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1

ME/AE 381 Mechanical and Aerospace Control Systems TWO FLYWHEEL SYSTEM LABORATORY  

E-print Network

ME/AE 381 ­ Mechanical and Aerospace Control Systems TWO FLYWHEEL SYSTEM LABORATORY The objective of this laboratory is to design controllers that will regulate the angular position of a two­flywheel system (see, plot the state estimates on the same graph as the respective states. #12;Two Flywheel System Laboratory

Landers, Robert G.

2

Optimal exploration systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation studies optimal exploration, defined as the collection of information about given objects of interest by a mobile agent (the explorer) using imperfect sensors. The key aspects of exploration are kinematics (which determine how the explorer moves in response to steering commands), energetics (which determine how much energy is consumed by motion and maneuvers), informatics (which determine the rate at which information is collected) and estimation (which determines the states of the objects). These aspects are coupled by the steering decisions of the explorer. We seek to improve exploration by finding trade-offs amongst these couplings and the components of exploration: the Mission, the Path and the Agent. A comprehensive model of exploration is presented that, on one hand, accounts for these couplings and on the other hand is simple enough to allow analysis. This model is utilized to pose and solve several exploration problems where an objective function is to be minimized. Specific functions to be considered are the mission duration and the total energy. These exploration problems are formulated as optimal control problems and necessary conditions for optimality are obtained in the form of two-point boundary value problems. An analysis of these problems reveals characteristics of optimal exploration paths. Several regimes are identified for the optimal paths including the Watchtower, Solar and Drag regime, and several non-dimensional parameters are derived that determine the appropriate regime of travel. The so-called Power Ratio is shown to predict the qualitative features of the optimal paths, provide a metric to evaluate an aircrafts design and determine an aircrafts capability for flying perpetually. Optimal exploration system drivers are identified that provide perspective as to the importance of these various regimes of flight. A bank-to-turn solar-powered aircraft flying at constant altitude on Mars is used as a specific platform for analysis using the coupled model. Flight-paths found with this platform are presented that display the optimal exploration problem characteristics. These characteristics are used to form heuristics, such as a Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem solver, to simplify the exploration problem. These heuristics are used to empirically show the successful completion of an exploration mission by a physical explorer.

Klesh, Andrew T.

3

Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

1989-01-01

4

Data mining based full ceramic bearing fault diagnostic system using AE sensors.  

PubMed

Full ceramic bearings are considered the first step toward full ceramic, oil-free engines in the future. No research on full ceramic bearing fault diagnostics using acoustic emission (AE) sensors has been reported. Unlike their steel counterparts, signal processing methods to extract effective AE fault characteristic features and fault diagnostic systems for full ceramic bearings have not been developed. In this paper, a data mining based full ceramic bearing diagnostic system using AE based condition indicators (CIs) is presented. The system utilizes a new signal processing method based on Hilbert Huang transform to extract AE fault features for the computation of CIs. These CIs are used to build a data mining based fault classifier using a k-nearest neighbor algorithm. Seeded fault tests on full ceramic bearing outer race, inner race, balls, and cage are conducted on a bearing diagnostic test rig and AE burst data are collected. The effectiveness of the developed fault diagnostic system is validated using real full ceramic bearing seeded fault test data. PMID:21990335

He, David; Li, Ruoyu; Zhu, Junda; Zade, Mikhail

2011-12-01

5

Seismic exploration system improvement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a seismic exploration system having geophone locations along a survey line with at least one geophone connected to separate circuits connected to corresponding terminals of a roll-along common depth point switch. A means is described for identifying a specific one of the geophone locations as the switch changes connections, comprising means for superimposing a signal outside the useful range of seismic energy signals generated by the geophones on the one of the separate circuits connected to the specific geophone location whereby the location may be identified on the changed connection side of the switch.

Bearden, J.M.

1987-01-06

6

Exploration Medical System Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. f. Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management. g. Provide a better standard of healthcare for crew members through reductions in the time required by crew and ground personnel to provide medical treatment and the number of crew errors experienced during treatment.

Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

2014-01-01

7

Optimal exploration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation studies optimal exploration, defined as the collection of information about given objects of interest by a mobile agent (the explorer) using imperfect sensors. The key aspects of exploration are kinematics (which determine how the explorer moves in response to steering commands), energetics (which determine how much energy is consumed by motion and maneuvers), informatics (which determine the rate

Andrew T. Klesh

2009-01-01

8

Automated Estimating System (AES), Standard Value Update Program, user`s manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual contains instructions for operating the Standard Value Update Program. This program is operated and controlled by selected individuals in the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. It is used to control and standardized input into the Automated Estimating System (AES) Estimating program, a person computer-based software package designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates. The AES Estimating program is documented in a separate user`s manual.

Schwartz, R.K. [ed.; Holder, D.A.

1994-08-01

9

Atmosphere Explorer orbit adjust propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atmosphere Explorer-C (AE-C) spacecraft was launched into a highly elliptical orbit by a two-stage Delta 1900 vehicle on December 15, 1973. Its mission is to observe and study phenomena in the earth's atmosphere at altitudes between 150 and 4000 kilometers with several excursions down to 130 kilometers. An Orbit Adjust Propulsion System (OAPS) is included on the spacecraft in order (1) to perform low perigee maneuvers at 130 to 150 kilometers; (2) to periodically restore apogee in order to offset the effect of aerodynamic drag at perigee; and (3) to provide the capability for occasional large attitude maneuvers. This paper describes the configuration of the OAPS and the design characteristics of its individual components. Special emphasis is placed on the valving arrangement, which provides a means of adjusting the center-of-mass of the spacecraft through control of the distribution and usage of the propellant within the system.

Woodruff, W. L.; Cooley, J. L.; Stewart, B.; Morningstar, R. E.

1974-01-01

10

Exploration Systems Town Hall Meeting  

NASA Video Gallery

Doug Cooke, Associate Administrator for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, discusses the future during a question and answer session with employees at NASA Headquarters on April 19, 2010.

11

NASA: Solar System Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website offers a wide variety of space science-related activities, multimedia, and facts for people of all ages. The website presents the latest news and upcoming space science events. Students and educators can explore NASA's space missions by target, letter, year, and program. Individuals can learn about the history and future of robotic exploration of space through a pictorial timeline. In the Science and Technology link, visitors can find the latest science and technology features, NASA science highlights, science goals, and information on NASA scientists. Kids will enjoy the Roadtrip to Mars interactive module and interesting facts about the planets. Teachers can easily locate activities about the science behind the latest NASA headlines through the Fast Lesson Finder. Everyone can view the images and videos of the planets, spacecraft, technology, and additional subjects.

12

Exploration of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

1974-01-01

13

Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the carbon dioxide (CO2) removal hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program. A companion paper discusses development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations for this project.

Knox, James C.; Trinh, Diep; Gostowski, Rudy; King, Eric; Mattox, Emily M.; Watson, David; Thomas, John

2012-01-01

14

Exobiology in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

Carle, Glenn C. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor); Huntington, Judith L. (editor)

1992-01-01

15

Fission Systems for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, T.; Dorney, D. J.; Swint, Marion Shayne

2012-01-01

16

Cluster Chemistry in Electron-Poor Ae-Pt-Cd Systems (Ae=Ca, Sr, Ba): (Sr,Ba)Pt2Cd4, Ca6Pt8Cd16, and Its Known Antitype Er6Pd16Sb8  

SciTech Connect

Three new ternary polar intermetallic compounds, cubic Ca6Pt8Cd16, and tetragonal (Sr, Ba)Pt2Cd4 have been discovered during explorations of the AePtCd systems. Cubic Ca6Pt8Cd16 (Fm-3m, Z = 4, a = 13.513(1) ) contains a 3D array of separate Cd8 tetrahedral stars (TS) that are both face capped along the axes and diagonally bridged by Pt atoms to generate the 3D anionic network Cd8[Pt(1)]6/2[Pt(2)]4/8. The complementary cationic surface of the cell consists of a face-centered cube of Pt(3)@Ca6 octahedra. This structure is an ordered ternary variant of Sc11Ir4 (Sc6Ir8Sc16), a stuffed version of the close relative Na6Au7Cd16, and a network inverse of the recent Er6Sb8Pd16 (compare Ca6Pt8Cd16). The three groups of elements each occur in only one structural version. The new AePt2Cd4, Ae = Sr, Ba, are tetragonal (P42/mnm,Z = 2, a ? 8.30 , c ? 4.47 ) and contain chains of edge-sharing Cd4 tetrahedra along c that are bridged by four-bonded Ba/Sr. LMTO-ASA and ICOHP calculation results and comparisons show that the major bonding (Hamilton) populations in Ca6Pt8Cd16 and Er6Sb8Pd16 come from polar PtCd and PdSb interactions, that Pt exhibits larger relativistic contributions than Pd, that characteristic size and orbital differences are most evident for Sb 5s, Pt8, and Pd16, and that some terms remain incomparable, CaCd versus ErPd.

Samal, Saroj L. [Ames Laboratory; Gulo, Fakhili [Ames Laboratory; Corbett, John D. [Ames Laboratory

2013-02-18

17

MET3-AE system to support management of pediatric asthma exacerbation in the emergency department.  

PubMed

A decision making process behind the management of pediatric patients with asthma exacerbations in the Emergency Department includes three stages: data collection, diagnosis formulation and treatment planning. These stages are associated with activities involving different types of clinical knowledge: factual, conceptual and procedural. Effective decision support should span over the entire decision making process and facilitate the use of diversified clinical knowledge. In this paper we present MET3-AE - a point of care decision support system that satisfies this requirement. The system helps emergency physician collect data, evaluate exacerbation severity, plan corresponding treatment and retrieve clinical evidence associated with a given treatment plan. It was developed using ontology-driven and multi-agent methodologies and implemented with open source software. The system is accessible on tablet and desktop computers and smartphones, and it interacts with other hospital information systems. It was successfully verified in a simulated clinical setting and now it is undergoing testing in a teaching hospital. PMID:20841804

Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Farion, Ken; Sayyad Shirabad, Jelber

2010-01-01

18

AE 941.  

PubMed

AE 941 [Arthrovas, Neoretna, Psovascar] is shark cartilage extract that inhibits angiogenesis. AE 941 acts by blocking the two main pathways that contribute to the process of angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteases and the vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathway. When initial development of AE 941 was being conducted, AEterna assigned the various indications different trademarks. Neovastat was used for oncology, Psovascar was used for dermatology, Neoretna was used for ophthalmology and Arthrovas was used for rheumatology. However, it is unclear if these trademarks will be used in the future and AEterna appears to only be using the Neovastat trademark in its current publications regardless of the indication. AEterna Laboratories signed commercialisation agreements with Grupo Ferrer Internacional SA of Spain and Medac GmbH of Germany in February 2001. Under the terms of the agreement, AEterna has granted exclusive commercialisation and distribution rights to AE 941 in oncology to Grupo Ferrer Internacional for the Southern European countries of France, Belgium, Spain, Greece, Portugal and Italy. It also has rights in Central and South America. Medac GmbH will have marketing rights in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, Switzerland, Austria, Ireland, the Netherlands and Eastern Europe. In October 2002, AEterna Laboratories announced that it had signed an agreement with Australian healthcare products and services company Mayne Group for marketing AE 941 (as Neovastat) in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Mexico. In March 2003, AEterna Laboratories announced it has signed an agreement with Korean based LG Life Sciences Ltd for marketing AE 941 (as Neovastat) in South Korea. The agreement provides AEterna with upfront and milestone payments, as well as a return on manufacturing and sales of AE 941. AEterna Laboratories had granted Alcon Laboratories an exclusive worldwide licence for AE 941 for ophthalmic products. However, this licence has been terminated. In 1999, AEterna secured funding for AE 941, part of which is from Technology Partnerships Canada (TPC), a research support programme run by Canada's federal government. Industry Canada will contribute $Can 1 for every $Can3 spent by AEterna on the development of AE 941, up to a total figure of $Can29.4 million. AEterna will reimburse TPC upon commercialisation of AE 941-derived products as a royalty on income generated. In January 2004 AEterna announced that development of AE 941 would be focusing on non-small cell lung cancer and that development for renal cell carcinoma would be discontinued. AEterna had previously announced in January 2003, following its acquisition of Zentaris, that development of AE 941 would be "strictly focused" on renal and non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting that development for all other indications has been discontinued, at least for the foreseeable future. PMID:15293867

2004-01-01

19

Magnetic, Chemical and Rotational Properties of the Herbig Ae/Be Binary System HD 72106  

E-print Network

Recently, strong, globally-ordered magnetic fields have been detected in some Herbig Ae and Be (HAeBe) stars, suggesting a possible evolutionary connection to main sequence magnetic chemically peculiar Ap and Bp stars. We have undertaken a detailed study of the binary system HD 72106, which contains a B9 magnetic primary and a HAeBe secondary, using the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter mounted on the CFHT. A careful analysis of the very young primary reveals that it has an approximately dipolar magnetic field geometry, strong chemical peculiarities, and strong surface chemical abundance inhomogeneities. Thus the primary is very similar to an Ap/Bp star despite having completed less then 1.5% of its main sequence life, and possibly still being on the pre-main sequence. In contrast, a similar analysis of the secondary reveals solar chemical abundances and no magnetic field.

C. P. Folsom; G. A. Wade; O. Kochukhov; E. Alecian; C. Catala; S. Bagnulo; J. D. Landstreet; D. A. Hanes

2007-12-05

20

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. Demonstrate prototype systems in ground test beds of NEAs, instrument development, and research and analysis 4 #12;AES Risk Reduction Timeline System

Waliser, Duane E.

21

Solar System exploration and SORA .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long Duration Balloons are usually considered a reasonably cheap and easy access to space. In this paper the interest of the Italian Space Agency, and in particular of the Observation of the Universe (OSU) unit, for the applications of LDB in Solar System explorations is highlighted. The direct use in planetary atmosphere of aerial robots (aerobots) is described and their use for surface and subsurface observation together with light landers and/or rovers release on extended areas. Furthermore, the recent studies for Mars, Venus and Titan planetary balloons are briefly described and the proposed TANDEM mission to Titan is emphasized. A secondary application field is the comparative planetology, and experiments in this area are currently included in Italian programs; after the successful HASI campaign, in the near future the SORA experiment will be performed and it could pave the way to an intensive balloons use for the flight of scientific space payloads.

Flamini, E.; Pirrotta, S.

22

Solar System Exploration @ 50 Opportunity: Eagle Crater  

E-print Network

"Blueberries" MER 1October 25, 2012 MER CREDIT: NASA / JPL #12;Solar System Exploration @ 50 Opportunity Patterned Ground Solar System Exploration @ 50 3October 25, 2012 Credit: NASA / JPL / University of Arizona MRO CREDIT: U. Arizona / JPL / NASA #12;Solar System Exploration @ 50 Gale Crater and Mount Sharp

23

Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including \\

Walt Truszkowski; James L. Rash; Christopher Rouff; Michael G. Hinchey

2004-01-01

24

The use of hydrocarbon systems in exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the hydrocarbon system is finding increasing utility at Exxon. We have applied the concept as a geological unit for developing exploration strategy, for use in forecasting technologies and skills, and as an approach to exploration that fosters more thorough and creative exploration. This talk will summarize how we have defined a hydrocarbon system at Exxon and give

R. S. Bishop; P. D. Snavely

1995-01-01

25

Exploring the Inner Solar System  

NASA Video Gallery

Chief Scientist of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Dr. Jim Garvin, takes us on a journey of Earth, the moon, and our neighboring planets. Why does space matter? Why is exploring these destinati...

26

Comparative Analysis of Continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) Data, Acquired from 12 and 16 Bit Streaming Systems during Rock Deformation Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative analysis of continuous acoustic emission (AE) data acquired during a triaxial compression test, using a 12-bit and a 16-bit acquisition system, is presented. A cylindrical sample (diameter 50.1 mm and length 125 mm) of Berea sandstone was triaxally deformed at a confining pressure of 15 MPa and a strain rate of 1.6E-06 s-1. The sample was loaded differentially until failure occurred at approximately ?1 = 160 MPa. AE activity was monitored for the duration of the experiment by an array of 8 broadband piezoelectric transducers coupled to the rock sample. Raw signals were amplified by 40 dB using pre-amplifiers equipped with filter modules with a frequency passband of 100 kHz to 1 MHz. The amplifiers had a split output enabling the measured signal to be fed into a 12-bit and a 16-bit acquisition system. AE waveforms were continuously recorded at 10 MS/s on 8 data acquisition channels per system. Approximately 4,500 events were harvested and source located from the continuous data for each system. P-wave arrivals were automatically picked and event locations calculated using the downhill Simplex method and a time-varying transverse isotropic velocity model based on periodical surveys across the sample. Events detected on the 12-bit and 16-bit systems were compared both in terms of their P-wave picks and their source locations. In the early stages of AE activity, there appeared to be little difference between P-wave picks and hypocenter locations from both data sets. As the experiment progressed into the post-peak stress regime, which was accompanied by an increase in AE rate and amplitude, fewer events could be harvested from the 12-bit data compared to the 16-bit data. This is linked to the observation of a higher signal-to-noise ratio on AE waveforms harvested from the 16-bit stream compared to those from the 12-bit stream, which results in an easier identification of P-wave onsets. Similarly a higher confidence in source location is expected. Analysis of the continuous waveform data in both time and frequency domains was performed to analyse changes in AE energy and frequency content throughout the duration of the experiment. This analysis is particularly relevant as the sample approaches failure, as high rates of induced AE events make it difficult to harvest and analyse individual events. Changes in frequency content have been previously observed and associated with microcrack coalescence and the induction of large fractures both in the laboratory and in the monitoring of reservoir stimulations. The comparative analysis shows that the higher resolution in the 16-bit stream provides greater detail in the identification of onset times of sample failure and particularly the changes in amplitude in the different frequency bands.

Flynn, J.; Goodfellow, S. D.; Nasseri, M. H.; Reyes-Montes, J. M.; Young, R.

2013-12-01

27

NASA Solar System Exploration: Galileo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains details on the Galileo spacecraft mission to Jupiter. Galileo operated from 1989-2003 and sent back valuable information about Jupiter and its moons before being destroyed in Jupiter's atmosphere. Information on the mission, photos, explorations, news articles, and educational links are available.

Harvey, Samantha

2003-10-10

28

Venus Exploration opportunities within NASA's Solar System Exploration roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science goals to understand the origin, history and environment of Venus have been driving international space exploration missions for over 40 years. Past missions include the Magellan and Pioneer-Venus missions by the US; the Venera program by the USSR; and the Vega missions through international cooperation. Furthermore, the US National Research Council (NRC), in the 2003 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Decadal Survey, identified Venus as a high priority target, thus demonstrating a continuing interest in Earth's sister planet. In response to the NRC recommendation, the 2005 NASA SSE Roadmap included a number of potential Venus missions arching through all mission classes from small Discovery, to medium New Frontiers and to large Flagship class missions. While missions in all of these classes could be designed as orbiters with remote sensing capabilities, the desire for scientific advancements beyond our current knowledge - including what we expect to learn from the ongoing ESA Venus Express mission - point to in-situ exploration of Venus.

Balint, Tibor; Thompson, Thomas; Cutts, James; Robinson, James

2006-01-01

29

SIM_EXPLORE: Software for Directed Exploration of Complex Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physics-based numerical simulation codes are widely used in science and engineering to model complex systems that would be infeasible to study otherwise. While such codes may provide the highest- fidelity representation of system behavior, they are often so slow to run that insight into the system is limited. Trying to understand the effects of inputs on outputs by conducting an exhaustive grid-based sweep over the input parameter space is simply too time-consuming. An alternative approach called "directed exploration" has been developed to harvest information from numerical simulators more efficiently. The basic idea is to employ active learning and supervised machine learning to choose cleverly at each step which simulation trials to run next based on the results of previous trials. SIM_EXPLORE is a new computer program that uses directed exploration to explore efficiently complex systems represented by numerical simulations. The software sequentially identifies and runs simulation trials that it believes will be most informative given the results of previous trials. The results of new trials are incorporated into the software's model of the system behavior. The updated model is then used to pick the next round of new trials. This process, implemented as a closed-loop system wrapped around existing simulation code, provides a means to improve the speed and efficiency with which a set of simulations can yield scientifically useful results. The software focuses on the case in which the feedback from the simulation trials is binary-valued, i.e., the learner is only informed of the success or failure of the simulation trial to produce a desired output. The software offers a number of choices for the supervised learning algorithm (the method used to model the system behavior given the results so far) and a number of choices for the active learning strategy (the method used to choose which new simulation trials to run given the current behavior model). The software also makes use of the LEGION distributed computing framework to leverage the power of a set of compute nodes. The approach has been demonstrated on a planetary science application in which numerical simulations are used to study the formation of asteroid families.

Burl, Michael; Wang, Esther; Enke, Brian; Merline, William J.

2013-01-01

30

Galileo: exploration of Jupiter's system  

SciTech Connect

The scientific objectives of the Galileo mission to the Jovian system is presented. Topics discussed include the history of the project, our current knowledge of the system, the objectives of interrelated experiments, mission design, spacecraft, and instruments. The management, scientists, and major contractors for the project are also given.

Johnson, T.V.; Yeates, C.M.; Colin, L.; Fanale, F.P.; Frank, L.; Hunten, D.M.

1985-06-01

31

Galileo: Exploration of Jupiter's system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific objectives of the Galileo mission to the Jovian system is presented. Topics discussed include the history of the project, our current knowledge of the system, the objectives of interrelated experiments, mission design, spacecraft, and instruments. The management, scientists, and major contractors for the project are also given.

Johnson, T. V.; Yeates, C. M.; Colin, L.; Fanale, F. P.; Frank, L.; Hunten, D. M.

1985-01-01

32

Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Wireless Technologies and Human Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors describe ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionics architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers and from industry. This paper provides an overview of recent AAE efforts, with particular emphasis on the wireless technologies being evaluated under AES to support human spaceflight.

Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.; Lansdowne, Chatwin

2014-01-01

33

Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

34

The human exploration of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a detailed program plan for the human exploration of the solar system. This thrust is clearly the next step in the long history of human exploration of the unknown. The program proposed here contemplates a return to the Moon by 1995. The principal purpose of the return mission is to look for water that might

Lisa Bell; Curt Bilby; John W. Boyd; George Davis; David Korsmeyer; Hans Mark; Todd McCuster; Brendan O'Connor; Elfego Pinon; Andrew Frizzell

1992-01-01

35

The human exploration of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a detailed program plan for the human exploration of the solar system. This thrust is clearly the next step in the long history of human exploration of the unknown. The program proposed here contemplates a return to the Moon by 1995. The principal purpose of the return mission is to look for water that might

Lisa Bell; Curt Bilby; John W. Boyd; George Davis; David Korsmeyer; Hans Mark; Todd McCusker; Brendan O'Connor; Elfego Pinon; Andrew Frizzell; Harlan J. Smith

1991-01-01

36

Indonesian petroleum systems and exploration efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The Republic of Indonesia has over 40 productive petroleum systems and more than 100 speculative petroleum systems. Since the first oil discoveries in the 1880`s, cumulative discovered ultimately recoverable petroleum resources in Indonesia have reached 50 billion barrels of oil equivalent. There are eight principal producing areas and nearly 1,000 oil and gas fields. Most of these resources have been found in the last 50 years. Successful exploration continues; at least two discoveries per year are made which exceed 50 million barrels of oil equivalent reserves. Productive/petroleum system source types are split almost equally between marine and deltaic-lacustrine facies. The majority of source rocks are Tertiary in age; Mesozoic source rocks are restricted to Eastern Indonesia. Discovery process analysis indicates generally high exploration efficiency in Indonesia. An upwardly convex discovery process curve typifies many systems, reflecting both exploration efficiency and maturity; this pattern is well displayed in areas such as Central Sumatra and Salawati. A much more random or straight line process curve, as seen in West Natuna, occurs where more complex petroleum systems have inhibited exploration efficiency. An inverted, or concave upward curve, seen in some Java petroleum systems, is probably economically driven, related to development of domestic Indonesian gas markets. Several curves, such as those for the North Sumatra:Bampo-Peutu and East Kalimantan:Tanjung systems are dominated by single fields. Different exploration phases can be recognized in many systems, each phase having its own specific exploration statistics.

Howes, J.V.C.; Tisnawijaya, S. [Atlantic Richfield Indonesia, Inc., Jakarta (Indonesia)

1996-12-31

37

Indonesian petroleum systems and exploration efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The Republic of Indonesia has over 40 productive petroleum systems and more than 100 speculative petroleum systems. Since the first oil discoveries in the 1880's, cumulative discovered ultimately recoverable petroleum resources in Indonesia have reached 50 billion barrels of oil equivalent. There are eight principal producing areas and nearly 1,000 oil and gas fields. Most of these resources have been found in the last 50 years. Successful exploration continues; at least two discoveries per year are made which exceed 50 million barrels of oil equivalent reserves. Productive petroleum system source types are split almost equally between marine and deltaic-lacustrine facies. The majority of source rocks are Tertiary in age; Mesozoic source rocks are restricted to Eastern Indonesia. Discovery process analysis indicates generally high exploration efficiency in Indonesia. An upwardly convex discovery process curve typifies many systems, reflecting both exploration efficiency and maturity; this pattern is well displayed in areas such as Central Sumatra and Salawati. A much more random or straight line process curve, as seen in West Natuna, occurs where more complex petroleum systems have inhibited exploration efficiency. An inverted, or concave upward curve, seen in some Java petroleum systems, is probably economically driven, related to development of domestic Indonesian gas markets. Several curves, such as those for the North Sumatra:Bampo-Peutu and East Kalimantan:Tanjung systems are dominated by single fields. Different exploration phases can be recognized in many systems, each phase having its own specific exploration statistics.

Howes, J.V.C.; Tisnawijaya, S. (Atlantic Richfield Indonesia, Inc., Jakarta (Indonesia))

1996-01-01

38

Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multidisciplinary concept of "bioinspired engineering of exploration systems" (BEES) is described, which is a guiding principle of the continuing effort to develop biomorphic explorers as reported in a number of articles in the past issues of NASA Tech Briefs. The intent of BEES is to distill from the principles found in successful nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods but that are accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological organisms. The intent is not just to mimic operational mechanisms found in a specific biological organism but to imbibe the salient principles from a variety of diverse bio-organisms for the desired crucial function. Thereby, we can build explorer systems that have specific capabilities endowed beyond nature, as they will possess a combination of the best nature-tested mechanisms for that particular function. The approach consists of selecting a crucial function, for example, flight or some selected aspects of flight, and develop an explorer that combines the principles of those specific attributes as seen in diverse flying species into one artificial entity. This will allow going beyond biology and achieving unprecedented capability and adaptability needed in encountering and exploring what is as yet unknown. A classification of biomorphic flyers into two main classes of surface and aerial explorers is illustrated in the figure, with examples of a variety of biological organisms that provide the inspiration in each respective subclass. Such biomorphic explorers may possess varied mobility modes: surface-roving, burrowing, hopping, hovering, or flying, to accomplish surface, subsurface, and aerial exploration. Preprogrammed for a specific function, they could serve as one-way communicating beacons, spread over the exploration site, autonomously looking for/at the targets of interest. In a hierarchical organization, these biomorphic explorers would report to the next level of exploration mode (say, a large conventional lander/rover) in the vicinity. A widespread and affordable exploration of new/hazardous sites at lower cost and risk would thus become possible by utilizing a faster aerial flyer to cover long ranges and deploying a variety of function- specific, smaller biomorphic explorers for distributed sensing and local sample acquisition. Several conceptual biomorphic missions for planetary and terrestrial exploration applications have been illustrated in "Surface-Launched Explorers for Reconnaissance/ Scouting" (NPO-20871), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 4 (April, 2002), page 69 and "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems," Journal of Space Mission Architecture, Issue 2, Fall 2000, pages 49-79.

Thakoor, Sanita

2003-01-01

39

Cascade Helps JPL Explore the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we are involved with the unmanned exploration of the solar system. Unmanned probes observe the planet surfaces using radar and optical cameras to take a variety of measurements.

Burke, G. R.

1996-01-01

40

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA webpage, Solar System Exploration, allows students to search missions by name, decade, nation, target, mission, and status. Topics: arial, atmospheric, flybys, impact, lander, orbiter, rover, Deep Space Network

1900-01-01

41

Exploring Systems of Equations using Graphing Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces the concept of graphing a system of linear equations. Students will use graphing technology to explore the meaning of the solution of a linear system including solutions that correspond to intersecting lines, parallel lines, and coinciding lines. Students will also do graph linear systems by hand.

2012-12-18

42

Design Space Exploration for The Beamformer System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design exploration strategy for the beamformer system, an exampleof a typical DSP system. In order to do so, we first define a parameterizeddesign template for the beamformer and for a FIR filter, since the filteringoperation is a part of the overall beamformer system. We then discuss someapproaches for varying the design parameters for the filter and the

Daniel D. Gajski; Smita Bakshi

1993-01-01

43

Design and implementation of real time AES-128 on real time operating system for multiple FPGA communication  

E-print Network

Security is the most important part in data communication system, where more randomization in secret keys increases the security as well as complexity of the cryptography algorithms. As a result in recent dates these algorithms are compensating with enormous memory spaces and large execution time on hardware platform. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), provide one of the major alternative in hardware platform scenario due to its reconfiguration nature, low price and marketing speed. In FPGA based embedded system we can use embedded processor to execute particular algorithm with the inclusion of a real time operating System (RTOS), where threads may reduce resource utilization and time consumption. A process in the runtime is separated in different smaller tasks which are executed by the scheduler to meet the real time dead line using RTOS. In this paper we demonstrate the design and implementation of a 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) both symmetric key encryption and decryption algorithm by de...

Paul, Rourab; Sau, Suman; Chakrabarti, Amlan

2012-01-01

44

Collaborative Systems Thinking Research: Exploring systems thinking within teams  

E-print Network

, interrelationships, context and dynamics towards executing systems design". This type of thinking is critically on large scale endeavors, where collaborative systems thinking is especially critical to achieveCollaborative Systems Thinking Research: Exploring systems thinking within teams Caroline T. Lamb

de Weck, Olivier L.

45

AE 400-level (choose 2): AE 410 Computational Aerodynamics  

E-print Network

416 Applied Aerodynamics AE 419 Aircraft Flight Mechanics AE 433 Aerospace Propulsion AE 434 Rocket Propulsion AE 435 Electric Propulsion AE 500-level (choose 2): AE 510 Advanced Gas Dynamics AE 514 Boundary Methods In Eng. Other possible electives (examples): ME 411 ONL: Viscous Flow & Heat Transfer CEE 446 ONL

Gilbert, Matthew

46

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-01-01

47

Measurements of the ambient photoelectron spectrum from Atmosphere Explorer. I - AE-E measurements below 300 km during solar minimum conditions. II - AE-E measurements from 300 to 1000 km during solar minimum conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is presented of the ambient photoelectron spectrum below 300 km which includes 500 AE-E orbits observed from Dec. 13, 1975 to Feb. 24, 1976. The daytime photoelectron spectrum from 1 to 100 eV was illustrated by several spectra; high resolution 10-32 eV spectra show the widths of the photoelectron lines and the variation of the linewidth and intensity with altitude. The photoelectron flux below 300 km is constant over a period of several months; the photoelectron lines between 20 and 30 eV are very sharp when the total plasma density is low, but broaden at high altitudes as the plasma density builds up during the day. The photo-electron flux above 300 km had an intensity and energy spectrum characteristic of the 250-300 km region only in the presence of low plasma density at the satellite altitude. The flux at high altitudes was extremely variable 3 h after sunrise as a result of attenuation and energy loss to thermal plasma along the path of escaping electrons.

Lee, J. S.; Doering, J. P.; Potemra, T. A.; Brace, L. H.

1980-01-01

48

Overview: Exobiology in solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Aug. 1988, the NASA Ames Research Center held a three-day symposium in Sunnyvale, California, to discuss the subject of exobiology in the context of exploration of the solar system. Leading authorities in exobiology presented invited papers and assisted in setting future goals. The goals they set were as follows: (1) review relevant knowledge learned from planetary exploration programs; (2) detail some of the information that is yet to be obtained; (3) describe future missions and how exobiologists, as well as other scientists, can participate; and (4) recommend specific ways exobiology questions can be addressed on future exploration missions. These goals are in agreement with those of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council. Formed in 1980 to respond to the planetary exploration strategies set forth by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), the SSEC's main function is to review the entire planetary program. The committee formulated a long-term plan (within a constrained budget) that would ensure a vital, exciting, and scientifically valuable effort through the turn of the century. The SSEC's goals include the following: determining the origin, evolution, and present state of the solar system; understanding Earth through comparative planetology studies; and revealing the relationship between the chemical and physical evolution of the solar system and the appearance of life. The SSEC's goals are consistent with the over-arching goal of NASA's Exobiology Program, which provides the critical framework and support for basic research. The research is divided into the following four elements: (1) cosmic evolution of the biogenic compounds; (2) prebiotic evolution; (3) origin and early evolution of life; and (4) evolution of advanced life.

Carle, Glenn C.; Schwartz, Deborah E.

1992-01-01

49

Exploring Approaches Towards a Sustainable Transport System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article undertakes a backcasting analysis exploring strategic approaches for overall systems sustainability in personal transport. Starting from a robust definition of sustainability for the personal transport sector, the research examines the impact of combinations of transport technologies and changes in travel behaviour in reducing CO2 emissions towards a sustainable level. In doing this a simple equation model is used.

Stephen Potter

2007-01-01

50

Future exploration of the outer solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missions to the frigid outer reaches of our solar system present significant technological challenges, but there remains a breathtaking scope for new and exciting discoveries. Leigh Fletcher reports on an RAS meeting that demonstrated a host of innovative ideas to explore the giant planets.

Fletcher, Leigh

2013-04-01

51

Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

Uckun, Serdar

2005-01-01

52

AE 400-level (choose 2): AE 402 Orbital Mechanics  

E-print Network

Propulsion AE 434 Rocket Propulsion AE 435 Electric Propulsion AE 510 Advanced Gas Dynamics AE 514 Boundary 1): MATH 461 EGR: Probability Theory MATH 488 EGR: Math Methods In Eng. Other possible electives

Gao, Grace Xingxin

53

The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

2006-01-01

54

AE 400-level (choose 2): AE 420 Finite Element Analysis  

E-print Network

419 Aircraft Flight Mechanics AE 433 Aerospace Propulsion AE 434 Rocket Propulsion AE 435 Electric Propulsion AE 510 Advanced Gas Dynamics AE 514 Boundary Layer Theory AE 538 Combustion Fundamentals Math (choose 1): MATH 461 EGR: Probability Theory MATH 488 EGR: Math Methods In Engr. Other possible electives

Gilbert, Matthew

55

Exotic propulsion systems - A space exploration imperative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment is given to the need for and use of unusual propulsion systems in the forthcoming development of space vehicles. The requirements of lunar and Martian outposts are set forth, and the expected delta velocities, vehicle masses, and specific energy levels are listed. Exotic propulsion systems are considered that can provide the specific impulse levels needed for the scenarios discussed. Discussed are antimatter propulsion, teleportation, and antigravity machines, and the theoretical and practical implications of their development and use are mentioned. The use of antiprotons in medical treatment and materials processing is explained and extended to the propulsion application. The paper demonstrates the potential of exotic propulsion systems to contribute to space exploration.

Haloulakos, V. E.

1992-07-01

56

Micro and Nano Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of micro and nano systems in Space exploration. Included are: an explanation of the rationales behind nano and micro technologies for space exploration, a review of how the devices are fabricated, including details on lithography with more information on Electron Beam (E-Beam) lithography, and X-ray lithography, a review of micro gyroscopes and inchworm Microactuator as examples of the use of MicroElectoMechanical (MEMS) technology. Also included is information on Carbon Nanotubes, including a review of the CVD growth process. These micro-nano systems have given rise to the next generation of miniature X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence instruments, mass spectrometers, and terahertz frequency vacuum tube oscillators and amplifiers, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope. The nanotechnology has also given rise to coating technology, such as silicon nanotip anti-reflection coating.

