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Sample records for exploratory analysis applied

  1. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  2. Graphical and Numerical Descriptive Analysis: Exploratory Tools Applied to Vietnamese Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughton, Dominique; Phong, Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    This case study covers several exploratory data analysis ideas, the histogram and boxplot, kernel density estimates, the recently introduced bagplot--a two-dimensional extension of the boxplot--as well as the violin plot, which combines a boxplot with a density shape plot. We apply these ideas and demonstrate how to interpret the output from these…

  3. Improving skill development: an exploratory study comparing a philosophical and an applied ethical analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of ICT students and professionals. In particular the skill development focused on includes: being able to recognise ethical challenges and formulate coherent responses; distancing oneself from subjective judgements; developing ethical literacy; identifying stakeholders; and communicating ethical decisions made, to name a few.

  4. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  5. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  6. Confirmatory and exploratory analysis applied to pharmaco-EEG and related study data: contradiction or useful enrichment?

    PubMed

    Ferner, U; Matejcek, M; Neff, G

    1983-01-01

    Besides hypothesis testing, which should be done as sparingly as possible, the measured or observed data should be described as extensively as possible. The traditional reliance on profiles of the mean responses may neglect useful information, and such profiles may also be misleading. With the aid of exploratory data analysis, different aspects of the structure of a data set can be considered. 'Data snooping' may discover coherences, non-trivial structures and peculiarities, which lead to a new hypothesis or to new mathematical-statistical models. It is, in our opinion, a necessity to consider exploratory and confirmatory data analyses in conjunction. This will be illustrated by examples taken from pharmaco-EEG studies. PMID:6621857

  7. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  8. Exploratory orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  9. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  10. Multivariate optimization by exploratory analysis applied to the determination of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, Roberta Eliane Santos; Neto, Waldomiro Borges; Silva, Nilton Oliveira Couto e.; Naveira, Rita Lopes Pereira; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina; da Silva, José Bento Borba

    2009-06-01

    A method for the direct determination (without sample pre-digestion) of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been developed. The method has been optimized by a 2 3 factorial design, which evaluated the plasma conditions (nebulization gas flow rate, applied power, and sample flow rate). A 1:1 diluted juice sample with 2% HNO 3 (Tetra Packed, peach flavor) and spiked with 0.5 mg L - 1 of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn was employed in the optimization. The results of the factorial design were evaluated by exploratory analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA, and Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to determine the optimum analytical conditions for all elements. Central point condition differentiation (0.75 L min - 1 , 1.3 kW, and 1.25 mL min - 1 ) was observed for both methods, Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, with higher analytical signal values, suggesting that these are the optimal analytical conditions. F and t-student tests were used to compare the slopes of the calibration curves for aqueous and matrix-matched standards. No significant differences were observed at 95% confidence level. The correlation coefficient was higher than 0.99 for all the elements evaluated. The limits of quantification were: Al 253, Cu 3.6, Fe 84, Mn 0.4, Zn 71, Ni 67, Cd 69, Pb 129, Sn 206, Cr 79, Co 24, and Ba 2.1 µg L - 1 . The spiking experiments with fruit juice samples resulted in recoveries between 80 and 120%, except for Co and Sn. Al, Cd, Pb, Sn and Cr could not be quantified in any of the samples investigated. The method was applied to the determination of several elements in fruit juice samples commercialized in Brazil.

  11. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  12. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

  13. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what "rotation" is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing…

  14. Exploratory visual analysis of pharmacogenomic results.

    PubMed

    Reif, David M; Dudek, Scott M; Shaffer, Christian M; Wang, Janey; Moore, Jason H

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of expansive pharmacogenomic datasets is a daunting challenge. A thorough exploration of experimental results requires both statistical and annotative information. Therefore, appropriate analysis tools must bring a readily-accessible, flexible combination of statistics and biological annotation to the user's desktop. We present the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA) software and database as such a tool and demonstrate its utility in replicating the findings of an earlier pharmacogenomic study as well as elucidating novel biologically plausible hypotheses. EVA brings all of the often disparate pieces of analysis together in an infinitely flexible visual display that is amenable to any type of statistical result and biological question. Here, we describe the motivations for developing EVA, detail the database and custom graphical user interface (GUI), provide an example of its application to a publicly available pharmacogenomic dataset, and discuss the broad utility of the EVA tool for the pharmacogenomics community. PMID:15759635

  15. A Review of CEFA Software: Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soon-Mook

    2010-01-01

    CEFA 3.02(Browne, Cudeck, Tateneni, & Mels, 2008) is a factor analysis computer program designed to perform exploratory factor analysis. It provides the main properties that are needed for exploratory factor analysis, namely a variety of factoring methods employing eight different discrepancy functions to be minimized to yield initial solutions, a…

  16. Key Words and the Analysis of Exploratory Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrlitz-Biró, Linda; Elbers, Ed; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2013-01-01

    The count of key words indicating the quality of reasoning has been used as a method to observe exploratory talk. However, reasoning in talk does not necessarily contain key words. The analysis of key words leaves unattended other aspects of exploratory talk, such as collaborative processes. The question is: to what extent can the analysis of key…

  17. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  18. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  19. Exploratory versus Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Collegiate Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Tim P.; Legg, David L.

    Twenty-one variables believed to be important indicators of health related physical fitness were measured on male and female college students between 1991 and 1993 (n=433). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used in an attempt to derive important components of physical fitness. The exploratory factor analysis identified…

  20. Phosphazenes for energy production and storage: Applied and exploratory synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Andrew R.

    This dissertation involves progress toward phosphazene-based ion conducting materials with a focus on structure-property relationships to improve these materials. This dissertation also includes some more fundamental exploratory syntheses to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover structure-property relationships that may be useful in designing compounds to fulfill important technical requirements. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to polymers and polyphosphazenes as well as ion-conducting materials and the contribution of polyphosphazene chemistry to that field. Chapter 1 also provides a brief introduction to some analytical techniques. Chapter 2 begins with the use of organophosphates as stand-alone non-volatile and fire-retardant liquid electrolyte media for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as well as their use as plasticizer in polymer gel electrolytes intended for application in lithium batteries. These organophosphates are the smallest phosphorus containing model molecules investigated in this dissertation. A homologous series of oligoalkyleneoxy substituted phosphates was synthesized and the effect of the substituent chain length on viscosity and conductivity was investigated. Small, test-scale DSSCs were constructed and showed promising results with overall cell efficiencies of up to 3.6% under un-optimized conditions. Conductivity measurements were performed on polymer gel-electrolytes based on poly[bis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene] (MEEP) plasticized with the phosphate with the best combination of properties, using a system loaded with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as the charge carrier. In chapter 3 the effect of the cation of the charge carrier species on the anionic conductivity of DSSC type electrolytes is evaluated using hexakis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (MEE-trimer) as a small molecule model for MEEP. The iodides of lithium, sodium, and ammonium as well as the ionic liquid, 1-propyl-3

  1. Mission analysis of the Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, M.A.; Mele, R.; Mozhi, T.A.; Lemeshewsky, W.A.; Truong, T.

    1993-12-31

    The mission of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), as interpreted from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, can be stated succinctly as, ...to conduct subsurface exploration and testing, in support of site suitability determination and license application, in a manner that protects the environment and nuclear waste isolation capabilities of the site. The objective of the ESF mission analysis effort was to expand this general mission statement to the explicit program needs that must be fulfilled by an ESF during the site characterization program. The scope of the ESF mission analysis was limited to the specification of test requirements that must be satisfied by an ESF in support of site characterization and, if the site is determined to be suitable, license application for construction of a geologic repository. The time period covers from initiation of ESF testing through either Presidential recommendation a a geologic repository or Secretarial determination of unsuitability as a geologic repository, whichever comes first. The analysis stems from the requirements contained in the Physical System Requirements (PSR)-Dispose of Waste document and draws upon the extensive technical knowledge behind preparation of the Site Characterization Program Baseline (SCPB).

  2. RCytoscape: tools for exploratory network analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomolecular pathways and networks are dynamic and complex, and the perturbations to them which cause disease are often multiple, heterogeneous and contingent. Pathway and network visualizations, rendered on a computer or published on paper, however, tend to be static, lacking in detail, and ill-equipped to explore the variety and quantities of data available today, and the complex causes we seek to understand. Results RCytoscape integrates R (an open-ended programming environment rich in statistical power and data-handling facilities) and Cytoscape (powerful network visualization and analysis software). RCytoscape extends Cytoscape's functionality beyond what is possible with the Cytoscape graphical user interface. To illustrate the power of RCytoscape, a portion of the Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) data set from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is examined. Network visualization reveals previously unreported patterns in the data suggesting heterogeneous signaling mechanisms active in GBM Proneural tumors, with possible clinical relevance. Conclusions Progress in bioinformatics and computational biology depends upon exploratory and confirmatory data analysis, upon inference, and upon modeling. These activities will eventually permit the prediction and control of complex biological systems. Network visualizations -- molecular maps -- created from an open-ended programming environment rich in statistical power and data-handling facilities, such as RCytoscape, will play an essential role in this progression. PMID:23837656

  3. Seeing the Forest Despite the Trees: The Benefit of Exploratory Data Analysis to Program Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinacore, James M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that there is a benefit to applying techniques of exploratory data analysis (EDA) to program evaluation. The evaluation of a rehabilitation program for people with rheumatoid arthritis (20 subjects and 21 comparisons) through EDA supports the argument, indicating outcomes more precisely than conventional analysis of variance. (SLD)

  4. Graph ranking for exploratory gene data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Microarray technology has made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single experiment. However, the large number of genes greatly increases the challenges of analyzing, comprehending and interpreting the resulting mass of data. Selecting a subset of important genes is inevitable to address the challenge. Gene selection has been investigated extensively over the last decade. Most selection procedures, however, are not sufficient for accurate inference of underlying biology, because biological significance does not necessarily have to be statistically significant. Additional biological knowledge needs to be integrated into the gene selection procedure. Results We propose a general framework for gene ranking. We construct a bipartite graph from the Gene Ontology (GO) and gene expression data. The graph describes the relationship between genes and their associated molecular functions. Under a species condition, edge weights of the graph are assigned to be gene expression level. Such a graph provides a mathematical means to represent both species-independent and species-dependent biological information. We also develop a new ranking algorithm to analyze the weighted graph via a kernelized spatial depth (KSD) approach. Consequently, the importance of gene and molecular function can be simultaneously ranked by a real-valued measure, KSD, which incorporates the global and local structure of the graph. Over-expressed and under-regulated genes also can be separately ranked. Conclusion The gene-function bigraph integrates molecular function annotations into gene expression data. The relevance of genes is described in the graph (through a common function). The proposed method provides an exploratory framework for gene data analysis. PMID:19811684

  5. Choosing the Optimal Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Model Selection Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Zhang, Guangjian; Kim, Cheongtag; Mels, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in the application of exploratory factor analysis is deciding how many factors to retain ("m"). Although this is inherently a model selection problem, a model selection perspective is rarely adopted for this task. We suggest that Cudeck and Henly's (1991) framework can be applied to guide the selection process. Researchers must…

  6. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  7. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…

  8. Exploratory data analysis using set operations and ordinal mapping.

    PubMed

    Churches, Tim

    2003-05-01

    Exploratory data analysis requires the ability to issue ad hoc queries to filter and summarise data sets. As the sizes of health data sets grow, traditional methods of processing data have difficulty in providing acceptable response times for such queries. An alternative method is described which combines complete vertical partitioning of data with set operations on ordinal mappings (SOOM). An initial implementation of the technique provides significantly better performance than a conventional SQL database on typical exploratory data analysis queries. The use of parallel, distributed computation to further increase the performance of the technique appears to be feasible. PMID:12725961

  9. Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  10. Performance on the Pharmacy College Admission Test: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawahara, Nancy E.; Ethington, Corinna

    1994-01-01

    Median polishing, an exploratory data statistical analysis technique, was used to study achievement patterns for men and women on the Pharmacy College Admission Test over a six-year period. In general, a declining trend in scores was found, and males performed better than females, with the largest differences found in chemistry and biology.…

  11. An Exploratory Analysis of History Students' Dissertation Acknowledgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrivener, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Librarians and archivists can gain insight into the disciplinary culture of historians, and history doctoral students in particular, by examining the acknowledgment sections of these students' doctoral dissertations. This paper is an exploratory analysis of the 219 history dissertations written at the University of Oklahoma between 1930 and 2005.…

  12. Start and Stop Rules for Exploratory Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Describes a method for choosing rejection probabilities for the tests of independence that are used in constraint-based algorithms of exploratory path analysis. The method consists of generating a Markov or semi-Markov model from the equivalence class represented by a partial ancestral graph and then testing the d-separation implications. (SLD)

  13. An Exploratory Cost-Benefits Analysis of Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Rehabilitation Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Statistics and Studies.

    The results of this exploratory study on cost-benefit analysis of vocational rehabilitation found that, because of vocational rehabilitation services, clients whose cases were closed during fiscal year 1966 will experience an increase of $35 in their earnings and value of work activity over their working lives for every dollar expended on them in…

  14. An Exploratory Analysis of Performance on the SAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    1984-01-01

    Techniques of exploratory data analysis (EDA) were used to decompose data tables portraying performance of ethnic groups on the Scholastic Aptitude Test. These analyses indicate the size and structure of differences in performance among groups studied, nature of changes across time, and interactions between group membership and time. (Author/DWH)

  15. A Comparative Investigation of Rotation Criteria within Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Daniel A.; Schmitt, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a commonly used statistical technique for examining the relationships between variables (e.g., items) and the factors (e.g., latent traits) they depict. There are several decisions that must be made when using EFA, with one of the more important being choice of the rotation criterion. This selection can be…

  16. Exploratory and Confirmatory Analysis of the Trauma Practices Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Carlton D.; Sprang, Ginny

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study provides psychometric data for the Trauma Practices Questionnaire (TPQ). Method: A nationally randomized sample of 2,400 surveys was sent to self-identified trauma treatment specialists, and 711 (29.6%) were returned. Results: An exploratory factor analysis (N = 319) conducted on a randomly split sample (RSS) revealed…

  17. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations, by…

  18. Exploratory Factor Analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly…

  19. Connectivism in Postsecondary Online Courses: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, Nanette; Lomicky, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores 465 postsecondary students' experiences in online classes through the lens of connectivism. Downes' 4 properties of connectivism (diversity, autonomy, interactivity, and openness) were used as the study design. An exploratory factor analysis was performed. This study found a 4-factor solution. Subjects indicated that autonomy…

  20. Twitter Use in Libraries: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a relatively new phenomenon in online social networking that has become increasingly prevalent in the last few years. This study explores the use of Twitter in public and academic libraries to understand microblogging patterns. Analysis of the tweets was conducted in two phases: (1) statistical descriptive analysis and (2) content…

  1. HBCU Efficiency and Endowments: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupet, Jason; Barnum, Darold

    2010-01-01

    Discussions of efficiency among Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are often missing in academic conversations. This article seeks to assess efficiency of individual HBCUs using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a non-parametric technique that can synthesize multiple inputs and outputs to determine a single efficiency score for…

  2. Exploratory analysis of the medical record.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A R

    1983-01-01

    Current patient information systems such as SCAMP have the capacity to store not only highly-structured information such as problem codes, drug lists and laboratory values, but also richer, clinically-descriptive information such as comprehensive natural language problem summaries and other textual data that retain the full clinical information used by physicians in managing their patients. The clinical importance, richness, and extensiveness of this information suggest that techniques which allow computers to process textual data may play a helpful role in clinical research. The analysis programs of the SCAMP system have been developed to explore the potential of this approach. PMID:6600040

  3. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of "exercise readiness" is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key pointsAssessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined.Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor analysis

  4. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of “exercise readiness” is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key points Assessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined. Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor

  5. Applied Behavior Analysis in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John O.

    1982-01-01

    Applied behavioral analysis in education is expanding rapidly. This article describes the dimensions of applied behavior analysis and the contributions this technology offers teachers in the area of systematic applications, direct and daily measurement, and experimental methodology. (CJ)

  6. Big Data Visual Analytics for Exploratory Earth System Simulation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shipman, Galen M.; Smith, Brian E.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Dali; Shi, Xiaoying; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called big data analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today s data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a visual analytics system, called the Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment (EDEN), with specific application to the analysis of complex earth system simulation data sets. EDEN represents the type of interactive visual analysis tools that are necessary to transform data into insight, thereby improving critical comprehension of earth system processes. In addition to providing an overview of EDEN, we describe real-world studies using both point ensembles and global Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) simulations.

  7. Exploratory Causal Analysis in Bivariate Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, James M.

    Many scientific disciplines rely on observational data of systems for which it is difficult (or impossible) to implement controlled experiments and data analysis techniques are required for identifying causal information and relationships directly from observational data. This need has lead to the development of many different time series causality approaches and tools including transfer entropy, convergent cross-mapping (CCM), and Granger causality statistics. In this thesis, the existing time series causality method of CCM is extended by introducing a new method called pairwise asymmetric inference (PAI). It is found that CCM may provide counter-intuitive causal inferences for simple dynamics with strong intuitive notions of causality, and the CCM causal inference can be a function of physical parameters that are seemingly unrelated to the existence of a driving relationship in the system. For example, a CCM causal inference might alternate between ''voltage drives current'' and ''current drives voltage'' as the frequency of the voltage signal is changed in a series circuit with a single resistor and inductor. PAI is introduced to address both of these limitations. Many of the current approaches in the times series causality literature are not computationally straightforward to apply, do not follow directly from assumptions of probabilistic causality, depend on assumed models for the time series generating process, or rely on embedding procedures. A new approach, called causal leaning, is introduced in this work to avoid these issues. The leaning is found to provide causal inferences that agree with intuition for both simple systems and more complicated empirical examples, including space weather data sets. The leaning may provide a clearer interpretation of the results than those from existing time series causality tools. A practicing analyst can explore the literature to find many proposals for identifying drivers and causal connections in times series data

  8. Replication Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis: What It Is and Why It Makes Your Analysis Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Fitzpatrick, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) is a powerful and commonly-used tool for investigating the underlying variable structure of a psychometric instrument. However, there is much controversy in the social sciences with regard to the techniques used in EFA (Ford, MacCallum, & Tait, 1986; Henson & Roberts, 2006) and the reliability of the outcome.…

  9. The Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Dailey, Rene; Lemus, Daisy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the distinct purposes of principal components analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), using two data sets as examples. Reviews the use of each technique in three major communication journals: "Communication Monographs,""Human Communication Research," and "Communication Research." Finds that the use of EFA and PCA indicates…

  10. Applying Threshold Concepts Theory to an Unsettled Field: An Exploratory Study in Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimshurst, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Criminal justice education is a relatively new program in higher education in many countries, and its curriculum and parameters remain unsettled. An exploratory study investigated whether threshold concepts theory provided a useful lens by which to explore student understandings of this multidisciplinary field. Eight high-performing final-year…

  11. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP. PMID:24909881

  12. Statistical inference for exploratory data analysis and model diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Buja, Andreas; Cook, Dianne; Hofmann, Heike; Lawrence, Michael; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Swayne, Deborah F; Wickham, Hadley

    2009-11-13

    We propose to furnish visual statistical methods with an inferential framework and protocol, modelled on confirmatory statistical testing. In this framework, plots take on the role of test statistics, and human cognition the role of statistical tests. Statistical significance of 'discoveries' is measured by having the human viewer compare the plot of the real dataset with collections of plots of simulated datasets. A simple but rigorous protocol that provides inferential validity is modelled after the 'lineup' popular from criminal legal procedures. Another protocol modelled after the 'Rorschach' inkblot test, well known from (pop-)psychology, will help analysts acclimatize to random variability before being exposed to the plot of the real data. The proposed protocols will be useful for exploratory data analysis, with reference datasets simulated by using a null assumption that structure is absent. The framework is also useful for model diagnostics in which case reference datasets are simulated from the model in question. This latter point follows up on previous proposals. Adopting the protocols will mean an adjustment in working procedures for data analysts, adding more rigour, and teachers might find that incorporating these protocols into the curriculum improves their students' statistical thinking. PMID:19805449

  13. Introducing Statistics to Geography Students: The Case for Exploratory Data Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Christopher R.; Fox, Michael F.

    1986-01-01

    Exploratory data analysis (EDA) gives students a feel for the data being considered. Four applications of EDA are discussed: the use of displays, resistant statistics, transformations, and smoothing. (RM)

  14. Applying the Theory of Work Adjustment to Latino Immigrant Workers: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggerth, Donald E.; Flynn, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Blustein mapped career decision making onto Maslow’s model of motivation and personality and concluded that most models of career development assume opportunities and decision-making latitude that do not exist for many individuals from low income or otherwise disadvantaged backgrounds. Consequently, Blustein argued that these models may be of limited utility for such individuals. Blustein challenged researchers to reevaluate current career development approaches, particularly those assuming a static world of work, from a perspective allowing for changing circumstances and recognizing career choice can be limited by access to opportunities, personal obligations, and social barriers. This article represents an exploratory effort to determine if the theory of work adjustment (TWA) might meaningfully be used to describe the work experiences of Latino immigrant workers, a group living with severe constraints and having very limited employment opportunities. It is argued that there is significant conceptual convergence between Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the work reinforcers of TWA. The results of an exploratory, qualitative study with a sample of 10 Latino immigrants are also presented. These immigrants participated in key informant interviews concerning their work experiences both in the United States and in their home countries. The findings support Blustein’s contention that such workers will be most focused on basic survival needs and suggest that TWA reinforcers are descriptive of important aspects of how Latino immigrant workers conceptualize their jobs. PMID:26345693

  15. Hospital design and staff perceptions: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Mroczek, Jana; Mikitarian, George; Vieira, Elizabeth K; Rotarius, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    The movement in the health care design field to focus on "patient-centered care" and "healing environments" is often reflected in the health care facilities' incorporation of features meant to mitigate the stressful nature of serious illness. These features may range from a resource center (to allow patients and families to properly educate themselves about their illness) to providing space in rooms so family members can remain with patients, to more ambient features such as soft lighting, water features, or healing gardens. Research has shown that such features can in fact have positive effects for patients and may reduce stress and speed physical healing. What is not as well understood is how (if at all) the medical staff uses these types of features. Good health care cannot be administered without health care professionals, but factors such as job stress and burnout can impair both the physical and psychological health of the staff. A supportive organizational environment is imperative, but this article will set out to show that a supportive physical environment can be just as necessary in influencing how the staff views their workplace as well as how they might fare with regard to their own health. This article will examine a subset of results from a recent employee satisfaction survey given at a medical center. Exploratory analysis and interpretation will begin to shed light on whether or not building design can have an impact (positive or negative) on staff satisfaction. This can potentially act as a springboard to guide future empirical research in the area of health care design and its impact on staff satisfaction and well-being. By analyzing findings from a recent employee satisfaction survey, we can begin to understand how the hospital staff perceives the design of their building and begin to determine if these perceptions might impact health outcomes among the employees. PMID:16131934

  16. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  17. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Differential Ability Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Mardis D.; McIntosh, David E.

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate the underlying structure of the Differential Ability Scales (DAS) using Exploratory Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) with 62 nonclinical preschoolers. While previous factor analyses of the DAS Core subtests revealed the derivation of two distinct factors, the current results revealed only one factor,…

  18. An Exploratory Analysis of Job and Life Satisfaction among Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.; DeCarlo, James F.

    An exploratory study examined the job and life satisfaction of a sample of 32 female entrepreneurs residing in the tri-state area of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. To compare the entrepreneurs' concepts of life and job satisfaction to those of women in more traditional occupations, researchers also studied a sample of 32 female nursing…

  19. Situated Analysis of Team Handball Players' Decisions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzen, Benoit; Theunissen, Catherine; Cloes, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate elements involved in decision making in team handball live situations and to provide coaches and educators with teaching recommendations. The study was positioned within the framework of the situated-action paradigm of which two aspects were of particular interest for this project: (a) the relationship…

  20. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SRS-2 Teacher Ratings for Youth with ASD.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew T; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A; Thomeer, Marcus L; Toomey, Jennifer A; Dua, Elissa

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the factor structure and internal consistency of special education teaching staff ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2; Constantino and Gruber 2012), as well as the percentage of ratings falling above pre-established cut scores, for a sample of lower-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 264). Results of the exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor correlated solution. The individual factors and total score demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency reliability for screening purposes. When applying the lowest pre-established cut score (T ≥ 60; minimum indication of clinically significant symptoms/impairments), 85 % of the sample had ratings in that range or higher (more severe). Implications for assessment and future research are provided. PMID:27334872

  1. Old and New Ideas for Data Screening and Assumption Testing for Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Flora, David B.; LaBrish, Cathy; Chalmers, R. Philip

    2011-01-01

    We provide a basic review of the data screening and assumption testing issues relevant to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis along with practical advice for conducting analyses that are sensitive to these concerns. Historically, factor analysis was developed for explaining the relationships among many continuous test scores, which led to the expression of the common factor model as a multivariate linear regression model with observed, continuous variables serving as dependent variables, and unobserved factors as the independent, explanatory variables. Thus, we begin our paper with a review of the assumptions for the common factor model and data screening issues as they pertain to the factor analysis of continuous observed variables. In particular, we describe how principles from regression diagnostics also apply to factor analysis. Next, because modern applications of factor analysis frequently involve the analysis of the individual items from a single test or questionnaire, an important focus of this paper is the factor analysis of items. Although the traditional linear factor model is well-suited to the analysis of continuously distributed variables, commonly used item types, including Likert-type items, almost always produce dichotomous or ordered categorical variables. We describe how relationships among such items are often not well described by product-moment correlations, which has clear ramifications for the traditional linear factor analysis. An alternative, non-linear factor analysis using polychoric correlations has become more readily available to applied researchers and thus more popular. Consequently, we also review the assumptions and data-screening issues involved in this method. Throughout the paper, we demonstrate these procedures using an historic data set of nine cognitive ability variables. PMID:22403561

  2. A computational framework for exploratory data analysis in biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismueller, Axel

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To develop, test, and evaluate a novel unsupervised machine learning method for the analysis of multidimensional biomedical imaging data. Methods: The Exploration Machine (XOM) is introduced as a method for computing low-dimensional representations of high-dimensional observations. XOM systematically inverts functional and structural components of topology-preserving mappings. Thus, it can contribute to both structure-preserving visualization and data clustering. We applied XOM to the analysis of microarray imaging data of gene expression profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and to model-free analysis of functional brain MRI data by unsupervised clustering. For both applications, we performed quantitative comparisons to results obtained by established algorithms. Results: Genome data: Absolute (relative) Sammon error values were 2.21 Â. 103 (1.00) for XOM, 2.45 Â. 103 (1.11) for Sammon's mapping, 2.77 Â. 103 (1.25) for Locally Linear Embedding (LLE), 2.82 Â. 103 (1.28) for PCA, 3.36 Â. 103 (1.52) for Isomap, and 10.19 Â. 103(4.61) for Self-Organizing Map (SOM). - Functional MRI data: Areas under ROC curves for detection of task-related brain activation were 0.984 +/- 0.03 for XOM, 0.983 +/- 0.02 for Minimal-Free-Energy VQ, and 0.979 +/- 0.02 for SOM. Conclusion: We introduce the Exploration Machine as a novel machine learning method for the analysis of multidimensional biomedical imaging data. XOM can be successfully applied to microarray gene expression analysis and to clustering of functional brain MR image time-series. By simultaneously contributing to dimensionality reduction and data clustering, XOM is a useful novel method for data analysis in biomedical imaging.

  3. Multimedia Exploratory Data Analysis for Geospatial Data Mining: The Case for Augmented Seriation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Myke

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the role of exploratory data analysis (EDA) for spatial data mining and presents a case study addressing environmental risk assessments in New York State to illustrate the feasibility and usability of augmenting seriation for spatial data analysis. Describes augmentation with multimedia tools to understand relationships among spatial,…

  4. An Exploratory Factor Analysis Examining Traits, Perceived Fit and Job Satisfaction in Employed College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, John R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is an analysis of 24 variables associated with employee attitudes, behaviors and outcomes. A total of 140 college graduates participated in the study. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) techniques, the research examined relationships among the following variables: perceived fit, job satisfaction, cognitive ability, vocational…

  5. Investigating the Construct Validity of the ISLLC 2008 Standards through Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Soundaram; Babo, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the statistical analysis of the responses from an online survey administered to a sample of US superintendents (n=225) in an attempt to explore and authenticate the construct validity of the ISLLC 2008 Standards through exploratory factor analysis. Using a Principal Axis Factor method, 6 factors were extracted…

  6. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Metacognition Scale for Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Eylem; Akpinar, Ercan; Tatar, Nilgun; Ergin, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the Metacognition Scale (MS) which is designed for primary school students. The sample of the study consisted of 426 primary school students in Izmir, Turkey. In order to examine the construct validity of the MS, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. For the validity of…

  7. Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis for Validating the Phlegm Pattern Questionnaire for Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunho; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jong Yeol; Park, Young-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background. Phlegm pattern questionnaire (PPQ) was developed to evaluate and diagnose phlegm pattern in Korean Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine, but it was based on a dataset from patients who visited the hospital to consult with a clinician regarding their health without any strict exclusion or inclusion. In this study, we reinvestigated the construct validity of PPQ with a new dataset and confirmed the feasibility of applying it to a healthy population. Methods. 286 healthy subjects were finally included and their responses to PPQ were acquired. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted and the model fit was discussed. We extracted a new factor structure by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and compared the two factor structures. Results. In CFA results, the model fit indices are acceptable (RMSEA = 0.074) or slightly less than the good fit values (CFI = 0.839, TLI = 0.860). Many average variances extracted were smaller than the correlation coefficients of the factors, which shows the somewhat insufficient discriminant validity. Conclusions. Through the results from CFA and EFA, this study shows clinically acceptable model fits and suggests the feasibility of applying PPQ to a healthy population with relatively good construct validity and internal consistency. PMID:27051447

  8. Exploratory Study of an Active Landslide in the Adirondacks Using Applied Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, K. W.; Sherrod, L. A.; Kozlowski, A.; Bird, B.; Swiontek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography System. GPR profiles, using a SIR 3000 GSSI radar system with 100MHz antennae, were collected along many of the resistivity lines and through reconnaissance lines in several other locations (e.g. along roads). Surveys identified features such as clay and sand layers as well as depth to the water table. Glacial deposits and bedrock topography were interpreted in three dimensions from the results of these surveys. These techniques were analyzed for their effectiveness in providing exploratory information about the slide. In comparison to other geophysical work on landslides, this study is unique due to the large scale of the slide and the rare opportunity to observe and measure an active landslide. Accordingly, compared to results from studies of other similarly induced inactive landslides that had occurred elsewhere, the conclusions regarding the mechanisms of slope failure on Porter Mountain are more pertinent since the results were obtained from an active slide. Likewise, the conclusions about the mechanisms of this slide can be adapted in studies on currently stable slopes believed to have a high potential for a landslide (particularly other slopes in the Adirondacks region).

  9. Applying HOPSCOTCH as an Exer-Learning Game in English Lessons: Two Exploratory Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucht, Martina; Heidig, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article describes HOPSCOTCH, a design concept for an "exer-learning game" to engage elementary school children in learning. Exer-learning is a new genre of digital learning games that combines playing and learning with physical activity (exercise). HOPSCOTCH is a first design concept for exer-learning games that can be applied to…

  10. Exploratory Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Air Pollution in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champendal, Alexandre; Kanevski, Mikhail; Huguenot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Golay, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Air pollution in the city is an important problem influencing environment, well-being of society, economy, management of urban zones, etc. The problem is extremely difficult due to a very complex distribution of the pollution sources, morphology of the city and dispersion processes leading to multivariate nature of the phenomena and high local spatial-temporal variability. The task of understanding, modelling and prediction of spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in urban zones is an interesting and challenging topic having many research axes from science-based modelling to geostatistics and data mining. The present research mainly deals with a comprehensive exploratory analysis of spatial-temporal air pollution data using statistical, geostatistical and machine learning tools. This analysis helps to 1) understand and model spatial-temporal correlations using variography, 2) explore the temporal evolution of spatial correlation matrix; 3) analyse and visualize an interconnection between measurement stations using network science tools; 4) quantify the availability and predictability of structured patterns. The real data case study deals with spatial-temporal air pollution data of canton Geneva (2002-2011). Carbon dioxide (NO2) have caught our attention. It has effects on health: nitrogen dioxide can irritate the lungs, effects on plants; NO2 contributes to the phenomenon of acid rain. The negative effects of nitrogen dioxides on plants are reducing the growth, production and pesticide resistance. And finally the effects on materials: nitrogen dioxides increase the corrosion. Well-defined patterns of spatial-temporal correlations were detected. The analysis and visualization of spatial correlation matrix for 91 stations were carried out using the network science tools and high levels of clustering were revealed. Moving Window Correlation Matrix and Spatio-temporal variography methods were applied to define and explore the dynamic of our data. More than just

  11. Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ordinary Least Squares Factor Loadings and Correlations in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Luo, Shanhong

    2010-01-01

    This article is concerned with using the bootstrap to assign confidence intervals for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in ordinary least squares exploratory factor analysis. Coverage performances of "SE"-based intervals, percentile intervals, bias-corrected percentile intervals, bias-corrected accelerated percentile intervals, and…

  12. An Exploratory Analysis of What Truant Students State Are the Reasons They Do Not Attend School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Joseph, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study in Phases 1 and 2 was to conduct an exploratory analysis of what chronically truant students state are the reasons they do not attend school. Methodology. The subjects in this study were 202 randomly selected students from four high schools in Los Angeles County. Subjects responded to the research instrument: (1)…

  13. The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

  14. Whatever Happened to Exploratory Data Analysis? An Evaluation of Behavioral Science Statistics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deborah A.; Araki, Cheri J.

    The purpose of this research was to analyze recent statistics textbooks in the behavioral sciences in terms of their coverage of exploratory data analysis (EDA) philosophy and techniques. Twenty popular texts were analyzed. EDA philosophy was not addressed in the vast majority of texts. Only three texts had an entire chapter on EDA. None of the…

  15. Rotation to a Partially Specified Target Matrix in Exploratory Factor Analysis: How Many Targets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Ahn, Soyeon; Jin, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the number of targets specified on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with a complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. Three Monte Carlo studies were performed based on the ratio of the number of observed variables to the number of…

  16. Improving Your Exploratory Factor Analysis for Ordinal Data: A Demonstration Using FACTOR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglin, James

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) methods are used extensively in the field of assessment and evaluation. Due to EFA's widespread use, common methods and practices have come under close scrutiny. A substantial body of literature has been compiled highlighting problems with many of the methods and practices used in EFA, and, in response, many…

  17. The School Counselor Leadership Survey: Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita; Bryan, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the School Counselor Leadership Survey (SCLS). Survey development was a threefold process that resulted in a 39-item survey of 801 school counselors and school counselor supervisors. The exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure that revealed five key dimensions of school counselor…

  18. Application of Local Linear Embedding to Nonlinear Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Haonan; Iyer, Hari

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of a recent dimension reduction technique called Locally Linear Embedding, introduced by Roweis and Saul, for performing an exploratory latent structure analysis. The coordinate variables from the locally linear embedding describing the manifold on which the data reside serve as the latent variable scores. We…

  19. Unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) for Mars observation. Volume 1: Trade analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Delp, Steve E.; Guidry, Michelle A.; Lisano, Michael E.; Packard, James D.; Striepe, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe Systems (MEPS), a space vehicle designed to observe the planet Mars in preparation for manned missions. The options considered for each major element are presented as a trade analysis, and the final vehicle design is defined.

  20. An Exploratory Analysis of Communication in Peer-Directed Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory analysis examined the nature of asynchronous, text-based communication in peer-directed educational discussions. The nature of communication changed over time and women exhibited greater tendency for epistolary communication than men. Initial posts, which were expository in nature, focused on disseminating information whereas…

  1. Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

  2. The School Counseling Program Implementation Survey: Initial Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Carey, John C.; Harrington, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    This article details the initial development of the School Counseling Program Implementation Survey and psychometric results including reliability and factor structure. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor model that accounted for 54% of the variance of the intercorrelation matrix and a two-factor model that accounted for 47% of…

  3. Multilevel Exploratory Factor Analysis: Illustrating Its Surplus Value in Educational Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Haenens, Ellen; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the surplus value of multilevel exploratory factor analysis in educational effectiveness research. Educational researchers often use measures for process variables at the class or school level to explain differences in student outcomes. Recently, van de Vijver and Poortinga (2002) have developed a procedure for multilevel…

  4. High-Dimensional Exploratory Item Factor Analysis by a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    A Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm for high-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood exploratory item factor analysis is proposed. The sequence of estimates from the MH-RM algorithm converges with probability one to the maximum likelihood solution. Details on the computer implementation of this algorithm are provided. The…

  5. Investigating the Structure of the WJ-III Cognitive in Early School Age through Two Exploratory Bifactor Analysis Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2014-01-01

    Two exploratory bifactor methods (e.g., Schmid-Leiman [SL] and exploratory bifactor analysis [EBFA]) were used to investigate the structure of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Cognitive in early school age (age 6-8). The SL procedure is recognized by factor analysts as a preferred method for EBFA. Jennrich and Bentler recently developed an…

  6. Exploratory Climate Data Visualization and Analysis Using DV3D and UVCDAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Earth system scientists are being inundated by an explosion of data generated by ever-increasing resolution in both global models and remote sensors. Advanced tools for accessing, analyzing, and visualizing very large and complex climate data are required to maintain rapid progress in Earth system research. To meet this need, NASA, in collaboration with the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UVCOAT) consortium, is developing exploratory climate data analysis and visualization tools which provide data analysis capabilities for the Earth System Grid (ESG). This paper describes DV3D, a UV-COAT package that enables exploratory analysis of climate simulation and observation datasets. OV3D provides user-friendly interfaces for visualization and analysis of climate data at a level appropriate for scientists. It features workflow inte rfaces, interactive 40 data exploration, hyperwall and stereo visualization, automated provenance generation, and parallel task execution. DV30's integration with CDAT's climate data management system (COMS) and other climate data analysis tools provides a wide range of high performance climate data analysis operations. DV3D expands the scientists' toolbox by incorporating a suite of rich new exploratory visualization and analysis methods for addressing the complexity of climate datasets.

  7. Exploratory regression analysis: a tool for selecting models and determining predictor importance.

    PubMed

    Braun, Michael T; Oswald, Frederick L

    2011-06-01

    Linear regression analysis is one of the most important tools in a researcher's toolbox for creating and testing predictive models. Although linear regression analysis indicates how strongly a set of predictor variables, taken together, will predict a relevant criterion (i.e., the multiple R), the analysis cannot indicate which predictors are the most important. Although there is no definitive or unambiguous method for establishing predictor variable importance, there are several accepted methods. This article reviews those methods for establishing predictor importance and provides a program (in Excel) for implementing them (available for direct download at http://dl.dropbox.com/u/2480715/ERA.xlsm?dl=1) . The program investigates all 2(p) - 1 submodels and produces several indices of predictor importance. This exploratory approach to linear regression, similar to other exploratory data analysis techniques, has the potential to yield both theoretical and practical benefits. PMID:21298571

  8. Reanalyzing the 16PF-5 Second Order Structure: Exploratory versus Confirmatory Factorial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel; Garcia, Luis F.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the second order structures of the 16PF-5 for 3, 4, 5 and 6 factors are analysed in a sample of 636 undergraduate students and their friends and relatives, with a mean age of 25.09 years (sd: 9.20). A two-stage analysis with Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (EFA and CFA) was performed assigning subjects either to…

  9. Using Interactive Data Visualizations for Exploratory Analysis in Undergraduate Genomics Coursework: Field Study Findings and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anuj; Nong, Paige; Su, Gang; Meng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Life scientists increasingly use visual analytics to explore large data sets and generate hypotheses. Undergraduate biology majors should be learning these same methods. Yet visual analytics is one of the most underdeveloped areas of undergraduate biology education. This study sought to determine the feasibility of undergraduate biology majors conducting exploratory analysis using the same interactive data visualizations as practicing scientists. We examined 22 upper level undergraduates in a genomics course as they engaged in a case-based inquiry with an interactive heat map. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed students’ visual analytic behaviors, reasoning and outcomes to identify student performance patterns, commonly shared efficiencies and task completion. We analyzed students’ successes and difficulties in applying knowledge and skills relevant to the visual analytics case and related gaps in knowledge and skill to associated tool designs. Findings show that undergraduate engagement in visual analytics is feasible and could be further strengthened through tool usability improvements. We identify these improvements. We speculate, as well, on instructional considerations that our findings suggested may also enhance visual analytics in case-based modules. PMID:26877625

  10. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  11. Using Interactive Data Visualizations for Exploratory Analysis in Undergraduate Genomics Coursework: Field Study Findings and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirel, Barbara; Kumar, Anuj; Nong, Paige; Su, Gang; Meng, Fan

    2016-02-01

    Life scientists increasingly use visual analytics to explore large data sets and generate hypotheses. Undergraduate biology majors should be learning these same methods. Yet visual analytics is one of the most underdeveloped areas of undergraduate biology education. This study sought to determine the feasibility of undergraduate biology majors conducting exploratory analysis using the same interactive data visualizations as practicing scientists. We examined 22 upper level undergraduates in a genomics course as they engaged in a case-based inquiry with an interactive heat map. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed students' visual analytic behaviors, reasoning and outcomes to identify student performance patterns, commonly shared efficiencies and task completion. We analyzed students' successes and difficulties in applying knowledge and skills relevant to the visual analytics case and related gaps in knowledge and skill to associated tool designs. Findings show that undergraduate engagement in visual analytics is feasible and could be further strengthened through tool usability improvements. We identify these improvements. We speculate, as well, on instructional considerations that our findings suggested may also enhance visual analytics in case-based modules.

