fault test data. PMID:21990335

He, David; Li, Ruoyu; Zhu, Junda; Zade, Mikhail

2011-12-01

9

Automated Estimating System (AES), Standard Value Update Program, user`s manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual contains instructions for operating the Standard Value Update Program. This program is operated and controlled by selected individuals in the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. It is used to control and standardized input into the Automated Estimating System (AES) Estimating program, a person computer-based software package designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates. The AES Estimating program is documented in a separate user`s manual.

Schwartz, R.K. [ed.; Holder, D.A.

1994-08-01

10

iPAS: AES Flight System Technology Maturation for Human Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to realize the vision of expanding human presence in space, NASA will develop new technologies that can enable future crewed spacecraft to go far beyond Earth orbit. These technologies must be matured to the point that future project managers can accept the risk of incorporating them safely and effectively within integrated spacecraft systems, to satisfy very challenging mission requirements. The technologies must also be applied and managed within an operational context that includes both on-board crew and mission support on Earth. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program is one part of the NASA strategy to identify and develop key capabilities for human spaceflight, and mature them for future use. To support this initiative, the Integrated Power Avionics and Software (iPAS) environment has been developed that allows engineers, crew, and flight operators to mature promising technologies into applicable capabilities, and to assess the value of these capabilities within a space mission context. This paper describes the development of the integration environment to support technology maturation and risk reduction, and offers examples of technology and mission demonstrations executed to date.

Othon, William L.

2014-01-01

11

Exploration of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

1974-01-01

12

Data exploration systems for databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data exploration systems apply machine learning techniques, multivariate statistical methods, information theory, and database theory to databases to identify significant relationships among the data and summarize information. The result of applying data exploration systems should be a better understanding of the structure of the data and a perspective of the data enabling an analyst to form hypotheses for interpreting the data. This paper argues that data exploration systems need a minimum amount of domain knowledge to guide both the statistical strategy and the interpretation of the resulting patterns discovered by these systems.

Greene, Richard J.; Hield, Christopher

1992-01-01

13

NASA: Solar System Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website offers a wide variety of space science-related activities, multimedia, and facts for people of all ages. The website presents the latest news and upcoming space science events. Students and educators can explore space missions by name, decade, target, and nation. In the Science and Technology link, visitors can find the latest science and technology features, NASA science highlights, as well as information about astrobiology and power and propulsion. Kids will enjoy the Alien Safari interactive module and interesting facts about the planets. Teachers can easily locate activities about the science behind the latest NASA headlines through the Fast Lesson Finder. Everyone can view the images and videos of the planets, spacecraft, technology, and additional subjects.

2006-01-10

14

Exploring the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different planets in the solar system? Use the KWL chart and fill out the 'What I Know' and 'What I Want to Know' columns about the different planets in the solar system. KWL Chart See what's in space that we can't see. What s in Space Book

Ms. Svagdis

2011-10-26

15

Outer Solar System Exploration  

E-print Network

are similar to Uranus and Neptune #12;Oh the Places we'll Go · The outer solar system is target-rich. We'd like to learn more about volcanoes on Io, storms on Titan, the rings around Uranus and whether Ariel ocean and how to access it in the future ­ Uranus orbiter, to study an ice giant in our own solar system

Rathbun, Julie A.

16

Performance evaluation of Automatic Extraction System. Volume II. Performance evaluation of the AES. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The National Mine Service Company's Automatic Extraction System (AES) was the first hardware development of Automatic Remote Controlled Continuous Miner (ARCCM) researchers. The AES was designed to be a continuous mining system that combined the cutting and loading functions with complete roof control, auxiliary ventilation, and environmental controls. The AES machine used the well developed framework of a Marietta 3080 Drum Miner to combine many face functions into one machine. It weighed 75 tons and was 38.3 ft long. The AES cut an entry 15 ft wide, using a 3-ft dia drum mounted with carbide-tipped bits. It retracted to 13.3 ft for clearance when tramming and was capable of cutting an entry 10 ft high. The cutting drum was tapered on the ends so that the corners of the entry were rounded to increase roof support. The drum, turning at a rate of 57 rpm, produced a bit tip speed of 535 fpm. The gathering head used four ribbed-discs to load coal onto the armored chain conveyor. The advantages of the disc-type head were reduced noise and smoother flow of the coal onto the conveyor causing less spillage. Temporary roof support was accomplished with overhead metal beams mounted on ten hydraulic cylinders. Permanent support was afforded by four roof-bolting units mounted at 4-ft intervals across the machine. Located about 19 ft from the front of the AES, the units were used to install a row of 5-ft resin roof bolts with each 4 ft of advance.

Frantz, R.L.; King, R.H.; Bartsch, D.L.

1980-07-01

17

Exobiology in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

Carle, Glenn C. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor); Huntington, Judith L. (editor)

1992-01-01

18

Fission Systems for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, T.; Dorney, D. J.; Swint, Marion Shayne

2012-01-01

19

Strong Authentication for RFID Systems Using the AES Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an emerging technology which brings enormous productivity benefits in applications where objects have to be identified automatically. This paper presents issues concerning security and privacy of RFID systems which are heavily discussed in public. In contrast to the RFID community, which claims that cryptographic components are too costly for RFID tags, we describe a solution

Martin Feldhofer; Sandra Dominikus; Johannes Wolkerstorfer

2004-01-01

20

The Exploration Water Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

2006-01-01

21

Role of stochastic fluctuations in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system: A stochastic model for the AE index variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new stochastic model for the AE index variations is developed to investigate the role of stochastic fluctuations in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. In contrast to pioneering stochastic models by Hnat et al. (2003, 2005), here the model is set up for the actual integrated quantity, i.e., AE index itself, instead of differenced variables, i.e., AE(t + ?t) - AE(t) and because of the different approach used in the derivation of the model, we do not restrict our model parameters to the power law behavior only. Also, we integrate the model to obtain a time series to which the observed AE is then compared to. The model suggests that the fluctuations are of internal magnetospheric origin, though the bursts can be triggered by an external perturbation, and are an interplay of deterministic and stochastic components of a stationary out-of-equilibrium system. The fundamental result of the study is that stochastic fluctuations play a central role in the evolution of the AE index and cannot be grossly neglected. Also, in the model, the basic mechanism for all burst sizes is the same and thus no specific "substorm"-related bursts can be extracted from the AE index fluctuations. This suggests that from the global perspective, a specific well-defined "class of substorms" may not exist. On the basis of their assumed spatiotemporal locality, impulsive dissipation events (IDE) (Sergeev et al., 1996) were proposed to be the fundamental physical building block of the AE index fluctuations. The average temporal size of IDEs may explain the 3 mHz break in the power spectra of the time derivative of the AE index reported here.

Pulkkinen, Antti; Klimas, Alex; Vassiliadis, Dimitris; Uritsky, Vadim

2006-10-01

22

Exploration of the Solar System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review is one of a series of assessments and reviews prepared in the public interest by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The purpose of this review is to outline the potential achievements of solar system exploration and suggest a course of action which will maximize the rewards to mankind. A secondary purpose is

Henderson, Arthur, Jr., Ed.; Grey, Jerry, Ed.

23

Cluster Chemistry in Electron-Poor Ae-Pt-Cd Systems (Ae=Ca, Sr, Ba): (Sr,Ba)Pt2Cd4, Ca6Pt8Cd16, and Its Known Antitype Er6Pd16Sb8  

SciTech Connect

Three new ternary polar intermetallic compounds, cubic Ca6Pt8Cd16, and tetragonal (Sr, Ba)Pt2Cd4 have been discovered during explorations of the AePtCd systems. Cubic Ca6Pt8Cd16 (Fm-3m, Z = 4, a = 13.513(1) ) contains a 3D array of separate Cd8 tetrahedral stars (TS) that are both face capped along the axes and diagonally bridged by Pt atoms to generate the 3D anionic network Cd8[Pt(1)]6/2[Pt(2)]4/8. The complementary cationic surface of the cell consists of a face-centered cube of Pt(3)@Ca6 octahedra. This structure is an ordered ternary variant of Sc11Ir4 (Sc6Ir8Sc16), a stuffed version of the close relative Na6Au7Cd16, and a network inverse of the recent Er6Sb8Pd16 (compare Ca6Pt8Cd16). The three groups of elements each occur in only one structural version. The new AePt2Cd4, Ae = Sr, Ba, are tetragonal (P42/mnm,Z = 2, a ? 8.30 , c ? 4.47 ) and contain chains of edge-sharing Cd4 tetrahedra along c that are bridged by four-bonded Ba/Sr. LMTO-ASA and ICOHP calculation results and comparisons show that the major bonding (Hamilton) populations in Ca6Pt8Cd16 and Er6Sb8Pd16 come from polar PtCd and PdSb interactions, that Pt exhibits larger relativistic contributions than Pd, that characteristic size and orbital differences are most evident for Sb 5s, Pt8, and Pd16, and that some terms remain incomparable, CaCd versus ErPd.

Samal, Saroj L. [Ames Laboratory; Gulo, Fakhili [Ames Laboratory; Corbett, John D. [Ames Laboratory

2013-02-18

24

Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

2004-01-01

25

Biospheres and solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

Paine, Thomas O.

1990-01-01

26

Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide better crew health via the reduction in crew errors, crew time, and ground time.

Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

2011-01-01

27

Venus Exploration opportunities within NASA's Solar System Exploration roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science goals to understand the origin, history and environment of Venus have been driving international space exploration missions for over 40 years. Past missions include the Magellan and Pioneer-Venus missions by the US; the Venera program by the USSR; and the Vega missions through international cooperation. Furthermore, the US National Research Council (NRC), in the 2003 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Decadal Survey, identified Venus as a high priority target, thus demonstrating a continuing interest in Earth's sister planet. In response to the NRC recommendation, the 2005 NASA SSE Roadmap included a number of potential Venus missions arching through all mission classes from small Discovery, to medium New Frontiers and to large Flagship class missions. While missions in all of these classes could be designed as orbiters with remote sensing capabilities, the desire for scientific advancements beyond our current knowledge - including what we expect to learn from the ongoing ESA Venus Express mission - point to in-situ exploration of Venus.

Balint, Tibor; Thompson, Thomas; Cutts, James; Robinson, James

2006-01-01

28

A coordinated campaign of the intermediate polar AE aqr. 1: The system parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report intermediate resolution spectroscopy (50 km/s) of the magnetic Cataclysmic Variable AE Aqr performed as part of the World Astronomy Days (WAD) campaign. Our analysis of the absorption features supports a K4 classification for the companion star, which contributes more than 95% of the total flux in the range 600-700 nm. We find that the companion star fills its Roche lobe since we detect a 10% modulation in the rotational broadening (V sin i) of the absorption fines, due to the changing geometry. Model fitting to the V sin i(phi) curve enables us to measure directly the system inclination (i = 58 +/- 6 deg) and the gravity darkening coefficient (beta = 0.08 +/- 0.01). Improved orbital parameters are also presented, including an updated mass ratio (q = K1/K2 = 0.630 +/- 0.012) based upon our K2 value and the spin-pulse delay. An independent determination of q is also provided by correcting the phase-averaged V sin i for non-spherical effects. The need for these two values to agree constrain the limb-darkening coefficient to be epsilon approximately equal to 0.40 (for beta = 0.08). The component masses derived from our values of K2, q and i are M1 = 0.79 +/- 0.16 solar mass units and M2 = 0.50 +/- 0.10 solar mass units. In addition, we do not see spectral evidence of irradiation effects.

Casares, J.; Mouchet, M.; Martinez-Pais, I. G.; Harlaftis, E. T.

1996-09-01

29

ISO spectroscopy of circumstellar dust in the Herbig Ae systems AB Aur and HD 163296  

E-print Network

Using both the Short- and Long-wavelength Spectrometers on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have obtained infrared spectra of the Herbig Ae systems AB Aur and HD 163296. In addition, we obtained ground-based N band images of HD 163296. Our results can be summarized as follows: (1) The main dust components in AB Aur are amorphous silicates, iron oxide and PAHs; (2) The circumstellar dust in HD 163296 consists of amorphous silicates, iron oxide, water ice and a small fraction of crystalline silicates; (3) The infrared fluxes of HD 163296 are dominated by solid state features; (4) The colour temperature of the underlying continuum is much cooler in HD 163296 than in AB Aur, pointing to the existence of a population of very large (mm sized) dust grains in HD 163296; (5) The composition and degree of crystallization of circumstellar dust are poorly correlated with the age of the central star. The processes of crystallization and grain growth are also not necessarily coupled. This means that either the evolution of circumstellar dust in protoplanetary disks happens very rapidly (within a few Myr), or that this evolution is governed by factors other than stellar mass and age.

M. E. van den Ancker; J. Bouwman; P. R. Wesselius; L. B. F. M. Waters; S. M. Dougherty; E. F. van Dishoeck

2000-02-23

30

SIM_EXPLORE: Software for Directed Exploration of Complex Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physics-based numerical simulation codes are widely used in science and engineering to model complex systems that would be infeasible to study otherwise. While such codes may provide the highest- fidelity representation of system behavior, they are often so slow to run that insight into the system is limited. Trying to understand the effects of inputs on outputs by conducting an exhaustive grid-based sweep over the input parameter space is simply too time-consuming. An alternative approach called "directed exploration" has been developed to harvest information from numerical simulators more efficiently. The basic idea is to employ active learning and supervised machine learning to choose cleverly at each step which simulation trials to run next based on the results of previous trials. SIM_EXPLORE is a new computer program that uses directed exploration to explore efficiently complex systems represented by numerical simulations. The software sequentially identifies and runs simulation trials that it believes will be most informative given the results of previous trials. The results of new trials are incorporated into the software's model of the system behavior. The updated model is then used to pick the next round of new trials. This process, implemented as a closed-loop system wrapped around existing simulation code, provides a means to improve the speed and efficiency with which a set of simulations can yield scientifically useful results. The software focuses on the case in which the feedback from the simulation trials is binary-valued, i.e., the learner is only informed of the success or failure of the simulation trial to produce a desired output. The software offers a number of choices for the supervised learning algorithm (the method used to model the system behavior given the results so far) and a number of choices for the active learning strategy (the method used to choose which new simulation trials to run given the current behavior model). The software also makes use of the LEGION distributed computing framework to leverage the power of a set of compute nodes. The approach has been demonstrated on a planetary science application in which numerical simulations are used to study the formation of asteroid families.

Burl, Michael; Wang, Esther; Enke, Brian; Merline, William J.

2013-01-01

31

Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Wireless Technologies and Human Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors describe ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionics architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers and from industry. This paper provides an overview of recent AAE efforts, with particular emphasis on the wireless technologies being evaluated under AES to support human spaceflight.

Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.; Lansdowne, Chatwin

2014-01-01

32

Geologic exploration of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes that must have operated on the early Earth have been deduced from evidence from ancient surfaces of the Moon and planets. In particular, such comparative studies have demonstrated that only two geologic processes have been widespread throughout the history of the solar system: impact cratering and volcanism. Impact craters have formed throughout solar system history, indeed the planets

Wood

1987-01-01

33

Cascade Helps JPL Explore the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we are involved with the unmanned exploration of the solar system. Unmanned probes observe the planet surfaces using radar and optical cameras to take a variety of measurements.

Burke, G. R.

1996-01-01

34

Design Space Exploration for The Beamformer System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design exploration strategy for the beamformer system, an exampleof a typical DSP system. In order to do so, we first define a parameterizeddesign template for the beamformer and for a FIR filter, since the filteringoperation is a part of the overall beamformer system. We then discuss someapproaches for varying the design parameters for the filter and the

Daniel D. Gajski; Smita Bakshi

1993-01-01

35

Exploring Systems of Equations using Graphing Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces the concept of graphing a system of linear equations. Students will use graphing technology to explore the meaning of the solution of a linear system including solutions that correspond to intersecting lines, parallel lines, and coinciding lines. Students will also do graph linear systems by hand.

2012-12-18

36

Collaborative Systems Thinking Research: Exploring systems thinking within teams  

E-print Network

, interrelationships, context and dynamics towards executing systems design". This type of thinking is critically on large scale endeavors, where collaborative systems thinking is especially critical to achieveCollaborative Systems Thinking Research: Exploring systems thinking within teams Caroline T. Lamb

de Weck, Olivier L.

37

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-01-01

38

Exploring with a foveated robot eye system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer vision systems are becoming more and more anthropomorphic. In addition to taking an active vision approach, researchers are now investigating robot heads with biologically motivated space-variant sensors. We have designed such an exploring eye system for robot gaze control when observing an arbitrary scene. Our approach uses retinal images constructed from overlapping receptive fields that are mapped to form

Thierry Baron; M. D. Levine; Y. Yeshurun

1994-01-01

39

Solar System Exploration: Paper Models for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA offers this website focusing on Solar System Exploration and projects for kids to build paper versions of the "super tough robots are out there exploring our solar system." Using colored, cut and folded pieces of paper, kids can construct models of Cassini, Galileo and many other spacecrafts. Along with the instructions (which need to be downloaded and printed), they provide a rating for level of difficulty as well as information on the spacecraft and its mission. A link to a website devoted to paper modeling provides some basic tips on paper model construction.

40

Overview: Exobiology in solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Aug. 1988, the NASA Ames Research Center held a three-day symposium in Sunnyvale, California, to discuss the subject of exobiology in the context of exploration of the solar system. Leading authorities in exobiology presented invited papers and assisted in setting future goals. The goals they set were as follows: (1) review relevant knowledge learned from planetary exploration programs; (2) detail some of the information that is yet to be obtained; (3) describe future missions and how exobiologists, as well as other scientists, can participate; and (4) recommend specific ways exobiology questions can be addressed on future exploration missions. These goals are in agreement with those of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council. Formed in 1980 to respond to the planetary exploration strategies set forth by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), the SSEC's main function is to review the entire planetary program. The committee formulated a long-term plan (within a constrained budget) that would ensure a vital, exciting, and scientifically valuable effort through the turn of the century. The SSEC's goals include the following: determining the origin, evolution, and present state of the solar system; understanding Earth through comparative planetology studies; and revealing the relationship between the chemical and physical evolution of the solar system and the appearance of life. The SSEC's goals are consistent with the over-arching goal of NASA's Exobiology Program, which provides the critical framework and support for basic research. The research is divided into the following four elements: (1) cosmic evolution of the biogenic compounds; (2) prebiotic evolution; (3) origin and early evolution of life; and (4) evolution of advanced life.

Carle, Glenn C.; Schwartz, Deborah E.

1992-01-01

41

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

42

The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

2006-01-01

43

Boeing Integrated Defense System : Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Exploration, a division of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, is a leading global supplier of reusable and human space systems and services. Headquartered in Houston, the organization comprises more than 4,000 people operating in five locations. The organization s legacy began in the late 1950s with the X-15, spanned to the Apollo missions of the 1960 and 70s, and continues today with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station.

2007-12-12

44

The Small Explorer power system electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power system electronics for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Small Explorer Satellites are intended to satisfy various planned missions. The selected topology is a direct energy transfer (DET) system with the battery connected directly to the bus. The shunt control technique is a linear sequential full shunt which provides a simple solar array interface and can support both 3 axis stabilized and spinner satellites. In addition, it can meet stringent electromagnetic interference requirements which are expected on some Small Explorer Missions. The Power Systems Electronics (PSE) performs battery charge control using both temperature compensated charge/discharge ratio ampere hour integration and voltage-temperature control. The PSE includes all the circuits needed to perform telemetry and command functions using an optical MIL-STD-1773 interface.

Dakermanji, G.; Carlsson, U.; Temkin, D.; Culver, H.; Rodriguez, G. E.; Ahmad, A.

1991-01-01

45

Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration  

E-print Network

Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration by Wilfried Hofstetter and Proposed Moon and Mars Exploration System architectures...... 27 2.1.1 The Apollo System...................................................................................... 54 3. Moon and Mars System Architectures Point Designs

de Weck, Olivier L.

46

Visually Exploring Worldwide Incidents Tracking System Data  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents refinements of an existing analytic tool, Juxter, which was developed for the visualization of multi-dimensional categorical data, and explores its application to support exploration and interaction with open source Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) data. The volume and complexity of data available on terrorism makes it hard to analyze. Information systems that can efficiently and effectively collect, access, analyze, and report terrorist incidents can help in further studies focused on preventing, detecting, and responding to terrorist attacks. Existing interfaces to the WITS data support advanced search capabilities, and geolocation but lack functionality for identifying patterns and trends. To better support efficient browsing we have refined Juxters existing capabilities for filtering, selecting, and sorting elements and categories within the visualization.

Chhatwal, Shree D.; Rose, Stuart J.

2008-01-27

47

2 Delivery of Learning Design: the Explor@ System's Case Delivery of Learning Design: the Explor@  

E-print Network

Chapter 16 #12;2 Delivery of Learning Design: the Explor@ System's Case Delivery of Learning Design new challenges to learning delivery systems. To comply with this speci- fication, delivery platforms from the view- point of an open delivery system, Explor@-2. Explor@-2 is the re- sult of a research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) is a project under the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element managed by the Human Research Program (HRP). The vision for the EMSD is to utilize ISS as a test bed to show that several medical technologies needed for an exploration mission and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making can be integrated into a single system and used by the on-orbit crew in an efficient and meaningful manner. Objectives: a) Reduce and even possibly eliminate the time required for on-orbit crew and ground personnel (which include Surgeon, Biomedical Engineer (BME) Flight Controller, and Medical Operations Data Specialist) to access and move medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information using an intuitive and crew-friendly software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management framework and architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities.

Chin, Duane

2012-01-01

49

Solar System Exploration: Fast Lesson Finder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one get around the solar system? Well, that's a tricky question unless you have a lot of time on your hands, but it's certainly easy to learn about the solar system with these useful lessons provided courtesy of NASA. Their Solar System Exploration website includes hundreds of lessons designed for grades K-12, which visitors can navigate by using the helpful tab menus to look for specific types of materials. The tabs include Grade Level, Solar System Body, Mission, and Topic. Visitors looking for high school materials will do well to look at the Globe Visualization Student Activities, which include close examinations of the Earth hydrology, including aspects of air temperature, ozone, salinity, and so on. Additionally, visitors can use the Education section on the left-hand side of the site to learn about scientists' work in the "Through the Eyes of Scientists" features.

50

Exploring Exploring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will investigate, discuss, and determine why humans have always explored the world (and now space) around them. Students determine these reasons for exploration through a class discussion. In the first activity, students use the Internet to examine the characteristics of past explorers and why they conducted their exploration. The students then examine why current explorers - including the students themselves - want to explore other worlds in the Solar System. By the end of the lesson, the students can conclude that no matter what or when we explore - past, present, or future - the reasons for exploration are the same; the motivation for exploration is universal.

51

Exploring Solar Systems Across the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the value of exploring our solar system and others in the Universe. Learners will investigate, compare, and describe patterns in Solar System data. They will then hypothesize about the formation of the Solar System based on data and explain how extrasolar planets can be discovered. In the first activity, the students investigate Solar System data to find clues to how our planetary system was formed. By the end of the activity, the students come to understand that other stars form just like the Sun, and, therefore, many stars could have planets around them. The second activity examines how scientists can find these extrasolar planets. By observing the behavior of a model star-planet system, the students come to understand that it is possible to see the effect a planet has on its parent star even if the planet cannot be seen directly. By comparing the properties of our Solar System with other planetary systems, we can gain a deeper understanding of planetary systems across the Universe.

52

Space exploration, Mars, and the nervous system.  

PubMed

When human beings venture back to the moon and then on to Mars in the coming decade or so, we will be riding on the accumulated data and experience from approximately 50 years of manned space exploration. Virtually every organ system functions differently in the absence of gravity, and some of these changes are maladaptive. From a biologic perspective, long duration spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit presents many unique challenges. Astronauts traveling to Mars will live in the absence of gravity for more than 1 year en route and will have to transition between weightlessness and planetary gravitational forces at the beginning, middle, and end of the mission. We discuss some of what is known about the effects of spaceflight on nervous system function, with emphasis on the neuromuscular and vestibular systems because success of a Mars mission will depend on their proper functioning. PMID:17420309

Kalb, Robert; Solomon, David

2007-04-01

53

Microarray assays for solar system exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of evidence of extinct and extant life is a key issue in astrobiological research, particularly with respect to future exploration of the solar system. Simple life forms may have evolved and developed on planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa. At this point in time, tests whether life once was or still is present can only be carried out by means of in situ experiments. Here, we discuss the potential and advantages of immunological concepts for life detection and the development of a miniaturized automated immunoassay flight device.

Steele, Andrew; Toporski, Jan; McKay, David S.; Schweitzer, Mary; Pincus, Seth; Prez-Mercader, Juan; Parro Garca, Victor

2001-08-01

54

The Mars Exploration Rover Instrument Positioning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During Mars Exploration Rover (MER) surface operations, the scientific data gathered by the in situ instrument suite has been invaluable with respect to the discovery of a significant water history at Meridiani Planum and the hint of water processes at work in Gusev Crater. Specifically, the ability to perform precision manipulation from a mobile platform (i.e., mobile manipulation) has been a critical part of the successful operation of Spirit and Opportunity rovers. As such, this paper describes the MER Instrument Positioning System that allows the in situ instruments to operate and collect their important science data using a robust, dexterous robotic arm combined with visual target selection and autonomous software functions.

Baumgartner, Eric T.; Bonitz, Robert G.; Shiraishi, Lori R.; Melko, Joseph P.; Leger, P. Chris

2005-01-01

55

Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide single button intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system on-board the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System [1] , along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System [2] , this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA s Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

Haddock, Angie; Stetson, Howard K.

2012-01-01

56

A Water Recovery System Evolved for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new water recovery system designed towards fulfillment of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is presented. This water recovery system is an evolution of the current state-of-the-art system. Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing technology to higher levels of optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold: Volatile organic contaminants will be removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase, and vapor compression distillation technology will be used to process the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treatment of the various waste streams by VCD will reduce the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follow, and on the aqueous-phase volatile removal assembly further downstream. Incorporating these advantages will reduce the weight, volume, and power requirements of the system, as well as resupply.

ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Perry, Jay L.; Carter, Donald L.

2006-01-01

57

Exploring the Planets: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers information that will allow students to see just how big each planet and its major satellites are relative to each other in the scale model of the Solar System. Students will see where the planets are in relation to the Sun and to each other and learn just how big the Sun is compared to all the planets in our Solar System. Sections at this site include Planetary Physical Data, Planetary Satellites Physical Data, Relative Sizes of the Planets, Relative Planetary Distances from the Sun, and the Size of the Sun. In addition, each planet has an individual online section that gives an overview of what has been learned through imagery and data obtained from Earth-based and spacecraft exploration.

58

Logistics Modeling for Lunar Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extensive logistics required to support extended crewed operations in space make effective modeling of logistics requirements and deployment critical to predicting the behavior of human lunar exploration systems. This paper discusses the software that has been developed as part of the Campaign Manifest Analysis Tool in support of strategic analysis activities under the Constellation Architecture Team - Lunar. The described logistics module enables definition of logistics requirements across multiple surface locations and allows for the transfer of logistics between those locations. A key feature of the module is the loading algorithm that is used to efficiently load logistics by type into carriers and then onto landers. Attention is given to the capabilities and limitations of this loading algorithm, particularly with regard to surface transfers. These capabilities are described within the context of the object-oriented software implementation, with details provided on the applicability of using this approach to model other human exploration scenarios. Some challenges of incorporating probabilistics into this type of logistics analysis model are discussed at a high level.

Andraschko, Mark R.; Merrill, R. Gabe; Earle, Kevin D.

2008-01-01

59

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System  

E-print Network

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System Explore Diverse Worlds How did the outer planets mold the solar system and create habitable worlds? OPAG Report DRAFT 4 November 2014 #12;2 Outline of this document is to frame the science objectives for exploration of the outer solar system. It is consistent

Rathbun, Julie A.

60

Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of the scintillation measurements, and to highlight some of the scientific results obtained to date. Special emphasis is placed on comparing the remote sensing features of planetary and terrestrial scintillation measurements, and on contrasting spacecraft and natural radio source scintillation measurements. I will first discuss planetary atmospheres and ionospheres, and then the solar wind.

Woo, Richard

1993-01-01

61

Exploring Myelin Dysfunction in Multiple System Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, yet fatal neurodegenerative disease that presents clinically with autonomic failure in combination with parkinsonism or cerebellar ataxia. MSA impacts on the autonomic nervous system affecting blood pressure, heart rate and bladder function, and the motor system affecting balance and muscle movement. The cause of MSA is unknown, no definitive risk factors have been identified, and there is no cure or effective treatment. The definitive pathology of MSA is the presence of ?-synuclein aggregates in the brain and therefore MSA is classified as an ?-synucleinopathy, together with Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Although the molecular mechanisms of misfolding, fibrillation and aggregation of ?-synuclein partly overlap with other ?-synucleinopathies, the pathological pathway of MSA is unique in that the principal site for ?-synuclein deposition is in the oligodendrocytes rather than the neurons. The sequence of pathological events of MSA is now recognized as abnormal protein redistributions in oligodendrocytes first, followed by myelin dysfunction and then neurodegeneration. Oligodendrocytes are responsible for the production and maintenance of myelin, the specialized lipid membrane that encases the axons of all neurons in the brain. Myelin is composed of lipids and two prominent proteins, myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein. In vitro studies suggest that aberration in protein distribution and lipid transport may lead to myelin dysfunction in MSA. The purpose of this perspective is to bring together available evidence to explore the potential role of ?-synuclein, myelin protein dysfunction, lipid dyshomeostasis and ABCA8 in MSA pathogenesis. PMID:25548533

Wong, Joanna H.; Halliday, Glenda M.

2014-01-01

62

A Computer Based Educational and Career Exploration System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The actual workings of the Educational and Career Exploration System (ECES) are described. The functions of the system are divided into three general phases: (1) an occupational information bank for exploring occupations; (2) an educational information bank for exploring training programs and educational areas of study; and (3) a junior

Minor, Frank J.

63

Matrix Methods for Optimal Manifesting of Multinode Space Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

This paper presents matrix-based methods for determining optimal cargo manifests for space exploration. An exploration system is defined as a sequence of in-space and on-surface transports between multiple nodes coupled ...

Grogan, Paul Thomas

64

To Explore Teaching Mode of Logistics System Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the linkage between logistics system simulation and teaching mode, and explores new teaching methods and teaching ideas. It puts emphasis on analyzing the application of logistics simulation technology in the logistics system and exploring appropriate teaching modes of logistics system simulation. We make a point of the application of logistics system theory knowledge and the training of

Bo Yan; Lei Wang

2009-01-01

65

Fast implementation of AES cryptographic algorithms in smart cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of US announced Rijndael algorithm as the advanced encryption standard (AES) in October 2000, Despite AES surpassing in security the data encryption standard (DES), it is still rare to be implemented in smart cards, due to the reason of deficient AES coprocessors. Here a chip operation system (COS) called NexCard, which derived

Chi-Feng Lu; Yan-Shun Kao; Hsia-Ling Chiang; Chung-Huang Yang

2003-01-01

66

AES chemunex ADIAFOOD detection system for Listeria spp. environmental sample testing.  

PubMed

The ADIAFOOD Detection System for the detection of Listeria species from environmental surfaces is based on real-time PCR technology and allows rapid pathogen detection within 21 h. The strength of the ADIAFOOD technology resides in its ability to rapidly and accurately detect Listeria species present on surfaces, such as stainless steel, plastic, ceramic, and sealed concrete. The technology is easy to use and versatile. PMID:22649931

Plante, Daniel; Ct, Yvan P; Giovannetti, Louisiane

2012-01-01

67

[Application of ICP-AES in automotive hydraulic power steering system fault diagnosis].  

PubMed

The authors studied the innovative applications of the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry in automotive hydraulic power steering system fault diagnosis. After having determined Fe, Cu and Al content in the four groups of Buick Regal 2.4 main metal power-steering fluid whose travel course was respectively 2-9 thousand kilometers, 11-18 thousand kilometers, 22-29 thousandkilometers, and 31-40 thousand kilometers, and the database of primary metal content in the Buick Regal 2.4 different mileage power-steering fluid was established. The research discovered that the main metal content increased with increasing mileage and its normal level is between the two trend lines. Determination of the power-steering fluid main metal content and comparison with its database value can not only judge the wear condition of the automotive hydraulic power steering system and maintain timely to avoid the traffic accident, but also help the automobile detection and maintenance personnel to diagnose failure reasons without disintegration. This reduced vehicle maintenance costs, and improved service quality. PMID:23586258

Chen, Li-Dan

2013-01-01

68

NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project strives to enable a largely mission-independent cradle-to-grave-to-cradle approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. The goals are to engineer logistics materials, common crew consumables, and container configurations to meet the following five basic goals: 1. Minimize intrinsic logistics mass and improve ground logistics flexibility. 2. Allow logistics components to be directly repurposed for on-orbit non-logistics functions (e.g., crew cabin outfitting) thereby indirectly reducing mass/volume. 3. Compact and process logistics that have not been directly repurposed to generate useful on-orbit components and/or compounds (e.g., radiation shielding, propellant, other usable chemical constituents). 4. Enable long-term stable storage and disposal of logistics end products that cannot be reused or repurposed (e.g., compaction for volume reduction, odor control, and maintenance of crew cabin hygienic conditions). 5. Allow vehicles in different mission phases to share logistics resources. This paper addresses the work being done to meet the second goal, the direct repurposing of logistics components to meet other on-orbit needs, through a strategy termed Logistics to Living (L2L). L2L has several areas but can be defined as repurposing or converting logistical items (bags, containers, foam, components, etc.) into useful crew items or life support augmentation on-orbit after they have provided their primary logistics function. The intent is that by repurposing items, dedicated crew items do not have to be launched and overall launch mass is decreased. For non-LEO missions, the vehicle interior volume will be relatively fixed so L2L will enable this volume to be used more effectively through reuse and rearrangement of logistical components. Past work in the area of L2L has already conceptually developed several potential technologies [Howe, Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

2012-01-01

69

Exploring functional structure through system organization: Caenorhabditis elegans neuronal network  

E-print Network

Exploring functional structure through system organization: Caenorhabditis elegans neuronal network, systemic organization, modular structure, functional circuit #12; Hyeok Jung Kang1 , Myung-Kyu Choi2, Junho Lee2 , Namkyoo Park*1 *nkpark@snu.ac.kr 1 Photonic Systems

Park, Namkyoo

70

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System  

E-print Network

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System How did the outer planets mold the solar the science objectives for exploration of the outer solar system. It is consistent with Visions and Voyages but will be kept up-to-date as new discoveries are made, models evolve, our understanding of solar system processes

Rathbun, Julie A.

71

Exploration Systems Town Hall Meeting - Duration: 48:04.  