Manohara, Harish

2007-01-01

57

Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration  

E-print Network

Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration by Wilfried Hofstetter and Proposed Moon and Mars Exploration System architectures...... 27 2.1.1 The Apollo System...................................................................................... 54 3. Moon and Mars System Architectures Point Designs

de Weck, Olivier L.

58

Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations Part 2: Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews what is currently known about the solar system and the objects that make up the solar system. Information about the individual planets, comets, asteroids and moons is reviewed.

Chau, Savio

2005-01-01

59

Exploring Solar Systems Across the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the value of exploring our solar system and others in the Universe. Learners will investigate, compare, and describe patterns in Solar System data. They will then hypothesize about the formation of the Solar System based on data and explain how extrasolar planets can be discovered. In the first activity, the students investigate Solar System data to find clues to how our planetary system was formed. By the end of the activity, the students come to understand that other stars form just like the Sun, and, therefore, many stars could have planets around them. The second activity examines how scientists can find these extrasolar planets. By observing the behavior of a model star-planet system, the students come to understand that it is possible to see the effect a planet has on its parent star even if the planet cannot be seen directly. By comparing the properties of our Solar System with other planetary systems, we can gain a deeper understanding of planetary systems across the Universe.

60

Space exploration, Mars, and the nervous system.  

PubMed

When human beings venture back to the moon and then on to Mars in the coming decade or so, we will be riding on the accumulated data and experience from approximately 50 years of manned space exploration. Virtually every organ system functions differently in the absence of gravity, and some of these changes are maladaptive. From a biologic perspective, long duration spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit presents many unique challenges. Astronauts traveling to Mars will live in the absence of gravity for more than 1 year en route and will have to transition between weightlessness and planetary gravitational forces at the beginning, middle, and end of the mission. We discuss some of what is known about the effects of spaceflight on nervous system function, with emphasis on the neuromuscular and vestibular systems because success of a Mars mission will depend on their proper functioning. PMID:17420309

Kalb, Robert; Solomon, David

2007-04-01

61

Microarray assays for solar system exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of evidence of extinct and extant life is a key issue in astrobiological research, particularly with respect to future exploration of the solar system. Simple life forms may have evolved and developed on planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa. At this point in time, tests whether life once was or still is present can only be carried out by means of in situ experiments. Here, we discuss the potential and advantages of immunological concepts for life detection and the development of a miniaturized automated immunoassay flight device.

Steele, Andrew; Toporski, Jan; McKay, David S.; Schweitzer, Mary; Pincus, Seth; Prez-Mercader, Juan; Parro Garca, Victor

2001-08-01

62

Exploring the Planets: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers information that will allow students to see just how big each planet and its major satellites are relative to each other in the scale model of the Solar System. Students will see where the planets are in relation to the Sun and to each other and learn just how big the Sun is compared to all the planets in our Solar System. Sections at this site include Planetary Physical Data, Planetary Satellites Physical Data, Relative Sizes of the Planets, Relative Planetary Distances from the Sun, and the Size of the Sun. In addition, each planet has an individual online section that gives an overview of what has been learned through imagery and data obtained from Earth-based and spacecraft exploration.

63

The Advanced Exploration Systems Water Recovery Project: Innovation on 2 Fronts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA looks forward to sending humans farther away from Earth, we will have to develop a transportation architecture that is highly reliable and that can sustain life for long durations without the benefit of Earth s proximity for continuous resupply or even operational guidance. NASA has consistently been challenged with performing great feats of innovation, but particularly in this time of economic stress, we are challenged to go farther with less. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects were implemented to address both of these needs by not only developing innovative technologies, but by incorporating innovative management styles and processes that foster the needed technical innovation given a small amount of resources. This presentation explains how the AES Water Recovery Project is exhibiting innovation on both fronts; technical and process. The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is actively engineering innovative technologies in order to maximize the efficiency of water recovery. The development of reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support (ECLS) is critical to enable long-duration human missions outside of low-Earth orbit. Recycling of life support consumables is necessary to reduce resupply mass and provide for vehicle autonomy. To address this, the WRP is working on a rotary distiller that has shown enhanced performance over the state-of-the-art (SOA). Additionally, the WRP is looking at innovative ways to address issues present in the state-of-the-art (SOA) systems pertaining to toxicity and calcium scale buildup. As an AES project, the WRP has a more streamlined Skunk Works like approach to technology development intended to reduce overhead but achieve a more refined end product. The project has incorporated key partnerships between NASA centers as well as between NASA and industry. A minimal project management style has been implemented such that risks are managed and milestones tracked without overburdening the team with reporting demands that take them away from their work. A lean Systems Engineering (SE) approach has been implemented where project objectives are defined and vetted early without overprescribing the process or limiting the ability to innovate. Finally, we are working with existing flight hardware support organizations like operations, safety, materials and others to impact the system design at the breadboard level. This type of early input is a key to ensuring that the technologies are developed on the right track to becoming space flight worthy.

Sarguisingh, Miriam M.; Neumeyer, Derek; Shull, Sarah

2012-01-01

64

Mineralogical basis for the interpretation of multi-element (ICP-AES), oxalic acid, and aqua regia partial digestions of stream sediments for reconnaissance exploration geochemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have applied partial digestion procedures, primarily oxalic acid and aqua regia leaches, to several regional geochemical reconnaissance studies carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analytical methods. We have chosen to use these two acids because the oxalic acid primarily attacks those compounds formed during secondary geochemical processes, whereas aqua regia will digest the primary sulfide phases as well as secondary phases. Application of the partial digestion technique has proven superior to total digestion because the concentration of metals in hydromorphic compounds and the sulfides is enhanced relative to the metals bound in the unattacked silicate phases. The aqua regia digestion attacks and leaches metals from the mafic chain silicates and the phyllosilicates (coordination number of VI or more), yielding a characteristic geochemical signature, but does not leach appreciable metal from many other silicates. In order to interpret the results from these leach studies, we have initiated an investigation of a large suite of hand-picked mineral separates. The study includes analyses of about two hundred minerals representing the common rock-forming minerals as well as end-member compositions of various silicates, oxides, sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, and some vanadates, molybdates, tungstates, and phosphates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of leaching by acids of particular lattice sites in specific mineral structures. ?? 1987.

Church, S.E.; Mosier, E.L.; Motooka, J.M.

1987-01-01

65

Logistics Modeling for Lunar Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extensive logistics required to support extended crewed operations in space make effective modeling of logistics requirements and deployment critical to predicting the behavior of human lunar exploration systems. This paper discusses the software that has been developed as part of the Campaign Manifest Analysis Tool in support of strategic analysis activities under the Constellation Architecture Team - Lunar. The described logistics module enables definition of logistics requirements across multiple surface locations and allows for the transfer of logistics between those locations. A key feature of the module is the loading algorithm that is used to efficiently load logistics by type into carriers and then onto landers. Attention is given to the capabilities and limitations of this loading algorithm, particularly with regard to surface transfers. These capabilities are described within the context of the object-oriented software implementation, with details provided on the applicability of using this approach to model other human exploration scenarios. Some challenges of incorporating probabilistics into this type of logistics analysis model are discussed at a high level.

Andraschko, Mark R.; Merrill, R. Gabe; Earle, Kevin D.

2008-01-01

66

Brief module descriptions related to BEng (Honours) in Aeronautical Engineering (AE) and/or BEng (Honours) in Aerospace Systems (AS)  

E-print Network

problems. Propulsion & Turbomachinery 3S (AE/AS) Course consists of five basic elements which are: basic propulsion considerations; turbomachinery; gas dynamics; propeller based propulsion and environmental of the electric and magnetic fields causing them. Ability to analyse the propagation of electromagnetic waves

Guo, Zaoyang

67

Cross Cutting Structural Design for Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The challenge of our new National Space Policy and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) is keyed to the development of more effective space access and transportation systems. Optimizing in-space systems through innovative cross cutting structural designs that reduce mass, combine functional requirements and improve performance can significantly advance spacecraft designs to meet the ever growing demands of our new National Space Policy. Dependence on limited structural designs is no longer an option. We must create robust materials, forms, function and evolvable systems. We must advance national policy objectives in the design, development, test and operation of multi-billion dollar new generation crew capsules by enabling them to evolve in meeting the requirements of long duration missions to the moon and mars. This paper discusses several current issues and major design drivers for consideration in structural design of advanced spacecraft systems. Approaches to addressing these multifunctional requirements is presented as well as a discussion on utilizing Functional Analysis System Technique (FAST) in developing cross cutting structural designs for future spacecraft. It will be shown how easy it is to deploy such techniques in any conceptual architecture definition or ongoing preliminary design. As experts in merging mission, safety and life support requirements of the frail human existence into robust vehicle and habitat design, we will conquer the final frontier, harness new resources and develop life giving technologies for mankind through more innovative designs. The rocket equation tells us that a reduction in mass optimizes our propulsive results. Primary and secondary structural elements provide for the containment of gases, fluids and solids; translate and sustain loads/impacts; conduct/radiate thermal energy; shield from the harmful effects of radiation; provide for grounding/bonding of electrical power systems; compartmentalize operational functions; and provide physical interface with multiple systems. How can we redefine, combine, substitute, rearrange and otherwise modify our structural systems to reduce mass? New technologies will be needed to fill knowledge gaps and propagate new design methods. Such an integrated process is paramount in maintaining U.S. leadership and in executing our national policy goals. The cross cutting process can take many forms, but all forms will have a positive affect on the demanding design environment through initial radical thinking. The author will illustrate such cross cutting results achievable through a formal process called FAST. The FAST example will be used to show how a multifunctional structural system concept for long duration spacecraft might be generated.

Semmes, Edmund B.

2007-01-01

68

Intelligent Systems: Shaping the Future of Aeronautics and Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become important for NASA's future roles in Aeronautics and Space Exploration. Intelligent systems will enable safe, cost and mission-effective approaches to aircraft control, system design, spacecraft autonomy, robotic space exploration, and human exploration of Moon, Mars, and beyond. In this talk, we will discuss intelligent

Kalmanje KRISHNAKUMAR; Jason LOHN; John KANESHIGE

69

Research on Human-Robot Joint System for Lunar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar exploration in China is in progress. In order to reduce human workload and costs, and conduct researches more effectively and efficiently, human-robot joint systems are necessary for lunar exploration. The concept of human-robot joint system for lunar exploration is studied in this paper. The possible collaborative ways between human and robots and the collaborative activities which can be conducted for lunar exploration are discussed. Moreover, the preliminary configuration of a human-robot joint system is presented.

Zhang, Wei

70

A Computer Based Educational and Career Exploration System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The actual workings of the Educational and Career Exploration System (ECES) are described. The functions of the system are divided into three general phases: (1) an occupational information bank for exploring occupations; (2) an educational information bank for exploring training programs and educational areas of study; and (3) a junior

Minor, Frank J.

71

Acoustic Emission (AE) of fiberglass insulation material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop an effective and accurate way to monitor and control the quality of fiberglass products, Acoustic Emission (AE) signals, generated during compression of fiberglass samples, were studied and analyzed using neural network based pattern recognition software. Distinguishable patterns were found in samples manufactured under different conditions and compositions, which resulted in different product quality. AE waveform features, such as absolute energy, average frequency, duration, and rise time were analyzed and the features showed strong dependence on the sample tested. This made sample classification possible and definitive and therefore a classifier was developed and applied to data collected from additional test samples. Finally, an AE system for the evaluation of fiberglass insulation was designed and built. It is expected that the developed system will be used as a quality control tool in industrial production of fiberglass insulating material. In this paper we will discuss the AE data collection and analysis, classifier development, and give an overview of the inspection system developed.

Shu, Fong; Godinez, Valery; Finlayson, Richard

2004-07-01

72

Matrix Methods for Optimal Manifesting of Multinode Space Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

This paper presents matrix-based methods for determining optimal cargo manifests for space exploration. An exploration system is defined as a sequence of in-space and on-surface transports between multiple nodes coupled ...

Grogan, Paul Thomas

73

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advanced Exploration Systems NASA Advisory Council 6. Significant international and commercial participation, leveraging current International Space Including ISS-based Risk Reduction Demonstrations ETD ­ Exploration Technology Development STMD ­ Space

Waliser, Duane E.

74

In situ measurements of plasma drift velocity and enhanced NO/+/ in the auroral electrojet by the Bennett spectrometer on AE-C. [Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous measurements of ion composition and plasma drift velocity by the Bennett mass spectrometer on the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite reveal a direct correlation between enhancements in NO(+) concentration and ion drift velocity in the southern auroral oval. Low altitude (137 to 250 km) data obtained between 1700 and 2400 hr magnetic local time on October 22, 1974, reveal a region of westward plasma flow at velocities up to 1.3 km/s between 62 and 68 deg invariant latitude, with corresponding NO(+) enhancements of up to a factor of 20. A narrow region of reverse flow at about 0.9 km/s was also measured. These drift observations are consistent with convective flow patterns derived from electric field measurements, and their correlation with NO(+) appears to support the suggestion that NO(+) enhancements would be expected in regions of drift owing to the dependence on ion energy of the reaction O(+) + N2 yields NO(+) + N.

Brinton, H. C.

1975-01-01

75

Nuclear Power System Evolution: MARS Robotics Outposts to Human Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has been studying various architectures to explore Mars encompassing sample return; robotic outpost with extended range exploration and possibly leading to eventual human exploration missions. The more demanding missions with longer-range mobility, enhanced surface operations, high rate communications, propellant production, deep drilling at multiple sites, etc., will require larger and more robust power systems beyond the current capability of

Robert L. Cataldo

2002-01-01

76

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System  

E-print Network

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System How did the outer planets mold the solar system and create habitable worlds? OPAG Report DRAFT 14 August 2014 #12;2 Outline Executive Summary Over the science objectives for exploration of the outer solar system. It is consistent with Visions and Voyages

Rathbun, Julie A.

77

Versatile dynamic isotope power systems for the exploration of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic, isotope-heated power systems are needed to carry out the exploration of space and are major elements identified by NASA for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Demonstration Program is aimed at establishing the advanced technology as well as the system designs and hardware for the SEI and other exploratory missions. Several conceptual designs of DIPS systems have been developed to provide compact, reliable, and long-lived power systems.

Johnson, Richard A.; Stadnik, Andrew G.; Cataldo, Robert; Williams, Rex

1991-01-01

78

Exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

Wilburn, D. R.; Porter, K. E.

1999-01-01

79

Power Systems for Human Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power system options were reviewed for their appropriateness to meet mission requirements and guidelines. Contending system technologies include: solar, nuclear, isotopic, electro-chemical and chemical. Mission elements can basically be placed into two categories; in-space transportation systems, both cargo and piloted; and surface systems, both stationary and mobile. All transportation and surface element power system requirements were assessed for application synergies that would suggest common hardware (duplicates of the same or similar design) or multi-use (reuse system in a different application/location), wherever prudent.

Cataldo, Robert L.

1998-01-01

80

Exploring Ice in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module includes several lessons aimed at introducing ice science to students. In the first activity, students share personal ice experience stories through drawing, telling, and writing. This enables the teacher to diagnose personal conceptions about ice. Then students explore a big block of ice. They ask and record their questions and start an ice science notebook. Depending on the nature of the questions, the teacher selects appropriate follow-up activities. Other lessons include: Ice Melts,Ice Floats,Ice Flows, Ice is a Mineral, Life in Icy Places, and Ice in Space. Each lesson includes a kinesthetic activity where students mime and act out ice science concepts, creating a science performance laboratory. These experiences lay the foundation for deeper conceptual understanding in later school years. All lessons include extensive background information, a list of national standards addressed, suggested curriculum extensions, a list of resources and photo gallery.

2005-11-01

81

Human System Drivers for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of DRM4 in terms of the human system includes the ability to meet NASA standards, the inclusion of the human system in the design trade space, preparation for future missions and consideration of a robotic precursor mission. Ensuring both the safety and the performance capability of the human system depends upon satisfying NASA Space Flight Human System Standards.1 These standards in turn drive the development of program-specific requirements for Near-earth Object (NEO) missions. In evaluating DRM4 in terms of these human system standards, the currently existing risk models, technologies and biological countermeasures were used. A summary of this evaluation is provided below in a structure that supports a mission architecture planning activities. 1. Unacceptable Level of Risk The duration of the DRM4 mission leads to an unacceptable level of risk for two aspects of human system health: A. The permissible exposure limit for space flight radiation exposure (a human system standard) would be exceeded by DRM4. B. The risk of visual alterations and abnormally high intracranial pressure would be too high. 1

Kundrot, Craig E.; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John B.

2010-01-01

82

Commonality analysis for exploration life support systems  

E-print Network

Commonality, defined practically as the use of similar technologies to deliver similar functions across a range of different complex systems, offers opportunities to improve the lifecycle costs of portfolios of complex ...

Cunio, Phillip M

2008-01-01

83

Electrical system options for space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a space power utility concept is discussed and the impact of this concept on the engineering of space power systems is examined. Experiences gained from Space Station Freedom and SEI systems studies are used to discuss the factors that may affect the choice of frequency standards on which to build such a space power utility. Emphasis is given to electrical power control, conditioning, and distribution subsystems.

Bercaw, Robert W.; Cull, Ronald C.

1991-01-01

84

The Solar System in the Age of Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik, which began the space age. Though the manned exploration of the solar system has been limited to the Moon, in NASA's Apollo Program that ended over 35 years ago, robotic exploration of the solar system continues to be very successful. This paper explores the latest space mission and other observations of each planet and of each type of solar-system object, including dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, as well as the sun.

Pasachoff, Jay M.

2011-06-01

85

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

2004-01-01

86

As of October 17, 2012 Solar System Exploration @50  

E-print Network

. Zurek (JPL): Mars After 50 Years Of Space Exploration: Then, Now, and Beyond David Grinspoon (Denver Exploration Erik M. Conway (JPL): Dreaming Of Mars Sample Return, From Viking To The Mars Science Laboratory W System Panel Chair: Ralph McNutt (Applied Physics Laboratory) Torrence V. Johnson (JPL): Outer Solar

87

Exploration of global oceanic ridge system unfolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Less than 10% of the global mid-ocean ridge system has been studied in detail. To remedy this problem, a program called Ridge Interdisciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE) is integrating observational, experimental, and theoretical studies into a decade-long effort to understand the geological, geochemical, and biological processes responsible for creating new oceanic crust along this system of ridges on the ocean floor.RIDGE tackles many scientific fronts simultaneouslysince the first field program went to sea in 1991, more than 60 field programs, experimental and laboratory investigations, and theoretical studies involving over 70 investigators have been supported.

Detrick, Robert S.; Humphris, Susan E.

88

Exploring changes in world ruminant production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 30 years world production of ruminant meat and milk has increased by about 40%, while the global area of grassland has increased by only 4%. This is because most of the increase in ruminant meat and milk production has been achieved by increasing the production in mixed and landless production systems and much less so in pastoral

A. F. Bouwman; K. W. Van der Hoek; B. Eickhout; I. Soenario

2005-01-01

89

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our galaxy - the Milky Way - is a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the center like a pinwheel. Our solar system is in the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Our Sun is one of about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. And our galaxy is just one of roughly 1

1900-01-01

90

Exploring the Dynamics of Earth Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Dave Bice provides links to chapters of a book on learning about Earth systems by modeling them. The guide uses a program called STELLA, which runs on Macs and PCs. Topics covered include an introduction to earth sciences, modelling with STELLA, the rock cycle and the carbon cycle, among others.

Bice, Dave; College, Carleton

91

Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.  

PubMed

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

2008-06-01

92

AE aeronomy studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical processes in the thermosphere and ionosphere using AE data were studied. These data were analyzed and interpreted in such a way as to verify and correct laboratory measured rate coefficients, obtain values for rate coefficients not measured in the laboratory, and to reveal and correct inadequacies in existing models of thermospheric chemistry. This activity stimulated new work in the laboratory measurement of rate coefficients by revealing errors in existing measurements and by suggesting new measurements that need to be made.

Walker, J. C. G.

1983-01-01

93

Exploration technology surface systems: Surface Habitats And Construction (SHAC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of exploration technology program - surface systems are: (1) to develop technology emplace and to build an outpost on the moon and Mars; and (2) to develop concepts for permanent habitats and enclosures on the Moon and Mars.

Hirschbein, Murray

1991-01-01

94

NASA Solar System Exploration: Galileo Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During its 14-year odyssey, the NASA spacecraft Galileo took thousands of images. In addition to extensively photographing the Jovian system, Galileo also turned its cameras on asteroids, Venus, Earth, and its Moon. Galileo also captured the only direct view of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments smashing into Jupiter in July 1994. This image gallery is separated by the various planets and moons visited by Galileo (Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Earth & Moon, Venus, Asteroids, and Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9) as well as the geographical and atmospheric features of the visited objects (Atmospheric Haze, Topography, Volcanic Features, Aurora, Great Red Spot, Lightning, White Ovals) and collected data from its instruments (Hot Spots, Temperature Data, and Cloud Height Data). It provides a wealth of images for either the casual viewer or the instructor seeking images that display particular phenomena.

95

A modular robotic system with applications to space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular robotic systems offer potential advantages as versatile, fault-tolerant, cost-effective platforms for space exploration, but a sufficiently mature system is not yet available. We describe the possible applications of such a system, and present prototype hardware intended as a step in the right direction. We also present elements of an automated design and optimization framework aimed at making modular robots

Matthew D. Hancher; Gregory S. Hornby

2006-01-01

96

Intelligent Systems for the Autonomous Exploration of Titan and Enceladus  

E-print Network

Intelligent Systems for the Autonomous Exploration of Titan and Enceladus Roberto Furfaro System will require higher levels of onboard automation, including autonomous determination of sites systems for onboard-based, autonomous science to be performed in the course of outer satellites

Arizona, University of

97

Exploring autonomy - The T(2)C(2) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functions of command and data handling systems are described. The command and telemetry system is applicable to satellites, rockets, satellite propulsion stages, experimental platforms, planetary exploration vehicles, and Space Stations. The benefits provided by an autonomous system and the implementation of autonomy in the areas of health and welfare maintenance are discussed. The architecture and capabilities of the Telemetry,

T. Turner

1986-01-01

98

The Rosetta Mission - Exploring Solar System Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Rosetta Mission, ESAs first Planetary Cornerstone, is a rendezvous mission with a comet nucleus combining an Orbiter with a Lander. Rosetta is on its way to meet Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It will go in orbit around the comet nucleus when it is still far away from the Sun, and escort it for more than a year along its pre- and post-perihelion orbit. With the 12 scientific instruments on board the Orbiter, Rosetta will investigate the nucleus and the inner coma as well as their evolution as a function of increasing and decreasing solar flux input. Moreover, the Lander Philae will get down onto the surface of the nucleus at a time when it is still at a low state of activity, and analyse comet nucleus material in-situ with the 10 instruments on board. Launched in 2004 Rosetta has already completed all four gravity assists (3 at Earth, 1 at Mars) that were necessary to acquire the orbital energy needed to rendezvous and go in orbit around the comet nucleus. After the second and third Earth gravity assist Rosetta performed close fly-bys at the main-belt asteroids (2867) Steins and (21) Lutetia. Both have turned out to be extraordinary, hence a very good choice for close inspection. The spacecraft is now in hibernation while moving further into the outer solar system. It will wake up on 20 January 2014, at 4.5 AU heliocentric distance to proceed to its rendezvous. Rosetta will reach the comet in May 2014 and go into close orbit in September 2014. The landing of Philae is planned for 11 November 2014 at a heliocentric distance of 3 AU. After a five-day prime Lander mission, both the Orbiter and the Lander will enter the routine scientific phase, escorting the comet to perihelion and beyond.

Schulz, Rita; O'Rourke, L.; Altobelli, N.; Grieger, B.; Kueppers, M.

2012-10-01

99

Exploring the Inner Solar System During IPA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, both the MESSENGER mission to Mercury and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to orbit the Moon will use key mission milestones to engage the public. For the MESSENGER mission key millstones will be the release to the public of data from the Oct 6th 2008, flyby and the Sept 29th 2009 third and last Mercury flyby before MESSENGER orbits Mercury in 2011. IYA activities will include participating in 365 Days of Astronomy podcasts, making the second flyby data publicly available and exciting the public with images from the third flyby. The data from the first flyby can be seen in a variety of locations across the country on Science on a Sphere. During IYA, the MESSENGER mission will also be reaching a wide variety of audiences through social media networking such as Facebook and Twitter. Informal education communities will be able to include Mercury data in their IYA programming through the distribution of MESSENGER data through the NASA Museum Alliance. The LRO mission will return the public's attention to our nearest neighbor, the Moon, in 2009. As a result, the public will see high resolution images of the Moon never seen before. LRO will also engage the public in the lunar observation program. Starting in early 2009, LRO and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) will be launched, and will continue their science missions throughout IYA. The public will be encouraged to make observations of the Moon during critical maneuvers for the LRO and LCROSS missions, including the LCROSS encounter, impacting the Moon which will occur in 2009. These events will help shift the public's attention to the Moon, and highlight the role our nearest neighbor plays in helping scientists learn about the early history of our Solar System. In addition to viewing LRO images and observing the Moon, the public can learn about the Moon, LRO, LCROSS, and past lunar missions virtually via the "Return to the Moon Hall" on CoLab Island in Second Life. As with MESSENGER, LRO will also be featured on Facebook, Twitter and the Museum Alliance.

Weir, H. M.; Stockman, S. A.; Carter, B. L.; Bleacher, L. V.

2008-12-01

100

ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

2010-09-01

101

On the Explorative Behavior of MAX-MIN Ant System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyzing the behavior of stochastic procedures is generally recognized to be relevant. A possible way for doing so consists in observing the exploration performed. A formalization in this sense is proposed here: A method for studying this aspect regardless the type of approach used is defined and tested. The consequent measure of exploration is applied to MAX-MIN Ant System: The impact of the values of the parameters on the exploration is assessed. The conclusions drawn are put in relation with the indications provided by the average ?-branching factor.

Favaretto, Daniela; Moretti, Elena; Pellegrini, Paola

102

Nanotube-based Sensors and Systems for Outer Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct sensing and processing at the nanometer scale offer NASA the opportunity to expand its capabilities in deep space exploration, particularly for the search for signatures of life, the analysis of planetary oceans and atmospheres, and communications systems. Carbon nanotubes, with their unique mechanical, electrical, and radiation-tolerant properties, are a promising tool for this exploration. We are developing devices based on carbon nanotubes, including sensors, actuators, and oscillators. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Noca, F.; Hunt, B. D.; Hoenk, M. E.; Choi, D.; Kowalczyk, R.; Williams, R.; Xu, J.; Koumoutsakos, P.

2001-01-01

103

Space Medicine Issues and Healthcare Systems for Space Exploration Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews issues of health care in space. Some of the issues reviewed are: (1) Physiological adaptation to microgravity, partial gravity, (2) Medical events during spaceflight, (3) Space Vehicle and Environmental and Surface Health Risks, (4) Medical Concept of Operations (CONOPS), (4a) Current CONOPS & Medical Hardware for Shuttle (STS) and ISS, (4b) Planned Exploration Medical CONOPS & Hardware needs, (5) Exploration Plans for Lunar Return Mission & Mars, and (6) Developing Medical Support Systems.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeff

2007-01-01

104

The practical value of health management in space exploration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a body of evidence, and a group of advocates, supporting the need for integrated system health management for space exploration systems. The advocates include operators responsible for complex and inherently risky decisions, and the technologists working in the domain of health management and looking for application for their products. Others in the decision loops take the view that

William Kahle; Jim Miller

2005-01-01

105

EXPLOR expert system for oil and gas prospect generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas prospect generation involves three phases: data acquisition, mapping, and evaluation. EXPLOR is an expert system that automates the latter phases. The program's mapping routines are written in a high-level programming language for optimization. A backward chaining PROLOG-based expert system is used in the evaluation phase. Input data consist of well locations, status, target formation structure values, structure

Maslyn

1989-01-01

106

Multiple-Agent Air/Ground Autonomous Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous systems of multiple-agent air/ground robotic units for exploration of the surfaces of remote planets are undergoing development. Modified versions of these systems could be used on Earth to perform tasks in environments dangerous or inaccessible to humans: examples of tasks could include scientific exploration of remote regions of Antarctica, removal of land mines, cleanup of hazardous chemicals, and military reconnaissance. A basic system according to this concept (see figure) would include a unit, suspended by a balloon or a blimp, that would be in radio communication with multiple robotic ground vehicles (rovers) equipped with video cameras and possibly other sensors for scientific exploration. The airborne unit would be free-floating, controlled by thrusters, or tethered either to one of the rovers or to a stationary object in or on the ground. Each rover would contain a semi-autonomous control system for maneuvering and would function under the supervision of a control system in the airborne unit. The rover maneuvering control system would utilize imagery from the onboard camera to navigate around obstacles. Avoidance of obstacles would also be aided by readout from an onboard (e.g., ultrasonic) sensor. Together, the rover and airborne control systems would constitute an overarching closed-loop control system to coordinate scientific exploration by the rovers.

Fink, Wolfgang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Tarbell, Mark; Dohm, James M.

2007-01-01

107

Unmanned systems to support the human exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robots and other unmanned systems will play many critical roles in support of a human presence on Mars, including surveying candidate landing sites, locating ice and mineral resources, establishing power and other infrastructure, performing construction tasks, and transporting equipment and supplies. Many of these systems will require much more strength and power than exploration rovers. The presence of humans on

Douglas W. Gage

2010-01-01

108

Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor web to collect the scientific data needed to further exploration is a major and efficient asset to any exploration effort. This is true not only for lunar and planetary environments, but also for interplanetary and liquid environments. Such a system would also have myriad direct commercial spin-off applications. The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platform and Sensor Web or HEAP-SW like the ANTS concept is a Sensor Web concept. The HEAP-SW is conceptually and practically a very different system. HEAP-SW is applicable to any environment and a huge range of exploration tasks. It is a very robust, low cost, high return, solution to a complex problem. All of the technology for initial development and implementation is currently available. The HEAP Sensor Web or HEAP-SW consists of three major parts, The Hybrid Exploration Agent Platforms or HEAP, the Sensor Web or SW and the immobile Data collection and Uplink units or DU. The HEAP-SW as a whole will refer to any group of mobile agents or robots where each robot is a mobile data collection unit that spends most of its time acting in concert with all other robots, DUs in the web, and the HEAP-SWs overall Command and Control (CC) system. Each DU and robot is, however, capable of acting independently. The three parts of the HEAP-SW system are discussed in this paper. The Goals of the HEAP-SW system are: 1) To maximize the amount of exploration enhancing science data collected; 2) To minimize data loss due to system malfunctions; 3) To minimize or, possibly, eliminate the risk of total system failure; 4) To minimize the size, weight, and power requirements of each HEAP robot; 5) To minimize HEAP-SW system costs. The rest of this paper discusses how these goals are attained.

Stoffel, A. William; VanSteenberg, Michael E.

2004-01-01

109

Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage  

ScienceCinema

The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

Rogers, Matt

2013-05-29

110

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the Tata Energy Research Institute, the EduGreen Explore Web site allows kids to learn about energy, water, climate change, solid waste, and more. Besides giving good descriptions on these various subjects, students will also gain a global perspective on these issues since the Institute, which is located in India, gives specific information for the country. The site also contains quizzes, maps, activities, and more worth checking out.

2002-01-01

111

Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

1996-01-01

112

Advanced Ion Propulsion Technology for Solar System Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the examination ofadvanced solar electric propulsion technologies to determine their potential benefits for projected nearandmid-term solar system exploration missions. The advanced technologies include high performancederivatives of the technology, quarter-scale NSTAR systems, and direct-drive Hall-effect thrusterwith anode layer systems and are compared to a baseline represented by the ion propulsion systemtill fly on DS1. The results of this

John R. Brophy

113

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

114

AES Key Agility Issues in High-Speed IPsec Implementations Doug Whiting  

E-print Network

AES Key Agility Issues in High-Speed IPsec Implementations Doug Whiting Bruce Schneier Steve Bellovin May 15, 2000 Abstract Some high-speed IPsec hardware systems need to support many thousands: cryptography, block cipher, AES, key agility, IPsec, performance. 1 Introduction The ultimate winner of the AES

Schneier, Bruce

115

Nuclear power systems for lunar and Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems whether solar, chemical or nuclear to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems have been identified as critical needs for these missions. These mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements, and the power system options considered are discussed. The significant potential benefits of nuclear power are identified for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

Sovie, R. J.; Bozek, J. M.

1990-01-01

116

Nuclear power systems for lunar and Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems whether solar, chemical or nuclear to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems have been identified as critical needs for these missions. These mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements, and power system options considered are discussed. The significant potential benefits of nuclear power are identified for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

Sovie, R. J.; Bozek, J. M.

1990-01-01

117

Nuclear power systems for Lunar and Mars exploration  

SciTech Connect

Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems - whether solar, chemical or nuclear - to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems were identified as critical needs for these missions. This paper discusses these mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements; the power system options considered and identifies the significant potential benefits of nuclear power for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

Sovie, R.J.; Bozek, J.M.

1994-09-01

118

Aerobraking tethers for the exploration of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work the authors developed a model for the analysis of orbiting tethered spacecraft in an atmosphere. This model was used to demonstrate the feasibility of the aerobraking tether concept for a mission to Mars. The present work studies the possibility of using such vehicles in the exploration of the other atmosphere-bearing planets and satellites in the solar system.

J. M. Longuski; J. Puig-Suari; J. Mechalas

1995-01-01

119

Exploration of the Outer Solar System by Stellar Occultations  

E-print Network

occultations are a powerful method for exploring the outer solar system, where faintness and small angular Moon Planet (2009) 105:201­208 DOI 10.1007/s11038-009-9330-y #12;In the next section, we will briefly objects may come in front of a star and occult it. Depending on size, distance and relative velocity

Widemann, Thomas

120

Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

2004-01-01

121

Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) Exploring the emergence of  

E-print Network

Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) Exploring the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants JPL D-67959, Task Order NMO711062 15 November 2010 2010 Joint Jupiter Science Definition Team Report to NASA #12;2010 Joint Jupiter Science Definition Team Report to NASA November 15, 2010 ii Part

Rathbun, Julie A.

122

A New Version of Rough Set Exploration System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new version of the Rough Set Exploration System - a software tool featuring a library of methods and a graphical user interface supporting variety of rough-set-based computations. Meth- ods, features and abilities of the implemented software are discussed and illustrated with a case study in data analysis.

Jan G. Bazan; Marcin S. Szczuka; Jakub Wroblewski

2002-01-01

123

Radioisotope-based Nuclear Power Strategy for Exploration Systems Development  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power will play an important role in future exploration efforts. Its benefits pertain to practically all the different timeframes associated with the Exploration Vision, from robotic investigation of potential lunar landing sites to long-duration crewed missions on the lunar surface. However, the implementation of nuclear technology must follow a logical progression in capability that meets but does not overwhelm the power requirements for the missions in each exploration timeframe. It is likely that the surface power infrastructure, particularly for early missions, will be distributed in nature. Thus, nuclear sources will have to operate in concert with other types of power and energy storage systems, and must mesh well with the power architectures envisioned for each mission phase. Most importantly, they must demonstrate a clear advantage over other non-nuclear options (e.g., solar power, fuel cells) for their particular function. This paper describes a strategy that does this in the form of three sequential system developments. It begins with use of radioisotope generators currently under development, and applies the power conversion technology developed for these units to the design of a simple, robust reactor power system. The products from these development efforts would eventually serve as the foundation for application of nuclear power systems for exploration of Mars and beyond.