  12. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes.

    PubMed

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  13. An exploratory spatial analysis of soil organic carbon distribution in Canadian eco-regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.-Y.; Li, J.

    2014-11-01

    As the largest carbon reservoir in ecosystems, soil accounts for more than twice as much carbon storage as that of vegetation biomass or the atmosphere. This paper examines spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Canadian forest areas at an eco-region scale of analysis. The goal is to explore the relationship of SOC levels with various climatological variables, including temperature and precipitation. The first Canadian forest soil database published in 1997 by the Canada Forest Service was analyzed along with other long-term eco-climatic data (1961 to 1991) including precipitation, air temperature, slope, aspect, elevation, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from remote sensing imagery. In addition, the existing eco-region framework established by Environment Canada was evaluated for mapping SOC distribution. Exploratory spatial data analysis techniques, including spatial autocorrelation analysis, were employed to examine how forest SOC is spatially distributed in Canada. Correlation analysis and spatial regression modelling were applied to determine the dominant ecological factors influencing SOC patterns at the eco-region level. At the national scale, a spatial error regression model was developed to account for spatial dependency and to estimate SOC patterns based on ecological and ecosystem factors. Based on the significant variables derived from the spatial error model, a predictive SOC map in Canadian forest areas was generated. Although overall SOC distribution is influenced by climatic and topographic variables, distribution patterns are shown to differ significantly between eco-regions. These findings help to validate the eco-region classification framework for SOC zonation mapping in Canada.

  14. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mulaik, S A

    1987-07-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources. From the Greek rationalists and atomists comes the idea that appearance is to be explained by something not observed. From Aristotle comes the idea of induction and seeking common features of things as explanations of them. From Francis Bacon comes the idea of an automatic algorithm for inductively discovering common causes. From Descartes come the ideas of analysis and synthesis that underlie the emphasis on analysis of variables into orthogonal or linearly independent factors and focus on reproducing (synthesizing) the correlation matrix from the factors. From empiricist statisticians like Pearson and Yule comes the idea of exploratory, descriptive statistics. Also from the empiricist heritage comes the false expectation some have that factor analysis yields unique and unambiguous knowledge without prior assumptions -- the inductivist fallacy. This expectation founders on the indeterminacy of factors, even after their loadings are defined by rotation. Indeterminacy is unavoidable in the interpretation of common factors because the process of interpretation is inductive and inductive inferences are not uniquely determined by the data on which they are based. But from Kant we learn not to discard inductive inferences but to treat them as hypotheses that must be tested against additional data to establish their objectivity. And so the conclusions of exploratory factor analyses are never complete without a subsequent confirmatory analysis with additional variables and new data. PMID:26776378

  15. Practical Considerations for Using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Lounsbury, John W.; Richards, Jennifer K.; Huck, Schuyler W.; Skolits, Gary J.; Esquivel, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    The uses and methodology of factor analysis are widely debated and discussed, especially the issues of rotational use, methods of confirmatory factor analysis, and adequate sample size. The variety of perspectives and often conflicting opinions can lead to confusion among researchers about best practices for using factor analysis. The focus of the…

  16. Exploratory Factor Analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition, Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Lauren B; Koch, Ellen I; Saules, Karen K; Jefferson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One change to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nomenclature highlighted in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is the conceptualization of PTSD as a diagnostic category with four distinct symptom clusters. This article presents exploratory factor analysis to test the structural validity of the DSM-5 conceptualization of PTSD via an online survey that included the PTSD Checklist-5. The study utilized a sample of 113 college students from a large Midwestern university and 177 Amazon Mechanical Turk users. Participants were primarily female, Caucasian, single, and heterosexual with an average age of 32 years. Approximately 30% to 35% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD based on two different scoring criteria. Results of the exploratory factor analysis revealed five distinct symptom clusters. The implications for the classification of PTSD are discussed. PMID:26669983

  17. Exploratory Factor Analysis of a Force Concept Inventory Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel; Gray, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    We perform a factor analysis on a "Force Concept Inventory" (FCI) data set collected from 2109 respondents. We address two questions: the appearance of conceptual coherence in student responses to the FCI and some consequences of this factor analysis on the teaching of Newtonian mechanics. We will highlight the apparent conflation of Newton's…

  18. Googling Stroke ASPECTS to Determine Disability: Exploratory Analysis from VISTA-Acute Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Phan, Thanh G.

    2015-01-01

    The summed Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is useful for predicting stroke outcome. The anatomical information in the CT template is rarely used for this purpose because traditional regression methods are not adept at handling collinearity (relatedness) among brain regions. While penalized logistic regression (PLR) can handle collinearity, it does not provide an intuitive understanding of the interaction among network structures in a way that eigenvector method such as PageRank can (used in Google search engine). In this exploratory analysis we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the relationship among ASPECTS regions with respect to disability outcome. The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) was searched for patients who had infarct in at least one ASPECTS region (ASPECTS ≤9, ASPECTS=10 were excluded), and disability (modified Rankin score/mRS). A directed graph was created from a cross correlation matrix (thresholded at false discovery rate of 0.01) of the ASPECTS regions and demographic variables and disability (mRS>2). We estimated the network-based importance of each ASPECTS region by comparing PageRank and node strength measures. These results were compared with those from PLR. There were 185 subjects, average age 67.5± 12.8 years (55% Males). Model 1: demographic variables having no direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank was M2 (0.225, bootstrap 95% CI 0.215-0.347). Model 2: demographic variables having direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank were M2 (0.205, bootstrap 95% CI 0.194-0.367) and M5 (0.125, bootstrap 95% CI 0.096-0.204). Both models illustrate the importance of M2 region to disability. The PageRank method reveals complex interaction among ASPECTS regions with respects to disability. This approach may help to understand the infarcted brain network involved in stroke disability. PMID:25961856

  19. Gene Identification Algorithms Using Exploratory Statistical Analysis of Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shashi Bajaj; Sen, Pradip Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Studying periodic pattern is expected as a standard line of attack for recognizing DNA sequence in identification of gene and similar problems. But peculiarly very little significant work is done in this direction. This paper studies statistical properties of DNA sequences of complete genome using a new technique. A DNA sequence is converted to a numeric sequence using various types of mappings and standard Fourier technique is applied to study the periodicity. Distinct statistical behaviour of periodicity parameters is found in coding and non-coding sequences, which can be used to distinguish between these parts. Here DNA sequences of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed with significant accuracy.

  20. Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment eXtreme scale (EDENx)

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad Allen

    2015-07-01

    EDENx is a multivariate data visualization tool that allows interactive user driven analysis of large-scale data sets with high dimensionality. EDENx builds on our earlier system, called EDEN to enable analysis of more dimensions and larger scale data sets. EDENx provides an initial overview of summary statistics for each variable in the data set under investigation. EDENx allows the user to interact with graphical summary plots of the data to investigate subsets and their statistical associations. These plots include histograms, binned scatterplots, binned parallel coordinate plots, timeline plots, and graphical correlation indicators. From the EDENx interface, a user can select a subsample of interest and launch a more detailed data visualization via the EDEN system. EDENx is best suited for high-level, aggregate analysis tasks while EDEN is more appropriate for detail data investigations.

  1. Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment eXtreme scale (EDENx)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-07-01

    EDENx is a multivariate data visualization tool that allows interactive user driven analysis of large-scale data sets with high dimensionality. EDENx builds on our earlier system, called EDEN to enable analysis of more dimensions and larger scale data sets. EDENx provides an initial overview of summary statistics for each variable in the data set under investigation. EDENx allows the user to interact with graphical summary plots of the data to investigate subsets and their statisticalmore » associations. These plots include histograms, binned scatterplots, binned parallel coordinate plots, timeline plots, and graphical correlation indicators. From the EDENx interface, a user can select a subsample of interest and launch a more detailed data visualization via the EDEN system. EDENx is best suited for high-level, aggregate analysis tasks while EDEN is more appropriate for detail data investigations.« less

  2. Exploratory factor analysis of a Force Concept Inventory data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel; Gray, Andrew R.

    2012-12-01

    We perform a factor analysis on a “Force Concept Inventory” (FCI) data set collected from 2109 respondents. We address two questions: the appearance of conceptual coherence in student responses to the FCI and some consequences of this factor analysis on the teaching of Newtonian mechanics. We will highlight the apparent conflation of Newton’s third law with Newton’s first law in one of the FCI questions and suggest an approach to teaching that may avoid this issue. We also note the absence of a distinct factor interpretable as relating specifically to kinematics. Furthermore, we identify and discuss some of the technical difficulties which may be encountered when performing factor analysis on categorical data sets, such as is the case with FCI data sets.

  3. Research on Internationalisation in Higher Education--Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yemini, Miri; Sagie, Netta

    2016-01-01

    Research on internationalisation in higher education has dramatically expanded over the last several decades. This study aims to provide an overview of the research developments undertaken between 1980 and 2014, on internationalisation in higher education. Explorative, systematic literature screening and analysis were undertaken, encompassing over…

  4. "Library Quarterly," 1956-2004: An Exploratory Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Arthur P.

    2006-01-01

    "Library Quarterly's" seventy-fifth anniversary invites an analysis of the journal's bibliometric dimension, including contributor attributes, various author rankings, and citation impact. Eugene Garfield's HistCite software, linked to Thomson Scientific's Web of Science, as made available by Garfield, for the period 1956-2004, was used as the…

  5. Voyager: Exploratory Analysis via Faceted Browsing of Visualization Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wongsuphasawat, Kanit; Moritz, Dominik; Anand, Anushka; Mackinlay, Jock; Howe, Bill; Heer, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    General visualization tools typically require manual specification of views: analysts must select data variables and then choose which transformations and visual encodings to apply. These decisions often involve both domain and visualization design expertise, and may impose a tedious specification process that impedes exploration. In this paper, we seek to complement manual chart construction with interactive navigation of a gallery of automatically-generated visualizations. We contribute Voyager, a mixed-initiative system that supports faceted browsing of recommended charts chosen according to statistical and perceptual measures. We describe Voyager's architecture, motivating design principles, and methods for generating and interacting with visualization recommendations. In a study comparing Voyager to a manual visualization specification tool, we find that Voyager facilitates exploration of previously unseen data and leads to increased data variable coverage. We then distill design implications for visualization tools, in particular the need to balance rapid exploration and targeted question-answering. PMID:26390469

  6. Exploratory analysis of environmental interactions in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Cola, Lee; Falcone, Neil L.

    1996-01-01

    As part of its global change research program, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has produced raster data that describe the land cover of the United States using a consistent format. The data consist of elevations, satellite measurements, computed vegetation indices, land cover classes, and ancillary political, topographic and hydrographic information. This open-file report uses some of these data to explore the environment of a (256-km)? region of central California. We present various visualizations of the data, multiscale correlations between topography and vegetation, a path analysis of more complex statistical interactions, and a map that portrays the influence of agriculture on the region's vegetation. An appendix contains C and Mathematica code used to generate the graphics and some of the analysis.

  7. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Korean Version of Hypomania Checklist-32

    PubMed Central

    An, Doyoun; Hong, Kyung Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Hypomania Checklist - 32 (HCL-32) is a self-assessment instrument developed by Angst et al. (2005) to identify bipolarity in the general population, as well as patients with unipolar depression. The principal objective of this study was to assess the factor structure of the Korean version of the HCL-32 for mood disorder patients, via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods The Korean version of HCL-32 were evaluated in a sample of 608 mood disorder patients, including 210 bipolar disorder patients and 398 unipolar disorder patients, all of whom were diagnosed in accordance with either the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV or Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview They were divided randomly into two groups, and then the EFA was administered to group 1 and the CFA was administered to group 2. Results A 3-factor structure for the HCL-32 was generated, which explained 44% of the total variance from EFA. Factor 1, comprising 18 items, was designated as 'elated mood/increased energy'; factor 2, comprising 8 items, was designated as 'risk-taking behavior/irritability'; and factor 3, comprising 2 items, was designated as 'increased sexual activity'. Researchers confirmed the 3-factor solution derived from group 1 by the CFA. Conclusion The primary findings of this study were the replication and confirmation of the 3-factor structure in Korean mood disorder patients; our results were consistent with previous EFAs. PMID:22216043

  8. RNA-Seq workflow: gene-level exploratory analysis and differential expression

    PubMed Central

    Love, Michael I.; Anders, Simon; Kim, Vladislav; Huber, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Here we walk through an end-to-end gene-level RNA-Seq differential expression workflow using Bioconductor packages. We will start from the FASTQ files, show how these were aligned to the reference genome, and prepare a count matrix which tallies the number of RNA-seq reads/fragments within each gene for each sample. We will perform exploratory data analysis (EDA) for quality assessment and to explore the relationship between samples, perform differential gene expression analysis, and visually explore the results. PMID:26674615

  9. Weather analysis and interpretation procedures developed for the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques for providing analyses of meteorological conditions at segments during the growing season were developed for the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment. The main product and analysis tool is the segment-level climagraph which depicts temporally meteorological variables for the current year compared with climatological normals. The variable values for the segment are estimates derived through objective analysis of values obtained at first-order station in the region. The procedures and products documented represent a baseline for future Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting experiments.

  10. The basic importance of applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1986-01-01

    We argue that applied behavior analysis is relevant to basic research. Modification studies, and a broad range of investigations that focus on the precipitating and maintaining conditions of socially significant human behavior, have basic importance. Applied behavior analysis may aid basic researchers in the design of externally valid experiments and thereby enhance the theoretical significance of basic research for understanding human behavior. Applied research with humans, directed at culturally-important problems, will help to propagate the science of human behavior. Such a science will also be furthered by analogue experiments that model socially important behavior. Analytical-applied studies and analogue experiments are forms of applied behavior analysis that could suggest new environment-behavior relationships. These relationships could lead to basic research and principles that further the prediction, control, and understanding of behavior. PMID:22478650

  11. Exploratory analysis of TOF-SIMS data from biological surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Fletcher, John S.; Henderson, Alex; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C.

    2008-12-01

    The application of multivariate analytical tools enables simplification of TOF-SIMS datasets so that useful information can be extracted from complex spectra and images, especially those that do not give readily interpretable results. There is however a challenge in understanding the outputs from such analyses. The problem is complicated when analysing images, given the additional dimensions in the dataset. Here we demonstrate how the application of simple pre-processing routines can enable the interpretation of TOF-SIMS spectra and images. For the spectral data, TOF-SIMS spectra used to discriminate bacterial isolates associated with urinary tract infection were studied. Using different criteria for picking peaks before carrying out PC-DFA enabled identification of the discriminatory information with greater certainty. For the image data, an air-dried salt stressed bacterial sample, discussed in another paper by us in this issue, was studied. Exploration of the image datasets with and without normalisation prior to multivariate analysis by PCA or MAF resulted in different regions of the image being highlighted by the techniques.

  12. Critical care physician cognitive task analysis: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Fackler, James C; Watts, Charles; Grome, Anna; Miller, Thomas; Crandall, Beth; Pronovost, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction For better or worse, the imposition of work-hour limitations on house-staff has imperiled continuity and/or improved decision-making. Regardless, the workflow of every physician team in every academic medical centre has been irrevocably altered. We explored the use of cognitive task analysis (CTA) techniques, most commonly used in other high-stress and time-sensitive environments, to analyse key cognitive activities in critical care medicine. The study objective was to assess the usefulness of CTA as an analytical tool in order that physician cognitive tasks may be understood and redistributed within the work-hour limited medical decision-making teams. Methods After approval from each Institutional Review Board, two intensive care units (ICUs) within major university teaching hospitals served as data collection sites for CTA observations and interviews of critical care providers. Results Five broad categories of cognitive activities were identified: pattern recognition; uncertainty management; strategic vs. tactical thinking; team coordination and maintenance of common ground; and creation and transfer of meaning through stories. Conclusions CTA within the framework of Naturalistic Decision Making is a useful tool to understand the critical care process of decision-making and communication. The separation of strategic and tactical thinking has implications for workflow redesign. Given the global push for work-hour limitations, such workflow redesign is occurring. Further work with CTA techniques will provide important insights toward rational, rather than random, workflow changes. PMID:19265517

  13. Rorschach assessment of traumatized refugees: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-one multitraumatized mental health patients with refugee backgrounds completed the Rorschach (Meyer & Viglione, 2008), Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (Mollica, McDonald, Massagli, & Silove, 2004), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL Group, 1998) before the start of treatment. The purpose was to gain more in-depth knowledge of an understudied patient group and to provide a prospective basis for later analyses of treatment outcome. Factor analysis of trauma-related Rorschach variables gave 2 components explaining 60% of the variance; the first was interpreted as trauma-related flooding versus constriction and the second as adequate versus impaired reality testing. Component 1 correlated positively with self-reported reexperiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress (r = .32, p < .05). Component 2 correlated positively with self-reported quality of life in the physical, psychological, and social relationships domains (r = .34, .32, and .35, p < .05), and negatively with anxiety (r = -.33, p < .05). Each component also correlated significantly with resources like work experience, education, and language skills. PMID:23570250

  14. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality Factors Contributed to Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; Rajmohan, V.; Sushil, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient “r”. Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide. PMID:24379499

  15. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  16. The development and exploratory analysis of the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. Design The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Participants Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. Measures The 34-item Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach α coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. Results The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (α=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: ‘vulnerability of the back’; ‘relationship between back pain and injury’; ‘activity participation while experiencing back pain’; ‘prognosis of back pain’ and ‘psychological influences on recovery’. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (α=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (α between 0.50 and 0.78). Conclusions The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument

  17. Factor analysis of positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Khess, C. R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Controversy persists with regard to how best we can categorize symptomatic dimension of Schizophrenia. Aim of the study was to compute factorial dimensions in Indian subset of schizophrenic patients and to compare them with five factor pentagonal model extracted in western studies. Materials and Methods: 150 inpatients of Schizophrenia with acute exacerbation were subjected to PANSS rating within one week of admission and statistical calculation done based on exploratory factor analysis. Results: Five factors namely negative, autistic, activation, positive and depression were extracted wherein negative factors showed highest percentage of total variance supporting five factor modal of western literature Conclusion: A consensus is gradually emerging regarding symptomatic dimensions of Schizophrenia. PMID:23226846

  18. Cladistic analysis applied to the classification of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hone, D. W. E.; Mahony, S. H.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Martin, K. T.

    2007-11-01

    Cladistics is a systematic method of classification that groups entities on the basis of sharing similar characteristics in the most parsimonious manner. Here cladistics is applied to the classification of volcanoes using a dataset of 59 Quaternary volcanoes and 129 volcanic edifices of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Volcano and edifice characteristics recorded in the database include attributes of volcano size, chemical composition, dominant eruptive products, volcano morphology, dominant landforms, volcano age and eruptive history. Without characteristics related to time the volcanic edifices divide into two groups, with characters related to volcano size, dominant composition and edifice morphology being the most diagnostic. Analysis including time based characteristics yields four groups with a good correlation between these groups and the two groups from the analysis without time for 108 out of 129 volcanic edifices. Thus when characters are slightly changed the volcanoes still form similar groupings. Analysis of the volcanoes both with and without time yields three groups based on compositional, eruptive products and morphological characters. Spatial clusters of volcanic centres have been recognised in the Tohoku region by Tamura et al. ( Earth Planet Sci Lett 197:105 106, 2002). The groups identified by cladistic analysis are distributed unevenly between the clusters, indicating a tendency for individual clusters to form similar kinds of volcanoes with distinctive but coherent styles of volcanism. Uneven distribution of volcano types between clusters can be explained by variations in dominant magma compositions through time, which are reflected in eruption products and volcanic landforms. Cladistic analysis can be a useful tool for elucidating dynamic igneous processes that could be applied to other regions and globally. Our exploratory study indicates that cladistics has promise as a method for classifying volcanoes and potentially elucidating dynamic

  19. Defining applied behavior analysis: An historical analogy

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Samuel M.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines two criteria for a definition of applied behavior analysis. The criteria are derived from a 19th century attempt to establish medicine as a scientific field. The first criterion, experimental determinism, specifies the methodological boundaries of an experimental science. The second criterion, philosophic doubt, clarifies the tentative nature of facts and theories derived from those facts. Practices which will advance the science of behavior are commented upon within each criteria. To conclude, the problems of a 19th century form of empiricism in medicine are related to current practices in applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478557

  20. Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in an Exploratory Factor Analysis Using Comparison Data of Known Factorial Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, John; Roche, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used routinely in the development and validation of assessment instruments. One of the most significant challenges when one is performing EFA is determining how many factors to retain. Parallel analysis (PA) is an effective stopping rule that compares the eigenvalues of randomly generated data with those for…

  1. Applied mathematics analysis of the multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, H.; Kar, A. K.; Tacgin, E.

    2012-08-01

    A methodology is developed for the analysis of the multibody systems that is applied on the vehicle as a case study. The previous study emphasizes the derivation of the multibody dynamics equations of motion for bogie [2]. In this work, we have developed a guide-way for the analysis of the dynamical behavior of the multibody systems for mainly validation, verification of the realistic mathematical model and partly for the design of the alternative optimum vehicle parameters.

  2. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Taeho; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective instrument to measure student readiness in online learning with reliable predictors of online learning success factors such as learning outcomes and learner satisfaction. The validity and reliability of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) instrument were tested using exploratory factor…

  3. Applied behavior analysis and statistical process control?

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, B L

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines Pfadt and Wheeler's (1995) suggestions that the methods of statistical process control (SPC) be incorporated into applied behavior analysis. The research strategies of SPC are examined and compared to those of applied behavior analysis. I argue that the statistical methods that are a part of SPC would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with the problems with which they deal and would, therefore, likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Examples of these kinds of results and decisions are drawn from the cases and data Pfadt and Wheeler present. This paper also describes and clarifies many common misconceptions about SPC, including W. Edwards Deming's involvement in its development, its relationship to total quality management, and its confusion with various other methods designed to detect sources of unwanted variability. PMID:7592156

  4. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  5. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  6. Exploratory Search on Twitter Utilizing User Feedback and Multi-Perspective Microblog Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zilincik, Michal; Navrat, Pavol; Koskova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, besides typical information retrieval, a broader concept of information exploration – exploratory search - is emerging into the foreground. In addition, more and more valuable information is presented in microblogs on social networks. We propose a new method for supporting the exploratory search on the Twitter social network. The method copes with several challenges, namely brevity of microblogs called tweets, limited number of available ratings and the need to process the recommendations online. In order to tackle the first challenge, the representation of microblogs is enriched by information from referenced links, topic summarization and affect analysis. The small number of available ratings is raised by interpreting implicit feedback trained by feedback model during browsing. Recommendations are made by a preference model that models user’s preferences over tweets. The evaluation shows promising results even when navigating in the space of brief pieces of information, making recommendations based only on a small number of ratings, and by optimizing the models to process in real time. PMID:24265724

  7. Exploratory search on Twitter utilizing user feedback and multi-perspective microblog analysis.

    PubMed

    Zilincik, Michal; Navrat, Pavol; Koskova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, besides typical information retrieval, a broader concept of information exploration--exploratory search--is emerging into the foreground. In addition, more and more valuable information is presented in microblogs on social networks. We propose a new method for supporting the exploratory search on the Twitter social network. The method copes with several challenges, namely brevity of microblogs called tweets, limited number of available ratings and the need to process the recommendations online. In order to tackle the first challenge, the representation of microblogs is enriched by information from referenced links, topic summarization and affect analysis. The small number of available ratings is raised by interpreting implicit feedback trained by feedback model during browsing. Recommendations are made by a preference model that models user's preferences over tweets. The evaluation shows promising results even when navigating in the space of brief pieces of information, making recommendations based only on a small number of ratings, and by optimizing the models to process in real time. PMID:24265724

  8. Caldwell University's Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A

    2016-05-01

    Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth. These strategies, along with a consideration of potential challenges, might prove useful in guiding academicians who are interested in starting their own programs in behavior analysis. PMID:27606194

  9. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Diego A.; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H.; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T.

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  10. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Diego A; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  11. Exploratory factor analysis and psychometric evaluation of the teacher reporting attitude scale for child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis. The scale isolated three dimensions: commitment to the reporting role, confidence in the system's response to reports, and concerns about reporting. These three factors accounted for 37.5% of the variance in the 14-item measure. Alpha coefficients for the subscales were 0.769 (commitment), 0.617 (confidence), and 0.661 (concerns). The findings provide insights into the complexity of studying teachers' attitudes toward reporting of child sexual abuse and have implications for future research. PMID:22994689

  12. Technical Communications in Aeronautics: Results of an Exploratory Study. An Analysis of Managers' and Nonmanagers' Responses. NASA Technical Memorandum 101625.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that aerospace managers and nonmanagers have different technical communications practices. Five secondary assumptions were established for the analysis: (1) that the…

  13. Exploratory Bifactor Analysis of the WJ-III Cognitive in Adulthood via the Schmid-Leiman Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson-III cognitive in the adult time period (age 20 to 90 plus) was analyzed using exploratory bifactor analysis via the Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization procedure. The results of this study suggested possible overfactoring, a different factor structure from that posited in the Technical Manual and a lack of invariance across both…

  14. FACTOR 9.2: A Comprehensive Program for Fitting Exploratory and Semiconfirmatory Factor Analysis and IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J.

    2013-01-01

    FACTOR 9.2 was developed for three reasons. First, exploratory factor analysis (FA) is still an active field of research although most recent developments have not been incorporated into available programs. Second, there is now renewed interest in semiconfirmatory (SC) solutions as suitable approaches to the complex structures are commonly found…

  15. A Unified Approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis with Missing Data, Nonnormal Data, and in the Presence of Outliers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Marshall, Linda L.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a rescaled Bartless-corrected statistic for evaluating the number of factors in exploratory factor analysis with missing data, nonnormal data, and in the presence of outliers. Numerical results illustrate the sensitivity of classical methods and advantages of the proposed procedures. (SLD)

  16. Rotation Criteria and Hypothesis Testing for Exploratory Factor Analysis: Implications for Factor Pattern Loadings and Interfactor Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Thomas A.; Sass, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has long been used in the social sciences to depict the relationships between variables/items and latent traits. Researchers face many choices when using EFA, including the choice of rotation criterion, which can be difficult given that few research articles have discussed and/or demonstrated their differences.…

  17. The trade-off between hospital cost and quality of care. An exploratory empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Morey, R C; Fine, D J; Loree, S W; Retzlaff-Roberts, D L; Tsubakitani, S

    1992-08-01

    The debate concerning quality of care in hospitals, its "value" and affordability, is increasingly of concern to providers, consumers, and purchasers in the United States and elsewhere. We undertook an exploratory study to estimate the impact on hospital-wide costs if quality-of-care levels were varied. To do so, we obtained costs and service output data regarding 300 U.S. hospitals, representing approximately a 5% cross section of all hospitals operating in 1983; both inpatient and outpatient services were included. The quality-of-care measure used for the exploratory analysis was the ratio of actual deaths in the hospital for the year in question to the forecasted number of deaths for the hospital; the hospital mortality forecaster had earlier (and elsewhere) been built from analyses of 6 million discharge abstracts, and took into account each hospital's actual individual admissions, including key patient descriptors for each admission. Such adjusted death rates have increasingly been used as potential indicators of quality, with recent research lending support for the viability of that linkage. The authors then utilized the economic construct of allocative efficiency relying on "best practices" concepts and peer groupings, built using the "envelopment" philosophy of Data Envelopment Analysis and Pareto efficiency. These analytical techniques estimated the efficiently delivered costs required to meet prespecified levels of quality of care. The marginal additional cost per each death deferred in 1983 was estimated to be approximately $29,000 (in 1990 dollars) for the average efficient hospital. Also, over a feasible range, a 1% increase in the level of quality of care delivered was estimated to increase hospital cost by an average of 1.34%. This estimated elasticity of quality on cost also increased with the number of beds in the hospital. PMID:1640765

  18. Tropospheric Delay Raytracing Applied in VLBI Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, D. S.; Eriksson, D.; Gipson, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric delay modeling error continues to be one of the largest sources of error in VLBI analysis. For standard operational solutions, we use the VMF1 elevation-dependent mapping functions derived from ECMWF data. These mapping functions assume that tropospheric delay at a site is azimuthally symmetric. As this assumption does not reflect reality, we have determined the raytrace delay along the signal path through the troposphere for each VLBI quasar observation. We determined the troposphere refractivity fields from the pressure, temperature, specific humidity and geopotential height fields of the NASA GSFC GEOS-5 numerical weather model. We discuss results from analysis of the CONT11 R&D and the weekly operational R1+R4 experiment sessions. When applied in VLBI analysis, baseline length repeatabilities were better for 66-72% of baselines with raytraced delays than with VMF1 mapping functions. Vertical repeatabilities were better for 65% of sites.

  19. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) normative sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analytic techniques that were not reported in the in the CTONI-2 "Examiner's Manual". Results…

  20. Wavelet analysis applied to the IRAS cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William D.; Wilson, Robert W.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of infrared cirrus clouds is analyzed with Laplacian pyramid transforms, a form of non-orthogonal wavelets. Pyramid and wavelet transforms provide a means to decompose images into their spatial frequency components such that all spatial scales are treated in an equivalent manner. The multiscale transform analysis is applied to IRAS 100 micrometer maps of cirrus emission in the north Galactic pole region to extract features on different scales. In the maps we identify filaments, fragments and clumps by separating all connected regions. These structures are analyzed with respect to their Hausdorff dimension for evidence of the scaling relationships in the cirrus clouds.

  1. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J.M; Foxx, Richard M; Jacobson, John W; Green, Gina; Mulick, James A

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We also consider the features of PBS that have facilitated its broad dissemination and how ABA might benefit from emulating certain practices of the PBS movement. PMID:22478452

  2. Visualized Exploratory Spatiotemporal Analysis of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ji-Xia; Wang, Jin-Feng; Li, Zhong-Jie; Wang, Yan; Lai, Sheng-Jie; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In epidemiological research, major studies have focused on theoretical models; however, few methods of visual analysis have been used to display the patterns of disease distribution. Design For this study, a method combining the space-time cube (STC) with space-time scan statistics (STSS) was used to analyze the pattern of incidence of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in Guangdong Province from May 2008 to March 2009. In this research, STC was used to display the spatiotemporal pattern of incidence of HFMD, and STSS were used to detect the local aggregations of the disease. Setting The hand-foot-mouth disease data were obtained from Guangdong Province from May 2008 to March 2009, with a total of 68,130 cases. Results The STC analysis revealed a differential pattern of HFMD incidence among different months and cities and also showed that the population density and average precipitation are correlated with the incidence of HFMD. The STSS analysis revealed that the most likely aggregation includes the Shenzhen, Foshan and Dongguan populations, which are the most developed regions in Guangdong Province. Conclusion Both STC and STSS are efficient tools for the exploratory data analysis of disease transmission. STC clearly displays the spatiotemporal patterns of disease. Using the maximum likelihood ratio, the STSS model precisely locates the most likely aggregation. PMID:26605919

  3. Utilizing Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis to Examine Health and Environmental Disparities in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Osiecki, Kristin M.; Kim, Seijeoung; Chukwudozie, Ifeanyi B.; Calhoun, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities research has focused primarily on racial and socioeconomic differences in health outcomes. Although neighborhood characteristics and the concept of built environment have been shown to affect individual health, measuring the effects of environmental risks on health has been a less developed area of disparities research. To examine spatial associations and the distribution of geographic patterns of sociodemographic characteristics, environmental cancer risk, and cancer rates, we utilized existing data from multiple sources. The findings from our initial analysis, which concerned with proximity to environmental hazards and at-risk communities, were consistent with results of previous studies, which often reported mixed relationships between health disparity indicators and environmental burden. However, further analysis with refined models showed that several key demographic and subdomains of cancer risk measures were shown to have spatial components. With the application of exploratory spatial data analysis, we were able to identify areas with both high rates of poverty and racial minorities to further examine for possible associations to environmental cancer risk. Global spatial autocorrelation found spatial clustering with percent black, percent poverty, point and non-point cancer risks requiring further spatial analysis to determine relationship of significance based on geography. This methodology was based upon particular assumptions associated with data and applications, which needed to be met. We conclude that careful assessment of the data and applications were required to properly interpret the findings in understanding the relationship between vulnerable populations and environmental burden. PMID:26594302

  4. Sneak analysis applied to process systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetton, Cris

    Traditional safety analyses, such as HAZOP, FMEA, FTA, and MORT, are less than effective at identifying hazards resulting from incorrect 'flow' - whether this be flow of information, actions, electric current, or even the literal flow of process fluids. Sneak Analysis (SA) has existed since the mid nineteen-seventies as a means of identifying such conditions in electric circuits; in which area, it is usually known as Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA). This paper extends the ideas of Sneak Circuit Analysis to a general method of Sneak Analysis applied to process plant. The methods of SA attempt to capitalize on previous work in the electrical field by first producing a pseudo-electrical analog of the process and then analyzing the analog by the existing techniques of SCA, supplemented by some additional rules and clues specific to processes. The SA method is not intended to replace any existing method of safety analysis; instead, it is intended to supplement such techniques as HAZOP and FMEA by providing systematic procedures for the identification of a class of potential problems which are not well covered by any other method.

  5. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height

  6. The underlying relationships between the observed practices as revealed by an exploratory factor analysis of equip ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, Jenesta Rae

    The Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol (EQUIP) is an instrument to measure the amount and quality of inquiry instruction of science and mathematics classrooms. The EQUIP rubric includes detailed descriptions for the inquiry practices that it measures. This study analyzed a large dataset of Texas science teacher observations using a discriminant factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis. The discriminant factor analysis found the inquiry instruction practices of primary (1st-5th grade) science teachers and secondary (6th-12th grade) science teachers to differ greatly, with primary science teachers using inquiry practices more often than secondary science teachers. Based on this information the primary and secondary datasets were analyzed separately with the exploratory factor analysis. The resulting factors indicate a variety of differences in the observed practices. The results also, suggest that discourse practices play a divergent but influential role for both datasets. Potential implications for professional development and future research are discussed.

  7. Applied spectrophotometry: analysis of a biochemical mixture.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Toni A; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the concentration of a given species (RNA, DNA, protein) in isolation (a contrived circumstance) as opposed to determining that concentration in the presence of other species (a more realistic situation). To present the student with a more realistic laboratory experience and also to fill a hole that we believe exists in student experience prior to reaching a biochemistry course, we have devised a three week laboratory experience designed so that students learn to: connect laboratory practice with theory, apply the Beer-Lambert-Bougert Law to biochemical analyses, demonstrate the utility and limitations of example quantitative colorimetric assays, demonstrate the utility and limitations of UV analyses for biomolecules, develop strategies for analysis of a solution of unknown biomolecular composition, use digital micropipettors to make accurate and precise measurements, and apply graphing software. PMID:23625877

  8. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ultrasound Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, C.; Young, M.; Mason, S.; Coble, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Law. J.; Alexander, D.; Ryder, V. Myers; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on ISS have typically averaged 2.3 to 5.3mm Hg, with large fluctuations occurring over periods of hours and days. CO2 has effects on cerebral vascular tone, resulting in vasodilation and alteration of cerebral blood flow(CBF). Increased CBF leads to elevated intracranial pressure(ICP), which is a factor leading to visual disturbance, headaches, and other central nervous system symptoms. Ultrasound of the optic nerve provides a surrogate measurement of ICP. Inflight ultrasounds were implemented as an enhanced screening tool for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome. This analysis examines the relationships between ambient CO2 levels on ISS and ultrasound measures of the eye in an effort to understand how CO2 may be associated with VIIP and to inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data. Results as shown in Figure2, there was a large timeframe where CO2 readings were removed due to sensor fault errors(see Limitations), from June 2011 to January 2012. After extensive cleaning of the CO2 data, metrics for all of the data were calculated (Table2). Preliminary analyses showed possible associations between variability measures of CO2 and AP diameter (Figure3),and average CO2 exposure and ONSD(Figure4). Adjustments for multiple comparisons were not made due to the exploratory nature of the analysis.

  9. How bandwidth selection algorithms impact exploratory data analysis using kernel density estimation.

    PubMed

    Harpole, Jared K; Woods, Carol M; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Levinson, Cheri A; Lenze, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    Exploratory data analysis (EDA) can reveal important features of underlying distributions, and these features often have an impact on inferences and conclusions drawn from data. Graphical analysis is central to EDA, and graphical representations of distributions often benefit from smoothing. A viable method of estimating and graphing the underlying density in EDA is kernel density estimation (KDE). This article provides an introduction to KDE and examines alternative methods for specifying the smoothing bandwidth in terms of their ability to recover the true density. We also illustrate the comparison and use of KDE methods with 2 empirical examples. Simulations were carried out in which we compared 8 bandwidth selection methods (Sheather-Jones plug-in [SJDP], normal rule of thumb, Silverman's rule of thumb, least squares cross-validation, biased cross-validation, and 3 adaptive kernel estimators) using 5 true density shapes (standard normal, positively skewed, bimodal, skewed bimodal, and standard lognormal) and 9 sample sizes (15, 25, 50, 75, 100, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000). Results indicate that, overall, SJDP outperformed all methods. However, for smaller sample sizes (25 to 100) either biased cross-validation or Silverman's rule of thumb was recommended, and for larger sample sizes the adaptive kernel estimator with SJDP was recommended. Information is provided about implementing the recommendations in the R computing language. PMID:24885339

  10. Exploratory Analysis of Biological Networks through Visualization, Clustering, and Functional Annotation in Cytoscape.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Biological networks define how genes, proteins, and other cellular components interact with one another to carry out specific functions, providing a scaffold for understanding cellular organization. Although in-depth network analysis requires advanced mathematical and computational knowledge, a preliminary visual exploration of biological networks is accessible to anyone with basic computer skills. Visualization of biological networks is used primarily to examine network topology, identify functional modules, and predict gene functions based on gene connectivity within the network. Networks are excellent at providing a bird's-eye view of data sets and have the power of illustrating complex ideas in simple and intuitive terms. In addition, they enable exploratory analysis and generation of new hypotheses, which can then be tested using rigorous statistical and experimental tools. This protocol describes a simple procedure for visualizing a biological network using the genetic interaction similarity network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an example. The visualization procedure described here relies on the open-source network visualization software Cytoscape and includes detailed instructions on formatting and loading the data, clustering networks, and overlaying functional annotations. PMID:26988373

  11. Exploratory factor analysis of neuropsychological tests and their relationship to the Brown-Peterson task.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Valérie B; Gagnon, Michèle; Coulombe, Daniel; Messier, Claude

    2006-10-01

    The interference condition of the Brown-Peterson task and the auditory consonant trigrams test was designed to evaluate working memory in that it required a division of attentional processes to complete two cognitive tasks. However, the specific cognitive functions contributing to the performance of this interference task have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to determine what other tasks are comparable to the Brown-Peterson task and conduct an exploratory factor analysis that included the measures from the Brown-Peterson task and other neuropsychological measures. A neuropsychological battery was administered to younger participants (n=107, mean age=20.83) and older participants (n=93, mean age=70.14). Factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution. Performance after the intervening serial subtraction task loaded on an auditory/visual working memory and complex attention factor and had common loadings with working memory subtests of the WAIS-III and the spatial span subtest of the WMS-III. Results suggest that the performance after the intervening serial subtraction task evaluates dual information processing, complex attention, and working memory. PMID:17071363

  12. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of a short-form of the EMBU among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongquan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Lisong

    2012-02-01

    The present study used a sample of Chinese adolescents and validated a short-form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran: One's Memories of Upbringing (s-EMBU) assessing perceived parental rearing styles. A Chinese revision of the s-EMBU by the authors was administered to a total of 779 high school students, ages 11 to 19 years. Exploratory factor analysis with half of the sample yielded a three-factor solution of Rejection, Emotional Warmth, and Overprotection, accounting for 47.1% of the total variance onthe father form and 48.8% of the total variance on the mother form. Then, confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit of the three-factor model to the data in the other half of the sample. The three subscales consisted of 6, 6, and 7 items, respectively. Scores on these subscales had Cronbach alphas ranging from .71 to .81, indicating adequate internal consistency. These psychometric properties suggest its applicability for research with Chinese adolescents. PMID:22489392

  13. The underlying factor structure of National Institutes of Health Stroke scale: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Ali; Kahaki, Zahra Zeynali; Sadeghian, Homa; Pourashraf, Maryam; Parviz, Sara; Ghaffarpour, Majid; Ghabaee, Mojdeh

    2012-03-01

    The underlying structure of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) as the most widely used scale in clinical trials has been the focus of little attention. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the clustering pattern of NIHSS items in ischemic stroke patients. A series of 152 consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic strokes admitted to a university affiliated hospital were enrolled. NIHSS score was estimated on admission and correlation coefficients between its items were calculated. Further, exploratory factor analysis was used to study the clustering pattern of NIHSS items. Extinction neglect, visual field, and facial palsy were weakly associated with other NIHSS items. Factor analysis led to a four-factor structure. Factors 1 and 3 were determined by left brain function as items of right arm and leg motor, language and dysarthria loaded on both of them. By contrast, factor 2 reflected right brain involvement. Since visual field and ataxia loaded on factor 4, this factor was primarily associated with posterior strokes. Our study shows that a four-factor structure model is plausible for NIHSS. Further, for the first time, a single distinct factor is identified for posterior strokes. PMID:22023373

  14. A novel exploratory chemometric approach to environmental monitorring by combining block clustering with Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the serious threats posed to terrestrial ecosystems by industrial contamination, environmental monitoring is a standard procedure used for assessing the current status of an environment or trends in environmental parameters. Measurement of metal concentrations at different trophic levels followed by their statistical analysis using exploratory multivariate methods can provide meaningful information on the status of environmental quality. In this context, the present paper proposes a novel chemometric approach to standard statistical methods by combining the Block clustering with Partial least square (PLS) analysis to investigate the accumulation patterns of metals in anthropized terrestrial ecosystems. The present study focused on copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, and lead transfer along a soil-plant-snai food chain, and the hepatopancreas of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) was used as a biological end-point of metal accumulation. Results Block clustering deliniates between the areas exposed to industrial and vehicular contamination. The toxic metals have similar distributions in the nettle leaves and snail hepatopancreas. PLS analysis showed that (1) zinc and copper concentrations at the lower trophic levels are the most important latent factors that contribute to metal accumulation in land snails; (2) cadmium and lead are the main determinants of pollution pattern in areas exposed to industrial contamination; (3) at the sites located near roads lead is the most threatfull metal for terrestrial ecosystems. Conclusion There were three major benefits by applying block clustering with PLS for processing the obtained data: firstly, it helped in grouping sites depending on the type of contamination. Secondly, it was valuable for identifying the latent factors that contribute the most to metal accumulation in land snails. Finally, it optimized the number and type of data that are best for monitoring the status of metallic

  15. Viewpoints: A High-Performance High-Dimensional Exploratory Data Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazis, P. R.; Levit, C.; Way, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Scientific data sets continue to increase in both size and complexity. In the past, dedicated graphics systems at supercomputing centers were required to visualize large data sets, but as the price of commodity graphics hardware has dropped and its capability has increased, it is now possible, in principle, to view large complex data sets on a single workstation. To do this in practice, an investigator will need software that is written to take advantage of the relevant graphics hardware. The Viewpoints visualization package described herein is an example of such software. Viewpoints is an interactive tool for exploratory visual analysis of large high-dimensional (multivariate) data. It leverages the capabilities of modern graphics boards (GPUs) to run on a single workstation or laptop. Viewpoints is minimalist: it attempts to do a small set of useful things very well (or at least very quickly) in comparison with similar packages today. Its basic feature set includes linked scatter plots with brushing, dynamic histograms, normalization, and outlier detection/removal. Viewpoints was originally designed for astrophysicists, but it has since been used in a variety of fields that range from astronomy, quantum chemistry, fluid dynamics, machine learning, bioinformatics, and finance to information technology server log mining. In this article, we describe the Viewpoints package and show examples of its usage.