NASA Video Gallery

Doug Cooke, Associate Administrator for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, discusses the future during a question and answer session with employees at NASA Headquarters on April 19, 2010.

72

A New Direction for NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Combining Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. As part of the SSERVI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. This talk will describe the research efforts of the new nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. complement of the Institute and how we will engage the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships.

Bailey, B.; Daou, D.; Schmidt, G.; Pendleton, Y.

2014-04-01

73

The Space Launch System: NASA's Exploration Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powerful, versatile, and capable vehicle for entirely new missions to deep space. Vital to NASA's exploration strategy and the Nation's space agenda. Safe, affordable, and sustainable. Engaging the U.S. aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Competitive opportunities for innovations that affordably upgrade performance. Successfully meeting milestones in preparation for Preliminary Design Review in 2013. On course for first flight in 2017.

Blackerby, Christopher; Cate, Hugh C., III

2013-01-01

74

Optimization of System Maturity and Equivalent System Mass for Exploration Systems Development Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently pursuing the development of the next generation of human spacecraft and exploration systems throughout the Constellation Program. This includes, among others, habitation technologies for supporting lunar and Mars exploration. The key to these systems is the Exploration Life Support (ELS) system that composes several technology development projects related to atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management and habitation. The proper functioning of these technologies is meant to produce sufficient and balanced resources of water, air, and food to maintain a safe and comfortable environment for long-term human habitation and exploration of space.

Magnaye, Romulo; Tan, Weiping; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose; Sauser, Bruce

2010-01-01

75

Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WEbsites to use for 5th grade Explorers study. Explorers of the Americas - Enchanted Learning'); Explorers of the Americas - Enchanted Learning Lewis Clark - The Journey of the Corps of Discovery Lewis and Clark - The Journey of the Corps of Discovery Gale Group Biography Resources Center Gale Group - Biography Resource Center Discoverer s Web Discoverer's Web The Conquistadors The Conquistadors ...

Laz, Mrs.

2007-11-07

76

Evolution of the communications systems and technology for Mars exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will provide an overview of the evolution of the of the telecommunication systems used for Mars exploration by discussing the past, present and potential future systems. The required technology and limiting factors will be discussed.The goal of NASA's Mars Exploration Project is to support seamless flow of information from Mars to Earth (MTE) from Science Orbiters, Telecommunication Orbiters,

E. Flamini; C. D. Edwards

2002-01-01

77

Application Engineer Internship Rif: AE UNIPV  

E-print Network

Projects · Marketing and Sales Activities Training on All the AEs have to be able to solve any kind of these topics: · LabVIEW · Data Acquisition · Distributed I/O · PXI Platform · Distributed I/O · FPGA projects · Take initiative, develop talents, and explore opportunities · Look Career path · Goals

Segatti, Antonio

78

Exploring Structure and Function in Biological Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson, students analyze structure and function relationships at different levels of organization in nonbiological systems and then perform a similar analysis using biological systems.

2007-08-09

79

Exploring Ice in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module includes several lessons aimed at introducing ice science to students. In the first activity, students share personal ice experience stories through drawing, telling, and writing. This enables the teacher to diagnose personal conceptions about ice. Then students explore a big block of ice. They ask and record their questions and start an ice science notebook. Depending on the nature of the questions, the teacher selects appropriate follow-up activities. Other lessons include: Ice Melts,Ice Floats,Ice Flows, Ice is a Mineral, Life in Icy Places, and Ice in Space. Each lesson includes a kinesthetic activity where students mime and act out ice science concepts, creating a science performance laboratory. These experiences lay the foundation for deeper conceptual understanding in later school years. All lessons include extensive background information, a list of national standards addressed, suggested curriculum extensions, a list of resources and photo gallery.

80

Participatory Exploration: The Role of the User Contribution System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation explores how NASA can apply the global shift in demographics, the popularity of collaborative technology and the desire for participation to the future of space exploration. Included in this is a review of the evolution of work, the engagement gap, user contribution systems and a case study concerning the "digital astronaut".

Skytland, Nicholas G.

2009-01-01

81

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

2004-01-01

82

Exploring biomolecular systems: From methodology to application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes new methodology development and applications in the computer simulation on biomolecular systems. To reduce the number of parallel processors in replica exchange, we deform the Hamiltonian function for each replica in such a way that the acceptance probability for the exchange of replica configurations does not depend on the number of explicit water molecules in the system.

Pu Liu

2005-01-01

83

Resistance to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in ae3 ?/? mice, deficient in the AE3 Cl?/HCO3? exchanger  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac hypertrophy is central to the etiology of heart failure. Understanding the molecular pathways promoting cardiac hypertrophy may identify new targets for therapeutic intervention. Sodium-proton exchanger (NHE1) activity and expression levels in the heart are elevated in many models of hypertrophy through protein kinase C (PKC)/MAPK/ERK/p90RSK pathway stimulation. Sustained NHE1 activity, however, requires an acid-loading pathway. Evidence suggests that the Cl?/HCO3? exchanger, AE3, provides this acid load. Here we explored the role of AE3 in the hypertrophic growth cascade of cardiomyocytes. Methods AE3-deficient (ae3 ?/? ) mice were compared to wildtype (WT) littermates to examine the role of AE3 protein in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Mouse hearts were assessed by echocardiography. As well, responses of cultured cardiomyocytes to hypertrophic stimuli were measured. pH regulation capacity of ae3 ?/? and WT cardiomyocytes was assessed in cultured cells loaded with the pH-sensitive dye, BCECF-AM. Results ae3 ?/? mice were indistinguishable from wild type (WT) mice in terms of cardiovascular performance. Stimulation of ae3 ?/? cardiomyocytes with hypertrophic agonists did not increase cardiac growth or reactivate the fetal gene program. ae3 ?/? mice are thus protected from pro-hypertrophic stimulation. Steady state intracellular pH (pHi) in ae3 ?/? cardiomyocytes was not significantly different from WT, but the rate of recovery of pHi from imposed alkalosis was significantly slower in ae3 ?/? cardiomyocytes. Conclusions These data reveal the importance of AE3-mediated Cl?/HCO3? exchange in cardiovascular pH regulation and the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Pharmacological antagonism of AE3 is an attractive approach in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25047106

2014-01-01

84

Human System Drivers for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of DRM4 in terms of the human system includes the ability to meet NASA standards, the inclusion of the human system in the design trade space, preparation for future missions and consideration of a robotic precursor mission. Ensuring both the safety and the performance capability of the human system depends upon satisfying NASA Space Flight Human System Standards.1 These standards in turn drive the development of program-specific requirements for Near-earth Object (NEO) missions. In evaluating DRM4 in terms of these human system standards, the currently existing risk models, technologies and biological countermeasures were used. A summary of this evaluation is provided below in a structure that supports a mission architecture planning activities. 1. Unacceptable Level of Risk The duration of the DRM4 mission leads to an unacceptable level of risk for two aspects of human system health: A. The permissible exposure limit for space flight radiation exposure (a human system standard) would be exceeded by DRM4. B. The risk of visual alterations and abnormally high intracranial pressure would be too high. 1

Kundrot, Craig E.; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John B.

2010-01-01

85

Telecommunications systems evolution for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the evolution of telecommunication systems at Mars. It reviews the telecommunications capabilities, technology and limiting factors of current and planned Mars orbiters from Mars Global Surveyor to the planned Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO).

Noreen, Gary; De Paula, Ramon P.; Edwards, Charles D. Jr; Komarek, Thomas; Edwards, Bernard L.; Edwards, Bernard L.; Kerridge, Stuart J.; Diehl, Roger; Franklin, Stephen F.

2003-01-01

86

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

87

Scanning Laser Radar Development for Solar System Exploration Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has recently established an accelerated development initiative to enable high-resolution active optical ranging and terrain mapping capabilities for a series of upcoming Solar System exploration missions.

Tratt, D.; Menzies, R.; Bartman, R.; Hemmati, H.

2000-01-01

88

Ares V: Application to Solar System Scientific Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following sections describe Ares V performance and its payoff to a wide array of potential solar system exploration missions. Application to potential Astrophysics missions is addressed in Reference 3.

Reh, Kim; Spilker, Tom; Elliott, John; Balint, Tibor; Donahue, Ben; McCormick, Dave; Smith, David B.; Tandon, Sunil; Woodcock, Gordon

2008-01-01

89

Exploration of global oceanic ridge system unfolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Less than 10% of the global mid-ocean ridge system has been studied in detail. To remedy this problem, a program called Ridge Interdisciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE) is integrating observational, experimental, and theoretical studies into a decade-long effort to understand the geological, geochemical, and biological processes responsible for creating new oceanic crust along this system of ridges on the ocean floor.RIDGE tackles many scientific fronts simultaneouslysince the first field program went to sea in 1991, more than 60 field programs, experimental and laboratory investigations, and theoretical studies involving over 70 investigators have been supported.

Detrick, Robert S.; Humphris, Susan E.

90

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our galaxy - the Milky Way - is a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the center like a pinwheel. Our solar system is in the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Our Sun is one of about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. And our galaxy is just one of roughly 1

1900-01-01

91

Drilling Systems for Extraterrestrial Subsurface Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an

K. Zacny; Y. Bar-Cohen; M. Brennan; G. Briggs; G. Cooper; K. Davis; B. Dolgin; D. Glaser; B. Glass; S. Gorevan; J. Guerrero; C. McKay; G. Paulsen; C. Stoker

2008-01-01

92

Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.  

PubMed

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

2008-06-01

93

Exploring Merchant Adoption of Mobile Payment Systems: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of mobile commerce depends on widely accepted mobile payment systems. Although new mobile payment systems have been increasingly introduced in Asia, Europe and the United States, their adoption has remained modest. Little research has been conducted to examine and explain adopters views on the new payment technology. In this article, we explore merchant adoption of mobile payment systems

Niina Mallat; Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen

2008-01-01

94

Exploring Design Space For An Integrated Intelligent System  

E-print Network

Exploring Design Space For An Integrated Intelligent System Nick Hawes and Jeremy Wyatt and Aaron Sloman Abstract Understanding the trade-offs available in the design space of intelligent systems Intelligent systems (e.g. intelligent service robots) are a product of the many design decisions taken

Wyatt, Jeremy

95

Medical and technology requirements for human solar system exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measures that need to be taken to cope with the health problems posed by zero gravity and radiation in manned solar system exploration missions are discussed. The particular systems that will be used aboard Space Station Freedom are addressed, and relevant human factors problems are examined. The development of a controlled ecological life support system is addressed.

Nicogossian, Arnauld; Harris, Leonard; Couch, Lana; Sulzman, Frank; Gaiser, Karen

1989-01-01

96

The progress of exploring extra-solar planetary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advance of the space exploring, the study of the extra-solar planetary systems becomes an interesting topic since such system may exist the life or even the modern civilization. In this paper we give a brief introduction on the discovery of extra-solar planetary systems, and discuss the feasibility of detection techniques and methods developed in recent years. In particular,

Yu-Juan Liu; Gang Zhao

2005-01-01

97

Picking a Planet, Exploring Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is the year 2025 and a large company, Z-Tech, wants to put a hotel in space having it orbit around one of the planets in our solar system. Our 5th grade class has been given a very important job. We have to search for the perfect location for the hotel. Our job is to report back to the company with the planet that is the best place for an orbiting hotel. The Task: You are to write a report recommending which planet should be chosen. Your report should include pictures of the planet you recommended. Here are the questions you should answer in order to report back to Z-Tech with your recommendation. * Which planet will be the ...

Chari

2008-11-23

98

The Rosetta Mission - Exploring Solar System Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Rosetta Mission, ESAs first Planetary Cornerstone, is a rendezvous mission with a comet nucleus combining an Orbiter with a Lander. Rosetta is on its way to meet Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It will go in orbit around the comet nucleus when it is still far away from the Sun, and escort it for more than a year along its pre- and post-perihelion orbit. With the 12 scientific instruments on board the Orbiter, Rosetta will investigate the nucleus and the inner coma as well as their evolution as a function of increasing and decreasing solar flux input. Moreover, the Lander Philae will get down onto the surface of the nucleus at a time when it is still at a low state of activity, and analyse comet nucleus material in-situ with the 10 instruments on board. Launched in 2004 Rosetta has already completed all four gravity assists (3 at Earth, 1 at Mars) that were necessary to acquire the orbital energy needed to rendezvous and go in orbit around the comet nucleus. After the second and third Earth gravity assist Rosetta performed close fly-bys at the main-belt asteroids (2867) Steins and (21) Lutetia. Both have turned out to be extraordinary, hence a very good choice for close inspection. The spacecraft is now in hibernation while moving further into the outer solar system. It will wake up on 20 January 2014, at 4.5 AU heliocentric distance to proceed to its rendezvous. Rosetta will reach the comet in May 2014 and go into close orbit in September 2014. The landing of Philae is planned for 11 November 2014 at a heliocentric distance of 3 AU. After a five-day prime Lander mission, both the Orbiter and the Lander will enter the routine scientific phase, escorting the comet to perihelion and beyond.

Schulz, Rita; O'Rourke, L.; Altobelli, N.; Grieger, B.; Kueppers, M.

2012-10-01

99

Exploring our outer solar system - The Giant Planet System Observers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As space-faring peoples now work together to plan and implement future missions that robotically prepare for landing humans to explore the Moon, and later Mars, the time is right to develop evolutionary approaches for extending this next generation of exploration beyond Earth's terrestrial planet neighbors to the realm of the giant planets. And while initial fly-by missions have been hugely

J. F. Cooper; E. C. Sittler Jr.; S. J. Sturner; J. T. Pitman

2006-01-01

100

ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

2010-09-01

101

Space Medicine Issues and Healthcare Systems for Space Exploration Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews issues of health care in space. Some of the issues reviewed are: (1) Physiological adaptation to microgravity, partial gravity, (2) Medical events during spaceflight, (3) Space Vehicle and Environmental and Surface Health Risks, (4) Medical Concept of Operations (CONOPS), (4a) Current CONOPS & Medical Hardware for Shuttle (STS) and ISS, (4b) Planned Exploration Medical CONOPS & Hardware needs, (5) Exploration Plans for Lunar Return Mission & Mars, and (6) Developing Medical Support Systems.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeff

2007-01-01

102

Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor web to collect the scientific data needed to further exploration is a major and efficient asset to any exploration effort. This is true not only for lunar and planetary environments, but also for interplanetary and liquid environments. Such a system would also have myriad direct commercial spin-off applications. The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web or HEAP-SW like the ANTS concept is a Sensor Web concept. The HEAP-SW is conceptually and practically a very different system. HEAP-SW is applicable to any environment and a huge range of exploration tasks. It is a very robust, low cost, high return, solution to a complex problem. All of the technology for initial development and implementation is currently available. The HEAP Sensor Web or HEAP-SW consists of three major parts, The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platforms or HEAP, the Sensor Web or SW and the immobile Data collection and Uplink units or DU. The HEAP-SW as a whole will refer to any group of mobile agents or robots where each robot is a mobile data collection unit that spends most of its time acting in concert with all other robots, DUs in the web, and the HEAP-SWs overall Command and Control (CC) system. Each DU and robot is, however, capable of acting independently. The three parts of the HEAP-SW system are discussed in this paper. The Goals of the HEAP-SW system are: 1) To maximize the amount of exploration enhancing science data collected; 2) To minimize data loss due to system malfunctions; 3) To minimize or, possibly, eliminate the risk of total system failure; 4) To minimize the size, weight, and power requirements of each HEAP robot; 5) To minimize HEAP-SW system costs. The rest of this paper discusses how these goals are attained.

Stoffel, A. William; VanSteenberg, Michael E.

2004-01-01

103

Exploring an MDA approach to health care information systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the potential of the model-driven architecture (MDA) in health care information systems development Methods An MDA is conceptualized and developed for a health clinic system to track patient information. A prototype of the MDA is implemented using an advanced MDA tool. The UML provides the underlying modeling support in the form of the class diagram. The PIM

Wullianallur Raghupathi; Amjad Umar

104

Multiple-Agent Air/Ground Autonomous Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous systems of multiple-agent air/ground robotic units for exploration of the surfaces of remote planets are undergoing development. Modified versions of these systems could be used on Earth to perform tasks in environments dangerous or inaccessible to humans: examples of tasks could include scientific exploration of remote regions of Antarctica, removal of land mines, cleanup of hazardous chemicals, and military reconnaissance. A basic system according to this concept (see figure) would include a unit, suspended by a balloon or a blimp, that would be in radio communication with multiple robotic ground vehicles (rovers) equipped with video cameras and possibly other sensors for scientific exploration. The airborne unit would be free-floating, controlled by thrusters, or tethered either to one of the rovers or to a stationary object in or on the ground. Each rover would contain a semi-autonomous control system for maneuvering and would function under the supervision of a control system in the airborne unit. The rover maneuvering control system would utilize imagery from the onboard camera to navigate around obstacles. Avoidance of obstacles would also be aided by readout from an onboard (e.g., ultrasonic) sensor. Together, the rover and airborne control systems would constitute an overarching closed-loop control system to coordinate scientific exploration by the rovers.

Fink, Wolfgang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Tarbell, Mark; Dohm, James M.

2007-01-01

105

Exploring Design Space For An Integrated Intelligent System  

E-print Network

Exploring Design Space For An Integrated Intelligent System Nick Hawes , Jeremy Wyatt, Aaron Understanding the trade-offs available in the design space of intelligent systems is a major unaddressed element #12;field of intelligent artifacts, choices about the design and implementation of hardware

Wyatt, Jeremy

106

Intelligent Systems for the Autonomous Exploration of Titan and Enceladus  

E-print Network

and understanding of Titan and Enceladus environments is evaluated to define a path for the design of a fuzzy systems. Such systems should (1) include software packages that enable fully automated and comprehensive exploration. More specifically, the fuzzy-logic framework proposed is analyzed in some details to show

Arizona, University of

107

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the Tata Energy Research Institute, the EduGreen Explore Web site allows kids to learn about energy, water, climate change, solid waste, and more. Besides giving good descriptions on these various subjects, students will also gain a global perspective on these issues since the Institute, which is located in India, gives specific information for the country. The site also contains quizzes, maps, activities, and more worth checking out.

2002-01-01

108

Intelligent systems for the autonomous exploration of Titan and Enceladus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future planetary exploration of the outer satellites of the Solar System will require higher levels of onboard automation, including autonomous determination of sites where the probability of significant scientific findings is highest. Generally, the level of needed automation is heavily influenced by the distance between Earth and the robotic explorer(s) (e.g. spacecraft(s), rover(s), and balloon(s)). Therefore, planning missions to the outer satellites mandates the analysis, design and integration within the mission architecture of semi- and/or completely autonomous intelligence systems. Such systems should (1) include software packages that enable fully automated and comprehensive identification, characterization, and quantification of feature information within an operational region with subsequent target prioritization and selection for close-up reexamination; and (2) integrate existing information with acquired, "in transit" spatial and temporal sensor data to automatically perform intelligent planetary reconnaissance, which includes identification of sites with the highest potential to yield significant geological and astrobiological information. In this paper we review and compare some of the available Artificial Intelligence (AI) schemes and their adaptation to the problem of designing expert systems for onboard-based, autonomous science to be performed in the course of outer satellites exploration. More specifically, the fuzzy-logic framework proposed is analyzed in some details to show the effectiveness of such a scheme when applied to the problem of designing expert systems capable of identifying and further exploring regions on Titan and/or Enceladus that have the highest potential to yield evidence for past or present life. Based on available information (e.g., Cassini data), the current knowledge and understanding of Titan and Enceladus environments is evaluated to define a path for the design of a fuzzy-based system capable of reasoning over collected data and capable of providing the inference required to autonomously optimize future outer satellites explorations.

Furfaro, Roberto; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Fink, Wolfgang

2008-04-01

109

Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

1996-01-01

110

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

111

Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

2004-01-01

112

Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) Exploring the emergence of  

E-print Network

Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) Exploring the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants JPL D-67959, Task Order NMO711062 15 November 2010 2010 Joint Jupiter Science Definition Team Report to NASA #12;2010 Joint Jupiter Science Definition Team Report to NASA November 15, 2010 ii Part

Rathbun, Julie A.

113

Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several sub-elements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles' thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids.

Stephan, Ryan A.

2010-01-01

114

Atmosphere Explorer control system software (version 2.0)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atmosphere Explorer Control System (AECS) was developed to provide automatic computer control of the Atmosphere Explorer spacecraft and experiments. The software performs several vital functions, such as issuing commands to the spacecraft and experiments, receiving and processing telemetry data, and allowing for extensive data processing by experiment analysis programs. The AECS was written for a 48K XEROX Data System Sigma 5 computer, and coexists in core with the XDS Real-time Batch Monitor (RBM) executive system. RBM is a flexible operating system designed for a real-time foreground/background environment, and hence is ideally suited for this application. Existing capabilities of RBM have been used as much as possible by AECS to minimize programming redundancy. The most important functions of the AECS are to send commands to the spacecraft and experiments, and to receive, process, and display telemetry data.

Mocarsky, W.; Villasenor, A.

1973-01-01

115

Lunar Dust Characterization for Exploration Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar dust effects can have a significant impact on the performance and maintenance of future exploration life support systems. Filtration systems will be challenged by the additional loading from lunar dust, and mitigation technology and strategies have to be adapted to protect sensitive equipment. An initial characterization of lunar dust and simulants was undertaken. The data emphasize the irregular morphology of the dust particles and the frequency dependence of lunar dust layer detachment from shaken surfaces.

Agui, Juan H.

2007-01-01

116

Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

2001-01-01

117

Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

Burke, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

118

Simulation Based Acquisition for NASA's Office of Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, President George W. Bush unveiled his vision for NASA to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program. This vision includes the goal to extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon no later than 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations. In response to this vision, NASA has created the Office of Exploration Systems (OExS) to develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures to explore and support decisions about human exploration destinations, including the development of a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Within the OExS organization, NASA is implementing Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), a robust Modeling & Simulation (M&S) environment integrated across all acquisition phases and programs/teams, to make the realization of the President s vision more certain. Executed properly, SBA will foster better informed, timelier, and more defensible decisions throughout the acquisition life cycle. By doing so, SBA will improve the quality of NASA systems and speed their development, at less cost and risk than would otherwise be the case. SBA is a comprehensive, Enterprise-wide endeavor that necessitates an evolved culture, a revised spiral acquisition process, and an infrastructure of advanced Information Technology (IT) capabilities. SBA encompasses all project phases (from requirements analysis and concept formulation through design, manufacture, training, and operations), professional disciplines, and activities that can benefit from employing SBA capabilities. SBA capabilities include: developing and assessing system concepts and designs; planning manufacturing, assembly, transport, and launch; training crews, maintainers, launch personnel, and controllers; planning and monitoring missions; responding to emergencies by evaluating effects and exploring solutions; and communicating across the OExS enterprise, within the Government, and with the general public. The SBA process features empowered collaborative teams (including industry partners) to integrate requirements, acquisition, training, operations, and sustainment. The SBA process also utilizes an increased reliance on and investment in M&S to reduce design risk. SBA originated as a joint Industry and Department of Defense (DoD) initiative to define and integrate an acquisition process that employs robust, collaborative use of M&S technology across acquisition phases and programs. The SBA process was successfully implemented in the Air Force s Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program.

Hale, Joe

2004-01-01

119

NASA Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under construction today, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS), managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, will provide a robust new capability for human and robotic exploration beyond Earth orbit. The vehicle's initial configuration, sched will enable human missions into lunar space and beyond, as well as provide game-changing benefits for space science missions, including offering substantially reduced transit times for conventionally designed spacecraft. From there, the vehicle will undergo a series of block upgrades via an evolutionary development process designed to expedite mission capture as capability increases. The Space Launch System offers multiple benefits for a variety of utilization areas. From a mass-lift perspective, the initial configuration of the vehicle, capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), will be the world's most powerful launch vehicle. Optimized for missions beyond Earth orbit, it will also be the world's only exploration-class launch vehicle capable of delivering 25 t to lunar orbit. The evolved configuration, with a capability of 130 t to LEO, will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown. From a volume perspective, SLS will be compatible with the payload envelopes of contemporary launch vehicles, but will also offer options for larger fairings with unprecedented volume-lift capability. The vehicle's mass-lift capability also means that it offers extremely high characteristic energy for missions into deep space. This paper will discuss the impacts that these factors - mass-lift, volume, and characteristic energy - have on a variety of mission classes, particularly human exploration and space science. It will address the vehicle's capability to enable existing architectures for deep-space exploration, such as those documented in the Global Exploration Roadmap, a capabilities-driven outline for future deep-space voyages created by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, which represents 14 of the world's space agencies. In addition, this paper will detail this new rocket's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS Program is currently building a global infrastructure asset that will provide robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

120

Variations in lowstand systems tracts: Constraints on exploration  

SciTech Connect

Results of worldwide exploration of lowstand systems tracts support continued application and evaluation of Exxon's cyclic sequence concepts but indicate the need for a better understanding of erosional and depositional variations possible along ancient lowstand coastlines. Exxon's idealized siliciclastic (type 1) model applies where a major highstand fluvial system was entrenched during falling relative sea level, eroding canyons and contributing sediments to lowstand depositional systems. Canyons and incised valleys were filled by late lowstand and retrogradational (transgressive) systems. Not explicit in Exxon's scenario are lowstand tracts at sites of minor entrenched coastal-plain streams or along interdeltaic or nondeltaic margins. A spectrum of systems tracts, identified along ancient basin margins, provides clues for predicting lowstand targets. In the absence of rivers, basin-floor sediments were supplied locally by headward-slumping submarine canyons and erosion of contributary valleys into subaerially exposed highstand shelf and/or strandline systems. Submarine erosion typically continued during subsequent rise and highstand of sea level, and sediments may have been introduced to basin floors through canyons from active retrogradational and highstand longshore systems. Headwardly eroded canyons and valleys were not always filled during subsequent transgression and highstand, leading to long-term multiple erosional/depositional cycles to produce some of the world's major ancient canyon complexes. The type and distribution of highstand systems tracts strongly influenced the quality and distribution of sandstone reservoir potential in subsequent lowstand tracts and, therefore, may help guide deep-water exploration along ancient basin margins.

Brown, L.F. Jr.

1991-03-01

121

Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

Hossain, S. G. M.

122

NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

123

NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near-Earth objects (NEOs), which > 95% are asteroidal bodies, Phobos, Deimos, Mars, and beyond. The HEDS technology roadmap will strategically guide NASA and other U.S. Government agency technology investments that will result in capabilities enabling human exploration missions to diverse destinations generating high returns on investments.

Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

2011-01-01

124

Automatic Event Detection in Noisy Environment for Material Process Monitoring by Laser AE Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser acoustic emission (AE) method is a unique in-situ and non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. It has a capability to detect signals generated from crack generation and propagation, friction and other physical phenomena in materials even in high temperature environment. However, laser AE system has lower signal-to-noise ratio compared to the conventional AE system using PZT sensors, so it is difficult to apply this method in noisy environment. A novel AE measurement system to detect events in such difficult environments was developed. This system could continuously record all AE waveforms and enable unrestricted post-analyses. Noise reduction filters in frequency domain coupling with a new AE event extraction using multiple threshold values showed a good potential for AE signal processing. This system was successfully applied for crack monitoring of plasma spray deposition process of ceramic coating.

Ito, K.; Kuriki, H.; Araki, H.; Kuroda, S.; Enoki, M.

2014-06-01

125

Enabling Exploration Through the International Docking System Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publically available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

Hatfield, Caris A.

2011-01-01

126

Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the 'next generation' of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration.

Clark, John S.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Pellaccio, Dennis G.

1992-01-01

127

NASA's RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set. Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could support NASA's RPS technology development planning, and provide an understanding of fuel need trades over the next three decades.

Balint, Tibor S.

2007-01-01

128

NASA'S RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could support NASA's RPS technology development planning, and provide an understanding of fuel need trades over the next three decades.

Balint, Tibor S.

2007-01-01

129

Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The now-cancelled Constellation Program included the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, were planned to be manned space vehicles while the third element was much more diverse and included several sub-elements. Among other things, these sub-elements were Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The planned missions involving these systems and vehicles included several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal operating environment, many of these risks and challenges were associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) consisted of various technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned thermal risks and design challenges was the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. These risks and design challenges were being addressed through a rigorous technology development process that was planned to culminate with an integrated thermal control system test. Although the technologies being developed were originally aimed towards mitigating specific Constellation risks, the technology development process is being continued within a new program. This continued effort is justified by the fact that many of the technologies are generically applicable to future spacecraft thermal control systems. The current paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing a material compatibility assessment for a promising thermal control system working fluid. The to-date progress and lessons-learned from these development efforts will be discussed throughout the paper.

Stephan, Ryan A.

2011-01-01

130

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

2009-01-01

131

Overview of an Integrated Medical System for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with addressing the risk of unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of inflight medical capabilities. The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) is a project within the ExMC element aimed at reducing this risk by improving the medical capabilities available for exploration missions. The EMSD project will demonstrate, on the ground and on ISS, the integration of several components felt to be essential to the delivery of medical care during long ]duration missions outside of low Earth orbit. The components of the EMSD include the electronic medical record, assisted medical procedure software, medical consumables tracking technology and RFID ] tagged consumables, video conferencing capability, ultrasound device and probes (ground demonstration only), peripheral biosensors, and the software to allow communication among the various components (middleware). This presentation seeks to inform our international partners of the goals and objectives of the EMSD and to foster collaboration opportunities related to this and future projects.

Watkins, Sharmila; Rubin, David

2013-01-01

132

Thermal Protection Materials Technology for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To fulfill the President s Vision for Space Exploration - successful human and robotic missions between the Earth and other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - NASA must reduce trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that payload and scientific experiment capabilities are maximized. As a collaboration among NASA Centers, this project will generate products that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in optimization of vehicle weights, and provide the material and process templates for development of human-rated qualification and certification Thermal Protection System (TPS) plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on technologies that reduce vehicle weight by minimizing the need for propellant. These missions use the destination planet s atmosphere to slow the spacecraft. Such mission profiles induce heating environments on the spacecraft that demand thermal protection heatshields. This program offers NASA essential advanced thermal management technologies needed to develop new lightweight nonmetallic TPS materials for critical thermal protection heatshields for future spacecraft. Discussion of this new program (a December 2004 new start) will include both initial progress made and a presentation of the work to be preformed over the four-year life of the program. Additionally, the relevant missions and environments expected for Exploration Systems vehicles will be presented, along with discussion of the candidate materials to be considered and of the types of testing to be performed (material property tests, space environmental effects tests, and Earth and Mars gases arc jet tests).

Valentine, Peter G.; Lawerence, Timtohy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

2005-01-01

133

An inertial fusion propulsion scheme for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper analyzes a novel fusion scheme that combines the favorable aspects of both inertial and magnetic confinement approaches as a propulsion device for potential application in solar system exploration. An appropriate set of equations for the plasma dynamics and the magnetic nozzle is used to assess the system's propulsive capability by applying the results to a round trip mission to Mars. It is found that such a device would allow a massive vehicle to make the journey in less than five months. It is shown that catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel results in a somewhat poorer propulsion performance than deuterium-tritium though at a significantly lower neutron production. The velocity increment generated by this system and the corresponding trip time are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Irving and Blum (1959).

Kammash, Terry; Galbraith, David L.

1991-01-01

134

Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

2008-01-01

135

Pipe Explorer{trademark} surveying system. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} system was developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), Albuquerque, NM as a deployment method for transporting a variety of survey tools into pipes and ducts. Tools available for use with the system include alpha, beta and gamma radiation detectors; video cameras; and pipe locator beacons. Different versions of this technology have been demonstrated at three other sites; results of these demonstrations are provided in an earlier Innovative Technology Summary Report. As part of a D and D project, characterization radiological contamination inside piping systems is necessary before pipes can be recycled, remediated or disposed. This is usually done manually by surveying over the outside of the piping only, with limited effectiveness and risk of worker exposure. The pipe must be accessible to workers, and embedded pipes in concrete or in the ground would have to be excavated at high cost and risk of exposure to workers. The advantage of the Pipe Explorer is its ability to perform in-situ characterization of pipe internals.

Not Available

1999-06-01

136

Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2009-01-01

137

Quenches and crunchs: Does the system explore in aging the same part of the configuration space explored in equilibrium ?  

E-print Network

Numerical studies are providing novel information on the physical processes associated to physical aging. The process of aging has been shown to consist in a slow process of explorations of deeper and deeper minima of the system potential energy surface. In this article we compare the properties of the basins explored in equilibrium with those explored during the aging process both for sudden temperature changes and for sudden density changes. We find that the hypothesis that during the aging process the system explores the part of the configuration space explored in equilibrium holds only for shallow quenches or for the early aging dynamics. At longer times, systematic deviations are observed. In the case of crunches, such deviations are much more apparent.

Stefano Mossa; Giancarlo Ruocco; Francesco Sciortino; Piero Tartaglia

2001-07-06

138

Utilizing Radioisotope Power Systems for Human Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration has a goal of sending crewed missions to the lunar surface as early as 2015 and no later than 2020. The use of nuclear power sources could aid in assisting crews in exploring the surface and performing In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) activities. Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) provide constant sources of electrical power and thermal energy for space applications. RPSs were carried on six of the crewed Apollo missions to power surface science packages, five of which still remain on the lunar surface. Future RPS designs may be able to play a more active role in supporting a long-term human presence. Due to its lower thermal and radiation output, the planned Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) appears particularly attractive for manned applications. The MCNPX particle transport code has been used to model the current SRG design to assess its use in proximity with astronauts operating on the surface. Concepts of mobility and ISRU infrastructure were modeled using MCNPX to analyze the impact of RPSs on crewed mobility systems. Strategies for lowering the radiation dose were studied to determine methods of shielding the crew from the RPSs.

Schreiner, Timothy M.

2005-01-01

139

Performance Assessment of the Exploration Water Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new water recovery system architecture designed to fulfill the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Exploration Policy has been tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This water recovery system architecture evolved from the current state-of-the-art system developed for the International Space Station (ISS). Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing system optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold. First, volatile organic compounds (VOC) are removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase. Second, vapor compression distillation (VCD) technology processes the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removing VOCs from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treating the various waste streams by VCD reduces the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follows, as well as the aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation process further downstream. This paper documents the results of testing this new architecture.