Schmidt, George R.; Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2006-01-20

124

NonAxiomatic Reasoning System ---Exploring the Essence of Intelligence  

E-print Network

Non­Axiomatic Reasoning System --- Exploring the Essence of Intelligence Pei Wang Submitted interested in artificial intelligence in the early 1980s, when I was an undergraduate student in the Department of Computer Science and Technology at Peking University. At that time AI was a new topic in China

Indiana University

125

Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several sub-elements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles' thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids.

Stephan, Ryan A.

2010-01-01

126

A method for tradespace exploration of systems of systems  

E-print Network

Systems of Systems (SoS) are a current focus of many organizations interested in integrating assets and utilizing new technology to create multi-component systems that deliver value over time. The dynamic composition of ...

Chattopadhyay, Debarati

2009-01-01

127

Atmosphere Explorer control system software (version 2.0)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atmosphere Explorer Control System (AECS) was developed to provide automatic computer control of the Atmosphere Explorer spacecraft and experiments. The software performs several vital functions, such as issuing commands to the spacecraft and experiments, receiving and processing telemetry data, and allowing for extensive data processing by experiment analysis programs. The AECS was written for a 48K XEROX Data System Sigma 5 computer, and coexists in core with the XDS Real-time Batch Monitor (RBM) executive system. RBM is a flexible operating system designed for a real-time foreground/background environment, and hence is ideally suited for this application. Existing capabilities of RBM have been used as much as possible by AECS to minimize programming redundancy. The most important functions of the AECS are to send commands to the spacecraft and experiments, and to receive, process, and display telemetry data.

Mocarsky, W.; Villasenor, A.

1973-01-01

128

Exploring the Edge of Our Solar System: IBEX Mission (Poster)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster outlines the major mission highlights of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is designed to map the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium. This poster supports a full-length planetarium show about the IBEX mission and the boundary of the Solar System. Each short activity/product helps to build awareness and engagement in the science and engineering aspects of the mission that are reinforced as visitors choose to participate in more activities, including viewing the show and mission website.

Nichols, Michelle

2008-01-01

129

A Modular Robotic System with Applications to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modular robotic systems offer potential advantages as versatile, fault-tolerant, cost-effective platforms for space exploration, but a sufficiently mature system is not yet available. We describe the possible applications of such a system, and present prototype hardware intended as a step in the right direction. We also present elements of an automated design and optimization framework aimed at making modular robots easier to design and use, and discuss the results of applying the system to a gait optimization problem. Finally, we discuss the potential near-term applications of modular robotics to terrestrial robotics research.

Hancher, Matthew D.; Hornby, Gregory S.

2006-01-01

130

Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

Burke, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

131

Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis Group was tasked with assessing and evaluating the power requirements and candidate power technologies for such missions. Inputs to the effort came from existing NASA studies as well as other governments agency inputs such as those from DOD and DOE. In addition, there were industry and university briefings and results of solicitations from the AIAA and the general public as part of the NASA outreach effort. Because of the variety of power needs in the SEI program, there will be a need for multiple power system technologies including solar, nuclear and electrochemical. Due to the high rocket masses required to propel payloads to the moon and beyond to Mars, there is great emphasis placed on the need for high power density and high energy density systems. Power system technology development work is needed results will determine the ultimate technology selections. 23 refs., 10 figs.

Biringer, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Bartine, D.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Buden, D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Foreman, J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Harrison, S. (Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-01-01

132

Data explorer: a prototype expert system for statistical analysis.  

PubMed Central

The inadequate analysis of medical research data, due mainly to the unavailability of local statistical expertise, seriously jeopardizes the quality of new medical knowledge. Data Explorer is a prototype Expert System that builds on the versatility and power of existing statistical software, to provide automatic analyses and interpretation of medical data. The system draws much of its power by using belief network methods in place of more traditional, but difficult to automate, classical multivariate statistical techniques. Data Explorer identifies statistically significant relationships among variables, and using power-size analysis, belief network inference/learning and various explanatory techniques helps the user understand the importance of the findings. Finally the system can be used as a tool for the automatic development of predictive/diagnostic models from patient databases. PMID:8130501

Aliferis, C.; Chao, E.; Cooper, G. F.

1993-01-01

133

Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

Hossain, S. G. M.

134

Alenia Spazio: Space Programs for Solar System Exploration .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alenia Spazio is the major Italian space industry and one of the largest in Europe, with 2,400 highly skilled employees and 16,000 square meters of clean rooms and laboratories for advanced technological research that are among the most modern and well-equipped in Europe. The company has wide experience in the design, development, assembly, integration, verification and testing of complete space systems: satellites for telecommunications and navigation, remote sensing, meteorology and scientific applications; manned systems and space infrastructures; launch, transport and re-entry systems, and control centres. Alenia Spazio has contributed to the construction of over 200 satellites and taken part in the most important national and international space programmes, from the International Space Station to the new European global navigation system Galileo. Focusing on Solar System exploration, in the last 10 years the Company took part, with different roles, to the major European and also NASA missions in the field: Rosetta, Mars Express, Cassini; will soon take part in Venus Express, and is planning the future with Bepi Colombo, Solar Orbiter, GAIA and Exomars. In this paper, as in the presentation, a very important Earth Observation mission is also presented: GOCE. All in all, the Earth is by all means part of the Solar system as well and we like to see it as a planet to be explored.

Ferri, A.

135

NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near-Earth objects (NEOs), which > 95% are asteroidal bodies, Phobos, Deimos, Mars, and beyond. The HEDS technology roadmap will strategically guide NASA and other U.S. Government agency technology investments that will result in capabilities enabling human exploration missions to diverse destinations generating high returns on investments.

Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

2011-01-01

136

Enabling Exploration Through the International Docking System Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publically available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

Hatfield, Caris A.

2011-01-01

137

Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the 'next generation' of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration.

Clark, John S.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Pellaccio, Dennis G.

1992-01-01

138

NEXT Ion Propulsion System Configurations and Performance for Saturn System Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successes of the Cassini\\/Huygens mission have heightened interest to return to the Saturn system with focused robotic missions. The desire for a sustained presence at Titan, through a dedicated orbiter and in-situ vehicle, either a lander or aerobot, has resulted in definition of a Titan Explorer flagship mission as a high priority in the Solar System Exploration Roadmap. The

Scott W. Benson; John P. Riehl; Steven R. Oleson

2007-01-01

139

Unmanned systems to support the human exploration of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robots and other unmanned systems will play many critical roles in support of a human presence on Mars, including surveying candidate landing sites, locating ice and mineral resources, establishing power and other infrastructure, performing construction tasks, and transporting equipment and supplies. Many of these systems will require much more strength and power than exploration rovers. The presence of humans on Mars will permit proactive maintenance and repair, and allow teleoperation and operator intervention, supporting multiple dynamic levels of autonomy, so the critical challenges to the use of unmanned systems will occur before humans arrive on Mars. Nevertheless, installed communications and navigation infrastructure should be able to support structured and/or repetitive operations (such as excavation, drilling, or construction) within a "familiar" area with an acceptable level of remote operator intervention. This paper discusses some of the factors involved in developing and deploying unmanned systems to make humans' time on Mars safer and more productive, efficient, and enjoyable.

Gage, Douglas W.

2010-04-01

140

Enhanced suicidal death of erythrocytes from gene-targeted mice lacking the Cl-/HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE1.  

PubMed

Genetic defects of anion exchanger 1 (AE1) may lead to spherocytic erythrocyte morphology, severe hemolytic anemia, and/or cation leak. In normal erythrocytes, osmotic shock, Cl(-) removal, and energy depletion activate Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels with Ca(2+)-induced suicidal erythrocyte death, i.e., surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, cell shrinkage, and membrane blebbing, all features typical for apoptosis of nucleated cells. The present experiments explored whether AE1 deficiency favors suicidal erythrocyte death. Peripheral blood erythrocyte numbers were significantly smaller in gene-targeted mice lacking AE1 (AE1(-/-) mice) than in their wild-type littermates (AE1(+/+) mice) despite increased percentages of reticulocytes (AE1(-/-): 49%, AE1(+/+): 2%), an indicator of enhanced erythropoiesis. Annexin binding, reflecting phosphatidylserine exposure, was significantly larger in AE1(-/-)erythrocytes/reticulocytes ( approximately 10%) than in AE1(+/+) erythrocytes ( approximately 1%). Osmotic shock (addition of 400 mM sucrose), Cl(-) removal (replacement with gluconate), or energy depletion (removal of glucose) led to significantly stronger annexin binding in AE1(-/-) erythrocytes/reticulocytes than in AE1(+/+) erythrocytes. The increase of annexin binding following exposure to the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 muM) was, however, similar in AE1(-/-) and in AE1(+/+) erythrocytes. Fluo3 fluorescence revealed markedly increased cytosolic Ca(2+) permeability in AE1(-/-) erythrocytes/reticulocytes. Clearance of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled erythrocytes/reticulocytes from circulating blood was more rapid in AE1(-/-) mice than in AE1(+/+) mice and was accelerated by ionomycin treatment in both genotypes. In conclusion, lack of AE1 is associated with enhanced Ca(2+) entry and subsequent scrambling of cell membrane phospholipids. PMID:17251326

Akel, Ahmad; Wagner, Carsten A; Kovacikova, Jana; Kasinathan, Ravi S; Kiedaisch, Valentin; Koka, Saisudha; Alper, Seth L; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Wieder, Thomas; Huber, Stephan M; Lang, Florian

2007-05-01

141

Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The now-cancelled Constellation Program included the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, were planned to be manned space vehicles while the third element was much more diverse and included several sub-elements. Among other things, these sub-elements were Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The planned missions involving these systems and vehicles included several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal operating environment, many of these risks and challenges were associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) consisted of various technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned thermal risks and design challenges was the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. These risks and design challenges were being addressed through a rigorous technology development process that was planned to culminate with an integrated thermal control system test. Although the technologies being developed were originally aimed towards mitigating specific Constellation risks, the technology development process is being continued within a new program. This continued effort is justified by the fact that many of the technologies are generically applicable to future spacecraft thermal control systems. The current paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing a material compatibility assessment for a promising thermal control system working fluid. The to-date progress and lessons-learned from these development efforts will be discussed throughout the paper.

Stephan, Ryan A.

2011-01-01

142

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

2009-01-01

143

Expert systems in exploration: can they be cost-effective  

SciTech Connect

PROSPECTOR is the best-known application of an expert system in exploration. Others exist for gamma-ray well logging analysis but are in general company-restricted and not in the open literature. PROSPECTOR, however, is comprised of a large set of elegant subprograms, each designed for a specific goal - generally for hard minerals. The program is expensive, costly to run, and requires a mainframe (usually a LISP machine) for operation. Recently, a microcomputer-based version (u-PROSPECTOR) has become available, but it still follows the formal artificial intelligence (AI) syntax of PROSPECTOR. In the Remote Sensing Laboratory at Stanford, they have been experimenting with low-end ($100-$1000) AI programs. The development of these has been driven by (1) the explosion of availability of microcomputers and (2) the realization by developers that the marketplace has many more Fortran and C-language machines available than the dedicated (and expensive) LISP units. This paper will discuss those commercially available, low-priced AI shells as applied to several of the simplest exploration problems - spectral pattern recognition and texture in radar imagery - and extrapolate their usefulness to more complex decision-making steps in exploration practice.

Lyon, R.P.J.

1987-05-01

144

Overview of an Integrated Medical System for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with addressing the risk of unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of inflight medical capabilities. The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) is a project within the ExMC element aimed at reducing this risk by improving the medical capabilities available for exploration missions. The EMSD project will demonstrate, on the ground and on ISS, the integration of several components felt to be essential to the delivery of medical care during long ]duration missions outside of low Earth orbit. The components of the EMSD include the electronic medical record, assisted medical procedure software, medical consumables tracking technology and RFID ] tagged consumables, video conferencing capability, ultrasound device and probes (ground demonstration only), peripheral biosensors, and the software to allow communication among the various components (middleware). This presentation seeks to inform our international partners of the goals and objectives of the EMSD and to foster collaboration opportunities related to this and future projects.

Watkins, Sharmila; Rubin, David

2013-01-01

145

An inertial fusion propulsion scheme for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper analyzes a novel fusion scheme that combines the favorable aspects of both inertial and magnetic confinement approaches as a propulsion device for potential application in solar system exploration. An appropriate set of equations for the plasma dynamics and the magnetic nozzle is used to assess the system's propulsive capability by applying the results to a round trip mission to Mars. It is found that such a device would allow a massive vehicle to make the journey in less than five months. It is shown that catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel results in a somewhat poorer propulsion performance than deuterium-tritium though at a significantly lower neutron production. The velocity increment generated by this system and the corresponding trip time are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Irving and Blum (1959).

Kammash, Terry; Galbraith, David L.

1991-01-01

146

Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology  

SciTech Connect

Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware platforms, multiple software packages, paper plots, spreadsheets, and time. A vendor GIS database package formed the foundation. This GIS provided regional coverage for the entire country of Venezuela at a scale of 1:250,000. It included 36,000 wells and associated attributes, facilities, geologic maps, potential field data, and transportation networks. Essential with GIS, all of the data were transformed from multiple cartographic datums to a single map projection. Proprietary and other tabular databases were incorporated into the vendor GIS by Chevron, significantly upgrading the value of the system for company exploration. Tabular databases were either imported, linked or converted to the GIS. They included Nomad, Paradox, Oracle, Openworks, and PC-based spreadsheets containing wells, seismic, and geochemistry data. Nontabular data types incorporated into the GIS included digital outcrop log and paleosections, maps, other GIS data, Global Positioning System control points, satellite imagery and scanned photographs. The enhanced GIS has proven valuable for facilitating access to, and rapid and accurate evaluation of, large geographic areas with multiple data sources and types.

Goodwin, P.B.; Choiniere, M.R.; Harris, F.W. [Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

147

Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2009-01-01

148

The Pd/Ni(110) bimetallic system: Surface characterisation by LEED, AES, XPS, and LEIS techniques; new insight on catalytic properties  

SciTech Connect

Pd deposits on Ni(110) have been studied by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEIS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques and their catalytic properties tested by the butadiene hydrogenation reaction at room temperature. Their catalytic activity is greatly enhanced by appropriate annealings. Superstructure indicative of a long range-ordering of Pd atoms on Ni is evidenced for low Pd coverages neither before nor after annealing. AES and LEIS studies reveal a sharp Pd depth profile and the existence of a Pd-Ni surface alloy even at room temperature. The Pd 3d core level binding energy is shifted upwards by at least 0.4 eV with respect to pure Pd surface atoms and remains unchanged in the course of annealings. Hence geometrical rearrangements have to be taken into consideration to explain the activity enhancement. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Hermann, P.; Simon, D. [Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon (France)] [Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon (France); Guigner, J.M. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, Villeurbanne (France)] [and others] [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, Villeurbanne (France); and others

1996-09-15

149

Quenches and crunchs: Does the system explore in aging the same part of the configuration space explored in equilibrium ?  

E-print Network

Numerical studies are providing novel information on the physical processes associated to physical aging. The process of aging has been shown to consist in a slow process of explorations of deeper and deeper minima of the system potential energy surface. In this article we compare the properties of the basins explored in equilibrium with those explored during the aging process both for sudden temperature changes and for sudden density changes. We find that the hypothesis that during the aging process the system explores the part of the configuration space explored in equilibrium holds only for shallow quenches or for the early aging dynamics. At longer times, systematic deviations are observed. In the case of crunches, such deviations are much more apparent.

Stefano Mossa; Giancarlo Ruocco; Francesco Sciortino; Piero Tartaglia

2001-07-06

150

A personal airbag system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential simple, lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62 m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85 m/s, 0 impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the personal airbag system concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0 impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30 indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5 m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.

Do, Sydney; de Weck, Olivier

2012-12-01

151

Performance Assessment of the Exploration Water Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new water recovery system architecture designed to fulfill the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Exploration Policy has been tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This water recovery system architecture evolved from the current state-of-the-art system developed for the International Space Station (ISS). Through novel integration of proven technologies for air and water purification, this system promises to elevate existing system optimization. The novel aspect of the system is twofold. First, volatile organic compounds (VOC) are removed from the cabin air via catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase, prior to their absorption into the aqueous phase. Second, vapor compression distillation (VCD) technology processes the condensate and hygiene waste streams in addition to the urine waste stream. Oxidation kinetics dictate that removing VOCs from the vapor phase is more efficient. Treating the various waste streams by VCD reduces the load on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media which follows, as well as the aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation process further downstream. This paper documents the results of testing this new architecture.

Carter. D. Layne; Tabb, David; Perry, Jay

2008-01-01

152

AmeriFlux Site and Data Exploration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AmeriFlux network was established in 1996. The network provides continuous observations of ecosystem-level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. The current network, including both active and inactive sites, consists of 141 sites in North, Central, and South America. The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides data management support for the AmeriFlux network including long-term data storage and dissemination. AmeriFlux offers a broad suite of value-added data products: Level 1 data products at 30 minute or hourly time intervals provided by the site teams, Level 2 data processed by CDIAC and Level 3 and 4 files created using CarboEurope algorithms. CDIAC has developed a relational database to house the vast array of AmeriFlux data and information and a web-based interface to the database, the AmeriFlux Site and Data Exploration System (http://ameriflux.ornl.gov), to help users worldwide identify, and more recently, download desired AmeriFlux data. AmeriFlux and CDIAC offer numerous value-added AmeriFlux data products (i.e., Level 1-4 data products, biological data) and most of these data products are or will be available through the new data system. Vital site information (e.g., location coordinates, dominant species, land-use history) is also displayed in the new system. The data system provides numerous ways to explore and extract data. Searches can be done by site, location, measurement status, available data products, vegetation types, and by reported measurements just to name a few. Data can be accessed through the links to full data sets reported by a site, organized by types of data products, or by creating customized datasets based on user search criteria. The new AmeriFlux download module contains features intended to ease compliance of the AmeriFlux fair-use data policy, acknowledge the contributions of submitting investigators, inform AmeriFlux investigators of users of their data, and facilitate meaningful usage statistics. Comprehensive site descriptions are available via the same interface along with site-related publications and data visualization functionality. This presentation reflects the present state and functionality of the AmeriFlux Site and Data Exploration System as well as future plans for expansion. For example, future plans call for expansion of the relational database to house similar data from large-scale ecosystem experiments (e.g., FACE, NGEE - Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment) and inclusion of enhanced query capabilities (e.g., sorting data via day and night).

Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Yang, B.; Jackson, B.

2011-12-01

153

(abstract) Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AES is a low-cost analog of the TES downlooking modes. Because AES operates at ambient temperature, limb-viewing is not possible. The first flight of AES took place in April 1994 on the NASA P3B aircraft out of Wallops Island, VA. While planned as an engineering test flight, spectra were successfully acquired both over the Atlantic Ocean and the area of the Great Dismal Swamp on the Virginia-North Carolina border. At this writing (July 1994), a second series of flights on the NASA DC8 aircraft out of Ames RC,CA is in progress. By the time of the workshop, a third series using the NASA C130 should have been accomplished.

Beer, Reinhard

1994-01-01

154

Directed-polymer systems explored via their quantum analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium statistical mechanics of classical directed polymers in D+1 dimensions is well known to be equivalent to the imaginary-time quantum dynamics of a quantum many-particle system in D spatial dimensions, with polymer con gurations corresponding to particle world-lines. This equivalence motivates the application of techniques originally designed for one-dimensional many-particle quantum systems to the exploration of many-polymer systems, as first recognized and exploited by P.-G. de Gennes [J. Chem. Phys. 48, 2257 (1968)]. In two dimensions, interactions give rise to an emergent polymer fluid, and I shall examine how topological constraints on this polymer fluid (e.g., due to uncrossable pins or barriers) and their geometry give rise to strong, entropy-driven forces. I shall also apply quantum techniques such as Bethe's Ansatz and bosonization to shed light on the structure of the polymer system. These techniques allow us to examine how polymer system correlations, thermodynamic properties, and response to impurities are influenced by strong polymer-polymer interactions. In three dimensions, polymers wind around one another and polymer topology may be incorporated via coupling to a Chern-Simons fi eld. As I discuss, this approach reveals the somewhat reduced role played by interactions in this higher-dimensional setting, leading to qualitatively diff erent polymer correlations, thermodynamic properties, and response to impurities.

Rocklin, David Z.

155

Exploration of geothermal systems using hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible near infrared (VNIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), and thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing has long been used for geothermal exploration. Specific focus on the TIR region (8-12 ?m) has resulted in major-rock-forming mineral classes being identified and their areal percentages to be more easily mapped due in part to the linear mixing behavior of TIR emission. To understand the mineral compositional and thermal distribution of active geothermal surfaces systems, hyperspectral TIR data from the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) airborne sensor were acquired over the Salton Sea, CA geothermal fields by The Aerospace Corporation on March 26, 2009 and April 6, 2010. SEBASS collects 128 wavelength channels at ~ 1 m spatial resolution. Such high resolution data are rarely available for this type of scientific analysis and enabled the identification of rare mineral assemblages associated with the geothermally-active areas. One surface unit with a unique spectrum, believed to be a magnesium sulfate of unknown hydration state, was identified for the first time in the SEBASS data. The abundance and distribution of this mineral varied between 2009 and 2010 likely due to the precipitation conditions. Data obtained by the SEBASS sensor were also regressed to the 32 channel spectral resolution of the Mineral and Gas Identifier (MAGI) airborne sensor in order to test sensitivity limits. At this lower spectral resolution, all surface minerals were still effectively identified and therefore validated data at MAGI resolution are still very effective for accurate surface compositional mapping. A similar approach used at active geothermal areas in other semi-arid regions around the world has the potential to better characterize transient mineralogy, identify "indicators minerals", understand the influence of surface and ground water, and ultimately to locate new geothermal targets for future exploration. Furthermore, new Mineral and Gas Identification (MAGI) data serve as an excellent precursor for future spaceborne TIR data such as the system proposed for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) instrument.

Reath, Kevin A.; Ramsey, Michael S.

2013-09-01

156

Exploring the Solar System with a Human Orrery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy instructors, and those teaching other sciences, are slowly coming to the realization that it's not what the instructor does that matters - it's what the students do for themselves. To foster this approach to learning, the instructor's role is to provide an environment - an engaging task, a target for the students' focus and guidance - in which the students discover the concepts for themselves. With this role in mind, for a large class of undergraduate non-Science majors, we adapted the human orrery designed by the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland into one that can be easily built and explored by a class of 30-40 students in a 1-hour tutorial. Students actively and individually explore the scale of the Solar System and the motion of the planets. As the human orrery requires a large, open space, we staged the activity in the foyer of the University library as a public outreach event celebrating IYA2009, generating tremendous enthusiasm and support from students, faculty, library staff and University administration. This work is supported by the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia.

Newbury, Peter R.; Gendre, M. A.; Gladman, B.; Kasian, L. E.; Meger, N.

2009-05-01

157

Benefit of Small Radioisotope Power Systems for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of smaller spacecraft over the last decade, in combination with studies of potential science applications, has suggested the need for Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) yielding much lower power levels than the 100 watt-scale devices used in the past. Small milliwatt to multiwatt-scale RPS units have the potential to extend the capability of small science payloads and instruments, and to enable many new mission applications. Such units could also find application in future human exploration missions involving use of monitoring stations and autonomous devices, similar to the ALSEP units deployed on the Moon during the Apollo program. Although flight-qualified RPS units in this size and power range do not presently exist, their potential to support a broad range of exploration tasks has led NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider the development of small-RPS units such that they might be available for missions by the early part of next decade. This paper summarizes the results of activities to date and provides possible options for future development.

Schmidt, George R.; Abelson, Robert D.; Wiley, Robert L.

2005-02-01

158

Astrobiology as an Integrating Theme in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discipline of astrobiology examines (i) the origin and evolution of life on Earth and the detailed interplay between biological and planetary evolution, (ii) the evolution of our solar system and the potential and actual distribution of life within it, (iii) the occurrence of planets around other stars and their potential for life, and (iv) the interplay between each of these areas. In our own solar system, astrobiology encompasses much more than just the search for life on Mars or Europa. Our goal is to understand the nature of planetary habitability--which planets have evolved to have environments that are habitable by microorganisms, and which have not. By understanding the processes that control the architecture of our solar system, we can extrapolate how these same processes might have played out in other planetary systems and what the distribution of habitability might be beyond our own system. In this context, Mars and Europa appear as potentially habitable worlds either today or in the past, Ganymede and Callisto might have deep subsurface oceans and be habitable, Venus might have been habitable early on but does not appear to be today, and Titan probably has had intermittent liquid water as well as ongoing chemical evolution involving organic molecules. Looking more broadly, the origin and the evolution of the gas-giant planets and their dynamical effects have had a major influence on the terrestrial planets; the characteristics of the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud influence our understanding of early chemical and volatile processes that affect habitability; and asteroids have had a tremendous impact on the terrestrial planets throughout their history. In order to understand planetary habitability in general, and the implications of a discovery of the presence or absence of life on any given object, we need to understand the detailed origin and evolution of our solar system as a whole and of the individual bodies within it. A broad program of planetary exploration is the best way to investigate the astrobiology of our solar system.

Jakosky, B. M.

2003-12-01

159

A personal exploration of the German hospice system.  

PubMed

While on vacation in Germany, I explored the German hospice system and its differences from that in the United States. I conducted an informal survey asking 10 individuals who were not associated with hospice work, about end-of-life issues. Knowledge of the hospice movement and of advance directives was found to be quite low. Through contact with German hospice associations, I learned that the modern German hospice movement was inspired by the British example. After a difficult beginning, the German hospice system is growing steadily. Professional providers of end-of-life care are paid according to the traditional fee-for-service system. As suggested by the World Health Organization, pain management is provided according to the three-step analgesic ladder. Physician-assisted suicide is illegal as it is in the United States. A federal self-determination law has not yet been enacted. Overall, the German hospice system has many similarities and a few interesting dissimilarities with that in the United States. PMID:8850817

Farnon, C

1996-01-01

160

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial

Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Rector, Tony; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

2008-01-01

161

AES Key Agility Issues in High-Speed IPsec Implementations Doug Whiting Bruce Schneier y Steve Bellovin z  

E-print Network

AES Key Agility Issues in High-Speed IPsec Implementations Doug Whiting #3; Bruce Schneier y Steve Bellovin z May 15, 2000 Abstract Some high-speed IPsec hardware systems need to support many thousands: cryptography, block cipher, AES, key agility, IPsec, performance. 1 Introduction The ultimate winner of the AES

Schneier, Bruce

162

The Exploration of Titan and the Saturnian System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on Earth. Its geology, from lakes and seas to broad river valleys and mountains, while carved in ice is, in its balance of processes, again most like Earth. Beneath this panoply of Earth-like processes an ice crust floats atop what appears to be a liquid water ocean. Titan is also rich in organic moleculesmore so in its surface and atmosphere than anyplace in the solar system, including Earth [4]. These molecules were formed in the atmosphere, deposited on the surface and, in coming into contact with liquid water may undergo an aqueous chemistry that could replicate aspects of life's origins. I will discuss our current understanding of Titan's complex environment in view of recent exploration, in particular on the atmospheric structure (temperature and composition), and the surface nature. I will show how these and other elements can give us clues as to the origin and evolution of the satellite, and how they connect to the observations of the planet and the other satellites and rings. Future space missions to Titan can help us understand the kronian and also our Solar System as a whole. In particular, I will describe the future exploration of Titan and the Saturnian System with TSSM, a mission studied jointly by ESA and NASA in 2008 [1] and prioritized second for a launch around 2023-2025. TSSM comprises a Titan Orbiter provided by NASA that would carry two Titan in situ elements provided by ESA: a montgolfiere and a lake-landing lander. The mission would arrive 9 years later for a 4-year duration in the Saturn system. Following delivery of the ESA in situ elements to Titan, the Titan Orbiter would explore the Saturn system via a 2-year tour that includes Enceladus and Titan flybys. The montgolfiere would last at least 6 months at Titan and the lake lander 8-10 hours. Following the Saturn system tour, the Titan Orbiter would culminate in a 2-year orbit around Titan. References 1. TSSM and EJSM NASA/ESA Joint Summary Report, 16 January 2009 2. Coustenis et al. (2008). TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission. Experimenta( Astron-omy, 23, 893-946. 3. Coustenis, A.,

Coustenis, Athena

163

Mission building blocks for outer solar system exploration.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of the technological building blocks required for exploring the outer planets with maximum scientific yields under stringent resource constraints. Two generic spacecraft types are considered: the Mariner and the Pioneer. Following a discussion of the outer planet mission constraints, the evolutionary development of spacecraft, probes, and propulsion building blocks is presented. Then, program genealogies are shown for Pioneer and Mariner missions and advanced propulsion systems to illustrate the soundness of a program based on spacecraft modification rather than on the development of new spacecraft for each mission. It is argued that, for minimum costs, technological advancement should occur in an evolutionary manner from mission to mission. While this strategy is likely to result in compromises on specific missions, the realization of the overall objectives calls for an advance commitment to the entire mission series.

Herman, D.; Tarver, P.; Moore, J.

1973-01-01

164

Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of exploration at the destinations. Finally, interstellar trip times are assessed at milli-g acceleration levels.

Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

2014-01-01

165

Introducing NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and the moons of Mars. Comprised of competitively selected teams across the U.S., a growing number of international partnerships around the world, and a small central office located at NASA Ames Research Center, the institute advances collaborative research to bridge science and exploration goals. As a virtual institute, SSERVI brings unique skills and collaborative technologies for enhancing collaborative research between geographically disparate teams. SSERVI is jointly funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate and the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. Current U.S. teams include: Dr. Jennifer L. Heldmann, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; Dr. William Farrell, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; Prof. Carl Pieters, Brown University, Providence, RI; Prof. Daniel Britt, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL; Prof. Timothy Glotch, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY; Dr. Mihaly Horanyi, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Dr. Ben Bussey, Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD; Dr. David A. Kring, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX; and Dr. William Bottke, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO. Interested in becoming part of SSERVI? SSERVI Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) awards are staggered every 2.5-3yrs, with award periods of five-years per team. SSERVI encourages those who wish to join the institute in the future to engage current teams and international partners regarding potential collaboration, and to participate in focus groups or current team activities now. Joining hand in hand with international partners is a winning strategy for raising the tide of Solar System science around the world. Non-U.S. science organizations can propose to become either Associate or Affiliate members on a no-exchange-of-funds basis. Current international partners include: Canada, Germany, Israel, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. Discussions are ongoing to bring several more partners into the fold. These partnerships have impacted lunar science in a number of ways, resulting in such efforts and groups as the Pan-European Lunar Science Consortium and the Canadian Sudbury Field School. For more information visit sservi.nasa.gov

Pendleton, Yvonne

166

Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System Misha Krassovski and Tom Boden Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production each year at global, regional, and national spatial scales. These estimates are vital to climate change research given the strong evidence suggesting fossil-fuel emissions are responsible for unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. The CDIAC fossil-fuel emissions time series are based largely on annual energy statistics published for all nations by the United Nations (UN). Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil-fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751 before the Industrial Revolution. From these core fossil-fuel CO2 emission time series, CDIAC has developed a number of additional data products to satisfy modeling needs and to address other questions aimed at improving our understanding of the global carbon cycle budget. For example, CDIAC also produces a time series of gridded fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates and isotopic (e.g., C13) emissions estimates. The gridded data are generated using the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011) and provide monthly and annual estimates for 1751-2008 at 1 latitude by 1 longitude resolution. These gridded emission estimates are being used in the latest IPCC Scientific Assessment (AR4). Isotopic estimates are possible thanks to detailed information for individual nations regarding the carbon content of select fuels (e.g., the carbon signature of natural gas from Russia). CDIAC has recently developed a relational database to house these baseline emissions estimates and associated derived products and a web-based interface to help users worldwide query these data holdings. Users can identify, explore and download desired CDIAC fossil-fuel CO2 emissions data. This presentation introduces the architecture and design of the new relational database and web interface, summarizes the present state and functionality of the Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Database and Exploration System, and highlights future plans for expansion of the relational database and interface.

Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.

2012-04-01

167

Exploring No-SQL alternatives for ALMA monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. This paper describes the experience gained after several years working with the monitoring system, which has a strong requirement of collecting and storing up to 150K variables with a highest sampling rate of 20.8 kHz. The original design was built on top of a cluster of relational database server and network attached storage with fiber channel interface. As the number of monitoring points increases with the number of antennas included in the array, the current monitoring system demonstrated to be able to handle the increased data rate in the collection and storage area (only one month of data), but the data query interface showed serious performance degradation. A solution based on no-SQL platform was explored as an alternative to the current long-term storage system. Among several alternatives, mongoDB has been selected. In the data flow, intermediate cache servers based on Redis were introduced to allow faster streaming of the most recently acquired data to web based charts and applications for online data analysis.

Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Merino, Patricio; Pea, Leonel; Bartsch, Marcelo; Aguirre, Alvaro; Ibsen, Jorge

2014-07-01

168

AES Huntington Beach Generation Station Surf Zone  

E-print Network

AES Huntington Beach Generation Station Surf Zone Water Quality Study Prepared For: California HUNTINGTON BEACH GENERATING STATION SURF ZONE WATER QUALITY STUDY Prepared for: California of the Applied Energy Services (AES) Huntington Beach Generating Station (AES HBGS) in 2001, a near shore beach

169

Drill System Development for the Lunar Subsurface Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaching the cold traps at the lunar poles and directly sensing the subsurface regolith is a primary goal of lunar exploration, especially as a means of prospecting for future In Situ Resource Utilization efforts. As part of the development of a lunar drill capable of reaching a depth of two meters or more, Honeybee Robotics has built a laboratory drill system with a total linear stroke of 1 meter, capability to produce as much as 45 N-m of torque at a rotational speed of 200 rpm, and a capability of delivering maximum downforce of 1000 N. Since this is a test-bed, the motors were purposely chosen to be relative large to provide ample power to the drill system (the Apollo drill was a 500 Watt drill, i.e. not small in current standards). In addition, the drill is capable of using three different drilling modes: rotary, rotary percussive and percussive. The frequency of percussive impact can be varied if needed while rotational speed can be held constant. An integral part of this test bed is a vacuum chamber that is currently being constructed. The drill test-bed is used for analyzing various drilling modes and testing different drill bit and auger systems under low pressure conditions and in lunar regolith simulant. The results of the tests are used to develop final lunar drill design as well as efficient drilling protocols. The drill was also designed to accommodate a downhole neutron spectrometer for measuring the amount of hydrated material in the area surrounding the borehole, as well as downhole temperature sensors, accelerometers, and electrical properties tester. The presentation will include history of lunar drilling, challenges of drilling on the Moon, a description of the drill and chamber as well as preliminary drilling test results conducted in the ice-bound lunar regolith simulant with a variety of drill bits and augers systems.

Zacny, Kris; Davis, Kiel; Paulsen, Gale; Roberts, Dustyn; Wilson, Jack; Hernandez, Wilson

170

An Approach to Spectropolarimetry for Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to spectropolarimetry is described which offers the prospect of high sensitivity over a very wide wavelength range (FUV, NUV, optical, NIR, MIR). Using static, robust components the polarization information is encoded onto one dimension of a two-dimensional data array, while the other dimension records the spectrum. No moving parts are required and all polarimetric information is available on a single data frame, hence the technique is immune to time dependencies, free of fragile modulating components, has the potential for high sensitivity while offering a wide wavelength range with full Stokes spectropolarimetry. In the Solar System, space-based spectropolarimetry offers diagnostics for dust (cometary, zodiacal, rings), surfaces (rocky, regolith, icy), aerosols (clouds, dust storms) and high energy plasma emission processes. Beyond the Solar System, space-based telescopic spectropolarimetry has important contributions to make in the detection of extrasolar planets and their characterization. There are astrobiological applications for full Stokes polarimetry stemming from the interaction of light with chiral living organisms, which offers the potential for a remote sensing detection capability for microbial life. The proposed instrumentation concept is exceptionally well-suited to future exploration missions given its light weight, small size and robustness, coupled to a versatile and powerful generic diagnostic method, spectropolarimetry.