  16. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Mauro H.; Magalhães, Fabrício A.; Peixoto, Gustavo H. C.; Pereira, Beatriz M.; Andrade, André G. P.; Menzel, Hans-Joachim K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX), ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM), peak torque (torqueMAX), passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories) have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises. PMID:27437715

  17. An Exploratory Framework for Combining CFD Analysis and Evolutionary Optimization into a Single Integrated Computational Environment

    SciTech Connect

    McCorkle, Douglas S.; Bryden, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent reports and workshops have identified integrated computational engineering as an emerging technology with the potential to transform engineering design. The goal is to integrate geometric models, analyses, simulations, optimization and decision-making tools, and all other aspects of the engineering process into a shared, interactive computer-generated environment that facilitates multidisciplinary and collaborative engineering. While integrated computational engineering environments can be constructed from scratch with high-level programming languages, the complexity of these proposed environments makes this type of approach prohibitively slow and expensive. Rather, a high-level software framework is needed to provide the user with the capability to construct an application in an intuitive manner using existing models and engineering tools with minimal programming. In this paper, we present an exploratory open source software framework that can be used to integrate the geometric models, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and optimization tools needed for shape optimization of complex systems. This framework is demonstrated using the multiphase flow analysis of a complete coal transport system for an 800 MW pulverized coal power station. The framework uses engineering objects and three-dimensional visualization to enable the user to interactively design and optimize the performance of the coal transport system.

  18. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies. PMID:26908148

  19. Death and deprivation: an exploratory analysis of deaths in the health and lifestyle survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, K; Gould, M I; Duncan, C

    2000-04-01

    An analysis is undertaken of deaths of respondents in the UK- representative Health and Lifestyle Survey. The sample was originally interviewed in 1984/5 and followed initially until May 1997. Using multilevel logistic and Cox-proportional hazards models, the relationships between death and a wide range of social circumstances and behaviours is explored. It is found that place deprivation interacts with individual social class in accounting for variations in mortality. This is the case even when account is taken of personal health-related behaviour. There appears to be some evidence of a threshold relationship such that the differential effects of social class are only found at high-levels of deprivation. No statistically significant interactions are found for social and behavioural variables, for behavioural and place deprivation variables, and for social and place deprivation variables with the exception of social class. The study is deliberately exploratory and a wide range of models have been fitted which will be subject to more rigorous evaluation as the HALS death study proceeds. PMID:10714927

  20. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    PubMed

    Ullinger, Heather L; Kennedy, Marla J; Schneider, William H; Miller, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies. PMID:26908148

  1. Noninvasive Molecular Detection of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An exploratory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Seema; Benninger, Michael S; Lu, Mei; Havard, Shalita; Worsham, Maria J

    2008-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogenous disease evolving through multi-step carcinogenesis, one of the steps being genetic alterations. Non-invasive identification of HNSCC-specific genetic alterations using saliva would have immense potential in early diagnosis and screening, particularly among high-risk patients. Design In this exploratory study, a prospective cohort of 27HNSCC and 10 healthy controls was examined to determine whether genetic alterations (losses and gains) in saliva DNA differentiated HNSCC patients from normal controls. Saliva DNA was interrogated by a candidate gene panel comprising 82 genes using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay. Results Eleven genes showed some predictive ability in identifying HNSCC cases from normal controls: PMAIP1, PTPN1 ERBB2, ABCC4, UTY, DNMT1, CDKN2B, CDKN2D, NFKB1, TP53 and DCC. Statistical analysis using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) identified 2 genes, PMAIP1 and PTPN1, which correctly discriminated all 27 HNSCC patients (100%) from normal controls. Results were validated using the leave-one-out validation approach. Conclusions Noninvasive high-throughput MLPA identified discrete gene signatures that differentiated HNSCC patients from normal controls providing poof-of-concept for noninvasive HNSCC detection. PMID:19430297

  2. Rotation to a partially specified target matrix in exploratory factor analysis in practice.

    PubMed

    Myers, Nicholas D; Jin, Ying; Ahn, Soyeon; Celimli, Seniz; Zopluoglu, Cengiz

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the influence of the number of targets specified on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with a complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. We extended previous research in this area by (a) exploring this phenomenon in situations in which both the common factor model and the targeted pattern matrix contained specification errors and (b) comparing the performance of target rotation to an easier-to-use default rotation criterion (i.e., geomin) under conditions commonly observed in practice. A Monte Carlo study manipulated target error, number of targets, model error, overdetermination, communality, and sample size. Outcomes included bias (i.e., accuracy) and variability (i.e., stability) with regard to the rotated pattern matrix. The effects of target error were negligible for both accuracy and stability, whereas small effects were observed for the number of targets for both outcomes. Further, target rotation outperformed geomin rotation with regard to accuracy but generally performed worse than geomin rotation with regard to stability. These findings underscore the potential importance (or caution, in the case of stability) of using extant, even if incomplete and somewhat inaccurate, substantive measurement theory to inform the rotation criterion in a nonmechanical way. PMID:24903693

  3. Intercultural comparison of patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea: an exploratory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hush, Julia M; Lee, Haejung; Yung, Vivian; Adams, Roger; Mackey, Martin; Wand, Benedict M; Nelson, Roger; Beattie, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-cultural comparison of the factors that influence patient satisfaction with musculoskeletal physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea. Methods: Prospective studies were conducted in Australia and Korea. Patient satisfaction data were collected using the MedRisk Instrument for Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Physical Therapy Care (MRPS) from a total of 1666 patients who were attending clinics for physiotherapy treatment of a musculoskeletal condition. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify factors determining patient satisfaction in each cohort. Results: A four-factor solution for the MRPS was found for the Australian and Korean data sets, explaining 61 and 55% of the variance respectively. Communication and respect, convenience and quality time and person-focused care were factors common to both countries. One factor unique to Korea was courtesy and propriety. For both cultures, global patient satisfaction was significantly but weakly correlated with the outcome of treatment. Conclusions: The interpersonal aspect of care, namely effective communication and respect from the therapist, appears to be the predominant and universal factor that influences patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care, although other culturally specific factors were identified. Physiotherapists can maximize patient satisfaction with care by addressing those features that uniquely contribute to patient satisfaction in the cultural context in which they are working. PMID:24421620

  4. Using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale among Asian American college students: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Perry, Justin C; Vance, Kristen S; Helms, Janet E

    2009-04-01

    In this study, an exploratory factor analysis of the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995b) among a sample of Asian American college students (N = 225) was conducted. The factorial structure that emerged revealed mixed results in terms of consistency with the People of Color (POC) theory (Helms, 1995a). The measure's construct validity for Asian Americans may be improved through further scale development and revision. Directions for future research on the PRIAS are discussed. PMID:19485643

  5. Application of the exploratory data analysis for evaluating the toxicity of chlorinated phenol derivatives by various cell models.

    PubMed

    Cernáková, M; Jurásek, P

    1994-01-01

    Exploratory data analysis based on multivariate statistical analysis techniques was introduced as a new approach to expressing the toxicity of chemical substances at the simultaneous acceptance of various cell models. Using principal component analysis and cluster analysis methods the toxicity of chlorinated phenol derivatives on employing some of the cell models (chlorococcal algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, micromycetes, plant and animal cells) was characterized. The previous empirical experience that the toxicity of chlorinated phenol derivatives will increase with a growing degree of chlorination and that the presence of the methoxy group will cause a lowering of the toxic effect was demonstrated. The relationship between groups of tests used was presented. PMID:7729769

  6. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  7. Magnetic Analysis Techniques Applied to Desert Varnish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidgall, E. R.; Moskowitz, B. M.; Dahlberg, E. D.; Kuhlman, K. R.

    2003-01-01

    Desert varnish is a black or reddish coating commonly found on rock samples from arid regions. Typically, the coating is very thin, less than half a millimeter thick. Previous research has shown that the primary components of desert varnish are silicon oxide clay minerals (60%), manganese and iron oxides (20-30%), and trace amounts of other compounds [1]. Desert varnish is thought to originate when windborne particles containing iron and manganese oxides are deposited onto rock surfaces where manganese oxidizing bacteria concentrate the manganese and form the varnish [4,5]. If desert varnish is indeed biogenic, then the presence of desert varnish on rock surfaces could serve as a biomarker, indicating the presence of microorganisms. This idea has considerable appeal, especially for Martian exploration [6]. Magnetic analysis techniques have not been extensively applied to desert varnish. The only previous magnetic study reported that based on room temperature demagnetization experiments, there were noticeable differences in magnetic properties between a sample of desert varnish and the substrate sandstone [7]. Based upon the results of the demagnetization experiments, the authors concluded that the primary magnetic component of desert varnish was either magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite ( Fe2O3).

  8. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs. PMID:24076303

  9. System Learning via Exploratory Data Analysis: Seeing Both the Forest and the Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash Krause, L.

    2014-12-01

    As the amount of observational Earth and Space Science data grows, so does the need for learning and employing data analysis techniques that can extract meaningful information from those data. Space-based and ground-based data sources from all over the world are used to inform Earth and Space environment models. However, with such a large amount of data comes a need to organize those data in a way such that trends within the data are easily discernible. This can be tricky due to the interaction between physical processes that lead to partial correlation of variables or multiple interacting sources of causality. With the suite of Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) data mining codes available at MSFC, we have the capability to analyze large, complex data sets and quantitatively identify fundamentally independent effects from consequential or derived effects. We have used these techniques to examine the accuracy of ionospheric climate models with respect to trends in ionospheric parameters and space weather effects. In particular, these codes have been used to 1) Provide summary "at-a-glance" surveys of large data sets through categorization and/or evolution over time to identify trends, distribution shapes, and outliers, 2) Discern the underlying "latent" variables which share common sources of causality, and 3) Establish a new set of basis vectors by computing Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) which represent the maximum amount of variance for each principal component. Some of these techniques are easily implemented in the classroom using standard MATLAB functions, some of the more advanced applications require the statistical toolbox, and applications to unique situations require more sophisiticated levels of programming. This paper will present an overview of the range of tools available and how they might be used for a variety of time series Earth and Space Science data sets. Examples of feature recognition from both 1D and 2D (e.g. imagery) time series data

  10. The In-Out dispositional affective style questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ): an exploratory factorial analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Marano, Giuseppe; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Boracchi, Patrizia; Lanciano, Tiziana; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The issue of individual differences has always been an important area of research in psychology and, more recently, neuroimaging. A major source of interindividual variability stems from differences in basic affective dispositions. In order to make a contribution to this field of research, we have developed a new type of assessment – the In-Out dispositional affective style questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ) – to measure the proneness between two different ways of feeling situated: a predominantly body-bound one in the case of the inward tendency and an externally anchored one in the case of the outward tendency (Arciero and Bondolfi, 2009). The IN-OUT DASQ contains two scales of seven items each, Self-centric engagement (SCE) and Other-centric engagement (OCE), as a disposition index for inwardness and outwardness respectively. The exploratory factor analysis in sample 1 (n = 292) confirmed a two-factor solution. Confirmatory factor analysis in sample 2 (n = 300) showed the good fit of this two-factor model. Next, we examined construct validity also investigating the correlations between the IN-OUT DASQ, the Big Five Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule in sample 3 (n = 153). The SCE and OCE scales had robust internal consistency and reliability, though the capacity to discriminate higher inward and outward participants was stronger in SCE. Although further validation research is required, the present study suggests the IN-OUT DASQ has the potential to be a measurement tool for detecting individual differences in social behavior and social affective neuroscience. PMID:25309478

  11. Computer analysis of the exploratory behavior of insects and mites in an olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Bakchine, E; Pham-Delegue, M H; Kaiser, L; Masson, C

    1990-07-01

    A method of quantification of the exploratory behavior of small animals stimulated by an odorant in a four-choice olfactometer, taking into account the interindividual variability of responses, was developed: individual tracks were time sampled according to the animal's walking speed and its positions were recorded according to the X-Y coordinates of the grid set underneath the device, the mesh of the grid suiting the animal's body size. A software, written in BASIC APPLESOFT on an APPLE IIe computer, allowed us to analyze the coordinates either of a single individual or of an experimental sample, leading to: a) the quantification of the insect distribution all over the experimental chamber, expressed in a table numbered according to the grid, where the percentage of position per square either for a given time fraction or the total observation period were reported, b) a graphic representation of the data according to several levels of greys, expressing the frequentation for each square for a given duration of observation. An analysis per time fraction allowed the chronological setup of events to appreciate. c) The collection of the positions among each flow field of the olfactometer for each individual of the experimental sample, for a given duration, was translated as the percentage of time spent in each flow field. Data files gathered these percentages for further statistical treatments. This computer method, which requires little equipment and appears to be easily adaptable to the study of biological models of various size and speed such as honeybees, trichogrammas and varroas mites, is a powerful tool for behavioral studies of small organisms tested in restricted areas. PMID:2236268

  12. Exploratory Water Budget Analysis of A Transitional Premontane Cloud Forest in Costa Rica Through Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Buckwalter, E. H.; Moore, G. W.; Burns, J. N.; Dennis, A. R.; Dodge, O.; Guffin, E. C.; Morris, E. R.; Oien, R. P.; Orozco, G.; Peterson, A.; Teale, N. G.; Shibley, N. C.; Tourtellotte, N.; Houser, C.; Brooks, S. D.; Brumbelow, J. K.; Cahill, A. T.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Gonzalez, E.; Hallmark, C. T.; McInnes, K. J.; Miller, G. R.; Morgan, C.; Quiring, S. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Roark, E.; Delgado, A.; Ackerson, J. P.; Arnott, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of transitional premontane cloud forests is not well understood. This problem is being addressed by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) study at the Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research & Education in Costa Rica. Exploratory analysis of the water budget within a 20-ha watershed was used to connect three faculty-mentored research areas in ecohydrology, climate, and soil sciences and highlight the roles of 12 undergraduate researchers from 12 different universities. The water budget model is Q = Pn - E - T + ΔG + ΔS where Q = runoff, Pn = net precipitation, E = evaporation, T = transpiration, and ΔG and ΔS are change in groundwater soil water storage, respectively. Additionally, Pn = Pg - I = Tf + Sf + D, where Pg = gross precipitation, I/ΔI = canopy interception or storage, Tf = throughfall, Sf = stemflow, and D = canopy drip. The following terms were well understood Pg (satellite = 34-mm and tower = 38.1-mm) and Q from a recently constructed v-notch weir. We moderately understand Tf + D (30.9-mm from an array of forest rain gages), ΔI (7.2-mm) related to Sf, and T (10.4-mm measured with sapflow sensors). We found that soils were clay loam to silty loam textured Andisols on saprolitic tuft with a mean potential ΔS of 398 mm H2O under laboratory conditions, but in the field the following terms are almost completely unknown and require further field studies including E, ΔG, and ΔS. Recent installation of piezometers will address ΔG. Temporal scaling of measurements to a 1-week period was a challenge as well as the construction, deployment and calibration of instruments. However, this exploration allowed us to determine measurement uncertainties in the water budget, e.g., E, and to set future areas of research to address these uncertainties.

  13. Exploratory analysis of the difference between temperature observations recorded by ASOS and conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Guttman, N.B.; Baker, C.B.

    1996-12-01

    The Automated Surface Observing System is currently replacing conventional observations at the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration, and other stations that report hourly observations. From a climatological viewpoint, it is necessary to compare the data from the old and new measuring systems in order to gain an understanding of their differences. These differences may become important when using time series for applications such as the computation of climatic normals, the development of homogeneous datasets for long periods of record for the investigation of climatic change, the placing of event into historical perspective, or the analysis of extreme weather events. This exploratory study of temperature data was undertaken to determine first weather there is a data continuity problem between the two observing systems and second, if there is a problem, to identify the magnitude of the problem. The most important conclusion from this study is that differences in site characteristics, even at the same airport, play as much, if not more, of a role in assessing the comparability of measurements from the two observing systems as does the instrument system bias. The instrument bias at most stations is on the order of a few tenths of a degree Fahrenheit but the siting differences can lead to biases on the order of a couple of degrees. Not only is there a difference in the magnitude of the biases, but there is also a difference in the direction; the instrument bias is usually negative, but the siting biases can be either positive or negative. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  15. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asparouhov, Tihomir; Muthen, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a frequently used multivariate analysis technique in statistics. Jennrich and Sampson (1966) solved a significant EFA factor loading matrix rotation problem by deriving the direct Quartimin rotation. Jennrich was also the first to develop standard errors for rotated solutions, although these have still not made…

  16. Are Review Skills and Academic Writing Skills Related? An Exploratory Analysis via Multi Source Feedback Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Because students learn from each other as well as lecturers, it is important to create opportunities for collaboration in writing classes. Teachers now benefit from access to plagiarism detectors that can also provide feedback. This exploratory study considers the role of four review types, open and anonymous, involving the students themselves,…

  17. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  18. Exploratory Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization via Integrated Topological and Geometric Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer; Diego Mandelli; Michael Pernice; Robert Nourgaliev

    2013-10-01

    and 2) topology-based methodologies to interactively visualize multidimensional data and extract risk-informed insights. Regarding item 1) we employ learning algorithms that aim to infer/predict simulation outcome and decide the coordinate in the input space of the next sample that maximize the amount of information that can be gained from it. Such methodologies can be used to both explore and exploit the input space. The later one is especially used for safety analysis scopes to focus samples along the limit surface, i.e. the boundaries in the input space between system failure and system success. Regarding item 2) we present a software tool that is designed to analyze multi-dimensional data. We model a large-scale nuclear simulation dataset as a high-dimensional scalar function defined over a discrete sample of the domain. First, we provide structural analysis of such a function at multiple scales and provide insight into the relationship between the input parameters and the output. Second, we enable exploratory analysis for users, where we help the users to differentiate features from noise through multi-scale analysis on an interactive platform, based on domain knowledge and data characterization. Our analysis is performed by exploiting the topological and geometric properties of the domain, building statistical models based on its topological segmentations and providing interactive visual interfaces to facilitate such explorations.

  19. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  20. Illness Beliefs regarding the Causes of Diabetes among Latino College Students: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Silvia J.; Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the Klonoff and Landrine Illness-Belief Scale when applied to Latino college students (n = 156; 34% male, 66% female) at high risk for future diabetes onset. Principal factor analysis yielded four significant factors--emotional, folk beliefs, punitive, gene/hereditary--which accounted for 64.5% of variance and…

  1. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Serap; Savci, Sema; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Akdeniz, Bahri; Özpelit, Ebru; Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Karadibak, Didem; Sevinc, Can

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart) is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version) for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization). Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal consistency. Although exploratory factor analysis showed a different subgroup distribution than the original questionnaire, the model was acceptable for the four-factor model hypothesis. Therefore, the questionnaire was rated as reliable. Conclusion These results supported the reliability of the TSK Heart Turkish Version. Since the acceptable four-factor model fits the subgroups and

  2. Assessment As Exploratory Research: A Theoretical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Nancy W.

    With the view that social scientists conduct too little exploratory research, the author outlines the methods and attitudes of the exploratory analyst and describes the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as a source of research data. Exploratory analysis, in which no paradigm is used, is contrasted with confirmatory research, which…

  3. Statistical Uncertainty Analysis Applied to Criticality Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartini, Entin; Andiwijayakusuma, Dinan; Susmikanti, Mike; Nursinta, A. W.

    2010-06-22

    In this paper, we present an uncertainty methodology based on a statistical approach, for assessing uncertainties in criticality prediction using monte carlo method due to uncertainties in the isotopic composition of the fuel. The methodology has been applied to criticality calculations with MCNP5 with additional stochastic input of the isotopic fuel composition. The stochastic input were generated using the latin hypercube sampling method based one the probability density function of each nuclide composition. The automatic passing of the stochastic input to the MCNP and the repeated criticality calculation is made possible by using a python script to link the MCNP and our latin hypercube sampling code.

  4. An Exploratory Statistical Analysis of a Planet Approach-Phase Guidance Scheme Using Angular Measurements with Significant Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.; Harry, David P., III

    1960-01-01

    An exploratory analysis of vehicle guidance during the approach to a target planet is presented. The objective of the guidance maneuver is to guide the vehicle to a specific perigee distance with a high degree of accuracy and minimum corrective velocity expenditure. The guidance maneuver is simulated by considering the random sampling of real measurements with significant error and reducing this information to prescribe appropriate corrective action. The instrumentation system assumed includes optical and/or infrared devices to indicate range and a reference angle in the trajectory plane. Statistical results are obtained by Monte-Carlo techniques and are shown as the expectation of guidance accuracy and velocity-increment requirements. Results are nondimensional and applicable to any planet within limits of two-body assumptions. The problem of determining how many corrections to make and when to make them is a consequence of the conflicting requirement of accurate trajectory determination and propulsion. Optimum values were found for a vehicle approaching a planet along a parabolic trajectory with an initial perigee distance of 5 radii and a target perigee of 1.02 radii. In this example measurement errors were less than i minute of arc. Results indicate that four corrections applied in the vicinity of 50, 16, 15, and 1.5 radii, respectively, yield minimum velocity-increment requirements. Thrust devices capable of producing a large variation of velocity-increment size are required. For a vehicle approaching the earth, miss distances within 32 miles are obtained with 90-percent probability. Total velocity increments used in guidance are less than 3300 feet per second with 90-percent probability. It is noted that the above representative results are valid only for the particular guidance scheme hypothesized in this analysis. A parametric study is presented which indicates the effects of measurement error size, initial perigee, and initial energy on the guidance

  5. Science, Skepticism, and Applied Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoscientific claims concerning medical and psychological treatments of all varieties are commonplace. As behavior analysts, a sound skeptical approach to our science and practice is essential. The present paper offers an overview of science and skepticism and discusses the relationship of skepticism to behavior analysis, with an emphasis on the types of issues concerning behavior analysts in practice. PMID:22477687

  6. Applied Spectrophotometry: Analysis of a Biochemical Mixture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Toni A.; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G.; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the…

  7. Reliability analysis applied to structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.

  8. Scanning methods applied to bitemark analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Peter J.; Bush, Mary A.

    2010-06-01

    The 2009 National Academy of Sciences report on forensics focused criticism on pattern evidence subdisciplines in which statements of unique identity are utilized. One principle of bitemark analysis is that the human dentition is unique to the extent that a perpetrator may be identified based on dental traits in a bitemark. Optical and electron scanning methods were used to measure dental minutia and to investigate replication of detail in human skin. Results indicated that being a visco-elastic substrate, skin effectively reduces the resolution of measurement of dental detail. Conclusions indicate caution in individualization statements.

  9. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  10. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft.

    PubMed

    Brady, J V

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  11. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  12. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  13. An exploratory analysis of the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Form A (DAS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M; Segal, Zindel V; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have attempted to identify the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). However, no studies have done so using a clinical sample of outpatients likely to generalize to the clinical trials in which the DAS is commonly used. The current investigation utilized exploratory structural equation modeling in an outpatient sample (N = 982) and found support for a one-factor solution (composed of 19 items). This solution was largely confirmed in a second outpatient sample (N = 301). Construct validity was demonstrated in correlations with measures of depression, social interaction anxiety, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:24577308

  14. Exploratory data analysis groupware for qualitative and quantitative electrophoretic gel analysis over the Internet-WebGel.

    PubMed

    Lemkin, P F; Myrick, J M; Lakshmanan, Y; Shue, M J; Patrick, J L; Hornbeck, P V; Thornwal, G C; Partin, A W

    1999-12-01

    Many scientists use quantitative measurements to compare the presence and amount, of various proteins and nucleotides among series of one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) electrophoretic gels. These gels are often scanned into digital image files. Gel spots are then quantified using stand-alone analysis software. However, as more research collaborations take place over the Internet, it has become useful to share intermediate quantitative data between researchers. This allows research group members to investigate their data and share their work in progress. We developed a World Wide Web group-accessible software system, WebGel, for interactively exploring qualitative and quantitative differences between electrophoretic gels. Such Internet databases are useful for publishing quantitative data and allow other researchers to explore the data with respect to their own research. Because intermediate results of one user may be shared with their collaborators using WebGel, this form of active data-sharing constitutes a groupware method for enhancing collaborative research. Quantitative and image gel data from a stand-alone gel image processing system are copied to a database accessible on the WebGel Web server. These data are then available for analysis by the WebGel database program residing on that server. Visualization is critical for better understanding of the data. WebGel helps organize labeled gel images into montages of corresponding spots as seen in these different gels. Various views of multiple gel images, including sets of spots, normalization spots, labeled spots, segmented gels, etc. may also be displayed. These displays are active and may be used for performing database operations directly on individual protein spots by simply clicking on them. Corresponding regions between sets of gels may be visually analyzed using Flicker-comparison (Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 122-140) as one of the WebGel methods for qualitative analysis. Quantitative exploratory data

  15. Analysis of exploratory wells in the Cerro Prieto Field and the Mexicali Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Cobo R., J.M.; Bermejo M., F.J.

    1982-08-10

    Agricultural development in the Mexicali Valley and in the high cost of electric power required to operate the irrigation wells in the Valley prompted the Mexican government to investigate the possibility of taking advantage of thermal manifestations in the area located 28 km southeast of the city of Mexicali to generate electric power and thereby partially decrease the flight of foreign exchange. In 1958, a geologic study of the southern and southeastern zone of Mexicali was conducted to identify the possibilities of tapping geothermal resources. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge of the geologic conditions in this area and, if possible, to establish the location of exploratory and production wells and, on the basis of the results of the former, examine the geologic history in order to gain knowledge and understanding of the structural control of the steam. On the basis of this study, it was recommended that 3 exploratory wells should be drilled in order to locate weak zones that would easily allow for steam flow.

  16. Preclosure radiological safety analysis for the exploratory shaft facilities; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.W.; Miller, D.D.; Jardine, L.J.

    1992-06-01

    This study assesses which structures, systems, and components of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) are important to safety when the ESF is converted to become part of the operating waste repository. The assessment follows the methodology required by DOE Procedure AP-6.10Q. Failures of the converted ESF during the preclosure period have been evaluated, along with other underground accidents, to determine the potential offsite radiation doses and associated probabilities. The assessment indicates that failures of the ESF will not result in radiation doses greater than 0.5 rem at the nearest unrestricted area boundary. Furthermore, credible accidents in other underground facilities will not result in radiation doses larger than 0.5 rem, even if any structure, system, or component of the converted ESF fails at the same time. Therefore, no structure, system, or component of the converted ESF is important to safety.

  17. Pressure to change drinking behavior: An exploratory analysis of US general population subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550

  18. Exploratory proteomic analysis of hypobaric hypoxia and acute mountain sickness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Subudhi, Andrew W.; Hill, Ryan C.; Wilson, Megan J.; Dimmen, Andrew C.; Hansen, Kirk C.; Roach, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective in this exploratory study was to identify novel biomarkers of importance for acute mountain sickness (AMS) using discovery-based proteomic methods. Peripheral blood samples were collected and AMS symptoms were assessed in 20 healthy volunteers prior to [−15 h (baseline) and 0 h; 1,609 m; barometric pressure = 625 mmHg] and after a 9-h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (9 h; 4,875 m; barometric pressure = 425 mmHg). AMS status was assessed using the Lake Louise Questionnaire. Plasma samples were pooled according to AMS status at each time point. Protein composition of the samples was determined by a GeLC-MS/MS approach using two analytical platforms (LTQ-XL linear ion trap mass spectrometer and a LTQ-FT ultra hybrid mass spectrometer) for technical replication. Spectral counting was used to make semiquantitative comparisons of protein abundance between AMS-susceptible (AMS) and AMS-resistant (AMS·R) subjects with exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. After 9 h of hypoxia, the abundance of proteins with antioxidant properties (i.e., peroxiredoxin 6, glutathione peroxidase, and sulfhydryl oxidase 1) rose in AMS but not AMS·R. Our exploratory analyses suggest that exposure to hypobaric hypoxia enhances enzymatic antioxidant systems in AMS vs. AMS·R, which, we propose, may be an overcompensation for hypoxia-induced oxidant production. On the basis of our findings we 1) speculate that quenching oxidant activity may have adverse downstream effects that are of pathophysiological importance for AMS such as interrupting oxidant-sensitive cell signaling and gene transcription and 2) question the existing assumption that increased oxidant production in AMS is pathological. PMID:24265281

  19. A Primer on Bootstrap Factor Analysis as Applied to Health Studies Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wenhua; Miao, Jingang; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate how the bootstrap method could be conducted in exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with a syntax written in SPSS. Methods: The data obtained from the Texas Childhood Obesity Prevention Policy Evaluation project (T-COPPE project) were used for illustration. A 5-step procedure to conduct bootstrap factor analysis (BFA) was…

  20. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Coping Styles and Relationship to Depression Among a Sample of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Samantha M; Begun, Stephanie; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin M; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which measures of coping adequately capture the ways that homeless youth cope with challenges, and the influence these coping styles have on mental health outcomes, is largely absent from the literature. This study tests the factor structure of the Coping Scale using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and then investigates the relationship between coping styles and depression using hierarchical logistic regression with data from 201 homeless youth. Results of the EFA indicate a 3-factor structure of coping, which includes active, avoidant, and social coping styles. Results of the hierarchical logistic regression show that homeless youth who engage in greater avoidant coping are at increased risk of meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. Findings provide insight into the utility of a preliminary tool for assessing homeless youths' coping styles. Such assessment may identify malleable risk factors that could be addressed by service providers to help prevent mental health problems. PMID:25821043

  1. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E; Makuch, Renee A; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and (2) identifying predictors of positive normative outcomes and good objective QoL. Findings of an exploratory latent class analysis identified three groups of adults with ASD-Greater Dependence, Good Physical and Mental Health, and Greater Independence. Findings indicate that better daily living skills, better executive function, and more maternal warmth are associated with assignment to better outcome groups. Findings have implications for interventions designed to enhance achievement of normative outcomes and objective QoL. PMID:27207091

  2. A Third Exploratory Analysis of the Relations Among Institutional Variables: A Study of Institutional Preferences in Medical Student Admissions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Charles R.

    An exploratory factor analysis is used in the study of institutional preferences in medical student admissions. Sources and mathematical derivations of 58 institutional variables are presented. Most of the measures describe attributes related to the admission process. The remainder were selected to represent other dimensions along which medical…

  3. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...

  4. An Exploratory Qualitative Analysis of Graduate Student Learning and Division of Labor Resulting from Student Cofacilitation of an Asynchronous Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Natalie B.; Hillarious, Marilyn; Walker, Bryce

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study is an exploratory, retrospective content analysis (Schwandt, 2007) of 81 debrief statements collected over 3 years and written by graduate students in an educational technology graduate program's educational leadership course taught 100% online. Researchers analyzed students' debrief statements of lessons learned and task…

  5. Using exploratory factor analysis of food frequency questionnaires to identify dietary patterns among Yup’ik People

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Tove K.; Austin, Melissa A.; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O’Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Boyer, Bert B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed by the Center for Alaska Native Health Research for studies in Yup’ik people includes market foods and subsistence foods such as moose, seal, waterfowl and salmon that may be related to disease risk. Because the FFQ contains >100 food items, we sought to characterize dietary patterns more simply for use in ongoing pharmacogenomics studies. Design Exploratory factor analysis was used to derive a small number of “factors” that explain a substantial amount of the variation in the Yup’ik diet. We estimated factor scores and measured associations with demographic characteristics and biomarkers. Setting Southwest Alaska, US Subjects 358 Yup’ik people, ≥ 18 years Results We identified 3 factors that each accounted for ≥10% of the common variance: the first characterized by “processed foods” (e.g., salty snacks, sweetened cereals); the second by “fruits and vegetables” (e.g., fresh citrus, potato salad); and the third by “subsistence foods” (seal or walrus soup, non-oily fish). Participants from coastal communities had higher values for the “subsistence” factor, whereas participants from inland communities had higher values for the “fruits and vegetables” factor. A biomarker of marine intake, δ 15N, was correlated with the “subsistence” factor, whereas a biomarker of corn and sugar-cane based market food intake, δ 13C, was correlated with “processed foods”. Conclusions This exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that appear to reflect dietary patterns among Yup’ik based on associations with participant characteristics and biomarkers. These factors will be useful for chronic disease studies in this population. PMID:23290469

  6. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  7. B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew from his science for application, his descriptions of possible applications, and his own applications to nonhuman and human behavior. Second, we found that he explicitly or implicitly addressed all seven dimensions of applied behavior analysis. These contributions and the dimensions notwithstanding, he neither incorporated the field's scientific (e.g., analytic) and social dimensions (e.g., applied) into any program of published research such that he was its originator, nor did he systematically integrate, advance, and promote the dimensions so to have been its founder. As the founder of behavior analysis, however, he was the father of applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478444

  8. DataHub: Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    The DataHub addresses four areas of significant needs: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactives nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc), in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  9. DataHub - Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    DataHub addresses four areas of significant need: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactive nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc.) in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis is on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  10. Some still-current dimensions of applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Donald M.; Wolf, Montrose M.; Risley, Todd R.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty years ago, an anthropological note described the current dimensions of applied behavior analysis as it was prescribed and practiced in 1968: It was, or ought to become, applied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptual, effective, and capable of appropriately generalized outcomes. A similar anthropological note today finds the same dimensions still prescriptive, and to an increasing extent, descriptive. Several new tactics have become evident, however, some in the realm of conceptual analysis, some in the sociological status of the discipline, and some in its understanding of the necessary systemic nature of any applied discipline that is to operate in the domain of important human behaviors. PMID:16795703

  11. Exploratory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Response-Guided Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Hormone Positive Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Retèl, Valesca P.; Lederer, Bianca; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Steuten, Lotte M. G.; van Harten, Wim H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guiding response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (guided-NACT) allows for an adaptative treatment approach likely to improve breast cancer survival. In this study, our primary aim is to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of guided-NACT using as a case study the first randomized controlled trial that demonstrated effectiveness (GeparTrio trial). Materials and Methods As effectiveness was shown in hormone-receptor positive (HR+) early breast cancers (EBC), our decision model compared the health-economic outcomes of treating a cohort of such women with guided-NACT to conventional-NACT using clinical input data from the GeparTrio trial. The expected cost-effectiveness and the uncertainty around this estimate were estimated via probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), from a Dutch societal perspective over a 5-year time-horizon. Results Our exploratory CEA predicted that guided-NACT as proposed by the GeparTrio, costs additional €110, but results in 0.014 QALYs gained per patient. This scenario of guided-NACT was considered cost-effective at any willingness to pay per additional QALY. At the prevailing Dutch willingness to pay threshold (€80.000/QALY) cost-effectiveness was expected with 78% certainty. Conclusion This exploratory CEA indicated that guided-NACT (as proposed by the GeparTrio trial) is likely cost-effective in treating HR+ EBC women. While prospective validation of the GeparTrio findings is advisable from a clinical perspective, early CEAs can be used to prioritize further research from a broader health economic perspective, by identifying which parameters contribute most to current decision uncertainty. Furthermore, their use can be extended to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of alternative guided-NACT scenarios that combine the use of promising imaging techniques together with personalized treatments. PMID:27124410

  12. Female versus male perpetrated femicide: an exploratory analysis of whether offender gender matters.

    PubMed

    Muftić, Lisa R; Baumann, Miranda L

    2012-09-01

    Femicide, the murder of females (most often at the hands of males), is an understudied area in homicide research. Furthermore, femicide perpetrated by females has been all but ignored. One reason this may be is because of the rarity of homicide victimization perpetrated by females. Rather, most homicide incidents consist of a male offender and a male victim. When a homicide does involve a female, either as a victim or as an offender, the other party implicated is generally a male. The primary goal of the proposed study is to provide an in-depth, albeit exploratory, examination of female-perpetrated femicide. Using homicide data taken from the Dallas Homicide Unit, 403 cases of femicide will be analyzed, with special attention devoted to comparing female-perpetrated femicide incidents (n = 39) against male-perpetrated femicide incidents (n = 364). Specifically, the current study will explore the similarities and differences in sociodemographic characteristics of victims and suspects, offense characteristics, and offense circumstances. Contrary to what was expected, results, at first glance, seem to suggest an overwhelming similarity between femicide suspects and victims, irrespective of gender. However, when the relationship between victim and suspect is considered, distinct differences appear. Implications from these findings as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:22491217

  13. The Significance of Regional Analysis in Applied Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Lawrence M.

    Regional analysis is central to applied geographic research, contributing to better planning and policy development for a variety of societal problems facing the United States. The development of energy policy serves as an illustration of the capabilities of this type of analysis. The United States has had little success in formulating a national…

  14. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    TD64, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, is one of several groups with high-fidelity fluids design and analysis expertise in the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). TD64 assists personnel working on other programs. The group participates in projects in the following areas: turbomachinery activities, nozzle activities, combustion devices, and the Columbia accident investigation.