Carter. D. Layne; Tabb, David; Perry, Jay

2008-01-01

140

Multiphase Flow Technology Impacts on Thermal Control Systems for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Two-Phase Flow Facility (TPHIFFy) Project focused on bridging the critical knowledge gap by developing and demonstrating critical multiphase fluid products for advanced life support, thermal management and power conversion systems that are required to enable the Vision for Space Exploration. Safety and reliability of future systems will be enhanced by addressing critical microgravity fluid physics issues associated with flow boiling, condensation, phase separation, and system stability. The project included concept development, normal gravity testing, and reduced gravity aircraft flight campaigns, in preparation for the development of a space flight experiment implementation. Data will be utilized to develop predictive models that could be used for system design and operation. A single fluid, two-phase closed thermodynamic loop test bed was designed, assembled and tested. The major components in this test bed include: a boiler, a condenser, a phase separator and a circulating pump. The test loop was instrumented with flow meters, thermocouples, pressure transducers and both high speed and normal speed video cameras. A low boiling point surrogate fluid, FC-72, was selected based on scaling analyses using preliminary designs for operational systems. Preliminary results are presented which include flow regime transitions and some observations regarding system stability.

McQuillen, John; Sankovic, John; Lekan, Jack

2006-01-01

141

Crew Exploration Vehicle Potable Water System Verification Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stored water system on the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) will supply the crew with potable water for: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain the quality of the water, transferred from the orbiter to the International Space Station, stored in contingency water containers. In the CEV water system, a depletion of the ionic silver biocide is expected due to ionic silver-plating onto the surfaces of materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for long-term missions that do not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point-of-use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform the testing that will help alleviate concerns related to the CEV water system.

Tuan, George; Peterson, Laurie J.; Vega, Leticia M.

2010-01-01

142

A personal airbag system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential simple, lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62 m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85 m/s, 0 impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the personal airbag system concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0 impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30 indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5 m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.

Do, Sydney; de Weck, Olivier

2012-12-01

143

AmeriFlux Site and Data Exploration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AmeriFlux network was established in 1996. The network provides continuous observations of ecosystem-level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. The current network, including both active and inactive sites, consists of 141 sites in North, Central, and South America. The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides data management support for the AmeriFlux network including long-term data storage and dissemination. AmeriFlux offers a broad suite of value-added data products: Level 1 data products at 30 minute or hourly time intervals provided by the site teams, Level 2 data processed by CDIAC and Level 3 and 4 files created using CarboEurope algorithms. CDIAC has developed a relational database to house the vast array of AmeriFlux data and information and a web-based interface to the database, the AmeriFlux Site and Data Exploration System (http://ameriflux.ornl.gov), to help users worldwide identify, and more recently, download desired AmeriFlux data. AmeriFlux and CDIAC offer numerous value-added AmeriFlux data products (i.e., Level 1-4 data products, biological data) and most of these data products are or will be available through the new data system. Vital site information (e.g., location coordinates, dominant species, land-use history) is also displayed in the new system. The data system provides numerous ways to explore and extract data. Searches can be done by site, location, measurement status, available data products, vegetation types, and by reported measurements just to name a few. Data can be accessed through the links to full data sets reported by a site, organized by types of data products, or by creating customized datasets based on user search criteria. The new AmeriFlux download module contains features intended to ease compliance of the AmeriFlux fair-use data policy, acknowledge the contributions of submitting investigators, inform AmeriFlux investigators of users of their data, and facilitate meaningful usage statistics. Comprehensive site descriptions are available via the same interface along with site-related publications and data visualization functionality. This presentation reflects the present state and functionality of the AmeriFlux Site and Data Exploration System as well as future plans for expansion. For example, future plans call for expansion of the relational database to house similar data from large-scale ecosystem experiments (e.g., FACE, NGEE - Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment) and inclusion of enhanced query capabilities (e.g., sorting data via day and night).

Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Yang, B.; Jackson, B.

2011-12-01

144

Orbital Stability of Spacecraft Exploring Multiple Asteroid Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space missions to study the composition and formation histories of multiple asteroid systems require the identification of safe orbits for the observing spacecraft. To identify regions of orbital stability, we developed an n-body simulation and Monte Carlo scheme to test a large selection of orbits around the components of multiple asteroid systems. Our n-body program integrates the equations of motion of the spacecraft, asteroid system components, and the sun for 20 days, taking into account solar radiation pressure on the spacecraft and modeling asteroids as systems of rigid points when their shape model is known. We utilized a Monte Carlo scheme to test the stability of polar and retrograde orbits from uniformly distributed starting positions with normally distributed tangential velocities around each component. We present preliminary results of simulations testing hundreds of thousands of polar and retrograde orbits around the components of the 2001 SN263 near-earth triple asteroid system, and the (90) Antiope doublet and (45) Eugenia triple systems in the main-belt. These systems are potential targets for several space mission concepts, including: the Amor mission to visit and land on the components of 2001 SN263, Jones et al. (LPSC 42, #2695, 2011), the Diversity mission to explore several asteroid systems including (45) Eugenia and (90) Antiope, Marchis et al. (LPSC 42, #2062, 2011), and the ASTER mission to visit a NEA multiple asteroid, Sukhanov et al. (Cosmic Research 48-5, p. 443-450, 2010). Analysis of stable regions in position and velocity may assist in planning scientific orbits and instrumental specifications for such missions.

Burns, Keaton; Marchis, F.; Bellerose, J.

2011-05-01

145

Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Approach to Enterprise Risk Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Division has implemented an innovative approach to Enterprise Risk Management under a unique governance structure and streamlined integration model. ESD's mission is to design and build the capability to extend human existence to deep space. The Enterprise consists of three Programs: Space Launch System (SLS), Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO). The SLS is a rocket and launch system that will be capable of powering humans, habitats, and support systems to deep space. Orion will be the first spacecraft in history capable of taking humans to multiple destinations within deep space. GSDO is modernizing Kennedy's spaceport to launch spacecraft built and designed by both NASA and private industry. ESD's approach to Enterprise Risk Management is commensurate with affordability and a streamlined management philosophy. ESD Enterprise Risk Management leverages off of the primary mechanisms for integration within the Enterprise. The Enterprise integration approach emphasizes delegation of authority to manage and execute the majority of cross-program activities and products to the individual Programs, while maintaining the overall responsibility for all cross-program activities at the Division. The intent of the ESD Enterprise Risk Management approach is to improve risk communication, to avoid replication and/or contradictory strategies, and to minimize overhead process burden. This is accomplished by the facilitation and integration of risk information within ESD. The ESD Division risks, Orion risks, SLS risks, and GSDO risks are owned and managed by the applicable Program. When the Programs have shared risks with multiple consequences, they are jointly owned and managed. When a risk is associated with the integrated system that involves more than one Program in condition, consequence, or mitigation plan, it is considered an Exploration Systems Integration (ESI) Risk. An ESI risk may require visibility and risk handling by multiple organizations. The Integrated Risk Working Group (IRWG) is a small team of Risk experts that are responsible for collaborating and communicating best practices. In addition, the forum facilitates proper integration of risks across the Enterprise. The IRWG uses a Continuous Risk Management approach for facilitating the identification, analysis, planning, tracking, and controlling of ESI Risks. The ESD Division, Programs, and Integrated Task Teams identify ESI Risks. The IRWG maintains a set of metrics for understanding Enterprise Risk process and the overall Risk Posture. The team is also actively involved in the modeling of risk for Enterprise Performance Management. With the Enterprise being constrained in Schedule and Budget, and with significant technical complexity, the appropriate use of Risk Management techniques is crucial to the success of the Enterprise. The IRWG achieves this through the modified approach, providing a forum for collaboration on risks that cross boundaries between the separate entities.

Bauder, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

146

Exploration of geothermal systems using hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible near infrared (VNIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), and thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing has long been used for geothermal exploration. Specific focus on the TIR region (8-12 ?m) has resulted in major-rock-forming mineral classes being identified and their areal percentages to be more easily mapped due in part to the linear mixing behavior of TIR emission. To understand the mineral compositional and thermal distribution of active geothermal surfaces systems, hyperspectral TIR data from the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) airborne sensor were acquired over the Salton Sea, CA geothermal fields by The Aerospace Corporation on March 26, 2009 and April 6, 2010. SEBASS collects 128 wavelength channels at ~ 1 m spatial resolution. Such high resolution data are rarely available for this type of scientific analysis and enabled the identification of rare mineral assemblages associated with the geothermally-active areas. One surface unit with a unique spectrum, believed to be a magnesium sulfate of unknown hydration state, was identified for the first time in the SEBASS data. The abundance and distribution of this mineral varied between 2009 and 2010 likely due to the precipitation conditions. Data obtained by the SEBASS sensor were also regressed to the 32 channel spectral resolution of the Mineral and Gas Identifier (MAGI) airborne sensor in order to test sensitivity limits. At this lower spectral resolution, all surface minerals were still effectively identified and therefore validated data at MAGI resolution are still very effective for accurate surface compositional mapping. A similar approach used at active geothermal areas in other semi-arid regions around the world has the potential to better characterize transient mineralogy, identify "indicators minerals", understand the influence of surface and ground water, and ultimately to locate new geothermal targets for future exploration. Furthermore, new Mineral and Gas Identification (MAGI) data serve as an excellent precursor for future spaceborne TIR data such as the system proposed for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) instrument.

Reath, Kevin A.; Ramsey, Michael S.

2013-09-01

147

Gravity waves in the thermosphere observed by the AE satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric Explorer (AE) satellite data were used to investigate the spectra characteristics of wave-like structure observed in the neutral and ionized components of the thermosphere. Power spectral analysis derived by the maximum entropy method indicate the existence of a broad spectrum of scale sizes for the fluctuations ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers.

Gross, S. H.; Reber, C. A.; Huang, F. T.

1983-01-01

148

Avionic architecture requirements for Space Exploration Initiative systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors discuss NASA's Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group (SATWG) and the results of the first study commissioned by the SATWG, the Space Avionics Requirements Study (SARS). The goal of the SARS task was to show that an open avionics architecture, using modular, standardized components, could be applied across the wide range of systems that comprise the Space Exploration Initiative. The study addressed systems ranging from expendable launch vehicles and the space station to surface systems such as Mars or lunar rovers and habitats. Top-level avionics requirements were derived from characterizations of each of the systems considered. Then a set of avionics subsystems were identified, along with estimates of the numbers and types of modules needed to meet the requirements. Applicability of these results across the infrastructure was then illustrated. In addition to these tasks, critical technologies were identified, characterized, and assessed in terms of their criticality and impact on the program. Design, development, test, and evaluation methods were addressed to identify potential areas of improvement.

Herbella, C. G.; Brown, D. C.

1991-01-01

149

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial

Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Rector, Tony; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

2008-01-01

150

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of problems related to the design, construction and evaluation of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle and its control and operating systems intended for an unmanned exploration of Mars are studied. Vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain sensing and modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of samples are included.

1974-01-01

151

A SWARM of Earth Explorer Family Mission Control Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA approach in developing and maintaining Software infrastructure is well proven since it has supported the Mission Control System (MCS) development of virtually all spacecrafts launched by ESA. The approach to bundle together missions with similar technical challenges is the mission family concept. Missions like Cryosat, Goce, Aeolus, METOP and the very new upcoming SWARM mission are all earth exploring missions with very similar ground segment interfaces and common needs. This mission family is called Earth Observation (EO) Mission Family. The paper describes the EO Mission Family concept applied to the development of the MCS. Furthermore the whole way through testing, team- organisation and training up to real operations will be taken into account.

Schurig, C.; Guerrucci, D.

2007-08-01

152

New approaches to planetary exploration - Spacecraft and information systems design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approaches are recommended for use by the NASA Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in lowering the costs of planetary missions. The inclusion of off-the-shelf hardware, i.e., configurations currently in use for earth orbits and constructed on a nearly assembly-line basis, is suggested. Alterations would be necessary for the thermal control, power supply, telecommunications equipment, and attitude sensing in order to be serviceable as a planetary observer spacecraft. New technology can be developed only when cost reduction for the entire mission would be realized. The employment of lower-cost boost motors, or even integrated boost motors, for the transfer out of earth orbit is indicated, as is the development of instruments that do not redundantly gather the same data as previous planetary missions. Missions under consideration include a Mars geoscience climatology Orbiter, a lunar geoscience Orbiter, a near-earth asteroid rendezvous, a Mars aeronomy Orbiter, and a Venus atmospheric probe.

Diaz, A. V.; Neugebauer, M.; Stuart, J.; Miller, R. B.

1983-01-01

153

Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of exploration at the destinations. Finally, interstellar trip times are assessed at milli-g acceleration levels.

Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

2014-01-01

154

UWB Tracking System Design for Lunar/Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a design effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar/Mars rovers during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. The UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties such as high data rate, fine time resolution, low power spectral density, and multipath immunity. A two-cluster prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Angle Of Arrival (AOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. An AOA technique using the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) information is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. After the UWB radio at each cluster is used to obtain the TDOA estimates from the UWB signal sent from the target, the TDOA data is converted to AOA data to find the angle of arrival, assuming this is a far field application. Since the distance between two clusters is known, the target position is computed by a simple triangulation. Simulations show that the average tracking error at a range of 610 meters is 2.7595 meters, less than 0.5% of the tracking range. Outdoor tests to track the SCOUT vehicle (The Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed) near the Meteor Crater, Flagstaff, Arizona were performed on September 12-13, 2005. The tracking performance was obtained with less than 1% tracking error at ranges up to 2000 feet. No RF interference with on-board GPS, video, voice and telemetry systems was detected. Outdoor tests demonstrated the UWB tracking capability.

Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia

2006-01-01

155

Introducing NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and the moons of Mars. Comprised of competitively selected teams across the U.S., a growing number of international partnerships around the world, and a small central office located at NASA Ames Research Center, the institute advances collaborative research to bridge science and exploration goals. As a virtual institute, SSERVI brings unique skills and collaborative technologies for enhancing collaborative research between geographically disparate teams. SSERVI is jointly funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate and the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. Current U.S. teams include: Dr. Jennifer L. Heldmann, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; Dr. William Farrell, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; Prof. Carl Pieters, Brown University, Providence, RI; Prof. Daniel Britt, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL; Prof. Timothy Glotch, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY; Dr. Mihaly Horanyi, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Dr. Ben Bussey, Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD; Dr. David A. Kring, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX; and Dr. William Bottke, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO. Interested in becoming part of SSERVI? SSERVI Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) awards are staggered every 2.5-3yrs, with award periods of five-years per team. SSERVI encourages those who wish to join the institute in the future to engage current teams and international partners regarding potential collaboration, and to participate in focus groups or current team activities now. Joining hand in hand with international partners is a winning strategy for raising the tide of Solar System science around the world. Non-U.S. science organizations can propose to become either Associate or Affiliate members on a no-exchange-of-funds basis. Current international partners include: Canada, Germany, Israel, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. Discussions are ongoing to bring several more partners into the fold. These partnerships have impacted lunar science in a number of ways, resulting in such efforts and groups as the Pan-European Lunar Science Consortium and the Canadian Sudbury Field School. For more information visit sservi.nasa.gov

Pendleton, Yvonne

156

Exploring No-SQL alternatives for ALMA monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. This paper describes the experience gained after several years working with the monitoring system, which has a strong requirement of collecting and storing up to 150K variables with a highest sampling rate of 20.8 kHz. The original design was built on top of a cluster of relational database server and network attached storage with fiber channel interface. As the number of monitoring points increases with the number of antennas included in the array, the current monitoring system demonstrated to be able to handle the increased data rate in the collection and storage area (only one month of data), but the data query interface showed serious performance degradation. A solution based on no-SQL platform was explored as an alternative to the current long-term storage system. Among several alternatives, mongoDB has been selected. In the data flow, intermediate cache servers based on Redis were introduced to allow faster streaming of the most recently acquired data to web based charts and applications for online data analysis.

Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Merino, Patricio; Pea, Leonel; Bartsch, Marcelo; Aguirre, Alvaro; Ibsen, Jorge

2014-07-01

157

Exploring flexible strategies in engineering systems using screening models : applications to offshore petroleum projects  

E-print Network

Engineering Systems, such as offshore petroleum exploration and production systems, generally require a significant amount of capital investment under various technical and market uncertainties. Choosing appropriate designs ...

Lin, Jijun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

158

Dragon exploration system on marine sponge compounds interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Natural products are considered a rich source of new chemical structures that may lead to the therapeutic agents in all major disease areas. About 50% of the drugs introduced in the market in the last 20 years were natural products/derivatives or natural products mimics, which clearly shows the influence of natural products in drug discovery. Results In an effort to further support the research in this field, we have developed an integrative knowledge base on Marine Sponge Compounds Interactions (Dragon Exploration System on Marine Sponge Compounds Interactions - DESMSCI) as a web resource. This knowledge base provides information about the associations of the sponge compounds with different biological concepts such as human genes or proteins, diseases, as well as pathways, based on the literature information available in PubMed and information deposited in several other databases. As such, DESMSCI is aimed as a research support resource for problems on the utilization of marine sponge compounds. DESMSCI allows visualization of relationships between different chemical compounds and biological concepts through textual and tabular views, graphs and relational networks. In addition, DESMSCI has built in hypotheses discovery module that generates potentially new/interesting associations among different biomedical concepts. We also present a case study derived from the hypotheses generated by DESMSCI which provides a possible novel mode of action for variolins in Alzheimers disease. Conclusion DESMSCI is the first publicly available (http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/desmsci) comprehensive resource where users can explore information, compiled by text- and data-mining approaches, on biological and chemical data related to sponge compounds. PMID:23415072

2013-01-01

159

Future NASA solar system exploration activities: A framework for international cooperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals and approaches for planetary exploration as defined for the NASA Solar System Exploration Program are discussed. The evolution of the program since the formation of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in 1980 is reviewed and the primary missions comprising the program are described.

French, Bevan M.; Ramlose, Terri; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

1992-01-01

160

Design of an unmanned Martian polar exploration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an unmanned Martian polar exploration system is presented. The system elements include subsystems for transportation of material from earth to Mars, study of the Martian north pole, power generation, and communications. Early next century, three Atlas 2AS launch vehicles will be used to insert three Earth-Mars transfer vehicles, or buses, into a low-energy transfer orbit. Capture at Mars will be accomplished by aerobraking into a circular orbit. Each bus contains four landers and a communications satellite. Six of the twelve total landers will be deployed at 60 deg intervals along 80 deg N, and the remaining six landers at 5 deg intervals along 30 deg E from 65 deg N to 90 deg N by a combination of retrorockets and parachutes. The three communications satellites will be deployed at altitudes of 500 km in circular polar orbits that are 120 deg out of phase. These placements maximize the polar coverage of the science and communications subsystems. Each lander contains scientific equipment, two microrovers, power supplies, communications equipment, and a science computer. The lander scientific equipment includes a microweather station, seismometer, thermal probe, x-ray spectrometer, camera, and sounding rockets. One rover, designed for short-range (less than 2 km) excursions from the lander, includes a mass spectrometer for mineral analysis, an auger/borescope system for depth profiling, a deployable thermal probe, and charge coupled device cameras for terrain visualization/navigation. The second rover, designed for longer-range (2-5 km) excursions from the lander, includes radar sounding/mapping equipment, a seismometer, and laser ranging devices. Power for all subsystems is supplied by a combination of solar cells, Ni-H batteries, and radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Communications are sequenced from rovers, sounding rockets, and remote sensors to the lander, then to the satellites, through the Deep Space Network to and from earth.

Baldwin, Curt; Chitwood, Denny; Demann, Brian; Ducheny, Jordan; Hampton, Richard; Kuhns, Jesse; Mercer, Amy; Newman, Shawn; Patrick, Chris; Polakowski, Tony

1994-01-01

161

Solar Power System Evaluated for the Human Exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric power system is a crucial element of any mission for the human exploration of the Martian surface. The bulk of the power generated will be delivered to crew life support systems, extravehicular activity suits, robotic vehicles, and predeployed in situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment. In one mission scenario, before the crew departs for Mars, the ISRU plant operates for 435 days producing liquefied methane and oxygen for ascent-stage propellants and water for crew life support. About 200 days after ISRU production is completed, the crew arrives for a 500-day surface stay. In this scenario, the power system must operate for a total of 1130 days (equivalent to 1100 Martian "sols"), providing 400 MW-hr of energy to the ISRU plant and up to 18 kW of daytime user power. A photovoltaic power-generation system with regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage has been under study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The conceptual power system is dominated by the 4000- m2 class photovoltaic array that is deployed orthogonally as four tent structures, each approximately 5 m on a side and 100-m long. The structures are composed of composite members deployed by an articulating mast, an inflatable boom, or rover vehicles, and are subsequently anchored to the ground. Array panels consist of thin polymer membranes with thin-film solar cells. The array is divided into eight independent electrical sections with solar cell strings operating at 600 V. Energy storage is provided by regenerative fuel cells based on hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen and oxygen reactants are stored in gaseous form at 3000 psi, and the water produced is stored at 14.7 psi. The fuel cell operating temperature is maintained by a 40-m2 deployable pumped-fluid loop radiator that uses water as the working fluid. The power management and distribution (PMAD) architecture features eight independent, regulated 600-Vdc channels. Power management and distribution power cables use various gauges of copper conductors with ethylene tetrafluoroethylene insulation. To assess power system design options and sizing, we developed a dedicated Fortran code to predict detailed power system performance and estimate system mass. This code also modeled the requisite Mars surface environments: solar insolation, Sun angles, dust storms, dust deposition, and thermal and ultraviolet radiation. Using this code, trade studies were performed to assess performance and mass sensitivities to power system design parameters (photovoltaic array geometry and orientation) and mission parameters (landing date and landing site latitude, terrain slope, and dust storm activity). Mission analysis cases were also run. Power results are shown in this graph for an analysis case with a September 1, 2012, landing date; 18.95 North latitude landing site; two seasonal dusts storms; and tent arrays. To meet user load requirements and the ISRU energy requirement, an 8-metric ton (MT) power system and 4000-m2 photovoltaic array area were required for the assumed advanced CuInS2 thin-film solar cell technology. In this figure, the top curve is the average daytime photovoltaic array power, the middle curve is average daytime user load power, and the bottom curve is nighttime power. At mission day 1, daytime user power exceeds 120 kW before falling off to 80 kW at the end of the mission. Throughout the mission, nighttime user power is set to the nighttime power requirement. In this analysis, "nighttime" is defined as the 13- to 15-hr period when array power output is below the daytime power requirement. During dust storms, power system capability falls off dramatically so that by mission day 900, a daily energy balance cannot be maintained. Under these conditions, the ISRU plant is placed in standby mode, and the regenerative fuel cell energy storage is gradually discharged to meet user loads.

Kerslake, Thomas W.

2000-01-01

162

Radio Aurora Explorer: Mission science and radar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) satellite is the first of several satellites funded under the NSF CubeSat-based Space Weather and Atmospheric Research Program. RAX is a ground-to-space bi-static radar remote sensing experiment designed to measure and understand the causes of meter-scale ionospheric irregularities. Also known as field-aligned irregularities (FAI), such non-thermal, coherent fluctuations of electron density occur in response to strong ionospheric flows or plasma density gradients during geomagnetic disturbances and are considered a space weather concern due to disruption to communication and navigation signals. The RAX CubeSat was launched in November 2010 and conducted a single experiment in coordination with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar. Due to geophysical inactivity, e.g., lack of strong ionospheric electric fields and low ionospheric densities, no FAI were expected or observed. However, the radar receiver payload operation was successfully demonstrated, including the capability to sense signals as low as -110 dBm, the capability of transmitter-receiver synchronization and accurate ranging, processing of 1.2 GB of raw radar data on board in less than 1 hour, and the downlink of the science results within three-four passes. Analysis of the payload data shows that the noise level is sufficiently low. Although the interference level is a concern, it does not appear to significantly limit the measurements. Toward the end of December 2010, the solar power system gradually degraded and the mission terminated in early February 2011 after prolonged loss of contact with the satellite. Meanwhile, RAX II was launched in October 2011 to a polar orbit. This paper describes the RAX science and radar system and presents the results from the first experiment conducted.

Bahcivan, H.; Cutler, J. W.

2012-04-01

163

Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production at global, regional, and national spatial scales. The CDIAC emission time series estimates are based largely on annual energy statistics published at the national level by the United Nations (UN). CDIAC has developed a relational database to house collected data and information and a web-based interface to help users worldwide identify, explore and download desired emission data. The available information is divided in two major group: time series and gridded data. The time series data is offered for global, regional and national scales. Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). The gridded data presents annual and monthly estimates. Annual data presents a time series recording 1 latitude by 1 longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2008 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2011), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these tabular, national, mass-emissions data and distribute them spatially on a one degree latitude by one degree longitude grid. The within-country spatial distribution is achieved through a fixed population distribution as reported in Andres et al. (1996). This presentation introduces newly build database and web interface, reflects the present state and functionality of the Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Database and Exploration System as well as future plans for expansion.

Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

2012-12-01

164

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of problems related to control of a mobile planetary vehicle according to a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: (1) overall systems analysis; (2) vehicle configuration and dynamics; (3) toroidal wheel design and evaluation; (4) on-board navigation systems; (5) satellite-vehicle navigation systems; (6) obstacle detection systems; (7) terrain sensing, interpretation and modeling; (8) computer simulation of terrain sensor-path selection systems; and (9) chromatographic systems design concept studies. The specific tasks which have been undertaken are defined and the progress which has been achieved during the period July 1, 1971 to December 31, 1971 is summarized.

Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

1971-01-01

165

Exploring the Earth System through online interactive models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper level Earth Science students commonly have a strong background of mathematical training from Math courses, however their ability to use mathematical models to solve Earth Science problems is commonly limited. Their difficulty comes, in part, because of the nature of the subject matter. There is a large body of background ';conceptual' and ';observational' understanding and knowledge required in the Earth Sciences before in-depth quantification becomes useful. For example, it is difficult to answer questions about geological processes until you can identify minerals and rocks and understand the general geodynamic implications of their associations. However, science is fundamentally quantitative. To become scientists students have to translate their conceptual understanding into quantifiable models. Thus, it is desirable for students to become comfortable with using mathematical models to test hypotheses. With the aim of helping to bridging the gap between conceptual understanding and quantification I have started to build an interactive teaching website based around quantitative models of Earth System processes. The site is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students and spans a range of topics that will continue to grow as time allows. The mathematical models are all built for the students, allowing them to spend their time thinking about how the ';model world' changes in response to their manipulation of the input variables. The web site is divided into broad topics or chapters (Background, Solid Earth, Ocean and Atmosphere, Earth history) and within each chapter there are different subtopic (e.g. Solid Earth: Core, Mantle, Crust) and in each of these individual webpages. Each webpage, or topic, starts with an introduction to the topic, followed by an interactive model that the students can use sliders to control the input to and watch how the results change. This interaction between student and model is guided by a series of multiple choice questions that the student answers and immediately gets feedback whether the answer is correct or not. This way the students can ensure they understand the concepts before moving on. A discussion forum for the students to discuss the topics is in development and each page has a feedback option to allow both numerical (1-10) and written feedback on how useful the webpage was. By the end of exploring any given process students are expected to understand how the different parameters explored by the model interact to control the results. They should appreciate why the controlling equations look the way they do (all equations needed to develop the models are present in the introduction) and how these interact to control the results. While this is no substitute to students undertaking the calculations for themselves this approach allows a much wider range of topics to be explored quantitatively than if the students have to code all models themselves.

Coogan, L. A.

2013-12-01

166

Propulsion Health Management System Development for Affordable and Reliable Operation of Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique integrated system health management capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays, all require an integrated approach to health management that can span distinct, yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. Propulsion is a critical part of any space exploration mission, and monitoring the health of the propulsion system is an integral part of assuring mission safety and success. Health management is a somewhat ubiquitous technology that encompasses a large spectrum of physical components and logical processes. For this reason, it is essential to develop a systematic plan for propulsion health management system development. This paper provides a high-level perspective of propulsion health management systems, and describes a logical approach for the future planning and early development that are crucial to planned space exploration programs. It also presents an overall approach, or roadmap, for propulsion health management system development and a discussion of the associated roadblocks and challenges.

Melcher, Kevin J.; Maul, William A.; Garg, Sanjay

2007-01-01

167

Exploration Systems Development Division Quarterly - Duration: 11:38.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA is continuing to make great strides towards sending humans farther than we have ever gone before. Take a look at the work being done by teams all across the nation on NASA??s exploration prog...

168

Exploring the Inner Solar System - Duration: 55:56.  

NASA Video Gallery

Chief Scientist of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Dr. Jim Garvin, takes us on a journey of Earth, the moon, and our neighboring planets. Why does space matter? Why is exploring these destinati...

169

How to Extend the Capabilities of Space Systems for Long Duration Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For sustainable Exploration Missions the need exists to assemble systems-of-systems in space, on the Moon or on other planetary surfaces. To fulfill this need new and innovative system architecture is needed that can be satisfied with the present lift capability of existing rocket technology without the added cost of developing a new heavy lift vehicle. To enable ultra-long life missions with minimum redundancy and lighter mass the need exists to develop system soft,i,are and hardware reconfigurability, which enables increasing functionality and multiple use of launched assets while at the same time overcoming any components failures. Also the need exists to develop the ability to dynamically demate and reassemble individual system elements during a mission in order to work around failed hardware or changed mission requirements. Therefore to meet the goals of Space Exploration Missions in hiteroperability and Reconfigurability, many challenges must be addressed to transform the traditional static avionics architecture into architecture with dynamic capabilities. The objective of this paper is to introduce concepts associated with reconfigurable computer systems; review the various needs and challenges associated with reconfigurable avionics space systems; provide an operational example that illustrates the needs applicable to either the Crew Exploration Vehicle or a collection of "Habot like" mobile surface elements; summarize the approaches that address key challenges to acceptance of a Flexible, Intelligent, Modular and Affordable reconfigurable avionics space system.

Marzwell, Neville I.; Waterman, Robert D.; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

170

Exploring Planetary System Evolution Through High-Contrast Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct imaging of circumstellar disks provides unique information about planetary system construction and evolution. Several hundred nearby main-sequence stars are known to host debris disks, which are produced by mutual collisions of orbiting planetesimals during a phase thought to coincide with terrestrial planet formation. Therefore, detection of the dust in such systems through scattered near-infrared starlight offers a view of the circumstellar environment during the epoch of planet assembly. We have used ground-based coronagraphic angular differential imaging (ADI) with Keck NIRC2 and Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) to investigate disk structures that may act as signposts of planets. ADI and its associated image processing algorithms (e.g., LOCI) are powerful tools for suppressing the stellar PSF and quasistatic speckles that can contaminate disk signal. However, ADI PSF-subtraction also attenuates disk surface brightness in a spatially- and parameter-dependent manner, thereby biasing photometry and compromising inferences regarding the physical processes responsible for the dust distribution. To account for this disk "self-subtraction," we developed a novel technique to forward model the disk structure and compute a self-subtraction map for a given ADI-processed image. Applying this method to NIRC2 near-IR imaging of the HD 32297 debris disk, we combined the high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of ADI data with unbiased photometry to measure midplane curvature in the edge-on disk and a break in the disk's radial brightness profile. Such a break may indicate the location of a planetesimal ring that is a source of the light-scattering micron-sized grains. For the HD 61005 debris disk, we examined similar data together with GPI 1.6-micron polarization data and detected the dust ring's swept-back morphology, brightness asymmetry, stellocentric offset, and inner clearing. To study the physical mechanism behind these features, we explored how eccentricity and mutual inclination affect disk morphology by constructing self-subtracted scattered-light models (using our forward-modeling technique) and comparing them with complementary NIRC2 (several-arcsecond scales) and GPI (high S/N close to the star) observations.

Esposito, Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Gpies Team

2015-01-01

171

Transport activity of chimaeric AE2-AE3 chloride/bicarbonate anion exchange proteins.  

PubMed

Chloride/bicarbonate anion exchangers (AEs), found in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, are involved in pH regulation and bicarbonate metabolism. Although AE2 and AE3 are highly similar in sequence, AE2-transport activity was 10-fold higher than AE3 (41 versus 4 mM x min(-1) respectively), when expressed by transient transfection of HEK-293 cells. AE2-AE3 chimaeras were constructed to define the region responsible for differences in transport activity. The level of AE2 expression was approx. 30% higher than that of AE3. Processing to the cell surface, studied by chemical labelling and confocal microscopy, showed that AE2 is processed to the cell surface approx. 8-fold more efficiently than AE3. The efficiency of cell-surface processing was dependent on the cytoplasmic domain, since the AE2 domain conferred efficient processing upon the AE3 membrane domain, with a predominant role for amino acids 322-677 of AE2. AE2 that was expressed in HEK-293 cells was glycosylated, but little of AE3 was. However, AE2 expressed in the presence of the glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, was not glycosylated, yet retained 85 +/- 8% of anion-transport activity. Therefore glycosylation has little, if any, role in the cell-surface processing or activity of AE2 or AE3. We conclude that the low anion-transport activity of AE3 in HEK-293 cells is due to low level processing to the plasma membrane, possibly owing to protein interactions with the AE3 cytoplasmic domain. PMID:12578559

Fujinaga, Jocelyne; Loiselle, Frederick B; Casey, Joseph R

2003-05-01

172

Role of AE2 for pHi regulation in biliary epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The Cl?/HCO?3anion exchanger 2 (AE2) is known to be involved in intracellular pH (pHi) regulation and transepithelial acid-base transport. Early studies showed that AE2 gene expression is reduced in liver biopsies and blood mononuclear cells from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a disease characterized by chronic non-suppurative cholangitis associated with antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and other autoimmune phenomena. Microfluorimetric analysis of the Cl?/HCO?3 anion exchange (AE) in isolated cholangiocytes showed that the cAMP-stimulated AE activity is diminished in PBC compared to both healthy and diseased controls. More recently, it was found that miR-506 is upregulated in cholangiocytes of PBC patients and that AE2 may be a target of miR-506. Additional evidence for a pathogenic role of AE2 dysregulation in PBC was obtained with Ae2?/?a,b mice, which develop biochemical, histological, and immunologic alterations that resemble PBC (including development of serum AMA). Analysis of HCO?3 transport systems and pHi regulation in cholangiocytes from normal and Ae2?/?a,b mice confirmed that AE2 is the transporter responsible for the Cl?/HCO?3exchange in these cells. On the other hand, both Ae2+/+a,b and Ae2?/?a,b mouse cholangiocytes exhibited a Cl?-independent bicarbonate transport system, essentially a Na+-bicarbonate cotransport (NBC) system, which could contribute to pHi regulation in the absence of AE2. PMID:24478713

Concepcion, Axel R.; Lopez, Mara; Ardura-Fabregat, Alberto; Medina, Juan F.