Sparks, William B.

2013-10-01

171

Exploring flexible strategies in engineering systems using screening models : applications to offshore petroleum projects  

E-print Network

Engineering Systems, such as offshore petroleum exploration and production systems, generally require a significant amount of capital investment under various technical and market uncertainties. Choosing appropriate designs ...

Lin, Jijun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

172

Design of an unmanned Martian polar exploration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an unmanned Martian polar exploration system is presented. The system elements include subsystems for transportation of material from earth to Mars, study of the Martian north pole, power generation, and communications. Early next century, three Atlas 2AS launch vehicles will be used to insert three Earth-Mars transfer vehicles, or buses, into a low-energy transfer orbit. Capture at Mars will be accomplished by aerobraking into a circular orbit. Each bus contains four landers and a communications satellite. Six of the twelve total landers will be deployed at 60 deg intervals along 80 deg N, and the remaining six landers at 5 deg intervals along 30 deg E from 65 deg N to 90 deg N by a combination of retrorockets and parachutes. The three communications satellites will be deployed at altitudes of 500 km in circular polar orbits that are 120 deg out of phase. These placements maximize the polar coverage of the science and communications subsystems. Each lander contains scientific equipment, two microrovers, power supplies, communications equipment, and a science computer. The lander scientific equipment includes a microweather station, seismometer, thermal probe, x-ray spectrometer, camera, and sounding rockets. One rover, designed for short-range (less than 2 km) excursions from the lander, includes a mass spectrometer for mineral analysis, an auger/borescope system for depth profiling, a deployable thermal probe, and charge coupled device cameras for terrain visualization/navigation. The second rover, designed for longer-range (2-5 km) excursions from the lander, includes radar sounding/mapping equipment, a seismometer, and laser ranging devices. Power for all subsystems is supplied by a combination of solar cells, Ni-H batteries, and radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Communications are sequenced from rovers, sounding rockets, and remote sensors to the lander, then to the satellites, through the Deep Space Network to and from earth.

Baldwin, Curt; Chitwood, Denny; Demann, Brian; Ducheny, Jordan; Hampton, Richard; Kuhns, Jesse; Mercer, Amy; Newman, Shawn; Patrick, Chris; Polakowski, Tony

1994-01-01

173

Acoustic emission characterization using AE (parameter) delay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acoustic emission (AE) parameter delay concept is defined as that particular measured value of a parameter at which a specified baseline level of cumulative AE activity is reached. The parameter can be from any of a broad range of elastic, plastic, viscoelastic, and fracture mechanics parameters, as well as their combinations. Such parameters include stress, load, strain, displacement, time, temperature, loading cycle, unloading stress, stress intensity factor, strain energy release rate, and crack tip plasticity zone size, while the AE activity may be AE event counts, ringdown counts, energy, event duration, etc., as well as their combinations. Attention is given to examples for the AE parameter delay concept, together with various correlations.

Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

1983-01-01

174

The invention that opened the solar system to exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention of gravity-propelled interplanetary space travel (also known as "gravity-assist trajectories") in the early 1960s broke the high-energy barrier of classical space travel based on reaction propulsion, and made possible the exploration of the entire solar system with instrumented spacecraft. In this concept, a free-fall spacecraft is launched from a launch planet P 1 to a nearby planet P 2 such that its gravitational field (superimposed on the gravitational field of the Sun) catapults the vehicle to another planet P 3, which in turn is used to repeat the process. Thus, through a series of planetary encounters, a gravity-propelled trajectory P 1-P 2-P 3-P 4--P N is generated. This paper describes how the invention was conceived and how the difficult mathematical problem of computing the trajectories was solved in order to numerically investigate and use the invention in actual missions. The crucial roles played by the UCLA Computing Facility and the Departments of Mathematics and Physics are also described.

Minovitch, Michael A.

2010-05-01

175

AE aeronomy studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Chemical processes in the thermosphere and ionosphere using AE data were studied. These data were analyzed and interpreted in such a way as to verify and correct laboratory measured rate coefficients, obtain values for rate coefficients not measured in the laboratory, and to reveal and correct inadequacies in existing models of thermospheric chemistry. This activity stimulated new work in the laboratory measurement of rate coefficients by revealing errors in existing measurements and by suggesting new measurements that need to be made.

Walker, J.C.G.

1983-03-01

176

Radio Aurora Explorer: Mission science and radar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) satellite is the first of several satellites funded under the NSF CubeSat-based Space Weather and Atmospheric Research Program. RAX is a ground-to-space bi-static radar remote sensing experiment designed to measure and understand the causes of meter-scale ionospheric irregularities. Also known as field-aligned irregularities (FAI), such non-thermal, coherent fluctuations of electron density occur in response to strong ionospheric flows or plasma density gradients during geomagnetic disturbances and are considered a space weather concern due to disruption to communication and navigation signals. The RAX CubeSat was launched in November 2010 and conducted a single experiment in coordination with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar. Due to geophysical inactivity, e.g., lack of strong ionospheric electric fields and low ionospheric densities, no FAI were expected or observed. However, the radar receiver payload operation was successfully demonstrated, including the capability to sense signals as low as -110 dBm, the capability of transmitter-receiver synchronization and accurate ranging, processing of 1.2 GB of raw radar data on board in less than 1 hour, and the downlink of the science results within three-four passes. Analysis of the payload data shows that the noise level is sufficiently low. Although the interference level is a concern, it does not appear to significantly limit the measurements. Toward the end of December 2010, the solar power system gradually degraded and the mission terminated in early February 2011 after prolonged loss of contact with the satellite. Meanwhile, RAX II was launched in October 2011 to a polar orbit. This paper describes the RAX science and radar system and presents the results from the first experiment conducted.

Bahcivan, H.; Cutler, J. W.

2012-04-01

177

Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production at global, regional, and national spatial scales. The CDIAC emission time series estimates are based largely on annual energy statistics published at the national level by the United Nations (UN). CDIAC has developed a relational database to house collected data and information and a web-based interface to help users worldwide identify, explore and download desired emission data. The available information is divided in two major group: time series and gridded data. The time series data is offered for global, regional and national scales. Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). The gridded data presents annual and monthly estimates. Annual data presents a time series recording 1 latitude by 1 longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2008 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2011), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these tabular, national, mass-emissions data and distribute them spatially on a one degree latitude by one degree longitude grid. The within-country spatial distribution is achieved through a fixed population distribution as reported in Andres et al. (1996). This presentation introduces newly build database and web interface, reflects the present state and functionality of the Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Database and Exploration System as well as future plans for expansion.

Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

2012-12-01

178

NASA Langley Research Center Systems Analysis & Concepts Directorate Participation in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Systems Analysis & Concepts Directorate (SACD) began studying human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) in the year 1999. This included participation in NASA s Decadal Planning Team (DPT), the NASA Exploration Team (NExT), Space Architect studies and Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) architecture studies that were used in formulating the new Vision for Space Exploration. In May of 2005, NASA initiated the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The primary outputs of the ESAS activity were concepts and functional requirements for the Crewed Exploration Vehicle (CEV), its supporting launch vehicle infrastructure and identification of supporting technology requirements and investments. An exploration systems analysis capability has evolved to support these functions in the past and continues to evolve to support anticipated future needs. SACD had significant roles in supporting the ESAS study team. SACD personnel performed the liaison function between the ESAS team and the Shuttle/Station Configuration Options Team (S/SCOT), an agency-wide team charged with using the Space Shuttle to complete the International Space Station (ISS) by the end of Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The most significant of the identified issues involved the ability of the Space Shuttle system to achieve the desired number of flights in the proposed time frame. SACD with support from the Kennedy Space Center performed analysis showing that, without significant investments in improving the shuttle processing flow, that there was almost no possibility of completing the 28-flight sequence by the end of 2010. SACD performed numerous Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) trades to define top level element requirements and establish architecture propellant needs. Configuration trades were conducted to determine the impact of varying degrees of segmentation of the living capabilities of the combined descent stage, ascent stage, and other elements. The technology assessment process was developed and implemented by SACD as the ESAS architecture was refined. SACD implemented a rigorous and objective process which included (a) establishing architectural functional needs, (b) collection, synthesis and mapping of technology data, and (c) performing an objective decision analysis resulting in technology development investment recommendations. The investment recommendation provided budget, schedule, and center/program allocations to develop required technologies for the exploration architecture, as well as the identification of other investment opportunities to maximize performance and flexibility while minimizing cost and risk. A summary of the trades performed and methods utilized by SACD for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESAS) activity is presented along with how SACD is currently supporting the implementation of the Vision for Space Exploration.

Keyes, Jennifer; Troutman, Patrick A.; Saucillo, Rudolph; Cirillo, William M.; Cavanaugh, Steve; Stromgren, Chel

2006-01-01

179

An operations and command systems for the extreme ultraviolet explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About 40% of the budget of a scientific spacecraft mission is usually consumed by Mission Operations & Data Analysis (MO&DA) with MO driving these costs. In the current practice, MO is separated from spacecraft design and comes in focus relatively late in the mission life cycle. As a result, spacecraft may be designed that are very difficult to operate. NASA centers have extensive MO expertise but often lessons learned in one mission are not exploited for other parallel or future missions. A significant reduction of MO costs is essential to ensure a continuing and growing access to space for the scientific community. We are addressing some of these issues with a highly automated payload operations and command system for an existing mission, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). EUVE is currently operated jointly by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), responsible for spacecraft operations, and the Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Astrophysics (CEA) of the University of California, Berkeley, which controls the telescopes and scientific instruments aboard the satellite. The new automated system is being developed by a team including personnel from the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA). An important goal of the project is to provide AI-based technology that can be easily operated by nonspecialists in AI. Another important goal is the reusability of the techniques for other missions. Models of the EUVE spacecraft need to be built both for planning/scheduling and for monitoring. In both cases, our modeling tools allow the assembly of a spacecraft model from separate sub-models of the various spacecraft subsystems. These sub-models are reusable; therefore, building mission operations systems for another small satellite mission will require choosing pre-existing modules, reparametrizing them with respect to the actual satellite telemetry information, and reassembling them in a new model. We briefly describe the EUVE mission and indicate why it is particularly suitable for the task. Then we briefly outline our current work in mission planning/scheduling and spacecraft and instrument health monitoring.

Muscettola, Nicola; Korsmeyer, David J.; Olson, Eric C.; Wong, Gary

1994-01-01

180

Propulsion Health Management System Development for Affordable and Reliable Operation of Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique integrated system health management capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays, all require an integrated approach to health management that can span distinct, yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. Propulsion is a critical part of any space exploration mission, and monitoring the health of the propulsion system is an integral part of assuring mission safety and success. Health management is a somewhat ubiquitous technology that encompasses a large spectrum of physical components and logical processes. For this reason, it is essential to develop a systematic plan for propulsion health management system development. This paper provides a high-level perspective of propulsion health management systems, and describes a logical approach for the future planning and early development that are crucial to planned space exploration programs. It also presents an overall approach, or roadmap, for propulsion health management system development and a discussion of the associated roadblocks and challenges.

Melcher, Kevin J.; Maul, William A.; Garg, Sanjay

2007-01-01

181

How to Extend the Capabilities of Space Systems for Long Duration Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For sustainable Exploration Missions the need exists to assemble systems-of-systems in space, on the Moon or on other planetary surfaces. To fulfill this need new and innovative system architecture is needed that can be satisfied with the present lift capability of existing rocket technology without the added cost of developing a new heavy lift vehicle. To enable ultra-long life missions with minimum redundancy and lighter mass the need exists to develop system soft,i,are and hardware reconfigurability, which enables increasing functionality and multiple use of launched assets while at the same time overcoming any components failures. Also the need exists to develop the ability to dynamically demate and reassemble individual system elements during a mission in order to work around failed hardware or changed mission requirements. Therefore to meet the goals of Space Exploration Missions in hiteroperability and Reconfigurability, many challenges must be addressed to transform the traditional static avionics architecture into architecture with dynamic capabilities. The objective of this paper is to introduce concepts associated with reconfigurable computer systems; review the various needs and challenges associated with reconfigurable avionics space systems; provide an operational example that illustrates the needs applicable to either the Crew Exploration Vehicle or a collection of "Habot like" mobile surface elements; summarize the approaches that address key challenges to acceptance of a Flexible, Intelligent, Modular and Affordable reconfigurable avionics space system.

Marzwell, Neville I.; Waterman, Robert D.; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

182

How to Extend the Capabilities of Space Systems for Long Duration Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For sustainable Exploration Missions the need exists to assemble systems-of-systems in space, on the Moon or on other planetary surfaces. To fulfill this need new and innovative system architectures must be developed to be modularized and launched with the present lift capability of existing rocket technology. To enable long duration missions with minimal redundancy and mass, system software and hardware must be reconfigurable. This will enable increased functionality and multiple use of launched assets while providing the capability to quickly overcome components failures. Additional required capability includes the ability to dynamically demate and reassemble individual system elements during a mission in order to recover from failed hardware or to adapt to changes in mission requirements. To meet the Space Exploration goals of Interoperability and Reconfigurability, many challenges must be addressed to transform the traditional static avionics architectures into architectures with dynamic capabilities. The objective of this paper is to introduce concepts associated with reconfigurable computer systems; to review the various needs and challenges associated with reconfigurable avionics space systems; to provide an operational example that illustrates the application to both the Crew Exploration Vehicle and a collection of 'Habot-like' mobile surface elements; to summarize the approaches that address key challenges to the acceptance of a Flexible, Intelligent, Modular, Affordable and Reconfigurable avionics space system.

Marzwell, Neville I.; Waterman, Robert D.; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Waterman, Susan J.

2005-01-01

183

The AMPTE Charge Composition Explorer science data system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrument complement on all three Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) spacecraft is devoted to the conduction of the unified measurements which are required to achieve the scientific aims. A single science data base for each spacecaft has, therefore, been established with the objective to facilitate unified analysis. The data are kept in Science Data Centers in the U.S., West Germany, and the United Kingdom. The Science Data Center dedicated to the Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) is located at the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University where it was developed. The present paper is concerned with aspects of the computing center's design, development and operations.

Holland, B. B.; Utterback, H. K.; Nylund, S. R.

1985-01-01

184

Ocean Exploration: Exploring Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson serves as an introduction to the discoveries and benefits that have resulted from exploration of the Earth's deep oceans. Students will be able to describe at least three human benefits from and identify separate examples of deep ocean exploration. All of the lessons emphasize hands-on activities using online data resources, and each inquiry-based activity includes focus questions, learning objectives, teaching time, background information, evaluations and extensions, as well as resources and student handouts.

185

AES Key Agility Issues in High-Speed IPsec Implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some high-speed IPsec hardware systems need to support many thousands of security associations. The cost of switching among differen t encryption keys can dramatically affect throughput, particularly for the very common case of small packets. Three of the AES finalists (Rijndael, Serpent, and Twofish) provide very high key agility, as is required for such applications. The other two candidates (MARS,

Doug Whiting; Bruce Schneier; Steve Bellovin

2000-01-01

186

Intelligent Systems Technologies for Human Space Exploration Mission Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human space flight and exploration continues to be a key goal of the NASA, with an emphasis on utilizing new technologies to improve the effectiveness, efficiencies and safety associated with this endeavor, including the ground-based mission support. This search for improvement has led to cross- fertilization between the advanced software development community and the manned spaceflight operations community within NASA.

Ernest E. Smith; David J. Korsmeyer

2011-01-01

187

Exploring nursing e-learning systems success based on information system success model.  

PubMed

E-learning is thought of as an innovative approach to enhance nurses' care service knowledge. Extensive research has provided rich information toward system development, courses design, and nurses' satisfaction with an e-learning system. However, a comprehensive view in understanding nursing e-learning system success is an important but less focused-on topic. The purpose of this research was to explore net benefits of nursing e-learning systems based on the updated DeLone and McLean's Information System Success Model. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to collected 208 valid nurses' responses from 21 of Taiwan's medium- and large-scale hospitals that have implemented nursing e-learning systems. The result confirms that the model is sufficient to explore the nurses' use of e-learning systems in terms of intention to use, user satisfaction, and net benefits. However, while the three exogenous quality factors (system quality, information quality, and service quality) were all found to be critical factors affecting user satisfaction, only information quality showed a direct effect on the intention to use. This study provides useful insights for evaluating nursing e-learning system qualities as well as an understanding of nurses' intentions and satisfaction related to performance benefits. PMID:21543971

Chang, Hui-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Feng; Hwang, Hsin-Ginn

2011-12-01

188

Towards Efficient Design Space Exploration of Heterogeneous Embedded Media Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern signal processing and multimedia embedded systems increas- ingly have heterogeneous system architectures. In these systems, programmable processors provide flexibility to support multiple applications, while dedicated hardware blocks provide high performance for time-critical application tasks. The heterogeneity of these embedded systems and the varying demands of their grow- ing number of target applications greatly complicate the system design. As part

Andy D. Pimentel; Simon Polstra; Frank Terpstra; A. W. Van Halderen; Joseph E. Coffland; Louis O. Hertzberger

2002-01-01

189

Advances in autonomous systems for space exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operation, including distributed autonomous systems, flight test results, and implications and directions for future systems.

Smith, B. D.; Gross, A. R.; Clancy, D. J.; Cannon, H. N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Muscettola, N.; Chien, S.; Johnson, A.

2001-01-01

190

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems related to an unmanned exploration of the planet Mars by means of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle are investigated. These problems include: design, construction and evaluation of the vehicle itself and its control and operating systems. More specifically, vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, propulsion, hazard detection systems, terrain sensing and modelling, obstacle detection concepts, path selection, decision-making systems, and chemical analyses of samples are studied. Emphasis is placed on development of a vehicle capable of gathering specimens and data for an Augmented Viking Mission or to provide the basis for a Sample Return Mission.

Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. Y.

1975-01-01

191

Adverse Effects (AEs) of Topical NSAIDs in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis (OA): a Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective To systematically review the literature on reported adverse effects (AEs) associated with topical NSAID use in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A systematic search of Medline (1950 to November 2009), Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases, Dissertation and American College of Rheumatology Meeting Abstracts was performed to identify original randomized controlled trials, case reports, observational studies, editorials or dissertations reporting AEs from topical NSAIDs in older adults with OA. Information was sought on study and participant characteristics, detailed recording of application site and systemic AEs as well as withdrawals due to AEs. Results The initial search yielded 953 articles of which 19 met eligibility criteria. Subjects receiving topical NSAIDs reported up to 39.3% application site AEs, and up to 17.5% systemic AEs. Five cases of warfarin potentiation with topical agents were reported; 1 resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding. In formal trials, the withdrawal rate from AEs ranged from 0-21% in the topical agents, 0-25% in the oral NSAIDs, and 0-16% in the placebo group. Conclusion In summary, although topical NSAIDs are safer than oral NSAIDs (fewer severe gastrointestinal AEs), a substantial proportion of older adults report systemic AEs with topical agents. Moreover, the withdrawal rate due to AEs with topical agents is comparable to that of oral NSAIDs. Given the safety profile and withdrawal rates described in this study, further data are needed to determine the incremental benefits of topical NSAIDs compared to other treatment modalities in older adults with OA. PMID:20360183

Makris, UE.; Kohler, MJ.; Fraenkel, L.

2010-01-01

192

Fission Technology for Exploring and Utilizing the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation space systems will build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost,

Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbub, Ivana; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

193

AE Alumni Seek to Endow Award in Memory of AE Student Records Staff Assistant, Sharron Williams  

E-print Network

AE Alumni Seek to Endow Award in Memory of AE Student Records Staff Assistant, Sharron Williams as the Sharron E. Williams Memorial Scholarship in AE. The current fund is not endowed with Penn State and thus are launching a campaign to finally endow the award in Sharron's memory. We have a good start, but need your

Guiltinan, Mark

194

Bicarbonate homeostasis in excitable tissues: role of AE3 Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and carbonic anhydrase XIV interaction.  

PubMed

Bicarbonate transport and metabolism are key elements of normal cellular function. Two alternate transcripts of anion exchanger 3 (AE3), full-length (AE3fl) and cardiac (AE3c), are expressed in central nervous system (CNS), where AE3 catalyzes electroneutral Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange across the plasma membrane of neuronal and glial cells of CNS. Anion exchanger isoforms, AE3fl and AE3c, associate with the carbonic anhydrases (CA) CAII and CAIV, forming a HCO(3)(-) transport metabolon, to maximize HCO(3)(-) flux across the plasma membrane. CAXIV, with catalytic domain anchored to the extracellular surface, is also expressed in CNS. Here physical association of AE3 and CAXIV was examined by coimmunoprecipitation experiments, using mouse brain and retinal lysates. CAXIV immunoprecipitated with anti-AE3 antibody, and both AE3 isoforms were immunoprecipitated using anti-CAXIV antibody, indicating CAXIV and AE3 interaction in the CNS. Confocal images revealed colocalization of CAXIV and AE3 in Mller and horizontal cells, in the mouse retina. Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity of AE3fl was investigated in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells, using intracellular fluorescence measurements of BCECF, to monitor intracellular pH. CAXIV increased the rate of AE3fl-mediated HCO(3)(-) transport by up to 120%, which was suppressed by the CA inhibitor acetazolamide. Association of AE3 and CAXIV may represent a mechanism to enhance disposal of waste CO(2) and to balance pH in excitable tissues. PMID:19692653

Casey, Joseph R; Sly, William S; Shah, Gul N; Alvarez, Bernardo V

2009-11-01

195

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks have been under study: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of a dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer sybsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

1972-01-01

196

Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following tasks related to the design, construction, and evaluation of a mobile planetary vehicle for unmanned exploration of Mars are discussed: (1) design and construction of a 0.5 scale dynamic vehicle; (2) mathematical modeling of vehicle dynamics; (3) experimental 0.4 scale vehicle dynamics measurements and interpretation; (4) vehicle electro-mechanical control systems; (5) remote control systems; (6) collapsibility and deployment concepts and hardware; (7) design, construction and evaluation of a wheel with increased lateral stiffness, (8) system design optimization; (9) design of an on-board computer; (10) design and construction of a laser range finder; (11) measurement of reflectivity of terrain surfaces; (12) obstacle perception by edge detection; (13) terrain modeling based on gradients; (14) laser scan systems; (15) path selection system simulation and evaluation; (16) gas chromatograph system concepts; (17) experimental chromatograph separation measurements and chromatograph model improvement and evaluation.

Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Moyer, W. R.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

1973-01-01

197

New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

NONE

1995-12-08

198

Exploration System Mission Directorate and Constellation Program Support for Analogue Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vision: To create a cross-cutting Earth-based program to minimize cost and risk while maximizing the productivity of planetary exploration missions, by supporting precursor system development and carrying out system integration, testing, training, and public engagement as an integral part of the Vision for Space Exploration.

Hoffman, Stephen J.; Voels, Stephen A.; Gerty, Christopher E.

2008-01-01

199

Human Research ProgramHuman Research Program Human System Risk in Exploration and  

E-print Network

Human Research ProgramHuman Research Program Human System Risk in Exploration and the Human Research Program 21SEP10 1HRP Risk Process ­ D Grounds #12;Human Research ProgramHuman Research Program Human System Risks in Exploration Missions 21SEP10 2HRP Risk Process ­ D.Grounds Presentation contents

Waliser, Duane E.

200

SEEDEEP: A System for Exploring and Querying Scientific Deep Web Data Sources  

E-print Network

SEEDEEP: A System for Exploring and Querying Scientific Deep Web Data Sources Fan Wang Gagan that are hidden behind query forms, thus forming what is re- ferred to as the deep web. In this paper, we propose SEEDEEP, a System for Exploring and quErying scientific DEEP web data sources. SEEDEEP is able

Agrawal, Gagan

201

Revolutionary Design for Astronaut Exploration Beyond the Bio-Suit System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bio-Suit System is designed to revolutionize human space exploration by providing enhanced astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) locomotion and performance based on the concepts of a second skin capability. The novel Bio-Suit concept provides an overall exploration system realized through symbiotic relationships between a suite of advanced technologies, creative design, human modeling and analysis, and new mission operations techniques. By

Dava J. Newman; Marita Canina; Guillermo L. Trotti

2007-01-01

202

Revolutionary Design for Astronaut Exploration - Beyond the Bio-Suit System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bio-Suit System is designed to revolutionize human space exploration by providing enhanced astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) locomotion and performance based on the concepts of a `second skin' capability. The novel Bio-Suit concept provides an overall exploration system realized through symbiotic relationships between a suite of advanced technologies, creative design, human modeling and analysis, and new mission operations techniques. By

Dava J. Newman; Marita Canina; Guillermo L. Trotti

2007-01-01

203

Acoustic Emission (AE) of fiberglass insulation material  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop an effective and accurate way to monitor and control the quality of fiberglass products, Acoustic Emission (AE) signals, generated during compression of fiberglass samples, were studied and analyzed using neural network based pattern recognition software. Distinguishable patterns were found in samples manufactured under different conditions and compositions, which resulted in different product quality. AE waveform features,

Fong Shu; Valery Godinez; Richard Finlayson

2004-01-01

204

Metrics for design space exploration of heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of designing heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems. The focus is on a step of the design flow: the definition of innovative metrics for the analysis of the system specification to statically identify the most suitable processing elements class for each system functionality. Experimental results are also included, to show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed

Donatella Sciuto; Fabio Salice; Luigi Pomante; William Fornaciari

2002-01-01

205

Efficient system design space exploration using machine learning techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer manufacturers spend a huge amount of time, resources, and money in designing new systems and newer configurations, and their ability to reduce costs, charge competitive prices and gain market share depends on how good these systems perform. In this work, we develop predictive models for estimating the performance of systems by using performance numbers from only a small fraction

Berkin zisikyilmaz; Gokhan Memik; Alok N. Choudhary

2008-01-01

206

The AE-8 trapped electron model environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The machine sensible version of the AE-8 electron model environment was completed in December 1983. It has been sent to users on the model environment distribution list and is made available to new users by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). AE-8 is the last in a series of terrestrial trapped radiation models that includes eight proton and eight electron versions. With the exception of AE-8, all these models were documented in formal reports as well as being available in a machine sensible form. The purpose of this report is to complete the documentation, finally, for AE-8 so that users can understand its construction and see the comparison of the model with the new data used, as well as with the AE-4 model.

Vette, James I.

1991-01-01

207

Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model.

Bloomfield, H.S.

1987-12-01

208

Life Support System Technologies for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Mars Life Support Test series successfully demonstrated integration and operation of advanced technologies for closed-loop life support systems, including physicochemical and biological subsystems. Increased closure was obtained when targeted technologies, such as brine dewatering subsystems, were added to further process life support system byproducts to recover resources. Physicochemical and biological systems can be integrated satisfactorily to achieve desired levels of closure. Imbalances between system components, such as differences in metabolic quotients between human crews and plants, must be addressed. Each subsystem or component that is added to increase closure will likely have added costs, ranging from initial launch mass, power, thermal, crew time, byproducts, etc., that must be factored into break even analysis. Achieving life support system closure while maintaining control of total mass and system complexity will be a challenge.

Ewert, Michael K.

2007-01-01

209

Mated Flight Control Issues for Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several unique issues related to mated flight control have been broadly identified. These issues include redundancies in subsystems, controllability, command and control authority distribution, information flow across elements, and changes and variability in system characteristics due to variable mated configurations during operations. Architectural options for mated flight control are discussed in the context of evolving space systems.

Lim, Kyong B.; Markley, F. Landis; Whorton, Mark S.

2006-01-01

210

Exploring Localization In Bayesian Networks For Large Expert Systems  

E-print Network

and Michael P. Beddoes Expert Systems Laboratory, Centre for Systems Science Simon Fraser University, Burnaby Columbia Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1W5, poole@cs.ubc.ca Department of Electrical Engineering, University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1W5, mikeb@ee.ubc.ca Abstract Current Bayesian

Xiang, Yang

211

Spacewalker: Automated Design Space Exploration for Embedded Computer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of automated design of a computer system for an embedded application. The computer system to be designed consists of a VLIW processor and\\/or a customized systolic array, along with a cache subsystem comprising a data cache, instruction cache and second-level unified cache. Several algorithms for \\

Greg Snider

2001-01-01

212

Hierarchical design space exploration for a class of digital systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an architectural synthesis approach for a widely used class of digital systems characterized by inherent regularity in their description. This approach relies on a novel modeling or abstraction of the problem domain to facilitate a hierarchical solution method. The modeling is based on exploiting the inherent regularity in the system description to cluster its behavioral operations. The

D. Sreenivasa Rao; Fadi J. Kurdahi

1993-01-01

213

Exploring Complex Systems Aspects of Blackout Risk and Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Electric power transmission systems are a key infrastructure, and blackouts of these systems have major consequences for the economy and national security. Analyses of blackout data suggest that blackout size distributions have a power law form over much of their range. This result is an indication that blackouts behave as a complex dynamical system. We use a simulation of an upgrading power transmission system to investigate how these complex system dynamics impact the assessment and mitigation of blackout risk. The mitigation of failures in complex systems needs to be approached with care. The mitigation efforts can move the system to a new dynamic equilibrium while remaining near criticality and preserving the power law region. Thus, while the absolute frequency of blackouts of all sizes may be reduced, the underlying forces can still cause the relative frequency of large blackouts to small blackouts to remain the same. Moreover, in some cases, efforts to mitigate small blackouts can even increase the frequency of large blackouts. This result occurs because the large and small blackouts are not mutually independent, but are strongly coupled by the complex dynamics.

Newman, David E [University of Alaska; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2011-01-01

214

Beyond Earth's boundaries: Human exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an annual report describing work accomplished in developing the knowledge base that will permit informed recommendations and decisions concerning national space policy and the goal of human expansion into the solar system. The following topics are presented: (1) pathways to human exploration; (2) human exploration case studies; (3) case study results and assessment; (4) exploration program implementation strategy; (5) approach to international cooperation; (6) recommendations; and (7) future horizons.

1991-01-01

215

Design of high performance management and control system of nano-satellite for distributed space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-satellite is a kind of advanced and effective tool for space exploration. And the nano-satellite formation flight technology becomes more and more important in distributed space exploration. Thus a design of high performance management and control system (named MCS) of nano-satellite for formation space exploration is presented in this paper. Different with traditional design concept for satellites, MCS adopts a

Ke Sun; Jiancheng Fang; Zhuangsheng Zhu; Xuechao Wei

2008-01-01

216

Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

2014-01-01

217

Exploring creative activity: a software environment for multimedia systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines various issues related to the theory, design, and implementation of a system that supports creative activity for a multimedia environment. The system incorporates artificial intelligence notions to acquire concepts of the problem domain. This paper investigates this environment by considering a model that is a basis for a system, which supports a history of user interaction. A multimedia system that supports creative activity is problematic. It must function as a tool allowing users to experiment dynamically with their own creative reasoning process--a very nebulous task environment. It should also support the acquisition of domain knowledge so that empirical observation can be further evaluated. This paper aims to illustrate that via the reuse of domain-specific knowledge, closely related ideas can be quickly developed. This approach is useful in the following sense: Multimedia navigational systems hardcode referential links with respect to a web or network. Although users can access or control navigation in a nonlinear (static) manner, these referential links are 'frozen' and can not capture their creative actions, which are essential in tutoring or learning applications. This paper describes a multimedia assistant based on the notion of knowledge- links, which allows users to navigate through creative information in a nonlinear (dynamic) fashion. A selection of prototype code based on object-oriented techniques and logic programming partially demonstrates this.

Farrett, Peter W.; Jardine, David A.

1992-03-01

218

In-ice acoustic positioning system for the Enceladus Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IceMole, a combination of melting and drilling probe, which is able to move and steer through ice and take samples while doing so, can be used to install instruments in ice. In addition to the inertial navigation system, the ice-craft will be equipped with an acoustic positioning system, composed of receivers in the probe itself and several emitters (pinger) on the glacier surface. It will determine the position of the IceMole by measuring the signal propagation time and trilateration, which requires a solid knowledge of the propagation of acoustic signals in ice. A method to determine these properties during the operation of the IceMole will be developed. Here we will give an overview over the goals of the project and the design of the IceMole. We will present the status of the development of the acoustic positioning system and show the results of simulations on the positioning accuracy.

Hoffmann, Ruth; EnEx Collaboration

2013-05-01

219

Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

2003-01-01

220

The Role of Trust in Postadoption IT Exploration: An Empirical Examination of Knowledge Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine trust in information tech- nology's (IT) relationship with postadoption exploration of knowl- edge management systems (KMS). We introduce and distinguish between trust in IT and trust in IT support staff as object-specific beliefs that influence technology's infusion into organizations. We suggest that these object-specific beliefs' influence on intention to explore KMS is mediated by behavioral

Jason Bennett Thatcher; D. Harrison McKnight; Elizabeth White Baker; Riza Ergun Arsal; Nicholas H. Roberts

2011-01-01

221

Reliability and Availability Analysis for the JPL Remote Exploration and Experimentation System  

E-print Network

Reliability and Availability Analysis for the JPL Remote Exploration and Experimentation System Raphael.R.Some@jpl.nasa.gov, Allen.P.Nikora@jpl.nasa.gov Abstract The NASA Remote Exploration the award JPL REE 1216658. ÝCorresponding Author (kst@ee.duke.edu). been developed to test, refine

Dharmaraja, S.

222

A composite computational model of liver glucose homeostasis. Part 2: Exploring system behaviour  

E-print Network

ForReview Only A composite computational model of liver glucose homeostasis. Part 2: Exploring-DISCIPLINARY SCIENCES Keywords: computational modeling, glucose homeostasis, liver, bifurcation analysis http glucose homeostasis. Part 2: Exploring system behaviour T. Sumner4 , J. Hetherington1,2 , R.M. Seymour1

Finkelstein, Anthony

223

Exploring the Solar System with a Human Orrery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the fundamental learning goals of introductory astronomy is for the students to gain some perspective on the scale and structure of the solar system. Many astronomy teachers have laid out the planets along a long strip of paper1 or across a school grounds or campus.2 Other activities that investigate the motion of the planets are often computer based,34 hiding the awe-inspiring distances between the planets. Our human orrery activity, adapted from the design at the Armagh Observatory in Ireland,567 combines the best of both approaches by creating a working model of the solar system that mimics both the scale and the motion of the planets.

Newbury, Peter

2010-12-01

224

A Comparative Study of Value Systems for Self-Motivated Exploration and Learning by Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of different value systems have been proposed for self-motivated agents, including biologically and cognitively inspired approaches. Likewise, these value systems have been integrated with different behavioral systems including reflexive architectures, reward-based learning and supervised learning. However, there is little literature comparing the performance of different value systems for motivating exploration and learning by robots. This paper proposes a

Kathryn Elizabeth Merrick

2010-01-01

225

Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into students'

Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

2012-01-01

226

Exploring the Solar System with a Human Orrery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the fundamental learning goals of introductory astronomy is for the students to gain some perspective on the scale and structure of the solar system. Many astronomy teachers have laid out the planets along a long strip of paper or across a school grounds or campus. Other activities that investigate the motion of the planets are often

Newbury, Peter

2010-01-01

227

Exploring the information space: a strategic perspective on information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Thinking on information systems has tended to conflate data, information and knowledge. Intelligent agents convert data into information and thence into knowledge,through a two-step filtering process that is guided by the possession of prior knowledge. Agents, however, have finite brains and intelligence, and often encounter more data and information than they can process or store. To deal with the

Max Boisot

2004-01-01

228

Neural network: an exploration in document retrieval system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As more and more information is stored electronically, the demand for intelligent methods becomes increasingly urgent. The basic belief underlying this research is that a truly helpful document retrieval system must understand what the user is looking for. A neural network has information processing structure attributes for adaptation to fulfil the needs within an information environment. These attributes are suitable

Fakulti Teknologi

2000-01-01

229

Exploring the success factors of Electronic Health Record systems adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our era with the innovations in the telecommunications and information technologies; use of e- electronic services has increased in many areas. Health is one of affected these areas by technologies. In the last decades Health Information Systems (HIS) have developed many new technologies. Telemedicine, telehealth and electronic health records can be counted as the main areas in this industry.