  15. Social Science Exploratory. Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This Idaho Social Science Exploratory course of study applies standards-based content knowledge and skills to an enhanced investigation of geography, history, entrepreneurism, and civic engagement at an eighth-grade level. The exploratory course draws upon the disciplines to emphasize concepts and generalizations from the social sciences, promotes…

  16. Online illegal drug use information: an exploratory analysis of drug-related website viewing by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Dugosh, Karen L; Lynch, Kevin; Mericle, Amy A; Pich, Michele; Forman, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Given the uncertain effects of antidrug media campaigns, and the ease of finding online illegal drug information, research is needed on the Internet role in disseminating drug information to youths. This exploratory study analyzes National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) data on drug website viewing among 12-18 year olds (N = 7,145). Approximately 10.4% reported drug-related website exposure: 5.4% viewed only websites that communicated how to avoid drugs or bad things about drugs (antidrug websites); 1.7% only viewed websites that communicated how to use drugs and good things about drugs (prodrug websites); and 3.2% viewed both types of websites. The low rates of viewing antidrug websites occurred despite efforts in the National Youth Antidrug Media Campaign (NYAMC) to encourage youths to visit such websites. Prodrug website viewers had used inhalants and been offered marijuana, perceived little risk in trying marijuana, intended to use marijuana, had close friends who used drugs, reported low parental monitoring, and had been exposed to antidrug media messages. Viewing antidrug websites was related to gender, income, likelihood of using marijuana in the next 12 months, having close friends who use drugs and talking to friends about avoiding drugs, parental monitoring, and drug prevention exposure. Prior prevention exposure increased drug website viewing overall, perhaps by increasing general curiosity about drugs. Because adolescents increasingly seek health information online, research is needed on how they use the Internet as a drug information source, the temporal relationships of prevention exposure and drug website viewing, and the effects of viewing prodrug websites on drug risk. PMID:19851914

  17. An Instrument to Measure Dental Students' Communication Skills With Patients in Six Specific Circumstances: An Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aalboe, Joanna A; Schumacher, Mitzi M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the internal structure of an instrument assessing dental students' confidence in their ability to communicate with patients in six specific circumstances (anxious, in pain, etc.) using exploratory factor analysis. In a Communication in the Dental Health Care Setting course at a U.S. dental school, second-year dental students in two years (2013 and 2014) responded to the six items on a survey instrument. Of the total 123 students, 122 fully completed the instrument, for a response rate of 99%. Analysis of the results identified a unidimensional scale with regards to patient-specific communication self-efficacy and explained 74% of the total variance. The scale had good internal consistency reflected by high Cronbach's alpha (α=0.929, 95% CI [0.907, 0.947]). These findings suggest the instrument may be a useful tool in assessing the development of patient communication skills in second-year dental students following a course in communication. Further exploration utilizing confirmatory analysis, determining predictive validity, and assessing convergent and discriminant evidence is warranted. PMID:26729685

  18. Quantitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity of Applied Mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of mathematical techniques in scientific research leads to the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. This viewpoint is validated quantitatively here by statistical and network analysis on the corpus PNAS 1999–2013. A network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in a panoramic view is built based on the corpus. Specific network indicators show the hub role of applied mathematics in interdisciplinary research. The statistical analysis on the corpus content finds that algorithms, a primary topic of applied mathematics, positively correlates, increasingly co-occurs, and has an equilibrium relationship in the long-run with certain typical research paradigms and methodologies. The finding can be understood as an intrinsic cause of the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. PMID:26352604

  19. Methodology, the matching law, and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vyse, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    The practical value of the quantitative analysis of behavior is limited by two methodological characteristics of this area of research: the use of (a) steady-state strategies and (b) relative vs. absolute response rates. Applied behavior analysts are concerned with both transition-state and steady-state behavior, and applied interventions are typically evaluated by their effects on absolute response rates. Quantitative analyses of behavior will have greater practical value when methods are developed for their extension to traditional rate-of-response variables measured across time. Although steady-state and relative-rate-of-response strategies are appropriate to the experimental analysis of many behavioral phenomena, these methods are rarely used by applied behavior analysts and further separate the basic and applied areas. PMID:22478657

  20. Quantitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity of Applied Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zheng; Duan, Xiaojun; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of mathematical techniques in scientific research leads to the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. This viewpoint is validated quantitatively here by statistical and network analysis on the corpus PNAS 1999-2013. A network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in a panoramic view is built based on the corpus. Specific network indicators show the hub role of applied mathematics in interdisciplinary research. The statistical analysis on the corpus content finds that algorithms, a primary topic of applied mathematics, positively correlates, increasingly co-occurs, and has an equilibrium relationship in the long-run with certain typical research paradigms and methodologies. The finding can be understood as an intrinsic cause of the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. PMID:26352604

  1. Exploratory data analysis as a tool for similarity assessment and clustering of chiral polysaccharide-based systems used to separate pharmaceuticals in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Klerck, Katrijn; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Mangelings, Debby

    2014-01-24

    In the search for appropriate chromatographic conditions to separate enantiomers, screening strategies are often applied because achieving chiral separations is tedious. These screenings aim to find relatively fast suitable separation conditions. However, the definition of these screenings mostly relies on years of expertise or on the labour- and time-intensive investigation of a broad range of chiral stationary- and mobile phases. A large amount of data is generated using either approach. In this study, the obtained data are investigated in a systematic manner and (dis)similar systems are searched for. For this case study, 48 chromatographic systems were characterized by the enantioresolutions of 29 racemates. Exploratory data analysis was performed by means of projection pursuit, revealing the different enantioselective patterns of the chromatographic systems. To quantify the (dis)similarity, correlation coefficients and Euclidean distances were calculated. These results were visualized in colour maps to allow investigating the degree of (dis)similarity between the systems. These maps proved to be a helpful tool in the selection of dissimilar/orthogonal chromatographic conditions. Hierarchical-cluster-analysis dendrograms were constructed next to evaluate the clustering of similar systems, i.e. with an equivalent enantioselectivity. Screening sequences were extracted and compared with the initial, defined by direct data interpretation. In a final section, selection of dissimilar systems was done by means of the Kennard and Stone algorithm. The systems selected by the applied techniques did not necessarily perform better than the selection by direct data interpretation. Nevertheless, high cumulative success rates are achieved for the selected combinations, due to the broad enantioselectivity, the high individual success rates and the complementarity of the chiral selectors. PMID:24394150

  2. Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: an emerging technology.

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, B A

    1987-01-01

    Although the effects of negative reinforcement on human behavior have been studied for a number of years, a comprehensive body of applied research does not exist at this time. This article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. A consideration of research currently being done in these areas suggests the emergence of an applied technology on negative reinforcement. PMID:3323157

  3. Risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, M.L.; Cuéllar-Barboza, A.B.; Bobo, W.V.; Roger, V.L.; Bellivier, F.; Leboyer, M.; West, C.P.; Frye, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence on and estimate the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in bipolar disorder. Method A systematic search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and bibliographies (1946 – May, 2013) was conducted. Case-control and cohort studies of bipolar disorder patients age 15 or older with myocardial infarction or stroke as outcomes were included. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed quality. Estimates of effect were summarized using random-effects meta-analysis. Results Five cohort studies including 13 115 911 participants (27 092 bipolar) were included. Due to the use of registers, different statistical methods, and inconsistent adjustment for confounders, there was significant methodological heterogeneity among studies. The exploratory meta-analysis yielded no evidence for a significant increase in the risk of myocardial infarction: [relative risk (RR): 1.09, 95% CI 0.96–1.24, P = 0.20; I2 = 6%]. While there was evidence of significant study heterogeneity, the risk of stroke in bipolar disorder was significantly increased (RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.29–2.35; P = 0.0003; I2 = 83%). Conclusion There may be a differential risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with bipolar disorder. Confidence in these pooled estimates was limited by the small number of studies, significant heterogeneity and dissimilar methodological features. PMID:24850482

  4. Prenatal Stress, Fearfulness, and the Epigenome: Exploratory Analysis of Sex Differences in DNA Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Brendan D; Conradt, Elisabeth; Crowell, Sheila E; Tyrka, Audrey R; Marsit, Carmen J; Lester, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in utero is a risk factor for the development of problem behavior in the offspring, though precise pathways are unknown. We examined whether DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, NR3C1, was associated with experiences of stress by an expectant mother and fearfulness in her infant. Mothers reported on prenatal stress and infant temperament when infants were 5 months old (n = 68). Buccal cells for methylation analysis were collected from each infant. Prenatal stress was not related to infant fearfulness or NR3C1 methylation in the sample as a whole. Exploratory sex-specific analysis revealed a trend-level association between prenatal stress and increased methylation of NR3C1 exon 1F for female, but not male, infants. In addition, increased methylation was significantly associated with greater fearfulness for females. Results suggest an experience-dependent pathway to fearfulness for female infants via epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Future studies should examine prenatal stress in a comprehensive fashion while considering sex differences in epigenetic processes underlying infant temperament. PMID:27462209

  5. Measuring Ethnic Clustering and Exposure with the Q statistic: An Exploratory Analysis of Irish, Germans, and Yankees in 1880 Newark.

    PubMed

    Páez, Antonio; Ruiz, Manuel; López, Fernando; Logan, John

    2012-01-01

    The study of population patterns has animated a large body of urban social research over the years. An important part of this literature is concerned with the identification and measurement of segregation patterns. Recently, emphatic calls have been made to develop measures that are better able to capture the geography of population patterns. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the Q statistic, developed for the analysis of spatial association of qualitative variables, to the detection of ethnic clustering and exposure patterns. The application is to historical data from 1880 Newark in the United States, with individuals classified by ethnicity and geo-coded by place of residence. Three ethnic groups, termed Irish, Germans, and Yankees are considered. Exploratory analysis with the Q statistic identifies significant differences in the tendency of individuals and building occupancy to cluster by ethnicity. In particular, there is evidence of a strong affinity within ethnic clusters, and some intermingling between Yankee and Irish residents. In contrast, the exposure of Germans to individuals of other groups is found to be more limited. PMID:24855322

  6. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (< 0.32). Out of the final 20 items of the PBI-M, there were 10 items for the care factor, five items for the autonomy factor and five items for the overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  7. Measuring Ethnic Clustering and Exposure with the Q statistic: An Exploratory Analysis of Irish, Germans, and Yankees in 1880 Newark

    PubMed Central

    Páez, Antonio; Ruiz, Manuel; López, Fernando; Logan, John

    2013-01-01

    The study of population patterns has animated a large body of urban social research over the years. An important part of this literature is concerned with the identification and measurement of segregation patterns. Recently, emphatic calls have been made to develop measures that are better able to capture the geography of population patterns. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the Q statistic, developed for the analysis of spatial association of qualitative variables, to the detection of ethnic clustering and exposure patterns. The application is to historical data from 1880 Newark in the United States, with individuals classified by ethnicity and geo-coded by place of residence. Three ethnic groups, termed Irish, Germans, and Yankees are considered. Exploratory analysis with the Q statistic identifies significant differences in the tendency of individuals and building occupancy to cluster by ethnicity. In particular, there is evidence of a strong affinity within ethnic clusters, and some intermingling between Yankee and Irish residents. In contrast, the exposure of Germans to individuals of other groups is found to be more limited. PMID:24855322

  8. Prenatal Stress, Fearfulness, and the Epigenome: Exploratory Analysis of Sex Differences in DNA Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ostlund, Brendan D.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Crowell, Sheila E.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in utero is a risk factor for the development of problem behavior in the offspring, though precise pathways are unknown. We examined whether DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, NR3C1, was associated with experiences of stress by an expectant mother and fearfulness in her infant. Mothers reported on prenatal stress and infant temperament when infants were 5 months old (n = 68). Buccal cells for methylation analysis were collected from each infant. Prenatal stress was not related to infant fearfulness or NR3C1 methylation in the sample as a whole. Exploratory sex-specific analysis revealed a trend-level association between prenatal stress and increased methylation of NR3C1 exon 1F for female, but not male, infants. In addition, increased methylation was significantly associated with greater fearfulness for females. Results suggest an experience-dependent pathway to fearfulness for female infants via epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Future studies should examine prenatal stress in a comprehensive fashion while considering sex differences in epigenetic processes underlying infant temperament. PMID:27462209

  9. EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE CHARACTERISTICS ON THE VARIATION IN PARTITIONING OF NONPOLAR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS TO MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of nonpolar organic contaminants to marine sediments is considered to be controlled by the amount of organic carbon present. However, several studies propose that other characteristics of sediments may affect the partitioning of contaminants. For this exploratory...

  10. Applying Association Rule Discovery Algorithm to Multipoint Linkage Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi; Hishigaki; Takagi

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in large databases (KDD) is being performed in several application domains, for example, the analysis of sales data, and is expected to be applied to other domains. We propose a KDD approach to multipoint linkage analysis, which is a way of ordering loci on a chromosome. Strict multipoint linkage analysis based on maximum likelihood estimation is a computationally tough problem. So far various kinds of approximate methods have been implemented. Our method based on the discovery of association between genetic recombinations is so different from others that it is useful to recheck the result of them. In this paper, we describe how to apply the framework of association rule discovery to linkage analysis, and also discuss that filtering input data and interpretation of discovered rules after data mining are practically important as well as data mining process itself. PMID:11072310

  11. Applied behavior analysis: New directions from the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1983-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis began when laboratory based principles were extended to humans inorder to change socially significant behavior. Recent laboratory findings may have applied relevance; however, the majority of basic researchers have not clearly communicated the practical implications of their work. The present paper samples some of the new findings and attempts to demonstrate their applied importance. Schedule-induced behavior which occurs as a by-product of contingencies of reinforcement is discussed. Possible difficulties in treatment and management of induced behaviors are considered. Next, the correlation-based law of effect and the implications of relative reinforcement are explored in terms of applied examples. Relative rate of reinforcement is then extended to the literature dealing with concurrent operants. Concurrent operant models may describe human behavior of applied importance, and several techniques for modification of problem behavior are suggested. As a final concern, the paper discusses several new paradigms. While the practical importance of these models is not clear at the moment, it may be that new practical advantages will soon arise. Thus, it is argued that basic research continues to be of theoretical and practical importance to applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478574

  12. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  13. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  14. Animal research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Timothy L; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say-do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by a chimpanzee, and unsafe trailer entry by horses) in ways that benefited the animals and the people in charge of them, and 1 described the use of trained rats that performed a service to humans (land-mine detection). We suggest that each of these general research areas merits further attention and that the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is an appropriate outlet for some of these publications. PMID:21709802

  15. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  16. B. F. Skinner's Contributions to Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew…

  17. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  18. Opportunities for Applied Behavior Analysis in the Total Quality Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmon, William K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper identifies critical components of recent organizational quality improvement programs and specifies how applied behavior analysis can contribute to quality technology. Statistical Process Control and Total Quality Management approaches are compared, and behavior analysts are urged to build their research base and market behavior change…

  19. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  20. Context, Cognition, and Biology in Applied Behavior Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.

    Behavior analysts are having their professional identities challenged by the roles that cognition and biology are said to play in the conduct and outcome of applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy. For cogniphiliacs, cognition and biology are central to their interventions because cognition and biology are said to reflect various processes,…

  1. Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…

  2. Toxicogenomics applied to predictive and exploratory toxicology for the safety assessment of new chemical entities: a long road with deep potholes.

    PubMed

    Pognan, François

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology is the perturbation of metabolism by external factors such as xenobiotics, environmental factors or drugs. As such, toxicology covers a broad range of fields from studies of the whole organism responses to minute biochemical events. Mechanistic toxicogenomics is an attempt to harness genomic tools to understand the physiological basis for a toxic event based on an analysis of transcriptional, translational or metabolomic profiles. These studies are complicated by non-toxic adaptive responses in transcript, protein or metabolite expression levels that have to be distinguished from those that are proximally related to the toxic event. Substantial progress has been made on the identification of biomarkers and the establishment of screens derived from such toxicogenomics studies. The ultimate goal, of course, is predictive toxicogenomics, which is an attempt to infer the likelihood of occurrence of a toxic event with exposure to a new agent based upon comparative responses with large databases of gene, protein or metabolite expression data. Gene expression databases are currently limited by the fact that measurable toxic phenotypes generally precede or at best coincide with the earliest observable changes in transcriptional profiles. Unfortunately, predictive protein databases have been limited by technical difficulties. Metabonomics-based databases, which would probably have the highest predictive value, are limited in turn by the inability to perform high dose studies in humans. This chapter will conclude by reviewing those elements of toxicogenomics that apply specifically to the development of anti-infectives and the potential for accurately modelling the toxicity of future drugs. PMID:17195477

  3. Exploratory meta-analysis on lisdexamfetamine versus placebo in adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchalak; Suttajit, Sirijit; Reungyos, Jirayu; Srisurapanont, Manit; Martin, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have promised that lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is effective in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives This systematic review was undertaken to summarize LDX efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability in adult ADHD. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lisdexamfetamine compared with placebo were included for synthesis. Clinical trials published between January 1991 and January 2014 were evaluated. Methods The database of MEDLINE®, EMBASE™, CINAHL®, PsycINFO® and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched in January 2014. Studies were also searched in ClinicalTrials.gov and the EU Clinical Trials Register database. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions were considered. All RCTs of LDX vs placebo reporting final results of: 1) severity of ADHD symptoms and executive function deficit, 2) response or remission rates, 3) overall discontinuation rate, or 4) discontinuation rate due to adverse events were included. The language of the papers was not restricted. All abstracts of studies gathered from the database were examined. After excluding irrelevant trials, the full text version of relevant studies were assessed and extracted for outcomes of interest. Examination of risks of bias, based on the Cochrane bias assessment, was carried out. The efficacy outcomes consisted of the mean end point or change scores for ADHD rating scales, the response rate, and the remission rate. The overall discontinuation rate and the discontinuation rate due to adverse events were measured for acceptability and tolerability, respectively. A random effect model was applied for the synthesis of relative risks (RRs), and weighted mean differences or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 806 final study or safety participants were included. The dosage of lisdexamfetamine was 30 to 70 mg/day. The pooled mean scores of mean change and

  4. Exploratory analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence of abnormal white matter structure.

    PubMed

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Doering, Thomas; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Mattos, Paulo; Araújo, Alexandra Prüfer

    2016-06-01

    Abnormalities in the white matter microstructure of the attentional system have been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology that has increasingly been used in studies of white matter microstructure in the brain. The main objective of this work was to perform an exploratory analysis of white matter tracts in a sample of children with ADHD versus typically developing children (TDC). For this purpose, 13 drug-naive children with ADHD of both genders underwent MRI using DTI acquisition methodology and tract-based spatial statistics. The results were compared to those of a sample of 14 age- and gender-matched TDC. Lower fractional anisotropy was observed in the splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, bilateral retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left external capsule and posterior thalamic radiation (including right optic radiation). We conclude that white matter tracts in attentional and motor control systems exhibited signs of abnormal microstructure in this sample of drug-naive children with ADHD. PMID:26620714

  5. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Hawkey, A, Griffiths, K, Babraj, J, and Cobley, JN. Whole-body vibration training and its application to age-related performance decrements: an exploratory analysis. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 555-560, 2016-Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations. PMID:26244828

  6. Measurement of Mealtime Behaviors in Rural Overweight Children: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ann M.; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Gillette, Meredith Dreyer; Patton, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study presents results of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) in a sample of rural children with overweight and obesity. Relationships between mealtime behavior and health outcomes are also explored. Methods EFA was used to assess the fit of the BPFAS in a group of 160 treatment-seeking children (Mage = 9.11, SD = 1.77) living in rural Midwest communities. Correlations were also computed between factor scores and select health variables (child body mass index z-score and diet variables). Results The EFA identified a 5-factor solution as the best fitting model (Tucker–Lewis Index = .96, root mean square error of approximation = .05), although several items (i.e., 7 of 25) did not load on any factor. 2 factors were correlated with health variables of interest. Conclusion Study results suggest that certain items on the BPFAS may not be appropriate for use with rural children with pediatric overweight or obesity. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:24326908

  7. Exploratory Analysis of Sediment Related Disturbance on Post-Spate Periphyton Retention on the Ste. Marguerite River, Saguenay, Quebec.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, J. J.; Lapointe, M.

    2004-05-01

    Both natural and human induced disturbance can cause significant shifts in the viability and spatial distribution of river organisms. The dominant primary producers in unshaded streams are benthic algae. Algae grow within a biofilm called periphyton and provide the main energy source driving production in higher trophic levels. Literature suggests that periphyton are adapted to a range of both resources (e.g. sunlight and nutrients) and disturbance (e.g. floods and grazing). Site scale studies of flood disturbance effects on periphyton have demonstrated that spatially discrete refuge zones (e.g. gravel clusters, boulders, inside of point bars) exist where periphyton removal after floods is minimal. The purpose of this study is to examine the hypothesis that stable refugia can be found within the drainage basin at larger spatial and temporal scales than previously demonstrated. The intent is to identify refuge zones through the study of geomorphic disturbance processes, resource availability and periphyton resistance. Four sedimentary links, characterized by 30 cross-sections, have been selected on the Ste Marguerite River, each providing a gradient of channel disturbance but limited nutrient variation. A sequence of spates during the 2003 field season were monitored for discharge, temperature, water quality and sediment mobility using fine sediment traps and tracer rocks. The overall approach employs a combination of field work, numerical modeling and statistical analyses. Exploratory data analysis will be presented examining the role of resources and disturbance responsible for sources of variability in post spate algal biomass.

  8. Exploratory Analysis of the Comprehensive Application of the Islamic Concept of Zuhd in the Contemporary World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olohunfunmi, Ismail Abdul Fatai

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to present a clear frame work of how to practically apply the concept "Zuhd" to individual Muslim life. It is an empirical research on the Islamic concept of "Zuhd." The method that is employed in the study is qualitative approach, whereby interviews were staged, recorded and transcribed.…

  9. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  10. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Exploratory Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind and Sham-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Berlim, Marcelo T; Van den Eynde, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Objective Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has yielded promising results as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, to date, no quantitative review of its clinical utility has been published. Method: We searched for randomized and sham-controlled trials from 1995 to March 2013 using MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and SCOPUS. We then performed an exploratory random effects meta-analysis. Results: Studies on rTMS applied to the right DLPFC included 64 adults with PTSD. The pooled Hedges g effect size for pre and post changes in clinician-rated and self-reported PTSD symptoms were, respectively, 1.65 (P < 0.001) and 1.91 (P < 0.001), indicating significant and large-sized differences in outcome favouring active rTMS. Also, there were significant pre and post decreases with active rTMS in overall anxiety (Hedges g = 1.24; P = 0.02) and depressive (Hedges g = 0.85; P < 0.001) symptoms. Dropout rates at study end did not differ between active and sham rTMS groups. Regarding rTMS applied to the left DLPFC, there is only one study published to date (using a high frequency protocol), and its results showed that active rTMS seems to be superior overall to sham rTMS. Conclusions: Our exploratory meta-analysis shows that active rTMS applied to the DLPFC seems to be effective and acceptable for treating PTSD. However, the small number of subjects included in the analyses limits the generalizability of these findings. Future studies should include larger samples and deliver optimized stimulation parameters. PMID:25565694

  11. Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

    PubMed

    Gresham, F M; Gansle, K A; Noell, G H

    1993-01-01

    Functional analysis of behavior depends upon accurate measurement of both independent and dependent variables. Quantifiable and controllable operations that demonstrate these functional relationships are necessary for a science of human behavior. Failure to implement independent variables with integrity threatens the internal and external validity of experiments. A review of all applied behavior analysis studies with children as subjects that have been published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis between 1980 and 1990 found that approximately 16% of these studies measured the accuracy of independent variable implementation. Two thirds of these studies did not operationally define the components of the independent variable. Specific recommendations for improving the accuracy of independent variable implementation and for defining independent variables are discussed. PMID:8331022

  12. The use of exploratory analyses within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence single technology appraisal process: an evaluation and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenthaler, Eva; Carroll, Christopher; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal (STA) process, independent Evidence Review Groups (ERGs) critically appraise the company submission. During the critical appraisal process the ERG may undertake analyses to explore uncertainties around the company's model and their implications for decision-making. The ERG reports are a central component of the evidence considered by the NICE Technology Appraisal Committees (ACs) in their deliberations. OBJECTIVE The aim of this research was to develop an understanding of the number and type of exploratory analyses undertaken by the ERGs within the STA process and to understand how these analyses are used by the NICE ACs in their decision-making. METHODS The 100 most recently completed STAs with published guidance were selected for inclusion in the analysis. The documents considered were ERG reports, clarification letters, the first appraisal consultation document and the final appraisal determination. Over 400 documents were assessed in this study. The categories of types of exploratory analyses included fixing errors, fixing violations, addressing matters of judgement and the ERG-preferred base case. A content analysis of documents (documentary analysis) was undertaken to identify and extract relevant data, and narrative synthesis was then used to rationalise and present these data. RESULTS The level and type of detail in ERG reports and clarification letters varied considerably. The vast majority (93%) of ERG reports reported one or more exploratory analyses. The most frequently reported type of analysis in these 93 ERG reports related to the category 'matters of judgement', which was reported in 83 (89%) reports. The category 'ERG base-case/preferred analysis' was reported in 45 (48%) reports, the category 'fixing errors' was reported in 33 (35%) reports and the category 'fixing violations' was reported in 17 (18%) reports. The exploratory analyses

  13. Web 2.0 in the Professional LIS Literature: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis and a thorough content analysis of descriptors and journal titles extracted from the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database, focusing on the subject of Web 2.0 and its main applications: blog, wiki, social network and tags.The primary research questions include: whether the…

  14. Bibliometrics of the World Wide Web: An Exploratory Analysis of the Intellectual Structure of Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ray R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the bibliometrics of the World Wide Web based on analysis of Web pages collected by the Inktomi "Web Crawler" and on the use of the DEC AltaVista search engine for cocitation analysis of a set of Earth Science related Web sites. Looks at the statistical characteristics of Web documents and their hypertext links, and the characteristics of…

  15. Results of exploratory drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    Eight exploratory holes were drilled in the Vermillion Creek basin, southern Sweetwater County, Wyoming, to aid in interpreting the subsurface stratigraphy of the Vermillion Creek coal bed. Lithologic logs based on cuttings and geophysical logs (natural gamma, density, and caliper) were made for each drill hole. Core samples of the Vermillion Creek coal bed and associated strata (roof rock, floor rock, and partings) were collected from three drill holes for geochemical and petrographic analysis. The geophysical logs indicate the presence of anomalous radioactive zones in the strata surrounding the Vermillion Creek coal bed.

  16. Exploratory data analysis on data generated in the DOE subsurface microbiology program

    SciTech Connect

    Meglen, R.R.

    1990-06-01

    The preliminary results from the innovative subsurface microbiology research program indicate that new data on the nature of the link between the geosphere and biosphere have been generated. The diversity of scientific disciplines represented in the subsurface microbiology program reflects the complexity of the system under study. The research carried out by national laboratory and university research scientists is addressing fundamental questions about the abundance of microorganisms and factors controlling microbial activity in the complex subsurface hydrologic and geochemical environment. Long-term implications of this research for mitigating contamination are clear and researchers share the broader objective of linking the basic science with applied work.

  17. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire: A Self-Determination Theory instrument.

    PubMed

    Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs. PMID:27346088

  18. Exploratory Network Meta Regression Analysis of Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Fails to Identify Any Interactions with Treatment Effect

    PubMed Central

    Batson, Sarah; Sutton, Alex; Abrams, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with atrial fibrillation are at a greater risk of stroke and therefore the main goal for treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation is to prevent stroke from occurring. There are a number of different stroke prevention treatments available to include warfarin and novel oral anticoagulants. Previous network meta-analyses of novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation acknowledge the limitation of heterogeneity across the included trials but have not explored the impact of potentially important treatment modifying covariates. Objectives To explore potentially important treatment modifying covariates using network meta-regression analyses for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Methods We performed a network meta-analysis for the outcome of ischaemic stroke and conducted an exploratory regression analysis considering potentially important treatment modifying covariates. These covariates included the proportion of patients with a previous stroke, proportion of males, mean age, the duration of study follow-up and the patients underlying risk of ischaemic stroke. Results None of the covariates explored impacted relative treatment effects relative to placebo. Notably, the exploration of ‘study follow-up’ as a covariate supported the assumption that difference in trial durations is unimportant in this indication despite the variation across trials in the network. Conclusion This study is limited by the quantity of data available. Further investigation is warranted, and, as justifying further trials may be difficult, it would be desirable to obtain individual patient level data (IPD) to facilitate an effort to relate treatment effects to IPD covariates in order to investigate heterogeneity. Observational data could also be examined to establish if there are potential trends elsewhere. The approach and methods presented have potentially wide applications within any indication as to highlight the potential benefit

  19. Fall in homicides in the city of São Paulo: an exploratory analysis of possible determinants.

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2011-12-01

    Throughout the first decade of the 2000s the homicide mortality rate (HMR) showed a significant reduction in the state and the city of São Paulo (MSP). The aim of this study is to describe the trend of HMR, socio-demographic indicators, and the investment in social and public security, and to analyze the correlation between HMR and independent variables in the MSP between 1996 and 2008. An exploratory time series ecological study was conducted. The following variables were included: HMR per 100,000 inhabitants, socio-demographic indicators, and investments in social and public security. The moving-averages for all variables were calculated and trends were analyzed through Simple Linear Regression models. Annual percentage changes, the average annual change and periodic percentage changes were calculated for all variables, and the associations between annual percentage changes were tested by Spearman's correlation analysis. Correlations were found for the proportion of youth in the population (r = 0.69), unemployment rate (r = 0.60), State budget for education and culture (r = 0.87) and health and sanitation (r = 0.56), municipal (r = 0.68) and State (r = 0.53) budget for Public Security, firearms seized (r = 0.69) and the incarceration rate (r = 0.71). The results allow us to support the hypothesis that demographic changes, acceleration of the economy, in particular the fall in unemployment, investment in social policies and changes in public security policies act synergistically to reduce HMR in São Paulo. Complex models of analysis, incorporating the joint action of different potential explanatory variables, should be developed. PMID:22218669

  20. Fall in homicides in the City of São Paulo: an exploratory analysis of possible determinants

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the first decade of the 2000s the homicide mortality rate (HMR) showed a significant reduction in the state and the city of São Paulo (MSP). The aim of this study is to describe the trend of HMR, socio-demographic indicators, and the investment in social and public security, and to analyze the correlation between HMR and independent variables in the MSP between 1996 and 2008. An exploratory time series ecological study was conducted. The following variables were included: HMR per 100,000 inhabitants, socio-demographic indicators, and investments in social and public security. The moving-averages for all variables were calculated and trends were analyzed through Simple Linear Regression models. Annual percentage changes, the average annual change and periodic percentage changes were calculated for all variables, and the associations between annual percentage changes were tested by Spearman’s correlation analysis. Correlations were found for the proportion of youth in the population (r = 0.69), unemployment rate (r = 0.60), State budget for education and culture (r = 0.87) and health and sanitation (r = 0.56), municipal (r = 0.68) and State (r = 0.53) budget for Public Security, firearms seized (r = 0.69) and the incarceration rate (r = 0.71). The results allow us to support the hypothesis that demographic changes, acceleration of the economy, in particular the fall in unemployment, investment in social policies and changes in public security policies act synergistically to reduce HMR in São Paulo. Complex models of analysis, incorporating the joint action of different potential explanatory variables, should be developed. PMID:22218669

  1. Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Violet; Liu, Ang; Groeber, Elizabeth; Moghaddam, Mehran; Schiller, James; Tweed, Joseph A; Walker, Gregory S

    2016-02-01

    Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development. The APA conference was organized in three workshops encompassing the disciplines of regulated bioanalysis, discovery bioanalysis (encompassing new and emerging technologies) and biotransformation. The conference included a short course titled 'Bioanalytical considerations for the clinical development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs)', an engaging poster session, several panel and round table discussions and over 50 diverse talks from leading industry and academic scientists. PMID:26853375

  2. Applied behavior analysis at West Virginia University: A brief history.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, R P; Chase, P N; Scotti, J R

    1993-01-01

    The development of an emphasis on applied behavior analysis in the Department of Psychology at West Virginia University is traced. The emphasis began primarily in the early 1970s, under the leadership of Roger Maley and Jon Krapfl, and has continued to expand and evolve with the participation of numerous behavior analysts and behavior therapists, both inside and outside the department. The development has been facilitated by several factors: establishment of a strong behavioral emphasis in the three Clinical graduate programs; change of the graduate program in Experimental Psychology to a program in basic Behavior Analysis; development of nonclinical applied behavior analysis within the Behavior Analysis program; establishment of a joint graduate program with Educational Psychology; establishment of a Community/Systems graduate program; and organization of numerous conferences. Several factors are described that seem to assure a stable role for behavior analysis in the department: a stable and supportive "culture" within the department; American Psychological Association accreditation of the clinical training; a good reputation both within the university and in psychology; and a broader community of behavior analysts and behavior therapists. PMID:16795816

  3. Emotional Psychological and Related Problems among Truant Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio Aracelis; Gulledge, Laura M.; Karas, Lora M.; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Intervention Project. Results identified two classes of youths: Class 1(n=9) - youths with low levels of delinquency, mental health and substance abuse issues; and Class 2(n=37) - youths with high levels of these problems. Comparison of these two classes on their urine analysis test results and parent/guardian reports of traumatic events found…

  4. Supplementary Analysis for "Measuring Up 2000": An Exploratory Report. National Center Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Mario

    This report was created to generate ideas about the kinds of data that might be used to produce follow-up analyses of "Measuring Up 2000," the state-by-state report card for higher education. The analysis attempts to present report card data and related information graphically and mathematically in ways that might be useful to policymakers and…

  5. Factors Influencing the Demand and Supply of Public School Teachers in Indiana: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debertin, David L.; Huie, John M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a conceptual model representing the demand and supply of public school teachers and the relationship between the assessed valuation of property within a school district and the training, experience, and salary levels of teachers in the district, based on an analysis of data from 269 Indiana school districts. (Author/JG)

  6. Student Motivational Profiles in an Introductory MIS Course: An Exploratory Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Klara

    2014-01-01

    This study profiles students in an introductory MIS course according to a variety of variables associated with choice of academic major. The data were collected through a survey administered to 12 sections of the course. A two-step cluster analysis was performed with gender as a categorical variable and students' perceptions of task value…

  7. Exploratory Data Analysis to Identify Factors Influencing Spatial Distributions of Weed Seed Banks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparing distributions of different species in multiple fields will help us understand the spatial dynamics of weed seed banks, but analyzing observational data requires non-traditional statistical methods. We used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) to investigate factors that influ...

  8. Community College Student Engagement Patterns: A Typology Revealed through Exploratory Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz, Victor B.; Hatch, Deryl; Bukoski, Beth E.; Kim, Suyun; Lee, Kye-hyoung; Valdez, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study employs survey data from the Center for Community College Student Engagement to examine the similarities and differences that exist across student-level domains in terms of student engagement in community colleges. In total, the sample used in the analysis pools data from 663 community colleges and includes more than 320,000 students.…

  9. The Afro-American Work/Family Nexus: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Patricia Hill

    1986-01-01

    Sketches out a framework linking black labor market trends in the post World War II era to actual and potential changes in black family patterns. Summarizes selected scholarship and then provides a gender-specific analysis of the changing employment status of black Americans. Urgres that links be made between black family life and the political…

  10. Assessing Model Fit: Caveats and Recommendations for Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John L.; Nicholls, Adam R.; Clough, Peter J.; Crust, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the limitations of overgeneralizing cutoff values for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; e.g., Marsh, Hau, & Wen, 2004), they are still often employed as golden rules for assessing factorial validity in sport and exercise psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the appropriateness of using the CFA approach with these…

  11. Perceived Effectiveness of Simulations in International Business Pedagogy: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Carlyle

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the perceived effectiveness of simulations in teaching international business. A survey of third and fourth year Canadian students who participated in a web-based international business simulation was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to understand the underlying relationships in the resulting…

  12. Understanding Older Adults' Perceptions of Internet Use: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert; Spears, Jeffrey; Luptak, Marilyn; Wilby, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined factors related to older adults' perceptions of Internet use. Three hundred ninety five older adults participated in the study. The factor analysis revealed four factors perceived by older adults as critical to their Internet use: social connection, self-efficacy, the need to seek financial information, and the need to…

  13. Work Domain Analysis for understanding medication safety in care homes in England: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Rosemary H M; Anderson, Janet E; Buckle, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Medication safety and errors are a major concern in care homes. In addition to the identification of incidents, there is a need for a comprehensive system description to avoid the danger of introducing interventions that have unintended consequences and are therefore unsustainable. The aim of this study was to explore the impact and uniqueness of Work Domain Analysis (WDA) to facilitate an in-depth understanding of medication safety problems within the care home system and identify the potential benefits of WDA to design safety interventions to improve medication safety. A comprehensive, systematic and contextual overview of the care home medication system was developed for the first time. The novel use of the abstraction hierarchy (AH) to analyse medication errors revealed the value of the AH to guide a comprehensive analysis of errors and generate system improvement recommendations that took into account the contextual information of the wider system. PMID:26037621

  14. Extraction of alkaloids for NMR-based profiling: exploratory analysis of an archaic Cinchona bark collection.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ali; Nyberg, Nils T; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2012-11-01

    A museum collection of Cinchonae cortex samples (n = 117), from the period 1850-1950, was extracted with a mixture of chloroform-d1, methanol-d4, water-d2, and perchloric acid in the ratios 5 : 5 : 1 : 1. The extracts were directly analyzed using 1H NMR spectroscopy (600 MHz) and the spectra evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) and total statistical correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY). A new method called STOCSY-CA, where CA stands for component analysis, is described, and an analysis using this method is presented. It was found that the samples had a rather homogenous content of the well-known cinchona alkaloids quinine, cinchonine, and cinchonidine without any apparent clustering. Signals from analogues were detected but not in substantial amounts. The main variation was related to the absolute amounts of extracted alkaloids, which was attributed to the evolution of the Cinchona tree cultivation during the period in which the samples were collected. PMID:23059630

  15. Probabilistic Analysis Techniques Applied to Complex Spacecraft Power System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power system performance predictions are critical to spacecraft, such as the International Space Station (ISS), to ensure that sufficient power is available to support all the spacecraft s power needs. In the case of the ISS power system, analyses to date have been deterministic, meaning that each analysis produces a single-valued result for power capability because of the complexity and large size of the model. As a result, the deterministic ISS analyses did not account for the sensitivity of the power capability to uncertainties in model input variables. Over the last 10 years, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed advanced, computationally fast, probabilistic analysis techniques and successfully applied them to large (thousands of nodes) complex structural analysis models. These same techniques were recently applied to large, complex ISS power system models. This new application enables probabilistic power analyses that account for input uncertainties and produce results that include variations caused by these uncertainties. Specifically, N&R Engineering, under contract to NASA, integrated these advanced probabilistic techniques with Glenn s internationally recognized ISS power system model, System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE).

  16. An exploratory multilevel analysis of income, income inequality and self-rated health of the elderly in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Jones, Kelvyn; Li, Yaqing

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and growing economic inequality, such that economic disparities between rural and urban areas, as well as coastal and interior areas have deepened. Since the late 1990s China has also experienced an ageing population which has attracted attention to the wellbeing of the rapidly growing number of elderly. This research aims to characterise province differences in health and to explore the effects of individual income and economic disparity in the form of income inequality on health outcomes of the elderly. The study is based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data collected in 2008 for 23 provinces. Multilevel logistic models are employed to investigate the relationship between income, income inequality and self-rated health for the elderly using both individual and province-level variables. Results are presented as relative odds ratios, and for province differentials as Median Odds Ratios. The analysis is deliberately exploratory so as to find evidence of income effects if they exist and particular attention is placed on how province-level inequality (contemporaneous and lagged) may moderate individual relationships. The results show that the health of the elderly is not only affected by individual income (the odds of poor health are 3 times greater for the elderly with the lowest income compared to those at the upper quartile) but also by a small main effect for province-level income inequality (odds ratio of 1.019). There are significant cross-level interactions such that where inequality is high there are greater differences between those with and without formal education, and between men and women with the latter experiencing poorer health. PMID:23063218

  17. Identifying determinants of nations' wetland management programs using structural equation modeling: An exploratory analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Peyre, M.K.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Reams, M.A.; Templet, P.H.; Grace, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Integrated management and policy models suggest that solutions to environmental issues may be linked to the socioeconomic and political Characteristics of a nation. In this study, we empirically explore these suggestions by applying them to the wetland management activities of nations. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate a model of national wetland management effort and one of national wetland protection. Using five predictor variables of social capital, economic capital, environmental and political characteristics, and land-use pressure, the multivariate models were able to explain 60% of the variation in nations' wetland protection efforts based on data from 90 nations, as defined by level of participation, in the international wetland convention. Social capital had the largest direct effect on wetland protection efforts, suggesting that increased social development may eventually lead to better wetland protection. In contrast, increasing economic development had a negative linear relationship with wetland protection efforts, suggesting the need for explicit wetland protection programs as nations continue to focus on economic development. Government, environmental characteristics, and land-use pressure also had a positive direct effect on wetland protection, and mediated the effect of social capital on wetland protection. Explicit wetland protection policies, combined with a focus on social development, would lead to better wetland protection at the national level.

  18. Exploratory Data Analysis Using a Dedicated Visualization App: Looking for Patterns in Volcanic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.; Chen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present an App designed to visualize and identify patterns in volcanic activity during the last ten years. It visualizes VEI (volcanic explosivity index) levels, population size, frequency of activity, and geographic region, and is designed to address the issue of oversampling of data. Often times, it is difficult to access a large set of data that can be scattered at first glance and hard to digest without visual aid. This App serves as a model that solves this issue and can be applied to other data. To enable users to quickly assess the large data set it breaks down the apparently chaotic abundance of information into categories and graphic indicators: color is used to indicate the VEI level, size for population size within 5 km of a volcano, line thickness for frequency of activity, and a grid to pinpoint a volcano's latitude. The categories and layers within them can be turned on and off by the user, enabling them to scroll through and compare different layers of data. By visualising the data this way, patterns began to emerge. For example, certain geographic regions had more explosive eruptions than others. Another good example was that low frequency larger impact volcanic eruptions occurred more irregularly than smaller impact volcanic eruptions, which had a more stable frequencies. Although these findings are not unexpected, the easy to navigate App does showcase the potential of data visualization for the rapid appraisal of complex and abundant multi-dimensional geoscience data.

  19. Road and stream network connectivity and potential: northeastern Puerto Rico, an exploratory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrill, K. R.; Laituri, M. J.; Helmer, E. H.; Ramirez, J. A.; Blanco, J. F.; Hein, K.; Pike, A. S.

    2008-07-01

    Interactions between road and stream networks are complex and are influenced by a range of environmental and road design characteristics. These interactions are not clearly understood and are the subjects of current research. To increase understanding of these interactions we explore the concepts of Road and Stream Network Connectivity (R/S Connectivity) and Road and Stream Network Connectivity Potential (RSNCP). Lastly we provide a methodology for study and analysis of R/S connectivity. This study focuses on road induced alterations to sediment and water flow processes, which are important road effects of R/S connectivity. For 25 river road crossings (RRC) in the Rio Mameyes and Rio Espiritu watersheds of Northeastern Puerto Rico, a multi-scale Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database measuring environmental and road characteristic variables was developed specifically to measure variables influencing sediment and water flow. Multivariate analysis methods were used to select the environmental and road characteristic variables which were used in multiple linear regression models for three biota variables (Decapod Richness, Adult Fish Richness, and Total Richness), and four stream habitat geomorphology variables (Median Channel Grain Size, Active Channel Maximum Depth, Pool Volume, and Active Channel Width). Explained variance (R2) from modeling results ranged from 0.22 to 0.86, demonstrating that the GIS derived variables can successfully be used to model important stream biota and geomorphology response variables.