2013-01-01

173

The Role of Astrobiology in Solar System Exploration: Report from the NASA Astrobiology Institute to the NRC Solar-System Exploration Steering Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrobiology as related to solar-system exploration addresses far more than just the search for life in our solar system. It is about understanding the planets in our solar system as representing different outcomes in their formation, the nature of processes that affected those outcomes, and how those same processes might have operated elsewhere. It is about understanding planetary evolution and

B. M. Jakosky; D. J. Des Marais

2001-01-01

174

In-Situ Production of Solar Power Systems for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current proposals for developing an extended human presence, beyond space stations, on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of non-terrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in-situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through on-going research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. One of the most important elements of a human planetary base is power production. Lunar samples and geophysical measurements returned by the Apollo missions provide detailed data on the composition and physical characteristics of the lunar materials and environment. Based on this knowledge and extrapolations of terrestrial industrial experience it is clear that several types of solar-to-electric converters can be manufactured on the Moon. It is conceivable that well over 90% of a solar-to- electric power system could be made from lunar materials. Production and utilization of photovoltaic devices for solar energy production on Earth is primarily driven by the market economy. On Earth a production plant for photovoltaic devices is intimately linked to the planets massive industrial base. A selection of off the shelf refined materials are available as well as cheap fast transportation on demand. The processes takes place (except for the few seconds reprieve in shot towers etc.) under one gravity, with solar radiation significantly modulated by weather, and under conditions where one atmosphere is free and high vacuum is cumbersome and expensive. Off Earth, on lunar or Mars bases, the cost of photovoltaic power is driven by transport costs - Earth launch, deep space transport, landing on the planetary surface. Thus there is a premium for processes that are materials self-sufficient or for closed loop in-situ processes. The lack of differentiated ores on the Moon, and lack of explored minerals on Mars and interplanetary space give a premium to universal/non-ore-specific mineral extractive processes. Initially a semiconductor/photovoltaic production facility will build on no conveniently located industrial base, further increasing the premium on closed loop self sufficient processes.

Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.

1999-01-01

175

Office of Exploration Systems March 2 -3, 2004  

E-print Network

Technology will play a key role as enabler and major benefit of theplay a key role as enabler and major and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration... · National Benefits (Technology in realizing the new vision ·· Advances in Human and Robotic Technology willAdvances in Human and Robotic

Rathbun, Julie A.

176

"Solar System Exploration @ 50" Second Announcement Note Change of Dates  

E-print Network

of a 300 word abstract and a brief vita electronically to Dr. William P. Barry, NASA Chief Historian is to consider, over the more than fifty year history of the space age, what we have learned about the other in the fifty years of planetary exploration. · The relationships of organizations/international, civil

177

Phylogenetic and Temporal Dynamics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 CRF01_AE in China  

PubMed Central

To explore the epidemic history of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in China, 408 fragments of gag gene sequences of CRF01_AE sampled in 20022010 were determined from different geographical regions and risk populations in China. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the CRF01_AE sequences can be grouped into four clusters, suggesting that at least four genetically independent CRF01_AE descendants are circulating in China, of which two were closely related to the isolates from Thailand and Vietnam. Cluster 1 has the most extensive distribution in China. In North China, cluster 1 and cluster 4 were mainly transmitted through homosexuality.The real substance of the recent HIV-1 epidemic in men who have sex with men(MSM) of North China is a rapid spread of CRF01_AE, or rather two distinctive natives CRF01_AE.The time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of four CRF01_AE clusters ranged from the years 1990.9 to 2003.8 in different regions of China. This is the first phylogenetic and temporal dynamics study of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in China. PMID:23365653

Su, Xueli; Lu, Hongyan; Pang, Xinghuo; Yan, Hong; Feng, Xia; He, Xiong; Zeng, Yi

2013-01-01

178

Cascade Distillation System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

2014-01-01

179

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems related to an unmanned exploration of the planet Mars by means of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle are investigated. These problems include: design, construction and evaluation of the vehicle itself and its control and operating systems. More specifically, vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, propulsion, hazard detection systems, terrain sensing and modelling, obstacle detection concepts, path selection, decision-making systems, and chemical analyses of samples are studied. Emphasis is placed on development of a vehicle capable of gathering specimens and data for an Augmented Viking Mission or to provide the basis for a Sample Return Mission.

Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. Y.

1975-01-01

180

Human Research ProgramHuman Research Program Human System Risk in Exploration and  

E-print Network

Human Research ProgramHuman Research Program Human System Risk in Exploration and the Human Research Program 21SEP10 1HRP Risk Process ­ D Grounds #12;Human Research ProgramHuman Research Program Human System Risks in Exploration Missions 21SEP10 2HRP Risk Process ­ D.Grounds Presentation contents

Waliser, Duane E.

181

Exploration System Mission Directorate and Constellation Program Support for Analogue Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vision: To create a cross-cutting Earth-based program to minimize cost and risk while maximizing the productivity of planetary exploration missions, by supporting precursor system development and carrying out system integration, testing, training, and public engagement as an integral part of the Vision for Space Exploration.

Hoffman, Stephen J.; Voels, Stephen A.; Gerty, Christopher E.

2008-01-01

182

SEEDEEP: A System for Exploring and Querying Scientific Deep Web Data Sources  

E-print Network

SEEDEEP: A System for Exploring and Querying Scientific Deep Web Data Sources Fan Wang Gagan that are hidden behind query forms, thus forming what is re- ferred to as the deep web. In this paper, we propose SEEDEEP, a System for Exploring and quErying scientific DEEP web data sources. SEEDEEP is able

Agrawal, Gagan

183

Towards Efficient Design Space Exploration of Heterogeneous Embedded Media Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern signal processing and multimedia embedded systems increas- ingly have heterogeneous system architectures. In these systems, programmable processors provide flexibility to support multiple applications, while dedicated hardware blocks provide high performance for time-critical application tasks. The heterogeneity of these embedded systems and the varying demands of their grow- ing number of target applications greatly complicate the system design. As part

Andy D. Pimentel; Simon Polstra; Frank Terpstra; A. W. Van Halderen; Joseph E. Coffland; Louis O. Hertzberger

2002-01-01

184

A Screening Model to Explore Planning Decisions in Automotive Manufacturing Systems under Demand Uncertainty  

E-print Network

engineering systems, as for automotive manufacturing, often require significant capital investment. Thesis advisor: Randolph Kirchain Title: Associate Professor of Materials Science & Engineering3 A Screening Model to Explore Planning Decisions in Automotive Manufacturing Systems under Demand

de Weck, Olivier L.

185

A Screening Model to Explore Planning Decisions in Automotive Manufacturing Systems under Demand Uncertainty  

E-print Network

:____________________ _______________________________________ __ Prof. Randolph E. Kirchain Associate Professor of Materials Science & Engineering and Engineering engineering systems, as for automotive manufacturing, often require significant capital investment A Screening Model to Explore Planning Decisions in Automotive Manufacturing Systems under

de Weck, Olivier L.

186

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

2011-01-01

187

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars are reported. Problem areas include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis, terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. These tasks are summarized: vehicle model design, mathematical model of vehicle dynamics, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electrochemical controls, remote control, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer subsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, and chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. V.; Yerazunis, S. W.

1973-01-01

188

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks have been under study: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of a dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer sybsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

1972-01-01

189

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following tasks related to the design, construction, and evaluation of a mobile planetary vehicle for unmanned exploration of Mars are discussed: (1) design and construction of a 0.5 scale dynamic vehicle; (2) mathematical modeling of vehicle dynamics; (3) experimental 0.4 scale vehicle dynamics measurements and interpretation; (4) vehicle electro-mechanical control systems; (5) remote control systems; (6) collapsibility and deployment concepts and hardware; (7) design, construction and evaluation of a wheel with increased lateral stiffness, (8) system design optimization; (9) design of an on-board computer; (10) design and construction of a laser range finder; (11) measurement of reflectivity of terrain surfaces; (12) obstacle perception by edge detection; (13) terrain modeling based on gradients; (14) laser scan systems; (15) path selection system simulation and evaluation; (16) gas chromatograph system concepts; (17) experimental chromatograph separation measurements and chromatograph model improvement and evaluation.

Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Moyer, W. R.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

1973-01-01

190

Fission Technology for Exploring and Utilizing the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation space systems will build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost,

Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbub, Ivana; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

191

New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

NONE

1995-12-08

192

NEXT Ion Propulsion System Configurations and Performance for Saturn System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successes of the Cassini/Huygens mission have heightened interest to return to the Saturn system with focused robotic missions. The desire for a sustained presence at Titan, through a dedicated orbiter and in-situ vehicle, either a lander or aerobot, has resulted in definition of a Titan Explorer flagship mission as a high priority in the Solar System Exploration Roadmap. The discovery of active water vapor plumes erupting from the tiger stripes on the moon Enceladus has drawn the attention of the space science community. The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system is well suited to future missions to the Saturn system. NEXT is used within the inner solar system, in combination with a Venus or Earth gravity assist, to establish a fast transfer to the Saturn system. The NEXT system elements are accommodated in a separable Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) module, or are integrated into the main spacecraft bus, depending on the mission architecture and performance requirements. This paper defines a range of NEXT system configurations, from two to four thrusters, and the Saturn system performance capability provided. Delivered mass is assessed parametrically over total trip time to Saturn. Launch vehicle options, gravity assist options, and input power level are addressed to determine performance sensitivities. A simple two-thruster NEXT system, launched on an Atlas 551, can deliver a spacecraft mass of over 2400 kg on a transfer to Saturn. Similarly, a four-thruster system, launched on a Delta 4050 Heavy, delivers more than 4000 kg spacecraft mass. A SEP module conceptual design, for a two thruster string, 17 kW solar array, configuration is characterized.

Benson, Scott W.; Riehl, John P.; Oleson, Steven R.

2007-01-01

193

Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

Bloomfield, Harvey S.

1987-01-01

194

Tradespace exploration for space system architectures : a weighted graph framework  

E-print Network

Many systems undergo significant architecture-level change during their lifecycles as a result of exogenous system disturbances (e.g. budget reduction or changes in stakeholder requirements), failure to develop critical ...

Davison, Peter Leslie

2014-01-01

195

Scaling System-Level Science: Scientific Exploration and IT Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study and creation of the infrastructure required to enable system-level science--the integration of diverse sources of knowledge about the constituent parts of a complex system with the goal of obtaining an understanding of the system's properties as a whole--is becoming increasingly important, spawning new knowledge in variety of fields at a rapid pace.

Ian T. Foster; Carl Kesselman

2006-01-01

196

Metrics for design space exploration of heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of designing heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems. The focus is on a step of the design flow: the definition of innovative metrics for the analysis of the system specification to statically identify the most suitable processing elements class for each system functionality. Experimental results are also included, to show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed

Donatella Sciuto; Fabio Salice; Luigi Pomante; William Fornaciari

2002-01-01

197

Beyond Earth's boundaries: Human exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an annual report describing work accomplished in developing the knowledge base that will permit informed recommendations and decisions concerning national space policy and the goal of human expansion into the solar system. The following topics are presented: (1) pathways to human exploration; (2) human exploration case studies; (3) case study results and assessment; (4) exploration program implementation strategy; (5) approach to international cooperation; (6) recommendations; and (7) future horizons.

1991-01-01

198

Meeting the Challenges of Exploration Systems: Health Management Technologies for Aerospace Systems With Emphasis on Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays all require an ISHM system that can span distinct yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation, and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and applied health management system technologies to aerospace propulsion systems for almost two decades. Lessons learned from past activities help define the approach to proper ISHM development: sensor selection- identifies sensor sets required for accurate health assessment; data qualification and validation-ensures the integrity of measurement data from sensor to data system; fault detection and isolation-uses measurements in a component/subsystem context to detect faults and identify their point of origin; information fusion and diagnostic decision criteria-aligns data from similar and disparate sources in time and use that data to perform higher-level system diagnosis; and verification and validation-uses data, real or simulated, to provide variable exposure to the diagnostic system for faults that may only manifest themselves in actual implementation, as well as faults that are detectable via hardware testing. This presentation describes a framework for developing health management systems and highlights the health management research activities performed by the Controls and Dynamics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It illustrates how those activities contribute to the development of solutions for Integrated System Health Management.

Melcher, Kevin J.; Sowers, T. Shane; Maul, William A.

2005-01-01

199

A forced inflated parachute system to explore earth environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new parachute system is being developed in order to study the lower thermosphere and mesosphere of the earth, the region left fairly unexplored so far because conventional in-situ measurement technique can not be properly applied in these regions. After the system is ejected from a rocket at the height of 120-130 km, the parachute of the system is forced to inflate. It, however still gains the falling velocity down to 85 km and only below this level the velocity is gradually reduced. In order to reduce the falling velocity to values less than 500 m/sec., the total weight of the system should be less than 5 kg. This includes telemetry system, battery and scientific instruments plus the parachute . Part of the system is conductive so that the system can be tracked from the ground by a radar in order to obtain wind information which is closely related to the geophysical parameters to be measured.

Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Hinada, Motoki; Hashimoto, Yasuo; Tokunaga, Yoshiyuki; Namiki, Michiyoshi; Saito, Shinji; Nakata, Atsushi; Takasaki, Masanori; Kawashima, Nobuki

200

A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

2004-01-01

201

Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

2014-01-01

202

A composite computational model of liver glucose homeostasis. Part 2: Exploring system behaviour  

E-print Network

ForReview Only A composite computational model of liver glucose homeostasis. Part 2: Exploring-DISCIPLINARY SCIENCES Keywords: computational modeling, glucose homeostasis, liver, bifurcation analysis http glucose homeostasis. Part 2: Exploring system behaviour T. Sumner4 , J. Hetherington1,2 , R.M. Seymour1

Finkelstein, Anthony

203

Spacewalker: Automated Design Space Exploration for Embedded Computer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of automated design of a computer system for an embedded application. The computer system to be designed consists of a VLIW processor and\\/or a customized systolic array, along with a cache subsystem comprising a data cache, instruction cache and second-level unified cache. Several algorithms for \\

Greg Snider

2001-01-01

204

Hierarchical design space exploration for a class of digital systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an architectural synthesis approach for a widely used class of digital systems characterized by inherent regularity in their description. This approach relies on a novel modeling or abstraction of the problem domain to facilitate a hierarchical solution method. The modeling is based on exploiting the inherent regularity in the system description to cluster its behavioral operations. The

D. Sreenivasa Rao; Fadi J. Kurdahi

1993-01-01

205

Emergency Oxygen System Evaluation for Exploration PLSS Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) emergency oxygen system is being reexamined for the next generation of suits. These suits will be used for transit to Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and to Mars as well as on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Currently, the plan is that there will be two different sets of suits, but there is a strong desire for commonality between them for construction purposes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate what the emergency PLSS requirements are and how they might best be implemented. Options under consideration are enlarging the tanks on the PLSS, finding an alternate method of storage/delivery, or providing additional O2 from an external source. The system that shows the most promise is the cryogenic oxygen system with a composite dewar which uses a buddy system to split the necessary oxygen between two astronauts.

Heather, Paul; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Conger, Bruce

2006-01-01

206

CASSE: A System-Level Modeling and Design-Space Exploration Tool for Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

As SoC complexity grows new methodologies and tools for system design and time-effective ditsign space exploration are required. In this paper we introduce a tool called CASSE, what stands for Camellia system-on-chip simulation environment. CASSE is a fast, flexible, and modular SystemC-based simulation environment which aims to be useful for design-space exploration and system-level design at different abstraction levels. The

Vctor Reyes; Toms Bautista; Gustavo Marrero; Pedro P. Carballo; Wido Kruijtzer

2004-01-01

207

The Role of Astrobiology in Solar System Exploration: Report from the NASA Astrobiology Institute to the NRC Solar-System Exploration Steering Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology as related to solar-system exploration addresses far more than just the search for life in our solar system. It is about understanding the planets in our solar system as representing different outcomes in their formation, the nature of processes that affected those outcomes, and how those same processes might have operated elsewhere. It is about understanding planetary evolution and its connection to habitability as well as the actual distribution of life. It is about looking at the solar system as an integrated system, and seeing the connections between the evolution of the inner solar system, the outer solar system, and small bodies, as viewed through the connecting perspective of habitability and biology. In this context, finding no life on Mars or Europa is not a failure but is an important scientific result; it allows us to better understand the conditions required for a planet to support life and the relationship between biology and planetary processes. The strength of the connections between planetary exploration and astrobiology is clear if one examines a list of spacecraft missions currently operating or under development; most, if not all, are addressing questions and themes that are linked strongly to astrobiology. Astrobiology is an integrating theme that brings together a substantial fraction of the issues in solar-system exploration under a common thread of understanding planetary habitability. This theme allows us to explain to the non-expert the connections between the component disciplines within planetary science, and to do so in a way that most people will appreciate as addressing core issues in human thought. Astrobiology is certainly one of the several highest-level themes that unites and integrates solar-system exploration and, as such, will need to be strongly integrated into the solar system strategy. The full text of the report from the NAI to the NRC is available at the DPS decadal strategy web site.

Jakosky, B. M.; Des Marais, D. J.; NASA Astrobiology Institute Executive Council

2001-11-01

208

Exploring Complex Systems Aspects of Blackout Risk and Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Electric power transmission systems are a key infrastructure, and blackouts of these systems have major consequences for the economy and national security. Analyses of blackout data suggest that blackout size distributions have a power law form over much of their range. This result is an indication that blackouts behave as a complex dynamical system. We use a simulation of an upgrading power transmission system to investigate how these complex system dynamics impact the assessment and mitigation of blackout risk. The mitigation of failures in complex systems needs to be approached with care. The mitigation efforts can move the system to a new dynamic equilibrium while remaining near criticality and preserving the power law region. Thus, while the absolute frequency of blackouts of all sizes may be reduced, the underlying forces can still cause the relative frequency of large blackouts to small blackouts to remain the same. Moreover, in some cases, efforts to mitigate small blackouts can even increase the frequency of large blackouts. This result occurs because the large and small blackouts are not mutually independent, but are strongly coupled by the complex dynamics.

Newman, David E [University of Alaska; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2011-01-01

209

Small Portable PEM Fuel Cell Systems for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen-Hydrogen PEM-based fuel cell systems are being examined as a portable power source alternative in addition to advanced battery technology. Fuel cell power systems have been used by the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle programs. These systems have not been portable, but have been integral parts of their spacecraft, and have used reactants from a separate cryogenic supply. These systems typically have been higher in power. They also have had significant ancillary equipment sections that perform the pumping of reactants and coolant through the fuel cell stack and the separation of the product water from the unused reactant streams. The design of small portable fuel cell systems will be a significant departure from these previous designs. These smaller designs will have very limited ancillary equipment, relying on passive techniques for reactant and thermal management, and the reactant storage will be an integral part of the fuel cell system. An analysis of the mass and volume for small portable fuel cell systems was done to evaluate and quantify areas of technological improvement. A review of current fuel cell technology as well as reactant storage and management technology was completed to validate the analysis and to identify technology challenges

Burke, Kenneth A.

2005-01-01

210

Light Activated Serotonin for Exploring Its Action in Biological Systems  

PubMed Central

Summary Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in regulating mood, appetite, memory, learning, pain, and establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry in embryonic development. To explore the role of 5-HT in a variety of physiological contexts, we have created two forms of caged 5-HT, BHQ-O-5HT and BHQ-N-5HT. When exposed to 365- or 740-nm light, BHQ-O-5HT releases 5-HT through 1- or 2-photon excitation, respectively. BHQ-O-5HT mediated changes in neural activity in cultured primary sensory neurons from mouse and the trigeminal ganglion and optic tectum of intact zebrafish larvae in the form of high amplitude spiking in response to light. In Xenopus laevis embryos, 5-HT released from BHQ-O-5HT upon exposure to light increased the occurrence of LR patterning defects. Maximal rates of LR defects were observed when 5-HT was released at stage 5 compared to stage 8. These experiments show the potential for BHQ-caged serotonins in studying 5-HT-regulated physiological processes. PMID:24333002

Rea, Adam C.; Vandenberg, Laura N.; Ball, Rebecca E.; Snouffer, Ashley A.; Hudson, Alicia G.; Zhu, Yue; McLain, Duncan E.; Johnston, Lindsey L.; Lauderdale, James D.; Levin, Michael; Dore, Timothy M.

2013-01-01

211

Exploring Power-Performance Tradeoffs in Database Systems  

E-print Network

an environmental point of view, computing systems contributes to 2% of the world's carbon footprint [24]. Data the above costs are calculated directly from energy consumption, power (i.e., energy consumption per unit

Tu, Yicheng

212

Exploring capacity limits of fibre-optic mommunication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of evaluating the maximum possible rate of information transmission in fibre-optic communication systems is discussed. A spectral efficiency of ?7 bits\\/s\\/Hz over 1000 km in one polarization is shown to be theoretically achievable.

Rene-Jean Essiambre; Gerard J. Foschini; Peter J. Winzer; Gerhard Kramer

2008-01-01

213

Solar System Exploration -- What Comes Next? - Duration: 0:31.  

NASA Video Gallery

Do you think we already know everything about our solar system? Think again. We've barely scratched the surface of what there is to learn. Join NASA as it sends missions to the far ends of the sola...

214

Development of a mechanical counter pressure Bio-Suit System for planetary exploration  

E-print Network

Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is critical for human spaceflight and particularly for human planetary exploration. The MIT Man Vehicle Laboratory is developing a Bio-Suit EVA System, based on mechanical counterpressure ...

Sim, Zhe Liang

2006-01-01

215

Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer optical system: lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is a NASA astrophysics satellite designed to produce high resolution spectra in the far-ultraviolet (90.5-118.7 nm bandpass) with a high effective area (20-70 cm2) and low background detector. It was launched on a three-year mission in June 1999 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. The satellite has been performing routine science observations since December 1999. FUSE contains four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic primary mirrors which illuminate separate Rowland circle spectrograph channels equipped with holographically ruled diffraction gratings and microchannel plate detectors. Fine error sensors (slit jaw cameras) operating in the visible on two of the channels are used for target acquisition and guiding. The FUSE mission was first proposed in the late 1980s, and experienced several major conceptual changes prior to fabrication, assembly, and testing, which lasted from 1996 through 1999. During the program, we realized both positive and negative aspects to our design and processes that may apply to other space missions using telescopes and spectrographs. The specific topics we address are requirements, design, component specification, integration, and verification. We also discuss on-orbit alignment and focus. These activities were complicated by unexpected levels of motion between the optical elements, and the logistical problems associated with limited ground contact passes in low Earth orbit. We have developed methods to characterize the motions and mitigate their resultant effects on the science data through a combination of observing techniques and modifications to the data reduction software.

Conard, Steven J.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Evans, Jordan P.; Friedman, Scott D.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Moos, H. Warren; Ohl, Raymond G.; Sahnow, David J.

2000-12-01

216

Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

2003-01-01

217

Avionics systems on a chip for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advanced miniaturization of all the on-board spacecraft functions into a highly integrated, modular, and reliable architecture is a major enabling technology for future deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Avionics miniaturization using advanced deep sub-micron semiconductor digital, analog, as well as Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technologies will revolutionize the way we build future spacecraft systems. So called micro and nano satellites as well as other micro-systems are possible using these advanced technologies. In this paper, we present an overview of work in progress at the newly established JPL Center for Integrated Space Microsystems (CISM) in the area of Avionics Systems On a Chip Program. This long-term research and development program has been established as part of NASA's Advanced Deep Space Systems Program (a.k.a. X2000), which also has a near-term project-oriented element, as well as an even longer term research component called Revolutionary Computing Technologies. This paper will outline the vision, goals and scope of the SOAC program, as well as its target mission insertion opportunities. We also describe a technology roadmap from 1998 to 2006 leading to Systems On A Chip technology elements. Also described are the SOAC technology challenges and research components. The first SOAC prototype has been designed and submitted for fabrication at the MIT/LL 0.25 micron Silicon On Insulator (SOI) foundry in July 1998. It contains a telecommunications unit, power management unit, on-chip computer, non-volatile as well as volatile storage, all on a single chip. The chip will be tested at JPL in the second quarter of 1999.

Alkalai, Leon; Kolawa, Elizabeth

1999-01-01

218

AE Alumni Seek to Endow Award in Memory of AE Student Records Staff Assistant, Sharron Williams  

E-print Network

AE Alumni Seek to Endow Award in Memory of AE Student Records Staff Assistant, Sharron Williams as the Sharron E. Williams Memorial Scholarship in AE. The current fund is not endowed with Penn State and thus are launching a campaign to finally endow the award in Sharron's memory. We have a good start, but need your

Guiltinan, Mark

219

Solar system exploration and Earth observation in the new millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA New Millennium Program for the demonstration and flight qualification of new technologies is considered. Such new technologies are related to microprocessor ability, solid state memory and lightweight thermally stable materials. The aim is to improve the architecture and capability of the space segment, while reducing cost. The missions currently under consideration within the framework of this program include a lightweight spacecraft to flyby multiple small bodies using electric propulsion, a Mars microlander, a three-spacecraft interferometer, a global positioning system receiver constellation and a land multispectral imaging system.

Elachi, Charles

1996-01-01

220

Exploring capacity limits of fibre-optic communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The problem of evaluating the maximum rate of transmission of information, or capacity, of fibre-optic communication systems is discussed. We will describe a procedure we developed to derive a lower bound capacity of the dasiafibre channelpsila. Spectral efficiency of ~5 bits\\/s\\/Hz over 2000 km in one polarization will be shown to be theoretically achievable.

R.-J. Essiambre

2008-01-01

221

Exploring performance of neutron guide systems using pinhole beam extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform an optimization of pinhole neutron guide systems under systematically varying conditions. It is investigated how neutron guide systems consisting of a parabolic feeder inside the biological shielding followed by a pinhole and an elliptical guide perform with different pinhole sizes and divergence requirements. We have clarified in which situations such a guide system is a viable choice and when the parabolic feeder is necessary in terms of neutron transport. The advantage of this design is the reduction of background from fast thermal neutrons compared to a system without a pinhole, hence the smallest possible pinhole is of interest. It is found that instruments with divergence requirements of 1.0 will have excellent neutron transport with a 33 cm2 pinhole, while lower divergence requirements of 0.5 can do with a smaller pinhole of 22 cm2. The feeder effectively reduces the necessary pinhole size, and is especially beneficial for short instruments. In addition to these qualities, a feeder will often smoothen the divergence profile, mostly for longer instruments.

Bertelsen, Mads; Jacobsen, Henrik; Bengaard Hansen, Ursula; Hoffmann Carlsen, Henrik; Lefmann, Kim

2013-11-01

222

Exploring the Solar System with a Human Orrery  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental learning goals of introductory astronomy is for the students to gain some perspective on the scale and structure of the solar system. Many astronomy teachers have laid out the planets along a long strip of paper1 or across a school grounds or campus.2 Other activities that investigate the motion of the planets are often computer based,34

Peter Newbury

2010-01-01

223

The MGS Avionics System Architecture: Exploring the Limits of Inheritance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) avionics system architecture comprises much of the electronics on board the spacecraft: electrical power, attitude and articulation control, command and data handling, telecommunications, and flight software. Schedule and cost constraints dictated a mix of new and inherited designs, especially hardware upgrades based on findings of the Mars Observer failure review boards.

Bunker, R.

1994-01-01

224

Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into students'

Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

2012-01-01

225

Analysis of Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project is developing a modular approach to spacecraft power systems for exploration beyond Earth orbit. AMPS is intended to meet the need of reducing the cost of design development, test and integration and also reducing the operational logistics cost of supporting exploration missions. AMPS seeks to establish modular power building blocks with standardized electrical, mechanical, thermal and data interfaces that can be applied across multiple exploration vehicles. The presentation discusses the results of a cost analysis that compares the cost of the modular approach against a traditional non-modular approach.

Oeftering, Richard; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Ray

2014-01-01

226

Using C to build a satellite scheduling expert system: Examples from the Explorer platform planning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, many expert systems were developed in a LISP environment and then ported to the real world C environment before the final system is delivered. This situation may require that the entire system be completely rewritten in C and may actually result in a system which is put together as quickly as possible with little regard for maintainability and further evolution. With the introduction of high performance UNIX and X-windows based workstations, a great deal of the advantages of developing a first system in the LISP environment have become questionable. A C-based AI development effort is described which is based on a software tools approach with emphasis on reusability and maintainability of code. The discussion starts with simple examples of how list processing can easily be implemented in C and then proceeds to the implementations of frames and objects which use dynamic memory allocation. The implementation of procedures which use depth first search, constraint propagation, context switching and a blackboard-like simulation environment are described. Techniques for managing the complexity of C-based AI software are noted, especially the object-oriented techniques of data encapsulation and incremental development. Finally, all these concepts are put together by describing the components of planning software called the Planning And Resource Reasoning (PARR) shell. This shell was successfully utilized for scheduling services of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite since May 1987 and will be used for operations scheduling of the Explorer Platform in November 1991.

Mclean, David R.; Tuchman, Alan; Potter, William J.

1991-01-01

227

Conceptual design of a communications system for Mars exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future missions to Mars will require a communications system to link activities on the Martian surface with each other and with mission controllers on earth. This paper documents the preliminary design of an areosynchronous communications satellite to provide such links. As designed, the satellite will provide almost continuous communication between Mars and earth, as well as continuous Mars surface-to-surface links. The capacity will exist for voice, data/command, and video transmission. The mission scenario assumed for this design is described, followed by the configuration design. The communications systems conceptual design and its impact on the overall spacecraft requirements are then presented. Supporting subsystems including electrical power; thermal control; guidance, navigation, and control; propulsion; structures; and configuration are reviewed. A description of the operating orbit and the assumed method of orbit acquisition are discussed.

Badi, Deborah M.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Martin, Gary L.; Garn, Paul A.

1989-01-01

228

Design space exploration of stochastic System-of-Systems simulations using adaptive sequential experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexities of our surrounding environments are becoming increasingly diverse, more integrated, and continuously more difficult to predict and characterize. These modeling complexities are ever more prevalent in System-of-System (SoS) simulations where simulation run times can surpass real-time and are often dictated by stochastic processes and non-continuous emergent behaviors. As the number of connections continue to increase in modeling environments and the number of external noise variables continue to multiply, these SoS simulations can no longer be explored with traditional means without significantly wasted computational resources. This research will discuss the defining features of an SoS and many of the issues plaguing the SoS industry. Then, it will move to a literature review of the concepts currently used to explore design spaces, and finally, it will explore a set of two cascading research areas which will culminate in an adaptive sequential design of experiments for SoS simulations. The first research area will investigate the key features to SoS and the attributes of these SoS which are important to be identified while exploring their simulations. To complete this investigation, first SoS properties are deduced from SoS's relationship to its super-class, complex systems. Second, following this examination, properties are further induced by investigating notional SoS simulations. From these two research avenues it will be discovered these spaces are nonparametric, conditionally variant, non-normally and non-identically distributed. Further, attributes of the output metrics are identified that will increase the likelihood of locating interesting regions of SoS simulations. The knowledge and information gained from this first research focus is used in developing and comparing existing techniques capable of capturing SoS attributes. Several methods from the literature are compared on numerous stochastic mathematical problems and a single notional SoS simulation to determine their relative performance. From this comparison it will be shown that there are currently no methods capable of learning both the mean and variance of these complex spaces. Although the best method will be shown to be the MARS algorithm for generic high dimensional stochastic problems, it will be shown to be inadequate for SoS simulations. Finally, these two research areas will enable the synthesis of an adaptive sequential algorithm capable of exploring stochastic simulations with emphasis on the attributes common to SoS. This final research area will determine strategically where to place points in the design space to improve its predictive capability. The final algorithm will be tested on an identical set of stochastic mathematical problems and the notional SoS simulation from the second research area, but will also include a published high dimensional SoS simulation. The final method will be shown to improve the exploration of stochastic simulations over existing methods by increased global accuracy, the number of simulations required to learn the space, and the computational speed.

Kernstine, Kemp H., Jr.

229

Visualization and exploration for recommender systems in enterprise organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recommender systems seek to predict the interest a user would find in an item, person or social element they had not yet considered, based upon the properties of the item, the user's past experience and similar users. However, recommended items are often presented to the user with no context and no ability to influence the results. We present a novel visualization technique for recommender systems in which, a user can see the items recommended for him, and understand why they were recommended. Focusing on a user, we render a planar visualization listing a set of recommended items. The items are organized such that similar items reside nearby on the screen, centered around realtime generated categories. We use a combination of iconography, text and tag clouds, with maximal use of screen real estate, and keep items from overlapping to produce our results. We apply our visualization to expert relevance maps in the enterprise and a book recommendation system for consumers. The latter is based on Shelfari, a social network for reading and books.

Karni, Z.; Shapira, L.

2013-03-01

230

Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

Habibi, Mohammad S.

2013-03-01

231

Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

1998-01-01

232

Design exploration and HW/SW rapid prototyping for real-time system design Sylvain Huet  

E-print Network

Design exploration and HW/SW rapid prototyping for real-time system design Sylvain Huet LESTER Lab.pasquier@polytech.univ-nantes.fr Abstract Embedded signal processing systems are usually asso- ciated with real-time constraints and/or high time to prototype. To address this prob- lem, we propose a system-level design based methodology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

233

Autonomous Indoor Exploration with an Event-Based Visual SLAM System  

E-print Network

Autonomous Indoor Exploration with an Event-Based Visual SLAM System Raoul Hoffmann1, David to systems that autonomously localize themselves on a map while simultaneously creating and maintaining a purely visual solution would be preferred. Any such vision based system to date requires highly optimized

Kuehnlenz, Kolja

234

Using Genetic Algorithms to Explore Pattern Recognition in the Immune System  

E-print Network

Using Genetic Algorithms to Explore Pattern Recognition in the Immune System DRAFT July 28, 1993 an immune system model based on binary strings. The purpose of the model is to study the pattern recognition processes and learning that take place at both the individual and species levels in the immune system

Forrest, Stephanie

235

A Web-Based System for Biomedical Image Storage, Annotation, Content-Based Retrieval and Exploration  

E-print Network

A Web-Based System for Biomedical Image Storage, Annotation, Content-Based Retrieval.edu.co, dseligma@poligran.edu.co, jeforero@academia.poligran.edu.co Introduction Biomedical images are an important-based system for biomedical image storage, annotation, content-based retrieval and exploration. The system

Gonzalez, Fabio

236

Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes Supervisors: Dr D in the early solar system and the processes that have led to the formation of the terrestrial planets. Stable an effective approach for unravelling the complex chemistry of the early solar system as recorded in meteorites

Henderson, Gideon

237

Low temperature SQUID magnetometer systems for geophysical exploration with transient electromagnetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical exploration is getting more and more difficultmany of the easily explorable ore-bodies have been discovered and are already being exploited. Finding new mines requires new technologies and tools. Transient electromagnetics (TEM) is widely used in mineral exploration, but conventional sensors (especially induction coils) cannot fulfil the needs anymore: deep targets, very conductive targets or targets under conductive overburden are more easily (or sometimes only) detected using SQUIDs. In this paper we will focus on low temperature SQUID magnetometers. As the systems are applied worldwide it is necessary to strengthen them for all conceivable application scenarios. Here, we report on the latest development of these systems which are now routinely used in South Africa, Australia, Finland and Canada. This paper highlights the main features of the system and describes one example from mineral exploration.