Orhun M. Kok; Nuri Basoglu; Tugrul Daim

2011-01-01

230

Exploring the weak limit of gravity at Solar System scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precision tracking of multiple spacecraft in the outer Solar System has shown an unmodelled perturbation, consisting of a small, constant, radial acceleration directed towards the Sun. Since its detection, a great deal of work has been devoted to explaining this Pioneer effect, both in terms of spacecraft-generated systematics and external physical causes. Its continuing importance is found in the fact

Gary L. Page

2009-01-01

231

Exploring Individual Differences in Attitudes toward Audience Response Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine individual differences in attitudes toward Audience Response Systems (ARSs) in secondary school classrooms. Specifically, the impact of gender, grade, subject area, computer comfort level, participation level, and type of use were examined in 659 students. Males had significantly more positive attitudes

Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

2009-01-01

232

An experimental approach to explore cleaner systems for desalination membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic fouling massively influences the performance of polymer membranes used in desalination processes. Due to the complexity of the fouling processes there is no complete picture of the involved interactions yet and targeted strategies to overcome membrane fouling are missing [1]. Defined and reproducible testing strategies are essential for the successful development of effective cleaner systems. To address this need,

Markus Rckel; Stephan Nied; Gregor Schrmann

2011-01-01

233

An interactive expert system for daylighting design exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architects increasingly use digital tools during the design process, particularly as they approach such complex problems as designing for successful daylighting performance. However, while simulation tools may provide the designer with valuable information, they do not necessarily guide the user toward design changes which will improve performance. This paper proposes an interactive, goal-based expert system for daylighting design, intended for

Jaime M. L. Gagne; Marilyne Andersen; Leslie K. Norford

2011-01-01

234

Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems: a horizon sensor/attitude reference system based on the dragonfly Ocelli for Mars exploration applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of Bio-inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) is to distill the principles found in successful, nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods, but accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological oganisms.

Thakoor, S.; Zornetzer, S.; Hine, B.; Chahl, J.; Stange, G.

2002-01-01

235

Mariner Mark II and the Exploration of the Solar System.  

PubMed

Mariner Mark II is a concept for the next generatioon of deep-space missions. The project would provide limited, focused sets of Voyager- and Galileo-quality planetary observations at a fraction of the cost of the Voyager and Galileo projects. This article discusses Mariner Mark II's cost goals, scientific objectives, and mission requirements. Strategies for limiting costs include the use of a reconfigurable spacecraft, a multimission ground-support system, and selected new technologies. PMID:17742805

Neugebauer, M

1983-02-01

236

Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

Habibi, Mohammad S.

2013-03-01

237

Unique abilities of hopper spacecraft to enable national objectives for solar system exploration  

E-print Network

In comparison with conventional and other conceived approaches, hopper spacecraft offer unique advantages in exploring Solar System objects beyond Earth. The present work began with a survey - based on documents from the ...

Lanford, Ephraim Robert

2011-01-01

238

Lightweight, High Performance, Low Cost Propulsion Systems for Mars Exploration Missions to Maximize Science Payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of new cold hypergolic propellants and leverage Missile Defense Agency technology for propulsion systems on Mars explorations will provide an increase of science payload and have significant payoffs and benefits for NASA missions.

Trinh, H. P.

2012-06-01

239

MEASURING THE ANS IN CHILDREN Measuring the Approximate Number System in children: Exploring the  

E-print Network

MEASURING THE ANS IN CHILDREN 1 Measuring the Approximate Number System in children: Exploring the relationships among different tasks THE ANS IN CHILDREN 2 Abstract Research has demonstrated that children

Inglis, Matthew

240

Development of a mechanical counter pressure Bio-Suit System for planetary exploration  

E-print Network

Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is critical for human spaceflight and particularly for human planetary exploration. The MIT Man Vehicle Laboratory is developing a Bio-Suit EVA System, based on mechanical counterpressure ...

Sim, Zhe Liang

2006-01-01

241

PLAN-IT - Scheduling assistant for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A frame-based expert scheduling system shell, PLAN-IT, is developed for spacecraft scheduling in the Request Integration Phase, using the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission as a development base. Basic, structured, and expert scheduling techniques are reviewed. Data elements such as activity representation and resource conflict representation are discussed. Resource constraints include minimum and maximum separation times between activities, percentage of time pointed at specific targets, and separation time between targeted intervals of a given activity. The different scheduling technique categories and the rationale for their selection are also considered.

Dias, William C.; Henricks, Julia A.; Wong, Jennifer C.

1987-01-01

242

PLAN-IT: Scheduling assistant for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A frame-based expert scheduling system shell, PLAN-IT, is developed for spacecraft scheduling in the Request Integration Phase, using the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission as a development base. Basic, structured, and expert scheduling techniques are reviewed. Data elements such as activity representation and resource conflict representation are discussed. Resource constraints include minimum and maximum separation times between activities, percentage of time pointed at specific targets, and separation time between targeted intervals of a given activity. The different scheduling technique categories and the rationale for their selection are also considered.

Dias, William C.; Henricks, Julia A.; Wong, Jennifer C.

1987-01-01

243

A Comparison of Electric Propulsion Systems for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth-Mars trajectories for multiple solar-powered spacecraft configurations were generated using Hall and ion propulsion systems utilizing the Direct Trajectory Optimization Method. Payload and power trades versus trip time were examined. Performance was compared for purely interplanetary flight and interplanetary flight with estimated spiral in to Mars orbit. Evaluating current ion and Hall thruster technologies, similar payload masses were delivered by each at equivalent trip times, but with the Hall thruster operating at a power level 10 kilowatts, on average, less than the ion thruster. The power difference for equivalent payload delivered should result in a significant cost savings.

Fiehler, Douglas; Oleson, Steve

2003-01-01

244

Systems approach to explore components and interactions in the presynapse  

PubMed Central

The application of proteomic techniques to neuroscientific research provides an opportunity for a greater understanding of nervous system structure and function. As increasing amounts of neuroproteomic data become available, it is necessary to formulate methods to integrate these data in a meaningful way to obtain a more comprehensive picture of neuronal subcompartments. Furthermore, computational methods can be used to make biologically relevant predictions from large proteomic datasets. Here, we applied an integrated proteomics and systems biology approach to characterize the presynaptic nerve terminal. For this, we carried out proteomic analyses of presynaptically enriched fractions, and generated a presynaptic literature-based protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. We combined these with other proteomic analyses to generate a core list of 117 presynaptic proteins, and used graph theory-inspired algorithms to predict 92 additional components and a presynaptic complex containing 17 proteins. Some of these predictions were validated experimentally, indicating that the computational analyses can identify novel proteins and complexes in a subcellular compartment. We conclude that the combination of techniques (proteomics, data integration, and computational analyses) used in this study are useful in obtaining a comprehensive understanding of functional components, especially low-abundance entities and/or interactions in the presynaptic nerve terminal. PMID:19562802

Abul-Husn, Noura S.; Bushlin, Ittai; Moron, Jose A.; Jenkins, Sherry L.; Dolios, Georgia; Wang, Rong; Iyengar, Ravi; Ma'ayan, Avi; Devi, Lakshmi A.

2009-01-01

245

Design space exploration of stochastic System-of-Systems simulations using adaptive sequential experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexities of our surrounding environments are becoming increasingly diverse, more integrated, and continuously more difficult to predict and characterize. These modeling complexities are ever more prevalent in System-of-System (SoS) simulations where simulation run times can surpass real-time and are often dictated by stochastic processes and non-continuous emergent behaviors. As the number of connections continue to increase in modeling environments and the number of external noise variables continue to multiply, these SoS simulations can no longer be explored with traditional means without significantly wasted computational resources. This research will discuss the defining features of an SoS and many of the issues plaguing the SoS industry. Then, it will move to a literature review of the concepts currently used to explore design spaces, and finally, it will explore a set of two cascading research areas which will culminate in an adaptive sequential design of experiments for SoS simulations. The first research area will investigate the key features to SoS and the attributes of these SoS which are important to be identified while exploring their simulations. To complete this investigation, first SoS properties are deduced from SoS's relationship to its super-class, complex systems. Second, following this examination, properties are further induced by investigating notional SoS simulations. From these two research avenues it will be discovered these spaces are nonparametric, conditionally variant, non-normally and non-identically distributed. Further, attributes of the output metrics are identified that will increase the likelihood of locating interesting regions of SoS simulations. The knowledge and information gained from this first research focus is used in developing and comparing existing techniques capable of capturing SoS attributes. Several methods from the literature are compared on numerous stochastic mathematical problems and a single notional SoS simulation to determine their relative performance. From this comparison it will be shown that there are currently no methods capable of learning both the mean and variance of these complex spaces. Although the best method will be shown to be the MARS algorithm for generic high dimensional stochastic problems, it will be shown to be inadequate for SoS simulations. Finally, these two research areas will enable the synthesis of an adaptive sequential algorithm capable of exploring stochastic simulations with emphasis on the attributes common to SoS. This final research area will determine strategically where to place points in the design space to improve its predictive capability. The final algorithm will be tested on an identical set of stochastic mathematical problems and the notional SoS simulation from the second research area, but will also include a published high dimensional SoS simulation. The final method will be shown to improve the exploration of stochastic simulations over existing methods by increased global accuracy, the number of simulations required to learn the space, and the computational speed.

Kernstine, Kemp H., Jr.

246

Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

1992-01-01

247

A Mixed-level Co-simulation Method for System-level Design Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sesame modeling and simulation framework aims at efficient system-level design space exploration of embedded multimedia systems. A primary objective of Sesame is the exploration at multiple levels of abstraction. As such, it targets gradual refinement of its (initially abstract) archi- tecture performance models while maintaining architecture- independent application specifications. In this paper, we present a mixed-level co-simulation method, called

Mark Thompson; Andy D. Pimentel; Simon Polstra; Cagkan Erbas

2006-01-01

248

Solar System Exploration - Probing Below the Surface of Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of this classroom activity, students will record and graph temperature data to learn about the search for water on Mars. Using models of frozen and ice-free "soils" constructed from readily available materials (a list is provided), they will examine (by periodically measuring temperature and graphing the results) how the ice content of the Martian soil affects the rate at which a warm probe will cool. This activity is part of NASA's Solar System Educators Program, a nationwide network of teachers who lead workshops that show other teachers how to successfully incorporate NASA materials and research into their classes. This activity is correlated to National Science Education Standards and NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics.

2004-07-21

249

Exploring Manycore Multinode Systems for Irregular Applications with FPGA Prototyping  

SciTech Connect

We present a prototype of a multi-core architecture implemented on FPGA, designed to enable efficient execution of irregular applications on distributed shared memory machines, while maintaining high performance on regular workloads. The architecture is composed of off-the-shelf soft-core cores, local interconnection and memory interface, integrated with custom components that optimize it for irregular applications. It relies on three key elements: a global address space, multithreading, and fine-grained synchronization. Global addresses are scrambled to reduce the formation of network hot-spots, while the latency of the transactions is covered by integrating an hardware scheduler within the custom load/store buffers to take advantage from the availability of multiple executions threads, increasing the efficiency in a transparent way to the application. We evaluated a dual node system irregular kernels showing scalability in the number of cores and threads.

Ceriani, Marco; Palermo, Gianluca; Secchi, Simone; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

2013-04-29

250

Radioisotope Power Systems for In-situ Exploration of Titan and Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the timeline for the robotic in situ investigation of Titan and Venus, and the use of radioisotope power systems in this exploration. The atmospheric and surface conditions of both sites are reviewed. The presentation also examines the conceptual design of the Venus Mobile Explorer and the Titan orbiter and in situ explorer. After this the presentation reviews the radioisotope power systems for each of the vehicles, with some explanation of the different requirements based on the vastly different environments that they would be investigating

Balint, Tibor S.

2006-01-01

251

Analysis of Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) for Deep Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project is developing a modular approach to spacecraft power systems for exploration beyond Earth orbit. AMPS is intended to meet the need of reducing the cost of design development, test and integration and also reducing the operational logistics cost of supporting exploration missions. AMPS seeks to establish modular power building blocks with standardized electrical, mechanical, thermal and data interfaces that can be applied across multiple exploration vehicles. The presentation discusses the results of a cost analysis that compares the cost of the modular approach against a traditional non-modular approach.

Oeftering, Richard; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Ray

2014-01-01

252

Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

1998-01-01

253

Nuclear Electric Propulsion: A ``Better, Safer, Cheaper'' Transportation System for Human Exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for ``split-sprint'' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology

John S. Clark; Jeffrey A. George; Leon P. Gefert; Michael P. Doherty; Robert J. Sefcik

1994-01-01

254

Nuclear Electric Propulsion: A Better, Safer, Cheaper Transportation System for Human Exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for split-sprint human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology

John S. Clark; Jeffrey A. George; Leon P. Gefert; Michael P. Doherty; Robert J. Sefcik

1994-01-01

255

Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology

John S. Clark; Jeffrey A. George; Leon P. Gefert; Michael P. Doherty; Robert J. Sefcik

1994-01-01

256

Prof. Daniel J. Bodony AE412/ME411, Fall 2012  

E-print Network

Landau & Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics Currie, Fundamental Mechanics of Fluids Schlichting, Boundary LayerProf. Daniel J. Bodony AE412/ME411, Fall 2012 Handout #1 Viscous Fluid Flow & Heat Transfer Website http://acoustics.ae.uiuc.edu, click on `AE412/ME411' Instructor Prof. Daniel J. Bodony (AE) Office 313

Gao, Grace Xingxin

257

Crew systems: integrating human and technical subsystems for the exploration of space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration missions will require combining human and technical subsystems into overall "crew systems" capable of performing under the rigorous conditions of outer space. This report describes substantive and conceptual relationships among humans, intelligent machines, and communication systems, and explores how these components may be combined to complement and strengthen one another. We identify key research issues in the combination of humans and technology and examine the role of individual differences, group processes, and environmental conditions. We conclude that a crew system is, in effect, a social cyborg, a living system consisting of multiple individuals whose capabilities are extended by advanced technology.

Connors, M. M.; Harrison, A. A.; Summit, J.

1994-01-01

258

Electric Propulsion Concepts Enabled by High Power Systems for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the latest development in electric propulsion systems being planned for the new Space Exploration initiative. Missions to the Moon and Mars will require these new thrusters to deliver the large quantities of supplies that would be needed to support permanent bases on other worlds. The new thrusters are also being used for unmanned exploration missions that will go to the far reaches of the solar system. This paper is intended to give the reader some insight into several electric propulsion concepts their operating principles and capabilities, as well as an overview of some mission applications that would benefit from these propulsion systems, and their accompanying advanced power systems.

Gilland, James; Fiehler, Douglas; Lyons, Valerie

2005-01-01

259

Explorations of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the majority of the world's energy demand is met by the consumption of exhaustible fuel supplies. Consequently, it is urgent to research and develop viable alternatives. In this dissertation, I present research that addresses fundamental questions concerning how water interacts with surfaces and solutes, with the goal of identifying novel systems for energy production and storage. Electrokinetic currents are created when moving fluid entrains charge from the diffuse portion of an electric double layer and carries that charge downstream. The potential difference that develops on either end of the channel is known as the streaming potential. Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on electrokinetic energy production and conversion efficiency of liquid microjets. Section 1 of Chapter 2 presents proof-of-principle research demonstrating that molecular hydrogen is generated from electrokinetic currents in liquid water microjets. Hydrogen is generated when hydrated protons are preferentially carried downstream and recombine with electrons at a grounded target electrode. Both the current and hydrogen production scale nearly quadratically with flow rate, as predicted by equations derived from simple double layer theory and fluid mechanics. The efficiency is currently very low (ca 10-6) and is limited by the low electrokinetic current (nA). Designs to improve this efficiency are considered. Rather than chemical conversion efficiency, Section 2 of Chapter 2 investigates the electrical conversion efficiency of liquid water microjets. Typical electrokinetic energy conversion schemes measure current or voltage via electrodes in the fluid reservoirs on either side of a channel. With this design, the streaming potential drives a current against the flow of the fluid and, consequently, limits the conversion efficiency. In contrast, liquid microjets break up into droplets before reaching the downstream electrode and this eliminates the possibility for back conduction. As a result, liquid microjets yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%, much larger than channel-dependent measurements (3%). It is the large potentials obtainable with electrokinetic currents (tens of kilovolts) that drive up the electrical conversion efficiency. Unfortunately, low currents with high voltages are inconvenient for application. Section 3 of Chapter 2 describes efforts to utilize the high voltage of electrokinetic currents by coupling light into the process. More specifically, the streaming potential is used to modify the space charge layer in a semiconductor and, consequently, the light harvesting characteristics of that semiconductor. To this end, microchannel jets fabricated out of glass and silicon were built to allow light to impinge on the current generating surface. Although plagued with inconsistent results, streaming currents were found to increase upon illumination and some channels even gave measurable responses to ambient room lights. Chapter 3 of this dissertation addresses the details of hydration of boron-oxides and sodium borohydride as studied by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and associated theory. Boron-oxides and molecular hydrogen are products of borohydride hydrolysis which has been intensely studied for hydrogen storage purposes. In spite of their hydroxide moieties, boron-oxides turn out to not be strongly hydrated by water. The experimental spectra, as well as attending calculations, show no evidence for electronic coupling that would indicate strong hydrogen bonding between the boron-oxides and water. On the other hand, the NEXAFS spectrum of sodium borohydride is significantly altered by water. The experiment and calculations show strong evidence for short dihydrogen bonds between water hydrogens and borohydride hydrogens. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that borohydride is hydrated at the tetrahedral corners and edge.

Duffin, Andrew Mark

260

Architecting the Communication and Navigation Networks for NASA's Space Exploration Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. A key objective of the missions is to grow, through a series of launches, a system of systems communication, navigation, and timing infrastructure at minimum cost while providing a network-centric infrastructure that maximizes the exploration capabilities and science return. There is a strong need to use architecting processes in the mission pre-formulation stage to describe the systems, interfaces, and interoperability needed to implement multiple space communication systems that are deployed over time, yet support interoperability with each deployment phase and with 20 years of legacy systems. In this paper we present a process for defining the architecture of the communications, navigation, and networks needed to support future space explorers with the best adaptable and evolable network-centric space exploration infrastructure. The process steps presented are: 1) Architecture decomposition, 2) Defining mission systems and their interfaces, 3) Developing the communication, navigation, networking architecture, and 4) Integrating systems, operational and technical views and viewpoints. We demonstrate the process through the architecture development of the communication network for upcoming NASA space exploration missions.

Bhassin, Kul B.; Putt, Chuck; Hayden, Jeffrey; Tseng, Shirley; Biswas, Abi; Kennedy, Brian; Jennings, Esther H.; Miller, Ron A.; Hudiburg, John; Miller, Dave; Jeffries, Alan; Sartwell, Tom

2007-01-01

261

AES Encryption and Decryption Using Direct3D 10 API  

E-print Network

Current video cards (GPUs - Graphics Processing Units) are very programmable, have become much more powerful than the CPUs and they are very affordable. In this paper, we present an implementation for the AES algorithm using Direct3D 10 certified GPUs. The graphics API Direct3D 10 is the first version that allows the use of integer operations, making from the traditional GPUs (that works only with floating point numbers), General Purpose GPUs that can be used for a large number of algorithms, including encryption. We present the performance of the symmetric key encryption algorithm - AES, on a middle range GPU and on a middle range quad core CPU. On the testing system, the developed solution is almost 3 times faster on the GPU than on one single core CPU, showing that the GPU can perform as an efficient cryptographic accelerator.

Chiuta, Adrian Marius

2012-01-01

262

Comparison of sample preparation methods for the ICP-AES determination of minor and major elements in clarified apple juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used for the determination of minor and major elements present in apple juices. Prior to ICP-AES measurement, samples were diluted with nitric acid or digested in a microwave assisted digestion system. The differences in the measured element concentrations after application of different types of sample preparation procedures are discussed. The direct measurement

Iva Juranovi? Cindri?; Michaela Zeiner; Michaela Krppl; Gerhard Stingeder

2011-01-01

263

2010 NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate: Lunabotics Mining Competition Systems Engineering Paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fast growing approach in determining the best design concept for a problem is to hold a competition in which the rules are based on requirements similar to the actual problem. By going public with such competitions, sponsoring entities receive some of the most innovative engineering solutions in a fraction of the time and cost it would have taken to develop such concepts internally. Space exploration is a large benefactor of such design competitions as seen by the results of X-Prize Foundation and NASA lunar excavation competitions [1]. The results of NASA's past lunar excavator challenges has led to the need for an effective means of collecting lunar regolith in the absence of human beings. The 2010 Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Lunar Excavation Challenge was created "to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, or STEM, in a competitive environment that may result in innovative ideas and solutions, which could be applied to actual lunar excavation for NASA." [2]. The ESMD Challenge calls for "teams to use telerobotics or autonomous operations to excavate at least 10kg of lunar regolith simulant in a 15 minute time limit" [2]. The Systems Engineering approach was used in accordance with Auburn University's mechanical engineering senior design course (MECH 4240-50) to develop a telerobotic lunar excavator, seen in Fig. 1, that fulfilled requirements imposed by the NASA ESMD Competition Rules. The goal of the senior design project was to have a validated lunar excavator that would be used in the NASA ESMD lunar excavation challenge.

2010-01-01

264

Biomorphic Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

Thakoor, Sarita

1999-01-01

265

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

2010-01-01

266

Doing more with less - The new way of exploring the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of the solar system is considered in the light of existing economic factors and scientific priorities, and a general blueprint for an exploration strategy is set forth. Attention is given to mission costs, typical schedules, and the scientific findings of typical projects which create the need for collaboration and diversification in mission development. The combined technologies and cooperative efforts of several small organizations can lead to missions with short schedules and low costs.

Ridenoure, Rex

1992-01-01

267

SystemCoDesigner: automatic design space exploration and rapid prototyping from behavioral models  

Microsoft Academic Search

SystemCoDesigner is an ESL tool developed at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany. SystemCoDesigner offers a fast design space exploration and rapid prototyping of behavioral Sys- temC models. Together with Forte Design Systems, a fully auto- mated approach was developed by integrating behavioral synthesis into the design flow. Starting from a behavioral SystemC model, hardware accelerators can be generated automatically using

Christian Haubelt; Thomas Schlichter; Joachim Keinert; Mike Meredith

2008-01-01

268

I3D: An Interactive System for Exploring Annotated 3D Environments  

E-print Network

]. The effectiveness of interactive 3D viewers for communicating information about 3D environments can be dramaticallyI3D: An Interactive System for Exploring Annotated 3D Environments AICA'95 Scientific Visualization-mail: {gobbetti|balaguer}@crs4.it ABSTRACT In this paper, we present I3D, a system that combines the 3D input

269

Rule Migration: Exploring a design framework for modelling emergence in CA-like systems  

E-print Network

Rule Migration: Exploring a design framework for modelling emergence in CA-like systems Heather R that allows system specification and design at the level of the emergence. We discuss how rule migration can. In this paper, we use a case study in 2D to illustrate the process involved in deriving a migration rule

Stepney, Susan

270

Engineering America's Future in Space: Systems Engineering Innovations for Sustainable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews systems engineering innovations for Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. The contents include: 1) NASA's Exploratoin Roadmap; 2) Launch Vehicle Comparisons; 3) Designing the Ares I and Ares V in House; 4) Exploring the Moon; and 5) Systems Engineering Adds Value Throughout the Project Lifecycle.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Caruso, Pamela W.; Jones, Carl P.

2008-01-01

271

Design exploration and HW/SW rapid prototyping for real-time system design Sylvain Huet  

E-print Network

Design exploration and HW/SW rapid prototyping for real-time system design Sylvain Huet LESTER Lab time to prototype. To address this prob- lem, we propose a system-level design based methodology- ification to the prototyping and implementation. In section 3 our approach is applied to prototype

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

A Touring Machine: Prototyping 3D Mobile Augmented Reality Systems for Exploring the Urban Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a prototype system that combines together the overlaid 3D graphics of augmented reality with the untethered freedom of mobile computing. The goal is to explore how these two technologies might together make possible wearable computer systems that can support users in their everyday interactions with the world. We introduce an application that presents information about our univer- sity's

Steven Feiner; Blair Macintyre; Tobias Hllerer; Anthony Webster

1997-01-01

273

Operationalizing sustainability: exploring options for environmentally friendly flower bulb production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current production systems for flower bulbs in the Netherlands employ considerable quantities of pesticides and nutrients per unit area. In 1993, an association of growers and environmentalists set out to design new farming systems that meet environmental objectives in addition to economic objectives. To support the design process, an explorative study was carried out to bring together the fragmented agronomic

Walter A. H. Rossing; Jan Eelco Jansma; Frank J. De Ruijter; Jan Schans

1997-01-01

274

Definition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems  

E-print Network

Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems By Bryan K. Smith Submitted to the System Design, expansion and screening of Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power concepts capable of achieving planetaryDefinition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear

275

Understanding the Chena Hot Springs, Alaska, geothermal system using temperature and pressure data from exploration boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chena Hot Springs is a small, moderate temperature, deep circulating geothermal system, apparently typical of those associated to hot springs of interior Alaska. Multi-stage drilling was used in some exploration boreholes and was found to be useful for understanding subsurface flow characteristics and developing a conceptual model of the system. The results illustrate how temperature profiles illuminate varying pressure versus

Kamil Erkan; Gwen Holdmann; Walter Benoit; David Blackwell

2008-01-01

276

Stepping into futures: exploring the potential of interactive media for participatory scenarios on social ecological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a strategy for the development of interactive media scenarios to help communicate uncertainties and complexities in coupled human and natural systems. Insights arising from Complex Adaptive Systems theory advocate the need for more adaptive perspectives on natural resources management. For the collaborative exploration of future complexities and uncertainties, participatory scenario development has proven to be

J. M. Vervoort; K. Kok; Lammeren van R. J. A; A. Veldkamp

2010-01-01

277

Exploring the free-energy landscapes of biological systems with steered molecular dynamics  

E-print Network

1 Exploring the free-energy landscapes of biological systems with steered molecular dynamics fluctuation-dissipation-theorem (BD -FDT) to accurately compute the free-energy profiles for several compute the free-energy profiles for all the afore-listed systems that represent various important aspects

Chen, Liao Y.

278

Exploring the Solar System: A Literature Unit within a Whole Language Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A useful framework for literature-based instruction is the curriculum related literature unit which provides a total resource for content area teaching. Such a unit could be based on the science curriculum, "Exploring the Solar System," and could be developed thematically through topics of space or the solar system. The teacher's initial step is

Sandel, Lenore

279

The photoelectron-spectrometer experiment on Atmosphere Explorer.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atmosphere Explorer (AE) photoelectron spectrometer experiment consists of electrostatic deflection-type electron spectrometers designed to measure the low-energy electron flux expected to be encountered along the AE orbit. The system has been designed to provide general information on the intensity, angular distribution, energy spectrum, and net flows along field lines as well as sufficient energy resolution to allow the fine details of the electron-energy spectrum to be studied. The instrumentation consists of two separate electron-spectrometer detector heads connected to a common electronics system for data processing and telemetry interfacing. The experiment will measure the electron-energy spectrum from 2 to 500 eV (and possibly to less than 0.1 eV).

Doering, J. P.; Bostrom, C. O.; Armstrong, J. C.

1973-01-01

280

Advanced AE Techniques in Composite Materials Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been successfully used to evaluate damage mechanisms in laboratory testing of composite coupons. An example is presented in which the initiation of transverse matrix cracking was monitored. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite specimens or structures, the effects of modal wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. To demonstrate these effects, measurements of the far field, peak amplitude attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels are discussed. These measurements demonstrated that the flexural mode attenuation is dominated by dispersion effects. Thus, it is significantly affected by the thickness of the composite plate. Furthermore, the flexural mode attenuation can be significantly larger than that of the extensional mode even though its peak amplitude consists of much lower frequency components.

Prosser, William H.

1996-01-01

281

Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

2013-03-01

282

Environmental Controls and Life Support System (ECLSS) Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

Stambaugh, Imelda; Sankaran, Subra

2010-01-01

283

Attitude control system conceptual design for the X-ray timing explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) satellite is the next in a long series of Explorer-class missions developed by NASA. It will study the structure and dynamics of compact X-ray sources, neutron stars, white dwarfs, and other stellar objects with X-ray energy emissions. The demanding pointing requirement of XTE are driving the attitude control system design. This design is further complicated by large moving instruments which impart significant momentum on the spacecraft. The attitude control system concept to meet the XTE science objectives is discussed.

Bauer, Frank H.; Femiano, Michael D.; Mosier, Gary E.

1992-01-01

284

Opportunities within NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate for Engineering Students and Faculty  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2006, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) launched two new Educational Projects: (1) The ESMID Space Grant Student Project ; and (2) The ESM1D Space Grant Faculty Project. The Student Project consists of three student opportunities: exploration-related internships at NASA Centers or with space-related industry, senior design projects, and system engineering paper competitions. The ESMID Space Grant Faculty Project consists of two faculty opportunities: (1) a summer faculty fellowship; and (2) funding to develop a senior design course.

Garner, Lesley

2008-01-01

285

A Sensitivity-Based Design Space Exploration Methodology for Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a system-level design methodology for the efficient exploration of the architectural parameters of the memory sub-systems, from the energy-delay joint perspective. The aim is to find the best configuration of the memory hierarchy without performing the exhaustive analysis of the parameters space. The target system architecture includes the processor, separated instruction and data caches, the

WILLIAM FORNACIARI; DONATELLA SCIUTO; CRISTINA SILVANO; VITTORIO ZACCARIA

2002-01-01

286

Gaining system design knowledge by systematic design space exploration with graph based design languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual design phase in the design of complex systems such as satellite propulsion systems heavily relies on an exploration of the feasible design space. This exploration requires both: topological changes in the potential system architecture and consistent parametrical changes in the dimensioning of the existing system components. Since advanced engineering design techniques nowadays advocate a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach, graph-based design languages which embed a superset of MBSE-features are consequently used in this work to systematically explore the feasible design space. Design languages allow the design knowledge to be represented, modeled and executed using model-based transformations and combine this among other features with constraint processing techniques. The execution of the design language shown for the satellite propulsion systems in this work yields topologically varied designs (i.e. the selection of a monergol, a diergol or a coldgas system) with consistent parameters. Based on an a posteriori performance analysis of the automatically generated system designs, novel system knowledge (most notably in form of so-called "topology change points") can be gained and extracted from the original point cloud of numerical results.

Schmidt, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan

2014-10-01

287

Multiple Independent Introductions of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Identified in China: What Are the Implications for Prevention?  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-1 CRF01_AE accounts for an important fraction of HIV infections in Asia including China, but little is known about the phylogenetic and evolutionary history of this CRF (circulating recombinant form). In the current study, we collected a large number of 1,957 CRF01_AE gag p17 sequences with known sampling year (1990-2010) from 5 global regions representing 15 countries to better understand the phylogenetic relationships and epidemic history of CRF01_AE strains in China. Methodology/Principal Findings CRF01_AE gag p17 sequences were retrieved from public databases to explore phylogenetic relationships and phylogeographic dynamics of CRF01_AE in Asia by using maximum-likelihood phylogenetics and Bayesian coalescent-based analyses. We found close phylogenetic relationships between sequences from Thailand, Vietnam and China. Moreover, at least 5 independent introductions and 5 independent autochthonous clades of CRF01_AE, which descended from Thailand or Vietnam were identified in China from 1991 through 2003. Conclusion/Significance The current study not only defines the migration of CRF01_AE clades to/in Asia, but also demonstrates the criticalness of identifying the circulating strains in the population for the development of vaccine and microbicides. PMID:24282546

Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing

2013-01-01

288

Multiplicity study of Herbig Ae/Be stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a high resolution imaging survey to study the multiplicity of Herbig Ae/Be stars. 143 stars were observed with Adaptive Optics imaging, during two separate periods: 1993-1996 and 2005-2007. A total of 248 companions were detected, around 87 primary stars. 69 system were found to be likely true multiple systems, based on a statistical analysis. A complementary study for those stars for which multi-epoch data exists, confirms the results for almost all of the stars of this subset providing their proper motion is large enough and the multi-epoch data spanned a long enough time period.

Van Der Bliek, Nicole S.; Thomas, Sandrine; Rodgers, Bernadette; Bouvier, Jerome; Araya, Claudia; Doppmann, Greg; Cordero, Maria Jose

2014-06-01

289

Earth Exploration Toolbook: Step-by-Step Guides for Investigating Earth System Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) is a collection of step-by-step examples, called chapters, of the use of Earth system science resources in an educational context for the educational community. The resources include datasets, analysis tools, visualization tools, and other educational products. Each chapter features one specific resource. The chapters provide the non-expert teacher/educator with enough experience and in-depth knowledge of the featured resource to be able to use it in other contexts, and to help their students use the resource to explore and investigate issues in Earth system science. The purpose of the Earth Exploration Toolbook is to support the use of scientific datasets, tools, and other products developed and archived for the scientific community by the broader educational community.

2003-09-02

290

Operation and performance of the mars exploration rover imaging system on the martian surface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Imaging System on the Mars Exploration Rovers has successfully operated on the surface of Mars for over one Earth year. The acquisition of hundreds of panoramas and tens of thousands of stereo pairs has enabled the rovers to explore Mars at a level of detail unprecedented in the history of space exploration. In addition to providing scientific value, the images also play a key role in the daily tactical operation of the rovers. The mobile nature of the MER surface mission requires extensive use of the imaging system for traverse planning, rover localization, remote sensing instrument targeting, and robotic arm placement. Each of these activity types requires a different set of data compression rates, surface coverage, and image acquisition strategies. An overview of the surface imaging activities is provided, along with a summary of the image data acquired to date. ?? 2005 IEEE.

Maki, J.N.; Litwin, T.; Schwochert, M.; Herkenhoff, K.

2005-01-01

291

Design, development and testing of the x-ray timing explorer High Gain Antenna System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Gain Antenna System (HGAS), consisting of two High Gain Antenna Deployment Systems (HGADS) and two Antenna Pointing Systems (APS), is used to position two High Gain Antennas (HGA) on the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE). A similar APS will be used on the upcoming Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Both XTE and TRMM are NASA in-house satellites. The salient features of the system include the two-axis gimbal and control electronics of the APS and the spring deployment and latch/release mechanisms of the HGADS. This paper describes some of the challenges faced in the design and testing of this system and their resolutions.

Lecha, Javier; Woods, Claudia; Phan, Minh

1995-01-01

292

A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literary Analysis and Systems Engineering Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literary analysis of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current state of knowledge. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection. Keywords: planetary protection, human spaceflight requirements, human space exploration, human space operations, systems engineering, literature analysis

Johnson, James; Conley, Catharine; Siegel, Bette

293

Exploration Platform in the Earth-Moon Libration System Based on ISS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past two years on concepts using ISS development methods and residual assets to support a broad range of exploration missions. These concepts have matured along with planning details for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to allow serious consideration for a platform located in the Earth-Moon Libration (EML) system. This platform would provide a flexible basis for future exploration missions and would significantly reduce costs because it will enable re-use of expensive spacecraft and reduce the total number of launches needed to accomplish these missions. ISS provides a robust set of methods which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. We will show how ISS can be used to reduce risk and improve operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit through the development of a new Exploration Platform based in the EML system. The benefits of using the EML system as a gateway will be presented along with additional details of a lunar exploration mission concept. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. We will show how technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the new exploration challenge. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Finally, we will describe how the EML Platform could be built and deployed and how International access for crew and cargo could be provided.