  20. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  1. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  2. fluff: exploratory analysis and visualization of high-throughput sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios; van Heeringen, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe fluff, a software package that allows for simple exploration, clustering and visualization of high-throughput sequencing data mapped to a reference genome. The package contains three command-line tools to generate publication-quality figures in an uncomplicated manner using sensible defaults. Genome-wide data can be aggregated, clustered and visualized in a heatmap, according to different clustering methods. This includes a predefined setting to identify dynamic clusters between different conditions or developmental stages. Alternatively, clustered data can be visualized in a bandplot. Finally, fluff includes a tool to generate genomic profiles. As command-line tools, the fluff programs can easily be integrated into standard analysis pipelines. The installation is straightforward and documentation is available at http://fluff.readthedocs.org. Availability. fluff is implemented in Python and runs on Linux. The source code is freely available for download at https://github.com/simonvh/fluff. PMID:27547532

  3. fluff: exploratory analysis and visualization of high-throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Summary. In this article we describe fluff, a software package that allows for simple exploration, clustering and visualization of high-throughput sequencing data mapped to a reference genome. The package contains three command-line tools to generate publication-quality figures in an uncomplicated manner using sensible defaults. Genome-wide data can be aggregated, clustered and visualized in a heatmap, according to different clustering methods. This includes a predefined setting to identify dynamic clusters between different conditions or developmental stages. Alternatively, clustered data can be visualized in a bandplot. Finally, fluff includes a tool to generate genomic profiles. As command-line tools, the fluff programs can easily be integrated into standard analysis pipelines. The installation is straightforward and documentation is available at http://fluff.readthedocs.org. Availability. fluff is implemented in Python and runs on Linux. The source code is freely available for download at https://github.com/simonvh/fluff.

  4. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between psychiatric nurses' perceptions of workload and unit activity.

    PubMed

    Gerolamo, Angela M

    2009-06-01

    Although research exists relative to psychiatric nurses' perceptions of their work conditions, the relationship between nurses' perceptions of their workloads and the activities in which they engage has been unexplored. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between unit activity and nurses' perceptions of their workloads. The design is a secondary analysis using two data sources: (a) reports from 36 psychiatric nurses consisting of perceptions of their work conditions (n = 383) and (b) the hospital census and activity and acuity 24-hour shift reports (n = 384). Nurses' perceptions of workloads were related to unit activity; the greater the number of heavy and medium-to-heavy workloads, the higher the unit activity. This evidence contributes to the growing body of research demonstrating that nurses accurately provide information related to the hospital environment. PMID:19446779

  5. The Relationship of Self-Control and Abstinence Maintenance: An Exploratory Analysis of Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Stevens, Edward B.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of self-regulation suggested that self-control requires finite resources which, in turn, may present a significant challenge for those trying to recover from or control addictive behaviors. The present study examined the relationships between self-regulation and abstinence maintenance among adults in recovery (n = 606: 407 men, 199 women; M age = 38.5 years) residing in self-governed, communal living, abstinent homes across the United States. Self-regulation scores (controlling for sex and age) were positively related to length of abstinence. In addition, a factor analysis of self-regulation scores resulted in some differentiation between general self-discipline and impulsivity in self-control related to addiction. The relationship between impulsivity and length of abstinence was stronger than the relationship derived between general self-regulation and length of abstinence. PMID:20689650

  6. Functional exploratory data analysis for high-resolution measurements of urban particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Ranalli, M Giovanna; Rocco, Giorgia; Jona Lasinio, Giovanna; Moroni, Beatrice; Castellini, Silvia; Crocchianti, Stefano; Cappelletti, David

    2016-09-01

    In this work we propose the use of functional data analysis (FDA) to deal with a very large dataset of atmospheric aerosol size distribution resolved in both space and time. Data come from a mobile measurement platform in the town of Perugia (Central Italy). An OPC (Optical Particle Counter) is integrated on a cabin of the Minimetrò, an urban transportation system, that moves along a monorail on a line transect of the town. The OPC takes a sample of air every six seconds and counts the number of particles of urban aerosols with a diameter between 0.28 μm and 10 μm and classifies such particles into 21 size bins according to their diameter. Here, we adopt a 2D functional data representation for each of the 21 spatiotemporal series. In fact, space is unidimensional since it is measured as the distance on the monorail from the base station of the Minimetrò. FDA allows for a reduction of the dimensionality of each dataset and accounts for the high space-time resolution of the data. Functional cluster analysis is then performed to search for similarities among the 21 size channels in terms of their spatiotemporal pattern. Results provide a good classification of the 21 size bins into a relatively small number of groups (between three and four) according to the season of the year. Groups including coarser particles have more similar patterns, while those including finer particles show a more different behavior according to the period of the year. Such features are consistent with the physics of atmospheric aerosol and the highlighted patterns provide a very useful ground for prospective model-based studies. PMID:27072888

  7. Activity anorexia: An interplay between basic and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, W. David; Epling, W. Frank; Dews, Peter B.; Estes, William K.; Morse, William H.; Van Orman, Willard; Herrnstein, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between basic research with nonhumans and applied behavior analysis is illustrated by our work on activity anorexia. When rats are fed one meal a day and allowed to run on an activity wheel, they run excessively, stop eating, and die of starvation. Convergent evidence, from several different research areas, indicates that the behavior of these animals and humans who self-starve is functionally similar. A biobehavioral theory of activity anorexia is presented that details the cultural contingencies, behavioral processes, and physiology of anorexia. Diagnostic criteria and a three-stage treatment program for activity-based anorexia are outlined. The animal model permits basic research on anorexia that for practical and ethical reasons cannot be conducted with humans. Thus, basic research can have applied importance. PMID:22478169

  8. Analysis of E-Mail Produced by Middle School Students with Disabilities Using Accessible Interfaces: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Todis, Bonnie; Fickas, Stephen; Ehlhardt, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to investigate electronic communication as a potential method to enhance social communication in a range of students with disabilities. This study investigated the usability of an adapted e-mail interface, TeenMail, for 11 middle school students with significant learning and communication impairments who…

  9. An Exploratory Analysis of American Indian Children's Cultural Engagement, Fluid Cognitive Skills, and Standardized Verbal IQ Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsethlikai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory cross-sectional study examined fluid cognitive skills and standardized verbal IQ scores in relation to cultural engagement amongst Tohono O'odham children (N = 99; ages 7 to 12 years). Guardians with higher socioeconomic status engaged their children in more cultural activities, and participation in more cultural activities…

  10. The Association between Foster Care and Substance Abuse Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes: An Exploratory Secondary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blome, Wendy Whiting; Shields, Joseph; Verdieck, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    The child welfare and substance abuse systems are integrally linked through the children and families they both serve. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, on how children who have experienced foster care fare when they are treated for substance abuse issues as adults. This article presents an exploratory study using the Alcohol and Drug…

  11. Neuropsychological Benefits of Stationary Bike Exercise and a Cybercycle Exergame for Older Adults with Diabetes: An Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J.; Westen, Sarah C.; Nimon, Joseph; Zimmerman, Earl

    2012-01-01

    Objective This quasi-experimental exploratory study investigated neuropsychological effects of exercise among older adults with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with adults without diabetes (non-DM), and it examined the feasibility of using a stationary bike exergame as a form of exercise for older adults with and without diabetes. It is a secondary analysis that uses a small dataset from a larger randomized clinical trial (RCT) called the Cybercycle Study, which compared cognitive and physiological effects of traditional stationary cycling versus cybercycling. Methods In the RCT and the secondary analysis, older adults living in eight independent living retirement facilities in the state of New York were enrolled in the study and assigned to exercise five times per week for 45 min per session (two times per week was considered acceptable for retention in the study) by using a stationary bicycle over the course of 3 months. They were randomly assigned to use either a standard stationary bicycle or a “cybercycle” with a video screen that displayed virtual terrains, virtual tours, and racing games with virtual competitors. For this secondary analysis, participants in the RCT who had type 2 DM (n = 10) were compared with age-matched non-DM exercisers (n = 10). The relationship between exercise and executive function (i.e., Color Trials 2, Digit Span Backwards, and Stroop C tests) was examined for DM and non-DM patients. Results Older adults with and without diabetes were able to use cybercycles successfully and complete the study, so the feasibility of this form of exercise for this population was supported. However, in contrast with the larger RCT, this small subset did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in executive function between the participants who used cybercycles and those who used stationary bikes with no games or virtual content on a video screen. Therefore, the study combined the two groups and called them “exercisers” and

  12. An exploratory analysis of the regionalization policy for the recruitment of health workers in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health personnel retention in remote areas is a key health systems issue wordwide. To deal with this issue, since 2002 the government of Burkina Faso has implemented a staff retention policy, the regionalized health personnel recruitment policy, aimed at front-line workers such as nurses, midwives, and birth attendants. This study aimed to describe the policy’s development, formulation, and implementation process for the regionalization of health worker recruitment in Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted a qualitative study. The unit of analysis is a single case study with several levels of analysis. This study was conducted in three remote areas in Burkina Faso for the implementation portion, and at the central level for the development portion. Indepth interviews were conducted with Ministry of Health officials in charge of human resources, regional directors, regional human resource managers, district chief medical officers, and health workers at primary health centres. In total, 46 indepth interviews were conducted (February 3 - March 16, 2011). Results Development The idea for this policy emerged after finding a highly uneven distribution of health personnel across urban and rural areas, the availability of a large number of health officers in the labour market, and the opportunity given to the Ministry of Health by the government to recruit personnel through a specific budget allocation. Formulation The formulation consisted of a call for job applications from the Ministry of Health, which indicates the number of available posts by region. The respondents interviewed unanimously acknowledged the lack of documents governing the status of this new personnel category. Implementation During the initial years of implementation (2002-2003), this policy was limited to recruiting health workers for the regions with no possibility of transfer. The possibility of job-for-job exchange was then approved for a certain time, then cancelled. Starting in 2005, a

  13. Predictors of Adverse Cosmetic Outcome in the RAPID Trial: An Exploratory Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, David; Truong, Pauline T.; Parpia, Sameer; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Berrang, Tanya; Kim, Do-Hoon; Kong, Iwa; Germain, Isabelle; Nichol, Alan; Akra, Mohamed; Roy, Isabelle; Reed, Melanie; Fyles, Anthony; Trotter, Theresa; Perera, Francisco; Balkwill, Susan; Lavertu, Sophie; Elliott, Elizabeth; and others

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with adverse cosmesis outcome in breast cancer patients randomized to accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or whole-breast irradiation in the RAPID (Randomized Trial of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation) trial. Methods and Materials: Subjects were trial participants with nurse-assessed global cosmetic scores at baseline and at 3 years. Adverse cosmesis was defined as a score of fair or poor. Cosmetic deterioration was defined as any adverse change in score from baseline to 3 years. The analysis is based on data from the previously reported interim analysis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of risk factors for these outcomes among all patients and those treated with APBI only. Results: Clinicopathologic characteristics were similar between subjects randomized to APBI (n=569) or whole-breast irradiation (n=539). For all subjects, factors associated with adverse cosmesis at 3 years were older age, central/inner tumor location, breast infection, smoking, seroma volume, breast volume, and use of APBI; factors associated with cosmetic deterioration were smoking, seroma volume, and use of APBI (P<.05). For APBI subjects, tumor location, smoking, age, and seroma volume were associated with adverse cosmesis (P<.05), and smoking was associated with cosmetic deterioration (P=.02). An independent association between the V95/whole-breast volume ratio and adverse cosmesis (P=.28) or cosmetic deterioration (P=.07) was not detected. On further exploration a V95/whole-breast volume ratio <0.15 was associated with a lower risk of cosmetic deterioration (p=.04), but this accounted for only 11% of patients. Conclusion: In the RAPID trial, a number of patient tumor and treatment-related factors, including the use of APBI, were associated with adverse cosmesis and cosmetic deterioration. For patients treated with APBI alone, the high-dose treatment

  14. Waiting for placement: an exploratory analysis of determinants of delayed discharges of elderly hospital patients.

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, D; Bolda, E; Leak, S C

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the causes of delayed hospital discharge for 3,111 patients waiting for alternative placement in 80 North Carolina acute care general hospitals during May 1989. Almost all of the patients were elderly: their average age was 77. Delay is defined as the period between the day a patient was judged medically ready for discharge by a discharge planner and the day the patient was discharged (or May 31 if unplaced). The average delay was 16.7 days. The policy-relevant patient characteristics associated with delay are requirement for heavy care, race, source of reimbursement, and whether or not there was a financial problem in arranging discharge. The patient's age and whether or not a problem with behavior or family cooperativeness was noted also were predictors. Along with patient characteristics, hospital features such as bed size, occupancy rate, and total revenues were correlated with delay. Local nursing and rest home (domiciliary) bed supply were insignificant predictors, possibly because of their limited variance: the number of nursing home beds in all North Carolina counties is below the national mean; the number of rest home beds exceeds it. The conclusion reached is that the delay problem warrants more intensive analysis, particularly regarding financial problems encountered at discharge, and race. Guidelines for such an endeavor are provided. Further, there is a need to recognize the increasing preponderance of a new type of heavy care patient via more appropriate reimbursement levels and "transitional care" services. PMID:1869444

  15. HEALTH INSURANCE INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIORS AMONG INTERNET USERS: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS TO INFORM POLICIES.

    PubMed

    Erlyana, Erlyana; Acosta-Deprez, Veronica; O'Lawrence, Henry; Sinay, Tony; Ramirez, Jeremy; Jacot, Emmanuel C; Shim, Kyuyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of Internet users who seek health insurance information online, as well as factors affecting their behaviors in seeking health insurance information. Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 Pew Internet Health Tracking Survey. Of 2,305 Internet user adults, only 29% were seeking health insurance information online. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test differences in characteristics of those who seek health insurance information online and those who do not. A logistic regression model was used to determine significant predictors of health insurance information-seeking behavior online. Findings suggested that factors such as being a single parent, having a high school education or less, and being uninsured were significant and those individuals were less likely to seek health insurance information online. Being a family caregiver of an adult and those who bought private health insurance or were entitled to Medicare were more likely to seek health insurance information online than non-caregivers and the uninsured. The findings suggested the need to provide quality health insurance information online is critical for both the insured and uninsured population. PMID:26369232

  16. Iteration of Partially-Specified Target Matrices: Applications in Exploratory and Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Tyler M.; Reise, Steven P.; Depaoli, Sarah; Haviland, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a factor rotation algorithm, iterated target rotation (ITR). Whereas target rotation (Browne, 2001) requires a user to specify a target matrix a priori based on theory or prior research, ITR begins with a standard analytic factor rotation (i.e., an empirically-informed target) followed by an iterative search procedure to update the target matrix. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of ITR relative to analytic rotations from the Crawford-Ferguson family with population factor structures varying in complexity. Simulation results: (a) suggested that ITR analyses will be particularly useful when evaluating data with complex structures (i.e., multiple cross-loadings) and (b) showed that the rotation method used to define an initial target matrix did not materially affect the accuracy of the various ITRs. In Study 2, we: (a) demonstrated the application of ITR as a way to determine empirically-informed priors in a Bayesian confirmatory factor analysis (BCFA; Muthén & Asparouhov, 2012) of a rater-report alexithymia measure (Haviland, Warren, & Riggs, 2000) and (b) highlighted some of the challenges when specifying empirically-based priors and assessing item and overall model fit. PMID:26609875

  17. Nutrient-based dietary patterns and nasopharyngeal cancer: evidence from an exploratory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Edefonti, V; Nicolussi, F; Polesel, J; Bravi, F; Bosetti, C; Garavello, W; La Vecchia, C; Bidoli, E; Decarli, A; Serraino, D; Calza, S; Ferraroni, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: To our knowledge, no study assessed the association between dietary patterns and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in low-incidence areas. Methods: We examined this association in a hospital-based case–control study carried out in Italy between 1992 and 2008, including 198 incident NPC cases and 594 controls. A posteriori dietary patterns were identified through principal component factor analysis performed on 28 nutrients and minerals derived from a 78-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models on tertiles of factor scores. Results: We identified five dietary patterns named Animal products, Starch-rich, Vitamins and fibre, Animal unsaturated fatty acids (AUFAs), and Vegetable unsaturated fatty acids (VUFAs). The Animal product (OR=2.62, 95% CI=1.67–4.13, for the highest vs lowest score tertile), Starch-rich (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.27–3.33), and VUFA (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.22–2.96) patterns were positively associated with NPC. The AUFA pattern showed a positive association of borderline significance, whereas the Vitamins and fibre pattern was nonsignificantly but inversely associated with NPC. Conclusions: These findings suggest that diets rich in animal products, starch, and fats are positively related to NPC risk in this low-incidence country. PMID:25490523

  18. Approaches to automatic parameter fitting in a microscopy image segmentation pipeline: An exploratory parameter space analysis

    PubMed Central

    Held, Christian; Nattkemper, Tim; Palmisano, Ralf; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Research and diagnosis in medicine and biology often require the assessment of a large amount of microscopy image data. Although on the one hand, digital pathology and new bioimaging technologies find their way into clinical practice and pharmaceutical research, some general methodological issues in automated image analysis are still open. Methods: In this study, we address the problem of fitting the parameters in a microscopy image segmentation pipeline. We propose to fit the parameters of the pipeline's modules with optimization algorithms, such as, genetic algorithms or coordinate descents, and show how visual exploration of the parameter space can help to identify sub-optimal parameter settings that need to be avoided. Results: This is of significant help in the design of our automatic parameter fitting framework, which enables us to tune the pipeline for large sets of micrographs. Conclusion: The underlying parameter spaces pose a challenge for manual as well as automated parameter optimization, as the parameter spaces can show several local performance maxima. Hence, optimization strategies that are not able to jump out of local performance maxima, like the hill climbing algorithm, often result in a local maximum. PMID:23766941

  19. Overweight and obesity in India: policy issues from an exploratory multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Donato, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    This article analyses a nationally representative household dataset-the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in 2005 to 2006-to examine factors influencing the prevalence of overweight/obesity in India. The dataset was disaggregated into four sub-population groups-urban and rural females and males-and multi-level logit regression models were used to estimate the impact of particular covariates on the likelihood of overweight/obesity. The multi-level modelling approach aimed to identify individual and macro-level contextual factors influencing this health outcome. In contrast to most studies on low-income developing countries, the findings reveal that education for females beyond a particular level of educational attainment exhibits a negative relationship with the likelihood of overweight/obesity. This relationship was not observed for males. Muslim females and all Sikh sub-populations have a higher likelihood of overweight/obesity suggesting the importance of socio-cultural influences. The results also show that the relationship between wealth and the probability of overweight/obesity is stronger for males than females highlighting the differential impact of increasing socio-economic status on gender. Multi-level analysis reveals that states exerted an independent influence on the likelihood of overweight/obesity beyond individual-level covariates, reflecting the importance of spatially related contextual factors on overweight/obesity. While this study does not disentangle macro-level 'obesogenic' environmental factors from socio-cultural network influences, the results highlight the need to refrain from adopting a 'one size fits all' policy approach in addressing the overweight/obesity epidemic facing India. Instead, policy implementation requires a more nuanced and targeted approach to incorporate the growing recognition of socio-cultural and spatial contextual factors impacting on healthy behaviours. PMID:26567124

  20. Childhood cancer incidence rates and hazardous air pollutants in California: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Peggy; Von Behren, Julie; Gunier, Robert B; Goldberg, Debbie E; Hertz, Andrew; Smith, Daniel F

    2003-01-01

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are compounds shown to cause cancer or other adverse health effects. We analyzed population-based childhood cancer incidence rates in California (USA) from 1988 to 1994, by HAP exposure scores, for all California census tracts. For each census tract, we calculated exposure scores by combining cancer potency factors with outdoor HAP concentrations modeled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We evaluated the relationship between childhood cancer rates and exposure scores for 25 potentially carcinogenic HAPs emitted from mobile, area, and point sources and from all sources combined. Our study period saw 7,143 newly diagnosed cancer cases in California; of these, 6,989 (97.8%) could be assigned to census tracts and included in our analysis. Using Poisson regression, we estimated rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and sex. We found little evidence for elevated cancer RRs for all sites or for gliomas among children living in high-ranking combined-source exposure areas. We found elevated RRs and a significant trend with increasing exposure level for childhood leukemia in tracts ranked highest for exposure to the combined group of 25 HAPs (RR = 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 1.42) and in tracts ranked highest for point-source HAP exposure (RR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.11, 1.57). Our findings suggest an association between increased childhood leukemia rates and high HAP exposure, but studies involving more comprehensive exposure assessment and individual-level exposure data will be important for elucidating this relationship. PMID:12676632

  1. How do repeat suicide attempters differ from first timers? An exploratory record based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Vikas; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Mathan, Kaliaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that repeat suicide attempters, as a group, may differ from 1st time attempters. The identification of repeat attempters is a powerful but underutilized clinical variable. Aims: In this research, we aimed to compare individuals with lifetime histories of multiple attempts with 1st time attempters to identify factors predictive of repeat attempts. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective record based study carried out at a teaching cum Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Methods: Relevant data was extracted from the clinical records of 1st time attempters (n = 362) and repeat attempters (n = 61) presenting to a single Tertiary Care Center over a 4½ year period. They were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical parameters. The clinical measures included Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Statistical Analysis Used: First time attempters and repeaters were compared using appropriate inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of repeat attempts. Results: The two groups did not significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics. Repeat attempters were more likely to have given prior hints about their act (χ2 = 4.500, P = 0.034). In the final regression model, beck hopelessness score emerged as a significant predictor of repeat suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.064, P = 0.020). Conclusion: Among suicide attempters presenting to the hospital, the presence of hopelessness is a predictor of repeat suicide attempts, independent of clinical depression. This highlights the importance of considering hopelessness in the assessment of suicidality with a view to minimize the risk of future attempts. PMID:26933353

  2. Menu label accuracy at a university's foodservices. An exploratory recipe nutrition analysis.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Murray, Douglas; Chavarria, Stephanie; Zhao, Hang

    2015-09-01

    The increase in the weight of American adults and children has been positively associated with the prevalence of the consumption of food-away-from-home. The objective was to assess the accuracy of claimed nutritional information of foods purchased in contracted foodservices located on the campus of an institution of higher education. Fifty popular food items were randomly collected from five main dining outlets located on a selected campus in the northeastern United States. The sampling was repeated three times on separate occasions for an aggregate total of 150 food samples. The samples were then weighed and assessed for nutrient composition (protein, cholesterol, fiber, carbohydrates, total fat, calories, sugar, and sodium) using nutrient analysis software. Results were compared with foodservices' published nutrition information. Two group comparisons, claimed and measured, were performed using the paired-sample t-test. Descriptive statistics were used as well. Among the nine nutritional values, six nutrients (total fat, sodium, protein, fiber, cholesterol, and weight) had more than 10% positive average discrepancies between measured and claimed values. Statistical significance of the variance was obtained in four of the eight categories of nutrient content: total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol (P < .05). Significance was also reached in the variance of actual portion weight compared to the published claims (P < .001). Significant differences of portion size (weight), total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol were found among the sampled values and the foodservices' published claims. The findings from this study raise the concern that if the actual nutritional information does not accurately reflect the declared values on menus, conclusions, decisions and actions based on posted information may not be valid. PMID:25958116

  3. An 'Importance' Map of Signs and Symptoms to Classify Diabetic Polyneuropathy: An Exploratory Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Isabel C. N.; Suda, Eneida Yuri; Vigneron, Vincent; Sartor, Cristina Dallemole

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Early diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is critical for a good prognosis. We aimed to identify different groups of patients, based on the various common clinical signs and symptoms of DPN, that represent a progressive worsening of the disease before the onset of plantar ulceration or amputation. We also sought to identify the most important DPN-related variables that can discriminate between groups, thus representing the most informative variables for early detection. Methods In 193 diabetic patients, we assessed 16 DPN-related signs, symptoms, and foot characteristics, based on the literature and the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot. We used multiple correspondence analysis and the Kohonen algorithm to group the variables into micro and macro-classes and to identify clusters of patients that represent different DPN conditions. Results Four distinct groups were observed. One group showed no indication of DPN. The remaining groups were characterized by a progressive loss of the vibration perception, without a worsening of symptoms or tactile perception. The 2 intermediate groups presented different aspects of DPN: one showed mostly DPN symptoms and the other showed the incipient vibration impairment, callus and crack formation, and foot arch alteration. The fourth group showed more severe foot and DPN conditions, including ulceration and amputation, absence of vibration and tactile perception (irrespective of how many compromised foot areas), and worse foot deformities and callus and crack formation. Conclusion Vibration perception was more informative than tactile sensitivity in discriminating early DPN onset because its impairment was evident in more groups. Symptoms and callus and cracks did not discriminate the severity status and should be interpreted in association with other clinical variables. Reconsideration of the current screening techniques is needed to clinically determine the early onset of neuropathy using tactile

  4. Scanning proton microprobe analysis applied to wood and bark samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lövestam, N. E. G.; Johansson, E.-M.; Johansson, S. A. E.; Pallon, J.

    1990-04-01

    In this study the feasibility of applying scanning micro-PIXE to analysis of wood and bark samples is demonstrated. Elemental mapping of the analysed sections show the patterns of Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Some of these patterns can be related to the annual tree ring structure. It is observed that the variation of elements having an environmental character can be rather large within a single tree ring, thus illuminating possible difficulties when using tree ring sections as a pollution monitor. The variations in elemental concentrations when crossing from bark to wood are also shown to be smooth for some elements but rather abrupt for others.

  5. California's crisis: An exploratory analysis of lifestyle, energy use, and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossard, Marcia Hill

    Electricity is one of the most serious issues of the 21st century. Modern human societies have become completely dependent upon energy to power modern life---resulting in unwanted environmental effects. Although electricity itself is invisible, many of the most conspicuous household items consume the most electricity. The 2001 energy crisis in California provides a unique opportunity to study how people negotiated their lives during a time of perceived resource scarcity, increased electricity prices, and threats of blackouts. Combining cultural and environmental literatures, I argued that changes in resource availability (perceived or real) led to unsettled lives in which beliefs, rituals and ways of behaving began to be questioned---resulting in new patterns of action organized around lifestyle. As a conceptual framework, lifestyle can be useful for understanding the patterns of people's everyday lives, the objects they consume, and the degrees to which those lifestyles affect the environment. Using data from the California Residential Electricity Conservation Study (CRECS), this research explores the ways households navigated and used different conservation strategies during the summers of 2001 and 2002. Analysis of Behavioral Conservation Strategies (BCS) that require ongoing effort and attention by household residents in order to achieve successful conservation outcomes (e.g., turning off lights or regulating indoor temperature), and Consumer Investment Strategies (CIS) that are one-time purchases improving efficiency (e.g., purchase of an appliance or fixture) reveal different strategies of action over the two years. Wealth indicators and time constraints were less important for predicting conservation, while cultural differences and household composition were better predictors of conservation efforts. In addition, despite assumptions that people are unwilling to change their lifestyle in order to conserve electricity, households employed more strategies that

  6. Pilot Designed Aircraft Displays in General Aviation: An Exploratory Study and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, Cody R.

    From 2001-2011, the General Aviation (GA) fatal accident rate remained unchanged (Duquette & Dorr, 2014) with an overall stagnant accident rate between 2004 and 2013. The leading cause, loss of control in flight (NTSB, 2015b & 2015c) due to pilot inability to recognize approach to stall/spin conditions (NTSB, 2015b & 2016b). In 2013, there were 1,224 GA accidents in the U.S., accounting for 94% of all U.S. aviation accidents and 90% of all U.S. aviation fatalities that year (NTSB, 2015c). Aviation entails multiple challenges for pilots related to task management, procedural errors, perceptual distortions, and cognitive discrepancies. While machine errors in airplanes have continued to decrease over the years, human error still has not (NTSB, 2013). A preliminary analysis of a PC-based, Garmin G1000 flight deck was conducted with 3 professional pilots. Analyses revealed increased task load, opportunities for distraction, confusing perceptual ques, and hindered cognitive performance. Complex usage problems were deeply ingrained in the functionality of the system, forcing pilots to use fallible work arounds, add unnecessary steps, and memorize knob turns or button pushes. Modern computing now has the potential to free GA cockpit designs from knobs, soft keys, or limited display options. Dynamic digital displays might include changes in instrumentation or menu structuring depending on the phase of flight. Airspeed indicators could increase in size to become more salient during landing, simultaneously highlighting pitch angle on Attitude Indicators and automatically decluttering unnecessary information for landing. Likewise, Angle-of-Attack indicators demonstrate a great safety and performance advantage for pilots (Duquette & Dorr, 2014; NTSB, 2015b & 2016b), an instrument typically found in military platforms and now the Icon A5, light-sport aircraft (Icon, 2016). How does the design of pilots' environment---the cockpit---further influence their efficiency and

  7. Methodological Synthesis in Quantitative L2 Research: A Review of Reviews and a Case Study of Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke; Gonulal, Talip

    2015-01-01

    Research synthesis and meta-analysis provide a pathway to bring together findings in a given domain with greater systematicity, objectivity, and transparency than traditional reviews. The same techniques and corresponding benefits can be and have been applied to examine methodological practices in second language (L2) research (e.g., Plonsky,…

  8. Empirical modal decomposition applied to cardiac signals analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beya, O.; Jalil, B.; Fauvet, E.; Laligant, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present the method of empirical modal decomposition (EMD) applied to the electrocardiograms and phonocardiograms signals analysis and denoising. The objective of this work is to detect automatically cardiac anomalies of a patient. As these anomalies are localized in time, therefore the localization of all the events should be preserved precisely. The methods based on the Fourier Transform (TFD) lose the localization property [13] and in the case of Wavelet Transform (WT) which makes possible to overcome the problem of localization, but the interpretation remains still difficult to characterize the signal precisely. In this work we propose to apply the EMD (Empirical Modal Decomposition) which have very significant properties on pseudo periodic signals. The second section describes the algorithm of EMD. In the third part we present the result obtained on Phonocardiograms (PCG) and on Electrocardiograms (ECG) test signals. The analysis and the interpretation of these signals are given in this same section. Finally, we introduce an adaptation of the EMD algorithm which seems to be very efficient for denoising.

  9. Thermographic techniques applied to solar collector systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, A.

    1980-02-01

    The use of thermography to analyze large solar collector array systems under dynamic operating conditions is discussed. The research at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in this area has focused on thermographic techniques and equipment to determine temperature distributions, flow patterns, and air blockages in solar collectors. The results of this extensive study, covering many sites and types of collectors, illustrate the capabilities of infrared (IR) analysis as a qualitative analysis tool and operation and maintenance procedure when applied to large arrays. Thermographic analysis of most collector systems qualitatively showed relative temperature distributions that indicated balanced flow patterns. In three significant cases, blocked or broken collector arrays, which previously had gone undetected, were discovered. Using this analysis, validation studies of large computer codes could examine collector arrays for flow patterns or blockages that could cause disagreement between actual and predicted performance. Initial operation and balancing of large systems could be accomplished without complicated sensor systems not needed for normal operations. Maintenance personnel could quickly check their systems without climbing onto the roof and without complicated sensor systems.

  10. Automated SEM Modal Analysis Applied to the Diogenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, James J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of volume proportions of minerals, or modal analysis, is routinely accomplished by point counting on an optical microscope, but the process, particularly on brecciated samples such as the diogenite meteorites, is tedious and prone to error by misidentification of very small fragments, which may make up a significant volume of the sample. Precise volume percentage data can be gathered on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing digital imaging and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This form of automated phase analysis reduces error, and at the same time provides more information than could be gathered using simple point counting alone, such as particle morphology statistics and chemical analyses. We have previously studied major, minor, and trace-element chemistry of orthopyroxene from a suite of diogenites. This abstract describes the method applied to determine the modes on this same suite of meteorites and the results of that research. The modal abundances thus determined add additional information on the petrogenesis of the diogenites. In addition, low-abundance phases such as spinels were located for further analysis by this method.

  11. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 3:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study. An analysis of profit managers' and nonprofit managers' responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community have different technical communications practices. Five assumptions were established for the analysis. Profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community were found to have different technical communications practices for one of the five assumptions tested. It was, therefore, concluded that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community do not have different technical communications practices.

  12. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 2:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study. An analysis of managers' and nonmanagers' responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that aerospace managers and nonmanagers have different technical communications practices. Five assumptions were established for the analysis. Aerospace managers and nonmanagers were found to have different technical communications practices for three of the five assumptions tested. Although aerospace managers and nonmanagers were found to have different technical communications practices, the evidence was neither conclusive nor compelling that the presumption of difference in practices could be attributed to the duties performed by aerospace managers and nonmanagers.

  13. Applying cluster analysis to physics education research data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springuel, R. Padraic

    One major thrust of Physics Education Research (PER) is the identification of student ideas about specific physics concepts, both correct ideas and those that differ from the expert consensus. Typically the research process of eliciting the spectrum of student ideas involves the administration of specially designed questions to students. One major analysis task in PER is the sorting of these student responses into thematically coherent groups. This process is one which has previously been done by eye in PER. This thesis explores the possibility of using cluster analysis to perform the task in a more rigorous and less time-intensive fashion while making fewer assumptions about what the students are doing. Since this technique has not previously been used in PER, a summary of the various kinds of cluster analysis is included as well as a discussion of which might be appropriate for the task of sorting student responses into groups. Two example data sets (one based on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (DICE) the other looking at acceleration in two-dimensions (A2D) are examined in depth to demonstrate how cluster analysis can be applied to PER data and the various considerations which must be taken into account when doing so. In both cases, the techniques described in this thesis found 5 groups which contained about 90% of the students in the data set. The results of this application are compared to previous research on the topics covered by the two examples to demonstrate that cluster analysis can effectively uncover the same patterns in student responses that have already been identified.

  14. Soft tissue cephalometric analysis applied to regional Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Jay S.; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Zahid, Syed Naved

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Importance of soft tissue consideration in establishing treatment goals for orthodontics and orthognathic surgery has been recognized and various cephalometric analysis incorporating soft tissue parameters have evolved. The great variance in soft tissue drape of the human face and perception of esthetics exists and normative data based on one population group cannot be applied to all. The study was conducted to compare the standard soft tissue cephalometric analysis (STCA) norms with norms derived for population of western Uttar Pradesh region of India. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of lateral cephalograms taken in natural head position of 33 normal subjects (16 males, 17 females). The cephalograms were analyzed with soft tissue cephalometric analysis for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and the Student's t test was used to compare the difference in means between study population and standard STCA norms. Results: Compared with established STCA norms, females in our study had steeper maxillary occlusal plane, more proclined mandibular incisors, and less protrusive lips. Both males and females showed an overall decrease in facial lengths, less prominent midface and mandibular structures and more convex profile compared with established norms for the White population. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences were found in certain key parameters of STCA for western Uttar Pradesh population when compared with established norms. PMID:24665169

  15. Seismic analysis applied to the delimiting of a gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Ronquillo, G.; Navarro, M.; Lozada, M.; Tafolla, C.

    1996-08-01

    We present the results of correlating seismic models with petrophysical parameters and well logs to mark the limits of a gas reservoir in sand lenses. To fulfill the objectives of the study, we used a data processing sequence that included wavelet manipulation, complex trace attributes and pseudovelocities inversion, along with several quality control schemes to insure proper amplitude preservation. Based on the analysis and interpretation of the seismic sections, several areas of interest were selected to apply additional signal treatment as preconditioning for petrophysical inversion. Signal classification was performed to control the amplitudes along the horizons of interest, and to be able to find an indirect interpretation of lithologies. Additionally, seismic modeling was done to support the results obtained and to help integrate the interpretation. The study proved to be a good auxiliary tool in the location of the probable extension of the gas reservoir in sand lenses.

  16. Finite Element Analysis Applied to Dentoalveolar Trauma: Methodology Description

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, B. R.; Moreira Neto, J. J. S.; da Silva, F. I.; de Aguiar, A. S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated. PMID:21991463

  17. Applied Behavior Analysis is a Science and, Therefore, Progressive.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Justin B; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-02-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful progress for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe this approach as progressive. In a progressive approach to ABA, the therapist employs a structured yet flexible process, which is contingent upon and responsive to child progress. We will describe progressive ABA, contrast it to reductionist ABA, and provide rationales for both the substance and intent of ABA as a progressive scientific method for improving conditions of social relevance for individuals with ASD. PMID:26373767

  18. Image analysis technique applied to lock-exchange gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Helena I. S.; Adduce, Claudia; Alves, Elsa; Franca, Mário J.

    2013-04-01

    An image analysis technique is used to estimate the two-dimensional instantaneous density field of unsteady gravity currents produced by full-depth lock-release of saline water. An experiment reproducing a gravity current was performed in a 3.0 m long, 0.20 m wide and 0.30 m deep Perspex flume with horizontal smooth bed and recorded with a 25 Hz CCD video camera under controlled light conditions. Using dye concentration as a tracer, a calibration procedure was established for each pixel in the image relating the amount of dye uniformly distributed in the tank and the greyscale values in the corresponding images. The results are evaluated and corrected by applying the mass conservation principle within the experimental tank. The procedure is a simple way to assess the time-varying density distribution within the gravity current, allowing the investigation of gravity current dynamics and mixing processes.

  19. Applying machine learning techniques to DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlik, J.W. . Dept. of Computer Sciences); Noordewier, M.O. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1992-01-01

    We are primarily developing a machine teaming (ML) system that modifies existing knowledge about specific types of biological sequences. It does this by considering sample members and nonmembers of the sequence motif being teamed. Using this information, our teaming algorithm produces a more accurate representation of the knowledge needed to categorize future sequences. Specifically, our KBANN algorithm maps inference rules about a given recognition task into a neural network. Neural network training techniques then use the training examples to refine these inference rules. We call these rules a domain theory, following the convention in the machine teaming community. We have been applying this approach to several problems in DNA sequence analysis. In addition, we have been extending the capabilities of our teaming system along several dimensions. We have also been investigating parallel algorithms that perform sequence alignments in the presence of frameshift errors.

  20. Applying machine learning techniques to DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlik, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing a machine learning system that modifies existing knowledge about specific types of biological sequences. It does this by considering sample members and nonmembers of the sequence motif being learned. Using this information (which we call a domain theory''), our learning algorithm produces a more accurate representation of the knowledge needed to categorize future sequences. Specifically, the KBANN algorithm maps inference rules, such as consensus sequences, into a neural (connectionist) network. Neural network training techniques then use the training examples of refine these inference rules. We have been applying this approach to several problems in DNA sequence analysis and have also been extending the capabilities of our learning system along several dimensions.

  1. Robust regression applied to fractal/multifractal analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portilla, F.; Valencia, J. L.; Tarquis, A. M.; Saa-Requejo, A.

    2012-04-01

    Fractal and multifractal are concepts that have grown increasingly popular in recent years in the soil analysis, along with the development of fractal models. One of the common steps is to calculate the slope of a linear fit commonly using least squares method. This shouldn't be a special problem, however, in many situations using experimental data the researcher has to select the range of scales at which is going to work neglecting the rest of points to achieve the best linearity that in this type of analysis is necessary. Robust regression is a form of regression analysis designed to circumvent some limitations of traditional parametric and non-parametric methods. In this method we don't have to assume that the outlier point is simply an extreme observation drawn from the tail of a normal distribution not compromising the validity of the regression results. In this work we have evaluated the capacity of robust regression to select the points in the experimental data used trying to avoid subjective choices. Based on this analysis we have developed a new work methodology that implies two basic steps: • Evaluation of the improvement of linear fitting when consecutive points are eliminated based on R p-value. In this way we consider the implications of reducing the number of points. • Evaluation of the significance of slope difference between fitting with the two extremes points and fitted with the available points. We compare the results applying this methodology and the common used least squares one. The data selected for these comparisons are coming from experimental soil roughness transect and simulated based on middle point displacement method adding tendencies and noise. The results are discussed indicating the advantages and disadvantages of each methodology. Acknowledgements Funding provided by CEIGRAM (Research Centre for the Management of Agricultural and Environmental Risks) and by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no

  2. A Hygrothermal Risk Analysis Applied to Residential Unvented Attics

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Aresidential building, constructed with an unvented attic, is acommonroof assembly in the United States.The expected hygrothermal performance and service life of the roof are difficult to estimate due to a number of varying parameters.Typical parameters expected to vary are the climate, direction, and slope of the roof as well as the radiation properties of the surface material. Furthermore, influential parameters are indoor moisture excess, air leakages through the attic floor, and leakages from air-handling unit and ventilation ducts. In addition, the type of building materials such as the insulation material and closed or open cell spray polyurethane foam will influence the future performance of the roof. A development of a simulation model of the roof assembly will enable a risk and sensitivity analysis, in which the most important varying parameters on the hygrothermal performance can be determined. The model is designed to perform probabilistic simulations using mathematical and hygrothermal calculation tools. The varying input parameters can be chosen from existing measurements, simulations, or standards. An analysis is applied to determine the risk of consequences, such as mold growth, rot, or energy demand of the HVAC unit. Furthermore, the future performance of the roof can be simulated in different climates to facilitate the design of an efficient and reliable roof construction with the most suitable technical solution and to determine the most appropriate building materials for a given climate

  3. Automated speech analysis applied to laryngeal disease categorization.

    PubMed

    Gelzinis, A; Verikas, A; Bacauskiene, M

    2008-07-01

    The long-term goal of the work is a decision support system for diagnostics of laryngeal diseases. Colour images of vocal folds, a voice signal, and questionnaire data are the information sources to be used in the analysis. This paper is concerned with automated analysis of a voice signal applied to screening of laryngeal diseases. The effectiveness of 11 different feature sets in classification of voice recordings of the sustained phonation of the vowel sound /a/ into a healthy and two pathological classes, diffuse and nodular, is investigated. A k-NN classifier, SVM, and a committee build using various aggregation options are used for the classification. The study was made using the mixed gender database containing 312 voice recordings. The correct classification rate of 84.6% was achieved when using an SVM committee consisting of four members. The pitch and amplitude perturbation measures, cepstral energy features, autocorrelation features as well as linear prediction cosine transform coefficients were amongst the feature sets providing the best performance. In the case of two class classification, using recordings from 79 subjects representing the pathological and 69 the healthy class, the correct classification rate of 95.5% was obtained from a five member committee. Again the pitch and amplitude perturbation measures provided the best performance. PMID:18346812

  4. Multitaper Spectral Analysis and Wavelet Denoising Applied to Helioseismic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, R. W.; Gu, Y.; Hill, F.; Stark, P. B.; Fodor, I. K.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of solar normal mode frequencies from helioseismic observations can be improved by using Multitaper Spectral Analysis (MTSA) to estimate spectra from the time series, then using wavelet denoising of the log spectra. MTSA leads to a power spectrum estimate with reduced variance and better leakage properties than the conventional periodogram. Under the assumption of stationarity and mild regularity conditions, the log multitaper spectrum has a statistical distribution that is approximately Gaussian, so wavelet denoising is asymptotically an optimal method to reduce the noise in the estimated spectra. We find that a single m-upsilon spectrum benefits greatly from MTSA followed by wavelet denoising, and that wavelet denoising by itself can be used to improve m-averaged spectra. We compare estimates using two different 5-taper estimates (Stepian and sine tapers) and the periodogram estimate, for GONG time series at selected angular degrees l. We compare those three spectra with and without wavelet-denoising, both visually, and in terms of the mode parameters estimated from the pre-processed spectra using the GONG peak-fitting algorithm. The two multitaper estimates give equivalent results. The number of modes fitted well by the GONG algorithm is 20% to 60% larger (depending on l and the temporal frequency) when applied to the multitaper estimates than when applied to the periodogram. The estimated mode parameters (frequency, amplitude and width) are comparable for the three power spectrum estimates, except for modes with very small mode widths (a few frequency bins), where the multitaper spectra broadened the modest compared with the periodogram. We tested the influence of the number of tapers used and found that narrow modes at low n values are broadened to the extent that they can no longer be fit if the number of tapers is too large. For helioseismic time series of this length and temporal resolution, the optimal number of tapers is less than 10.