Chwala, A.; Smit, J. P.; Stolz, R.; Zakosarenko, V.; Schmelz, M.; Fritzsch, L.; Bauer, F.; Starkloff, M.; Meyer, H.-G.

2011-12-01

238

GSFC Information Systems Technology Developments Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Space Exploration will guide NASA's future human and robotic space activities. The broad range of human and robotic missions now being planned will require the development of new system-level capabilities enabled by emerging new technologies. Goddard Space Flight Center is actively supporting the Vision for Space Exploration in a number of program management, engineering and technology areas. This paper provides a brief background on the Vision for Space Exploration and a general overview of potential key Goddard contributions. In particular, this paper focuses on describing relevant GSFC information systems capabilities in architecture development; interoperable command, control and communications; and other applied information systems technology/research activities that are applicable to support the Vision for Space Exploration goals. Current GSFC development efforts and task activities are presented together with future plans.

Hughes, Peter; Dennehy, Cornelius; Mosier, Gary; Smith, Dan; Rykowski, Lisa

2004-01-01

239

Exploration of the Saturnian System with Cassini Radio Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ongoing Galileo mission has provided many new insights into the Jovian system. Among them are new discoveries from the Radio Science investigations , including multiple measurements of the Jovian ionosphere, the ionospheres and plasma environments of Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, and the internal structure of the Galilean satellites. The Cassini spacecraft, which will be placed in orbit about Saturn in 2004, will conduct Radio Science investigations of many aspects of the Saturnian system with a radio instrument of unprecedented stability and versatility. It will use radio links at three wavelengths : S-band(13 cm), X-band (3.5 cm), and Ka-band (1 cm) to probe the atmospheres and ionospheres of Saturn and Titan and Saturn's rings by means of radio occultations, and to measure the masses and gravity fields of Saturn, Titan, and selected icy satellites by precision tracking. In addition, the stability of the radio instrument will be utilized to conduct a search for gravitational waves during solar oppositions, and to precisely measure general relativistic effects during solar conjunctions during the interplanetary cruise prior to arrival at Saturn.

Kliore, Arvydas J.

1999-01-01

240

MarsVac: Pneumatic Sampling System for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are proposing a Mars Sample Return scheme whereby a sample of regolith is acquired directly into a Mars Ascent Vehicle using a pneumatic system. Unlike prior developments that used suction to collect fines, the proposed system uses positive pressure to move the regolith. We envisage 3 pneumatic tubes to be embedded inside the 3 legs of the lander. Upon landing, the legs will burry themselves into the regolith and the tubes will fill up with regolith. With one puff of gas, the regolith can be lifted into a sampling chamber onboard of the Mars Ascent Vehicle. An additional chamber can be opened to acquire atmospheric gas and dust. The entire MSR will require 1) an actuator to open/close sampling chamber and 2) a valve to open gas cylinder. In the most recent study related to lunar excavation and funded under the NASA SBIR program we have shown that it is possible lift over 3000 grams of soil with only 1 gram of gas at 1atm. Tests conducted under Mars atmospheric pressure conditions (5 torr). In September of 2008, we will be performing tests at 1/6thg (Moon) and 1/3g (Mars) to determine mass lifting efficiencies in reduced gravities.

Zacny, K.; Mungas, G.; Chu, P.; Craft, J.; Davis, K.

2008-12-01

241

Biomorphic Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

Thakoor, Sarita

1999-01-01

242

Electric Propulsion Concepts Enabled by High Power Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the latest development in electric propulsion systems being planned for the new Space Exploration initiative. Missions to the Moon and Mars will require these new thrusters to deliver the large quantities of supplies that would be needed to support permanent bases on other worlds. The new thrusters are also being used for unmanned exploration missions that will go to the far reaches of the solar system. This paper is intended to give the reader some insight into several electric propulsion concepts their operating principles and capabilities, as well as an overview of some mission applications that would benefit from these propulsion systems, and their accompanying advanced power systems.

Gilland, James; Fiehler, Douglas; Lyons, Valerie

2005-01-01

243

A drill-soil system modelization for future Mars exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a first approach to the problem of modeling a drilling process to be carried on in the space environment by a dedicated payload. Systems devoted to work in space present very strict requirements in many different fields such as thermal response, electric power demand, reliability and so on. Thus, models devoted to the operational behaviour simulation represent a fundamental help in the design phase and give a great improvement in the final product quality. As the required power is the crucial constraint within drilling devices, the tool-soil interaction modelization and simulation are finalized to the computation of the power demand as a function of both the drill and the soil parameters. An accurate study of the tool and the soil separately has been firstly carried on and, secondly their interaction has been analyzed. The Dee-Dri system, designed by Tecnospazio and to be part of the lander components in the NASA's Mars Sample Return Mission, has been taken as the tool reference. The Deep-Drill system is a complex rotary tool devoted to the soil perforation and sample collection; it has to operate in a Martian zone made of rocks similar to the terrestrial basalt, then the modelization is restricted to the interaction analysis between the tool and materials belonging to the rock set. The tool geometric modelization has been faced by a finite element approach with a Langrangian formulation: for the static analysis a refined model is assumed considering both the actual geometry of the head and the rod screws; a simplified model has been used to deal with the dynamic analysis. The soil representation is based on the Mohr-Coulomb crack criterion and an Eulerian approach has been selected to model it. However, software limitations in dealing with the tool-soil interface definition required assuming a Langrangian formulation for the soil too. The interaction between the soil and the tool has been modeled by extending the two-dimensional Nishimatsu's theory for rock cutting for rotating perforation tools. A fine analysis on f.e.m. element choice for each part of the tool is presented together with static analysis results. The dynamic analysis results are limited to the first impact phenomenon between the rock and the tool head. The validity of both the theoretical and numerical models is confirmed by the good agreement between simulation results and data coming from the experiments done within the Tecnospazio facilities.

Finzi, A. E.; Lavagna, M.; Rocchitelli, G.

2004-01-01

244

Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration missions under study are very limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Consequently, crew item logistical mass is typically competing with vehicle systems for mass allocation. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing five logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable used crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as the mission duration increases. This paper provides a description and the challenges of the five technologies under development and the estimated overall mission benefits of each technology.

Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

2014-01-01

245

The AE-8 trapped electron model environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The machine sensible version of the AE-8 electron model environment was completed in December 1983. It has been sent to users on the model environment distribution list and is made available to new users by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). AE-8 is the last in a series of terrestrial trapped radiation models that includes eight proton and eight electron versions. With the exception of AE-8, all these models were documented in formal reports as well as being available in a machine sensible form. The purpose of this report is to complete the documentation, finally, for AE-8 so that users can understand its construction and see the comparison of the model with the new data used, as well as with the AE-4 model.

Vette, James I.

1991-01-01

246

Recalculation of Contemporary Ae(8) Index Noting Classic Initial Ae(12) Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of classic intensity index of auroral electrojets AE(12), calculated using the data from 12 auroral observatories, correlations were obtained, which are used now for the estimation of energetic budget components of the magnetosphere (joules into heating, particles empting, ring current) and some other problems. However con- temporary AE index is calculated by the data from the less number of observatories. This can not influence the accuracy of estimations of some elements of megneto- spheric activity, which are calculated taken into acount the correlations where insted of real AE(12) or AE(11) indexes AE(9) or AE(8) are used. In this work on the basis of artificial neural nerwork technique (ANN) algorythm was designed permitting to recalculate AE index, obtained using the less number of observatory data, and to re- duce it to initial classic AE(12) index. As an example the ability of designed ANN to restore the amplitude of AE(12) index by the observatiries AE(8) data is shown. This permits to estimate the level of error in the presentation of auroral electrojets activity by contemporary AE indexes when compared to those, which were introduced into the practice of geomagnetic investigations by their creators.

Barkhatov, N.; Korolev, A.; Levitin, A.; Sakharov, S.

247

Exploration of the California Current System with seismic oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic oceanography is a discipline that studies physical properties of the oceanic water from multichannel seismic reflection data. Multichannel seismic reflection data image mesoscale structures in the ocean like fronts, eddies and currents with lateral resolution on the order of 10 m. These data reveal the lateral coherence of thermohaline oceanic structures as well as the interactions with the topography. This discipline uses the same instrumentation and software for data acquisition and processing that marine geophysics, but it uses the first 5-6 seconds of the seismic records, which travel through the water column. The "Juan de Fuca Ridge to Trench" survey was carried out in the Cascadia Basin during last June-July 2012. The water column above Cascadia Basin is affected by the California Current System. There were two research vessel involved in this geophysical survey: RV Marcus Langseth, which was in charged of the multichannel seismic reflection data acquisition and the RV Oceanus, which was in charged of the ocean bottom seismometers. We had the opportunity of acquiring XBTs and XSVs simultaneously to the seismic acquisition from the RV Marcus Langseth and the RV Oceanus offered to us the opportunity of doing CTD space-coincident casts of the seismic acquisition, in order to compare the seismic images with the temperature, salinity and sound velocity data. We present in this work the seismic images of two eddies that were recorded in the survey and their comparison with the physical properties of the ocean.

Biescas-Gorriz, B.; Mojica, J. F.; Bornstein, G.; Bartlett, A.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Sallares, V.; Ruddick, B. R.; Carbotte, S. M.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.

2012-12-01

248

Moving Towards a Common Ground and Flight Data Systems Architecture for NASA's Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has embarked on an ambitious effort to return man to the moon and then on to Mars. The Exploration Vision requires development of major new space and ground assets and poses challenges well beyond those faced by many of NASA's recent programs. New crewed vehicles must be developed. Compatible supply vehicles, surface mobility modules and robotic exploration capabilities will supplement the manned exploration vehicle. New launch systems will be developed as well as a new ground communications and control infrastructure. The development must take place in a cost-constrained environment and must advance along an aggressive schedule. Common solutions and system interoperability and will be critical to the successful development of the Exploration data systems for this wide variety of flight and ground elements. To this end, NASA has assembled a team of engineers from across the agency to identify the key challenges for Exploration data systems and to establish the most beneficial strategic approach to be followed. Key challenges and the planned NASA approach for flight and ground systems will be discussed in the paper. The described approaches will capitalize on new technologies, and will result in cross-program interoperability between spacecraft and ground systems, from multiple suppliers and agencies.

Rader. Steve; Kearney, Mike; McVittie, Thom; Smith, Dan

2006-01-01

249

MATISSE: the ASDC tool to access and visualize Solar System exploration data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time planetary exploration data are generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e., common ftp repositories where the user needs to manually search the data by browsing into the directories. However, because of the increasing size of archives, this method is becoming very time consuming, subtracting time to the scientific part of the work. Therefore the ASI Science Data Center Solar System Exploration (ASDC-SSE) group started to implement a tool software to access and visualize data of the planetary exploration mission, thus reducing the time spent looking for the data and, finally, allowing datafusion. The tool, named MATISSE (Multi-instrument Advanced Tool for the Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), during its first year of development has been mainly devoted to data from the ESA Rosetta mission but recently, thanks to its modular structure, it has been expanded to include NASA Dawn data (VIR instrument).

Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Palomba, E.; Antonelli, L. A.; Giommi, P.

2014-04-01

250

The Role of Lunar Development in Human Exploration of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of the solar system can be said to have begun with the Apollo landings on the Moon. The Apollo Project was publicly funded with the narrow technical objective of landing human beings on the Moon. The transportation and life support systems were specialized technical designs, developed in a project management environment tailored to that objective. Most scenarios for future human exploration assume a similar long-term commitment of public funds to a narrowly focused project managed by a large, monolithic organization. Advocates of human exploration of space have not yet been successful in generating the political momentum required to initiate such a project to go to the Moon or to Mars. Alternative scenarios of exploration may relax some or all of the parameters of organizational complexity, great expense, narrow technical focus, required public funding, and control by a single organization. Development of the Moon using private investment is quite possibly a necessary condition for alternative scenarios to succeed.

Mendell, Wendell W.

1999-01-01

251

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

2010-01-01

252

Explorations of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the majority of the world's energy demand is met by the consumption of exhaustible fuel supplies. Consequently, it is urgent to research and develop viable alternatives. In this dissertation, I present research that addresses fundamental questions concerning how water interacts with surfaces and solutes, with the goal of identifying novel systems for energy production and storage. Electrokinetic currents are created when moving fluid entrains charge from the diffuse portion of an electric double layer and carries that charge downstream. The potential difference that develops on either end of the channel is known as the streaming potential. Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on electrokinetic energy production and conversion efficiency of liquid microjets. Section 1 of Chapter 2 presents proof-of-principle research demonstrating that molecular hydrogen is generated from electrokinetic currents in liquid water microjets. Hydrogen is generated when hydrated protons are preferentially carried downstream and recombine with electrons at a grounded target electrode. Both the current and hydrogen production scale nearly quadratically with flow rate, as predicted by equations derived from simple double layer theory and fluid mechanics. The efficiency is currently very low (ca 10-6) and is limited by the low electrokinetic current (nA). Designs to improve this efficiency are considered. Rather than chemical conversion efficiency, Section 2 of Chapter 2 investigates the electrical conversion efficiency of liquid water microjets. Typical electrokinetic energy conversion schemes measure current or voltage via electrodes in the fluid reservoirs on either side of a channel. With this design, the streaming potential drives a current against the flow of the fluid and, consequently, limits the conversion efficiency. In contrast, liquid microjets break up into droplets before reaching the downstream electrode and this eliminates the possibility for back conduction. As a result, liquid microjets yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%, much larger than channel-dependent measurements (3%). It is the large potentials obtainable with electrokinetic currents (tens of kilovolts) that drive up the electrical conversion efficiency. Unfortunately, low currents with high voltages are inconvenient for application. Section 3 of Chapter 2 describes efforts to utilize the high voltage of electrokinetic currents by coupling light into the process. More specifically, the streaming potential is used to modify the space charge layer in a semiconductor and, consequently, the light harvesting characteristics of that semiconductor. To this end, microchannel jets fabricated out of glass and silicon were built to allow light to impinge on the current generating surface. Although plagued with inconsistent results, streaming currents were found to increase upon illumination and some channels even gave measurable responses to ambient room lights. Chapter 3 of this dissertation addresses the details of hydration of boron-oxides and sodium borohydride as studied by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and associated theory. Boron-oxides and molecular hydrogen are products of borohydride hydrolysis which has been intensely studied for hydrogen storage purposes. In spite of their hydroxide moieties, boron-oxides turn out to not be strongly hydrated by water. The experimental spectra, as well as attending calculations, show no evidence for electronic coupling that would indicate strong hydrogen bonding between the boron-oxides and water. On the other hand, the NEXAFS spectrum of sodium borohydride is significantly altered by water. The experiment and calculations show strong evidence for short dihydrogen bonds between water hydrogens and borohydride hydrogens. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that borohydride is hydrated at the tetrahedral corners and edge.

Duffin, Andrew Mark

253

Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

254

Developing Crew Health Care and Habitability Systems for the Exploration Vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss the specific mission architectures associated with the NASA Exploration Vision and review the challenges and drivers associated with developing crew health care and habitability systems to manage human system risks. Crew health care systems must be provided to manage crew health within acceptable limits, as well as respond to medical contingencies that may occur during exploration missions. Habitability systems must enable crew performance for the tasks necessary to support the missions. During the summer of 2005, NASA defined its exploration architecture including blueprints for missions to the moon and to Mars. These mission architectures require research and technology development to focus on the operational risks associated with each mission, as well as the risks to long term astronaut health. This paper will review the highest priority risks associated with the various missions and discuss NASA s strategies and plans for performing the research and technology development necessary to manage the risks to acceptable levels.

Laurini, Kathy; Sawin, Charles F.

2006-01-01

255

Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is entering an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery. Its goal is to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and life within it. SSE missions are operating or in development to study the far reaches of our solar system and beyond. These missions proceed in sequence for each body from reconnaissance flybys through orbiters and landers or rovers to sample returns. SSE research programs develop new instruments, analyze mission data or returned samples, and provide experimental or theoretical models to aid in interpretation.

Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Allen, Jaclyn; Tobola, Kay; Klug, Sheri; Harmon, Art

2004-01-01

256

Integral Reinforcement Learning for Continuous-Time Input-Affine Nonlinear Systems With Simultaneous Invariant Explorations.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on a class of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms, named integral RL (I-RL), that solve continuous-time (CT) nonlinear optimal control problems with input-affine system dynamics. First, we extend the concepts of exploration, integral temporal difference, and invariant admissibility to the target CT nonlinear system that is governed by a control policy plus a probing signal called an exploration. Then, we show input-to-state stability (ISS) and invariant admissibility of the closed-loop systems with the policies generated by integral policy iteration (I-PI) or invariantly admissible PI (IA-PI) method. Based on these, three online I-RL algorithms named explorized I-PI and integral Q-learning I, II are proposed, all of which generate the same convergent sequences as I-PI and IA-PI under the required excitation condition on the exploration. All the proposed methods are partially or completely model free, and can simultaneously explore the state space in a stable manner during the online learning processes. ISS, invariant admissibility, and convergence properties of the proposed methods are also investigated, and related with these, we show the design principles of the exploration for safe learning. Neural-network-based implementation methods for the proposed schemes are also presented in this paper. Finally, several numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:25163070

Lee, Jae Young; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

2014-08-22

257

Definition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems  

E-print Network

Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems By Bryan K. Smith Submitted to the System Design, expansion and screening of Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power concepts capable of achieving planetaryDefinition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear

258

Supporting and Frustrating Organizational Learning: Exploring the Role of Information Systems in Processes of Organizational Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we aim to gain insight in the effects information systems have on organizational learning. A theoretical framework is proposed that may serve to explore the role of information systems in processes of organizational learning. Based on the sociology of knowledge, learning is conceived as the process of constructing and reconstructing organizational knowledge, which can be further broken

Marleen Huysman; Heico Van Der Blonk

1998-01-01

259

Exploring Flexible Strategies in Engineering Systems Using Screening Models Applications to Offshore Petroleum Projects  

E-print Network

to Offshore Petroleum Projects by Jijun Lin B.E., Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics Flexible Strategies in Engineering Systems Using Screening Models Applications to Offshore Petroleum, such as offshore petroleum exploration and production systems, generally require a significant amount of capital

de Weck, Olivier L.

260

HRSCview-web: a web-based exploration system for Mars Express HRSC images  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the usability and accessibility of the now very large Mars Express HRSC colour stereo image dataset (now exceeding 2 TB map-projected) to the science community we have implemented a system for exploring the data via the web, and providing access to download the full map-projected science dataproducts. The system may be accessed using a normal browser from a

G. Michael; S. van Gasselt; S. Walter; G. Neukum; R. Jaumann

2006-01-01

261

MDMap : A System for Data-Driven Layout and Exploration of Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

E-print Network

MDMap : A System for Data-Driven Layout and Exploration of Molecular Dynamics Simulations Robert Studies University of Maryland, College Park Abstract Contemporary molecular dynamics simulations result MDMap, a system designed to summa- rize long-running molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We rep- resent

Varshney, Amitabh

262

Exploring the Solar System: A Literature Unit within a Whole Language Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A useful framework for literature-based instruction is the curriculum related literature unit which provides a total resource for content area teaching. Such a unit could be based on the science curriculum, "Exploring the Solar System," and could be developed thematically through topics of space or the solar system. The teacher's initial step is

Sandel, Lenore

263

Exploring the free-energy landscapes of biological systems with steered molecular dynamics  

E-print Network

1 Exploring the free-energy landscapes of biological systems with steered molecular dynamics fluctuation-dissipation-theorem (BD -FDT) to accurately compute the free-energy profiles for several compute the free-energy profiles for all the afore-listed systems that represent various important aspects

Chen, Liao Y.

264

Space transportation systems, launch systems, and propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of transportation and propulsion options for Mars exploration missions are analyzed. As part of Project Outreach, RAND received and evaluated 350 submissions in the launch vehicle, space transportation, and propulsion areas. After screening submissions, aggregating those that proposed identical or nearly identical concepts, and eliminating from further consideration those that violated known physical princples, we had reduced the total number of viable submissions to 213. In order to avoid comparing such disparate things as launch vehicles and electric propulsion systems, six broad technical areas were selected to categorize the submissions: space transportation systems; earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems; chemical propulsion; nuclear propulsion; low-thrust propulsion; and other. To provide an appropriate background for analyzing the submissions, an extensive survey was made of the various technologies relevant to the six broad areas listed above. We discuss these technologies with the intent of providing the reader with an indication of the current state of the art, as well as the advances that might be expected within the next 10 to 20 years.

Garber, T.; Hiland, J.; Orletsky, D.; Augenstein, B.; Miller, M.

1991-01-01

265

CuPIDS enhances StUPIDS: exploring a co-processing paradigm shift in information system security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CuPIDS project is an exploration of increasing information system security by dedicating computational resources to system security tasks in a shared resource, multiprocessor (MP) architecture. Our research explores ways in which this architecture offers improvements over the traditional uniprocessor (UP) model of security. There are a number of areas to explore, one of which has a protected application running

Paul D. Williams; Eugene H. Spafford

2005-01-01

266

Reuniting the Solar System: Integrated Education and Public Outreach Projects for Solar System Exploration Missions and Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar System Exploration Education Forum has worked for five years to foster Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) cooperation among missions and programs in order to leverage resources and better meet the needs of educators and the public. These efforts are coming together in a number of programs and products and in '2004 - The Year of the Solar System.' NASA's practice of having independent E/PO programs for each mission and its public affairs emphasis on uniqueness has led to a public perception of a fragmented solar system exploration program. By working to integrate solar system E/PO, the breadth and depth of the solar system exploration program is revealed. When emphasis is put on what missions have in common, as well as their differences, each mission is seen in the context of the whole program.

Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Klug, Sheri

2003-01-01

267

Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently in the process of decommissioning and dismantling many of its nuclear materials processing facilities that have been in use for several decades. Site managers throughout the DOE complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means to characterize, remediate and recycle or dispose of hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. The DOE discovered that standard characterization methods were inadequate for its pipes, drains, and ducts because many of the systems are buried or encased. In response to the DOE`s need for a more specialized characterization technique, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) developed the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system through a DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) contract administered through the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The purpose of this report is to serve as a comprehensive overview of all phases of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} development project. The report is divided into 6 sections. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, including the operating principles of using an inverting membrane to tow sensors into pipes. The basic components of the characterization system are also described. Descriptions of the various deployment systems are given in Section 3 along with descriptions of the capabilities of the deployment systems. During the course of the development project 7 types of survey instruments were demonstrated with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} and are a part of the basic toolbox of instruments available for use with the system. These survey tools are described in Section 4 along with their typical performance specifications. The 4 demonstrations of the system are described chronologically in Section 5. The report concludes with a summary of the history, status, and future of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system in Section 6.

Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

1997-09-30

268

On the origin of the peculiar cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nova-like variable AE Aquarii is a close binary system containing a red dwarf and a magnetized white dwarf rotating with the period of 33 s. A short spin period of the white dwarf is caused by an intensive mass exchange between the system components during a previous epoch. We show that a high rate of disk accretion onto the white dwarf surface resulted in temporary screening of its magnetic field and spin-up of the white dwarf to its present spin period. Transition of the white dwarf to the ejector state occurred at a final stage of the spin-up epoch after its magnetic field had emerged from the accreted plasma due to diffusion. In the frame of this scenario AE Aqr represents a missing link in the chain of Polars evolution and the white dwarf resembles a recycled pulsar.

Beskrovnaya, N. G.; Ikhsanov, N. R.

2015-02-01

269

Opportunities within NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate for Engineering Students and Faculty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) launched two new Educational Projects: (1) The ESMID Space Grant Student Project ; and (2) The ESM1D Space Grant Faculty Project. The Student Project consists of three student opportunities: exploration-related internships at NASA Centers or with space-related industry, senior design projects, and system engineering paper competitions. The ESMID Space Grant Faculty Project consists of two faculty opportunities: (1) a summer faculty fellowship; and (2) funding to develop a senior design course.

Garner, Lesley

2008-01-01

270

Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

Abell, Paul A.

2011-01-01

271

Explorations of electric current system in solar active regions. I - Empirical inferences of the current flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques to identify sources of electric current systems and their channels of flow in solar active regions are explored. Measured photospheric vector magnetic fields together with high-resolution white-light and H-alpha filtergrams provide the data base to derive the current systems in the photosphere and chromosphere. As an example, the techniques are then applied to infer current systems in AR 2372 in early April 1980.

Ding, Y. J.; Hong, Q. F.; Hagyard, M. J.; Deloach, A. C.; Liu, X. P.

1987-01-01

272

A Sensitivity-Based Design Space Exploration Methodology for Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a system-level design methodology for the efficient exploration of the architectural parameters of the memory sub-systems, from the energy-delay joint perspective. The aim is to find the best configuration of the memory hierarchy without performing the exhaustive analysis of the parameters space. The target system architecture includes the processor, separated instruction and data caches, the

WILLIAM FORNACIARI; DONATELLA SCIUTO; CRISTINA SILVANO; VITTORIO ZACCARIA

2002-01-01

273

Gaining system design knowledge by systematic design space exploration with graph based design languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual design phase in the design of complex systems such as satellite propulsion systems heavily relies on an exploration of the feasible design space. This exploration requires both: topological changes in the potential system architecture and consistent parametrical changes in the dimensioning of the existing system components. Since advanced engineering design techniques nowadays advocate a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach, graph-based design languages which embed a superset of MBSE-features are consequently used in this work to systematically explore the feasible design space. Design languages allow the design knowledge to be represented, modeled and executed using model-based transformations and combine this among other features with constraint processing techniques. The execution of the design language shown for the satellite propulsion systems in this work yields topologically varied designs (i.e. the selection of a monergol, a diergol or a coldgas system) with consistent parameters. Based on an a posteriori performance analysis of the automatically generated system designs, novel system knowledge (most notably in form of so-called "topology change points") can be gained and extracted from the original point cloud of numerical results.

Schmidt, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan

2014-10-01

274

Earth Exploration Toolbook: Step-by-Step Guides for Investigating Earth System Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) is a collection of step-by-step examples, called chapters, of the use of Earth system science resources in an educational context for the educational community. The resources include datasets, analysis tools, visualization tools, and other educational products. Each chapter features one specific resource. The chapters provide the non-expert teacher/educator with enough experience and in-depth knowledge of the featured resource to be able to use it in other contexts, and to help their students use the resource to explore and investigate issues in Earth system science. The purpose of the Earth Exploration Toolbook is to support the use of scientific datasets, tools, and other products developed and archived for the scientific community by the broader educational community.

2003-09-02

275

Ad hoc wireless sensor networks for exploration of Solar-system bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we evaluate the exploration of the Solar system by ad hoc wireless sensor networks (WSN), i.e., networks where all nodes (either moving or stationary) can both provide and relay data. The two aspects of self-organization and localization are the major challenges to achieve a reliable network for a variety of missions. We point out the diversity of environmental and operational constrains that WSN used for space exploration would face. We evaluate two groups of scenarios consisting in static or moving sensing nodes that can be either located on the ground or in the atmosphere of a Solar-system object. These scenarios enable collecting data simultaneously over a large surface or volume. We consider physical and chemical sensing of the atmosphere, surface and soil using such networks. Emerging technologies such as nodes localization techniques are reviewed. Finally, we compare the specific requirements of WSN for space exploration with those of WSN designed for terrestrial applications.

Dubois, Philippe; Botteron, Cyril; Mitev, Valentin; Menon, Carlo; Farine, Pierre-Andr; Dainesi, Paolo; Ionescu, Adrian; Shea, Herbert

2009-03-01

276

Monitoring Induced Seismicity with AE Sensors : The Influence of Unknown Calibration Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect that an uncalibrated acoustic-emission (AE) sensor has on amplitude and magnitude using data of the JAGUARS project. The JAGUARS project recorded mining-induced seismicity in Mponeng Gold mine in Carletonville, South Africa in the frequency range 1 kHz < f < 180 kHz combining AE-sensors and accelerometers. Advanced monitoring of induced seismicity in underground structures sometimes includes today the use of high-frequency (f >> 1 kHz) AE monitoring systems. High-frequency monitoring allows the detection of seismic fractures on the centimeter scale and provides therefore important information about the migration of instabilities in the rock. Whereas the temporal-spatial analysis of seismic events recorded with AE sensors provides stable results, the analysis of source parameters including the estimation of magnitudes remains more challenging, because AE sensors are normally not well calibrated and exploit resonance frequencies to allow for high sensitivity. In our study the AE sensors are first calibrated in the frequency range 1kHz to 17 kHz relative to the well calibrated accelerometer. The calibration is possible due to the close employment of both sensor types, which allows to extract the sensor response (including the coupling effect) using signal deconvolution. We estimate three main resonance frequencies at about 2.5 kHz, 6 kHz and 10 kHz. Furthermore we calculate the directivity effect of the AE-sensor that influences the amplitude of the signal by up to - 15 dB. Second, we calculate the effect of the instrument response on the amplitude and the calculation of magnitude by studying synthetic data. We show the significant uncertainty that is introduced owing to the AE sensor response and conclude that source parameters often have high uncertainties and are not reliable for statistcal analsis if the instrument response of the recording AE sensor is not known.

Plenkers, Katrin; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Krger, Frank

2013-04-01

277

The NEO Spiral II Program: AN FAA\\/industry exploration of unmanned aircraft system integration in the National Airspace System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Network Enabled Operations (NEO) Spiral II Program is a collaborative effort that brings the FAA and a Boeing-led industry team of 14 partner companies and organizations together to explore concepts that will help to advance the operation of future unmanned aircraft system's (UAS's) integration in the National Airspace System (NAS): Enhanced FAA intra-agency information sharing using capabilities in

Samet Ayhan; Paul Comitz; David Sweet; Les Robinson; Pam Arkebauer; Florian Hafner

2011-01-01

278

An Automomous Optical Navigation and Control System for Interplanetary Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first fully autonomous deep-space navigation system ever implemented is planned to guide the New Millenium Deep Space-1 mission to an asteroid and comet beginning in mid-1998. This system is based to a large extent on Optical Navigation (OPNAV) technology developed for the NASA/JPL interplanetary exploration probes Voyager and Galileo. This paper describes the structure and algorithmic content of the Autonomous OPNAV system. The system has several major autonomous functions: picture planning, image analysis, orbit determination, manuever design and general interaction with other onboard autonomous systems.

Riedel, J. E.; Bhaskaran, S.; Synnott, S. P.; Bollman, W. E.; Null, G. W.

1996-01-01

279

Design, development and testing of the x-ray timing explorer High Gain Antenna System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Gain Antenna System (HGAS), consisting of two High Gain Antenna Deployment Systems (HGADS) and two Antenna Pointing Systems (APS), is used to position two High Gain Antennas (HGA) on the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE). A similar APS will be used on the upcoming Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Both XTE and TRMM are NASA in-house satellites. The salient features of the system include the two-axis gimbal and control electronics of the APS and the spring deployment and latch/release mechanisms of the HGADS. This paper describes some of the challenges faced in the design and testing of this system and their resolutions.

Lecha, Javier; Woods, Claudia; Phan, Minh

1995-01-01

280

Using C to build a satellite scheduling expert system: Examples from the Explorer Platform planning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A C-based artificial intelligence (AI) development effort which is based on a software tools approach is discussed with emphasis on reusability and maintainability of code. The discussion starts with simple examples of how list processing can easily be implemented in C and then proceeds to the implementations of frames and objects which use dynamic memory allocation. The implementation of procedures which use depth first search, constraint propagation, context switching, and blackboard-like simulation environment are described. Techniques for managing the complexity of C-based AI software are noted, especially the object-oriented techniques of data encapsulation and incremental development. Finally, all these concepts are put together by describing the components of planning software called the Planning And Resource Reasoning (PARR) Shell. This shell was successfully utilized for scheduling services of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite since May of 1987 and will be used for operations scheduling of the Explorer Platform in Nov. of 1991.

Mclean, David R.; Tuchman, Alan; Potter, William J.

1991-01-01

281

A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literary Analysis and Systems Engineering Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literary analysis of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current state of knowledge. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection. Keywords: planetary protection, human spaceflight requirements, human space exploration, human space operations, systems engineering, literature analysis

Johnson, James; Conley, Catharine; Siegel, Bette

282

Exploration Platform in the Earth-Moon Libration System Based on ISS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past two years on concepts using ISS development methods and residual assets to support a broad range of exploration missions. These concepts have matured along with planning details for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to allow serious consideration for a platform located in the Earth-Moon Libration (EML) system. This platform would provide a flexible basis for future exploration missions and would significantly reduce costs because it will enable re-use of expensive spacecraft and reduce the total number of launches needed to accomplish these missions. ISS provides a robust set of methods which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. We will show how ISS can be used to reduce risk and improve operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit through the development of a new Exploration Platform based in the EML system. The benefits of using the EML system as a gateway will be presented along with additional details of a lunar exploration mission concept. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. We will show how technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the new exploration challenge. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Finally, we will describe how the EML Platform could be built and deployed and how International access for crew and cargo could be provided.

Raftery, Michael; Derechin, Alexander

2012-01-01

283

Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

284

Classroom Response Systems: Using Task Technology Fit to Explore Impact Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study is to determine how students are impacted by the use of Classroom Response System (CRS) technology. This research explores the nature of the outcomes experienced by students and their perceptions on the leading pedagogy and practices for using CRS technology in the classroom. The research is both quantitative and

Jones, Kenneth D., II.

2010-01-01

285

Toward Systems Biology in Brown Algae to Explore Acclimation and Adaptation to the Shore Environment  

E-print Network

Toward Systems Biology in Brown Algae to Explore Acclimation and Adaptation to the Shore,2 Catherine Boyen,1,2 and Anne Siegel4,5 Abstract Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly siliculosus as a model organism for brown algae has represented a framework in which several omics techniques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

External Resource:Round and Round We Go - Exploring Orbits in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Journey Through Earth webpage is a program of the National Center for Earth and Space Science. The PDF, Round and Round We Go, focuses on exploring orbits in the solar system. Students will understand how orbits can be used to help categorize objects

1900-01-01

287

A Case for Visualization-integrated System-level Design Space Exploration  

E-print Network

A Case for Visualization-integrated System-level Design Space Exploration Andy D. Pimentel Computer. Such visualization is often domain specific and has not become widely used in evaluating the results of computer architecture simulations. Surprisingly little research has been undertaken in the dynamic use of visualization

Pimentel, Andy D.

288

Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD: from bees to BEES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of Bio-inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) is to distill the principles found in successful, nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods, but accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological organisms.