Raftery, Michael; Derechin, Alexander

2012-01-01

294

Classroom Response Systems: Using Task Technology Fit to Explore Impact Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study is to determine how students are impacted by the use of Classroom Response System (CRS) technology. This research explores the nature of the outcomes experienced by students and their perceptions on the leading pedagogy and practices for using CRS technology in the classroom. The research is both quantitative and

Jones, Kenneth D., II.

2010-01-01

295

The use of geographical information systems in biodiversity exploration and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for applying geographical information systems (GIS) to exploring biodiversity in the wild relatives of crop species and illustrate its application to the wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). We use the latitude, longitude and altitude of the location of origin of each accession in a germplasm collection of wild P. vulgaris, along with long-term monthly mean

Peter G. Jones; Stephen E. Beebe; Joe Tohme; Nicholas W. Galwey

1997-01-01

296

Single molecule experiments in biophysics: exploring the thermal behavior of nonequilibrium small systems  

E-print Network

Single molecule experiments in biophysics: exploring the thermal behavior of nonequilibrium small systems. 1 Biomolecules, molecular demons and statistical physics. Biophysics is a relatively young reasons behind this general upsurge of interest, a very attractive aspect of biophysics is its strong

Ritort, Felix

297

Using Genetic Algorithms to Explore Pattern Recognition in the Immune System  

E-print Network

the construction of these receptors, so that an animal has the genetic capability of expressing over 1010 differentUsing Genetic Algorithms to Explore Pattern Recognition in the Immune System DRAFT July 28, 1993 Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 javornik@unmvax.cs.unm.edu Robert E. Smith Dept. of Engineering Mechanics

Forrest, Stephanie

298

Using Genetic Algorithms to Explore Pattern Recognition in the Immune System  

E-print Network

the construction of these receptors, so that an animal has the genetic capability of expressing over 10 10Using Genetic Algorithms to Explore Pattern Recognition in the Immune System DRAFT July 28, 1993 Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 javornik@unmvax.cs.unm.edu Robert E. Smith Dept. of Engineering Mechanics

Forrest, Stephanie

299

THE HEXATONIC SYSTEMS UNDER NEO-RIEMANNIAN THEORY: AN EXPLORATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL  

E-print Network

THE HEXATONIC SYSTEMS UNDER NEO-RIEMANNIAN THEORY: AN EXPLORATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF MUSIC KENNETH OSHITA Abstract. Neo-Riemannian theory developed as the mathematical analysis of musical harmonies, but of sound- ing atonal. Neo-Riemannian theory not only allowed for the mathematical

May, J. Peter

300

Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes  

E-print Network

reveal information on redox conditions within the solar nebula and alteration of meteorites in the early solar nebula, ii) the redox processes occurring in the solar nebula and meteorites and iii) the CrProject EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes Supervisors: Dr D

Henderson, Gideon

301

Retargetable profiling for rapid, early system-level design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast and accurate estimation is critical for exploration of any design space in general. As we move to higher levels of abstraction, estimation of complete system designs at each level of abstraction is needed. Estimation should provide a variety of useful metrics relevant to design tasks in different domains and at each stage in the design process.In this paper, we

Lukai Cai; Andreas Gerstlauer; Daniel Gajski

2004-01-01

302

Toward Systems Biology in Brown Algae to Explore Acclimation and Adaptation to the Shore Environment  

E-print Network

Toward Systems Biology in Brown Algae to Explore Acclimation and Adaptation to the Shore,2 Catherine Boyen,1,2 and Anne Siegel4,5 Abstract Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly siliculosus as a model organism for brown algae has represented a framework in which several omics techniques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD: from bees to BEES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of Bio-inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) is to distill the principles found in successful, nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods, but accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological organisms.

Thakoor, S.; Zornetzer, S.; Hine, B.; Chahl, J.; Werblin, F.; Srinivasan, M. V.; Young, L.

2003-01-01

304

Reliability and Availability Analysis for the JPL Remote Exploration and Experimentation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has the vision of bringing commercial supercomputing tech- nology into space, in a form which meets the demanding en- vironmental requirements, to enable a new class of science investigation and discovery. Dependability goals of the REE system are 99% reliability over 5 years and 99% avail-

Dong Chen; Selvamuthu Dharmaraja; Dongyan Chen; Lei Li; Kishor S. Trivedi; Raphael R. Some; Allen P. Nikora

2002-01-01

305

An experimental validation of system level design space exploration methodology for energy efficient sensor nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For closely deployed sensor nodes, computation energy along with radio energy determines the battery life. We have proposed a system level design space exploration methodology [1] for searching an energy efficient error correcting code (ECC). This methodology takes into account the computation and the radio energy in an integrated manner. In this paper we validate this methodology by deploying Imote2

Sonali Chouhan; M. Balakrishnan; Ranjan Bose

2009-01-01

306

Rapid Design Space Exploration of Application Specific Heterogeneous Pipelined Multiprocessor Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a rapid design methodology to create a pipeline of processors to execute streaming applications. The methodology seeks a system with the smallest area while its runtime is within a specified runtime constraint. Initially, a heuristic is used to rapidly explore a large number of processor configurations to find the near Pareto front of the design space, and

Haris Javaid; Aleksandar Ignjatovic; Sri Parameswaran

2010-01-01

307

Active Heat Rejection System on Mars Exploration Rover - Design Changes from Mars Pathfinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active Heat Rejection System designed for Mars Pathfinder was modified for the Mars Exploration Rover (Mars '03) mission and will be used to remove excess heat from the Rover electronics during the cruise part of the mission. The Integrated Pump Assembly design from MPF remained essentially intact; changes were primarily made to reduce weight. However, the cooling loop was

Gani B. Ganapathi; Gajanana C. Birur; Glenn T. Tsuyuki; Paul L. McGrath; Jack D. Patzold

2003-01-01

308

Active Heat Rejection System on Mars Exploration Rover Design Changes from Mars Pathfinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active Heat Rejection System designed for Mars Pathfinder was modified for the Mars Exploration Rover (Mars 03) mission and will be used to remove excess heat from the Rover electronics during the cruise part of the mission. The Integrated Pump Assembly design from MPF remained essentially intact; changes were primarily made to reduce weight. However, the cooling loop was

Gani B. Ganapathi; Gajanana C. Birur; Glenn T. Tsuyuki; Paul L. McGrath; Jack D. Patzold

2003-01-01

309

Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of MarsIII: studies of system reliability and maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission

W. W. Mendell; R. P. Heydorn

2004-01-01

310

Preliminary system analysis of in situ resource utilization for Mars human exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a system analysis of processes for utilization of Mars resources to support human exploration of Mars by production of propellants and life-support consumables from indigenous resources. Seven ISRU processes were analyzed to determine mass, power and propellant storage volume requirements. The major elements of each process include CO2 acquisition, chemical conversion, and storage of propellants. Based on

Donald Rapp; Jason Andringa; Robert Easter; Jeffrey H. Smith; Thomas J. Wilson; D. Larry Clark; Kevin Payne

2005-01-01

311

Japanese future plans for exploration of primitive bodies in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than two years has passed since the exploration of Itokawa by Hayabusa spacecraft. For the first time, we saw real appearance of a very small solar system body, whose size is only about 500 m in length. We had a lot of scientific results form the observation of Hayabusa, and we got many clues to know the origin and

Makoto Yoshikawa; Hajime Yano; Junichiro Kawaguchi

2008-01-01

312

External Resource:Round and Round We Go - Exploring Orbits in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Journey Through Earth webpage is a program of the National Center for Earth and Space Science. The PDF, Round and Round We Go, focuses on exploring orbits in the solar system. Students will understand how orbits can be used to help categorize objects

1900-01-01

313

Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

314

System for Multiplexing Acoustic Emission (AE) Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic monitoring device has at least two acoustic sensors with a triggering mechanism and a multiplexing circuit. After the occurrence of a triggering event at a sensor, the multiplexing circuit allows a recording component to record acoustic emissions at adjacent sensors. The acoustic monitoring device is attached to a solid medium to detect the occurrence of damage.

Prosser, William H. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Gorman, Michael R. (Inventor); Scales, Edgar F. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

315

Lunar Exploration: Opening a Window into the History and Evolution of the Inner Solar System  

E-print Network

The lunar geological record contains a rich archive of the history of the inner Solar System, including information relevant to understanding the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and our local cosmic environment. This paper provides a brief review of lunar exploration to-date, and describes how future exploration initiatives will further advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon, the Earth-Moon system, and of the Solar System more generally. It is concluded that further advances will require the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the lunar surface. Some of these scientific objectives can be achieved robotically, for example by in situ geochemical and geophysical measurements and through carefully targeted sample return missions. However, in the longer term, we argue that lunar science would greatly benefit from renewed human operations on the surface of the Moon, such as would be ...

Crawford, Ian A

2014-01-01

316

College of Fine Arts A-E Art Education  

E-print Network

College of Fine Arts A-E Art Education KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped to the Teacher Education Program (TEP). A-E 395 INDEPENDENT WORK: ART EDUCATION. (1 and value of art from an art education perspective

MacAdam, Keith

317

Destination Deimos: A Design Reference Architecture for Initial Human Exploration of the Mars System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two biggest challenges to successful human operations in interplanetary space are flight dynamics, constrained by the cold hard physics of the rocket equation, and bioastronautics, the psychophysiological realities of human adaptation, or lack thereof, to the deep space environment. Without substantial innovation in project/mission architecture and vehicle design, human exploration of the Mars system could be problematic for decades. Although a human landing on Mars is inevitable, humans-in-the-loop telerobotic exploration from the outer Martian moon Deimos is the best way to begin. Precursor robotic missions for reconnaissance and local site preparation will be required.

Logan, James S.; Adamo, D. R.

2011-01-01

318

Scotty, I Need More Power - The Fission System Gateway to Abundant Power for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In planning and in crisis, electrical power has been a key consideration when humans venture into space. Since the 1950's, nuclear fission (splitting of atoms) power has been a logical alternative in both fact and fiction, due to its ability to provide abundant power with high energy density, reliability, and immunity to severe environments. Bringing space fission power to a state of readiness for exploration has depended on clearing the hurdle of technology readiness demonstration. Due to the happy coincidence of heritage from prior space fission development efforts such as the Prometheus program, foresight from NASA's Exploration Mission Systems Directorate in the mid-2000's, and relative budget stability through the late 2000's, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE), with their industry partners, are poised to push through to this objective. Hardware for a 12 kWe non-nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit is being fabricated now on a schedule that will enable a low-cost demonstration of technology readiness in the mid-2010s, with testing beginning as early as 2012. With space fission power system technology demonstrated, exploration mission planners will have the flexibility to respond to a broad variety of missions and will be able to provide abundant power so that future explorers will, in planning or crisis, have the power they need when they most need it.

Palac, Donald T.

2011-01-01

319

Design of high performance management and control system of nano-satellite for distributed space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-satellite is a kind of advanced and effective tool for space exploration. And the nano-satellite formation flight technology becomes more and more important in distributed space exploration. Thus a design of high performance management and control system (named MCS) of nano-satellite for formation space exploration is presented in this paper. Different with traditional design concept for satellites, MCS adopts a modular configuration not only to satisfy composite requirements of processing capacity, integration, cost and power of nano-satellite, but also to fit applications in formation flight experimentation. MCS includes OBC (on-board computer) module, attitude & orbit control module, telemetry & telecommand module, and power management module. Furthermore, as core component the design uses reconfiguration scheme and COTS (commercial-off-the-shelf) technology, so it shows an outstanding performance in high efficiency, high reliability, low power and low cost for satellite engineering applications.

Sun, Ke; Fang, Jiancheng; Zhu, Zhuangsheng; Wei, Xuechao

2008-10-01

320

Into the thermosphere: The atmosphere explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need to study the lower thermosphere with the new instrument, data handling, and spacecraft technology available in the 1960s led to the formulation and establishment of the Atmospheric Explorer program. This book provides an overview of this program with particular emphasis on the AE3, AE4, and AE5 satellites, which represent early examples of problem-dedicated missions. Both the satellites and their instrumentation on the one hand and the experimental and scientific considerations in studying the thermosphere on the other are discussed.

Burgess, Eric; Torr, Douglass

1987-01-01

321

Impact of solar system exploration on theories of chemical evolution and the origin of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of solar system exploration on theories regarding chemical evolution and the origin of life is examined in detail. Major findings from missions to Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan are reviewed and implications for prebiotic chemistry are discussed. Among the major conclusions are: prebiotic chemistry is widespread throughout the solar system and universe; chemical evolution and the origin of life are intimately associated with the origin and evolution of the solar system; the rate, direction, and extent of prebiotic chemistry is highly dependent upon planetary characteristics; and continued exploration will increase understanding of how life originated on earth and allow better estimates of the likelihood of similar processes occurring elsewhere.

Devincenzi, D. L.

1983-01-01

322

Potential uranium supply system based upon computer simulation of sequential exploration and decisions under risk  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo simulation system was used to estimate potential supply of roll-type deposits. The system takes a given uranium-endowment probability distribution and aims at two major and interrelated objectives: (1) to design a system that estimates potential supply even when prices are much higher than previous or current prices; and (2) to account fully for the cost of discovering and mining the individual mineral deposits contained in given endowment. Achievement of these objectives constitutes the major contribution of this study. To accomplish them, the system considers: cost of risk, return on investment, cost of failures during the search process, discovery depletion, and effect of physical characteristics of the deposits on exploration and mining costs. It also considers that when economic conditions, such as product price, are outside historical experience, existing behavioral rules - exploration drilling density, stopping rules, minimum attractive deposit size and grade, and mining parameters - are irrelevant. The system architecture is general and can be used with an exploration model prepared specifically for other minerals.

Ortiz-Vertiz, S.R.

1991-01-01

323

Exploring Online Learning at Primary Schools: Students' Perspectives on Cyber Home Learning System through Video Conferencing (CHLS-VC)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of the study are to investigate CHLS (Cyber Home Learning System) in online video conferencing environment in primary school level and to explore the students' responses on CHLS-VC (Cyber Home Learning System through Video Conferencing) in order to explore the possibility of using CHLS-VC as a supportive online learning system. The

Lee, June; Yoon, Seo Young; Lee, Chung Hyun

2013-01-01

324

Dual Degree AE & MSE Degree  

E-print Network

412 ­ Spacecraft Design I or MMAE 414 ­ Aircraft Design I (3) MMAE 413 ­ Spacecraft Design II or MMAE 416 ­ Aircraft Design II (3) MMAE 415 ­ Aerospace Lab II (4) MMAE 443 ­ Systems Analysis and Control ­ Aerospace Materials Lab (3) MMAE 410 ­ Aircraft Flight Mechanics (3) MMAE 411 ­ Spacecraft Dynamics (3) MMAE

Heller, Barbara

325

SEEDS-The international postgraduate master program for preparing young systems engineers for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SpacE Exploration and Development Systems (SEEDS) initiative originated from Politecnico di Torino and Thales Alenia Space Italy in 2005. It aimed at establishing a postgraduate international master course in space exploration and development systems to offer an opportunity to young engineers to get prepared for the future of Europe in space exploration. SEEDS project has been shared with Supaero Toulouse in France and with University of Bremen (together with the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, ZARM) in Germany. SEEDS course comprises of two different steps in sequence: an initial learning phase and a project work phase. The distinguishing feature of SEEDS is without any doubt the project work phase, which includes the preparatory work and the conceptual design activities, performed in three European sites to develop a limited number of building blocks identified during the preparatory work. The first year of activity started in November 2005. Five years of activities have passed since then and five project works have been successfully completed, dealing with various space exploration themes. The paper focuses on the description of SEEDS master course, in terms of master course structure, applied methodology and students team organization, and on the main results achieved, in terms of project work activities and development of future space workforce. The positive experience of five years of SEEDS is brought to evidence and lessons learned are discussed in view of SEEDS continuation.

Vallerani, Ernesto; Chiocchia, Gianfranco; Messidoro, Piero; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Viola, Nicole

2013-02-01

326

Evaluation of the MSFC facsimile camera system as a tool for extraterrestrial geologic exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utility of the Marshall Space Flight (MSFC) facsimile camera system for extraterrestrial geologic exploration was investigated during the spring of 1971 near Merriam Crater in northern Arizona. Although the system with its present hard-wired recorder operates erratically, the imagery showed that the camera could be developed as a prime imaging tool for automated missions. Its utility would be enhanced by development of computer techniques that utilize digital camera output for construction of topographic maps, and it needs increased resolution for examining near field details. A supplementary imaging system may be necessary for hand specimen examination at low magnification.

Wolfe, E. W.; Alderman, J. D.

1971-01-01

327

Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion - a basic Tool for the manned Exploration of the Solar System  

SciTech Connect

Humanity has started to explore space more than 40 years ago. Numerous spacecraft have left the Earth in this endeavour, but while unmanned spacecraft were already sent out on missions, where they would eventually reach the outer limits of the Solar System, manned exploration has always been confined to the tiny bubble of the Earth's gravitational well, stretching out at maximum to our closest celestial companion - the Moon - during the era of the Apollo programme in the late 60's and early 70's. When mankind made its giant leap, the exploration of our cosmic neighbour was seen as the initial step for the manned exploration of the whole Solar System. Consequently ambitious research and development programmes were undertaken at that time to enable what seemed to be the next logical steps: the establishment of a permanent settled base on the Moon and the first manned mission to Mars in the 80's. Nuclear space power and propulsion played an important role in these entire future scenarios, hence ambitious development programmes were undertaken to make these technologies available. Unfortunately the 70's-paradigm shift in space policies did not only bring an end to the Apollo programme, but it also brought a complete halt to all of these technology programmes and confined the human presence in space to a tiny bubble including nothing more than the Earth's sphere and a mere shell of a few hundred kilometres of altitude, too small to even include the Moon. Today, after more than three decades, manned exploration of the Solar System has become an issue again and so are missions to Moon and Mars. However, studies and analyses show that all of these future plans are hampered by today's available propulsion systems and by the problematic of solar power generation at distances at and beyond of Mars, a problem, however, that can readily be solved by the utilisation of space nuclear reactors and propulsion systems. This paper intends to provide an overview on the various fission- and fusion-based Nuclear Power and Propulsion system concepts and tries to compare these systems' different working principles and technical implementations with each other. The overview and comparison will be complemented by a closer look at ongoing activities related to research and development in this area and by an outlook on what kind of systems might be employed to carry the first astronauts to Mars and beyond. (autho0008.

Frischauf, Norbert; Hamilton, Booz Allen [ESA/ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, P.O. Box 29, NL-2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)

2004-07-01

328

A Delphi-Based Framework for systems architecting of in-orbit exploration infrastructure for human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current debate in the U.S. Human Spaceflight Program focuses on the development of the next generation of man-rated heavy lift launch vehicles. While launch vehicle systems are of critical importance for future exploration, a comprehensive analysis of the entire exploration infrastructure is required to avoid costly pitfalls at early stages of the design process. This paper addresses this need by presenting a Delphi-Based Systems Architecting Framework for integrated architectural analysis of future in-orbit infrastructure for human space exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The paper is structured in two parts. The first part consists of an expert elicitation study to identify objectives for the in-space transportation infrastructure. The study was conducted between November 2011 and January 2012 with 15 senior experts involved in human spaceflight in the United States and Europe. The elicitation study included the formation of three expert panels representing exploration, science, and policy stakeholders engaged in a 3-round Delphi study. The rationale behind the Delphi approach, as imported from social science research, is discussed. Finally, a novel version of the Delphi method is presented and applied to technical decision-making and systems architecting in the context of human space exploration. The second part of the paper describes a tradespace exploration study of in-orbit infrastructure coupled with a requirements definition exercise informed by expert elicitation. The uncertainties associated with technical requirements and stakeholder goals are explicitly considered in the analysis. The outcome of the expert elicitation process portrays an integrated view of perceived stakeholder needs within the human spaceflight community. Needs are subsequently converted into requirements and coupled to the system architectures of interest to analyze the correlation between exploration, science, and policy goals. Pareto analysis is used to identify architectures of interest for further consideration by decision-makers. The paper closes with a summary of insights and develops a strategy for evolutionary development of the exploration infrastructure of the incoming decades. The most important result produced by this analysis is the identification of a critical irreducible ambiguity undermining value delivery for the in-space transportation infrastructure of the next three decades: destination choice. Consensus on destination is far from being reached by the community at large, with particular reference to exploration and policy stakeholders. The realization of this ambiguity is a call for NASA to promote an open forum on this topic, and to develop a strong case for policy makers to incentivize investments in the human spaceflight industry in the next decades.

Aliakbargolkar, Alessandro; Crawley, Edward F.

2014-01-01

329

Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars  

SciTech Connect

NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power.

Clark, J.S.; George, J.A.; Gefert, L.P.; Doherty, M.P.; Sefcik, R.J.

1994-03-01

330

Locating the Accretion Footprint on a Herbig Ae Star: MWC 480  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accretion is a fundamental process which establishes the dynamics of the protoplanetary disk and the final properties of the forming star. In solar-type stars, the star-disk coupling is determined by the magnetic field structure, which is responsible for funneling material from the disk midplane to higher latitudes on the star. Here, we use pan-chromatic data for the Herbig Ae star MWC 480 to address whether similar processes occur in intermediate-mass stars. MWC 480 has X-ray emission typical of actively accreting Herbig Ae stars, but with 5-9 x more photoelectric absorption than expected from optical and FUV data. We consider 3 sources for the absorption: the disk absorption in a wind or jet, and accretion. While we detect the disk in scattered light in are-analysis of archival HST data. the data are consistent with grazing illumination of the dust disk. We find that MWC 480's disk is stratified, geometrically thin, and is not responsible for the observed photoelectric absorption. MWC 480 drives a bipolar jet, but with a mass loss rate which is low compared to other Herbig Ae stars, where the outflow is more favorably oriented and enhanced photoelectric absorption is not seen. This excludes a jet or wind origin for the enhanced photoelectric absorption. We compare MWC 480's 0 VI emission with other Herbig Ae stars. The distribution of the emission in inclination, and lack of a correlation of profile shape and system inclination excludes equatorially-confined accretion for the FUSE Herbig Ae stars. The photoelectric absorption data further suggest that the accretion footprint on MWC 480 and other Herbig Ae stars is located at high temperate, rather than polar, latitudes. These findings support the presence of funneled accretion in MWC 480 and Herbig Ae stars, strengthening the parallel to T Tauri stars.

Grady, C. A.; Hamaguchi, K.; Schneider, G.; Stecklum, B.; Woodgate, B. E.; McCleary, J. E.; Williger, G. M.; Sitko, M. L.; Menard, F.; Henning, Th.; Brittain, S.; Troutmann, M.; Donehew, B.; Hines, D.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Rudy, R. J.; Day, A. M.; Shenoy, A.; Wilner, D.; Silverston, M.; Bouret, J.-C.; Clampin, M.; Petre, R.

2011-01-01

331

An alternative approach to solar system exploration providing safety of human mission to Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

For systematic human Mars exploration, meeting crew safety requirements, it seems perspective to assemble into a spacecraft: an electrical rocket, a well-shielded long-term life support system, and a manipulator-robots operating in combined presence effect and master-slave mode. The electrical spacecraft would carry humans to the orbit of Mars, providing short distance (and low signal time delay) between operator and robot-manipulators,

J. I. Gitelson; S. I. Bartsev; V. V. Mezhevikin; V. A. Okhonin

2003-01-01

332

Design space exploration algorithm for heterogeneous multi-processor embedded system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-chip multi-processor embedded system becomesnowadays a feasible and very interesting option. What isneeded however is an environment that supports the designerin transforming an algorithmic specification into a suitableparallel implementation. In this paper we present anddemonstrate an important component of such an environment - an efficient design space exploration algorithm. The algorithm can be used to semi-automatically find the bestparallelization of

Ireneusz Karkowski; Henk Corporaal

1998-01-01

333

Exploring the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to Generate Hypotheses for Disease Monitoring  

PubMed Central

The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a database for post-marketing drug safety monitoring and influences FDA safety guidance documents, such as changes in drug labels. The number of cases in the FAERS has rapidly increased with the improvement of submission methods and data standard and thus has become an important resource for regulatory science. While the FAERS has been predominantly used for safety signal detection, this study explored its utility for disease monitoring. PMID:24448476

Fang, Hong; Su, Zhenqiang; Wang, Yuping; Miller, Aaron; Liu, Zhichao; Howard, Paul; Tong, Weida; Lin, Simon M

2014-01-01

334

Calibration of Abstract Performance Models for System-Level Design Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level performance modeling and simulation have become a key ingredient of system-level design as they facilitate early\\u000a architectural design space exploration. An important precondition for such high-level modeling and simulation methods is that\\u000a they should yield trustworthy performance estimations. This requires validation (if possible) and calibration of the simulation\\u000a models, which are two aspects that have not yet been widely

Andy D. Pimentel; Mark Thompson; Simon Polstra; Cagkan Erbas

2008-01-01

335

Highly Survivable Avionics Systems for Long-Term Deep Space Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of highly survivable avionics systems for long-term (> 10 years) exploration of space is an essential technology for all current and future missions in the Outer Planets roadmap. Long-term exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as high radiation and low-temperatures make survivability in space a major challenge. Moreover, current and future missions are increasingly using commercial technology such

L. Alkalai; S. Chau; A. T. Tai

2001-01-01

336

Exploring the FDA adverse event reporting system to generate hypotheses for monitoring of disease characteristics.  

PubMed

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a database for postmarketing drug safety monitoring and influences changes in FDA safety guidance documents such as drug labels. The number of cases in the FAERS has rapidly increased with the improvement of submission methods and data standards and thus has become an important resource for regulatory science. Although the FAERS has been predominantly used for safety signal detection, this study explored its utility for disease characteristics. PMID:24448476

Fang, H; Su, Z; Wang, Y; Miller, A; Liu, Z; Howard, P C; Tong, W; Lin, S M

2014-05-01

337

STELLAR-AIDED INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS FOR LUNAR AND MARS EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate, robust navigation for the exploration of the Moon and Mars is required for a va- riety of applications, including manned and unmanned lander descent\\/ascent, landing site sur- vey\\/registration, and surface operations. In this paper, we examine the use of a stellar-aided inertial navigation system (SAINS) for use on the surface of the Moon and Mars. The goal is to

Benjamin P. Malay; David Gaylor; George Davis

338

New Propulsion Technologies For Exploration of the Solar System and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to implement the ambitious science and exploration missions planned over the next several decades, improvements in in-space transportation and propulsion technologies must be achieved. For robotic exploration and science missions, increased efficiencies of future propulsion systems are critical to reduce overall life-cycle costs. Future missions will require 2 to 3 times more total change in velocity over their mission lives than the NASA Solar Electric Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) demonstration on the Deep Space 1 mission. Rendezvous and return missions will require similar investments in in-space propulsion systems. New opportunities to explore beyond the outer planets and to the stars will require unparalleled technology advancement and innovation. The Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) is investing in technologies to achieve a factor of 10 reduction in the cost of Earth orbital transportation and a factor of 2 reduction in propulsion system mass and travel time for planetary missions within the next 15 years. Since more than 70% of projected launches over the next 10 years will require propulsion systems capable of attaining destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit, investment in in-space technologies will benefit a large percentage of future missions. The ASTP technology portfolio includes many advanced propulsion systems. From the next generation ion propulsion system operating in the 5 - 10 kW range, to fission-powered multi-kilowatt systems, substantial advances in spacecraft propulsion performance are anticipated. Some of the most promising technologies for achieving these goals use the environment of space itself for energy and propulsion and are generically called, "propellantless" because they do not require on-board fuel to achieve thrust. An overview of the state-of-the-art in propellantless propulsion technologies such as solar and plasma sails, electrodynamic and momentum transfer tethers, and aeroassist and aerocapture will also be described. Results of recent earth-based technology demonstrations and space tests for many of these new propulsion technologies will be discussed.

Johnson, Les; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

339

The Fail-Stop Controller AE11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using on-chip fault detection measures the Fail-Stop Con- troller AE11 was developed for safety critical applications aiming at high volume production of automotive and rail- way electronics. The trade-off between high defect cover- age, short reaction time to faults and low chip area overhead results in a combination of Concurrent Checking, Built-In Self-Test and Built-In Current-Monitoring (I DDQ-

Eberhard Bhl; Thomas Lindenkreuz; R. Stephan

1997-01-01

340

AES-CBC software execution optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of high-speed wireless networking, the necessity for efficient, robust and secure encryption modes is ever increasing. But, cryptography is primarily a computationally intensive process. This paper investigates the performance and efficiency of IEEE 802.11i approved Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-Rijndael ciphering\\/deciphering software in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode. Simulations are used to analyse the speed, resource consumption and

Razvi Doomun; Jayramsingh Doma; Sundeep Tengur

2008-01-01

341

Hemispherical Joule heating and the AE indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear regression analysis is conducted for Joule energy deposition rates that have been integrated over the Northern Hemisphere as a function of the standard auroral electrojet indices. A correlation coefficient of 0.7-0.9 is obtained. The hemispherical Joule heating rate can be calculated through the substitution of 1 nT in the AE index by approximately 0.3 GW. A higher scale

W. Baumjohann; Y. Kamide

1984-01-01

342

The Herbig Ae Star PDS2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a preliminary abundance analysis of the isolated Herbig Ae star PDS2 (CD -53 251, 2MASS J01174349-5233307). Our adopted model has T_eff = 6500K, log(g) = 3.5. It is likely that PDS2 belongs to the class of young stars with abundances resembling the ? Bootis stars. Based on Data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility

Cowley, C. R.; Hubrig, S.

2014-11-01

343

Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Building a Better Approach for (Human) Spaceflight Avionics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of Avionics is advancing far more rapidly in terrestrial applications than in space flight applications. Spaceflight Avionics are not keeping pace with expectations set by terrestrial experience, nor are they keeping pace with the need for increasingly complex automation and crew interfaces as we move beyond Low Earth Orbit. NASA must take advantage of the strides being made by both space-related and terrestrial industries to drive our development and sustaining costs down. This paper describes ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionic architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. Results from the AAE project's FY13 efforts are discussed, along with the status of FY14 efforts and future plans.

Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Hames, Kevin L.; Vitalpur, Sharada V.

2014-01-01

344

Science requirements for PRoViScout, a robotics vision system for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The robotic exploration of planetary surfaces, including missions of interest for geobiology (e.g., ExoMars), will be the precursor of human missions within the next few decades. Such exploration will require platforms which are much more self-reliant and capable of exploring long distances with limited ground support in order to advance planetary science objectives in a timely manner. The key to this objective is the development of planetary robotic onboard vision processing systems, which will enable the autonomous on-site selection of scientific and mission-strategic targets, and the access thereto. The EU-funded research project PRoViScout (Planetary Robotics Vision Scout) is designed to develop a unified and generic approach for robotic vision onboard processing, namely the combination of navigation and scientific target selection. Any such system needs to be "trained", i.e. it needs (a) scientific requirements which the system needs to address, and (b) a data base of scientifically representative target scenarios which can be analysed. We present our preliminary list of science requirements, based on previous experience from landed Mars missions.

Hauber, E.; Pullan, D.; Griffiths, A.; Paar, G.

2011-10-01

345

Design Space Exploration and System Optimization with SymTA\\/S-- Symbolic Timing Analysis for Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing complexity of heterogeneous SoC and distributed systems confronts the system designer with problems how to determine reasonable design alternatives leading to well functioning systems. Ideally, a designer would try all possible system configuration and choose the best one regarding specific system requirements. Unfortu- nately, such an approach is not possible because the high number of design parameters in

Arne Hamann; Marek Jersak; Kai Richter; Rolf Ernst

2004-01-01

346

Japanese future plans for exploration of primitive bodies in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than two years has passed since the exploration of Itokawa by Hayabusa spacecraft. For the first time, we saw real appearance of a very small solar system body, whose size is only about 500 m in length. We had a lot of scientific results form the observation of Hayabusa, and we got many clues to know the origin and evolution of the solar system. As working for Hayabusa, we have also considered post-Hayabusa missions. Since the Itokawa is an S-type asteroid, next target should be a C-type asteroid, because these two types are abundant in the main asteroid belt. The next mission to Hayabusa is 'Hayabusa-2', which will explore C-type asteroid. The spacecraft is quite similar to Hayabusa, so we can save time for manufacturing it. The current target asteroid of Hayabusa-2 is 1999 JU3, which is intensively observed in 2007 and 2008. At the same time, we were also considering much more advanced mission after Hayabusa-2, and this mission is called 'Hayabusa-Mk2.' The target of Hayabusa-Mk2 should be much more primitive objects such as P-type or D-type asteroids, CAT, and comets, and the spacecraft is a newly developed one. In this way, we (=JAXA) are considering programmatic missions for the exploration of primitive bodies. Since there are many small bodies in the solar system, we should have such strategic approach. From 2006, Hayabusa-Mk2 is also considered under the scheme of Cosmic Vision of ESA with the European study group for small bodies of the solar system. And it was proposed to Cosmic Vision with the name of 'Marco Polo.' It has passed the first selection so now we are in the assessment phase. The spacecraft, for which Japan is responsible, is based on the idea of Hayabusa-Mk2, but we reconsider it to have a large lander and a new sampling system from Europe. There are four principal purposes for asteroid exploration, that is, science, spaceguard, resources, and manned mission. The science is the main target and we want to know the origin and evolution of the solar system and the life. And now, the other purposes, spaceguard and resources, are becoming important, too. Moreover Near Earth Asteroids are now considered as good targets for manned missions after the Moon but before Mars. The long-ranged exploration plan and international collaborations will be more important from now on.

Yoshikawa, Makoto; Yano, Hajime; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

347

The Ibn Battuta Centre: a facility to test operations, instruments and landing systems for Mars and Moon exploration (Marrakech, Morocco)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of the Ibn Battuta Centre for exploration and field activities is to support the exploration of Mars and others planets, and to provide opportunity for scientists and the public for experiencing the exploration on Earth and in the Solar System. The Ibn Battuta Centre for exploration and field activities was established in 2006 by the International Research School of Planetary Sciences (Pescara, Italy) to prepare and execute tests of rovers, landing systems, instruments and operations related to the exploration of Mars and Moon. The Centre has a major partner, the Universite' Cadi Ayyad of Marrakech (Morocco) where it is located. The Centre is named after the famous Moroccan explorer Ibn Battuta (born in Tangier on 24th February 1304 - 703 Hijra) who explored a large part of Northern Africa and Asia. During his travels Ibn Battuta visited almost the entire Muslim world and travelled more than 120,000 kilometres.

Ori, G. G.; Flamini, E.; Dell'Arciprete, I.; Taj-Eddine, K.

2008-09-01

348

Telecommunication system specific to high temperature environment for JAXA Mercury exploration program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BepiColombo is the joint Mercury exploration program between JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) and ESA (European Space Agency). MMO (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter) is JAXA's satellite in this program. She requires a telecommunication system that survives a harsh heat environment surrounding Mercury. She will stay in a polar orbit circulating Mercury for a year for continuous observations of Mercury magnetosphere. MMO has an X-band telecommunication system. We newly developed a high gain antenna for the use of her daily operations and wider field of view antennas for critical events. They are ones directly exposed to a high temperature environment of Mercury. The remains of the telecommunication system such as a transponder and a power amplifier were selected from the heritage of our past deep space missions. These instruments are placed inside MMO where a milder environment is expected than the outside. The total telecommunication system has been designed so that it should work through the MMO mission lifetime from the launch in 2016 to the end of the mission in 2025 including an extra year of extension. The system has experienced thermal environmental tests and proved its excellent resistivity to predicted environments. We will discuss these technologies incorporated in MMO and her telecommunication system design.