  5. First Attempt of Applying Factor Analysis in Moving Base Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Roman, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    For gravimetric observation systems on mobile platforms (land/sea/airborne), the Low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) issue is the main barrier to achieving an accurate, high resolution gravity signal. Normally, low-pass filters (Childers et al 1999, Forsberg et al 2000, Kwon and Jekeli 2000, Hwang et al 2006) are applied to smooth or remove the high frequency "noise" - even though some of the high frequency component is not necessarily noise. This is especially true for aerogravity surveys such as those from the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project. These gravity survey flights have a spatial resolution of 10 km between tracks but higher resolution along track. The along track resolution is improved due to the lower flight height (6.1 km), equipment sensitivity, and improved modeling of potential errors. Additionally, these surveys suffer from a loss of signal power due to the increased flight elevation. Hence, application of a low-pass filter removes possible signal sensed in the along-track direction that might otherwise prove useful for various geophysical and geodetic applications. Some cutting-edge developments in Wavelets and Artificial Neural Networks had been successfully applied for obtaining improved results (Li 2008 and 2011, Liang and Liu 2013). However, a clearer and fundamental understanding of the error characteristics will further improve the quality of the gravity estimates out of these gravimetric systems. Here, instead of using any predefined basis function or any a priori model, the idea of Factor Analysis is first employed to try to extract the underlying factors of the noises in the systems. Real data sets collected by both land vehicle and aircraft will be processed as the examples.

  6. Correlation Network Analysis Applied to Complex Biofilm Communities

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Pinedo, Ana E.; Paster, Bruce; Teles, Ricardo; Frias-Lopez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the human microbiome makes it difficult to reveal organizational principles of the community and even more challenging to generate testable hypotheses. It has been suggested that in the gut microbiome species such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are keystone in maintaining the stability and functional adaptability of the microbial community. In this study, we investigate the interspecies associations in a complex microbial biofilm applying systems biology principles. Using correlation network analysis we identified bacterial modules that represent important microbial associations within the oral community. We used dental plaque as a model community because of its high diversity and the well known species-species interactions that are common in the oral biofilm. We analyzed samples from healthy individuals as well as from patients with periodontitis, a polymicrobial disease. Using results obtained by checkerboard hybridization on cultivable bacteria we identified modules that correlated well with microbial complexes previously described. Furthermore, we extended our analysis using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), which includes a large number of bacterial species, among them uncultivated organisms present in the mouth. Two distinct microbial communities appeared in healthy individuals while there was one major type in disease. Bacterial modules in all communities did not overlap, indicating that bacteria were able to effectively re-associate with new partners depending on the environmental conditions. We then identified hubs that could act as keystone species in the bacterial modules. Based on those results we then cultured a not-yet-cultivated microorganism, Tannerella sp. OT286 (clone BU063). After two rounds of enrichment by a selected helper (Prevotella oris OT311) we obtained colonies of Tannerella sp. OT286 growing on blood agar plates. This system-level approach would open the possibility of manipulating microbial

  7. Non-Harmonic Analysis Applied to Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xu; Uchida, Tetsuya; Hirobayashi, Shigeki; Chong, Changho; Morosawa, Atsushi; Totsuka, Koki; Suzuki, Takuya

    2012-02-01

    A new processing technique called non-harmonic analysis (NHA) is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Conventional Fourier-domain OCT employs the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), which depends on the window function and length. The axial resolution of the OCT image, calculated by using DFT, is inversely proportional to the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the wavelength range. The FWHM of wavelength range is limited by the sweeping range of the source in swept-source OCT and it is limited by the number of CCD pixels in spectral-domain OCT. However, the NHA process does not have such constraints; NHA can resolve high frequencies irrespective of the window function and the frame length of the sampled data. In this study, the NHA process is described and it is applied to OCT imaging. It is compared with OCT images based on the DFT. To demonstrate the benefits of using NHA for OCT, we perform OCT imaging with NHA of an onion skin. The results reveal that NHA can achieve an image resolution equivalent that of a 100-nm sweep range using a significantly reduced wavelength range. They also reveal the potential of using this technique to achieve high-resolution imaging without using a broadband source. However, the long calculation times required for NHA must be addressed if it is to be used in clinical applications.

  8. Applying DNA computation to intractable problems in social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rick C S; Yang, Stephen J H

    2010-09-01

    From ancient times to the present day, social networks have played an important role in the formation of various organizations for a range of social behaviors. As such, social networks inherently describe the complicated relationships between elements around the world. Based on mathematical graph theory, social network analysis (SNA) has been developed in and applied to various fields such as Web 2.0 for Web applications and product developments in industries, etc. However, some definitions of SNA, such as finding a clique, N-clique, N-clan, N-club and K-plex, are NP-complete problems, which are not easily solved via traditional computer architecture. These challenges have restricted the uses of SNA. This paper provides DNA-computing-based approaches with inherently high information density and massive parallelism. Using these approaches, we aim to solve the three primary problems of social networks: N-clique, N-clan, and N-club. Their accuracy and feasible time complexities discussed in the paper will demonstrate that DNA computing can be used to facilitate the development of SNA. PMID:20566337

  9. To apply or not to apply: a survey analysis of grant writing costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, Ted; von Hippel, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads. PMID:25738742

  10. To Apply or Not to Apply: A Survey Analysis of Grant Writing Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    von Hippel, Ted; von Hippel, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads. PMID:25738742

  11. Factor Analysis Applied the VFY-218 RCS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Alex; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Present statistical factor analysis of computer simulations and measurement data for the VFY-218 configuration. Factor analysis try to quantify the statistical grouping of measurements and simulations.

  12. "Bringing home more than a paycheck:" an exploratory analysis of Black lesbians' experiences of stress and coping in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Brooks, Kelly; Ritz, Susan Faye

    2008-01-01

    Although the workplace stress that Black women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people experience due to prejudice and discrimination has been well-documented in the social science literature, much of this literature focuses on Black women or LGBTs as if these groups were distinct and mutually exclusive. Consequently, there is a void of theory and research on the workplace stress that Black lesbians experience. This qualitative study involved exploratory analyses of workplace stress due to race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation, and coping strategies among a predominantly middle-class, highly educated sample of 19 Black lesbians between the ages of 26 and 68. Four workplace stressors emerged, those relevant to: heterosexism/ sexual identity; racism/race; sexism/sex/gender; and intersections of race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation. Three primary coping strategies emerged: being out and managing being out, covering their sexual orientation, and confronting or educating coworkers about prejudice and discrimination. PMID:19042294

  13. An exploratory analysis of American Indian children's cultural engagement, fluid cognitive skills, and standardized verbal IQ scores.

    PubMed

    Tsethlikai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory cross-sectional study examined fluid cognitive skills and standardized verbal IQ scores in relation to cultural engagement amongst Tohono O'odham children (N = 99; ages 7 to 12 years). Guardians with higher socioeconomic status engaged their children in more cultural activities, and participation in more cultural activities contributed to higher standardized verbal IQ scores. Mean cognitive skill scores varied as a function of age and Tohono O'odham language knowledge. Children who understood and/or spoke Tohono O'odham started out with lower average scores than did children with no language knowledge, but mean scores generally increased in the older age groups such that they were equal to or higher than those of nonspeakers by age 9. Children with higher fluid cognitive skill scores had higher standardized verbal IQ scores than did children with lower scores. PMID:21244158

  14. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Cho, Ying-Chun; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Hu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Li-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol) and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systolic blood pressure is significantly, negatively associated with academic performance, both in male and female subjects. BMI and waist circumference are associated with verbal reasoning performance with an inverse U-shaped pattern, suggesting that both low and high BMI/waist circumference may be associated with lower verbal reasoning performance. PMID:26137484

  15. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Cho, Ying-Chun; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Hu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Li-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol) and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systolic blood pressure is significantly, negatively associated with academic performance, both in male and female subjects. BMI and waist circumference are associated with verbal reasoning performance with an inverse U-shaped pattern, suggesting that both low and high BMI/waist circumference may be associated with lower verbal reasoning performance. PMID:26137484

  16. Phase plane analysis: applying chaos theory in health care.

    PubMed

    Priesmeyer, H R; Sharp, L F

    1995-01-01

    This article applies the new science of nonlinearity to administrative issues and accounts receivable management in health care, and it provides a new perspective on common operating and quality control measures. PMID:10151628

  17. Cognitive task analysis: Techniques applied to airborne weapons training

    SciTech Connect

    Terranova, M.; Seamster, T.L.; Snyder, C.E.; Treitler, I.E.; Carlow Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1989-01-01

    This is an introduction to cognitive task analysis as it may be used in Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) training development. The focus of a cognitive task analysis is human knowledge, and its methods of analysis are those developed by cognitive psychologists. This paper explains the role that cognitive task analysis and presents the findings from a preliminary cognitive task analysis of airborne weapons operators. Cognitive task analysis is a collection of powerful techniques that are quantitative, computational, and rigorous. The techniques are currently not in wide use in the training community, so examples of this methodology are presented along with the results. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Exploratory data analysis and clustering of multivariate spatial hydrogeological data by means of GEO3DSOM, a variant of Kohonen's Self-Organizing Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, L.; Bañão, F.; Lobo, V.; Dassargues, A.

    2006-07-01

    The use of unsupervised artificial neural network techniques like the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm has proven to be a useful tool in exploratory data analysis and clustering of multivariate data sets. In this study a variant of the SOM-algorithm is proposed, the GEO3DSOM, capable of explicitly incorporating three-dimensional spatial knowledge into the algorithm. The performance of the GEO3DSOM is compared to the performance of the standard SOM in analyzing an artificial data set and a hydrochemical data set. The hydrochemical data set consists of 141 groundwater samples collected in two detritic, phreatic, Cenozoic aquifers in Central Belgium. The standard SOM proves to be more adequate in representing the structure of the data set and to explore relationships between variables. The GEO3DSOM on the other hand performs better in creating spatially coherent groups based on the data.

  19. An economic and financial exploratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.

  20. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  1. Optical methods of stress analysis applied to cracked components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    After briefly describing the principles of frozen stress photoelastic and moire interferometric analyses, and the corresponding algorithms for converting optical data from each method into stress intensity factors (SIF), the methods are applied to the determination of crack shapes, SIF determination, crack closure displacement fields, and pre-crack damage mechanisms in typical aircraft component configurations.

  2. Applying Research: An Analysis of Texts for Consumers of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erion, R. L.; Steinley, Gary

    The critical reading of research involves: (1) comprehension, (2) evaluation, and (3) application. A study examined six recently published textbooks to determine to what extent they attempt to help students learn to apply educational research; these texts were specifically designed for "consumers" of research (i.e., critical readers of research)…

  3. Duration Analysis Applied to the Adoption of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega-Cervera, Juan A.; Gordillo, Isabel Cuadrado

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes knowledge acquisition in a sample of 264 pupils in 9 Spanish elementary schools, using time as a dependent variable. Introduces psycho-pedagogical, pedagogical, and social variables into a hazard model applied to the reading process. Auditory discrimination (not intelligence or visual perception) most significantly influences learning to…

  4. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  5. Applying Model Analysis to a Resource-Based Analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Trevor I.; Wittmann, Michael C.; Carter, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we analyzed the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation in terms of a resources-based model that allows for clustering of questions so as to provide useful information on how students correctly or incorrectly reason about physics. In this paper, we apply model analysis to show that the associated model plots provide more information…

  6. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  7. Modal analysis applied to circular, rectangular, and coaxial waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in the analysis of various waveguide components and feedhorns using Modal Analysis (Mode Matching Method) are summarized. A brief description of the theory is presented, and the important features of the method are pointed out. Specific examples in circular, rectangular, and coaxial waveguides are included, with comparisons between the theory and experimental measurements. Extensions to the methods are described.

  8. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics.

  9. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  10. Quantifying microwear on experimental Mistassini quartzite scrapers: preliminary results of exploratory research using LSCM and scale-sensitive fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Stemp, W James; Lerner, Harry J; Kristant, Elaine H

    2013-01-01

    Although previous use-wear studies involving quartz and quartzite have been undertaken by archaeologists, these are comparatively few in number. Moreover, there has been relatively little effort to quantify use-wear on stone tools made from quartzite. The purpose of this article is to determine the effectiveness of a measurement system, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), to document the surface roughness or texture of experimental Mistassini quartzite scrapers used on two different contact materials (fresh and dry deer hide). As in previous studies using LSCM on chert, flint, and obsidian, this exploratory study incorporates a mathematical algorithm that permits the discrimination of surface roughness based on comparisons at multiple scales. Specifically, we employ measures of relative area (RelA) coupled with the F-test to discriminate used from unused stone tool surfaces, as well as surfaces of quartzite scrapers used on dry and fresh deer hide. Our results further demonstrate the effect of raw material variation on use-wear formation and its documentation using LSCM and RelA. PMID:22688593

  11. Factorial kriging analysis applied to geological data from petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquet, O.

    1989-10-01

    A regionalized variable, thickness of the reservoir layer, from a gas field is decomposed by factorial kriging analysis. Maps of the obtained components may be associated with depositional environments that are favorable for petroleum exploration.

  12. Neutron-activation analysis applied to copper ores and artifacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, N. F.

    1970-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is used for quantitative identification of trace metals in copper. Establishing a unique fingerprint of impurities in Michigan copper would enable identification of artifacts made from this copper.

  13. Joint regression analysis and AMMI model applied to oat improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A.; Oliveira, T. A.; Mejza, S.

    2012-09-01

    In our work we present an application of some biometrical methods useful in genotype stability evaluation, namely AMMI model, Joint Regression Analysis (JRA) and multiple comparison tests. A genotype stability analysis of oat (Avena Sativa L.) grain yield was carried out using data of the Portuguese Plant Breeding Board, sample of the 22 different genotypes during the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 in six locations. In Ferreira et al. (2006) the authors state the relevance of the regression models and of the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI) model, to study and to estimate phenotypic stability effects. As computational techniques we use the Zigzag algorithm to estimate the regression coefficients and the agricolae-package available in R software for AMMI model analysis.

  14. Orbit Response Matrix Analysis Applied at PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Wolski, A.; Ecklund, S.; Safranek, J.A.; Tenenbaum, P.; Terebilo, A.; Turner, J.L.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

    2005-05-17

    The analysis of orbit response matrices has been used very successfully to measure and correct the gradient and skew gradient distribution in many accelerators. It allows determination of an accurately calibrated model of the coupled machine lattice, which then can be used to calculate the corrections necessary to improve coupling, dynamic aperture and ultimately luminosity. At PEP-II, the Matlab version of LOCO has been used to analyze coupled response matrices for both the LER and the HER. The large number of elements in PEP-II and the very complicated interaction region present unique challenges to the data analysis. All necessary tools to make the analysis method useable at PEP-II have been implemented and LOCO can now be used as a routine tool for lattice diagnostic.

  15. The colour analysis method applied to homogeneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halász, Amadé; Halmai, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    Computer-aided colour analysis can facilitate cyclostratigraphic studies. Here we report on a case study involving the development of a digital colour analysis method for examination of the Boda Claystone Formation which is the most suitable in Hungary for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Rock type colours are reddish brown or brownish red, or any shade between brown and red. The method presented here could be used to differentiate similar colours and to identify gradual transitions between these; the latter are of great importance in a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the succession. Geophysical well-logging has demonstrated the existence of characteristic cyclic units, as detected by colour and natural gamma. Based on our research, colour, natural gamma and lithology correlate well. For core Ib-4, these features reveal the presence of orderly cycles with thicknesses of roughly 0.64 to 13 metres. Once the core has been scanned, this is a time- and cost-effective method.

  16. Systems design analysis applied to launch vehicle configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R.; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    As emphasis shifts from optimum-performance aerospace systems to least lift-cycle costs, systems designs must seek, adapt, and innovate cost improvement techniques in design through operations. The systems design process of concept, definition, and design was assessed for the types and flow of total quality management techniques that may be applicable in a launch vehicle systems design analysis. Techniques discussed are task ordering, quality leverage, concurrent engineering, Pareto's principle, robustness, quality function deployment, criteria, and others. These cost oriented techniques are as applicable to aerospace systems design analysis as to any large commercial system.

  17. On the relation between applied behavior analysis and positive behavioral support

    PubMed Central

    Carr, James E.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2002-01-01

    Anderson and Freeman (2000) recently defined positive behavioral support (PBS) as a systematic approach to the delivery of clinical and educational services that is rooted in behavior analysis. However, the recent literature contains varied definitions of PBS as well as discrepant notions regarding the relation between applied behavior analysis and PBS. After summarizing common definitional characteristics of PBS from the literature, we conclude that PBS is comprised almost exclusively of techniques and values originating in applied behavior analysis. We then discuss the relations between applied behavior analysis and PBS that have been proposed in the literature. Finally, we discuss possible implications of considering PBS a field separate from applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478389

  18. Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning…

  19. Applying Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark; Baker, Jonathan C.; Sadowski, Katherine Ann

    2011-01-01

    Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior has demonstrated a fair amount of utility to teach language to children with autism and other various disorders. However, the learning of language can be forgotten, as is the case for many elderly suffering from dementia or other degenerative diseases. It appears possible that Skinner's operants may…

  20. Applying Score Analysis to a Rehearsal Pedagogy of Expressive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byo, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The discoveries of score analysis (e.g., minor seventh chord, ostinato, phrase elision, melodic fragment, half cadence) are more than just compositional techniques or music vocabulary. They are sounds--fascinating, storytelling, dynamic modes of expression--that when approached as such enrich the rehearsal experience. This article presents a…

  1. Action, Content and Identity in Applied Genre Analysis for ESP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, John

    2011-01-01

    Genres are staged, structured, communicative events, motivated by various communicative purposes, and performed by members of specific discourse communities (Swales 1990; Bhatia 1993, 2004; Berkenkotter & Huckin 1995). Since its inception, with the two seminal works on the topic by Swales (1990) and Bhatia (1993), genre analysis has taken pride of…

  2. Applied Bibliometrics: Using Citation Analysis in the Journal Submission Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Michael D.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of citation analysis as an effective tool for scholars to determine what journals would be appropriate for publication of their work. Calculating citation distance is explained, and a study with economics journals is described that computed citation distance between previously published articles and journals in the field. (12…

  3. Applying MORT maintenance safety analysis in Finnish industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuhilehto, Kaarin; Virolainen, Kimmo

    1992-02-01

    A safety analysis method based on MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree) method, especially on the version developed for safety considerations in the evaluation of maintenance programs, is presented. The MORT maintenance safety analysis is intended especially for the use maintenance safety management. The analysis helps managers evaluate the goals of their safety work and measures taken to reach them. The analysis is done by a team or teams. The team ought to have expert knowledge of the organization both vertically and horizontally in order to be able to identify factors that may contribute to accidents or other interruptions in the maintenance work. Identification is made by using the MORT maintenance key question set as a check list. The questions check the way safety matters are connnected with the maintenance planning and managing, as well as the safety management itself. In the second stage, means to eliminate the factors causing problems are developed. New practices are established to improve safety of maintenance planning and managing in the enterprise.

  4. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  5. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  6. Best practices: applying management analysis of excellence to immunization.

    PubMed

    Wishner, Amy; Aronson, Jerold; Kohrt, Alan; Norton, Gary

    2005-01-01

    The authors applied business management tools to analyze and promote excellence and to evaluate differences between average and above-average immunization peformers in private practices. The authors conducted a pilot study of 10 private practices in Pennsylvania using tools common in management to assess practices' organizational climate and managerial style. Authoritative and coaching styles of physician leaders were common to both groups. Managerial styles that emphasized higher levels of clarity and responsibility managerial styles were evident in the large practices; and rewards and flexibility styles were higher in the small above-average practices. The findings of this pilot study match results seen in high performers in other industries. It concludes that the authoritative style appears to have the most impact on performance. It has interesting implications for training/behavior change to improve immunization rates, along with traditional medical interventions. PMID:15921143

  7. An Exploratory Case-Only Analysis of Gene-Hazardous Air Pollutant Interactions and the Risk of Childhood Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Philip J.; Lee, Laura J.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Bondy, Melissa L.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence that exposure to chlorinated solvents may be associated with childhood medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (M/PNET) risk. Animal models suggest genes related to detoxification and DNA repair are important in the carcinogenicity of these pollutants, however, there have been no human studies assessing the modifying effects of these genotypes on the association between chlorinated solvents and childhood M/PNET risk. Procedure We conducted a case-only study to evaluate census tract-level exposure to chlorinated solvents and the risk of childhood M/PNET in the context of detoxification and DNA repair genotypes. Cases (n = 98) were obtained from Texas Children’s Hospital and MD Anderson Cancer Center. Key genotypes (n = 22) were selected from the Illumina Human 1M Quad SNP Chip. Exposure to chlorinated solvents (methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride) was estimated from the U.S. EPA’s 1999 Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN). Logistic regression was used to estimate the case-only odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results There were 11 significant gene-environment interactions associated with childhood M/PNET risk. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, only the interaction between high trichloroethylene levels and OGG1 rs293795 significantly increased the risk of childhood M/PNET risk (OR = 9.24, 95% CI: 2.24, 38.24, Q = 0.04). Conclusions This study provides an initial assessment of the interaction between ambient levels of chlorinated solvents and potentially relevant genotypes on childhood M/PNET risk. Our results are exploratory and must be validated in animal models, as well as additional human studies. PMID:22389292

  8. A value analysis model applied to the management of amblyopia.

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, G R; Bane, M C; Stager, D R; Berry, P M; Wright, W W

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the value of amblyopia-related services by utilizing a health value model (HVM). Cost and quality criteria are evaluated in accordance with the interests of patients, physicians, and purchasers. METHODS: We applied an HVM to a hypothetical statistical ("median") child with amblyopia whose visual acuity is 20/80 and to a group of children with amblyopia who are managed by our practice. We applied the model to calculate the value of these services by evaluating the responses of patients and physicians and relating these responses to clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The consensus value of care for the hypothetical median child was calculated to be 0.406 (of 1.000). For those children managed in our practice, the calculated value is 0.682. Clinically, 79% achieved 20/40 or better visual acuity, and the mean final visual acuity was 0.2 logMAR (20/32). Value appraisals revealed significant concerns about the financial aspects of amblyopia-related services, particularly among physicians. Patients rated services more positively than did physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Amblyopia care is difficult, sustained, and important work that requires substantial sensitivity to and support of children and families. Compliance and early detection are essential to success. The value of amblyopia services is rated significantly higher by patients than by physicians. Relative to the measured value, amblyopia care is undercompensated. The HVM is useful to appraise clinical service delivery and its variation. The costs of failure and the benefits of success are high; high-value amblyopia care yields substantial dividends and should be commensurately compensated in the marketplace. PMID:10703133

  9. Exploratory and spatial data analysis (EDA-SDA) for determining regional background levels and anomalies of potentially toxic elements in soils from Catorce-Matehuala, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiprés, J.A.; Castro-Larragoitia, J.; Monroy, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The threshold between geochemical background and anomalies can be influenced by the methodology selected for its estimation. Environmental evaluations, particularly those conducted in mineralized areas, must consider this when trying to determinate the natural geochemical status of a study area, quantifying human impacts, or establishing soil restoration values for contaminated sites. Some methods in environmental geochemistry incorporate the premise that anomalies (natural or anthropogenic) and background data are characterized by their own probabilistic distributions. One of these methods uses exploratory data analysis (EDA) on regional geochemical data sets coupled with a geographic information system (GIS) to spatially understand the processes that influence the geochemical landscape in a technique that can be called a spatial data analysis (SDA). This EDA-SDA methodology was used to establish the regional background range from the area of Catorce-Matehuala in north-central Mexico. Probability plots of the data, particularly for those areas affected by human activities, show that the regional geochemical background population is composed of smaller subpopulations associated with factors such as soil type and parent material. This paper demonstrates that the EDA-SDA method offers more certainty in defining thresholds between geochemical background and anomaly than a numeric technique, making it a useful tool for regional geochemical landscape analysis and environmental geochemistry studies.

  10. Setting events in applied behavior analysis: Toward a conceptual and methodological expansion

    PubMed Central

    Wahler, Robert G.; Fox, James J.

    1981-01-01

    The contributions of applied behavior analysis as a natural science approach to the study of human behavior are acknowledged. However, it is also argued that applied behavior analysis has provided limited access to the full range of environmental events that influence socially significant behavior. Recent changes in applied behavior analysis to include analysis of side effects and social validation represent ways in which the traditional applied behavior analysis conceptual and methodological model has been profitably expanded. A third area of expansion, the analysis of setting events, is proposed by the authors. The historical development of setting events as a behavior influence concept is traced. Modifications of the basic applied behavior analysis methodology and conceptual systems that seem necessary to setting event analysis are discussed and examples of descriptive and experimental setting event analyses are presented. PMID:16795646

  11. Nested sampling applied in Bayesian room-acoustics decay analysis.

    PubMed

    Jasa, Tomislav; Xiang, Ning

    2012-11-01

    Room-acoustic energy decays often exhibit single-rate or multiple-rate characteristics in a wide variety of rooms/halls. Both the energy decay order and decay parameter estimation are of practical significance in architectural acoustics applications, representing two different levels of Bayesian probabilistic inference. This paper discusses a model-based sound energy decay analysis within a Bayesian framework utilizing the nested sampling algorithm. The nested sampling algorithm is specifically developed to evaluate the Bayesian evidence required for determining the energy decay order with decay parameter estimates as a secondary result. Taking the energy decay analysis in architectural acoustics as an example, this paper demonstrates that two different levels of inference, decay model-selection and decay parameter estimation, can be cohesively accomplished by the nested sampling algorithm. PMID:23145609

  12. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  13. LAMQS analysis applied to ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Caridi, F.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, A.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; Caltabiano, M.; Castrizio, E. D.; Paniz, E.; Salici, A.

    2010-05-01

    Some Egyptian bronze coins, dated VI-VII sec A.D. are analyzed through different physical techniques in order to compare their composition and morphology and to identify their origin and the type of manufacture. The investigations have been performed by using micro-invasive analysis, such as Laser Ablation and Mass Quadrupole Spectrometry (LAMQS), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Electronic (SEM) and Optical Microscopy, Surface Profile Analysis (SPA) and density measurements. Results indicate that the coins have a similar bulk composition but significant differences have been evidenced due to different constituents of the patina, bulk alloy composition, isotopic ratios, density and surface morphology. The results are in agreement with the archaeological expectations, indicating that the coins have been produced in two different Egypt sites: Alexandria and Antinoupolis. A group of fake coins produced in Alexandria in the same historical period is also identified.

  14. Applying hydraulic transient analysis: The Grizzly Hydro Project

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.H.; Stutsman, R.D. )

    1992-04-01

    No matter the size of the hydro plant, if it has a long waterway and will operate in peaking mode, the project designer needs to address the issue of hydraulic transients-known as water hammer-early in the design. This article describes the application of transient analysis to the design of a 20-MW hydro plant in California. In this case, a Howell Bunger valve was used as a pressure regulating valve to control transient pressures and speed rise.

  15. Applying thiouracil (TU)-tagging for mouse transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Leslie; Karfilis, Kate V.; Miller, Michael R.; Doe, Chris Q.; Stankunas, Kryn

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling is a powerful approach to study mouse development, physiology, and disease models. Here, we describe a protocol for mouse thiouracil-tagging (TU-tagging), a transcriptome analysis technology that includes in vivo covalent labeling, purification, and analysis of cell type-specific RNA. TU-tagging enables 1) the isolation of RNA from a given cell population of a complex tissue, avoiding transcriptional changes induced by cell isolation trauma, and 2) the identification of actively transcribed RNAs and not pre-existing transcripts. Therefore, in contrast to other cell-specific transcriptional profiling methods based on purification of tagged ribosomes or nuclei, TU-tagging provides a direct examination of transcriptional regulation. We describe how to: 1) deliver 4-thiouracil to transgenic mice to thio-label cell lineage-specific transcripts, 2) purify TU-tagged RNA and prepare libraries for Illumina sequencing, and 3) follow a straight-forward bioinformatics workflow to identify cell type-enriched or differentially expressed genes. Tissue containing TU-tagged RNA can be obtained in one day, RNA-Seq libraries generated within two days, and, following sequencing, an initial bioinformatics analysis completed in one additional day. PMID:24457332

  16. Harnessing Repetitive Behaviours to Engage Attention and Learning in a Novel Therapy for Autism: An Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Grace Megumi; Yoder, Keith Jonathon; Ganzel, Barbara Lynn; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Belmonte, Matthew Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Rigorous, quantitative examination of therapeutic techniques anecdotally reported to have been successful in people with autism who lack communicative speech will help guide basic science toward a more complete characterisation of the cognitive profile in this underserved subpopulation, and show the extent to which theories and results developed with the high-functioning subpopulation may apply. This study examines a novel therapy, the “Rapid Prompting Method” (RPM). RPM is a parent-developed communicative and educational therapy for persons with autism who do not speak or who have difficulty using speech communicatively. The technique aims to develop a means of interactive learning by pointing amongst multiple-choice options presented at different locations in space, with the aid of sensory “prompts” which evoke a response without cueing any specific response option. The prompts are meant to draw and to maintain attention to the communicative task – making the communicative and educational content coincident with the most physically salient, attention-capturing stimulus – and to extinguish the sensory–motor preoccupations with which the prompts compete. Video-recorded RPM sessions with nine autistic children ages 8–14 years who lacked functional communicative speech were coded for behaviours of interest. An analysis controlled for age indicates that exposure to the claimed therapy appears to support a decrease in repetitive behaviours and an increase in the number of multiple-choice response options without any decrease in successful responding. Direct gaze is not related to successful responding, suggesting that direct gaze might not be any advantage for this population and need not in all cases be a precondition to communication therapies. PMID:22355292

  17. Applying temporal network analysis to the venture capital market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Feng, Ling; Zhu, Rongqian; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Using complex network theory to study the investment relationships of venture capital firms has produced a number of significant results. However, previous studies have often neglected the temporal properties of those relationships, which in real-world scenarios play a pivotal role. Here we examine the time-evolving dynamics of venture capital investment in China by constructing temporal networks to represent (i) investment relationships between venture capital firms and portfolio companies and (ii) the syndication ties between venture capital investors. The evolution of the networks exhibits rich variations in centrality, connectivity and local topology. We demonstrate that a temporal network approach provides a dynamic and comprehensive analysis of real-world networks.

  18. Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, David M.

    1992-03-01

    Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in- situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mid- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the noninvasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research.

  19. Operational modal analysis applied to the concert harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chomette, B.; Le Carrou, J.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) methods are useful to extract modal parameters of operating systems. These methods seem to be particularly interesting to investigate the modal basis of string instruments during operation to avoid certain disadvantages due to conventional methods. However, the excitation in the case of string instruments is not optimal for OMA due to the presence of damped harmonic components and low noise in the disturbance signal. Therefore, the present study investigates the least-square complex exponential (LSCE) and the modified least-square complex exponential methods in the case of a string instrument to identify modal parameters of the instrument when it is played. The efficiency of the approach is experimentally demonstrated on a concert harp excited by some of its strings and the two methods are compared to a conventional modal analysis. The results show that OMA allows us to identify modes particularly present in the instrument's response with a good estimation especially if they are close to the excitation frequency with the modified LSCE method.

  20. Dynamical systems analysis applied to working memory data.

    PubMed

    Gasimova, Fidan; Robitzsch, Alexander; Wilhelm, Oliver; Boker, Steven M; Hu, Yueqin; Hülür, Gizem

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we investigate weekly fluctuations in the working memory capacity (WMC) assessed over a period of 2 years. We use dynamical system analysis, specifically a second order linear differential equation, to model weekly variability in WMC in a sample of 112 9th graders. In our longitudinal data we use a B-spline imputation method to deal with missing data. The results show a significant negative frequency parameter in the data, indicating a cyclical pattern in weekly memory updating performance across time. We use a multilevel modeling approach to capture individual differences in model parameters and find that a higher initial performance level and a slower improvement at the MU task is associated with a slower frequency of oscillation. Additionally, we conduct a simulation study examining the analysis procedure's performance using different numbers of B-spline knots and values of time delay embedding dimensions. Results show that the number of knots in the B-spline imputation influence accuracy more than the number of embedding dimensions. PMID:25071657

  1. Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hancu, Gabriel; Simon, Brigitta; Rusu, Aura; Mircia, Eleonora; Gyéresi, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24312804

  3. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis applied to the JHR reactivity prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Leray, O.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Hudelot, J. P.; Santamarina, A.; Noguere, G.; Di-Salvo, J.

    2012-07-01

    The on-going AMMON program in EOLE reactor at CEA Cadarache (France) provides experimental results to qualify the HORUS-3D/N neutronics calculation scheme used for the design and safety studies of the new Material Testing Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). This paper presents the determination of technological and nuclear data uncertainties on the core reactivity and the propagation of the latter from the AMMON experiment to JHR. The technological uncertainty propagation was performed with a direct perturbation methodology using the 3D French stochastic code TRIPOLI4 and a statistical methodology using the 2D French deterministic code APOLLO2-MOC which leads to a value of 289 pcm (1{sigma}). The Nuclear Data uncertainty propagation relies on a sensitivity study on the main isotopes and the use of a retroactive marginalization method applied to the JEFF 3.1.1 {sup 27}Al evaluation in order to obtain a realistic multi-group covariance matrix associated with the considered evaluation. This nuclear data uncertainty propagation leads to a K{sub eff} uncertainty of 624 pcm for the JHR core and 684 pcm for the AMMON reference configuration core. Finally, transposition and reduction of the prior uncertainty were made using the Representativity method which demonstrates the similarity of the AMMON experiment with JHR (the representativity factor is 0.95). The final impact of JEFF 3.1.1 nuclear data on the Begin Of Life (BOL) JHR reactivity calculated by the HORUS-3D/N V4.0 is a bias of +216 pcm with an associated posterior uncertainty of 304 pcm (1{sigma}). (authors)

  4. Differential Network Analysis Applied to Preoperative Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Response

    PubMed Central

    Warsow, Gregor; Struckmann, Stephan; Kerkhoff, Claus; Reimer, Toralf; Engel, Nadja; Fuellen, Georg

    2013-01-01

    In silico approaches are increasingly considered to improve breast cancer treatment. One of these treatments, neoadjuvant TFAC chemotherapy, is used in cases where application of preoperative systemic therapy is indicated. Estimating response to treatment allows or improves clinical decision-making and this, in turn, may be based on a good understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Ever increasing amounts of high throughput data become available for integration into functional networks. In this study, we applied our software tool ExprEssence to identify specific mechanisms relevant for TFAC therapy response, from a gene/protein interaction network. We contrasted the resulting active subnetwork to the subnetworks of two other such methods, OptDis and KeyPathwayMiner. We could show that the ExprEssence subnetwork is more related to the mechanistic functional principles of TFAC therapy than the subnetworks of the other two methods despite the simplicity of ExprEssence. We were able to validate our method by recovering known mechanisms and as an application example of our method, we identified a mechanism that may further explain the synergism between paclitaxel and doxorubicin in TFAC treatment: Paclitaxel may attenuate MELK gene expression, resulting in lower levels of its target MYBL2, already associated with doxorubicin synergism in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. We tested our hypothesis in three breast cancer cell lines, confirming it in part. In particular, the predicted effect on MYBL2 could be validated, and a synergistic effect of paclitaxel and doxorubicin could be demonstrated in the breast cancer cell lines SKBR3 and MCF-7. PMID:24349128

  5. Differential network analysis applied to preoperative breast cancer chemotherapy response.

    PubMed

    Warsow, Gregor; Struckmann, Stephan; Kerkhoff, Claus; Reimer, Toralf; Engel, Nadja; Fuellen, Georg

    2013-01-01

    In silico approaches are increasingly considered to improve breast cancer treatment. One of these treatments, neoadjuvant TFAC chemotherapy, is used in cases where application of preoperative systemic therapy is indicated. Estimating response to treatment allows or improves clinical decision-making and this, in turn, may be based on a good understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Ever increasing amounts of high throughput data become available for integration into functional networks. In this study, we applied our software tool ExprEssence to identify specific mechanisms relevant for TFAC therapy response, from a gene/protein interaction network. We contrasted the resulting active subnetwork to the subnetworks of two other such methods, OptDis and KeyPathwayMiner. We could show that the ExprEssence subnetwork is more related to the mechanistic functional principles of TFAC therapy than the subnetworks of the other two methods despite the simplicity of ExprEssence. We were able to validate our method by recovering known mechanisms and as an application example of our method, we identified a mechanism that may further explain the synergism between paclitaxel and doxorubicin in TFAC treatment: Paclitaxel may attenuate MELK gene expression, resulting in lower levels of its target MYBL2, already associated with doxorubicin synergism in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. We tested our hypothesis in three breast cancer cell lines, confirming it in part. In particular, the predicted effect on MYBL2 could be validated, and a synergistic effect of paclitaxel and doxorubicin could be demonstrated in the breast cancer cell lines SKBR3 and MCF-7. PMID:24349128

  6. Naming, the formation of stimulus classes, and applied behavior analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; Mackay, H A; Remington, B

    1996-01-01

    The methods used in Sidman's original studies on equivalence classes provide a framework for analyzing functional verbal behavior. Sidman and others have shown how teaching receptive, name-referent matching may produce rudimentary oral reading and word comprehension skills. Eikeseth and Smith (1992) have extended these findings by showing that children with autism may acquire equivalence classes after learning to supply a common oral name to each stimulus in a potential class. A stimulus class analysis suggests ways to examine (a) the problem of programming generalization from teaching situations to other environments, (b) the expansion of the repertoires that occur in those settings, and (c) the use of naming to facilitate these forms of generalization. Such research will help to clarify and extend Horne and Lowe's recent (1996) account of the role of verbal behavior in the formation of stimulus classes. PMID:8810064

  7. Detailed analysis of POD method applied on turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellnerova, Radka; Kukacka, Libor; Uruba, Vaclav; Jurcakova, Klara; Janour, Zbynek

    2012-04-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of a very turbulent flow inside a street canyon is performed. The energy contribution of each mode is obtained. Also, physical meaning of the POD result is clarified. Particular modes of POD are assigned to the particular flow events like a sweep event, a vortex behind a roof or a vortex at the bottom of a street. Test of POD sensitivity to the acquisition time of data records is done. Test with decreasing sample frequency is also executed. Further, interpolation of POD expansion coefficient is performed in order to test possible increase in sample frequency and get new information about the flow from the POD analysis. We tested a linear and a spline type of the interpolation and the linear one carried out a slightly better result.