Thakoor, S.; Zornetzer, S.; Hine, B.; Chahl, J.; Werblin, F.; Srinivasan, M. V.; Young, L.

2003-01-01

289

Human support issues and systems for the space exploration initiative: Results from Project Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analyses and evaluations of the Human Support panel are discussed. The Human Support panel is one of eight panels created by RAND to screen and analyze submissions to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Outreach Program. Submissions to the Human Support panel were in the following areas: radiation protection; microgravity; life support systems; medical care; and human factors (behavior and performance).

Aroesty, J.; Zimmerman, R.; Logan, J.

1991-01-01

290

Retargetable profiling for rapid, early system-level design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast and accurate estimation is critical for exploration of any design space in general. As we move to higher levels of abstraction, estimation of complete system designs at each level of abstraction is needed. Estimation should provide a variety of useful metrics relevant to design tasks in different domains and at each stage in the design process.In this paper, we

Lukai Cai; Andreas Gerstlauer; Daniel Gajski

2004-01-01

291

Model-Driven Design-Space Exploration for Embedded Systems: The Octopus Toolset  

E-print Network

Model-Driven Design-Space Exploration for Embedded Systems: The Octopus Toolset Twan Basten1 trajectories become manageable, with high-quality, cost-effective results. This paper introduces the Octopus high-quality and cost-effective products. This work was carried out as part of the Octopus project

Vaandrager, Frits

292

Unlocking the Black Box: Exploring the Link between High-Performance Work Systems and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a growing body of literature linking systems of high-performance work practices to organizational performance outcomes, recent research has pushed for examinations of the underlying mechanisms that enable this connection. In this study, based on a large sample of Welsh public-sector employees, we explored the role of several individual-level

Messersmith, Jake G.; Patel, Pankaj C.; Lepak, David P.

2011-01-01

293

Exploring The Impact of The Media on the Arranged Marriage and Dowry System in Goa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian women have been experiencing the arranged marriage and dowry system for centuries. The main objective of this study was to explore how television and cinematic programming impact tehse traditional and contextual issues. I used a phenomenological-hermeneutic research methodology, with a feminist pragmatist epistemology. I conducted a total of six personal inteviews with Hindu women from Goa, India. Three participants

Lisa Ann Hickman

2007-01-01

294

Preliminary concept for lunar exploration tracking and data acquisition and data processing systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Office of Exploration is evaluating potential scenarios for an ambitious and complex mission to the moon. This paper sumarizes the initial system engineering analyses being performed to identify the communications, data processing, and navigational support required by these case studies. A feasible option for providing tracking and data acquisition using technology available in the 1990s is described.

Hei, Donald, Jr.; Shapiro, Phillip S.; Messing, Frederic; Jacobsen, Alan; Bruno, Ronald

1989-01-01

295

Single molecule experiments in biophysics: exploring the thermal behavior of nonequilibrium small systems  

E-print Network

Single molecule experiments in biophysics: exploring the thermal behavior of nonequilibrium small systems. 1 Biomolecules, molecular demons and statistical physics. Biophysics is a relatively young reasons behind this general upsurge of interest, a very attractive aspect of biophysics is its strong

Ritort, Felix

296

The Basic Ordnance Observational Management System: geovisual exploration and analysis of improvised explosive device incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the Basic Ordnance Observation Management System, a prototype application supporting geovisual exploration and analysis of improvised explosive device (IED) incidents. Use of IEDs by terrorist cells has increased in geographic scale, frequency, and sophistication due to the relative cheap cost of acquiring the materials and the ease in keeping such weaponry covert. The Basic Ordnance Observational Management

Matthieu J. Murdock; Robert E. Roth; Nicholas V. Maziekas

2012-01-01

297

"Dominance, Difference and Resistance": Exploring the History and Systems of Race and Multiculturalism in Psychology  

E-print Network

This course will examine the evolution of the study of race and culture in psychology. We will initiate. Specifically, we will examine the application of race and cultural theory to the evolution of transformative1 "Dominance, Difference and Resistance": Exploring the History and Systems of Race

Liu, Taosheng

298

Teachers, Narrative Identity and Ability Constructs: Exploring Dissonance and Consensus in Contrasting School Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploration of the significance of ability beliefs in four case study schools in contrasting systems (independent and state comprehensives) provides a foundation for this paper. Through four delimited case studies using observations, semi-structured interviews, telephone interviews and multiple perspectives, rich data emerged. Subsequently,

Hamilton, Lorna Christine

2010-01-01

299

Survey of intra- and inter-mission flexibility in space exploration systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasingly common objective in the design of new space systems is the property of flexibility, or the capability to easily modify a system after it has been fielded in response to a changing environment or changing requirements. The body of research on this topic has been growing, but substantial work remains in developing metrics for characterizing system flexibility and trading it against other metrics of interest. This paper samples from the history of space exploration to glean heuristic insight into characteristics of flexibility in space exploration systems and their potential application to future systems. Divided into categories of intra- and inter-mission modification, examples include the Hubble Space Telescope, Mir space station, International Space Station, Apollo, Space Shuttle, and the robotic Venera program. In several cases, metrics are identified which show clear performance gains due to changes after a system is fielded, and in all cases, environment or requirement changes that prompted system change are identified. Also discussed are examples in which flexibility proved critical to mission success. Modular design and separation of functionality are recognized as likely flexibility-enabling characteristics. Finally, examples of non-configurational flexibility (e.g., software and trajectory flexibility) in space exploration applications are identified and discussed.

Lafleur, Jarret M.; Saleh, Joseph H.

2010-07-01

300

AES Encryption and Decryption Using Direct3D 10 API  

E-print Network

Current video cards (GPUs - Graphics Processing Units) are very programmable, have become much more powerful than the CPUs and they are very affordable. In this paper, we present an implementation for the AES algorithm using Direct3D 10 certified GPUs. The graphics API Direct3D 10 is the first version that allows the use of integer operations, making from the traditional GPUs (that works only with floating point numbers), General Purpose GPUs that can be used for a large number of algorithms, including encryption. We present the performance of the symmetric key encryption algorithm - AES, on a middle range GPU and on a middle range quad core CPU. On the testing system, the developed solution is almost 3 times faster on the GPU than on one single core CPU, showing that the GPU can perform as an efficient cryptographic accelerator.

Chiuta, Adrian Marius

2012-01-01

301

Closed cycle MHD power generation system driven by nuclear reactor for space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

For deep space explorations, we have to develop high-efficiency, high-reliability and high-performance electric power generation system. In this paper, a closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic (CCMHD) power generation system directly driven by a nuclear fission reactor (NFR) was proposed and investigated. Output electric power level is multi-MWe. Particularly, influence of the number of compressor stages, the regenerator efficiency and the radiator temperature

N. Harada; C. Buttapeng

2004-01-01

302

On the question of calculating the free energies of biomolecular systems: how much of phase space is actually explored?  

E-print Network

that the phase space exploration is a very slow process that has the time scale of hundreds of nanoseconds even differ in the rates of the phase space exploration. During these periods the rates remain the same calculation, is various methods of artificial increas- ing the phase space area explored by the system

Nerukh, Dmitry

303

Destination Deimos: A Design Reference Architecture for Initial Human Exploration of the Mars System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two biggest challenges to successful human operations in interplanetary space are flight dynamics, constrained by the cold hard physics of the rocket equation, and bioastronautics, the psychophysiological realities of human adaptation, or lack thereof, to the deep space environment. Without substantial innovation in project/mission architecture and vehicle design, human exploration of the Mars system could be problematic for decades. Although a human landing on Mars is inevitable, humans-in-the-loop telerobotic exploration from the outer Martian moon Deimos is the best way to begin. Precursor robotic missions for reconnaissance and local site preparation will be required.

Logan, James S.; Adamo, D. R.

2011-01-01

304

A Titan Explorer Mission Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion and Chemical Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission and Systems analyses were performed for a Titan Explorer Mission scenario utilizing medium class launch vehicles, solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) for primary interplanetary propulsion, and chemical propulsion for capture at Titan. An examination of a range of system factors was performed to determine their affect on the payload delivery capability to Titan. The effect of varying the launch vehicle, solar array power, associated number of SEPS thrusters, chemical propellant combinations, tank liner thickness, and tank composite overwrap stress factor was investigated. This paper provides a parametric survey of the aforementioned set of system factors, delineating their affect on Titan payload delivery, as well as discussing aspects of planetary capture methodology.

Cupples, Michael; Coverstone, Vicki

2003-01-01

305

Exploring Online Learning at Primary Schools: Students' Perspectives on Cyber Home Learning System through Video Conferencing (CHLS-VC)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of the study are to investigate CHLS (Cyber Home Learning System) in online video conferencing environment in primary school level and to explore the students' responses on CHLS-VC (Cyber Home Learning System through Video Conferencing) in order to explore the possibility of using CHLS-VC as a supportive online learning system. The

Lee, June; Yoon, Seo Young; Lee, Chung Hyun

2013-01-01

306

Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

2013-03-01

307

Design of high performance management and control system of nano-satellite for distributed space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-satellite is a kind of advanced and effective tool for space exploration. And the nano-satellite formation flight technology becomes more and more important in distributed space exploration. Thus a design of high performance management and control system (named MCS) of nano-satellite for formation space exploration is presented in this paper. Different with traditional design concept for satellites, MCS adopts a modular configuration not only to satisfy composite requirements of processing capacity, integration, cost and power of nano-satellite, but also to fit applications in formation flight experimentation. MCS includes OBC (on-board computer) module, attitude & orbit control module, telemetry & telecommand module, and power management module. Furthermore, as core component the design uses reconfiguration scheme and COTS (commercial-off-the-shelf) technology, so it shows an outstanding performance in high efficiency, high reliability, low power and low cost for satellite engineering applications.

Sun, Ke; Fang, Jiancheng; Zhu, Zhuangsheng; Wei, Xuechao

2008-10-01

308

aerospace & mechanical (AE/ME) AE overview programs available courses flowcharts  

E-print Network

16 aerospace & mechanical (AE/ME) AE overview · programs available · courses · flowcharts ME overview · programs available · courses · flowcharts Aerospace Engineering Aerospace Engineers develop, air- breathing propulsion, computational science, and remote-sensor global monitoring. The aerospace

Rohs, Remo

309

Impact of solar system exploration on theories of chemical evolution and the origin of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of solar system exploration on theories regarding chemical evolution and the origin of life is examined in detail. Major findings from missions to Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan are reviewed and implications for prebiotic chemistry are discussed. Among the major conclusions are: prebiotic chemistry is widespread throughout the solar system and universe; chemical evolution and the origin of life are intimately associated with the origin and evolution of the solar system; the rate, direction, and extent of prebiotic chemistry is highly dependent upon planetary characteristics; and continued exploration will increase understanding of how life originated on earth and allow better estimates of the likelihood of similar processes occurring elsewhere.

Devincenzi, D. L.

1983-01-01

310

The Atmosphere Explorer photoelectron spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Photoelectron Spectrometer (PES) is part of the complement of scientific instruments aboard three NASA Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites that are intended to enhance understanding of the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere. The spectrometer is designed to measure the energy spectrum, angular distribution, and intensity of electrons in the earth's thermosphere. It measures energies between 2 and 500 eV

D. P. Peletier

1975-01-01

311

Potential uranium supply system based upon computer simulation of sequential exploration and decisions under risk  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo simulation system was used to estimate potential supply of roll-type deposits. The system takes a given uranium-endowment probability distribution and aims at two major and interrelated objectives: (1) to design a system that estimates potential supply even when prices are much higher than previous or current prices; and (2) to account fully for the cost of discovering and mining the individual mineral deposits contained in given endowment. Achievement of these objectives constitutes the major contribution of this study. To accomplish them, the system considers: cost of risk, return on investment, cost of failures during the search process, discovery depletion, and effect of physical characteristics of the deposits on exploration and mining costs. It also considers that when economic conditions, such as product price, are outside historical experience, existing behavioral rules - exploration drilling density, stopping rules, minimum attractive deposit size and grade, and mining parameters - are irrelevant. The system architecture is general and can be used with an exploration model prepared specifically for other minerals.

Ortiz-Vertiz, S.R.

1991-01-01

312

Into the thermosphere: The atmosphere explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need to study the lower thermosphere with the new instrument, data handling, and spacecraft technology available in the 1960s led to the formulation and establishment of the Atmospheric Explorer program. This book provides an overview of this program with particular emphasis on the AE3, AE4, and AE5 satellites, which represent early examples of problem-dedicated missions. Both the satellites and their instrumentation on the one hand and the experimental and scientific considerations in studying the thermosphere on the other are discussed.

Burgess, Eric; Torr, Douglass

1987-01-01

313

Dust and Disks of Ae/Be Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a program of high spatial resolution mid-IR (4-18 ? m) imaging observations of the intermediate mass protoplanetary disk candidates, the Herbig Ae/Be stars, using the University of Florida mid-IR imager, OSCIR, at the Infrared Telescope Facility, Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, and the Keck Observatory. The mid-IR emission of these objects is usually attributed to a circumstellar disk. However, our observations show that the circumstellar environments of these young stars exhibit surprising structure which is often unrelated to circumstellar disks. We have also discovered that many of these stars are members of multiple systems with infrared-luminous embedded companions. In addition, the emission from very small grains, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) plays an important role in these environments. Here we present highlights of our survey of several of the better known Ae/Be stars and discuss their key properties. We also show revised SEDs and discuss their impact upon models of circumstellar disks. Finally, we have calculated temperature and optical depth maps for several objects and discuss how these maps reveal clues concerning the nature of the grains around Ae/Be stars. The source of the IR emission of these stars has direct consequences for the presence of circumstellar disks and ultimately, the formation of planets around intermediate mass stars. EFP acknowledges research support from NASA GSRP as well as NSF.

Polomski, E.; Telesco, C.

1999-12-01

314

Human Factors Engineering as a System in the Vision for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to accomplish NASA's Vision for Exploration, while assuring crew safety and productivity, human performance issues must be well integrated into system design from mission conception. To that end, a two-year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to develop a systematic method for including the human as a system in NASA's Vision for Exploration. The specific goals of this project are to review current Human Systems Integration (HSI) standards (i.e., industry, military, NASA) and tailor them to selected NASA Exploration activities. Once the methods are proven in the selected domains, a plan will be developed to expand the effort to a wider scope of Exploration activities. The methods will be documented for inclusion in NASA-specific documents (such as the Human Systems Integration Standards, NASA-STD-3000) to be used in future space systems. The current project builds on a previous TDP dealing with Human Factors Engineering processes. That project identified the key phases of the current NASA design lifecycle, and outlined the recommended HFE activities that should be incorporated at each phase. The project also resulted in a prototype of a webbased HFE process tool that could be used to support an ideal HFE development process at NASA. This will help to augment the limited human factors resources available by providing a web-based tool that explains the importance of human factors, teaches a recommended process, and then provides the instructions, templates and examples to carry out the process steps. The HFE activities identified by the previous TDP are being tested in situ for the current effort through support to a specific NASA Exploration activity. Currently, HFE personnel are working with systems engineering personnel to identify HSI impacts for lunar exploration by facilitating the generation of systemlevel Concepts of Operations (ConOps). For example, medical operations scenarios have been generated for lunar habitation in order to identify HSI requirements for the lunar communications architecture. Throughout these ConOps exercises, HFE personnel are testing various tools and methodologies that have been identified in the literature. A key part of the effort is the identification of optimal processes, methods, and tools for these early development phase activities, such as ConOps, requirements development, and early conceptual design. An overview of the activities completed thus far, as well as the tools and methods investigated will be presented.

Whitmore, Mihriban; Smith, Danielle; Holden, Kritina

2006-01-01

315

Thrombin mutant W215A/E217A treatment improves neurological outcome and attenuates central nervous system damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease characterized by demyelination and axonal damage of the central nervous system. The pathogenesis of MS has also been linked to vascular inflammation and local activation of the coagulation system, resulting in perivascular fibrin deposition. Treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of human MS, with antithrombotic and antiinflammatory activated protein C (APC) reduces disease severity. Since recombinant APC (Drotecogin alfa), originally approved for the treatment of severe sepsis, is not available for human MS studies, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacologic activation of endogenous protein C could likewise improve the outcome of EAE. Mice were immunized with murine myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptides and at the onset of EAE symptoms, were treated every other day with either WE thrombin (25?g/kg; i.v.), a selective recombinant protein C activator thrombin analog, or saline control. Mice were monitored for changes in disease score until euthanized for ex vivo analysis of inflammation. Administration of WE thrombin significantly ameliorated clinical severity of EAE, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination, suppressed the activation of macrophages comprising the CD11b + population and reduced accumulation of fibrin (ogen) in the spinal cord. These data suggest that symptomatic MS may respond to a treatment strategy that involves temporal pharmacological enhancement of endogenous APC generation. PMID:24810631

Verbout, Norah G; Yu, Xiaolin; Healy, Laura D; Phillips, Kevin G; Tucker, Erik I; Gruber, Andrs; McCarty, Owen J T; Offner, Halina

2015-02-01

316

Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with 'reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower 'initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power, and small NEP systems for interplanetary probes. System upgrades are expected to evolve that will result in even shorter trip times, improved payload capabilities, and enhanced safety and reliability.

Clark, John S.; George, Jeffrey A.; Gefert, Leon P.; Doherty, Michael P.; Sefcik, Robert J.

1994-01-01

317

The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While a crane lifts NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite, workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, help guide it toward the circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

1999-01-01

318

The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers at Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, maneuver an overhead crane toward NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite standing between vertical workstands. The crane will lift FUSE to move it onto the Payload Attach Fitting (PAF) in front of it. FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

1999-01-01

319

The FUSE satellite is moved to a payload attach fitting in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suspended by a crane in Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station, NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite is lowered onto a circular Payload Attach Fitting (PAF). FUSE is undergoing a functional test of its systems, plus installation of flight batteries and solar arrays. Developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., FUSE will investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE is scheduled to be launched May 27 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket at Launch Complex 17.

1999-01-01

320

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Feed Forward Internal Peer Review Slide Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 mt. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia M. (Editor)

2011-01-01

321

A field gas chromatograph using technology developed for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace gas analysis is an integral part of biospheric studies. Analytical instruments, primarily gas chromatographs (GC), are capable of measuring gases and volatiles to the ppb-level in real time. Trace gases significant in the study of biocycles include nitrous oxide, hydrogen sulfide, other nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as methane and ethylene. The concept of a field gas chromatograph is derived from technology being pursued in the design of ultra-compact instruments for solar system exploration. The instrument breadboard incorporates the specialized porous column packings and the highly sensitive metastable ionization detector developed by the Solar System Exploration Office. These parts ensure a broad capability for which the analysis of ambient N2O is one example. A commercial, portable gas chromatograph is currently being extensively modified to incorporate analytical concepts and components derived from flight GC technology. Data storage devices suitable for field use are presently being studied.

Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. E.; Carle, Glenn C.

1985-01-01

322

A study on two-level network monitoring system for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the promising and relatively new directions for space exploration is research of two-level network, i.e., space network and ground network. The paper proposes a two-level network monitoring system model and implements the model based on SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). The management mechanism of this system is that the priority of ground part is higher than that of the space part so that the ground part could manage the space network. Encrypted configuration files are used to realize the two-level network configuration management. In order to decrease the expense resulted from the loss of the data caused by the rupture of the link, two policies are needed to compensate the loss data. One is to transmit based on request; the other one is detected periodically. The model is supportive to space exploration.

Ding, Yi; Hu, Kai; Chen, Lujia

2009-12-01

323

Challenges in verification and validation of autonomous systems for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration applications offer a unique opportunity for the development and deployment of autonomous systems, due to limited communications, large distances, and great expense of direct operation. At the same time, the risk and cost of space missions leads to reluctance to taking on new, complex and difficult-to-understand technology. A key issue in addressing these concerns is the validation of autonomous systems. In recent years, higher-level autonomous systems have been applied in space applications. In this presentation, we will highlight those autonomous systems, and discuss issues in validating these systems. We will then look to future demands on validating autonomous systems for space, identify promising technologies and open issues.

Brat, Guillaume; Jonsson, Ari

2005-01-01

324

A Geothermal GIS for Nevada: Defining Regional Controls and Favorable Exploration Terrains for Extensional Geothermal Systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial analysis with a GIS was used to evaluate geothermal systems in Nevada using digital maps of geology, heat flow, young faults, young volcanism, depth to groundwater, groundwater geochemistry, earthquakes, and gravity. High-temperature (>160??C) extensional geothermal systems are preferentially associated with northeast-striking late Pleistocene and younger faults, caused by crustal extension, which in most of Nevada is currently oriented northwesterly (as measured by GPS). The distribution of sparse young (160??C) geothermal systems in Nevada are more likely to occur in areas where the groundwater table is shallow (<30m). Undiscovered geothermal systems may occur where groundwater levels are deeper and hot springs do not issue at the surface. A logistic regression exploration model was developed for geothermal systems, using young faults, young volcanics, positive gravity anomalies, and earthquakes to predict areas where deeper groundwater tables are most likely to conceal geothermal systems.

Coolbaugh, M.F.; Taranik, J.V.; Raines, G.L.; Shevenell, L.A.; Sawatzky, D.L.; Bedell, R.; Minor, T.B.

2002-01-01

325

Roles for the Two-hybrid System in Exploration of the Yeast Protein Interactome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions is a challenging endeavor of functional proteomics and has been best explored in the budding yeast. The yeast pro- tein interactome analysis was achieved first by using the yeast two-hybrid system in a proteome-wide scale and next by large-scale mass spectrometric analysis of affin- ity-purified protein complexes. While these interaction data have led to a

Takashi Ito; Kazuhisa Ota; Hiroyuki Kubota; Yoshihiro Yamaguchi; Tomoko Chiba; Kazumi Sakuraba; Mikio Yoshida

2002-01-01

326

Design space exploration algorithm for heterogeneous multi-processor embedded system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-chip multi-processor embedded system becomesnowadays a feasible and very interesting option. What isneeded however is an environment that supports the designerin transforming an algorithmic specification into a suitableparallel implementation. In this paper we present anddemonstrate an important component of such an environment - an efficient design space exploration algorithm. The algorithm can be used to semi-automatically find the bestparallelization of

Ireneusz Karkowski; Henk Corporaal

1998-01-01

327

Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists.

Palaszewski, Bryan

2014-01-01

328

Review of Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Integrated Hazard Development Process. Appendices; Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chief Engineer of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Office requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent assessment of the ESD's integrated hazard development process. The focus of the assessment was to review the integrated hazard analysis (IHA) process and identify any gaps/improvements in the process (e.g. missed causes, cause tree completeness, missed hazards). This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

Smiles, Michael D.; Blythe, Michael P.; Bejmuk, Bohdan; Currie, Nancy J.; Doremus, Robert C.; Franzo, Jennifer C.; Gordon, Mark W.; Johnson, Tracy D.; Kowaleski, Mark M.; Laube, Jeffrey R.

2015-01-01

329

Review of Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Integrated Hazard Development Process. Volume 1; Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chief Engineer of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Office requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent assessment of the ESD's integrated hazard development process. The focus of the assessment was to review the integrated hazard analysis (IHA) process and identify any gaps/improvements in the process (e.g., missed causes, cause tree completeness, missed hazards). This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

Smiles, Michael D.; Blythe, Michael P.; Bejmuk, Bohdan; Currie, Nancy J.; Doremus, Robert C.; Franzo, Jennifer C.; Gordon, Mark W.; Johnson, Tracy D.; Kowaleski, Mark M.; Laube, Jeffrey R.

2015-01-01

330

New Propulsion Technologies For Exploration of the Solar System and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to implement the ambitious science and exploration missions planned over the next several decades, improvements in in-space transportation and propulsion technologies must be achieved. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs. Future missions will require 2 to 3 times more total change in velocity over their mission lives than the NASA Solar Electric Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) demonstration on the Deep Space 1 mission. Rendezvous and return missions will require similar investments in in-space propulsion systems. New opportunities to explore beyond the outer planets and to the stars will require unparalleled technology advancement and innovation. The Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) is investing in technologies to achieve a factor of 10 reduction in the cost of Earth orbital transportation and a factor of 2 reduction in propulsion system mass and travel time for planetary missions within the next 15 years. Since more than 70% of projected launches over the next 10 years will require propulsion systems capable of attaining destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit, investment in in-space technologies will benefit a large percentage of future missions. The ASTP technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5 - 10 kW range, to fission-powered multi-kilowatt systems, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, "propellantless" because they do not require on-board fuel to achieve thrust. An overview of the state-of-the-art in propellantless propulsion technologies such as solar and plasma sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, and aeroassist and aerocapture will also be described. Results of recent earth-based technology demonstrations and space tests for many of these new propulsion technologies will be discussed.

Johnson, Les; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

331

Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Building a Better Approach for (Human) Spaceflight Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of Avionics is advancing far more rapidly in terrestrial applications than in space flight applications. Spaceflight Avionics are not keeping pace with expectations set by terrestrial experience, nor are they keeping pace with the need for increasingly complex automation and crew interfaces as we move beyond Low Earth Orbit. NASA must take advantage of the strides being made by both space-related and terrestrial industries to drive our development and sustaining costs down. This paper describes ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionic architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. Results from the AAE project's FY13 efforts are discussed, along with the status of FY14 efforts and future plans.

Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Hames, Kevin L.; Vitalpur, Sharada V.

2014-01-01

332

Japanese future plans for exploration of primitive bodies in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than two years has passed since the exploration of Itokawa by Hayabusa spacecraft. For the first time, we saw real appearance of a very small solar system body, whose size is only about 500 m in length. We had a lot of scientific results form the observation of Hayabusa, and we got many clues to know the origin and evolution of the solar system. As working for Hayabusa, we have also considered post-Hayabusa missions. Since the Itokawa is an S-type asteroid, next target should be a C-type asteroid, because these two types are abundant in the main asteroid belt. The next mission to Hayabusa is 'Hayabusa-2', which will explore C-type asteroid. The spacecraft is quite similar to Hayabusa, so we can save time for manufacturing it. The current target asteroid of Hayabusa-2 is 1999 JU3, which is intensively observed in 2007 and 2008. At the same time, we were also considering much more advanced mission after Hayabusa-2, and this mission is called 'Hayabusa-Mk2.' The target of Hayabusa-Mk2 should be much more primitive objects such as P-type or D-type asteroids, CAT, and comets, and the spacecraft is a newly developed one. In this way, we (=JAXA) are considering programmatic missions for the exploration of primitive bodies. Since there are many small bodies in the solar system, we should have such strategic approach. From 2006, Hayabusa-Mk2 is also considered under the scheme of Cosmic Vision of ESA with the European study group for small bodies of the solar system. And it was proposed to Cosmic Vision with the name of 'Marco Polo.' It has passed the first selection so now we are in the assessment phase. The spacecraft, for which Japan is responsible, is based on the idea of Hayabusa-Mk2, but we reconsider it to have a large lander and a new sampling system from Europe. There are four principal purposes for asteroid exploration, that is, science, spaceguard, resources, and manned mission. The science is the main target and we want to know the origin and evolution of the solar system and the life. And now, the other purposes, spaceguard and resources, are becoming important, too. Moreover Near Earth Asteroids are now considered as good targets for manned missions after the Moon but before Mars. The long-ranged exploration plan and international collaborations will be more important from now on.

Yoshikawa, Makoto; Yano, Hajime; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

333

Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane. Advantages of this approach include the capability of deploying through constrictions in the pipe, around 90{degrees} bends, vertically up and down, and in slippery conditions. Because the detector is transported inside the membrane (which is inexpensive and disposable), it is protected from contamination, which eliminates cross-contamination. Characterization sensors that have been demonstrated with the system thus far include: gamma detectors, beta detectors, video cameras, and pipe locators. Alpha measurement capability is currently under development. A remotely operable Pipe Explorer{trademark} system has been developed and demonstrated for use in DOE facilities in the decommissioning stage. The system is capable of deployment in pipes as small as 2-inch-diameter and up to 250 feet long. This paper describes the technology and presents measurement results of a field demonstration conducted with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system at a DOE site. These measurements identify surface activity levels of U-238 contamination as a function of location in drain lines. Cost savings to the DOE of approximately $1.5 million dollars were realized from this one demonstration.

Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

1995-12-31

334

Exploring hyper-cubic energy landscapes in thermally active finite artificial spin-ice systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional artificial spin-ice systems constructed from arrays of dipolar coupled monodomain magnets offer an experimental route to study the physics of frustration and a corresponding degeneracy that grows exponentially with system size. However, so far, such systems remain mainly frozen below their magnet's Curie temperature, unable to explore their potential-energy landscape through thermal fluctuations. Here we demonstrate the creation of thermally active finite artificial spin-ice systems and the observation of magnetic fluctuations in real time and space. We show that the subsequent magnetization dynamics can be entirely understood from the underlying dipolar energy landscape, and demonstrate that both the energy scale and the complexity of the landscape affect the temporal and spatial nature of the observed configurational changes. This work paves the way for the in situ study of thermally induced magnetic relaxation processes and delivers a controlled route to the lowest-energy state in extended two-dimensional artificial spin-ice systems.

Farhan, A.; Derlet, P. M.; Kleibert, A.; Balan, A.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Wyss, M.; Anghinolfi, L.; Nolting, F.; Heyderman, L. J.

2013-06-01

335

SP-100 space reactor power system for lunar, Mars, and robotic exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SP-100 power system is described which was developed for three missions, namely, Pluto Orbiter with nuclear electric propulsion; human-rated surface reactor power system for lunar and Mars exploration; and earth surveillance with an integrated nuclear electric propulsion system. The reactor power systems technology is being developed to meet these requirements so that the technical database, design tools, and specifications will be applicable to these missions. The SP-100 power system design includes the following subsystems: reactor, reactor instrumentation and control, shield, heat transport, converter, heat rejection, power conditioning control and distribution, and mechanical/structural. Particular attention is given to a demonstration mission aimed at validating technology readiness for robotic, lunar, and Mars operational missions.

Mondt, Jack F.

1992-01-01

336

A Systems Study to Determine the Attractiveness of Solar System Bodies and Sites for Eventual Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pre-phase A idea-generation team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has conducted a study to rank all locations in the solar system based on attractiveness for human exploration. The process used to perform the study was composed of the following primary steps: determination of criteria (including value, cost, and risk criteria) upon which to rate sites in the solar system; weighting of the criteria based upon importance to eventual human exploration; selection of sites to consider and assignment of team members to the task of advocating the benefits of particular sites; rating the sites in both the short- and longterm based on team member presentations and team discussions; compilation of a score based on criteria weights and individual ratings. Finally a comparison of the total scores of different sites was completed to determine a ranking of all the bodies and sites in the solar system. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine how weightings affect the rankings.

Andringa, Jason M.; Gray, Andrew A.

2005-01-01

337

Cytosolic H+ microdomain developed around AE1 during AE1-mediated Cl?/HCO3? exchange  

PubMed Central

Abstract Microdomains, regions of discontinuous cytosolic solute concentration enhanced by rapid solute transport and slow diffusion rates, have many cellular roles. pH-regulatory membrane transporters, like the Cl?/HCO3? exchanger AE1, could develop H+ microdomains since AE1 has a rapid transport rate and cytosolic H+ diffusion is slow. We examined whether the pH environment surrounding AE1 differs from other cellular locations. As AE1 drives Cl?/HCO3? exchange, differences in pH, near and remote from AE1, were monitored by confocal microscopy using two pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins: deGFP4 (GFP) and mNectarine (mNect). Plasma membrane (PM) pH (defined as ?1 ?m region around the cell periphery) was monitored by GFP fused to AE1 (GFP.AE1), and mNect fused to an inactive mutant of the Na+-coupled nucleoside co-transporter, hCNT3 (mNect.hCNT3). GFP.AE1 to mNect.hCNT3 distance was varied by co-expression of different amounts of the two proteins in HEK293 cells. As the GFP.AE1mNect.hCNT3 distance increased, mNect.hCNT3 detected the Cl?/HCO3? exchange-associated cytosolic pH change with a time delay and reduced rate of pH change compared to GFP.AE1. We found that a H+ microdomain 0.3 ?m in diameter forms around GFP.AE1 during physiological HCO3? transport. Carbonic anhydrase isoform II inhibition prevented H+ microdomain formation. We also measured the rate of H+ movement from PM GFP.AE1 to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), using mNect fused to the cytosolic face of ER-resident calnexin (CNX.mNect). The rate of H+ diffusion through cytosol was 60-fold faster than along the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane. The pH environment surrounding pH regulatory transport proteins may differ as a result of H+ microdomain formation, which will affect nearby pH-sensitive processes. PMID:21300752

Johnson, Danielle E; Casey, Joseph R

2011-01-01

338

A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through Ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

1990-01-01

339

An exploration of alternative intersection designs in the context of Safe System.  

PubMed

Fatal and serious injury crashes persist at intersections despite current efforts to address this. Little research specifically investigates the role played by existing intersection design in perpetuating serious intersection crash outcomes despite an increasing move to incorporate Safe System design on to roads. This paper identifies design principles deemed important to align intersection design with Safe System approaches, including exploring the impact of speed and angle on overall kinetic energy of a crash. Existing as well as new intersection designs are presented that are believed to incorporate the identified principles. An assessment is made of the alignment of the new and existing designs with the identified principles. PMID:25173928

Candappa, Nimmi; Logan, David; Van Nes, Nicole; Corben, Bruce

2015-01-01

340

Design Space Exploration and System Optimization with SymTA\\/S-- Symbolic Timing Analysis for Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing complexity of heterogeneous SoC and distributed systems confronts the system designer with problems how to determine reasonable design alternatives leading to well functioning systems. Ideally, a designer would try all possible system configuration and choose the best one regarding specific system requirements. Unfortu- nately, such an approach is not possible because the high number of design parameters in

Arne Hamann; Marek Jersak; Kai Richter; Rolf Ernst

2004-01-01

341

Opening the Solar System: An Advanced Nuclear Spacecraft for Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of the solar system is limited by our technology, not our imagination. We dream of a time when we can freely travel among the planets and truly become a spacefaring people. However, the current state of our technology limits our options for architecting missions to other planets. Instead of sailing the seas of space in the way that we cruise the seas of Earth, our limited propulsion technology requires us to depart Earth on a giant cluster of gas tanks and return in a lifeboat. This inefficient approach to exploration is evident in many of today's leading mission plans for human flights to Mars, asteroids, and other destinations. The cost and complexity of this approach to mission architecting makes it extremely difficult to realize our dreams of exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This does not need to be the case. Researchers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been investigating the feasibility of a new take on nuclear propulsion with the performance to enable a paradigm shift in human space exploration. During the fall of 2013, engineers at MSFC's Advanced Concepts Office developed a spacecraft concept (pictured below) around this new propulsion technology and redefined the human Mars mission to show its full potential. This spacecraft, which can be launched with a fleet of soon-to-be available SLS launch vehicles, is fueled primarily with hydrogen, and is fully reusable with no staging required. The reusable nature of this design enables a host of alternative mission architectures that more closely resemble an ocean voyage than our current piecemeal approach to exploration.