Toda, Tomoaki; Kamata, Yukio; Kawahara, Kousuke; Maejima, Hironori; Hayakawa, Hajime

2014-02-01

349

An Exploration of Exertion in Mixed Reality Systems via the ``Table Tennis for Three'' Game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans experience their physical and social environment through their bodies and their associated movement actions. However, most mixed reality systems approach the integration of the real with a virtual world from a computational perspective, often neglecting the bodys capabilities by offering only limited interaction possibilities with a few augmented tangible objects. We propose a view on mixed reality systems that focuses on the human body and its movements, because we believe such an approach has the potential to support novel interaction experiences, as explored by a prototypal gaming system that was inspired by exertion actions exhibited in table tennis. Table Tennis for Three enables augmented bodily experiences while offering new opportunities for interaction, such as supporting three players simultaneously across geographical distances. This case study offers an exploration of the role of the human body and its associated movement actions in mixed reality systems, aiming to contribute toward an understanding of the use of exertion in such systems. Such an understanding can support leveraging the many benefits of exertion through mixed reality systems and therefore guide future advances in this research field.

Mueller, Florian Floyd'; Gibbs, Martin R.; Vetere, Frank

350

Collaborative systems thinking : an exploration of the mechanisms enabling team systems thinking  

E-print Network

Aerospace systems are among the most complex anthropogenic systems and require large quantities of systems knowledge to design successfully. Within the aerospace industry, an aging workforce places those with the most ...

Lamb, Caroline Marie

2009-01-01

351

A Systems Study to Determine the Attractiveness of Solar System Bodies and Sites for Eventual Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pre-phase A idea-generation team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has conducted a study to rank all locations in the solar system based on attractiveness for human exploration. The process used to perform the study was composed of the following primary steps: determination of criteria (including value, cost, and risk criteria) upon which to rate sites in the solar system; weighting of the criteria based upon importance to eventual human exploration; selection of sites to consider and assignment of team members to the task of advocating the benefits of particular sites; rating the sites in both the short- and longterm based on team member presentations and team discussions; compilation of a score based on criteria weights and individual ratings. Finally a comparison of the total scores of different sites was completed to determine a ranking of all the bodies and sites in the solar system. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine how weightings affect the rankings.

Andringa, Jason M.; Gray, Andrew A.

2005-01-01

352

Information Exploration System for Sickle Cell Disease and Repurposing of Hydroxyfasudil  

PubMed Central

Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a fatal monogenic disorder with no effective cure and thus high rates of morbidity and sequelae. Efforts toward discovery of disease modifying drugs and curative strategies can be augmented by leveraging the plethora of information contained in available biomedical literature. To facilitate research in this direction we have developed a resource, Dragon Exploration System for Sickle Cell Disease (DESSCD) (http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/desscd/) that aims to promote the easy exploration of SCD-related data. Description The Dragon Exploration System (DES), developed based on text mining and complemented by data mining, processed 419,612 MEDLINE abstracts retrieved from a PubMed query using SCD-related keywords. The processed SCD-related data has been made available via the DESSCD web query interface that enables: a/information retrieval using specified concepts, keywords and phrases, and b/the generation of inferred association networks and hypotheses. The usefulness of the system is demonstrated by: a/reproducing a known scientific fact, the Sickle_Cell_AnemiaHydroxyurea association, and b/generating novel and plausible Sickle_Cell_AnemiaHydroxyfasudil hypothesis. A PCT patent (PCT/US12/55042) has been filed for the latter drug repurposing for SCD treatment. Conclusion We developed the DESSCD resource dedicated to exploration of text-mined and data-mined information about SCD. No similar SCD-related resource exists. Thus, we anticipate that DESSCD will serve as a valuable tool for physicians and researchers interested in SCD. PMID:23762313

Essack, Magbubah; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B.

2013-01-01

353

A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through Ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

1990-01-01

354

A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

1990-01-01

355

Model-Driven Design-Space Exploration for Embedded Systems: The Octopus Toolset  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The complexity of todays embedded systems and their development trajectories requires a systematic, model-driven design approach,\\u000a supported by tooling wherever possible. Only then, development trajectories become manageable, with high-quality, cost-effective\\u000a results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This paper introduces the Octopus Design-Space Exploration (DSE) toolset that aims to leverage existing modeling, analysis,\\u000a and DSE tools to support model-driven DSE for embedded systems. The current toolset

Twan Basten; Emiel van Benthum; Marc Geilen; Martijn Hendriks; Fred Houben; Georgeta Igna; Frans Reckers; Sebastian de Smet; Lou J. Somers; Egbert Teeselink; Nikola Tr?ka; Frits Vaandrager; Jacques Verriet; Marc Voorhoeve; Yang Yang

2010-01-01

356

Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Mendell, W. W.; Heydorn, R. P.

2004-01-01

357

Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance.  

PubMed

Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. PMID:15806749

Mendell, W W; Heydorn, R P

2004-01-01

358

Cascade Storage and Delivery System for a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MMSEV is a pressurized vehicle used to extend the human exploration envelope for Lunar, Near Earth Object (NEO), and Deep Space missions. The Johnson Space Center is developing the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the MMSEV. The MMSEV s intended use is to support longer sortie lengths with multiple Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) on a higher magnitude than any previous vehicle. This paper presents an analysis of a high pressure oxygen cascade storage and delivery system that will accommodate the crew during long duration Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) and capable of multiple high pressure oxygen fills to the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) worn by the crew during EVAs. A cascade is a high pressure gas cylinder system used for the refilling of smaller compressed gas cylinders. Each of the large cylinders are filled by a compressor, but the cascade system allows small cylinders to be filled without the need of a compressor. In addition, the cascade system is useful as a "reservoir" to accommodate low pressure needs. A regression model was developed to provide the mechanism to size the cascade systems subject to constraints such as number of crew, extravehicular activity duration and frequency, and ullage gas requirements under contingency scenarios. The sizing routine employed a numerical integration scheme to determine gas compressibility changes during depressurization and compressibility effects were captured using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization routine was used to find the minimum cascade tank system mass that meets the mission requirements. The sizing algorithms developed in this analysis provide a powerful framework to assess cascade filling, compressor, and hybrid systems to design long duration vehicle ECLSS architecture. 1

Yagoda, Evan; Swickrath, Michael; Stambaugh, Imelda

2012-01-01

359

MEASURING THE STELLAR ACCRETION RATES OF HERBIG Ae/Be STARS  

SciTech Connect

The accretion rate of young stars is a fundamental characteristic of these systems. While accretion onto T Tauri stars has been studied extensively, little work has been done on measuring the accretion rate of their intermediate-mass analogs, the Herbig Ae/Be stars. Measuring the stellar accretion rate of Herbig Ae/Bes is not straightforward both because of the dearth of metal absorption lines available for veiling measurements and the intrinsic brightness of Herbig Ae/Be stars at ultraviolet wavelengths where the brightness of the accretion shock peaks. Alternative approaches to measuring the accretion rate of young stars by measuring the luminosity of proxies such as the Br {gamma} emission line have not been calibrated. A promising approach is the measurement of the veiling of the Balmer discontinuity. We present measurements of this veiling as well as the luminosity of Br {gamma}. We show that the relationship between the luminosity of Br {gamma} and the stellar accretion rate for classical T Tauri stars is consistent with Herbig Ae stars but not Herbig Be stars. We discuss the implications of this finding for understanding the interaction of the star and disk for Herbig Ae/Be stars.

Donehew, Brian; Brittain, Sean, E-mail: briand@clemson.edu, E-mail: sbritt@clemson.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States)

2011-02-15

360

Sources of Cognitive Exploration: Genetic Variation in the Prefrontal Dopamine System Predicts Openness/Intellect  

PubMed Central

The personality trait Openness/Intellect reflects the tendency to be imaginative, curious, perceptive, artistic, and intellectualall characteristics that involve cognitive exploration. Little is known about the biological basis of Openness/Intellect, but the trait has been linked to cognitive functions of prefrontal cortex, and the neurotransmitter dopamine plays a key role in motivation to explore. The hypothesis that dopamine is involved in Openness/Intellect was supported by examining its association with two genes that are central components of the prefrontal dopaminergic system. In two demographically different samples (children: N = 608; adults: N = 214), variation in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) predicted Openness/Intellect, as main effects in the child sample and in interaction in adults. PMID:21804655

DeYoung, Colin G.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Eastman, Maria; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2011-01-01

361

NEEMO 15: Evaluation of human exploration systems for near-Earth asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 15 mission was focused on evaluating techniques for exploring near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). It began with a University of Delaware autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) systematically mapping the coral reef for hundreds of meters surrounding the Aquarius habitat. This activity is akin to the type of "far-field survey" approach that may be used by a robotic precursor in advance of a human mission to a NEA. Data from the far-field survey were then examined by the NEEMO science team and follow-up exploration traverses were planned, which used Deepworker single-person submersibles. Science traverses at NEEMO 15 were planned according to a prioritized list of objectives developed by the science team. These objectives were based on review and discussion of previous related marine science research, including previous marine science saturation missions conducted at the Aquarius habitat. AUV data were used to select several areas of scientific interest. The Deepworker science traverses were then executed at these areas of interest during 4 days of the NEEMO 15 mission and provided higher resolution data such as coral species distribution and mortality. These traverses are analogous to the "near-field survey" approach that is expected to be performed by a Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) during a human mission to a NEA before extravehicular activities (EVAs) are conducted. In addition to the science objectives that were pursued, the NEEMO 15 traverses provided an opportunity to test newly developed software and techniques. Sample collection and instrument deployment on the NEA surface by EVA crew would follow the "near-field survey" in a human NEA mission. Sample collection was not necessary for the purposes of the NEEMO science objectives; however, the engineering and operations objectives during NEEMO 15 were to evaluate different combinations of vehicles, crew members, tools, and equipment that could be used to perform these science objectives on a NEA. Specifically, the productivity and acceptability of simulated NEA exploration activities were systematically quantified and compared when operating with different combinations of crew sizes and exploration systems including MMSEVs, EVA jet packs, and EVA translation devices. Data from NEEMO 15 will be used in conjunction with data from software simulations, parametric analysis, other analog field tests, anchoring models, and integrated testing at Johnson Space Center to inform the evolving architectures and exploration systems being developed by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team.

Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

2013-08-01

362

Exploring Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module from the Mars Exploration Curriculum serves as an introduction to studying Mars in the classroom develops students' understanding of Mars, the solar system, and planetary exploration. The module introduces many of the intriguing riddles posed by Mars and provides teachers a variety of ways to integrate the study of Mars into their classrooms.

363

Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD.  

PubMed

A new approach called bioinspired engineering of exploration systems (BEES) and its value for solving pressing NASA and DoD needs are described. Insects (for example honeybees and dragonflies) cope remarkably well with their world, despite possessing a brain containing less than 0.01% as many neurons as the human brain. Although most insects have immobile eyes with fixed focus optics and lack stereo vision, they use a number of ingenious, computationally simple strategies for perceiving their world in three dimensions and navigating successfully within it. We are distilling selected insect-inspired strategies to obtain novel solutions for navigation, hazard avoidance, altitude hold, stable flight, terrain following, and gentle deployment of payload. Such functionality provides potential solutions for future autonomous robotic space and planetary explorers. A BEES approach to developing lightweight low-power autonomous flight systems should be useful for flight control of such biomorphic flyers for both NASA and DoD needs. Recent biological studies of mammalian retinas confirm that representations of multiple features of the visual world are systematically parsed and processed in parallel. Features are mapped to a stack of cellular strata within the retina. Each of these representations can be efficiently modeled in semiconductor cellular nonlinear network (CNN) chips. We describe recent breakthroughs in exploring the feasibility of the unique blending of insect strategies of navigation with mammalian visual search, pattern recognition, and image understanding into hybrid biomorphic flyers for future planetary and terrestrial applications. We describe a few future mission scenarios for Mars exploration, uniquely enabled by these newly developed biomorphic flyers. PMID:12650645

Thakoor, Sarita; Chahl, Javaan; Srinivasan, M V; Young, L; Werblin, Frank; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

2002-01-01

364

Parametric Analysis of Life Support Systems for Future Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Having adopted a flexible path approach to space exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra- vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path program.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.

2010-01-01

365

Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM): Exploration Of The Jovian System And Its Icy Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) would be an international mission with the overall theme of investigating the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Its goals are to (1) Determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and (2) Characterize the processes that are operating within the Jupiter system. NASA and ESA have concluded a detailed joint study of

Olivier Grasset; R. Pappalardo; R. Greeley; M. Blanc; M. Dougherty; E. Bunce; J. Lebreton; L. Prockter; D. Senske

2009-01-01

366

Developmental Systems Science: Exploring the Application of Systems Science Methods to Developmental Science Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental science theorists fully acknowledge the wide array of complex interactions among biology, behavior, and environment that together give rise to development. However, despite this conceptual understanding of development as a system, developmental science has not fully applied analytic methods commensurate with this systems perspective. This article provides a brief introduction to systems science, an approach to problem solving that

Jennifer Brown Urban; Nathaniel D. Osgood; Patricia L. Mabry

2011-01-01

367

Space suits and life support systems for the exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements and technologies needed for space suits to be used for the manned exploration of Mars are examined. Alternative concepts are proposed for both the space suit and the portable life support system (collectively called the Extravehicular Mobility Unit, or EMU) needed for Mars exploration. EMU system requirements are outlined. It is pointed out that the most fundamental difference between a Mars EMU and those that preceded it is that the design of a Mars EMU must be driven by science and permanent habitability requirements, while all prior EMU designs have been driven by engineering requirements. The EMU weight issues are discussed, and the system mass and mobility concerns are addressed, along with the backpack-to-body-weight ratio. The challenges of thermal and cosmic radiation protection, micrometeorite protection, and EMU system and crew heat rejection are dealt with briefly, as well as the physiological issues of pressure regulation and bacterial or contaminant isolation. A mathematical model is then presented for evaluation of candidate EMU designs and for concept optimization and selection. Lead technology issues are also discussed.

Kuznetz, Lawrence H.; Gwynne, Owen

1992-01-01

368

NASA Exploration Launch Projects Overview: The Crew Launch Vehicle and the Cargo Launch Vehicle Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration (January 2004) serves as the foundation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. As the NASA Administrator outlined during his confirmation hearing in April 2005, these include: 1) Flying the Space Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human space flight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. In spring 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The ESAS team performed in-depth evaluations of a number of space transportation architectures and provided recommendations based on their findings? The ESAS analysis focused on a human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) for astronaut transport and a heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) to carry equipment, materials, and supplies for lunar missions and, later, the first human journeys to Mars. After several months of intense study utilizing safety and reliability, technical performance, budget, and schedule figures of merit in relation to design reference missions, the ESAS design options were unveiled in summer 2005. As part of NASA's systems engineering approach, these point of departure architectures have been refined through trade studies during the ongoing design phase leading to the development phase that begins in 2008. Comprehensive reviews of engineering data and business assessments by both internal and independent reviewers serve as decision gates to ensure that systems can fully meet customer and stakeholder requirements. This paper provides the current CLV and CaLV configuration designs and gives examples of the progress being made during the first year of this significant effort. Safe, reliable, cost-effective space transportation systems are a foundational piece of America s future in space and the next step in realizing the plan for revitalizing lunar capabilities on the passageway to the human exploration of Mars. While building on legacy knowledge and heritage hardware for risk reduction, NASA will apply lessons learned from developing these new launch vehicles to the growth path for future missions. The elements for mission success and continued U.S. leadership in space have been assembled over the past year. As NASA designs and develops these two new systems over the next dozen years, visible progress, such as that reported in this paper, may sustain the national will to stay the course across political administrations and weather the inevitable trials that will be experienced during this challenging endeavor.

Snoddy, Jimmy R.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Cook, Stephen A.

2006-01-01

369

Estimation of thermal cracking stress during spraying of thermal barrier coatings by laser AE method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) system is deposited by plasma spray method usually contain a number of cracks. These cracks can be classified into vertical and horizontal cracks and certainly affect the performance of TBCs. A monitoring method to detect the crack generation and propagation during plasma spraying is significantly required. In this study, a laser AE technique which enables in-situ and non-contact monitoring during spring process was developed to study the cracking phenomena in TBC. A new scanning pattern of the plasma torch was successfully applied to introduce only vertical cracks into the top coat. More number of AE events could be obtained by applying an improved noise filtering and multiple-threshold event detection procedures. A temperature history during spraying was also measured and used for thermal stress simulation by FEM analyses. A relationship between cracking and thermal stress in the top coat was established based on the results of AE monitoring and FEM simulation.

Ito, Kaita; Kuriki, Hitoshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Enoki, Manabu

2014-02-01

370

NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster: The NEXT Ion Propulsion System for Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion system. The NEXT project is developing a solar electric ion propulsion system. The NEXT project is advancing the capability of ion propulsion to meet NASA robotic science mission needs. The NEXT system is planned to significantly improve performance over the state of the art electric propulsion systems, such as NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR). The status of NEXT development is reviewed, including information on the NEXT Thruster, the power processing unit, the propellant management system (PMS), the digital control interface unit, and the gimbal. Block diagrams NEXT system are presented. Also a review of the lessons learned from the Dawn and NSTAR systems is provided. In summary the NEXT project activities through 2007 have brought next-generation ion propulsion technology to a sufficient maturity level.

Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.

2008-01-01

371

Building on 50 Years of Systems Engineering Experience for a New Era of Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has delivered space transportation solutions for America's complex missions, ranging from scientific payloads that expand knowledge, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, to astronauts and lunar rovers destined for voyages to the Moon. Currently, the venerable Space Shuttle, which has been in service since 1981, provides the United States (US) capability for both crew and heavy cargo to low-Earth orbit to construct the International Space Station, before the Shuttle is retired in 2010. In the next decade, NASA will replace this system with a duo of launch vehicles: the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The goals for this new system include increased safety and reliability coupled with lower operations costs that promote sustainable space exploration for decades to come. The Ares I will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle, while the heavy-lift Ares V will carry the Altair lunar lander, as well as the equipment and supplies needed to construct a lunar outpost for a new generation of human and robotic space pioneers. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center manages the Shuttle's propulsion elements and is managing the design and development of the Ares rockets, along with a host of other engineering assignments in the field of scientific space exploration. Specifically, the Marshall Center's Engineering Directorate houses the skilled workforce and unique facilities needed to build capable systems upon the foundation laid by the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle programs. This paper will provide details of the in-house systems engineering and vehicle integration work now being performed for the Ares I and planned for the Ares V. It will give an overview of the Ares I system-level testing activities, such as the ground vibration testing that will be conducted in the Marshall Center's Dynamic Test Stand to verify the integrated vehicle stack's structural integrity and to validate computer modeling and simulation, as well as the main propulsion test article analysis to be conducted in the Static Test Stand. Ultimately, fielding a robust space transportation solution that will carry international explorers and essential payloads will pave the way for a new era of scientific discovery now dawning beyond planet Earth.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Lyles, Garry M.; McConnaughey, Paul K.

2008-01-01

372

Discovering the 50 Years of Solar System Exploration: Sharing Your Science with the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers ways for scientists to bring NASAs science discoveries to their audiences! YSS and the continuing salute to the 50-year history of solar system exploration provide an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system for educators and the general public. During the last five decades, NASA has launched a variety of robotic spacecraft to study our solar system. Over that time, our understanding of planets has been revolutionized, as has the technology that has made these discoveries possible.Looking forward, the numerous ongoing and future robotic missions are returning new discoveries of our solar system at an unprecedented rate. YSS combines the discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of the ongoing missions and connects them to related topics based on the big questions of planetary science, including solar system formation, volcanism, ice, and possible life elsewhere. Planetary scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS in a variety of ways: - Give a talk at a local museum, planetarium, library, or school to share YSS and your research - Partner with a local educational institution to organize a night sky viewing or mission milestone community event - Work with a classroom teacher to explore one of the topics with students - Connect with a planetary science E/PO professional to identify ways to participate, like creating podcasts,vodcasts, or contributing to monthly topics - Share your ideas for events and activities with the planetaryE/PO community to identify partners and pathways for distribution - And more! Promotional and educational materials, updates, a calendar of activities, and a space to share experiences are available at NASAs Solar System website: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. This is an exciting time in planetary sciences as we learn about New Worlds and make New Discoveries!

Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; Shupla, C.; Halligan, E.; Boonstra, D.; Wessen, A.; Baerg, G.; Davis, P.; Burdick, A.; Zimmerman Brachman, R.

2012-10-01

373

Exploration of Chlamydial Type III Secretion System Reconstitution in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Type III secretion system is a virulent factor for many pathogens, and is thought to play multiple roles in the development cycle and pathogenesis of chlamydia, an important human pathogen. However, due to the obligate intracellular parasitical nature of chlamydiae and a lack of convenient genetic methodology for the organisms, very limited approaches are available to study the chlamydial type III secretion system. In this study, we explored the reconstitution of a chlamydial type III secretion in Escherichia coli. Results We successfully cloned all 6 genomic DNA clusters of the chlamydial type III secretion system into three bacterial plasmids. 5 of the 6 clusters were found to direct mRNA synthesis from their own promoters in Escherichia coli transformed with the three plasmids. Cluster 5 failed to express mRNA using its own promoters. However, fusion of cluster 5 to cluster 6 resulted in the expression of cluster 5 mRNA. Although only two of the type III secretion system proteins were detected transformed E. coli due to limited antibody availability, type III secretion system-like structures were detected in ultrathin sections in a small proportion of transformed E. coli. Conclusions We have successfully generated E. coli expressing all genes of the chlamydial type III secretion system. This serves as a foundation for optimal expression and assembly of the recombinant chlamydial type III secretion system, which may be extremely useful for the characterization of the chlamydial type III secretion system and for studying its role in chlamydial pathogenicity. PMID:23239989

Bao, Xiaofeng; Beatty, Wandy L.; Fan, Huizhou

2012-01-01

374

Unlocking the black box: exploring the link between high-performance work systems and performance.  

PubMed

With a growing body of literature linking systems of high-performance work practices to organizational performance outcomes, recent research has pushed for examinations of the underlying mechanisms that enable this connection. In this study, based on a large sample of Welsh public-sector employees, we explored the role of several individual-level attitudinal factors--job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and psychological empowerment--as well as organizational citizenship behaviors that have the potential to provide insights into how human resource systems influence the performance of organizational units. The results support a unit-level path model, such that department-level, high-performance work system utilization is associated with enhanced levels of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and psychological empowerment. In turn, these attitudinal variables were found to be positively linked to enhanced organizational citizenship behaviors, which are further related to a second-order construct measuring departmental performance. PMID:21787040

Messersmith, Jake G; Patel, Pankaj C; Lepak, David P; Gould-Williams, Julian

2011-11-01

375

Overview of Potable Water Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing water necessary to maintain life support has been accomplished in spacecraft vehicles for over forty years. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. space vehicles provided potable water. The water source for the spacecraft, biocide used to preserve the water on-orbit, water stowage methodology, materials, pumping mechanisms, on-orbit water requirements, and water temperature requirements will be discussed. Where available, the hardware used to provide the water and the general function of that hardware will also be detailed. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) water systems will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to water systems in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that could be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft water systems will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

Peterson, Laurie J.; Callahan, Michael R.

2007-01-01

376

Reed-Solomon Codes and the Exploration of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of the solar system by unmanned spacecraft is one of the triumph of the 20th century. The dramatic photographs of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune transmitted by spacecraft with romantic names like Mariner, Voyager, Viking, etc. over distances of hundreds of millions, even billions, of miles, have made these planets, which were previously known to us only as fuzzy telescopic images in textbooks, as real to us in the 1990's as, say, the Himalayas, the Sahara Desert, or Antarctica.

McEliece, R. J.; Swanson, L.

1994-01-01

377

Using an immune system model to explore mate selection in genetic algorithms.  

SciTech Connect

In the setting of multimodal function optimization, engineering and machine learning, identifying multiple peaks and maintaining subpopulations of the search space are two central themes when Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are employed. In this paper, an immune system model is adopted to develop a framework for exploring the role of mate selection in GAs with respect to these two issues. The experimental results reported in the paper will shed more light into how mate selection schemes compare to traditional selection schemes. In particular, we show that dissimilar mating is beneficial in identifying multiple peaks, yet harmful in maintaining subpopulations of the search space.

Huang, C. F. (Chien-Feng)

2003-01-01

378

Databases, data integration, and expert systems: new directions in mineral resource assessment and mineral exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Overcoming future difficulties in searching for ore deposits deeper in the earth's crust will require closer attention to the collection and analysis of more diverse types of data and to more efficient use of current computer technologies. Computer technologies of greatest interest include methods of storage and retrieval of resource information, methods for integrating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data, and the introduction of advanced computer technologies such as expert systems, multivariate techniques, and neural networks. Much experience has been gained in the past few years in applying these technologies. More experience is needed if they are to be implemented for everyday use in future assessments and exploration.

McCammon, Richard B.

1994-01-01

379

BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

2000-01-01

380

Exploring Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a temperature higher than the inside of your oven and atmospheric pressure equal to that a kilometer under the ocean, the surface of Venus is one of the most hostile environments in the solar system, and Venus exploration presents a challenge to technology. This lecture presents mission trade-offs and discusses a proposed mission concept for rover and aircraft based exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus. Several approaches to the technology, electronics, mechanical parts, and power systems, are discussed.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

2008-01-01

381

TOPS: Toward Other Planetary Systems. A report by the solar system exploration division  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a general plan and the pertinent technological requirements for TOPS (Toward Other Planetary Systems), a staged program to ascertain the prevalence and character of other planetary systems and to construct a definitive picture of the formation of stars and their planets. The first stages focus on discovering and studying a significant number of fully formed planetary systems, as well as expanding current studies of protoplanetary systems. As the TOPS Program evolves, emphasis will shift toward intensive study of the discovered systems and of individual planets. Early stages of the TOPS Program can be undertaken with ground-based observations and space missions comparable in scale to those now being performed. In the long term, however, TOPS will become an ambitious program that challenges our capabilities and provides impetus for major space initiatives and new technologies.

1995-01-01

382

Energy efficiency analysis and implementation of AES on an FPGA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rjimen and endorsed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2001. It was designed to replace the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES) and be useful for a wide range of applications with varying throughput, area, power dissipation and energy consumption requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are flexible and reconfigurable integrated circuits that are useful for many different applications including the implementation of AES. Though they are highly flexible, FPGAs are often less efficient than Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs); they tend to operate slower, take up more space and dissipate more power. There have been many FPGA AES implementations that focus on obtaining high throughput or low area usage, but very little research done in the area of low power or energy efficient FPGA based AES; in fact, it is rare for estimates on power dissipation to be made at all. This thesis presents a methodology to evaluate the energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs and proposes a novel FPGA AES implementation which is highly flexible and energy efficient. The proposed methodology is implemented as part of a novel scripting tool, the AES Energy Analyzer, which is able to fully characterize the power dissipation and energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs. Additionally, this thesis introduces a new FPGA power reduction technique called Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating (OCOG) which is used in the proposed energy efficient implementation. The AES Energy Analyzer was able to estimate the power dissipation and energy efficiency of the proposed AES design during its most commonly performed operations. It was found that the proposed implementation consumes less energy per operation than any previous FPGA based AES implementations that included power estimations. Finally, the use of Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating on an AES cipher was found to reduce its dynamic power consumption by up to 17% when compared to an identical design that did not employ the technique.

Kenney, David

383

Cache Games -- Bringing Access-Based Cache Attacks on AES to Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Side channel attacks on cryptographic systems ex- ploit information gained from physical implementations rather than theoretical weaknesses of a scheme. In recent years, major achievements were made for the class of so called access-driven cache attacks. Such attacks exploit the leakage of the memory locations accessed by a victim process. In this paper we consider the AES block cipher and

David Gullasch; Endre Bangerter; Stephan Krenn

2011-01-01

384

Effect of ECAP processing on corrosion resistance of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion properties of AE21 and AE42 magnesium alloys were investigated in the extruded state and after subsequent 8 passes of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) via route Bc, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. The resulting microstructure was observed by the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Corrosion layer created after 7 days of immersion was observed by (SEM) in order to explain different evolution of the corrosion resistance after ECAP processing in both alloys. It was found that Al-rich Al11RE3 dispersed particles (present in both alloys) strongly influence the corrosion process and enhance the corrosion resistance. Ultra-fine grained structure was found to reduce the corrosion resistance in AE21. On the other hand, the microstructure of AE42 after ECAP and particularly the better distribution of the alloying elements in the matrix enhance the corrosion resistance when compared to the extruded material.

Minrik, P.; Krl, R.; Jane?ek, M.

2013-09-01

385

Integrated Software Systems for Crew Management During Extravehicular Activity in Planetary Terrain Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial planetary explorations with the Apollo program had a veritable ground support army monitoring the safety and health of the 12 astronauts who performed lunar surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). Given the distances involved, this will not be possible on Mars. A spacesuit for Mars must be smart enough to replace that army. The next generation suits can do so using 2 software systems serving as virtual companions, LEGACI (Life support, Exploration Guidance Algorithm and Consumable Interrogator) and VIOLET (Voice Initiated Operator for Life support and Exploration Tracking). The system presented in this study integrates data inputs from a suite of sensors into the MIII suit s communications, avionics and informatics hardware for distribution to remote managers and data analysis. If successful, the system has application not only for Mars but for nearer term missions to the Moon, and the next generation suits used on ISS as well. Field tests are conducted to assess capabilities for next generation spacesuits at Johnson Space Center (JSC) as well as the Mars and Lunar analog (Devon Island, Canada). LEGACI integrates data inputs from a suite of noninvasive biosensors in the suit and the astronaut (heart rate, suit inlet/outlet lcg temperature and flowrate, suit outlet gas and dewpoint temperature, pCO2, suit O2 pressure, state vector (accelerometry) and others). In the Integrated Walkback Suit Tests held at NASA-JSC and the HMP tests at Devon Island, communication and informatics capabilities were tested (including routing by satellite from the suit at Devon Island to JSC in Houston via secure servers at VCU in Richmond, VA). Results. The input from all the sensors enable LEGACI to compute multiple independent assessments of metabolic rate, from which a "best" met rate is chosen based on statistical methods. This rate can compute detailed information about the suit, crew and EVA performance using test-derived algorithms. VIOLET gives LEGACI voice activation capability, allowing the crew to query the suit, and receive feedback and alerts that will lead to corrective action. LEGACI and VIOLET can also automatically control the astronaut's cooling and consumable use rate without crew input if desired. These findings suggest that non-invasive physiological and environmental sensors supported with data analysis can allow for more effective management of mission task performance during EVA. Integrated remote and local view of data metrics allow crewmember to receive real time feedback in synch with mission control in preventing performance shortcomings for EVA in exploration missions.

Kuznetz, Lawrence; Nguen, Dan; Jones, Jeffrey; Lee, Pascal; Merrell, Ronald; Rafiq, Azhar

2008-01-01

386

A dynamic isotope power system for Space Exploration Initiative surface transport systems  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Demonstration Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy with support funding from NASA, is currently focused on the development of a standardized 2.5-kWe portable generator for multiple applications on the lunar or Martian surface. A variety of remote and mobile potential applications have been identified by NASA, including surface rovers for both short- and extended-duration missions, remote power to science packages, and backup to central base power. Recent work focused on refining the 2.5-kWe design and emphasizing the compatibility of the system with potential surface transport systems. Work included an evaluation of the design to ensure compatibility with the Martian atmosphere while imposing only a minor mass penalty on lunar operations. Additional work included a study performed to compare the DIPS with regenerative fuel cell systems for lunar mobile and remote power systems. Power requirements were reviewed and a modular system chosen for the comparison. 4 refs.

Hunt, M.E.; Harty, R.B.; Cataldo, R. (Rockwell International Corp., Rocketdyne Div., Canoga Park, CA (United States) NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

1992-03-01

387

Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for a Flexible Space Exploration Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to develop advanced avionic and processor technologies anticipated to be used by NASA s currently evolving space exploration architectures. The AAPS project is a part of the Exploration Technology Development Program, which funds an entire suite of technologies that are aimed at enabling NASA s ability to explore beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the AAPS project. AAPS uses a broad-scoped approach to developing avionic and processor systems. Investment areas include advanced electronic designs and technologies capable of providing environmental hardness, reconfigurable computing techniques, software tools for radiation effects assessment, and radiation environment modeling tools. Near-term emphasis within the multiple AAPS tasks focuses on developing prototype components using semiconductor processes and materials (such as Silicon-Germanium (SiGe)) to enhance a device s tolerance to radiation events and low temperature environments. As the SiGe technology will culminate in a delivered prototype this fiscal year, the project emphasis shifts its focus to developing low-power, high efficiency total processor hardening techniques. In addition to processor development, the project endeavors to demonstrate techniques applicable to reconfigurable computing and partially reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This capability enables avionic architectures the ability to develop FPGA-based, radiation tolerant processor boards that can serve in multiple physical locations throughout the spacecraft and perform multiple functions during the course of the mission. The individual tasks that comprise AAPS are diverse, yet united in the common endeavor to develop electronics capable of operating within the harsh environment of space. Specifically, the AAPS tasks for the Federal fiscal year of 2010 are: Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments, Modeling of Radiation Effects on Electronics, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), and and Reconfigurable Computing.

Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Smith, Leigh M.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

2010-01-01

388

Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system  

SciTech Connect

The objective for the development of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} radiological characterization system is to achieve a cost effective, low risk means of characterizing gamma radioactivity on the inside surface of pipes. The unique feature of this inspection system is the use of a pneumatically inflated impermeable membrane which transports the detector into the pipe as it inverts. The membrane`s internal air pressure tows the detector and tether through the pipe. This mechanism isolates the detector and its cabling from the contaminated surface, yet allows measurement of radioactive emissions which can readily penetrate the thin plastic membrane material (such as gamma and high energy beta emissions). In Phase 1, an initial survey of DOE facilities was conducted to determine the physical and radiological characteristics of piping systems. The inverting membrane deployment system was designed and extensively tested in the laboratory. A range of membrane materials was tested to evaluate their ruggedness and deployment characteristics. Two different sizes of gamma scintillation detectors were procured and tested with calibrated sources. Radiation transport modeling evaluated the measurement system`s sensitivity to detector position relative to the contaminated surface, the distribution of the contamination, background gamma levels, and gamma source energy levels. In the culmination of Phase 1, a field demonstration was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The project is currently in transition from Phase 1 to Phase 2, where more extensive demonstrations will occur at several sites. Results to date are discussed.

Lowry, W.

1994-12-31

389

Exploring the History of Time in an Integrated System: the Ramifications for Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristic time scales are useful and simple descriptors of geophysical and socio-economic system dynamics. Focusing on the integrative nature of the hydrologic cycle, new insights into system couplings can be gained by compiling characteristic time scales of important processes driving these systems. There are many examples of changing characteristic time scales. Human life expectancy has increased over the recent history of medical advancement. The transport time of goods has decreased with the progression from horse to rail to car to plane. The transport time of information changed with the progression from letter to telegraph to telephone to networked computing. Soil residence time (pedogenesis to estuary deposition) has been influenced by changing agricultural technology, urbanization, and forest practices. Surface water residence times have varied as beaver dams have disappeared and been replaced with modern reservoirs, flood control works, and channelization. These dynamics raise the question of how these types of time scales interact with each other to form integrated Earth system dynamics? Here we explore the coupling of geophysical and socio-economic systems in the northeast United States over the 1600 to 2010 period by examining characteristic time scales. This visualization of many time scales serves as an exploratory analysis, producing new hypotheses about how the integrated system dynamics have evolved over the last 400 years. Specifically, exponential population growth and the evolving strategies to maintain that population appears as fundamental to many of the time scales.

Green, M. B.; Adams, L. E.; Allen, T. L.; Arrigo, J. S.; Bain, D. J.; Bray, E. N.; Duncan, J. M.; Hermans, C. M.; Pastore, C.; Schlosser, C. A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Witherell, B. B.; Wollheim, W. M.; Wreschnig, A. J.