  8. Biophotogrammetry model of respiratory motion analysis applied to children.

    PubMed

    Ripka, W L; Ricieri, D da V; Ulbricht, L; Neves, E B; Stadnik, A M W; Romaneli, E F R

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to test a protocol of measurements based on Biophotogrammetry to Analysis of Respiratory Mechanics (BARM) in healthy children. Seventeen normal spirometric children (six male and 11 female) were tested. Their performed maneuvers of forced inspiratory vital capacity were recorded in the supine position. The images were acquired by a digital camera, laterally placed to the trunk. Surface markers allowed that the files, exported to CorelDraw® software, were processed by irregular trapezoids paths. Compartments were defined in the thoracic (TX), abdominal (AB) and the chest wall (CW). They were defined at the end of an inspiration and expiration, both maximum, controlled by a digital spirometer. The result showed that the measured areas at the inspiratory and expiratory periods were statistically different (p<0.05). It reflects the mobility of CW and compartments. In conclusion, the proposed method can identify the breathing pattern of the measured subject using images in two dimensions (2D). PMID:23366409

  9. Thermal-hydrological analysis of large-scale thermal tests in the exploratory studies facility at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1996-02-20

    In situ thermal tests, which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, will provide a major portion of the experimental basis supporting the validation of coupled thermal-hydrological-geomechanical-geochemicaI (T-H-M-C) process models required to assess the total system performance at the site. With respect to advective rock dryout, we have identified three major T-H flow regimes: (1) throttled, nonbuoyant, advective rock dryout; (2) unthrottled, nonbuoyant, advective rock dryout; and (3) unthrottled, buoyant, advective rock dryout. With the V-TOUGH code, we modeled a range of heater test sizes, heating rates, and heating durations under a range of plausible hydrological conditions to help optimize an in situ thermal test design that provides sufficient information for determining (a) the dominant mode(s) of heat flow, (b) the major T-H regime(s) and processes (such as vapor diffusion) that govern the magnitude and direction of vapor and condensate flow, and (c) the influence of heterogeneous properties and conditions on the flow of heat, vapor, and condensate. For the plate thermal test, which uniformly heats a disk-shaped area, we evaluated a wide range of test areas, ranging from 50 to 5077 m{sup 2}. We evaluated the single-drift thermal test, which consists of a row of large-waste-package-sized heaters sitting on the floor of the heater drift, and then developed an optimized thermal test configuration, called the single-drift, winged thermal test, in which the heater drift is flanked by wing heater arrays. For this configuration, we considered three heating schedules (with 1-, 2-, and 4-yr full-power heating periods) and three heating rates (122, 177, and 236 W/m{sup 2}). For determining the dominant T-H regime(s) and dominant heat-flow mode(s), the most important diagnostic measurements are vertical temperature and gas-phase pressure profiles and gas-phase pressure and relative humidity RH histories in the drift.

  10. Painleve singularity analysis applied to charged particle dynamics during reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    For a plasma in the collisionless regime, test-particle modelling can lend some insight into the macroscopic behavior of the plasma, e.g. conductivity and heating. A common example for which this technique is used is a system with electric and magnetic fields given by B = [delta]yx + zy + yz and E = [epsilon]z, where [delta], [gamma], and [epsilon] are constant parameters. This model can be used to model plasma behavior near neutral lines, ([gamma] = 0), as well as current sheets ([gamma] = 0, [delta] = 0). The integrability properties of the particle motion in such fields might affect the plasma's macroscopic behavior, and the author has asked the question [open quotes]For what values of [delta], [gamma], and [epsilon] is the system integrable [close quotes] To answer this question, the author has employed Painleve singularity analysis, which is an examination of the singularity properties of a test particle's equations of motion in the complex time plane. This analysis has identified two field geometries for which the system's particle dynamics are integrable in terms of the second Painleve transcendent: the circular O-line case and the case of the neutral sheet configuration. These geometries yield particle dynamics that are integrable in the Liouville sense (i.e., there exist the proper number of integrals in involution) in an extended phase space which includes the time as a canonical coordinate, and this property is also true for nonzero [gamma]. The singularity property tests also identified a large, dense set of X-line and O-line field geometries that yield dynamics that may possess the weak Painleve property. In the case of the X-line geometries, this result shows little relevance to the physical nature of the system, but the existence of a dense set of elliptical O-line geometries with this property may be related to the fact that for [epsilon] positive, one can construct asymptotic solutions in the limit t [yields] [infinity].

  11. Exploring the Potential of a School Impact on Pupil Weight Status: Exploratory Factor Analysis and Repeat Cross-Sectional Study of the National Child Measurement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew James; Wyatt, Katrina M.; Williams, Craig A.; Logan, Stuart; Henley, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Schools are common sites for obesity prevention interventions. Although many theories suggest that the school context influences weight status, there has been little empirical research. The objective of this study was to explore whether features of the school context were consistently and meaningfully associated with pupil weight status (overweight or obese). Exploratory factor analysis of routinely collected data on 319 primary schools in Devon, England, was used to identify possible school-based contextual factors. Repeated cross-sectional multilevel analysis of five years (2006/07-2010/11) of data from the National Child Measurement Programme was then used to test for consistent and meaningful associations. Four school-based contextual factors were derived which ranked schools according to deprivation, location, resource and prioritisation of physical activity. None of which were meaningfully and consistently associated with pupil weight status, across the five years. The lack of consistent associations between the factors and pupil weight status suggests that the school context is not inherently obesogenic. In contrast, incorporating findings from education research indicates that schools may be equalising weight status, and obesity prevention research, policy and practice might need to address what is happening outside schools and particularly during the school holidays. PMID:26700027

  12. Exploratory Problems in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Frederick W.

    This book attempts to introduce students to the creative aspects of mathematics through exploratory problems. The introduction presents the criteria for the selection of the problems in the book. Criteria indicate that problems should: be immediately attractive, require data to be generated or gathered, appeal to students from junior high school…

  13. Exploratory Business Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for Arkansas ninth-grade students to explore business careers through the use of competency-based instructional materials. Exploratory business teachers are asked to incorporate the twenty-three units of study into a sequence best suited to their teaching style. Units include such topics as "Social Security,""What…

  14. Statistical methods for texture analysis applied to agronomical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cointault, F.; Journaux, L.; Gouton, P.

    2008-02-01

    For activities of agronomical research institute, the land experimentations are essential and provide relevant information on crops such as disease rate, yield components, weed rate... Generally accurate, they are manually done and present numerous drawbacks, such as penibility, notably for wheat ear counting. In this case, the use of color and/or texture image processing to estimate the number of ears per square metre can be an improvement. Then, different image segmentation techniques based on feature extraction have been tested using textural information with first and higher order statistical methods. The Run Length method gives the best results closed to manual countings with an average error of 3%. Nevertheless, a fine justification of hypothesis made on the values of the classification and description parameters is necessary, especially for the number of classes and the size of analysis windows, through the estimation of a cluster validity index. The first results show that the mean number of classes in wheat image is of 11, which proves that our choice of 3 is not well adapted. To complete these results, we are currently analysing each of the class previously extracted to gather together all the classes characterizing the ears.

  15. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutroneo, M.; Macková, A.; Havranek, V.; Malinsky, P.; Torrisi, L.; Kormunda, M.; Barchuk, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the research activity on Ion Beam Analysis methods performed at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR, Rez, Czech Republic. Recently, many groups are paying attention to implantation by laser generated plasma. This process allows to insert a controllable amount of energetic ions into the surface layers of different materials modifying the physical and chemical properties of the surface material. Different substrates are implanted by accelerated ions from plasma through terawatt iodine laser, at nominal intensity of 1015 W/cm2, at the PALS Research Infrastructure AS CR, in the Czech Republic. This regime of the laser matter interaction generates, multi-MeV proton beams, and multi-charged ions that are tightly confined in time (hundreds ps) and space (source radius of a few microns). These ion beams have a much lower transverse temperature, a much shorter duration and a much higher current than those obtainable from conventional accelerators. The implementation of protons and ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high intensity lasers is exhibited by adopting suitable irradiation conditions as well as tailored targets. An overview of implanted targets and their morphological and structural characterizations is presented and discussed.

  16. Quantitative phase imaging applied to laser damage detection and analysis.

    PubMed

    Douti, Dam-Bé L; Chrayteh, Mhamad; Aknoun, Sherazade; Doualle, Thomas; Hecquet, Christophe; Monneret, Serge; Gallais, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    We investigate phase imaging as a measurement method for laser damage detection and analysis of laser-induced modification of optical materials. Experiments have been conducted with a wavefront sensor based on lateral shearing interferometry associated with a high-magnification optical microscope. The system has been used for the in-line observation of optical thin films and bulk samples, laser irradiated in two different conditions: 500 fs pulses at 343 and 1030 nm, and millisecond to second irradiation with a CO2 laser at 10.6 μm. We investigate the measurement of the laser-induced damage threshold of optical material by detection and phase changes and show that the technique realizes high sensitivity with different optical path measurements lower than 1 nm. Additionally, the quantitative information on the refractive index or surface modification of the samples under test that is provided by the system has been compared to classical metrology instruments used for laser damage or laser ablation characterization (an atomic force microscope, a differential interference contrast microscope, and an optical surface profiler). An accurate in-line measurement of the morphology of laser-ablated sites, from few nanometers to hundred microns in depth, is shown. PMID:26479612

  17. Applied and computational harmonic analysis on graphs and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irion, Jeff; Saito, Naoki

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the advent of new sensor technologies and social network infrastructure has provided huge opportunities and challenges for analyzing data recorded on such networks. In the case of data on regular lattices, computational harmonic analysis tools such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms have well-developed theories and proven track records of success. It is therefore quite important to extend such tools from the classical setting of regular lattices to the more general setting of graphs and networks. In this article, we first review basics of graph Laplacian matrices, whose eigenpairs are often interpreted as the frequencies and the Fourier basis vectors on a given graph. We point out, however, that such an interpretation is misleading unless the underlying graph is either an unweighted path or cycle. We then discuss our recent effort of constructing multiscale basis dictionaries on a graph, including the Hierarchical Graph Laplacian Eigenbasis Dictionary and the Generalized Haar-Walsh Wavelet Packet Dictionary, which are viewed as generalizations of the classical hierarchical block DCTs and the Haar-Walsh wavelet packets, respectively, to the graph setting. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our dictionaries by using them to simultaneously segment and denoise 1-D noisy signals sampled on regular lattices, a problem where classical tools have difficulty.

  18. Applying Logic Analysis to Genomic Data and Phylogenetic Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeates, Todd

    2005-03-01

    One of the main goals of comparative genomics is to understand how all the various proteins in a cell relate to each other in terms of pathways and interaction networks. Various computational ideas have been explored with this goal in mind. In the original phylogenetic profile method, `functional linkages' were inferred between pairs of proteins when the two proteins, A and B, showed identical (or statistically similar) patterns of presence vs. absence across a set of completely sequenced genomes. Here we describe a new generalization, logic analysis of phylogenetic profiles (LAPP), from which higher order relationships can be identified between three (or more) different proteins. For instance, in one type of triplet logic relation -- of which there are eight distinct types -- a protein C may be present in a genome iff proteins A and B are both present (C=AB). An application of the LAPP method identifies thousands of previously unidentified relationships between protein triplets. These higher order logic relationships offer insights -- not available from pairwise approaches -- into branching, competition, and alternate routes through cellular pathways and networks. The results also make it possible to assign tentative cellular functions to many novel proteins of unknown function. Co-authors: Peter Bowers, Shawn Cokus, Morgan Beeby, and David Eisenberg

  19. Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2009-09-01

    Flash floods are one of the natural hazards that cause major damages worldwide. Especially in Mediterranean areas they provoke high economic losses every year. In mountain areas with high stream gradients, floods events are characterized by extremely high flow and debris transport rates. Flash flood analysis in mountain areas presents specific scientific challenges. On one hand, there is a lack of information on precipitation and discharge due to a lack of spatially well distributed gauge stations with long records. On the other hand, gauge stations may not record correctly during extreme events when they are damaged or the discharge exceeds the recordable level. In this case, no systematic data allows improvement of the understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of the process. Since historic documentation is normally scarce or even completely missing in mountain areas, tree-ring analysis can provide an alternative approach. Flash floods may influence trees in different ways: (1) tilting of the stem through the unilateral pressure of the flowing mass or individual boulders; (2) root exposure through erosion of the banks; (3) injuries and scars caused by boulders and wood transported in the flow; (4) decapitation of the stem and resulting candelabra growth through the severe impact of boulders; (5) stem burial through deposition of material. The trees react to these disturbances with specific growth changes such as abrupt change of the yearly increment and anatomical changes like reaction wood or callus tissue. In this study, we sampled 90 cross sections and 265 increment cores of trees heavily affected by past flash floods in order to date past events and to reconstruct recurrence intervals in two torrent channels located in the Spanish Central System. The first study site is located along the Pelayo River, a torrent in natural conditions. Based on the external disturbances of trees and their geomorphological position, 114 Pinus pinaster (Ait

  20. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…

  1. Applied Drama and the Higher Education Learning Spaces: A Reflective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Cletus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores Applied Drama as a teaching approach in Higher Education learning spaces. The exploration takes a reflective analysis approach by first examining the impact that Applied Drama has had on my career as a Lecturer/Educator/Teacher working in Higher Education environments. My engagement with Applied Drama practice and theory is…

  2. Beyond Time Out and Table Time: Today's Applied Behavior Analysis for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Hume, Kara

    2010-01-01

    Recent mandates related to the implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require that autism professionals both understand and are able to implement practices based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The use of the term "applied behavior analysis" and its related concepts…

  3. Beyond Time out and Table Time: Today's Applied Behavior Analysis for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Hume, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Recent mandates related to the implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require that autism professionals both understand and are able to implement practices based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The use of the term "applied behavior analysis" and its related concepts…

  4. Assessing Bystander Behavior Intentions Toward Friends to Prevent Dating Violence: Development of the Bystander Behavior Intentions-Friends Scale Through Concept Mapping and Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Borsky, Amanda E; McDonnell, Karen; Rimal, Rajiv N; Turner, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Bystander behavior interventions aim to reduce violence by encouraging individuals to intervene in a safe and effective manner when they hear or see circumstances that could lead to violence. This study used a participatory-based approach to develop a 9-item scale to measure bystander behaviors to prevent dating violence among friends. Predominantly, female students (N = 37) on a college campus in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States were asked to define bystander behaviors. Responses were thematically sorted and ranked according to importance in preventing dating violence and feasibility by 12 participants. Psychometric testing of intentions to perform the behavior was done based on responses from an additional 288 respondents. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine whether bystander behaviors directed at friends to prevent dating violence was a uni- or multidimensional construct, which has not been done to date in the available literature. Results demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure with strong factor loadings (above .71) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha .92); items focused on primary and secondary prevention behaviors toward friends. These findings provide a reliable and single construct scale to assess college-age women's response to witnessing the victimization of a friend. These findings can facilitate future program evaluations. PMID:26822267

  5. Exploratory analysis of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra with self-organizing maps as a basis for determination of organic matter removal efficiency at water treatment works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Baker, Andy; Bridgeman, John

    2009-12-01

    In the paper, the self-organizing map (SOM) was employed for the exploratory analysis of fluorescence excitation-emission data characterizing organic matter removal efficiency at 16 water treatment works in the UK. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to assess organic matter removal efficiency between raw and partially treated (clarified) water to provide an indication of the potential for disinfection by-products formation. Fluorescence spectroscopy was utilized to evaluate quantitative and qualitative properties of organic matter removal. However, the substantial amount of fluorescence data generated impeded the interpretation process. Therefore a robust SOM technique was used to examine the fluorescence data and to reveal patterns in data distribution and correlations between organic matter properties and fluorescence variables. It was found that the SOM provided a good discrimination between water treatment sites on the base of spectral properties of organic matter. The distances between the units of the SOM map were indicative of the similarity of the fluorescence samples and thus demonstrated the relative changes in organic matter content between raw and clarified water. The higher efficiency of organic matter removal was demonstrated for the larger distances between raw and clarified samples on the map. It was also shown that organic matter removal was highly dependent on the raw water fluorescence properties, with higher efficiencies for higher emission wavelengths in visible and UV humic-like fluorescence centers.

  6. An exploratory factor analysis of the Parenting strategies for Eating and physical Activity Scale (PEAS) for use in Hispanic mothers of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Posada, Alexandria; Wiesner, Margit; Olvera, Norma

    2015-12-01

    Existing measures of feeding and physical activity parenting strategies have not been validated for use among Hispanic mothers of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Parenting strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) among 134 Hispanic mothers (Mage=38.81, SD±6.34) of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight. Results from this exploratory study revealed that a three-factor structure (Limit Setting, Monitoring, and Discipline) and a 13-item revised PEAS measure might be better suited for use with this population. The revised Limit Setting, Monitoring, Discipline, and total subscales had good reliability (α=0.89, α=0.88, α=0.90, and α=0.87, respectively) and the subscale inter-item correlations were strong. To assess the concurrent validity, the revised PEAS subscales were correlated with both subscales of the Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Fat and Increase Fiber (Parent Report) in a subset of the sample (n=78). The Monitoring and Discipline subscales were found to be correlated with the Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Fat (r=.36 and r=.27, p<.05, respectively) and Increase Fiber (r=.40 and r=.35, p<.01, respectively) subscales. However, the revised PEAS Limit Setting subscale was not correlated with either Reduce Fat or Increase Fiber strategy. Taken together, these results indicated some degree of concurrent validity. Results from this study should be cross-validated using confirmatory factor analysis approaches. PMID:26519927

  7. EpiHosp: A web-based visualization tool enabling the exploratory analysis of complications of implantable medical devices from a nationwide hospital database.

    PubMed

    Ficheur, Grégoire; Ferreira Careira, Lionel; Beuscart, Régis; Chazard, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Administrative data can be used for the surveillance of the outcomes of implantable medical devices (IMDs). The objective of this work is to build a web-based tool allowing for an exploratory analysis of time-dependent events that may occur after the implementation of an IMD. This tool should enable a pharmacoepidemiologist to explore on the fly the relationship between a given IMD and a potential outcome. This tool mine the French nationwide database of inpatient stays from 2008 to 2013. The data are preprocessed in order to optimize the queries. A web tool is developed in PHP, MySQL and Javascript. The user selects one or a group of IMD from a tree, and can filter the results using years and hospital names. Four result pages describe the selected inpatient stays: (1) temporal and demographic description, (2) a description of the geographical location of the hospital, (3) a description of the geographical place of residence of the patient and (4) a table showing the rehospitalization reasons by decreasing order of frequency. Then, the user can select one readmission reason and display dynamically the probability of readmission by mean of a Kaplan-Meier curve with confidence intervals. This tool enables to dynamically monitor the occurrence of time-dependent complications of IMD. PMID:25991176

  8. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events

    PubMed Central

    Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  9. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  10. Exploratory data analysis and clustering of multivariate spatial hydrogeological data by means of GEO3DSOM, a variant of Kohonen's Self-Organizing Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, L.; Bação, F.; Lobo, V.; Dassargues, A.

    2007-05-01

    The use of unsupervised artificial neural network techniques like the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm has proven to be a useful tool in exploratory data analysis and clustering of multivariate data sets. In this study a variant of the SOM-algorithm is proposed, the GEO3DSOM, capable of explicitly incorporating three-dimensional spatial knowledge into the algorithm. The performance of the GEO3DSOM is compared to the performance of the standard SOM in analyzing an artificial data set and a hydrochemical data set. The hydrochemical data set consists of 131 groundwater samples collected in two detritic, phreatic, Cenozoic aquifers in Central Belgium. Both techniques succeed very well in providing more insight in the groundwater quality data set, visualizing the relationships between variables, highlighting the main differences between groups of samples and pointing out anomalous wells and well screens. The GEO3DSOM however has the advantage to provide an increased resolution while still maintaining a good generalization of the data set.

  11. Establishing the psychometric qualities of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in a trauma survivor sample.

    PubMed

    Karaırmak, Ozlem

    2010-10-30

    Resilience is frequently viewed as an indicator of good adjustment following adversity such as traumatic events. Connor and Davidson (2003) developed a brief self-report scale to quantify resilience over 1000 participants. We collected the data from individuals who are exposed to devastating earthquakes that occurred in 1999 in Turkey. A total of 246 earthquake survivors from the disaster area, with the mean age 35.80 (S.D.=8.6), completed the Turkish version of CD-RISC. The purpose of the study is to validate factor structure of the scale through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using a Turkish sample. In this investigation 52% of the total variance was accounted for by three factors and the obtained factor structure was verified through confirmatory factor analyses. The results indicated that there was no statistical gender difference with regard to the Turkish version of CD-RISC scores. The Turkish version of the scale obtained a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.92. The results showed that the Turkish version of the CD-RISC is a valid and reliable measure of resilience. PMID:20493533

  12. Visual analysis as a method of interpretation of the results of satellite ionospheric measurements for exploratory problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneva, N. N.; Mogilevskii, M. M.; Nazarov, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    Traditional methods of time series analysis of satellite ionospheric measurements have some limitations and disadvantages that are mainly associated with the complex nonstationary signal structure. In this paper, the possibility of identifying and studying the temporal characteristics of signals via visual analysis is considered. The proposed approach is illustrated by the example of the visual analysis of wave measurements on the DEMETER microsatellite during its passage over the HAARP facility.

  13. Dietary Patterns Derived Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis are Stable and Generalizable Across Race, Region, and Gender Subgroups in the REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Shikany, James M.; Roth, David L.; Newby, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups. Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, and sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the “Convenience” pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the “Plant-based” pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the “Sweets/Fats” pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the “Southern” pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the “Alcohol/Salads” pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusion: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex, and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25988129

  14. The schism between experimental and applied behavior analysis: Is it real and who cares? 1

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Picker, Mitchell; Grossett, Deborah; Hall-Johnson, Earl; Holbrook, Maurice

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis. Citation data indicate that across time the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and other experimental sources, have been referenced increasingly infrequently in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Therapy, and Behavior Research and Therapy. Such sources are now rarely cited in these journals, and never have been regularly referenced in Behavior Modification. Although their proper interpretation is far from certain, these data partially support recent suggestions that the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis are largely separate, insular fields. A questionnaire, mailed to the editorial staffs of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, was intended to gather further information about the alleged schism between the fields. Few respondents regularly read both journals, publish in both journals, or find both journals useful in their current research efforts. The majority of editors of both journals indicated that the fields were growing apart, although there was no consensus that this is harmful for behavior analysis. Most editors of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis reported that research published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior has decreased in value to applied researchers across time; most editors of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior indicated that research published there has not changed in applied value. Several respondents commented at length concerning the relationship of experimental and applied behavior analysis. These comments, many of which appear in the article, reveal a marked plurality of views. PMID:22478543

  15. Economic analysis of temperature reduction in a large river floodplain: An exploratory study of the WIllamette River, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines ecosystem restoration practices that focus on water temperature reductions in the upper mainstem Willamette River, Oregon, for the benefit of endangered salmonids and other native cold-water species. The analysis integrates hydrologic, natural science and eco...

  16. Inclusive Elementary Classroom Teacher Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Use of Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine inclusive elementary teacher knowledge and attitude toward Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and applied behavior analysis (ABA) and their use of ABA. Furthermore, this study examined if knowledge and attitude predicted use of ABA. A survey was developed and administered through a web-based program. Of the…

  17. Exploratory analysis of voxel size effects on CT measurements of situation characteristics of type point-to-point distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, T. L.; Donatelli, G. D.; Baldo, C. R.

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, computed tomography (CT) has been applied as an industrial metrology tool for the dimensional evaluation of visible and even hidden features of production parts in a non-destructive manner. Considering the experimental findings of a recent work of the authors, this paper deals with the effect of voxel size on measuring distances between feature-of-size centers, which would be less sensitive to edge offset errors. Particular attention is given to the design of experiment and to the measurement uncertainty sources. The most significant experimental findings are outlined and discussed in this paper.

  18. 5-Nitro-2-furfuriliden derivatives as potential anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents: design, synthesis, bioactivity evaluation, cytotoxicity and exploratory data analysis.

    PubMed

    Palace-Berl, Fanny; Jorge, Salomão Dória; Pasqualoto, Kerly Fernanda Mesquita; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Zorzi, Rodrigo Rocha; de Sá Bortolozzo, Leandro; Lindoso, José Ângelo Lauletta; Tavares, Leoberto Costa

    2013-09-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 5-nitro-2-furfuriliden derivatives as well as the cytotoxicity of these compounds on J774 macrophages cell line and FN1 human fibroblast cells were investigated in this study. The most active compounds of series I and II were 4-butyl-[N'-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl) methylene] benzidrazide (3g; IC50=1.05μM±0.07) and 3-acetyl-5-(4-butylphenyl)-2-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro,1,3,4-oxadiazole (4g; IC50=8.27μM±0.42), respectively. Also, compound 3g was more active than the standard drugs, benznidazole (IC50=22.69μM±1.96) and nifurtimox (IC50=3.78μM±0.10). Regarding the cytotoxicity assay, the 3g compound presented IC50 value of 28.05μM (SI=26.71) against J774 cells. For the FN1 fibroblast assay, 3g showed IC50 value of 98μM (SI=93.33). On the other hand, compound 4g presented a cytotoxicity value on J774 cells higher than 400μM (SI >48), and for the FN1 cells its IC50 value was 186μM (SI=22.49). Moreover, an exploratory data analysis, which comprises hierarchical cluster (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), was carried out and the findings were complementary. The molecular properties that most influenced the compounds' grouping were ClogP and total dipole moment, pointing out the need of a lipophilic/hydrophilic balance in the designing of novel potential anti-T. cruzi molecules. PMID:23816040

  19. Design and development of a scale of perceived barriers to self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an exploratory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramezankhani, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Alhani, Fatemeh; Goudarzi, Ali Moazemi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the importance of perceived barriers against self-care in diabetic patients, the role of this factor is rarely addressed in the improvement of self-care behaviors of Iranian patients. The lack of appropriate instruments that fit demographic properties of Iranian society is one reason. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the scale of perceived barriers to self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This cross-sectional study conducted on 400 patients with type 2 diabetes who were covered by the health centers in Isfahan (Iran) in 2015. A 22-item, researcher-made instrument was designed; the face and content validities of the instrument were examined through obtaining the opinions of an expert panel before administering the instrument in the study. Also, the exploratory factor analysis was used to investigate the instrument’s validity. Cronbach’s alpha was employed to measure its internal consistency (reliability). To examine the validity of the final scale, the mean scores of perceived barriers in patients with appropriate and inappropriate self-care behaviors were compared. Results The research sample was comprised of 240 women (60%) and 160 men (40%). The mean value of the content validity index was 0.84. The results of factor analysis confirmed the validity of the 11 items and 3 factors of the developed scale. The factor loading ranged from 0.46 to 0.78. These three factors together explained 40.28% of the total variance. The overall reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.79, ranging from 0.82 to 0.93 for three factors. Conclusion According to the results, the developed scale was a valid and reliable instrument for examining the barriers perceived by the patients. The findings of this research can help health policy makers in planning to facilitate the self-care behaviors as the most vital factor in diabetes control. PMID:26767102

  20. Exploratory and confirmatory factory analysis of the Willingness to Eat Whole Grains Questionnaire: A measure of young adults' attitudes toward consuming whole grain foods.

    PubMed

    Tuuri, Georgianna; Cater, Melissa; Craft, Brittany; Bailey, Ariana; Miketinas, Derek

    2016-10-01

    Whole grains are recommended by dietary guidelines because of their health-promoting properties, yet attitudes toward consuming these foods have not been examined. This study developed and validated a questionnaire to estimate willingness to consume whole grain foods. Focus group interviews with high school students and input from nutrition educators produced a list of 10 whole grain items that were included in the "Willingness to Eat Whole Grains Questionnaire". Young adult university students 18-29 years of age indicated their willingness to consume each of the whole grain foods using a 4-point, Likert-type scale with responses ranging from "always unwilling" to "always willing" and a fifth option of "never eaten". Participants' age, race/ethnicity, and gender were collected. Data were examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and test-retest reliability. The EFA test (n = 266; 65% female; 69% white) using principal axis factoring returned a single factor that included all survey items and explained 58.3% of the variance. The CFA (n = 252; 62% female, 74% white) supported a single-factor solution: χ(2) = 80.57 (35); RMSEA = 0.07; Comparative Fit Index = 0.92; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.90; and SRMR = 0.05. The questionnaire, administered on two occasions separated by two weeks to 36 university students, demonstrated good testretest reliability (r = 0.87, p < 0.0001). The "Willingness to Eat Whole Grains Questionnaire" had good face validity when used with a young adult population and will be a useful tool to help nutrition educators examine attitudes toward consuming nutrient-rich whole grain foods. PMID:27328099

  1. [Ecological risk assessment of land use based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA): a case study of Haitan Island, Fujian Province].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Peng; Wen, Chao-Xiang; Fu, Shi-Feng; Chen, Qing-Hui

    2014-07-01

    As a novel environment management tool, ecological risk assessment has provided a new perspective for the quantitative evaluation of ecological effects of land-use change. In this study, Haitan Island in Fujian Province was taken as a case. Based on the Landsat TM obtained in 1990, SPOT5 RS images obtained in 2010, general layout planning map of Pingtan Comprehensive Experimental Zone in 2030, as well as the field investigation data, we established an ecological risk index to measure ecological endpoints. By using spatial autocorrelation and semivariance analysis of Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA), the ecological risk of Haitan Island under different land-use situations was assessed, including the past (1990), present (2010) and future (2030), and the potential risk and its changing trend were analyzed. The results revealed that the ecological risk index showed obvious scale effect, with strong positive correlation within 3000 meters. High-high (HH) and low-low (LL) aggregations were predominant types in spatial distribution of ecological risk index. The ecological risk index showed significant isotropic characteristics, and its spatial distribution was consistent with Anselin Local Moran I (LISA) distribution during the same period. Dramatic spatial distribution change of each ecological risk area was found among 1990, 2010 and 2030, and the fluctuation trend and amplitude of different ecological risk areas were diverse. The low ecological risk area showed a rise-to-fall trend while the medium and high ecological risk areas showed a fall-to-rise trend. In the planning period, due to intensive anthropogenic disturbance, the high ecological risk area spread throughout the whole region. To reduce the ecological risk in land-use and maintain the regional ecological security, the following ecological risk control strategies could be adopted, i.e., optimizing the spatial pattern of land resources, protecting the key ecoregions and controlling the scale of

  2. Risk factors for developing a second upper aerodigestive cancer after radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancers: An exploratory outcomes analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Taussky, Daniel . E-mail: daniel.taussky.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; Rufibach, Kaspar M.Sc.; Huguenin, Pia; Allal, Abdelkarim S.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess the influence of treatment-related and patient-related factors on the risk of developing a second primary tumor (SPT) of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) in patients with locoregionally advanced nonmetastatic carcinomas of the head-and-neck region. Methods and Materials: The data of 521 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were pooled: 224 patients from the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) 10/94 trial, treated with 1.2 Gy b.i.d. to 74.4 Gy, and randomized to receive or not to receive simultaneous chemotherapy with cisplatin (excluding nasopharyngeal and maxillary sinus carcinomas); and 297 patients from Geneva, all treated with accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost to 69.9 Gy and predominantly cisplatin-based concomitant chemotherapy in 33% of patients (including 21 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas). An exploratory analysis using competing risk methodology was performed. Results: A total of 65 SPT of the UADT were observed after a median observation time of 4.7 years. The overall risk of experiencing an SPT of the UADT at 10 years in the presence of all other possible events was estimated to be 33%. There were no SPTs after treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, there was no difference in occurrence of SPT at 3 years with respect to the administration of chemotherapy (p = 0.31), age (p 0.62), performance status (p = 0.61), gender (p = 0.27), presence of nodal disease (p = 0.51), or T stage (p = 0.72). However, patients treated with concomitant boost had fewer SPTs (p = 0.0093). Conclusions: Our data do not suggest that addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy influences the incidence of second cancers in patients with head-and-neck cancer. The difference in the incidence of SPT between the two radiotherapy schedule groups merits further exploration.

  3. Exploratory studies of PM10 receptor and source profiling by GC/MS and principal component analysis of temporally and spatially resolved ambient samples.

    PubMed

    Jeon, S J; Meuzelaar, H L; Sheya, S A; Lighty, J S; Jarman, W M; Kasteler, C; Sarofim, A F; Simoneit, B R

    2001-05-01

    For a recent exploratory study of particulate matter (PM) compositions, origins, and impacts in the El Paso/Juarez (Paso del Norte) airshed, the authors relied on solvent extraction (SX)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) procedures to characterize 24-hr quartz fiber (QF) filter samples obtained from nine spatially distributed high-volume (Hi-Vol) PM10 samplers as well as on thermal desorption (TD)-GC/MS methods to characterize 45 time-resolved (2-hr) filter samples obtained with modified 1-m3/hr PM10 samplers. Principal component analysis and related chemometric techniques were used for data reduction and data fusion as well as for multiway data correlation. A high degree of correspondence (R2 = 0.821) was found between the rapid TD-GC/MS method (which can be carried out on 2-hr filter slices containing only microgram amounts of sample) and conventional SX-GC/MS procedures. The four main source patterns of organic PM components observed in GC/MS profiles of both temporally and spatially resolved receptor samples obtained in the El Paso/Juarez border airshed during the study period are interpreted to represent (1) vehicular emissions plus resuspended urban dust; (2) biomass combustion; (3) native vegetation detritus and resuspended agricultural dust; and (4) waste burning. Moreover, principal component analysis of combined, variance-weighted, temporally resolved TD-GC/MS data and spatially resolved SX-GC/MS data was used to determine approximate source locations for specific PM components identified in time-resolved receptor sample profiles. The same approach can be used to determine approximate circadian concentration profiles of specific PM components identified in spatially resolved receptor sample profiles. PMID:11355465

  4. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mosimann, Garrett; Wagner, Rachel; Schirber, Tom

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  5. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality, Attitudes, and Study Skills on the Learning Curve within a Team-based Learning Environment

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Methods. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students’ Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. Results. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. Conclusion. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course. PMID:25861101

  6. Demonstrations of Agency in Contemporary International Children's Literature: An Exploratory Critical Content Analysis across Personal, Social, and Cultural Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Janelle B.

    2015-01-01

    International children's literature has the potential to create global experiences and cultural insights for young people confronted with limited and biased images of the world offered by media. The current inquiry was designed to explore, through a critical content analysis approach, international children's literature in which characters…

  7. An Exploratory Analysis of Formal School Leaders' Positioning in Instructional Advice and Information Networks in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Kim, Chong Min

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how formal school leaders are positioned in their school's instructional networks based on an analysis of data from all 30 elementary schools in one mid-sized urban school district. Premised on the assumption that advice and information are key building blocks for knowledge development, we analyzed the instructional advice…

  8. Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency,…

  9. Concerns of Asian Indians: An Exploratory Thematic Content Analysis of Unobtrusive Documentary Data for Asian American Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Manindra Kumar

    This paper investigates the priority of social and political issues in America's Asian Indian subcommunity and, secondarily, proposes content analysis for investigations of Asian American sub-cultures. The data sources and methodology are described first: letters to the editor published between September 1, 1983 and June 30, 1984, were selected…

  10. Towards a social discount rate for the economic evaluation of health technologies in Germany: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Schad, Mareike; John, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decades, methods for the economic evaluation of health care technologies were increasingly used to inform reimbursement decisions. For a short time, the German Statutory Health Insurance makes use of these methods to support reimbursement decisions on patented drugs. In this context, the discounting procedure emerges as a critical component of these methods, as discount rates can strongly affect the resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The aim of this paper is to identify the appropriate value of a social discount rate to be used by the German Statutory Health Insurance for the economic evaluation of health technologies. On theoretical grounds, we build on the widespread view of contemporary economists that the social rate of time preference (SRTP) is the adequate social discount rate. For quantifying the SRTP, we first apply the market behaviour approach, which assumes that the SRTP is reflected in observable market interest rates. As a second approach, we derive the SRTP from optimal growth theory by using the Ramsey equation. A major part of the paper is devoted to specify the parameters of this equation. Depending on various assumptions, our empirical findings result in the range of 1.75-4.2% for the SRTP. A reasonable base case discount rate for Germany, thus, would be about 3%. Furthermore, we deal with the much debated question whether a common discount rate for costs and health benefits or a lower rate for health should be applied in health economic evaluations. In the German social health insurance system, no exogenously fixed budget constraint does exist. When evaluating a new health technology, the health care decision maker is obliged to conduct an economic evaluation in order to examine whether there is an economically appropriate relation between the value of the health gains and the additional costs which are given by the value of the consumption losses due to the additional health care expenditures. Therefore, a discount

  11. Detection of Expressional Changes Induced by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Developing Rat Mammary Gland via Exploratory Pathways Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beinder, Lea; Faehrmann, Nina; Wachtveitl, Rainer; Winterfeld, Ilona; Hartner, Andrea; Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Rauh, Manfred; Ruebner, Matthias; Huebner, Hanna; Noegel, Stephanie C.; Doerr, Helmuth G.; Rascher, Wolfgang; Fahlbusch, Fabian B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is thought to lead to fetal programming that in turn contributes to developmental changes of many organs postnatally. There is evidence that IUGR is a risk factor for the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease later in life. A higher incidence of breast cancer was also observed after IUGR. This could be due to changes in mammary gland developmental pathways. We sought to characterise IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of mammary development at the level of the transcriptome in a rat model of IUGR, using pathways analysis bioinformatics. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed the mammary glands of Wistar rats with IUGR induced by maternal low protein (LP) diet at the beginning (d21) and the end (d28) of pubertal ductal morphogenesis. Mammary glands of the LP group were smaller in size at d28, however did not show morphologic changes. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the mammary gland using Agilent SurePrint arrays at d21 and d28. In silico analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. In mammary gland tissue of LP rats at d21 of life a prominent upregulation of WT1 and CDKN1A (p21) expression was observed. Differentially regulated genes were associated with the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-1/-2 pathway. Western Blot analysis showed reduced levels of phosphorylated ERK-1/-2 in the mammary glands of the LP group at d21. To identify possible changes in circulating steroid levels, serum LC-Tandem mass-spectrometry was performed. LP rats showed higher serum progesterone levels and an increased corticosterone/dehydrocorticosterone-ratio at d28. Conclusions/Significance Our data obtained from gene array analysis support the hypothesis that IUGR influences pubertal development of the rat mammary gland. We identified prominent differential regulation of genes and pathways for factors regulating cell cycle and growth. Moreover, we detected new

  12. Visual exploratory analysis of DCE-MRI data in breast cancer based on novel nonlinear dimensional data reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Lespinats, Sylvain; Steinbrücker, Frank; Saalbach, Axel; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Barbu, Adrian

    2009-04-01

    Visualization of multi-dimensional data sets becomes a critical and significant area in modern medical image processing. To analyze such high dimensional data, novel nonlinear embedding approaches become increasingly important to show dependencies among these data in a two- or three-dimensional space. This paper investigates the potential of novel nonlinear dimensional data reduction techniques and compares their results with proven nonlinear techniques when applied to the differentiation of malignant and benign lesions described by high-dimensional data sets arising from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Two important visualization modalities in medical imaging are presented: the mapping on a lower-dimensional data manifold and the image fusion.

  13. Applying Transactional Analysis and Personality Assessment to Improve Patient Counseling and Communication Skills

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Lesa

    2007-01-01

    Objective To teach pharmacy students how to apply transactional analysis and personality assessment to patient counseling to improve communication. Design A lecture series for a required pharmacy communications class was developed to teach pharmacy students how to apply transactional analysis and personality assessment to patient counseling. Students were asked to apply these techniques and to report their experiences. A personality self-assessment was also conducted. Assessment After attending the lecture series, students were able to apply the techniques and demonstrated an understanding of the psychological factors that may affect patient communication, an appreciation for the diversity created by different personality types, the ability to engage patients based on adult-to-adult interaction cues, and the ability to adapt the interactive patient counseling model to different personality traits. Conclusion Students gained a greater awareness of transactional analysis and personality assessment by applying these concepts. This understanding will help students communicate more effectively with patients. PMID:17786269

  14. Web2.0 paves new ways for collaborative and exploratory analysis of chemical compounds in spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Loyek, Christian; Bunkowski, Alexander; Vautz, Wolfgang; Nattkemper, Tim W

    2011-01-01

    In nowadays life science projects, sharing data and data interpretation is becoming increasingly important. This considerably calls for novel information technology approaches, which enable the integration of expert knowledge from different disciplines in combination with advanced data analysis facilities in a collaborative manner. Since the recent development of web technologies offers scientific communities new ways for cooperation and communication, we propose a fully web-based software approach for the collaborative analysis of bioimage data and demonstrate the applicability of Web2.0 techniques to ion mobility spectrometry image data. Our approach allows collaborating experts to easily share, explore and discuss complex image data without any installation of software packages. Scientists only need a username and a password to get access to our system and can directly start exploring and analyzing their data. PMID:21768655

  15. Comparison of two exploratory data analysis methods for classification of Phyllanthus chemical fingerprint: unsupervised vs. supervised pattern recognition technologies.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianru; Chen, QianQian; Wang, Caiyun; Qiu, Hongcong; Liu, Buming; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    In this study, unsupervised and supervised classification methods were compared for comprehensive analysis of the fingerprints of 26 Phyllanthus samples from different geographical regions and species. A total of 63 compounds were identified and tentatively assigned structures for the establishment of fingerprints using high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOFMS). Unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition technologies including principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbors algorithm (NN), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and artificial neural network (ANN) were employed. Results showed that Phyllanthus could be correctly classified according to their geographical locations and species through ANN and PLS-DA. Important variables for clusters discrimination were also identified by PCA. Although unsupervised and supervised pattern recognitions have their own disadvantage and application scope, they are effective and reliable for studying fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). These two technologies are complementary and can be superimposed. Our study is the first holistic comparison of supervised and unsupervised pattern recognition technologies in the TCM chemical fingerprinting. They showed advantages in sample classification and data mining, respectively. PMID:25504091

  16. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.