Werka, R. O.; Percy, T. K.

2014-01-01

342

Exploring the implication of climate process uncertainties within the Earth System Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in the magnitude of future climate change have been a focus of a great deal of research. Much of the work with General Circulation Models has focused on the atmospheric response to changes in atmospheric composition, while other processes remain outside these frameworks. Here we introduce an ensemble of new simulations, based on an Earth System configuration of HadCM3C, designed to explored uncertainties in both physical (atmospheric, oceanic and aerosol physics) and carbon cycle processes, using perturbed parameter approaches previously used to explore atmospheric uncertainty. Framed in the context of the climate response to future changes in emissions, the resultant future projections represent significantly broader uncertainty than existing concentration driven GCM assessments. The systematic nature of the ensemble design enables interactions between components to be explored. For example, we show how metrics of physical processes (such as climate sensitivity) are also influenced carbon cycle parameters. The suggestion from this work is that carbon cycle processes represent a comparable contribution to uncertainty in future climate projections as contributions from atmospheric feedbacks more conventionally explored. The broad range of climate responses explored within these ensembles, rather than representing a reason for inaction, provide information on lower likelihood but high impact changes. For example while the majority of these simulations suggest that future Amazon forest extent is resilient to the projected climate changes, a small number simulate dramatic forest dieback. This ensemble represents a framework to examine these risks, breaking them down into physical processes (such as ocean temperature drivers of rainfall change) and vegetation processes (where uncertainties point towards requirements for new observational constraints).

Booth, B.; Lambert, F. H.; McNeal, D.; Harris, G.; Sexton, D.; Boulton, C.; Murphy, J.

2011-12-01

343

Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Mendell, W. W.; Heydorn, R. P.

2004-01-01

344

Enabling technologies for space exploration systems: The STEPS project results and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project STEPS (Sistemi e Tecnologie per l'EsPlorazione Spaziale) is a joint development of technologies and systems for Space Exploration supported by Regione Piemonte, the European Regional Development Fund (E.R.D.F.) 2007-2013, Thales Alenia Space Italia (TAS-I), SMEs, Universities and public Research Centres belonging to the network "Comitato Distretto Aerospaziale del Piemonte" the Piedmont Aerospace District (PAD) in Italy. The project first part terminated in May 2012 with a final demonstration event that summarizes the technological results of research activities carried-out during a period the three years and half. The project developed virtual and hardware demonstrators for a range of technologies for the descent, soft landing and surface mobility of robotic and manned equipment for Moon and Mars exploration. The two key hardware demonstratorsa Mars Lander and a Lunar Roverfit in a context of international cooperation for the exploration of Moon and Mars, as envisaged by Space Agencies worldwide. The STEPS project included also the development and utilization of a system of laboratories equipped for technology validation, teleoperations, concurrent design environments, and virtual reality simulation of the Exploration Systems in typical Moon and Mars environments. This paper presents the reached results in several technology domains like: vision-based GNC for the last portion of Mars Entry, Descent and Landing sequence, Hazard avoidance and complete spacecraft autonomy; Autonomous Rover Navigation, based on the determination of the terrain morphology by a stereo camera; Mobility and Mechanisms providing an Integrated Ground Mobility System, Rendezvous and Docking equipment, and protection from Environment effects; innovative Structures such as Inflatable, Smart and Multifunction Structures, an Active Shock Absorber for safe landing, balance restoring and walking; Composite materials Modelling and Monitoring; Human-machine interface features of a predictive Command and Control System; Energy Management systems based on Regenerative Fuel Cells; aerothermodynamic solutions for Atmospheric Re-entry of Commercial Transportation Systems; novel Design and Development Tools, such as a Rover S/W simulator and prototypes of the DEM viewer and of a S/W Rock Creator/visualizator. The paper also provides perspectives on the proposed STEPS 2 project that will likely continue the development of a subset of the above technologies in view of their possible in-flight validation within next five years.

Messidoro, Piero; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Boggiatto, Dario

2013-05-01

345

Cascade Storage and Delivery System for a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MMSEV is a pressurized vehicle used to extend the human exploration envelope for Lunar, Near Earth Object (NEO), and Deep Space missions. The Johnson Space Center is developing the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the MMSEV. The MMSEV s intended use is to support longer sortie lengths with multiple Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) on a higher magnitude than any previous vehicle. This paper presents an analysis of a high pressure oxygen cascade storage and delivery system that will accommodate the crew during long duration Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) and capable of multiple high pressure oxygen fills to the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) worn by the crew during EVAs. A cascade is a high pressure gas cylinder system used for the refilling of smaller compressed gas cylinders. Each of the large cylinders are filled by a compressor, but the cascade system allows small cylinders to be filled without the need of a compressor. In addition, the cascade system is useful as a "reservoir" to accommodate low pressure needs. A regression model was developed to provide the mechanism to size the cascade systems subject to constraints such as number of crew, extravehicular activity duration and frequency, and ullage gas requirements under contingency scenarios. The sizing routine employed a numerical integration scheme to determine gas compressibility changes during depressurization and compressibility effects were captured using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization routine was used to find the minimum cascade tank system mass that meets the mission requirements. The sizing algorithms developed in this analysis provide a powerful framework to assess cascade filling, compressor, and hybrid systems to design long duration vehicle ECLSS architecture. 1

Yagoda, Evan; Swickrath, Michael; Stambaugh, Imelda

2012-01-01

346

Mapping of the AES cryptographic algorithm on a Coarse-Grain reconfigurable array processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coarse-Grained reconfigurable architectures are emerging as potential candidates to meet the high performance, power efficiency and flexibility needed by embedded systems. ADRES (Architecture for Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems) and its DRESC compiler offer a very promising platform for designing embedded systems targeted for different application domains. We present a procedure for mapping the widely used AES cryptographic algorithm on ADRES.

Andres Garcia; Mladen Berekovic; Tom Vander Aa

2008-01-01

347

College of Fine Arts A-E Art Education  

E-print Network

College of Fine Arts A-E Art Education KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped to the Teacher Education Program (TEP). A-E 395 INDEPENDENT WORK: ART EDUCATION. (1 and value of art from an art education perspective

MacAdam, Keith

348

NEEMO 15: Evaluation of human exploration systems for near-Earth asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 15 mission was focused on evaluating techniques for exploring near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). It began with a University of Delaware autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) systematically mapping the coral reef for hundreds of meters surrounding the Aquarius habitat. This activity is akin to the type of "far-field survey" approach that may be used by a robotic precursor in advance of a human mission to a NEA. Data from the far-field survey were then examined by the NEEMO science team and follow-up exploration traverses were planned, which used Deepworker single-person submersibles. Science traverses at NEEMO 15 were planned according to a prioritized list of objectives developed by the science team. These objectives were based on review and discussion of previous related marine science research, including previous marine science saturation missions conducted at the Aquarius habitat. AUV data were used to select several areas of scientific interest. The Deepworker science traverses were then executed at these areas of interest during 4 days of the NEEMO 15 mission and provided higher resolution data such as coral species distribution and mortality. These traverses are analogous to the "near-field survey" approach that is expected to be performed by a Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) during a human mission to a NEA before extravehicular activities (EVAs) are conducted. In addition to the science objectives that were pursued, the NEEMO 15 traverses provided an opportunity to test newly developed software and techniques. Sample collection and instrument deployment on the NEA surface by EVA crew would follow the "near-field survey" in a human NEA mission. Sample collection was not necessary for the purposes of the NEEMO science objectives; however, the engineering and operations objectives during NEEMO 15 were to evaluate different combinations of vehicles, crew members, tools, and equipment that could be used to perform these science objectives on a NEA. Specifically, the productivity and acceptability of simulated NEA exploration activities were systematically quantified and compared when operating with different combinations of crew sizes and exploration systems including MMSEVs, EVA jet packs, and EVA translation devices. Data from NEEMO 15 will be used in conjunction with data from software simulations, parametric analysis, other analog field tests, anchoring models, and integrated testing at Johnson Space Center to inform the evolving architectures and exploration systems being developed by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team.

Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

2013-08-01

349

Adverse Event (AE) Reporting and Evaluation  

E-print Network

or significant disability/ incapacity #12;7 Serious Adverse Event continued Any adverse drug experience occurringAdverse Event (AE) Reporting and Evaluation Lisa Wilson CTSC Clinical Research Center (CCRC) UC the identification, assessment, follow-up, and reporting of adverse events and serious adverse events. #12;4 Adverse

Carmichael, Owen

350

Flight experience of solar mesosphere explorer's power system over high temperatures ranges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the power system on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) satellite for the life of the mission and the techniques used to ensure power system health are summarized. Early in the mission high cell imbalances in one of the batteries resulted in a loading scheme which attempted to minimize the cell imbalances without causing an undervoltage condition. A short term model of the power system allowed planners to predict depth of discharge using the latest available data. Due to expected orbital shifts the solar arrays experience extended periods of no eclipse. This has required special conditioning schemes to keep the batteries healthy when the eclipses return. Analysis of the SME data indicates long term health of the SME power system as long as the conditioning scheme is continued.

Faber, Jack; Hurley, Daniel

1987-01-01

351

The implementation of the Human Exploration Demonstration Project (HEDP), a systems technology testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Human Exploration Demonstration Project (HEDP) is an ongoing task at the NASA's Ames Research Center to address the advanced technology requirements necessary to implement an integrated working and living environment for a planetary surface habitat. The integrated environment consists of life support systems, physiological monitoring of project crew, a virtual environment work station, and centralized data acquisition and habitat systems health monitoring. The HEDP is an integrated technology demonstrator, as well as an initial operational testbed. There are several robotic systems operational in a simulated planetary landscape external to the habitat environment, to provide representative work loads for the crew. This paper describes the evolution of the HEDP from initial concept to operational project; the status of the HEDP after two years; the final facilities composing the HEDP; the project's role as a NASA Ames Research Center systems technology testbed; and the interim demonstration scenarios that have been run to feature the developing technologies in 1993.

Rosen, Robert; Korsmeyer, David J.

1993-01-01

352

Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD.  

PubMed

A new approach called bioinspired engineering of exploration systems (BEES) and its value for solving pressing NASA and DoD needs are described. Insects (for example honeybees and dragonflies) cope remarkably well with their world, despite possessing a brain containing less than 0.01% as many neurons as the human brain. Although most insects have immobile eyes with fixed focus optics and lack stereo vision, they use a number of ingenious, computationally simple strategies for perceiving their world in three dimensions and navigating successfully within it. We are distilling selected insect-inspired strategies to obtain novel solutions for navigation, hazard avoidance, altitude hold, stable flight, terrain following, and gentle deployment of payload. Such functionality provides potential solutions for future autonomous robotic space and planetary explorers. A BEES approach to developing lightweight low-power autonomous flight systems should be useful for flight control of such biomorphic flyers for both NASA and DoD needs. Recent biological studies of mammalian retinas confirm that representations of multiple features of the visual world are systematically parsed and processed in parallel. Features are mapped to a stack of cellular strata within the retina. Each of these representations can be efficiently modeled in semiconductor cellular nonlinear network (CNN) chips. We describe recent breakthroughs in exploring the feasibility of the unique blending of insect strategies of navigation with mammalian visual search, pattern recognition, and image understanding into hybrid biomorphic flyers for future planetary and terrestrial applications. We describe a few future mission scenarios for Mars exploration, uniquely enabled by these newly developed biomorphic flyers. PMID:12650645

Thakoor, Sarita; Chahl, Javaan; Srinivasan, M V; Young, L; Werblin, Frank; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

2002-01-01

353

Parametric Analysis of Life Support Systems for Future Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Having adopted a flexible path approach to space exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra- vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path program.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.

2010-01-01

354

Development of NASA's Small Fission Power System for Science and Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of our solar system has brought great knowledge to our nation's scientific and engineering community over the past several decades. As we expand our visions to explore new, more challenging destinations, we must also expand our technology base to support these new missions. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate is tasked with developing these technologies for future mission infusion and continues to seek answers to many existing technology gaps. One such technology gap is related to compact power systems (greater than 1 kWe) that provide abundant power for several years where solar energy is unavailable or inadequate. Below 1 kWe, Radioisotope Power Systems have been the workhorse for NASA and will continue, assuming its availability, to be used for lower power applications similar to the successful missions of Voyager, Ulysses, New Horizons, Cassini, and Curiosity. Above 1 kWe, fission power systems become an attractive technology offering a scalable modular design of the reactor, shield, power conversion, and heat transport subsystems. Near term emphasis has been placed in the 1-10kWe range that lies outside realistic radioisotope power levels and fills a promising technology gap capable of enabling both science and human exploration missions. History has shown that development of space reactors is technically, politically, and financially challenging and requires a new approach to their design and development. A small team of NASA and DOE experts are providing a solution to these enabling FPS technologies starting with the lowest power and most cost effective reactor series named "Kilopower" that is scalable from approximately 1-10 kWe.

Gibson, Marc A.; Mason, Lee; Bowman, Cheryl; Poston, David I.; McClure, Patrick R.; Creasy, John; Robinson, Chris

2014-01-01

355

Engineering America's Future in Space: Systems Engineering Innovations for Sustainable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) delivers space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides U.S. capability for both crew and cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010, as outlined in the 2006 NASA Strategic Plan. I In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle/Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle/Altair Lunar Lander. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability, coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration over a multi-decade schedule. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level test activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity against predictions made by modern modeling and simulation analysis. It also will give information about the work in progress for the Ares I-X developmental test flight planned in 2009 to provide key data before the Ares I Critical Design Review. Activities such as these will help prove and refine mission concepts of operation, while supporting the spectrum of design and development tasks being performed by Marshall's Engineering Directorate, ranging from launch vehicles and lunar rovers to scientific spacecraft and associated experiments. Ultimately, the work performed will lead to the fielding of a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads for sustainable scientific discovery beyond planet Earth.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Jones, Carl P.

2008-01-01

356

Exploration of the Saturn System by the Cassini Mission: Observations with the Cassini Infrared Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini mission is a joint NASA-ESA international mission, launched on October 17, 1997 with 12 instruments on board, for exploration of the Saturn system. A composite Infrared Spectrometers is one of the major instruments. Successful insertion of the spacecraft in Saturn's orbit for an extended orbital tour occurred on July 1, 2004. The French Huygens-Probe on board, with six instruments was programmed for a soft landing on Titan's surface occurred in January 2005. The broad range scientific objectives of the mission are: Exploration of the Saturn system for investigations of the origin, formation, & evolution of the solar system, with an extensive range of measurements and the analysis of the data for scientific interpretations. The focus of research dealing with the Cassini mission at NASA/MSFC in collaboration with the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, JPL, as well as the research teams at Oxford/UK and Meudon Observatory/France, involves the Infrared observations of Saturn and its satellites, for measurements of the thermal structure and global distributions of the atmospheric constituents. A brief description of the Cassini spacecraft, the instruments, the objectives, in particular with the infrared observations of the Saturn system will be given. The analytical techniques for infrared radiative transfer and spectral inversion programs, with some selected results for gas constituent distributions will be presented.

Abbas, Mian M.

2014-01-01

357

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) the Latest News  

E-print Network

fall to complete key space search attacks. 3 The Plan for a New Advanced Encryption Standard (AES 2 3 The Plan for a New Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 2 4 The Next Step ­ the Follow up Meeting in Rome, Italy, March 1999 3 5 First day of AES2 ­ Rome 3 6 Analysis of several algorithms -- Second

Seberry, Jennifer

358

Directed-polymer systems explored via their quantum analogs: General polymer interactions and their consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of polymer-polymer interactions of various types on the thermodynamics, structure, and accommodation of topological constraints is addressed for systems comprising many directed polymers in two spatial dimensions. The approach is predicated on the well-known equivalence between the classical equilibrium statistical mechanics of directed polymers in two spatial dimensions and the imaginary-time quantum dynamics of particles in one spatial dimension, originally exploited by P.-G. de Gennes [P.-G. de Gennes, J. Chem. Phys.JCPSA60021-960610.1063/1.1669420 48, 2257 (1968)]. Known results concerning two exactly solvable microscopic models of quantum particles moving in one spatial dimensionthe Lieb-Liniger model of contact interactions and the Calogero-Sutherland model of long-range interactionsare used to shed light on the behavior of the corresponding polymeric systems. In addition, the technique of bosonization is used to reveal how generic polymer interactions give rise to an emergent polymer fluid that has universal collective excitations. Additionally, the response of the system to topological constraints such as pins though which polymers cannot pass is explored. Immediately on the compressed side of a pin there is a divergent pile-up in polymer density, while on the other side there is a gap of finite area in which polymer density is negligible. Comparison of this response to that of a system of simply noncrossing (i.e., noncrossing but otherwise noninteracting) directed polymers, explored in a companion paper, reveals that generic interactions leave the structure quantitatively unchanged on the line transverse to the pin, and leave it qualitatively unchanged throughout the two dimensions of the system's extent. Furthermore, the free-energy cost associated with a pin that partitions a system having generic interactions is found to be proportional to the pin-partitioning cost for a system of simply noncrossing polymers.

Rocklin, D. Zeb; Goldbart, Paul M.

2013-10-01

359

Detection of accreting circumstellar gas around weak emission-line Herbig Ae/Be stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Archival and recent International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) high dispersion spectra of late B stars which reveal the presence of accreting gas with velocities as high as 350 km/s, collisional ionization of the accreting gas to temperatures above the stellar T(sub eff), and column densities intermediate between those observed toward classical Herbig Ae/Be stars and the nearby proto-planetary system beta Pictoris are presented. One of the stars HD 176386, while lacking obvious optical signatures of youth, is a member of the R CrA star formation region, and with an inferred age of 2.8 Myr has not yet arrived on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). The other object, an isolated, field B star with pronounced IR excess due to warm, circumstellar dust, 51 Oph, exhibits only modest H(alpha) emission. The combination of high velocity, accreting gas in systems with IR excesses due to circumstellar dust suggests that not only are these objects candidate proto-planetary systems, but that they may represent an extension to higher stellar masses of the weak-emission pre-main sequence (PMS) stars.

Grady, C. A.; Perez, M. R.; The, P. S.

1993-01-01

360

Developmental Systems Science: Exploring the Application of Systems Science Methods to Developmental Science Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental science theorists fully acknowledge the wide array of complex interactions among biology, behavior, and environment that together give rise to development. However, despite this conceptual understanding of development as a system, developmental science has not fully applied analytic methods commensurate with this systems perspective. This article provides a brief introduction to systems science, an approach to problem solving that

Jennifer Brown Urban; Nathaniel D. Osgood; Patricia L. Mabry

2011-01-01

361

Overview of Potable Water Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing water necessary to maintain life support has been accomplished in spacecraft vehicles for over forty years. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. space vehicles provided potable water. The water source for the spacecraft, biocide used to preserve the water on-orbit, water stowage methodology, materials, pumping mechanisms, on-orbit water requirements, and water temperature requirements will be discussed. Where available, the hardware used to provide the water and the general function of that hardware will also be detailed. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) water systems will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to water systems in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that could be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft water systems will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

Peterson, Laurie J.; Callahan, Michael R.

2007-01-01

362

A multitasking behavioral control system for the Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative methodology for designing an autonomous navigation and control system is discussed. This generalized hybrid system is based on a less sequential and less anthropomorphic approach than that used in the more traditional artificial intelligence (AI) technique. The architecture is designed to allow both synchronous and asynchronous operations between various behavior modules. This is accomplished by intertask communications channels which implement each behavior module and each interconnection node as a stand-alone task. The proposed design architecture allows for construction of hybrid systems which employ both subsumption and traditional AI techniques as well as providing for a teleoperator's interface. Implementation of the architecture is planned for the prototype Robotic All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover (RATLER) which is described briefly.

Klarer, P.

1994-01-01

363

Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1995-10-01

364

Light weight airborne imaging spectrometer remote sensing system for mineral exploration in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectrometers provide the unique combination of both spatially contiguous spectra and spectrally contiguous images of the Earth's surface that allows spatial mapping of these minerals. One of the successful applications of imaging spectrometers remote sensing identified was geological mapping and mineral exploration. A Light weight Airborne Imaging Spectrometer System (LAISS) has been developed in China. The hardware of the compact LAISS include a VNIR imaging spectrometer, a SWIR imaging spectrometer, a high resolution camera and a position and attitude device. The weight of the system is less than 20kg. The VNIR imaging spectrometer measures incoming radiation in 344 contiguous spectral channels in the 400-1000 nm wavelength range with spectral resolution of better than 5 nm and creates images of 464 pixels for a line of targets with a nominal instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of ~1 mrad. The SWIR imaging spectrometer measures incoming radiation in the 1000-2500 nm wavelength range with spectral resolution of better than 10 nm with a nominal instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of ~2 mrad. The 400 to 2500nm spectral range provides abundant information about many important Earth-surface minerals. A ground mineral scan experiment and an UAV carried flying experiment has been done. The experiment results show the LAISS have achieved relative high performance levels in terms of signal to noise ratio and image quality. The potential applications for light weight airborne imaging spectrometer system in mineral exploration are tremendous.

Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Lifu; Cen, Yi; Wang, Jinnian; Tong, Qingxi

2014-05-01

365

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 3, AUGUST 2001 389 Exploring the Power Flow Solution Space Boundary  

E-print Network

.) Techniques for exploring the power flow solution space boundary therefore have an important role to playIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 3, AUGUST 2001 389 Exploring the Power Flow Solution Space Boundary Ian A. Hiskens, Senior Member and Robert J. Davy Abstract--A knowledge

Hiskens, Ian A.

366

Gas Chemistry of Hydrothermal Systems of the Explorer Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June-August, 2002, a 2-leg expedition aboard the R/V Thompson completed an extensive survey of the hydrothermal systems of the Explorer Ridge. The first part of the expedition employed hydrographic casts to detect hydrothermal activity via the presence of water-column plumes. A total of 29 casts were completed, 17 conventional vertical casts and 11 tow-yos, covering the entire length of the Explorer Ridge from 49.5N to 50.3N. A total of 288 discrete samples were collected for shorebased analysis of helium isotopes. Preliminary results based on shipboard analysis of CTD data indicated that the strong hydrothermal venting was confined to the Magic Mountain area of the Explorer Ridge at 49.76N, 130.26W, where strong temperature and light attenuation signals were detected. However, it is possible that the water-column helium isotope results, when available, will indicate other areas of hydrothermal activity. In the second phase of the exploration, a series of submersible dives were conducted using the Canadian ROV ROPOS. The ROPOS dives were concentrated on the hydrothermal sites of the Magic Mountain area, which are concentrated along a 400-m long zone on the eastern shoulder of the axial valley. A suite of vent fluid samples was collected for analysis of gas chemistry using either discrete titanium gas-tight samplers or using the NOAA hydrothermal fluid sampler (HFS). A total of 11 discrete vent fluid samples were collected for gas chemistry at 7 different vents ranging in temperature from 162C to 313C. All of the vents sampled were very gas-rich, with total gas contents ranging from 0.3 ccSTP/g up to 1.4 ccSTP/g at Record Breaker Vent (313C). Results for vent fluid concentrations of 3He, 4He, Ne, H2, CH4, and CO2 will be presented.

Lupton, J.; Lilley, M.; Baker, E.; Butterfield, D.; Embley, R.; Silvers, B.; Resing, J.; Olson, E.; Evans, L.; Lebon, G.; Greene, R.

2002-12-01

367

Thermal design of the IUE hydrazine auxiliary propulsion system. [International Ultraviolet Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Ultraviolet Explorer is a large astronomical observatory scheduled to be placed in a three-axis stabilized synchronous orbit in the fourth quarter of 1977. The Hydrazine Auxiliary Propulsion System (HAPS) must perform a number of spacecraft maneuvers to achieve a successful mission. This paper describes the thermal design which accomplishes temperature control between 5 and 65 C for all orbital conditions by utilizing multilayer insulation and commandable component heaters. A primary design criteria was the minimization of spacecraft power by the selective use of the solar environment. The thermal design was carefully assessed and verified in both spacecraft thermal balance and subsystem solar simulation testing.

Skladany, J. T.; Kelly, W. H.

1977-01-01

368

Using an immune system model to explore mate selection in genetic algorithms.  

SciTech Connect

In the setting of multimodal function optimization, engineering and machine learning, identifying multiple peaks and maintaining subpopulations of the search space are two central themes when Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are employed. In this paper, an immune system model is adopted to develop a framework for exploring the role of mate selection in GAs with respect to these two issues. The experimental results reported in the paper will shed more light into how mate selection schemes compare to traditional selection schemes. In particular, we show that dissimilar mating is beneficial in identifying multiple peaks, yet harmful in maintaining subpopulations of the search space.

Huang, C. F. (Chien-Feng)

2003-01-01

369

Databases, data integration, and expert systems: new directions in mineral resource assessment and mineral exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Overcoming future difficulties in searching for ore deposits deeper in the earth's crust will require closer attention to the collection and analysis of more diverse types of data and to more efficient use of current computer technologies. Computer technologies of greatest interest include methods of storage and retrieval of resource information, methods for integrating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data, and the introduction of advanced computer technologies such as expert systems, multivariate techniques, and neural networks. Much experience has been gained in the past few years in applying these technologies. More experience is needed if they are to be implemented for everyday use in future assessments and exploration.

McCammon, Richard B.

1994-01-01

370

NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster: The NEXT Ion Propulsion System for Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion system. The NEXT project is developing a solar electric ion propulsion system. The NEXT project is advancing the capability of ion propulsion to meet NASA robotic science mission needs. The NEXT system is planned to significantly improve performance over the state of the art electric propulsion systems, such as NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR). The status of NEXT development is reviewed, including information on the NEXT Thruster, the power processing unit, the propellant management system (PMS), the digital control interface unit, and the gimbal. Block diagrams NEXT system are presented. Also a review of the lessons learned from the Dawn and NSTAR systems is provided. In summary the NEXT project activities through 2007 have brought next-generation ion propulsion technology to a sufficient maturity level.

Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.

2008-01-01

371

LOCATING THE ACCRETION FOOTPRINT ON A HERBIG Ae STAR: MWC 480  

SciTech Connect

Accretion is a fundamental process which establishes the dynamics of the protoplanetary disk and the final properties of the forming star. In solar-type stars, the star-disk coupling is determined by the magnetic field structure, which is responsible for funneling material from the disk midplane to higher latitudes on the star. Here, we use pan-chromatic data for the Herbig Ae star MWC 480 to address whether similar processes occur in intermediate-mass stars. MWC 480 has X-ray emission typical of actively accreting Herbig Ae stars, but with {approx}10x more photoelectric absorption than expected from optical and FUV data. We consider three sources for the absorption: the disk, absorption in a wind or jet, and accretion. While we detect the disk in scattered light in a re-analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope data, the data are consistent with grazing illumination of the dust disk. We find that MWC 480's disk is stratified, geometrically thin, and is not responsible for the observed photoelectric absorption. MWC 480 drives a bipolar jet, but with a mass-loss rate that is low compared to other Herbig Ae stars, where the outflow is more favorably oriented and enhanced photoelectric absorption is not seen. This excludes a jet or wind origin for the enhanced photoelectric absorption. We compare MWC 480's O VI emission with other Herbig Ae stars. The distribution of the emission in inclination, and lack of a correlation of profile shape and system inclination excludes equatorially confined accretion for the FUSE Herbig Ae stars. The photoelectric absorption data further suggest that the accretion footprint on MWC 480 and other Herbig Ae stars is located at high-temperate, rather than polar, latitudes. These findings support the presence of funneled accretion in MWC 480 and Herbig Ae stars, strengthening the parallel to T Tauri stars.

Grady, C. A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hamaguchi, K. [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schneider, G. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stecklum, B. [Thueringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Woodgate, B. E. [ExoPlanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McCleary, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Williger, G. M. [Department of Physics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Sitko, M. L.; Hines, D. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St., Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Menard, F. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, CNRS/UJF UMR 5571 (France); Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brittain, S.; Troutmann, M.; Donehew, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Wisniewski, J. P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Rudy, R. J. [Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Day, A. N. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Shenoy, A., E-mail: jwisnie@u.washington.ed [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Summer High School Intern and Thomas Wootton High School, Rockville, MD 20850-3099 (United States)

2010-08-20

372

Integrated Software Systems for Crew Management During Extravehicular Activity in Planetary Terrain Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial planetary explorations with the Apollo program had a veritable ground support army monitoring the safety and health of the 12 astronauts who performed lunar surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). Given the distances involved, this will not be possible on Mars. A spacesuit for Mars must be smart enough to replace that army. The next generation suits can do so using 2 software systems serving as virtual companions, LEGACI (Life support, Exploration Guidance Algorithm and Consumable Interrogator) and VIOLET (Voice Initiated Operator for Life support and Exploration Tracking). The system presented in this study integrates data inputs from a suite of sensors into the MIII suit s communications, avionics and informatics hardware for distribution to remote managers and data analysis. If successful, the system has application not only for Mars but for nearer term missions to the Moon, and the next generation suits used on ISS as well. Field tests are conducted to assess capabilities for next generation spacesuits at Johnson Space Center (JSC) as well as the Mars and Lunar analog (Devon Island, Canada). LEGACI integrates data inputs from a suite of noninvasive biosensors in the suit and the astronaut (heart rate, suit inlet/outlet lcg temperature and flowrate, suit outlet gas and dewpoint temperature, pCO2, suit O2 pressure, state vector (accelerometry) and others). In the Integrated Walkback Suit Tests held at NASA-JSC and the HMP tests at Devon Island, communication and informatics capabilities were tested (including routing by satellite from the suit at Devon Island to JSC in Houston via secure servers at VCU in Richmond, VA). Results. The input from all the sensors enable LEGACI to compute multiple independent assessments of metabolic rate, from which a "best" met rate is chosen based on statistical methods. This rate can compute detailed information about the suit, crew and EVA performance using test-derived algorithms. VIOLET gives LEGACI voice activation capability, allowing the crew to query the suit, and receive feedback and alerts that will lead to corrective action. LEGACI and VIOLET can also automatically control the astronaut's cooling and consumable use rate without crew input if desired. These findings suggest that non-invasive physiological and environmental sensors supported with data analysis can allow for more effective management of mission task performance during EVA. Integrated remote and local view of data metrics allow crewmember to receive real time feedback in synch with mission control in preventing performance shortcomings for EVA in exploration missions.

Kuznetz, Lawrence; Nguen, Dan; Jones, Jeffrey; Lee, Pascal; Merrell, Ronald; Rafiq, Azhar

2008-01-01

373

Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for a Flexible Space Exploration Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to develop advanced avionic and processor technologies anticipated to be used by NASA s currently evolving space exploration architectures. The AAPS project is a part of the Exploration Technology Development Program, which funds an entire suite of technologies that are aimed at enabling NASA s ability to explore beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the AAPS project. AAPS uses a broad-scoped approach to developing avionic and processor systems. Investment areas include advanced electronic designs and technologies capable of providing environmental hardness, reconfigurable computing techniques, software tools for radiation effects assessment, and radiation environment modeling tools. Near-term emphasis within the multiple AAPS tasks focuses on developing prototype components using semiconductor processes and materials (such as Silicon-Germanium (SiGe)) to enhance a device s tolerance to radiation events and low temperature environments. As the SiGe technology will culminate in a delivered prototype this fiscal year, the project emphasis shifts its focus to developing low-power, high efficiency total processor hardening techniques. In addition to processor development, the project endeavors to demonstrate techniques applicable to reconfigurable computing and partially reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This capability enables avionic architectures the ability to develop FPGA-based, radiation tolerant processor boards that can serve in multiple physical locations throughout the spacecraft and perform multiple functions during the course of the mission. The individual tasks that comprise AAPS are diverse, yet united in the common endeavor to develop electronics capable of operating within the harsh environment of space. Specifically, the AAPS tasks for the Federal fiscal year of 2010 are: Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments, Modeling of Radiation Effects on Electronics, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), and and Reconfigurable Computing.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Smith, Leigh M.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2010-01-01

374

Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

2013-01-01

375

NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3), can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

2014-01-01

376

NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

Robinson, Kimberly F.; Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

2014-01-01

377

A Ribosomal Protein AgRPS3aE from Halophilic Aspergillus glaucus Confers Salt Tolerance in Heterologous Organisms.  

PubMed

High salt in soils is one of the abiotic stresses that significantly reduces crop yield, although saline lands are considered potential resources arable for agriculture. Currently, genetic engineering for enhancing salt tolerance is being tested as an efficient and viable strategy for crop improvement. We previously characterized a large subunit of the ribosomal protein RPL44, which is involved in osmotic stress in the extremely halophilic fungus Aspergillus glaucus. Here, we screened another ribosomal protein (AgRPS3aE) that also produced high-salt tolerance in yeast. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that AgRPS3aE encodes a 29.2 kDa small subunit of a ribosomal protein belonging to the RPS3Ae family in eukaryotes. To further confirm its protective function against salinity, we expressed AgRPS3aE in three heterologous systems, the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and two model plants Arabidopsis and tobacco. Overexpression of AgRPS3aE in all tested transformants significantly alleviated stress symptoms compared with controls, suggesting that AgRPS3aE functions not only in fungi but also in plants. Considering that ribosomal proteins are housekeeping components in organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, we propose that AgRPS3aE is one of the optimal genes for improving high-salt tolerance in crops. PMID:25642759

Liang, Xilong; Liu, Yiling; Xie, Lixia; Liu, Xiaodan; Wei, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shihong

2015-01-01

378

Integrated Design for Marketing and Manufacturing team: An examination of LA-ICP-AES in a mobile configuration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified the need for field-deployable elemental analysis devices that are safer, faster, and less expensive than the fixed laboratory procedures now used to screen hazardous waste sites. As a response to this need, the Technology Integration Program (TIP) created a mobile, field-deployable laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES) sampling and analysis prototype. Although the elemental. screening prototype has been successfully field-tested, continued marketing and technical development efforts are required to transfer LA-ICP-AES technology to the commercial sector. TIP established and supported a student research and design group called the Integrated Design for Marketing and Manufacturing (IDMM) team to advance the technology transfer of mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES. The IDMM team developed a conceptual design (which is detailed in this report) for a mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES sampling and analysis system, and reports the following findings: Mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES is commercially viable. Eventual regulatory acceptance of field-deployable LA-ICP-AES, while not a simple process, is likely. Further refinement of certain processes and components of LA-ICP-AES will enhance the device`s sensitivity and accuracy.