2009-12-01

390

Drills, Scoops, Grinders, Brushing Tools, Crushers, and Sample Manipulation Systems Enabling Mars Exploration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanism Corporation has developed over a dozen planetary drill systems, scoops, grinders, crushers and sample manipulation systems. These systems were built to meet specific requirements such as reaching certain depths, exhibiting certain levels of autonomy, acquiring samples of certain sizes and integrity (e.g. core vs. powder). They were built to operate at restricted power values. Most of the systems were tested either in the planetary analogs such as the Arctic, and/or laboratory, and/or environmental chambers and for this reason are at different Technology Readiness Levels. The presentation will cover a range of various drill systems as well as flight hardware developed by Honeybee Robotics. The existing flight hardware includes Rock Abrasion Tool on Mars Exploration Rovers currently operating on the surface of Mars, a Phoenix Scoop with a small drill called the RASP (the Phoenix lander is scheduled to land on Mars on May 25th), and the Sample Manipulation System that will be launched to Mars onboard of Mars Science Laboratory Rover in 2009. The presentation will focus on science enabled but these different instruments as well as challengers in developing a flight-ready hardware and operating the hardware from Earth.

Zacny, Kris; Davis, Kiel; Paulsen, Gale; Gorevan, Steven; Mumm, Erik

391

Integrated Modeling and Simulation Verification, Validation, and Accreditation Strategy for Exploration Systems Mission Directorate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models and simulations (M&S) are critical resources in the exploration of space. They support program management, systems engineering, integration, analysis, test, and operations and provide critical information and data supporting key analyses and decisions (technical, cost and schedule). Consequently, there is a clear need to establish a solid understanding of M&S strengths and weaknesses, and the bounds within which they can credibly support decision-making. Their usage requires the implementation of a rigorous approach to verification, validation and accreditation (W&A) and establishment of formal process and practices associated with their application. To ensure decision-making is suitably supported by information (data, models, test beds) from activities (studies, exercises) from M&S applications that are understood and characterized, ESMD is establishing formal, tailored W&A processes and practices. In addition, to ensure the successful application of M&S within ESMD, a formal process for the certification of analysts that use M&S is being implemented. This presentation will highlight NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) management approach for M&S W&A to ensure decision-makers receive timely information on the model's fidelity, credibility, and quality.

Hale, Joseph P.

2006-01-01

392

Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

2013-01-01

393

NASA's Space Launch System: A New Capability for Science and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other high-priority payloads into deep space. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with human missions beyond the Moon and then go on to transport astronauts or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. This paper will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability, and will detail the progress that has already been made toward a first launch in 2017. This paper will also explore the requirements needed for human missions to deep-space destinations and for game-changing robotic science missions, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions, along with the evolution strategy that will increase that capability. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. SLS also offers substantial capability to support robotic science missions, offering benefits such as improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for advanced exploration.

Robinson, Kimberly F.; Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

2014-01-01

394

NEEMO 15: Evaluation of Human Exploration Systems for Near-Earth Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 15 mission was focused on near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) exploration techniques evaluation. It began with a University of Delaware autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) systematically mapping the coral reef for hundreds of meters surrounding the Aquarius habitat. This activity is akin to the type of "far field survey" approach that may be used by a robotic precursor in advance of a human mission to a NEA. Data from the far-field survey were then examined by the NEEMO science team and follow-up exploration traverses were planned, which used Deepworker single-person submersibles. Science traverses at NEEMO 15 were planned according to a prioritized list of scientific objectives developed by the science team based on review and discussion of previous related marine science research including previous marine science saturation missions conducted at the Aquarius habitat. AUV data was used to select several areas of scientific interest. The Deepworker science traverses were then executed at these areas of interest during 4 days of the NEEMO 15 mission and provided higher resolution data such as coral species distribution and mortality. These traverses are analogous to the "near field survey" approach that is expected to be performed by a multi mission space exploration vehicle (MMSEV) during a human mission to a NEA before conducting extravehicular activities (EVA)s. In addition to the science objectives that were pursued, the NEEMO 15 science traverses provided an opportunity to test newly developed software and techniques. Sample collection and instrument deployment on the NEA surface by EVA crew would follow the "near field survey" in a human NEA mission. Sample collection was not necessary for the purposes of the NEEMO science objectives; however, the engineering and operations objectives during NEEMO 15 were to evaluate different combinations of vehicles, crewmembers, tools, and equipment that could be used to perform these tasks on a NEA. Specifically, the productivity and acceptability of simulated NEA exploration activities were systematically quantified and compared when operating with different combinations of crew sizes and exploration systems including MMSEVs, EVA jet packs, and EVA translation devices.

Chappell, Steven P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

2011-01-01

395

Demonstration of a Particle Impact Monitoring System for Crewed Space Exploration Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When micrometeorite or debris impacts occur on a space habitat, crew members need to be quickly informed of the likely extent of damage, and be directed to the impact location for possible repairs. The goal of the Habitat Particle Impact Monitoring System (HIMS) is to develop a fully automated, end-to-end particle impact detection system for crewed space exploration modules, both in space and on the surfaces of Solar System bodies. The HIMS uses multiple thin film piezo-polymer vibration sensors to detect impacts on a surface, and computer processing of the acoustical signals to characterize the impacts. Development and demonstration of the HIMS is proceeding in concert with NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Project. The HDU Project is designed to develop and test various technologies, configurations, and operational concepts for exploration habitats. This paper describes the HIMS development, initial testing, and HDU integration efforts. Initial tests of the system on the HDU were conducted at NASA?s 2010 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (Desert-RATS). Four sensor locations were assigned near the corners of a rectangular pattern. To study the influence of wall thickness, three sets of four sensors were installed at different layer depths: on the interior of the PEM wall, on the exterior of the same wall, and on the exterior of a layer of foam insulation applied to the exterior wall. Once the system was activated, particle impacts were periodically applied by firing a pneumatic pellet gun at the exterior wall section. Impact signals from the sensors were recognized by a data acquisition system when they occurred, and recorded on a computer for later analysis. Preliminary analysis of the results found that the HIMS system located the point of impact to within 8 cm, provided a measure of the impact energy / damage produced, and was insensitive to other acoustic events. Based on this success, a fully automated version of this system will be completed and demonstrated as part of a crew "Caution/Warning" system at the 2011 Desert-RATS, along with a crew response procedure.

Opiela, J. N.; Liou, J.-C.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Anz-Meador, P.

2011-01-01

396

Constellation Program (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Project Integrated Landing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Chief Engineer requested a risk comparison of the Integrated Landing System design developed by NASA and the design developed by Contractor- referred to as the LM 604 baseline. Based on the results of this risk comparison, the CEV Chief engineer requested that the NESC evaluate identified risks and develop strategies for their reduction or mitigation. The assessment progressed in two phases. A brief Phase I analysis was performed by the Water versus Land-Landing Team to compare the CEV Integrated Landing System proposed by the Contractor against the NASA TS-LRS001 baseline with respect to risk. A phase II effort examined the areas of critical importance to the overall landing risk, evaluating risk to the crew and to the CEV Crew Module (CM) during a nominal land-landing. The findings of the assessment are contained in this report.

Baker, John D.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Eisenman, David J.; Peer, Scott G.; Fasanella, Edward L.; Lawrence, Charles

2009-01-01

397

Quantum physics exploring gravity in the outer solar system: the SAGAS project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarise the scientific and technological aspects of the Search for Anomalous Gravitation using Atomic Sensors (SAGAS) project, submitted to ESA in June 2007 in response to the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 call for proposals. The proposed mission aims at flying highly sensitive atomic sensors (optical clock, cold atom accelerometer, optical link) on a Solar System escape trajectory in the 2020 to 2030 time-frame. SAGAS has numerous science objectives in fundamental physics and Solar System science, for example numerous tests of general relativity and the exploration of the Kuiper belt. The combination of highly sensitive atomic sensors and of the laser link well adapted for large distances will allow measurements with unprecedented accuracy and on scales never reached before. We present the proposed mission in some detail, with particular emphasis on the science goals and associated measurements and technologies.

Wolf, P.; Bord, Ch. J.; Clairon, A.; Duchayne, L.; Landragin, A.; Lemonde, P.; Santarelli, G.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E.; Cataliotti, F. S.; Inguscio, M.; Tino, G. M.; Gill, P.; Klein, H.; Reynaud, S.; Salomon, C.; Peik, E.; Bertolami, O.; Gil, P.; Pramos, J.; Jentsch, C.; Johann, U.; Rathke, A.; Bouyer, P.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Izzo, D.; de Natale, P.; Christophe, B.; Touboul, P.; Turyshev, S. G.; Anderson, J.; Tobar, M. E.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Vigu, J.; Madej, A. A.; Marmet, L.; Angonin, M.-C.; Delva, P.; Tourrenc, P.; Metris, G.; Mller, H.; Walsworth, R.; Lu, Z. H.; Wang, L. J.; Bongs, K.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Dittus, H.; Lmmerzahl, C.; Galzerano, G.; Laporta, P.; Laskar, J.; Fienga, A.; Roques, F.; Sengstock, K.

2009-03-01

398

Preliminary System Analysis of In Situ Resource Utilization for Mars Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We carried out a system analysis of processes for utilization of Mars resources to support human exploration of Mars by production of propellants from indigenous resources. Seven ISRU processes were analyzed to determine mass. power and propellant storage volume requirements. The major elements of each process include C02 acquisition, chemical conversion, and storage of propellants. Based on a figure of merit (the ratio of the mass of propellants that must be brought from Earth in a non-ISRU mission to the mass of the ISRU system. tanks and feedstocks that must be brought from Earth for a ISRU mission) the most attractive process (by far); is one where indigenous Mars water is accessible and this is processed via Sabatier/Electrolysis to methane and oxygen. These processes are technically relatively mature. Other processes with positive leverage involve reverse water gas shift and solid oxide electrolysis.

Rapp, Donald; Andringa, Jason; Easter, Robert; Smith, Jeffrey H .; Wilson, Thomas; Clark, D. Larry; Payne, Kevin

2005-01-01

399

NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle s (MPCV s) first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high-priority science experiments. SLS affordability initiatives include streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture that continually benchmarks its performance against successful ventures. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

May, Todd A.

2012-01-01

400

Number Systems This lab explores the binary, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems.  

E-print Network

the different base number systems. PREPARATION Read the following sections from your textbook: · Chapter 0.1, 0 be easier to use a code with fewer bits per letter. 3. Show how you would encode the message "hi mom": ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 4. Practice coding messages to each other. When you are proficient, demonstrate your skills

Clair, Bryan

401

Design and Performance Analysis of Downlink in Space Communications System for Lunar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korean government made clear that it would make efforts to carry out full-fledged research into space exploration with the aim of developing a Lunar Orbiter (LO) from 2017 to 2020 in the detailed implement guidance of the space development project established in 2007 (Lee 2009). To make the plan realized, basic researches into a space communication link are essential (Kim et al. 2009). However, local researches in Korea were focused on the near-earth satellite communication links and the researches on the deep space communications were hardly founded. This paper designs and analyzes the downlink between a LO and an Earth Station (ES) in space communications system for lunar exploration, and suggests requirements for the communication link design with conforming to international recommendations. In general, among the losses in the calculation of a space communication link budget between the LO and the ES, the largest one is the free space loss comes from the distance between the earth and the moon. Furthermore, an accurate link model should be made up in order to analyze the performance in a more accurate way, with all the other elements influencing on signal quality. In this paper, we design the model of a space communications system considering almost all elements to affect the downlink performance of the space communications system between the LO and the ES, based on detailed requirements by CCSDS (the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, 2007), and verify the results with reference to the foreign operation cases of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) DSN (Deep Space Network) (Slobin 2006, Sniffin 2002, 2008). According to the CCSDS, we assume that the communication links have the line of sight path between the LO and the ES for S, X, Ku, and Ka bands, and an uncoded OQPSK signal is considered for a telemetry transmission. Also, a required target BER (Bit Error Rate) in the downlink space communications systems is assumed to be 10^5. We calculate the Eb=N0 (Bit Energy to Noise Power Density Ratio) with the designed model for a downlink space communications system, and compare it with the required Eb=N0 to satisfy the target BER. Then, we analyze the link performance between the LO and the ES depending on the data rates, the diameters of antennas, and the transmit powers in S, X, Ku, and Ka bands. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: section 2 introduces a system model, section 3 analyzes the performance of the downlink space communications system, and the final section gives conclusions.

Lee, Wooju; Cho, Kyongkuk; Yoon, Dongweon

2010-03-01

402

Approaches to the development of biomedical support systems for piloted exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many aspects of the biomedical systems developed and realized aboard orbital stations, the International space station in the first place, deserve to be regarded as predecessors of the systems for health monitoring and maintenance of future exploration crews. At the same time, there are issues and tasks which have not been yet fully resolved. Specifically, these are prevention of the adverse changes in body systems and organs due to microgravity, reliable protection from the spectrum of space radiation, and elucidation of possible effects of hypomagnetic environment. We should not walk away from search and development of key biomedical technologies such as a system of automated fitness evaluation and a psychodiagnostic complex for testing and optimization of operator?s efficiency, and others. We have to address a large number of issues related to designing the composite life support systems of the utmost autonomy, closure and ecological safety of the human environment that will provide transformation of all kinds of waste. Another crucial task is to define a concept of the onboard medical center and dataware including the telemedicine technology. All the above developments should assimilate the most recent achievements in physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and advanced medical technologies. Biomedical researches on biosatellites also do not lose topicality.

Grigoriev, A. I.; Potapov, A. N.

2014-01-01

403

Geochemical exploration of a promissory Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS): the Acoculco caldera, Mexico.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Acoculco caldera (Puebla, Mexico) has been identified by the Mexican Federal Electricity Company (in Spanish 'Comisin Federal de Electricidad', CFE) as a potential Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) candidate. Two exploration wells were drilled and promising temperatures of ~300 C have been measured at a depth of 2000 m with a geothermal gradient of 11oC/100m, which is three times higher than the baseline gradient measured within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. As usually observed in Hot Dry Rock systems, thermal manifestations in surface are scarce and consist in low-temperature bubbling springs and soil degassing. The goals of this study were to identify the origin of these fluids, to estimate the soil degassing rate and to explore new areas for a future detailed exploration and drilling activities. Water and gas samples were collected for chemical and isotopic analysis (?18O, ?D, 3He/4He, 13C, 15N) and a multi-gas (CO2, CH4, H2S) soil survey was carried out using the accumulation chamber method. Springs' compositions indicate a meteoric origin and the dissolution of CO2 and H2S-rich gases, while gas compositions reveal a MORB-type origin mixed with some arc-type contribution. Gas geothermometry results are similar to temperatures measured during well drilling (260 C-300 C). Amongst all measured CO2 fluxes, only 5% (mean: 5543 g m-2 day-1) show typical geothermal values, while the remaining fluxes are low and correspond to biogenic degassing (mean: 18 g m-2 day-1). The low degassing rate of the geothermal system is a consequence of the intense hydrothermal alteration observed in the upper 800 m of the system which acts as an impermeable caprock. Highest measured CO2 fluxes (above > 600 g m-2 day-1) have corresponding CH4/CO2 flux ratios similar to mass ratios of sampled gases, which suggest an advective fluid transport. To represent field conditions, a numerical model was also applied to simulate the migration of CO2 towards the surface through a shallow aquifer under fully saturated conditions. By changing some of the aquifer properties (i.e., depth, permeability and porosity), it was found how geothermal CO2 fluxes can show values similar to a biogenic background flux. Future field work at Acoculco will include ?13C analysis together with soil flux measurements for a better discrimination of the degassing origin, and a thinner flux measurement grid will be defined for a better detection of any possible gas flux anomaly.

Peiffer, Loic; Romero, Ruben Bernard; Prez-Zarate, Daniel; Guevara, Mirna; Santoyo Gutirrez, Edgar

2014-05-01

404

Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) - its Impact on Future Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an overview of our "Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems for Mars" ( "BEES for Mars") project. The BEES approach distills selected biologically inspired strategies utilizing motion cues/optic flow, bioinspired pattern recognition, biological visual and neural control systems, bioinspired sensing and communication techniques, and birds of prey inspired search and track algorithmic systems. Unique capabilities so enabled, provide potential solutions to future autonomous robotic space and planetary mission applications. With the first series of tests performed in September 2003, August 2004 and September 2004, we have demonstrated the BEES technologies at the El Mirage Dry Lakebed site in the Mojave Desert using Delta Wing experimental prototypes. We call these test flyers the "BEES flyer", since we are developing them as dedicated test platform for the newly developed bioinspired sensors, processors and algorithmic strategies. The Delta Wing offers a robust airframe that can sustain high G launches and offers ease of compact stowability and packaging along with scaling to small size and low ReynOld's number performance for a potential Mars deployment. Our approach to developing light weight, low power autonomous flight systems using concepts distilled from biology promises to enable new applications, of dual use to NASA and DoD needs. Small in size (0.5 -5 Kg) BEES Flyers are demonstrating capabilities for autonomous flight and sensor operability in Mars analog conditions. The BEES project team spans JPL, NASA Ames, Australian National University (ANU), Brigham Young University(BYU), DC Berkeiey, Analogic Computers Inc. and other institutions. The highlights from our recent flight demonstrations exhibiting new Mission enabling capabilities are described. Further, this paper describes two classes of potential new missions for Mars exploration: (1) the long range exploration missions, and (2) observation missions, for real time imaging of critical ephemeral phenomena, that can be enabled by use of BEES flyers. For example, such flyers can serve as a powerful black-box for critical descent and landing data and enablers for improved science missions complementing and supplementing the existing assets like landers and rovers by providing valuable exploration and quick extended low-altitude aerial coverage of the sites of interest by imaging them and distributing instruments to them. Imaging done by orbiters allows broad surface coverage at limited spatial resolution. Low altitude air-borne exploration of Mars offers a means for imaging large areas, perhaps up to several hundred kilometers, quickly and efficiently, providing a close-up birds-eye view of the planetary terrain and close-up approach to constrained difficult areas like canyons and craters. A novel approach to low-mass yet highly capable flyers is enabled by small aircraft equipped using sensors and processors and algorithms developed using BEES technology. This project is focused towards showing the direct impact of blending the best of artificial intelligence attributes and bioinspiration to create a leap beyond existing capability for our future Missions.

Thakoor, Sarita; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steve

2004-01-01

405

Parametric Analysis of Life Support Systems for Future Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path program.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.

2011-01-01

406

Exploring the business case for ambulatory electronic health record system adoption.  

PubMed

Widespread implementation and use of electronic health record (EHR) systems has been recognized by healthcare leaders as a cornerstone strategy for systematically reducing medical errors and improving clinical quality. However, EHR adoption requires a significant capital investment for healthcare providers, and cost is often cited as a barrier. Despite the capital requirements, a true business case for EHR system adoption and implementation has not been made. This is of concern, as the lack of a business case can influence decision making about EHR investments. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of business case analysis in healthcare organizations' decisions to invest in ambulatory EHR systems, and to identify what factors organizations considered when justifying an ambulatory EHR. Using a qualitative case study approach, we explored how five organizations that are considered to have best practices in ambulatory EHR system implementation had evaluated the business case for EHR adoption. We found that although the rigor of formal business case analysis was highly variable, informants across these organizations consistently reported perceiving that a positive business case for EHR system adoption existed, especially when they considered both financial and non-financial benefits. While many consider EHR system adoption inevitable in healthcare, this viewpoint should not deter managers from conducting a business case analysis. Results of such an analysis can inform healthcare organizations' understanding about resource allocation needs, help clarify expectations about financial and clinical performance metrics to be monitored through EHR systems, and form the basis for ongoing organizational support to ensure successful system implementation. PMID:21714372

Song, Paula H; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Robbins, Julie; McCullough, Jeffrey S

2011-01-01

407

NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape: Progress Toward Safe, Affordable Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of NASA's Space Launch System exploration-class heavy lift rocket has moved from the formulation phase to implementation in 3 years and will make significant progress this year toward its first launch, slated for December 2017. In recognition of the current fiscal realities, SLS represents a safe, affordable, and evolutionary path to development of an unprecedented capability for future human and robotic exploration and use of space. Current development is focused on a configuration with a 70 metric ton (t) payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double any operational vehicle. It is this version that will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back, as well as the first crewed Orion flight. This configuration is also designed to evolve to 130 t lift capability that offers several benefits, such as reduced mission costs, simplified payload design, faster trip times, and lower overall risk for missions of national significance. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation during the past year, passing its Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and completion of Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. Among the Program's many accomplishments are manufacture of core stage test hardware, as well as preparations for testing the world's most powerful solid rocket boosters and the main engines that flew 135 successful Space Shuttle missions. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of existing technology, infrastructure, and workforce; streamlined management approach; and judicious use of new technologies. The result is a launch vehicle that will carry human and robotic exploration on the history-making missions in the coming decades. This paper will discuss the program and technical successes over the past year and provide a look at the milestones and challenges ahead.

Askins, Bruce

2014-01-01

408

Exploration of Natural Biomass Utilization Systems (NBUS) for advanced biofuel--from systems biology to synthetic design.  

PubMed

Efficient degradation and utilization of lignocellulosic biomass remains a challenge for sustainable and affordable biofuels. Various natural biomass utilization systems (NBUS) evolved the capacity to combat the recalcitrance of plant cell walls. The study of these NBUS could enable the development of efficient and cost-effective biocatalysts, microorganisms, and bioprocesses for biofuels and bioproducts. Here, we reviewed the recent research progresses for several NBUS, ranging from single cell microorganisms to consortiums such as cattle rumen and insect guts. These studies aided the discovery of biomass-degrading enzymes and the elucidation of the evolutionary and functional relevance in these systems. In particular, advances in the next generation 'omics' technologies offered new opportunities to explore NBUS in a high-throughput manner. Systems biology helped to facilitate the rapid biocatalyst discovery and detailed mechanism analysis, which could in turn guide the reverse design of engineered microorganisms and bioprocesses for cost-effective and efficient biomass conversion. PMID:24657913

Xie, Shangxian; Syrenne, Ryan; Sun, Su; Yuan, Joshua S

2014-06-01

409

Solar System Exploration Division Strategic Plan, volume 1. Executive summary and overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This first document is the first of a six-volume series presenting the Solar System Exploration Division's Strategic Plan for the 10-year period FY 1994 to FY 2003. The overall strategy is characterized by five fundamental precepts: (1) execute the current program; (2) improve the vitality of the program and the planetary science community; (3) initiate innovative, small, low-cost planetary missions; (4) initiate new major and moderate missions; and (5) prepare for the next generation of missions. This Strategic Plan describes in detail our proposed approach to accomplish these goals. Volume 1 provides first an Executive Summary of highlights of each of the six volumes, and then goes on to present an overview of the plan, including a discussion of the planning context and strategic approach. Volumes 2, 3, 4, and 5 describe in detail the initiatives proposed. An integral part of each of these volumes is a set of responses to the mission selection criteria questions developed by the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. Volume 2, Mission From Planet Earth, describes a strategy for exploring the Moon and Mars and sets forth proposed moderate missions--Lunar Observer and a Mars lander network. Volume 3, Pluto Flyby/Neptune Orbiter, discusses our proposed major new start candidate for the FY 1994 to FY 1998 time frame. Volume 4, Discovery, describes the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, as well as other candidates for this program of low-cost planetary missions. Volume 5, Toward Other Planetary Systems, describes a major research and analysis augmentation that focuses on extrasolar planet detection and the study of planetary system processes. Finally, Volume 6 summarizes the technology program that the division has structured around these four initiatives.

1991-01-01

410

Solar System Exploration Division Strategic Plan, volume 1. Executive summary and overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This first document is the first of a six-volume series presenting the Solar System Exploration Division's Strategic Plan for the 10-year period FY 1994 to FY 2003. The overall strategy is characterized by five fundamental precepts: (1) execute the current program; (2) improve the vitality of the program and the planetary science community; (3) initiate innovative, small, low-cost planetary missions; (4) initiate new major and moderate missions; and (5) prepare for the next generation of missions. This Strategic Plan describes in detail our proposed approach to accomplish these goals. Volume 1 provides first an Executive Summary of highlights of each of the six volumes, and then goes on to present an overview of the plan, including a discussion of the planning context and strategic approach. Volumes 2, 3, 4, and 5 describe in detail the initiatives proposed. An integral part of each of these volumes is a set of responses to the mission selection criteria questions developed by the Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. Volume 2, Mission From Planet Earth, describes a strategy for exploring the Moon and Mars and sets forth proposed moderate missions--Lunar Observer and a Mars lander network. Volume 3, Pluto Flyby/Neptune Orbiter, discusses our proposed major new start candidate for the FY 1994 to FY 1998 time frame. Volume 4, Discovery, describes the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, as well as other candidates for this program of low-cost planetary missions. Volume 5, Toward Other Planetary Systems, describes a major research and analysis augmentation that focuses on extrasolar planet detection and the study of planetary system processes. Finally, Volume 6 summarizes the technology program that the division has structured around these four initiatives.

1991-07-01

411

NPS alternate techsat satellite, design project for AE-4871  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project was completed as part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The intent of the course is to provide experience in the design of all the major components in a spacecraft system. Team members were given responsibility for the design of one of the six primary subsystems: power, structures, propulsion, attitude control, telemetry, tracking and control (TT&C), and thermal control. In addition, a single member worked on configuration control, launch vehicle integration, and a spacecraft test plan. Given an eleven week time constraint, a preliminary design of each subsystem was completed. Where possible, possible component selections were also made. Assistance for this project came principally from the Naval Research Laboratory's Spacecraft Technology Branch. Specific information on components was solicited from representatives in industry. The design project centers on a general purpose satellite bus that is currently being sought by the Strategic Defense Initiative.

412

Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable Systems: Technology for Sustainable, Reliable, Effective, and Affordable Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to execute the Vision for Space Exploration, we must find ways to reduce cost, system complexity, design, build, and test times, and at the same time increase flexibility to satisfy multiple functions. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable System (MARS) technologies promise to set the stage for the delivery of system elements that form the building blocks of increasingly ambitious missions involving humans and robots. Today, space systems are largely specialized and built on a case-by-case basis. The notion of modularity however, is nothing new to NASA. The 1970's saw the development of the Multi-Mission Modular spacecraft (MMS). From 1980 to 1992 at least six satellites were built under this paradigm, and included such Goddard Space Flight Center missions as SSM, EUVE, UARS, and Landsat 4 and 5. Earlier versions consisted of standard subsystem "module" or "box" components that could be replaced within a structure based on predefined form factors. Although the primary motivation for MMS was faster/cheaper integration and test, standardization of interfaces, and ease of incorporating new subsystem technology, it lacked the technology maturity and programmatic "upgrade infrastructure" needed to satisfy varied mission requirements, and ultimately it lacked user buy-in. Consequently, it never evolved and was phased out. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) with its regularly updated catalogue of prequalified busses became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years since MMS inception, technology has advanced considerably and now modularity can be extended beyond the traditional MMS module or box to cover levels of integration, from the chip, card, box, subsystem, to the space system and to the system-of-systems. This paper will present the MARS architecture, cast within the historical context of MMS. Its application will be highlighted by comparing a state-of-the-art point design vs. a MARS-enabled lunar mission, as a representative robotic case design.

Esper, Jaime

2004-01-01

413

The PEGASUS Drive: A nuclear electric propulsion system for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of using electric propulsion for propulsion are well-known in the aerospace community. The high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass make it a very attractive propulsion option for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), especially for the transport of cargo. One such propulsion system is the PEGASUS Drive (Coomes {ital et} {ital al}. 1987). In its original configuration, the PEGASUS Drive consisted of a 10-MWe power source coupled to a 6-MW magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster system. The PEGASUS Drive propelled a manned vechicle to Mars and back in 601 days. By removing the crew and their associated support systems from the space craft and by incorporating technology advances in reactor design and heat rejection systems, a second generation PEGASUS Drive can be developed with an alpha less than two. Utilizing this propulsion system, a 400-MT cargo vechicle, assembled and loaded in low Earth orbit (LEO), could deliver 262 MT of supplies and hardware to MARS 282 days after escaping Earth orbit. Upon arrival at Mars the transport vehicle would place its cargo in the desired parking orbit around Mars and then proceed to synchronous orbit above the desired landing sight. Using a laser transmitter, PEGASUS could provide 2-MW on the surface to operate automated systems deployed earlier and then provide surface power to support crew activities after their arrival. The additional supplies and hardware, coupled with the availability of megawatt levels of electric power on the Mars surface, would greatly enhance and even expand the mission options being considered under SEI.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory P.O. Box 999 M/S K5-21 Richland, WA 99352 (US))

1991-01-01

414

Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable Systems: Technology for Sustainable, Reliable, Effective, and Affordable Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to execute the Vision for Space Exploration, we must find ways to reduce cost, system complexity, design, build, and test times, and at the same time increase flexibility to satisfy multiple functions. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable System (MARS) technologies promise to set the stage for the delivery of system elements that form the building blocks of increasingly ambitious missions involving humans and robots. Today, space systems are largely specialized and built on a case-by-case basis. The notion of modularity however, is nothing new to NASA. The 1970's saw the development of the Multi-Mission Modular spacecraft (MMS). From 1980 to 1992 at least six satellites were built under this paradigm, and included such Goddard Space Flight Center missions as SSM, EUVE, UARS, and Landsat 4 and 5. Earlier versions consisted of standard subsystem ``module'' or ``box'' components that could be replaced within a structure based on predefined form factors. Although the primary motivation for MMS was faster/cheaper integration and test, standardization of interfaces, and ease of incorporating new subsystem technology, it lacked the technology maturity and programmatic ``upgrade infrastructure'' needed to satisfy varied mission requirements, and ultimately it lacked user buy-in. Consequently, it never evolved and was phased out. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) with its regularly updated catalogue of pre-qualified busses became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years since MMS inception, technology has advanced considerably and now modularity can be extended beyond the traditional MMS module or box to cover levels of integration, from the chip, card, box, subsystem, to the space system and to the system-of-systems. This paper will present the MARS architecture, cast within the historical context of MMS. Its application will be highlighted by comparing a state-of-the-art point design vs. a MARS-enabled lunar mission, as a representative robotic case design.

Esper, Jaime

2005-02-01

415

The PEGASUS Drive: A nuclear electric propulsion system for the space exploration initiative  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of using electric propulsion for propulsion are well-known in the aerospace community. The high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass make it a very attractive propulsion option for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), especially for the transport of cargo. One such propulsion system is the PEGASUS Drive (Coomes et al. 1987). In its original configuration, the PEGASUS Drive consisted of a 10-MWe power source coupled to a 6-MW magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster system. The PEGASUS Drive propelled a manned vehicle to Mars and back in 601 days. By removing the crew and their associated support systems from the spacecraft and by incorporating technology advances in reactor design and heat rejection systems, a second generation PEGASUS Drive can be developed with an alpha less than two. Utilizing this propulsion system, a 400-MT cargo vehicle, assembled and loaded in low Earth orbit (LEO), could deliver 262 MT of supplies and hardware to Mars 282 days after escaping Earth orbit. Upon arrival at Mars the transport vehicle would place its cargo in the desired parking orbit around Mars and then proceed to synchronous orbit above the desired landing sight. Using a laser transmitter, PEGASUS would provide 2-MWe on the surface to operate automated systems deployed earlier and then provide surface power to support crew activities after their arrival. The additional supplies and hardware, coupled with the availability of megawatt levels of electric power on the Mars surface, would greatly enhance and even expand the mission options being considered under SEI. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.

1990-10-01

416

Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions. Technical directive 12: Beamed power systems study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric models were constructed for Earth-based laser powered electric orbit transfer from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. These models were used to carry out performance, cost/benefit, and sensitivity analyses of laser-powered transfer systems including end-to-end life cycle cost analyses for complete systems. Comparisons with conventional orbit transfer systems were made indicating large potential cost savings for laser-powered transfer. Approximate optimization was done to determine best parameter values for the systems. Orbit transfer flights simulations were conducted to explore effects of parameters not practical to model with a spreadsheet. The simulations considered view factors that determine when power can be transferred from ground stations to an orbit transfer vehicle and conducted sensitivity analyses for numbers of ground stations, Isp including dual-Isp transfers, and plane change profiles. Optimal steering laws were used for simultaneous altitude and plane change. Viewing geometry and low-thrust orbit raising were simultaneously simulated. A very preliminary investigation of relay mirrors was made.

Eder, D.

1992-01-01

417

Data Exploration and Knowledge Discovery in a Patient Wellness Tracking (PWT) System at a Nurse-Managed  

E-print Network

Data Exploration and Knowledge Discovery in a Patient Wellness Tracking (PWT) System at a Nurse-Managed in a patient wellness tracking (PWT) information system developed for a nurse-managed community health center. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.2.8 [Information Systems]: Database Management-- Database Applications

Song, Il-Yeol

418

EXPLORING A VIBRATORY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT PRODUCTION* J A@ Scott Kel and Kenneth G Holt+  

E-print Network

EXPLORING A VIBRATORY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT PRODUCTION* J A@ Scott Kel and Kenneth G Holt+ the most desirable attributes of the human motor system are that of the limbs accurately in space ished certain parame~ ters--' tuning t the spr ior to movement account, the nervous system sets the val

419

Science Drivers for Polarimetric Exploration of the Solar System and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing and robotic exploration of our solar system and exoplanetary systems can be enhanced with the inclusion of spectrophotopolarimetry as a complementary approach to standard techniques of imaging and spectroscopy. Since all objects have unique polarimetric signatures, like fingerprints, much can be learned about the scattering object. I highlight some of the science drivers that will benefit from polarimteric exploration. In our own dynamic solar system, the study of linear polarization of reflected light by solar system objects (planetary atmospheres, satellites, rings systems, comets, asteroids, dust, etc.) provides insight into the scattering characteristics of aerosols and hazes in atmospheres and surficial properties of atmosphereless objects. Well-known examples are the identification of spherical droplets of sulphuric acid in the atmosphere of Venus, and dust storms and ice clouds on Mars. In the case of outer planets, although the phase angles available from earth to observe are limited to a very narrow range, measurements of linear limb polarization characterizes the variation of aerosol properties across the planetary disk. Since methane is present in all giant planets' atmospheres, limb measurements of linear polarization in various methane bands allow a direct measurement of the vertical distribution of aerosol and haze particles, complementary to direct imaging and spectroscopy. Linear polarization of atmosphereless objects (the Moon, planetary satellites and asteroids) are diagnostic of surface texture, and demonstrate that most of them have their surfaces covered with a regolith of fine material, function of particle size and packing density. The recent discovery of multi-planetary systems (or multis) by Kepler mission, illustrate that a variety of planetary systems exist beyond our solar system. Current indirect techniques such as radial velocity, pulsar timing, and transits identify exoplanetary candidates and identification of atmospheric species. Direct detection and characterization of exoplanets can be achieved by measurement of linear polarization of reflected starlight by exoplanets. Our solar system, therefore, provides a dynamic laboratory and template to detect and characterize exoplanetary systems. Search for habitability elsewhere in the solar and exoplanetary systems is another important science driver. Chirality or handedness is a property of molecules that exhibit mirror-image symmetry (similar to right and left hands). Right- or left-chirality is characterized by circularly polarized light. All known biological activity and all life forms on earth are chiral and pre-dominantly left-handed. This property can be investigated by measuring the circular polarization of various species on planetary bodies. The search for the emergence of habitability in the solar system and exoplanetary systems can be aided by the measurement of circular polarization of comets; planetary and satellites' atmospheres and asteroids. Therefore, inclusion of polarimetric remote sensing and development of spectropolarimeters for ground-based facilities and instruments on space missions is needed, with similar maturation of vector radiative transfer models and related laboratory measurements.

Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

2012-12-01

420

AES crypto chip utilizing high-speed parallel pipelined architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the USA chose the Rijndael algorithm as the suitable Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to replace the Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm. Since then, many hardware implementations have been proposed in literature. We present a hardware-efficient design increasing throughput for the AES algorithm using a high-speed parallel pipelined architecture.

Deen Kotturi; Seong-moo Yoo; John Blizzard

2005-01-01