  17. Exploratory Analysis of Fast-Food Chain Restaurant Menus Before and After Implementation of Local Calorie-Labeling Policies, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Alexa; Leonberg, Beth L.; Wootan, Margo G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2008, several states and municipalities have implemented regulations requiring provision of nutrition information at chain restaurants to address obesity. Although early research into the effect of such labels on consumer decisions has shown mixed results, little information exists on the restaurant industry’s response to labeling. The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effect of menu labeling on fast-food menu offerings over 7 years, from 2005 through 2011. Methods Menus from 5 fast-food chains that had outlets in jurisdictions subject to menu-labeling laws (cases) were compared with menus from 4 fast-food chains operating in jurisdictions not requiring labeling (controls). A trend analysis assessed whether case restaurants improved the healthfulness of their menus relative to the control restaurants. Results Although the overall prevalence of “healthier” food options remained low, a noteworthy increase was seen after 2008 in locations with menu-labeling laws relative to those without such laws. Healthier food options increased from 13% to 20% at case locations while remaining static at 8% at control locations (test for difference in the trend, P = .02). Since 2005, the average calories for an à la carte entrée remained moderately high (approximately 450 kilocalories), with less than 25% of all entrées and sides qualifying as healthier and no clear systematic differences in the trend between chain restaurants in case versus control areas (P ≥ .50). Conclusion These findings suggest that menu labeling has thus far not affected the average nutritional content of fast-food menu items, but it may motivate restaurants to increase the availability of healthier options. PMID:23786908

  18. Performance analysis of high quality parallel preconditioners applied to 3D finite element structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotilina, L.; Nikishin, A.; Yeremin, A.

    1994-12-31

    The solution of large systems of linear equations is a crucial bottleneck when performing 3D finite element analysis of structures. Also, in many cases the reliability and robustness of iterative solution strategies, and their efficiency when exploiting hardware resources, fully determine the scope of industrial applications which can be solved on a particular computer platform. This is especially true for modern vector/parallel supercomputers with large vector length and for modern massively parallel supercomputers. Preconditioned iterative methods have been successfully applied to industrial class finite element analysis of structures. The construction and application of high quality preconditioners constitutes a high percentage of the total solution time. Parallel implementation of high quality preconditioners on such architectures is a formidable challenge. Two common types of existing preconditioners are the implicit preconditioners and the explicit preconditioners. The implicit preconditioners (e.g. incomplete factorizations of several types) are generally high quality but require solution of lower and upper triangular systems of equations per iteration which are difficult to parallelize without deteriorating the convergence rate. The explicit type of preconditionings (e.g. polynomial preconditioners or Jacobi-like preconditioners) require sparse matrix-vector multiplications and can be parallelized but their preconditioning qualities are less than desirable. The authors present results of numerical experiments with Factorized Sparse Approximate Inverses (FSAI) for symmetric positive definite linear systems. These are high quality preconditioners that possess a large resource of parallelism by construction without increasing the serial complexity.

  19. Risk analysis for confined space entries: Critical analysis of four tools applied to three risk scenarios.

    PubMed

    Burlet-Vienney, Damien; Chinniah, Yuvin; Bahloul, Ali; Roberge, Brigitte

    2016-06-01

    Investigation reports of fatal confined space accidents nearly always point to a problem of identifying or underestimating risks. This paper compares 4 different risk analysis tools developed for confined spaces by applying them to 3 hazardous scenarios. The tools were namely 1. a checklist without risk estimation (Tool A), 2. a checklist with a risk scale (Tool B), 3. a risk calculation without a formal hazard identification stage (Tool C), and 4. a questionnaire followed by a risk matrix (Tool D). Each tool's structure and practical application were studied. Tools A and B gave crude results comparable to those of more analytic tools in less time. Their main limitations were lack of contextual information for the identified hazards and greater dependency on the user's expertise and ability to tackle hazards of different nature. Tools C and D utilized more systematic approaches than tools A and B by supporting risk reduction based on the description of the risk factors. Tool D is distinctive because of 1. its comprehensive structure with respect to the steps suggested in risk management, 2. its dynamic approach to hazard identification, and 3. its use of data resulting from the risk analysis. PMID:26864350

  20. Evaluating the use of uncertainty visualization for exploratory analysis of land cover change: A qualitative expert user study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkeldey, Christoph; Schiewe, Jochen; Gerstmann, Henning; Götze, Christian; Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias; Taubenböck, Hannes; Wurm, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Extensive research on geodata uncertainty has been conducted in the past decades, mostly related to modeling, quantifying, and communicating uncertainty. But findings on if and how users can incorporate this information into spatial analyses are still rare. In this paper we address these questions with a focus on land cover change analysis. We conducted semi-structured interviews with three expert groups dealing with change analysis in the fields of climate research, urban development, and vegetation monitoring. During the interviews we used a software prototype to show change scenarios that the experts had analyzed before, extended by visual depiction of uncertainty related to land cover change. This paper describes the study, summarizes results, and discusses findings as well as the study method. Participants came up with several ideas for applications that could be supported by uncertainty, for example, identification of erroneous change, description of change detection algorithm characteristics, or optimization of change detection parameters. Regarding the aspect of reasoning with uncertainty in land cover change data the interviewees saw potential in better-informed hypotheses and insights about change. Communication of uncertainty information to users was seen as critical, depending on the users' role and expertize. We judge semi-structured interviews to be suitable for the purpose of this study and emphasize the potential of qualitative methods (workshops, focus groups etc.) for future uncertainty visualization studies.

  1. Requirements for Defining Utility Drive Cycles: An Exploratory Analysis of Grid Frequency Regulation Data for Establishing Battery Performance Testing Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-10-19

    Battery testing procedures are important for understanding battery performance, including degradation over the life of the battery. Standards are important to provide clear rules and uniformity to an industry. The work described in this report addresses the need for standard battery testing procedures that reflect real-world applications of energy storage systems to provide regulation services to grid operators. This work was motivated by the need to develop Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) testing procedures, or V2G drive cycles. Likewise, the stationary energy storage community is equally interested in standardized testing protocols that reflect real-world grid applications for providing regulation services. As the first of several steps toward standardizing battery testing cycles, this work focused on a statistical analysis of frequency regulation signals from the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnect with the goal to identify patterns in the regulation signal that would be representative of the entire signal as a typical regulation data set. Results from an extensive time-series analysis are discussed, and the results are explained from both the statistical and the battery-testing perspectives. The results then are interpreted in the context of defining a small set of V2G drive cycles for standardization, offering some recommendations for the next steps toward standardizing testing protocols.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Satellite-Derived Multi-Year Particulate Data of Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aina, Yusuf A.; van der Merwe, Johannes H.; Alshuwaikhat, Habib M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001–2010) released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis. PMID:25350009

  3. System Analysis Applied to Autonomy: Application to High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Maturation of intelligent systems technologies and their incorporation into aerial platforms are dictating the development of new analysis tools and incorporation of such tools into existing system analysis methodologies in order to fully capture the trade-offs of autonomy on vehicle and mission success. A first-order "system analysis of autonomy" methodology is outlined in this paper. Further, this analysis methodology is subsequently applied to notional high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aerial vehicle missions.

  4. A comparative and exploratory analysis of socio-cultural factors and immigrant women's mental health within a Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Shahid; Zaidi, Arshia; Ammar, Nawal; Culbert, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of macro-level factors on immigrant and non-immigrant women's mental health status in a Canadian context. This study was part of a larger study examining women's quality of life in south eastern Ontario. Using survey research methods, data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 91 women of whom 66 identified their country of origin as "other" than Canada. Descriptive, bivariate and regression analysis of this data revealed that immigrant and non-immigrant women's macro-level predictors of mental health status vary. Overall, for immigrant women's perceptions of neighbourhood social cohesion was a stronger predictor influencing mental health status, while for non-immigrant women social support was more influential. Research with larger, representative samples should explore the findings to ascertain generalizability. PMID:22223121

  5. The cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in elderly Australians: an exploratory analysis of the vaccine efficacy required.

    PubMed

    Newall, Anthony T; Dehollain, Juan Pablo

    2014-03-10

    It is important to consider the value for money offered by existing elderly influenza vaccination programs, particularly as doubts persist about the magnitude of the effectiveness of such programs. An informative approach to explore the value of vaccination is to consider what vaccine efficacy would be required for a program to be considered cost-effective. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the current elderly (65+ years) influenza vaccination program in Australia, we modelled how the hypothetical removal of vaccination would increase current disease burden estimates depending on alternative vaccine efficacy assumptions. The base-case results of the analysis found that the existing elderly vaccination program is likely to be cost-effective (under A$50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) if the vaccine efficacy is above ∼30%. This study offers reassurance that the influenza vaccination of elderly Australians is likely to offer value for money. PMID:24486359

  6. Factors that shape the patient's hospital experience and satisfaction with lower limb arthroplasty: an exploratory thematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lane, J V; Hamilton, D F; MacDonald, D J; Ellis, C; Howie, C R

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is generally accepted that the patients’ hospital experience can influence their overall satisfaction with the outcome of lower limb arthroplasty; however, little is known about the factors that shape the hospital experience. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of what patients like and do not like about their hospital experience with a view to providing insight into where service improvements could have the potential to improve the patient experience and their satisfaction, and whether they would recommend the procedure. Design A mixed methods (quan-QUAL) approach. Setting Large regional teaching hospital. Participants 216 patients who had completed a postoperative postal questionnaire at 12 months following total knee or total hip arthroplasty. Outcome measures Overall satisfaction with the outcome of surgery, whether to recommend the procedure to another and the rating of patient hospital experience. Free text comments on the best and worst aspects of their hospital stay were evaluated using qualitative thematic analysis. Results Overall, 77% of patients were satisfied with their surgery, 79% reported a good–excellent hospital experience and 85% would recommend the surgery to another. Qualitative analysis revealed clear themes relating to communication, pain relief and the process experience. Comments on positive aspects of the hospital experience were related to feeling well informed and consulted about their care. Comments on the worst aspects of care were related to being made to wait without explanation, moved to different wards and when they felt invisible to the healthcare staff caring for them. Conclusions Positive patient experiences were closely linked to effective patient–health professional interactions and logistics of the hospital processes. Within arthroplasty services, the patient experience of healthcare could be enhanced by further attention to concepts of patient-centred care. Practical examples of this

  7. Technical Communications in Aeronautics: Results of an Exploratory Study. An Analysis of Profit Managers' and Nonprofit Managers' Responses. NASA Technical Memorandum 101626.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community have different technical communications practices. Profit and nonprofit managers were compared in five…

  8. Factor Structure of Scores from the Maslach Burnout Inventory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of 45 Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor-Analytic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Jody A.; Vassar, Matt; Wheeler, Denna L.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides a summary of 45 exploratory and confirmatory factor-analytic studies that examined the internal structure of scores obtained from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). It highlights characteristics of the studies that account for differences in reporting of the MBI factor structure. This approach includes an examination of the…

  9. EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF AN ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE FOR THE PLACEMENT AND RE-GROUPING OF CHILDREN FROM DEPRESSED AREAS IN AND WITHIN THE UNGRADED PRIMARY UNIT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARKE, EUNICE A.

    THIS EXPLORATORY STUDY EXAMINED THE WAYS IN WHICH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN ARE ASSESSED FOR PLACEMENT AND REGROUPING IN AN UNGRADED PRIMARY UNIT. THE STUDY ALSO ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER THE ADMINISTRATION AND TEACHERS HAD PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE CHILD. FINDINGS ARE BASED ON SURVEYS OF THE DIRECTIVES AND PUBLICATIONS OF THE SCHOOL DISTRICT,…

  10. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Viability of a Communication and Feedback Intervention for School Children at Risk of Exclusion: Analysis of Staff Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechten, Frances; Tweed, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    Every day nearly 900 children will be excluded from UK schools for disruptive behaviour and almost one-third of this population has a diagnosed mental health disorder. Exclusion from school is the endpoint of most schools' sanction-based behaviour management policies. This exploratory study investigated staff opinions for using a…

  11. Method of error analysis for phase-measuring algorithms applied to photoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, J A; González-Cano, A

    1998-07-10

    We present a method of error analysis that can be applied for phase-measuring algorithms applied to photoelasticity. We calculate the contributions to the measurement error of the different elements of a circular polariscope as perturbations of the Jones matrices associated with each element. The Jones matrix of the real polariscope can then be calculated as a sum of the nominal matrix and a series of contributions that depend on the errors associated with each element separately. We apply this method to the analysis of phase-measuring algorithms for the determination of isoclinics and isochromatics, including comparisons with real measurements. PMID:18285900

  12. A review of the technology and process on integrated circuits failure analysis applied in communications products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Zhimao; Ling, Xiaodong; Bai, Xiaoshu; Zong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The failure analysis of integrated circuits plays a very important role in the improvement of the reliability in communications products. This paper intends to mainly introduce the failure analysis technology and process of integrated circuits applied in the communication products. There are many technologies for failure analysis, include optical microscopic analysis, infrared microscopic analysis, acoustic microscopy analysis, liquid crystal hot spot detection technology, optical microscopic analysis technology, micro analysis technology, electrical measurement, microprobe technology, chemical etching technology and ion etching technology. The integrated circuit failure analysis depends on the accurate confirmation and analysis of chip failure mode, the search of the root failure cause, the summary of failure mechanism and the implement of the improvement measures. Through the failure analysis, the reliability of integrated circuit and rate of good products can improve.

  13. Particulate matter (PM10) patterns in Europe: An exploratory data analysis using non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žibert, Janez; Cedilnik, Jure; Pražnikar, Jure

    2016-05-01

    In last decade space-density of monitoring stations increased, in to addition also air pollution modeling made big progress. Using diversity of big data can lead to better knowledge about air pollution at continental scale. The focus of presented study is the data-driven approach using non-negative matrix factorization to provide new insights and to study the characteristic space-time particulate-matter patterns across Europe. We analyzed the PM10 concentrations obtained from 1097 monitoring stations (AirBase data) and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) modeled fields for a period of 3 years. We distinguished five characteristic patterns obtained from the AirBase data and five patterns from the MACC data. A comparison between the AirBase and MACC data shows a good spatial overlap for the east Europe, central Europe and the Mediterranean patterns. However, it should be noted that an analysis of the MACC data revealed two additional marine patterns: the Celtic and the North Seas. The Po Valley and Balkan patterns were very clearly identified when analyzing the AirBase data. In order to better understand the influence of the synoptic situation on the particulate-matter concentrations the synoptic meteorological situations were additionally analyzed. The cold season, low wind and very stable conditions, which can last for several days, is the most common situation linked to high concentrations of anthropogenic air pollution with particulate matter. In contrast, for the Mediterranean pattern the most common situation (high factor loadings) is observed during the summer period. This pattern also exhibits a clearer annual cycle. A closer look at the sea-salt patterns (Celtic and North Seas) shows low time-series correlations between these two factors. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism is the same: a steep gradient between the cyclone and the anti-cyclone that causes high winds and, consequently, higher sea-salt production.

  14. AbobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport) dosing in cervical dystonia: an exploratory analysis of two large open-label extension studies.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Robert A; Truong, Daniel; Hubble, Jean; Coleman, Chandra; Beffy, Jean-Luc; Chang, Stephen; Picaut, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Treatment with botulinum toxin-A is recommended as first-line treatment for cervical dystonia (CD). In clinical practice many factors appear to influence dose adjustment and the retreatment regimen; however, there is little information available in the literature regarding the evolution of dosing over treatment cycles. We report on two similarly designed, long-term, multicenter, open-label extension studies of Dysport for the treatment of CD, which followed 500 U fixed-dose placebo-controlled trials. Both studies specified a fixed 500 U dose for the first open-label treatment cycle, with dose adjustment in subsequent treatment cycles according to the clinical response. These analyses include 218 patients who entered the two studies; doses in the subsequent treatment cycles ranged between 250 and 1,000 U. During open-label treatment, all treatment cycles resulted in improvements in mean Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) total scores. However, increasing the dose of Dysport above the initial 500 U dose was not observed to result in an incremental improvement in response as measured by the TWSTRS. No individual patient characteristic was found to reliably predict the use of higher doses at each treatment cycle. Dysport was generally well tolerated with no major differences in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) observed with different doses. Dysphagia was considered an AE of special interest and dysphagia data from the open-label studies were combined with two Phase II studies. Analysis of this enhanced database indicates that unilateral injections of >150 U into the sternocleidomastoid muscle is associated with a higher dysphagia risk. Thus, limiting the dose in the sternocleidomastoid may help reduce the incidence of dysphagia. PMID:22878514

  15. Young Children's Haptic Exploratory Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Adults vary their haptic exploratory behavior reliably with variation both in the sensory input and in the task goals. Little is known about the development of these connections between perceptual goals and exploratory behaviors. A total of 36 children ages 3, 4, and 5 years and 20 adults completed a haptic intramodal match-to-sample task.…

  16. Multi-topic assignment for exploratory navigation of consumer health information in NetWellness using formal concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Finding quality consumer health information online can effectively bring important public health benefits to the general population. It can empower people with timely and current knowledge for managing their health and promoting wellbeing. Despite a popular belief that search engines such as Google can solve all information access problems, recent studies show that using search engines and simple search terms is not sufficient. Our objective is to provide an approach to organizing consumer health information for navigational exploration, complementing keyword-based direct search. Multi-topic assignment to health information, such as online questions, is a fundamental step for navigational exploration. Methods We introduce a new multi-topic assignment method combining semantic annotation using UMLS concepts (CUIs) and Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). Each question was tagged with CUIs identified by MetaMap. The CUIs were filtered with term-frequency and a new term-strength index to construct a CUI-question context. The CUI-question context and a topic-subject context were used for multi-topic assignment, resulting in a topic-question context. The topic-question context was then directly used for constructing a prototype navigational exploration interface. Results Experimental evaluation was performed on the task of automatic multi-topic assignment of 99 predefined topics for about 60,000 consumer health questions from NetWellness. Using example-based metrics, suitable for multi-topic assignment problems, our method achieved a precision of 0.849, recall of 0.774, and F1 measure of 0.782, using a reference standard of 278 questions with manually assigned topics. Compared to NetWellness’ original topic assignment, a 36.5% increase in recall is achieved with virtually no sacrifice in precision. Conclusion Enhancing the recall of multi-topic assignment without sacrificing precision is a prerequisite for achieving the benefits of navigational exploration. Our

  17. Applied Behavior Analysis: Its Impact on the Treatment of Mentally Retarded Emotionally Disturbed People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Coe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews applications of the applied behavior analysis ideas of B. F. Skinner and others to persons with both mental retardation and emotional disturbance. The review examines implications of behavior analysis for operant conditioning and radical behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement, and emotion and mental illness. (DB)

  18. Causal Modeling--Path Analysis a New Trend in Research in Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastegar, Mina

    2006-01-01

    This article aims at discussing a new statistical trend in research in applied linguistics. This rather new statistical procedure is causal modeling--path analysis. The article demonstrates that causal modeling--path analysis is the best statistical option to use when the effects of a multitude of L2 learners' variables on language achievement are…

  19. An Objective Comparison of Applied Behavior Analysis and Organizational Behavior Management Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; McGee, Heather M.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an objective review, analysis, and comparison of empirical studies targeting the behavior of adults published in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) between 1997 and 2001. The purpose of the comparisons was to identify similarities and differences with respect to…

  20. Sociosexuality Education for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; Condo, Bethany; Hardaway, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has emerged as one of the most effective empirically based strategies for instructing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four ABA-based strategies that have been found effective are video modeling, visual strategies, social script fading, and task analysis. Individuals with ASD often struggle with…

  1. Confirmation of standard error analysis techniques applied to EXAFS using simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Corwin H; Hu, Yung-Jin

    2009-12-14

    Systematic uncertainties, such as those in calculated backscattering amplitudes, crystal glitches, etc., not only limit the ultimate accuracy of the EXAFS technique, but also affect the covariance matrix representation of real parameter errors in typical fitting routines. Despite major advances in EXAFS analysis and in understanding all potential uncertainties, these methods are not routinely applied by all EXAFS users. Consequently, reported parameter errors are not reliable in many EXAFS studies in the literature. This situation has made many EXAFS practitioners leery of conventional error analysis applied to EXAFS data. However, conventional error analysis, if properly applied, can teach us more about our data, and even about the power and limitations of the EXAFS technique. Here, we describe the proper application of conventional error analysis to r-space fitting to EXAFS data. Using simulations, we demonstrate the veracity of this analysis by, for instance, showing that the number of independent dat a points from Stern's rule is balanced by the degrees of freedom obtained from a 2 statistical analysis. By applying such analysis to real data, we determine the quantitative effect of systematic errors. In short, this study is intended to remind the EXAFS community about the role of fundamental noise distributions in interpreting our final results.

  2. The Textual Organisation of Research Article Introductions in Applied Linguistics: Variability within a Single Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Ismet

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the degree of variability in the structure of research article introductions within a single discipline. It is an exploratory study based on the analysis of 20 research articles. The study investigates the differences between two subdisciplines of applied linguistics, namely second language acquisition and second language…

  3. Exploratory Analysis of Transaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Calapristi, Augustin J.

    2004-06-21

    Transactions are fundamental components of an economy. This paper presents an analytic apparatus that can be used to analyze transaction data, where the transaction is the fundamental unit of observation. Transactions also are a potentially fundamental observation associated with the detection and characterization of organizational activities and events through acquisitions, trades or financial transactions. The objective of the research described in this paper was to develop a mathematical signature that represents transaction data (Point A to Point B, etc.), and visualize the transactions using currently available visualization tools. The representational signature should be useful for indicating change in organizational behavior, and for indicating when anomalous behavior occurs, i.e., something that is different than the common daily, quarterly or annual occurrence. The mathematical construct will be the same whether the transactions are country trade data or bank transactions, electrical grid transactions or some other multi-point transfer of information, asset, action, etc. The particular data example shown in this paper is international economic trade data for six countries; Mexico and its 5 largest trading partners, the United States, Germany, Canada, Japan and South Korea.

  4. Analysis of some meteorological variables time series relevant in urban environments by applying the multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon-Dominguez, Pablo; Ariza-Villaverde, Ana B.; Jimenez-Hornero, Francisco J.; Gutierrez de Rave, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    surface wind direction and mean temperature according to the accumulation of points in the extreme of the spectra right tails. This fact confirming that the knowledge of the relationships between the multifractal parameters helps to complete the information regarding to the influence of rare values in the time series. With respect to the relationships between the parameters of the multifractal spectra and those calculated from the descriptive statistics for the meteorological variables considered here, a strong correlation was detected between the rare high values, represented by the extreme points in the spectra left tails, and the leptokurtic shape of the frequency distributions. In addition, for the same rare high values it could be checked a significant negative correlation between them and the coefficients of variation. The spectra left tails, corresponding to high values in the time series, exhibited greater amplitudes for those variables distributions that showed higher dispersion and positive coefficients of skewness. The multifractal analysis has shown itself to be a suitable and efficient approach to characterizing the most important meteorological variables affecting cities environment providing information that can be applied to increase the knowledge on the urban climate dynamics.

  5. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling, Integrating CFA and EFA: Application to Students' Evaluations of University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Muthen, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Ludtke, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    This study is a methodological-substantive synergy, demonstrating the power and flexibility of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) methods that integrate confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses (CFA and EFA), as applied to substantively important questions based on multidimentional students' evaluations of university teaching…

  6. Thorough approach to measurement uncertainty analysis applied to immersed heat exchanger testing

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R B; Wells, C V

    1986-04-01

    This paper discusses the value of an uncertainty analysis, discusses how to determine measurement uncertainty, and then details the sources of error in instrument calibration, data acquisition, and data reduction for a particular experiment. Methods are discussed to determine both the systematic (or bias) error in an experiment as well as to determine the random (or precision) error in the experiment. The detailed analysis is applied to two sets of conditions in measuring the effectiveness of an immersed coil heat exchanger. It shows the value of such analysis as well as an approach to reduce overall measurement uncertainty and to improve the experiment. This paper outlines how to perform an uncertainty analysis and then provides a detailed example of how to apply the methods discussed in the paper. The authors hope this paper will encourage researchers and others to become more concerned with their measurement processes and to report measurement uncertainty with all of their test results.

  7. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.; Kim, Jungeun; Chen, Grace A.; Alvarez, Alvin N.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory (AARRSI) to further examine the underlying factor structure in a total sample of 1,273 Asian American participants. In the first step of analysis, an exploratory factor analysis with 651 participants yielded a 13-item two-factor…

  8. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Bellevue, Oliver C; Johnson, Bennett M; Feczko, Andrew F; Nadig, Daniel E; White, David M

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result. PMID:27252520

  9. Theatrical fire pursuant exploratory laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Bellevue, Oliver C.; Johnson, Bennett M.; Feczko, Andrew F.; Nadig, Daniel E.; White, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Fire in the operating theater is a rare but potentially fatal complication. We report igniting an intraperitoneal fire while preforming an exploratory laparotomy for perforated viscus. Fortunately, the patient suffered no injuries as a result. PMID:27252520

  10. Applied Behavior Analysis in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Recent Developments, Strengths, and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Turygin, Nicole C.; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert; Tureck, Kimberly; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism has become one of the most heavily researched topics in the field of mental health and education. While genetics has been the most studied of all topics, applied behavior analysis (ABA) has also received a great deal of attention, and has arguably yielded the most promising results of any research area to date. The current paper provides a…

  11. Using Applied Behaviour Analysis as Standard Practice in a UK Special Needs School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Denise; Hoerger, Marguerite; Philpott, Hannah; Jones, Elin Walker; Hughes, J. Carl; Morgan, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how applied behaviour analysis can be implemented effectively and affordably in a maintained special needs school in the UK. Behaviour analysts collaborate with classroom teachers to provide early intensive behaviour education for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and function based behavioural…

  12. Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Severe Psychiatric Disorders: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotti, Joseph R.; And Others

    Clinical research in the area of severe psychiatric disorders constituted the major focus for the discipline of applied behavior analysis during the early 1960s. Recently, however, there appears to be a notable lack of a behavioral focus within many inpatient psychiatric settings and a relative dearth of published behavioral treatment studies with…

  13. A Self-Administered Parent Training Program Based upon the Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents often respond to challenging behavior exhibited by their children in such a way that unintentionally strengthens it. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a research-based science that has been proven effective in remediating challenging behavior in children. Although many parents could benefit from using strategies from the field of ABA with…

  14. A Case Study in the Misrepresentation of Applied Behavior Analysis in Autism: The Gernsbacher Lectures

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward K

    2009-01-01

    I know that most men, including those at ease with problems of the greatest complexity, can seldom accept the simplest and most obvious truth if it be such as would oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions which they have proudly taught to others, and which they have woven, thread by thread, into the fabrics of their life. (Tolstoy, 1894) This article presents a case study in the misrepresentation of applied behavior analysis for autism based on Morton Ann Gernsbacher's presentation of a lecture titled “The Science of Autism: Beyond the Myths and Misconceptions.” Her misrepresentations involve the characterization of applied behavior analysis, descriptions of practice guidelines, reviews of the treatment literature, presentations of the clinical trials research, and conclusions about those trials (e.g., children's improvements are due to development, not applied behavior analysis). The article also reviews applied behavior analysis' professional endorsements and research support, and addresses issues in professional conduct. It ends by noting the deleterious effects that misrepresenting any research on autism (e.g., biological, developmental, behavioral) have on our understanding and treating it in a transdisciplinary context. PMID:22478522

  15. Evolution of Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Individuals With Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark; Barton, Erin E.; Hine, Jeffrey F.

    2005-01-01

    Two issues of each volume of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis were reviewed to identify research reports focusing on individuals with autism. The identified articles were analyzed to describe the ages of individuals with autism, the settings in which the research occurred, the nature of the behaviors targeted for intervention, and the…

  16. Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis" is a type of behavioral therapy that initially focuses on discrete trials: brief periods of one-on-one instruction, during which a teacher cues a behavior, prompts the appropriate response, and provides reinforcement to the child. Children in the program receive an average of 35 to 40 hours of…

  17. A National UK Census of Applied Behavior Analysis School Provision for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, G. M.; Fletcher, R.; Hastings, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Over more than a decade, specialist Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) schools or classes for children with autism have developed in the UK and Ireland. However, very little is known internationally about how ABA is defined in practice in school settings, the characteristics of children supported in ABA school settings, and the staffing structures…

  18. Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Autism: Sibling Psychosocial Adjustment during and Following Intervention Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cebula, Katie R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither…

  19. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  20. INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS (ICA) APPLIED TO LONG BUNCH BEAMS IN THE LOS ALAMOS PROTON STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    Kolski, Jeffrey S.; Macek, Robert J.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Pang, Xiaoying

    2012-05-14

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful blind source separation (BSS) method. Compared to the typical BSS method, principal component analysis (PCA), which is the BSS foundation of the well known model independent analysis (MIA), ICA is more robust to noise, coupling, and nonlinearity. ICA of turn-by-turn beam position data has been used to measure the transverse betatron phase and amplitude functions, dispersion function, linear coupling, sextupole strength, and nonlinear beam dynamics. We apply ICA in a new way to slices along the bunch and discuss the source signals identified as betatron motion and longitudinal beam structure.

  1. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success. PMID:26151232

  2. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.

  3. Applying behavior analysis to clinical problems: review and analysis of habit reversal.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenberger, R G; Fuqua, R W; Woods, D W

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a review and analysis of habit reversal, a multicomponent procedure developed by Azrin and Nunn (1973, 1974) for the treatment of nervous habits, tics, and stuttering. The article starts with a discussion of the behaviors treated with habit reversal, behavioral covariation among habits, and functional analysis and assessment of habits. Research on habit reversal and simplified versions of the procedure is then described. Next the article discusses the limitations of habit reversal and the evidence for its generality. The article concludes with an analysis of the behavioral processes involved in habit reversal and suggestions for future research. PMID:9757583

  4. MetaNetVar: Pipeline for applying network analysis tools for genomic variants analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eric; Hagenauer, Megan; Lesko, Matthew; Francis, Felix; Rodriguez, Oscar; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Huser, Vojtech; Busby, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Network analysis can make variant analysis better. There are existing tools like HotNet2 and dmGWAS that can provide various analytical methods. We developed a prototype of a pipeline called MetaNetVar that allows execution of multiple tools. The code is published at https://github.com/NCBI-Hackathons/Network_SNPs. A working prototype is published as an Amazon Machine Image - ami-4510312f . PMID:27158457

  5. A Study in the Founding of Applied Behavior Analysis Through Its Publications

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward K.; Altus, Deborah E.; Smith, Nathaniel G.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a study of the founding of applied behavior analysis through its publications. Our methods included hand searches of sources (e.g., journals, reference lists), search terms (i.e., early, applied, behavioral, research, literature), inclusion criteria (e.g., the field's applied dimension), and (d) challenges to their face and content validity. Our results were 36 articles published between 1959 and 1967 that we organized into 4 groups: 12 in 3 programs of research and 24 others. Our discussion addresses (a) limitations in our method (e.g., the completeness of our search), (b) challenges to the validity of our methods and results (e.g., convergent validity), and (c) priority claims about the field's founding. We conclude that the claims are irresolvable because identification of the founding publications depends significantly on methods and because the field's founding was an evolutionary process. We close with suggestions for future research. PMID:25729133

  6. [Clustering analysis applied to near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of Chinese traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mu-qing; Zhou, De-cheng; Xu, Xin-yuan; Sun, Yao-jie; Zhou, Xiao-li; Han, Lei

    2007-10-01

    The present article discusses the clustering analysis used in the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy analysis of Chinese traditional medicines, which provides a new method for the classification of Chinese traditional medicines. Samples selected purposely in the authors' research to measure their absorption spectra in seconds by a multi-channel NIR spectrometer developed in the authors' lab were safrole, eucalypt oil, laurel oil, turpentine, clove oil and three samples of costmary oil from different suppliers. The spectra in the range of 0.70-1.7 microm were measured with air as background and the results indicated that they are quite distinct. Qualitative mathematical model was set up and cluster analysis based on the spectra was carried out through different clustering methods for optimization, and came out the cluster correlation coefficient of 0.9742 in the authors' research. This indicated that cluster analysis of the group of samples is practicable. Also it is reasonable to get the result that the calculated classification of 8 samples was quite accorded with their characteristics, especially the three samples of costmary oil were in the closest classification of the clustering analysis. PMID:18306778

  7. Visual exploratory analysis of integrated chromosome 19 proteomic data derived from glioma cancer stem-cell lines based on novel nonlinear dimensional data reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lespinats, Sylvain; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2015-05-01

    Chromosome 19 is known to be linked to neurodegeneration and many cancers. Glioma-derived cancer stem cells (GSCs) are tumor-initiating cells and may be refractory to radiation and chemotherapy and thus have important implications for tumor biology and therapeutics. The analysis and interpretation of large proteomic data sets requires the development of new data mining and visualization approaches. Traditional techniques are insufficient to interpret and visualize these resulting experimental data. The emphasis of this paper lies in the presentation of novel approaches for the visualization, clustering and projection representation to unveil hidden data structures relevant for the accurate interpretation of biological experiments. These qualitative and quantitative methods are applied to the proteomic analysis of data sets derived from the GSCs. The achieved clustering and visualization results provide a more detailed insight into the expression patterns for chromosome 19 proteins.

  8. Exploratory studies, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Exploratory Studies Group is dedicated to advanced investigation of accelerators and radiation, primarily in the area of charged-particle beams and photon beams. Its primary mission is to explore the next steps in the development of particle accelerators and storage rings, which are important both for high-energy physics and for the wide range of disciplines now turning to synchrotron-radiation sources and free-electron lasers. Our research is therefore deeply committed to LBL`s institutional goal of becoming a center for the generation and use of coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation of exceptional brightness, as well as for generic research on the future development of accelerators. A significant fraction of our effort is dedicated to general accelerator-physics research for facilities on the immediate horizon, but a vital part of our activities comprises research into exotic possibilities for charged-particle production, accumulation, acceleration, and storage. During this report period, we were proncipally involved in four general areas of study: Accelerator-physics research for the Advanced Light Source, the 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source now under construction at LBL. In collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, both the conceptual and the detailed design of PEP-II, an energy-asymmetric electron-positron collider, based on the PEP ring at SLAC and designed to serve as a B-meson factory. Studies of ultraviolet and infrared free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators and storage rings, in particular the conceptual design of an infrared free-electron laser for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL. Generic high-energy accelerator-physics and photon-beam research directed far into the future to envision facilities that would employ new techniques of particle-beam acceleration and storage and photon-beam generation.

  9. Exploratory studies, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Exploratory Studies Group is dedicated to advanced investigation of accelerators and radiation, primarily in the area of charged-particle beams and photon beams. Its primary mission is to explore the next steps in the development of particle accelerators and storage rings, which are important both for high-energy physics and for the wide range of disciplines now turning to synchrotron-radiation sources and free-electron lasers. Our research is therefore deeply committed to LBL's institutional goal of becoming a center for the generation and use of coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation of exceptional brightness, as well as for generic research on the future development of accelerators. A significant fraction of our effort is dedicated to general accelerator-physics research for facilities on the immediate horizon, but a vital part of our activities comprises research into exotic possibilities for charged-particle production, accumulation, acceleration, and storage. During this report period, we were proncipally involved in four general areas of study: Accelerator-physics research for the Advanced Light Source, the 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source now under construction at LBL. In collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, both the conceptual and the detailed design of PEP-II, an energy-asymmetric electron-positron collider, based on the PEP ring at SLAC and designed to serve as a B-meson factory. Studies of ultraviolet and infrared free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators and storage rings, in particular the conceptual design of an infrared free-electron laser for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL. Generic high-energy accelerator-physics and photon-beam research directed far into the future to envision facilities that would employ new techniques of particle-beam acceleration and storage and photon-beam generation.

  10. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439

  11. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439

  12. Ongoing Analysis of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  13. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Multicultural Teaching Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Montgomery, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing conceptual controversy of cultural competence for preservice teachers led to the current study that explored the underlying structure of cultural competence through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis methods. A total of 793 preservice teachers from two large Midwestern universities completed the…

  14. Applying the least restrictive alternative principle to treatment decisions: A legal and behavioral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. M.; Sherman, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The least restrictive alternative concept is widely used in mental health law. This paper addresses how the concept has been applied to treatment decisions. The paper offers both a legal and a behavioral analysis to some problems that have emerged in recent years concerning the selection of behavioral procedures used to change client behavior. The paper also offers ways of improving the application of the concept, which involve developing a more behaviorally functional perspective toward restrictiveness. PMID:22478138

  15. Classical linear-control analysis applied to business-cycle dynamics and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Linear control analysis is applied as an aid in understanding the fluctuations of business cycles in the past, and to examine monetary policies that might improve stabilization. The analysis shows how different policies change the frequency and damping of the economic system dynamics, and how they modify the amplitude of the fluctuations that are caused by random disturbances. Examples are used to show how policy feedbacks and policy lags can be incorporated, and how different monetary strategies for stabilization can be analytically compared. Representative numerical results are used to illustrate the main points.

  16. Applied behavior analysis: its impact on the treatment of mentally retarded emotionally disturbed people.

    PubMed

    Matson, J L; Coe, D A

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory research on behavior analysis proved to be useful in establishing principles of learning with many relevant applications for people. Early efforts in the applied behavior analysis area proved to be particularly successful with mentally retarded persons. Self-help skills received much of the earliest attention, but another area that became quite fruitful for study was dual diagnosis--mental health problems of mentally retarded individuals. This paper reviews some of the early works of Skinner and his colleagues and the implications of this work on the rapidly developing subdiscipline of dual diagnosis. Current status and future trends are discussed. PMID:1574625

  17. Applying a Force and Motion Learning Progression over an Extended Time Span Using the Force Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Liang, Ling L.; Liu, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study applied a proposed force and motion learning progression (LP) to high-school and university students and to content involving both one- and two-dimensional force and motion situations. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was adapted, based on a previous content analysis and coding of the questions in the FCI in terms of the…

  18. Sequential analysis applied to clinical trials in dentistry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bogowicz, P; Flores-Mir, C; Major, P W; Heo, G

    2008-01-01

    Clinical trials employ sequential analysis for the ethical and economic benefits it brings. In dentistry, as in other fields, resources are scarce and efforts are made to ensure that patients are treated ethically. The objective of this systematic review was to characterise the use of sequential analysis for clinical trials in dentistry. We searched various databases from 1900 through to January 2008. Articles were selected for review if they were clinical trials in the field of dentistry that had applied some form of sequential analysis. Selection was carried out independently by two of the authors. We included 18 trials from various specialties, which involved many different interventions. We conclude that sequential analysis seems to be underused in this field but that there are sufficient methodological resources in place for future applications.Evidence-Based Dentistry (2008) 9, 55-62. doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400587. PMID:18584009

  19. System Sensitivity Analysis Applied to the Conceptual Design of a Dual-Fuel Rocket SSTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of initial efforts to apply the System Sensitivity Analysis (SSA) optimization method to the conceptual design of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle. SSA is an efficient, calculus-based MDO technique for generating sensitivity derivatives in a highly multidisciplinary design environment. The method has been successfully applied to conceptual aircraft design and has been proven to have advantages over traditional direct optimization methods. The method is applied to the optimization of an advanced, piloted SSTO design similar to vehicles currently being analyzed by NASA as possible replacements for the Space Shuttle. Powered by a derivative of the Russian RD-701 rocket engine, the vehicle employs a combination of hydrocarbon, hydrogen, and oxygen propellants. Three primary disciplines are included in the design - propulsion, performance, and weights & sizing. A complete, converged vehicle analysis depends on the use of three standalone conceptual analysis computer codes. Efforts to minimize vehicle dry (empty) weight are reported in this paper. The problem consists of six system-level design variables and one system-level constraint. Using SSA in a 'manual' fashion to generate gradient information, six system-level iterations were performed from each of two different starting points. The results showed a good pattern of convergence for both starting points. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the method, possible areas of improvement, and future work is included.

  20. An engineering geology approach applied to objective risk analysis'' and for the quantification of the probability of success'' of petroleum leads'' and prospects''

    SciTech Connect

    Font, R.G. )

    1994-12-01

    In engineering geology, people often labor to standardize and quantify techniques and methods utilized in the solution of critical problems. Applications related to the field of petroleum technology are certainly no exception. For example, risk analysis of petroleum exploratory projects and prospects is often arbitrary and biased. The calculation of prospect risk introduced in this article is designed to remove subjectivity'' by establishing quantitative standards.'' The technique allows the same method of analysis to be applied to prospects worldwide. It may be used as introduced in this paper (as employed by the author) or as a model, since it possesses the flexibility to be modified by individual users as long as standards are internally defined and utilized by all members of an exploration team. Risk analysis has been discussed in much detail. However, an original method for establishing quantitative standards for risk assessment is addressed and introduced in this paper. As defined here, prospect risk (described as the probability of success'' or Ps'') is the product of the following: Ps = (Trap) [times] (Reservoir) [times] (Source) [times] (Recovery) [times] (Timing). Well-defined, quantitative standards must be established if one is to remove subjectivity from risk assessment. In order to establish such standards to be used uniformly by explorationists, each of the above-referenced factors is individually evaluated and numerically defined utilizing the category and ranking system outlined in Table 1. If all five, independent parameters had individual values of 1.00, then the prospective venture would have an overall probability of success of 100 percent. Similarly, if all parameters exhibited values of 0.90, the overall chance of success would equal 77 percent. Values of 0.80 equate to 33 percent, values of 0.70 to 17 percent, values of 0.60 to 8 percent, values of 0.50 to 1 percent, and values of 0.30 to 0.2 percent.