Not Available

1994-05-01

379

Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system  

SciTech Connect

The objective for the development of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} radiological characterization system is to achieve a cost effective, low risk means of characterizing gamma radioactivity on the inside surface of pipes. The unique feature of this inspection system is the use of a pneumatically inflated impermeable membrane which transports the detector into the pipe as it inverts. The membrane`s internal air pressure tows the detector and tether through the pipe. This mechanism isolates the detector and its cabling from the contaminated surface, yet allows measurement of radioactive emissions which can readily penetrate the thin plastic membrane material (such as gamma and high energy beta emissions). In Phase 1, an initial survey of DOE facilities was conducted to determine the physical and radiological characteristics of piping systems. The inverting membrane deployment system was designed and extensively tested in the laboratory. A range of membrane materials was tested to evaluate their ruggedness and deployment characteristics. Two different sizes of gamma scintillation detectors were procured and tested with calibrated sources. Radiation transport modeling evaluated the measurement system`s sensitivity to detector position relative to the contaminated surface, the distribution of the contamination, background gamma levels, and gamma source energy levels. In the culmination of Phase 1, a field demonstration was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The project is currently in transition from Phase 1 to Phase 2, where more extensive demonstrations will occur at several sites. Results to date are discussed.

Lowry, W.

1994-12-31

380

Designing an intelligent health monitoring system and exploring user acceptance for the elderly.  

PubMed

Recently, many healthcare or health monitoring systems are proposed to improve life quality of the elderly in the aging process. The elderly are generally with poor health and low information literacy. Low information literacy might be an obstacle of using such systems. This research considered the characteristics and the needs of the elderly and developed an intelligent health monitoring system for the elderly with low information literacy living in the nursing home. The system is intelligent since it can monitor the health status of the elderly based on clinical and medical knowledge, provide an easy-to-understand and easy-to-use user interface for the elderly, and automatically send important or emergency feedback to caregivers. Finally, we explored the user acceptance for the elderly using our proposed system based on the unified theory of acceptance and user of technology model. The experimental results indicate the developed system is highly accepted by the elderly in terms of performance expectation, endeavor expectation, social influence, and facilitating condition. PMID:24037138

Tseng, Kevin C; Hsu, Chien-Lung; Chuang, Yu-Hao

2013-12-01

381

Demonstration of a Particle Impact Monitoring System for Crewed Space Exploration Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When micrometeorite or debris impacts occur on a space habitat, crew members need to be quickly informed of the likely extent of damage, and be directed to the impact location for possible repairs. The goal of the Habitat Particle Impact Monitoring System (HIMS) is to develop a fully automated, end-to-end particle impact detection system for crewed space exploration modules, both in space and on the surfaces of Solar System bodies. The HIMS uses multiple thin film piezo-polymer vibration sensors to detect impacts on a surface, and computer processing of the acoustical signals to characterize the impacts. Development and demonstration of the HIMS is proceeding in concert with NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Project. The HDU Project is designed to develop and test various technologies, configurations, and operational concepts for exploration habitats. This paper describes the HIMS development, initial testing, and HDU integration efforts. Initial tests of the system on the HDU were conducted at NASA?s 2010 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (Desert-RATS). Four sensor locations were assigned near the corners of a rectangular pattern. To study the influence of wall thickness, three sets of four sensors were installed at different layer depths: on the interior of the PEM wall, on the exterior of the same wall, and on the exterior of a layer of foam insulation applied to the exterior wall. Once the system was activated, particle impacts were periodically applied by firing a pneumatic pellet gun at the exterior wall section. Impact signals from the sensors were recognized by a data acquisition system when they occurred, and recorded on a computer for later analysis. Preliminary analysis of the results found that the HIMS system located the point of impact to within 8 cm, provided a measure of the impact energy / damage produced, and was insensitive to other acoustic events. Based on this success, a fully automated version of this system will be completed and demonstrated as part of a crew "Caution/Warning" system at the 2011 Desert-RATS, along with a crew response procedure.

Opiela, J. N.; Liou, J.-C.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Anz-Meador, P.

2011-01-01

382

Preliminary System Analysis of In Situ Resource Utilization for Mars Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We carried out a system analysis of processes for utilization of Mars resources to support human exploration of Mars by production of propellants from indigenous resources. Seven ISRU processes were analyzed to determine mass. power and propellant storage volume requirements. The major elements of each process include C02 acquisition, chemical conversion, and storage of propellants. Based on a figure of merit (the ratio of the mass of propellants that must be brought from Earth in a non-ISRU mission to the mass of the ISRU system. tanks and feedstocks that must be brought from Earth for a ISRU mission) the most attractive process (by far); is one where indigenous Mars water is accessible and this is processed via Sabatier/Electrolysis to methane and oxygen. These processes are technically relatively mature. Other processes with positive leverage involve reverse water gas shift and solid oxide electrolysis.

Rapp, Donald; Andringa, Jason; Easter, Robert; Smith, Jeffrey H .; Wilson, Thomas; Clark, D. Larry; Payne, Kevin

2005-01-01

383

A review of in situ propellant production techniques for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representative studies done in the area of extraterrestrial chemical production as it applies to solar system exploration are presented. A description of the In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) system is presented. Various propellant combinations and direct applications along with the previously mentioned benefits and liens are discussed. A series of mission scenarios is presented which is studied in the greatest detail. A general description of the method(s) of analysis used to study each mission is provided. Each section will be closed by an assessment of the performance advantage, if any, that can be provided by ISPP. A final section briefly summarizes those missions which, as a result of the studies completed thus far, should see a sizable benefit from the use of ISPP.

Hoffman, S. J.

1983-01-01

384

Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project  

E-print Network

We summarise the scientific and technological aspects of the SAGAS (Search for Anomalous Gravitation using Atomic Sensors) project, submitted to ESA in June 2007 in response to the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 call for proposals. The proposed mission aims at flying highly sensitive atomic sensors (optical clock, cold atom accelerometer, optical link) on a Solar System escape trajectory in the 2020 to 2030 time-frame. SAGAS has numerous science objectives in fundamental physics and Solar System science, for example numerous tests of general relativity and the exploration of the Kuiper belt. The combination of highly sensitive atomic sensors and of the laser link well adapted for large distances will allow measurements with unprecedented accuracy and on scales never reached before. We present the proposed mission in some detail, with particular emphasis on the science goals and associated measurements.

P. Wolf; Ch. J. Bord; A. Clairon; L. Duchayne; A. Landragin; P. Lemonde; G. Santarelli; W. Ertmer; E. Rasel; F. S. Cataliotti; M. Inguscio; G. M. Tino; P. Gill; H. Klein; S. Reynaud; C. Salomon; E. Peik; O. Bertolami; P. Gil; J. Pramos; C. Jentsch; U. Johann; A. Rathke; P. Bouyer; L. Cacciapuoti; D. Izzo; P. De Natale; B. Christophe; P. Touboul; S. G. Turyshev; J. D. Anderson; M. E. Tobar; F. Schmidt-Kaler; J. Vigu; A. Madej; L. Marmet; M-C. Angonin; P. Delva; P. Tourrenc; G. Metris; H. Mller; R. Walsworth; Z. H. Lu; L. Wang; K. Bongs; A. Toncelli; M. Tonelli; H. Dittus; C. Lmmerzahl; G. Galzerano; P. Laporta; J. Laskar; A. Fienga; F. Roques; K. Sengstock

2008-08-12

385

Applying Health Management Technology to the NASA Exploration System-of-Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-rated space flight systems are characterized by intense concerns for flight crew safety and for high costs of operations and development. Non-human-rated space flight systems associated with cargo or scientific\\/robotic payloads are only slightly different. They are characterized by concerns for reliability and performance as well as for high costs of operations and development. In the past, across the aerospace

Edward N Brown; Bala Chidambaram; Gordon B Aaseng; Carlos Garcia-Galan

2005-01-01

386

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle s (MPCV s) first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high-priority science experiments. SLS affordability initiatives include streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture that continually benchmarks its performance against successful ventures. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd A.

2012-01-01

387

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Cargo Vehicle s first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high-priority science experiments. SLS affordability initiatives include streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture that continually benchmarks its performance against successful ventures. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd

2012-01-01

388

Geochemical exploration of a promissory Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS): the Acoculco caldera, Mexico.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Acoculco caldera (Puebla, Mexico) has been identified by the Mexican Federal Electricity Company (in Spanish 'Comisin Federal de Electricidad', CFE) as a potential Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) candidate. Two exploration wells were drilled and promising temperatures of ~300 C have been measured at a depth of 2000 m with a geothermal gradient of 11oC/100m, which is three times higher than the baseline gradient measured within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. As usually observed in Hot Dry Rock systems, thermal manifestations in surface are scarce and consist in low-temperature bubbling springs and soil degassing. The goals of this study were to identify the origin of these fluids, to estimate the soil degassing rate and to explore new areas for a future detailed exploration and drilling activities. Water and gas samples were collected for chemical and isotopic analysis (?18O, ?D, 3He/4He, 13C, 15N) and a multi-gas (CO2, CH4, H2S) soil survey was carried out using the accumulation chamber method. Springs' compositions indicate a meteoric origin and the dissolution of CO2 and H2S-rich gases, while gas compositions reveal a MORB-type origin mixed with some arc-type contribution. Gas geothermometry results are similar to temperatures measured during well drilling (260 C-300 C). Amongst all measured CO2 fluxes, only 5% (mean: 5543 g m-2 day-1) show typical geothermal values, while the remaining fluxes are low and correspond to biogenic degassing (mean: 18 g m-2 day-1). The low degassing rate of the geothermal system is a consequence of the intense hydrothermal alteration observed in the upper 800 m of the system which acts as an impermeable caprock. Highest measured CO2 fluxes (above > 600 g m-2 day-1) have corresponding CH4/CO2 flux ratios similar to mass ratios of sampled gases, which suggest an advective fluid transport. To represent field conditions, a numerical model was also applied to simulate the migration of CO2 towards the surface through a shallow aquifer under fully saturated conditions. By changing some of the aquifer properties (i.e., depth, permeability and porosity), it was found how geothermal CO2 fluxes can show values similar to a biogenic background flux. Future field work at Acoculco will include ?13C analysis together with soil flux measurements for a better discrimination of the degassing origin, and a thinner flux measurement grid will be defined for a better detection of any possible gas flux anomaly.

Peiffer, Loic; Romero, Ruben Bernard; Prez-Zarate, Daniel; Guevara, Mirna; Santoyo Gutirrez, Edgar

2014-05-01

389

Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) - its Impact on Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an overview of our "Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems for Mars" ( "BEES for Mars") project. The BEES approach distills selected biologically inspired strategies utilizing motion cues/optic flow, bioinspired pattern recognition, biological visual and neural control systems, bioinspired sensing and communication techniques, and birds of prey inspired search and track algorithmic systems. Unique capabilities so enabled, provide potential solutions to future autonomous robotic space and planetary mission applications. With the first series of tests performed in September 2003, August 2004 and September 2004, we have demonstrated the BEES technologies at the El Mirage Dry Lakebed site in the Mojave Desert using Delta Wing experimental prototypes. We call these test flyers the "BEES flyer", since we are developing them as dedicated test platform for the newly developed bioinspired sensors, processors and algorithmic strategies. The Delta Wing offers a robust airframe that can sustain high G launches and offers ease of compact stowability and packaging along with scaling to small size and low ReynOld's number performance for a potential Mars deployment. Our approach to developing light weight, low power autonomous flight systems using concepts distilled from biology promises to enable new applications, of dual use to NASA and DoD needs. Small in size (0.5 -5 Kg) BEES Flyers are demonstrating capabilities for autonomous flight and sensor operability in Mars analog conditions. The BEES project team spans JPL, NASA Ames, Australian National University (ANU), Brigham Young University(BYU), DC Berkeiey, Analogic Computers Inc. and other institutions. The highlights from our recent flight demonstrations exhibiting new Mission enabling capabilities are described. Further, this paper describes two classes of potential new missions for Mars exploration: (1) the long range exploration missions, and (2) observation missions, for real time imaging of critical ephemeral phenomena, that can be enabled by use of BEES flyers. For example, such flyers can serve as a powerful black-box for critical descent and landing data and enablers for improved science missions complementing and supplementing the existing assets like landers and rovers by providing valuable exploration and quick extended low-altitude aerial coverage of the sites of interest by imaging them and distributing instruments to them. Imaging done by orbiters allows broad surface coverage at limited spatial resolution. Low altitude air-borne exploration of Mars offers a means for imaging large areas, perhaps up to several hundred kilometers, quickly and efficiently, providing a close-up birds-eye view of the planetary terrain and close-up approach to constrained difficult areas like canyons and craters. A novel approach to low-mass yet highly capable flyers is enabled by small aircraft equipped using sensors and processors and algorithms developed using BEES technology. This project is focused towards showing the direct impact of blending the best of artificial intelligence attributes and bioinspiration to create a leap beyond existing capability for our future Missions.

Thakoor, Sarita; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steve

2004-01-01

390

Artist Camille Utterback's interactive installations and reactive sculptures explore the possibilities of linking computational systems to human movement and gesture in layered and playful ways. Her work  

E-print Network

the possibilities of linking computational systems to human movement and gesture in layered and playful ways. Her explores the aesthetic and experiential possibilities of linking computational systems to human movementArtist Camille Utterback's interactive installations and reactive sculptures explore

Gilchrist, James F.

391

a Carbon Dioxide Collection and Pressure Generation Breadboard System for Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of development programs for future European Space Agency (ESA) missions aimed at Mars exploration, a breadboard propulsion system has been developed at Commissariat l'Energie Atomique (CEA-INAC/SBT). The objective is to design a system that can produce a thrust sufficient to move the whole device on the planet surface. In order to reduce the cost and the mass launched, the system uses the particular properties of the planet atmosphere which contains 98% of carbon dioxide (CO2). First the CO2 atmospheric gas is collected in a very high density storage tank using a cryopumping process (condensation of gas at around 140 K). Then an applied heat load allows generation of a continuous high pressure and high flow rate CO2 discharge, which will be used to feed the future nozzles of the system. The present system is designed to study the cryopumping process in a 0.6 liter collection tank and the discharge through an exhaust line. The design principles are presented, and the breadboard is described. Some preliminary results are then presented and discussed. As an example, the presented design allows the collection of 220 g of solid CO2 during a one shot 3 hr cryopumping process. This amount has been increased to 440 g by performing several thermal cycles. The discharge is achieved with 10 g/s maximum flow rate at 5 MPa maximum.

Gully, Ph.; Ercolani, E.; Guillemet, L.; Sirbi, A.; Linder, M.

2010-04-01

392

An Assessment of Dust Effects on Planetary Surface Systems to Support Exploration Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo astronauts learned first hand how problems with dust impact lunar surface missions. After three days, lunar dust contamination on EVA suit bearings led to such great difficulty in movement that another EVA would not have been possible. Dust clinging to EVA suits was transported into the Lunar Module. During the return trip to Earth, when micro gravity was reestablished, the dust became airborne and floated through the cabin. Crews inhaled the dust and it irritated their eyes. Some mechanical systems aboard the spacecraft were damaged due to dust contamination. Study results obtained by Robotic Martian missions indicate that Martian surface soil is oxidative and reactive. Exposures to the reactive Martian dust will pose an even greater concern to the crew health and the integrity of the mechanical systems. As NASA embarks on planetary surface missions to support its Exploration Vision, the effects of these extraterrestrial dusts must be well understood and systems must be designed to operate reliably and protect the crew in the dusty environments of the Moon and Mars. The AIM Dust Assessment Team was tasked to identify systems that will be affected by the respective dust, how they will be affected, associated risks of dust exposure, requirements that will need to be developed, identified knowledge gaps, and recommended scientific measurements to obtain information needed to develop requirements, and design and manufacture the surface systems that will support crew habitation in the lunar and Martian outposts.

Wagner, Sandy

2004-01-01

393

The Hardware Challenges for the Mars Exploration Rover Heat Rejection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) 2003 Project focused on the search for evidence of water on Mars. The launch of two identical flight systems occurred in June and July of 2003. The roving science vehicles are expected to land on the Martian surface in early and late January of 2004, respectively. The flight system design inherited many successfully features and approaches from the Mars Pathfinder Mission. This included the use of a mechanically-pumped fluid loop, known as the Heat Rejection System (HRS), to transport heat from the Rover to radiators on the Cruise Stage during the quiescent trek to Mars. While the heritage of the HRS was evident, application of this system for MER presented unique and difficult challenges with respect to hardware implementation. We will discuss these hardware challenges in each HRS hardware element: the integrated pump assembly, cruise stage HRS, lander HRS, and Rover HRS. These challenges span the entire development cycle including fabrication, assembly, and test. We will conclude by citing the usefulness of this system during launch operations, where in particular, the flight hardware inside the Rover was thermally conditioned by the HRS since there was no other effective means of maintaining its temperature.

Tsuyuki, Glenn; Ganapathi, Gani; Bame, David; Patzold, Jack; Fisher, Richard; Theriault, Laurent

2004-02-01

394

An exploration framework to identify and track movement of cloud systems.  

PubMed

We describe a framework to explore and visualize the movement of cloud systems. Using techniques from computational topology and computer vision, our framework allows the user to study this movement at various scales in space and time. Such movements could have large temporal and spatial scales such as the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), which has a spatial scale ranging from 1000 km to 10000 km and time of oscillation of around 40 days. Embedded within these larger scale oscillations are a hierarchy of cloud clusters which could have smaller spatial and temporal scales such as the Nakazawa cloud clusters. These smaller cloud clusters, while being part of the equatorial MJO, sometimes move at speeds different from the larger scale and in a direction opposite to that of the MJO envelope. Hitherto, one could only speculate about such movements by selectively analysing data and a priori knowledge of such systems. Our framework automatically delineates such cloud clusters and does not depend on the prior experience of the user to define cloud clusters. Analysis using our framework also shows that most tropical systems such as cyclones also contain multi-scale interactions between clouds and cloud systems. We show the effectiveness of our framework to track organized cloud system during one such rainfall event which happened at Mumbai, India in July 2005 and for cyclone Aila which occurred in Bay of Bengal during May 2009. PMID:24051857

Doraiswamy, Harish; Natarajan, Vijay; Nanjundiah, Ravi S

2013-12-01

395

Approaches to the development of biomedical support systems for piloted exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many aspects of the biomedical systems developed and realized aboard orbital stations, the International space station in the first place, deserve to be regarded as predecessors of the systems for health monitoring and maintenance of future exploration crews. At the same time, there are issues and tasks which have not been yet fully resolved. Specifically, these are prevention of the adverse changes in body systems and organs due to microgravity, reliable protection from the spectrum of space radiation, and elucidation of possible effects of hypomagnetic environment. We should not walk away from search and development of key biomedical technologies such as a system of automated fitness evaluation and a psychodiagnostic complex for testing and optimization of operator?s efficiency, and others. We have to address a large number of issues related to designing the composite life support systems of the utmost autonomy, closure and ecological safety of the human environment that will provide transformation of all kinds of waste. Another crucial task is to define a concept of the onboard medical center and dataware including the telemedicine technology. All the above developments should assimilate the most recent achievements in physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and advanced medical technologies. Biomedical researches on biosatellites also do not lose topicality.

Grigoriev, A. I.; Potapov, A. N.

2014-01-01

396

Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. In addition, recently released NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities, by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reductions in spacecraft structural mass more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems more efficient lighter propulsion systems and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location(s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the site of interest. The entry environment is not always guaranteed with a direct entry, and improving the entry systems robustness to a variety of environmental conditions could aid in reaching more varied landing sites. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: 1) Mass to Surface, 2) Surface Access, 3) Precision Landing, 4) Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, 5) Safety and Mission Assurance, and 6) Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems is manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (3/8 cell) by hand and within a limited amount of time once the ablative compound is mixed, all of the cells have to be filled and the entire heat-shield has to be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the mechanical strength characteristic and the manufacturing limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS> A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials.

Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpole, M.; Wercinski, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Fan, W.; Thornton, J; Szalai, C.

2012-01-01

397

NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of NASA's Space Launch System exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated for December 2017. In recognition of the current fiscal realities, SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. Current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. It is this version that will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. This configuration is also designed to evolve to 130 t lift capability that offers several benefits, such as reduced mission costs, simplified payload design, faster trip times, and lower overall risk for missions of national significance. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation during the past year, passing its Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and completion of Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Among the Program's many accomplishments are manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and the main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a launch vehicle that will carry human and robotic exploration on the history-making missions in the coming decades. This paper will discuss the program and technical successes over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Askins, Bruce

2014-01-01

398

Parametric Analysis of Life Support Systems for Future Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path program.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.

2011-01-01

399

Exploration of Natural Biomass Utilization Systems (NBUS) for advanced biofuel--from systems biology to synthetic design.  

PubMed

Efficient degradation and utilization of lignocellulosic biomass remains a challenge for sustainable and affordable biofuels. Various natural biomass utilization systems (NBUS) evolved the capacity to combat the recalcitrance of plant cell walls. The study of these NBUS could enable the development of efficient and cost-effective biocatalysts, microorganisms, and bioprocesses for biofuels and bioproducts. Here, we reviewed the recent research progresses for several NBUS, ranging from single cell microorganisms to consortiums such as cattle rumen and insect guts. These studies aided the discovery of biomass-degrading enzymes and the elucidation of the evolutionary and functional relevance in these systems. In particular, advances in the next generation 'omics' technologies offered new opportunities to explore NBUS in a high-throughput manner. Systems biology helped to facilitate the rapid biocatalyst discovery and detailed mechanism analysis, which could in turn guide the reverse design of engineered microorganisms and bioprocesses for cost-effective and efficient biomass conversion. PMID:24657913

Xie, Shangxian; Syrenne, Ryan; Sun, Su; Yuan, Joshua S

2014-06-01

400

A Robotics Systems Design Need: A Design Standard to Provide the Systems Focus that is Required for Longterm Exploration Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States is entering a new period of human exploration of the inner Solar System, and robotic human helpers will be partners in that effort. In order to support integration of these new worker robots into existing and new human systems, a new design standard should be developed, to be called the Robot-Systems Integration Standard (RSIS). It will address the requirements for and constraints upon robotic collaborators with humans. These workers are subject to the same functional constraints as humans of work, reach, and visibility/situational awareness envelopes, and they will deal with the same maintenance and communication interfaces. Thus, the RSIS will be created by discipline experts with the same sort of perspective on these and other interface concerns as human engineers.

Dischinger, H. Charles., Jr.; Mullins, Jeffrey B.

2005-01-01

401

Solar System Exploration Division Strategic Plan, volume 1. Executive summary and overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This first document is the first of a six-volume series presenting the Solar System Exploration Division's Strategic Plan for the 10-year period FY 1994 to FY 2003. The overall strategy is characterized by five fundamental precepts: (1) execute the current program; (2) improve the vitality of the program and the planetary science community; (3) initiate innovative, small, low-cost planetary missions; (4) initiate new major and moderate missions; and (5) prepare for the next generation of missions. This Strategic Plan describes in detail our proposed approach to accomplish these goals. Volume 1 provides first an Executive Summary of highlights of each of the six volumes, and then goes on to present an overview of the plan, including a discussion of the planning context and strategic approach. Volumes 2, 3, 4, and 5 describe in detail the initiatives proposed. An integral part of each of these volumes is a set of responses to the mission selection criteria questions developed by the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. Volume 2, Mission From Planet Earth, describes a strategy for exploring the Moon and Mars and sets forth proposed moderate missions--Lunar Observer and a Mars lander network. Volume 3, Pluto Flyby/Neptune Orbiter, discusses our proposed major new start candidate for the FY 1994 to FY 1998 time frame. Volume 4, Discovery, describes the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, as well as other candidates for this program of low-cost planetary missions. Volume 5, Toward Other Planetary Systems, describes a major research and analysis augmentation that focuses on extrasolar planet detection and the study of planetary system processes. Finally, Volume 6 summarizes the technology program that the division has structured around these four initiatives.

1991-01-01

402

A water system model for exploring electric energy alternatives in southeastern US basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power generation often involves the use of water for power plant cooling and steam generation, which typically involves the release of cooling water to nearby rivers and lakes. The resulting thermal pollution may negatively impact the ecosystems of these water bodies. Water resource systems models enable the examination of the implications of alternative electric generation on regional water resources. This letter documents the development, calibration, and validation of a climate-driven water resource systems model of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint, the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa, and the Tombigbee River basins in the states of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, in the southeastern US. The model represents different water users, including power plants, agricultural water users, and municipal users. The model takes into account local population, per-capita use estimates, and changes in population growth. The water resources planning model was calibrated and validated against the observed, managed flows through the river systems of the three basins. Flow calibration was performed on land cover, water capacity, and hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons; river water temperature calibration was performed on channel width and slope properties. Goodness-of-fit statistics indicate that under 1980-2010 levels of water use, the model robustly represents major features of monthly average streamflow and water temperatures. The application of this integrated electricity generation-water resources planning model can be used to explore alternative electric generation and water implications. The implementation of this model is explored in the companion paper of this focus issue (Yates et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 035042).

Flores-Lpez, F.; Yates, D.

2013-09-01

403

Case-History Explorations of Scientifically Significant Earth-System Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing case histories of recent and ancient natural disasters to provide students a means of learning fundamental earth system science and applying their new understanding to mitigating disasters in the future. We distinguish case histories from case studies in that they investigate real problems that are likely to recur, as opposed to hypothetical but realistic problem scenarios. Students explore the scientific and societal conditions that caused or fueled a disaster; investigate whether the outcome might have been different under different conditions; explore how the disaster has shaped our scientific and societal understanding of such events; and propose appropriate responses and preparation measures for future events. Each case history allows for multiple directions of investigation by individuals or teams. The case histories incorporate actual datasets used by scientists to analyze the event, in addition to analysis tools such as GIS, Excel, and Google Earth. These classroom resources are appropriate for undergraduate earth system majors from first year to third year. We have completed and are field testing case histories for the 1994 M6.7 Northridge earthquake and the Super Tornado Outbreak of 1974, as well as other notable tornado outbreaks. Additionally, we are developing case histories for the 1700 Cascadia mega-tsunami and the 2005 Hurricane Katrina. Research studies of each of these events have resulted in significant changes to our understanding of the earth processes that caused them, and have spawned renewed interest in hazard mitigation. Each case history also incorporates the human element, presented from both a scientific and eyewitness perspective. Field testing includes evaluation of scientific accuracy, usability and pedagogical effectiveness, as described in the DLESE peer-review-system criteria (www.dlese-project.org/review_criteria.html) by field testers and external technical experts.

Hall, M. K.; Walker, C. S.; Mayhew, M. A.

2007-12-01

404

Environmental Controls and Life Support System (ECLSS) Design for a Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV). The purpose of the MMSEV is to extend the human exploration envelope for Lunar, Near Earth Object (NEO), or Deep Space missions by using pressurized exploration vehicles. The MMSEV, formerly known as the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV), employs ground prototype hardware for various systems and tests it in manned and unmanned configurations. Eventually, the system hardware will evolve and become part of a flight vehicle capable of supporting different design reference missions. This paper will discuss the latest MMSEV ECLSS architectures developed for a variety of design reference missions, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, lessons learned from testing prototype hardware, and the plan to advance the ECLSS toward a flight design.

Stambaugh, Imelda; Baccus, Shelley; Naids, Adam; Hanford, Anthony

2012-01-01

405

IAblative Thermal Protection SystemsRobotic Systems for Human Exploration 2010 Phase II  

E-print Network

Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) Fiber Materials, Inc. Technical Abstract FMI has developed graded. The ablative outer layer and thermal inner layer will be integrated in a continuously cast, monolithic material will be converted to GPP and then characterized mechanically, thermally, and tested for ablation performance

406

Regulation of AE1 anion exchanger and H+ATPase in rat cortex by acute metabolic acidosis and alkalosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of AE1 anion exchanger and H+-ATPase in rat cortex by acute metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. The cortical collecting duct (CCD) mediates net secretion or reabsorption of protons according to systemic acid\\/base status. Using indirect immunofluorescence, we examined the localization and abundance of the vacuolar H+-ATPase and the AE1 anion exchanger in intercalated cells (IC) of rat kidney connecting segment

Ivan Saboli?; Dennis Brown; Stephen L Gluck; Seth L Alper

1997-01-01

407

Estimation of thermal cracking stress during spraying of thermal barrier coatings by laser AE method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) system is deposited by plasma spray method usually contain a number of cracks. These cracks can be classified into vertical and horizontal cracks and certainly affect the performance of TBCs. A monitoring method to detect the crack generation and propagation during plasma spraying is significantly required. In this study, a laser AE technique which enables in-situ and non-contact monitoring during spring process was developed to study the cracking phenomena in TBC. A new scanning pattern of the plasma torch was successfully applied to introduce only vertical cracks into the top coat. More number of AE events could be obtained by applying an improved noise filtering and multiple-threshold event detection procedures. A temperature history during spraying was also measured and used for thermal stress simulation by FEM analyses. A relationship between cracking and thermal stress in the top coat was established based on the results of AE monitoring and FEM simulation.

Ito, Kaita; Kuriki, Hitoshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Enoki, Manabu

2014-02-01

408

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making measurable progress toward delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration. To arrive at the current plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and selected the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. Slated for its maiden voyage in 2017, the SLS will provide a platform for further cooperation in space based on the International Space Station model. This briefing will focus on specific progress that has been made by the SLS team in its first year, as well as provide a framework for evolving the vehicle for far-reaching missions to destinations such as near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. As this briefing will show, the SLS will serve as an infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

409

Environmental Control and Life Support System Reliability for Long-Duration Missions Beyond Lower Earth Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has highlighted reliability as critical to future human space exploration, particularly in the area of environmental controls and life support systems. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects have been encouraged to pursue higher reliability components and systems as part of technology development plans. However, no consensus has been reached on what is meant by improving on reliability, or on how to assess reliability within the AES projects. This became apparent when trying to assess reliability as one of several figures of merit for a regenerable water architecture trade study. In the spring of 2013, the AES Water Recovery Project hosted a series of events at Johnson Space Center with the intended goal of establishing a common language and understanding of NASA's reliability goals, and equipping the projects with acceptable means of assessing the respective systems. This campaign included an educational series in which experts from across the agency and academia provided information on terminology, tools, and techniques associated with evaluating and designing for system reliability. The campaign culminated in a workshop that included members of the Environmental Control and Life Support System and AES communities. The goal of this workshop was to develop a consensus on what reliability means to AES and identify methods for assessing low- to mid-technology readiness level technologies for reliability. This paper details the results of that workshop.

Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Nelson, Jason R.

2014-01-01

410

The PEGASUS Drive: A nuclear electric propulsion system for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of using electric propulsion for propulsion are well-known in the aerospace community. The high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass make it a very attractive propulsion option for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), especially for the transport of cargo. One such propulsion system is the PEGASUS Drive (Coomes et al. 1987). In its original configuration, the PEGASUS Drive consisted of a 10-MWe power source coupled to a 6-MW magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster system. The PEGASUS Drive propelled a manned vehicle to Mars and back in 601 days. By removing the crew and their associated support systems from the spacecraft and by incorporating technology advances in reactor design and heat rejection systems, a second generation PEGASUS Drive can be developed with an alpha less than two. Utilizing this propulsion system, a 400-MT cargo vehicle, assembled and loaded in low Earth orbit (LEO), could deliver 262 MT of supplies and hardware to Mars 282 days after escaping Earth orbit. Upon arrival at Mars the transport vehicle would place its cargo in the desired parking orbit around Mars and then proceed to synchronous orbit above the desired landing sight. Using a laser transmitter, PEGASUS would provide 2-MWe on the surface to operate automated systems deployed earlier and then provide surface power to support crew activities after their arrival. The additional supplies and hardware, coupled with the availability of megawatt levels of electric power on the Mars surface, would greatly enhance and even expand the mission options being considered under SEI. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.

1990-10-01

411

Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable Systems: Technology for Sustainable, Reliable, Effective, and Affordable Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to execute the Vision for Space Exploration, we must find ways to reduce cost, system complexity, design, build, and test times, and at the same time increase flexibility to satisfy multiple functions. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable System (MARS) technologies promise to set the stage for the delivery of system elements that form the building blocks of increasingly ambitious missions involving humans and robots. Today, space systems are largely specialized and built on a case-by-case basis. The notion of modularity however, is nothing new to NASA. The 1970's saw the development of the Multi-Mission Modular spacecraft (MMS). From 1980 to 1992 at least six satellites were built under this paradigm, and included such Goddard Space Flight Center missions as SSM, EUVE, UARS, and Landsat 4 and 5. Earlier versions consisted of standard subsystem "module" or "box" components that could be replaced within a structure based on predefined form factors. Although the primary motivation for MMS was faster/cheaper integration and test, standardization of interfaces, and ease of incorporating new subsystem technology, it lacked the technology maturity and programmatic "upgrade infrastructure" needed to satisfy varied mission requirements, and ultimately it lacked user buy-in. Consequently, it never evolved and was phased out. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) with its regularly updated catalogue of prequalified busses became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years since MMS inception, technology has advanced considerably and now modularity can be extended beyond the traditional MMS module or box to cover levels of integration, from the chip, card, box, subsystem, to the space system and to the system-of-systems. This paper will present the MARS architecture, cast within the historical context of MMS. Its application will be highlighted by comparing a state-of-the-art point design vs. a MARS-enabled lunar mission, as a representative robotic case design.

Esper, Jaime

2004-01-01

412

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions. Technical directive 12: Beamed power systems study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric models were constructed for Earth-based laser powered electric orbit transfer from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. These models were used to carry out performance, cost/benefit, and sensitivity analyses of laser-powered transfer systems including end-to-end life cycle cost analyses for complete systems. Comparisons with conventional orbit transfer systems were made indicating large potential cost savings for laser-powered transfer. Approximate optimization was done to determine best parameter values for the systems. Orbit transfer flights simulations were conducted to explore effects of parameters not practical to model with a spreadsheet. The simulations considered view factors that determine when power can be transferred from ground stations to an orbit transfer vehicle and conducted sensitivity analyses for numbers of ground stations, Isp including dual-Isp transfers, and plane change profiles. Optimal steering laws were used for simultaneous altitude and plane change. Viewing geometry and low-thrust orbit raising were simultaneously simulated. A very preliminary investigation of relay mirrors was made.

Eder, D.

1992-01-01

413

Development of HTS-SQUID magnetometer system with high slew rate for exploration of mineral resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the transient electromagnetic (TEM) method using a high-temperature superconducting interference device (HTS-SQUID), we have developed a magnetometer system with a wide dynamic range, a high slew rate, and superior transportability. To achieve high tolerance to a higher excitation magnetic