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Sample records for exploratory analysis applied

  1. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  2. Graphical and Numerical Descriptive Analysis: Exploratory Tools Applied to Vietnamese Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughton, Dominique; Phong, Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    This case study covers several exploratory data analysis ideas, the histogram and boxplot, kernel density estimates, the recently introduced bagplot--a two-dimensional extension of the boxplot--as well as the violin plot, which combines a boxplot with a density shape plot. We apply these ideas and demonstrate how to interpret the output from these…

  3. Improving skill development: an exploratory study comparing a philosophical and an applied ethical analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of ICT students and professionals. In particular the skill development focused on includes: being able to recognise ethical challenges and formulate coherent responses; distancing oneself from subjective judgements; developing ethical literacy; identifying stakeholders; and communicating ethical decisions made, to name a few.

  4. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  5. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  6. Confirmatory and exploratory analysis applied to pharmaco-EEG and related study data: contradiction or useful enrichment?

    PubMed

    Ferner, U; Matejcek, M; Neff, G

    1983-01-01

    Besides hypothesis testing, which should be done as sparingly as possible, the measured or observed data should be described as extensively as possible. The traditional reliance on profiles of the mean responses may neglect useful information, and such profiles may also be misleading. With the aid of exploratory data analysis, different aspects of the structure of a data set can be considered. 'Data snooping' may discover coherences, non-trivial structures and peculiarities, which lead to a new hypothesis or to new mathematical-statistical models. It is, in our opinion, a necessity to consider exploratory and confirmatory data analyses in conjunction. This will be illustrated by examples taken from pharmaco-EEG studies. PMID:6621857

  7. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  8. Exploratory orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  9. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  10. Multivariate optimization by exploratory analysis applied to the determination of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, Roberta Eliane Santos; Neto, Waldomiro Borges; Silva, Nilton Oliveira Couto e.; Naveira, Rita Lopes Pereira; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina; da Silva, José Bento Borba

    2009-06-01

    A method for the direct determination (without sample pre-digestion) of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been developed. The method has been optimized by a 2 3 factorial design, which evaluated the plasma conditions (nebulization gas flow rate, applied power, and sample flow rate). A 1:1 diluted juice sample with 2% HNO 3 (Tetra Packed, peach flavor) and spiked with 0.5 mg L - 1 of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn was employed in the optimization. The results of the factorial design were evaluated by exploratory analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA, and Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to determine the optimum analytical conditions for all elements. Central point condition differentiation (0.75 L min - 1 , 1.3 kW, and 1.25 mL min - 1 ) was observed for both methods, Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, with higher analytical signal values, suggesting that these are the optimal analytical conditions. F and t-student tests were used to compare the slopes of the calibration curves for aqueous and matrix-matched standards. No significant differences were observed at 95% confidence level. The correlation coefficient was higher than 0.99 for all the elements evaluated. The limits of quantification were: Al 253, Cu 3.6, Fe 84, Mn 0.4, Zn 71, Ni 67, Cd 69, Pb 129, Sn 206, Cr 79, Co 24, and Ba 2.1 µg L - 1 . The spiking experiments with fruit juice samples resulted in recoveries between 80 and 120%, except for Co and Sn. Al, Cd, Pb, Sn and Cr could not be quantified in any of the samples investigated. The method was applied to the determination of several elements in fruit juice samples commercialized in Brazil.

  11. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  12. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

  13. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what "rotation" is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing…

  14. Exploratory visual analysis of pharmacogenomic results.

    PubMed

    Reif, David M; Dudek, Scott M; Shaffer, Christian M; Wang, Janey; Moore, Jason H

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of expansive pharmacogenomic datasets is a daunting challenge. A thorough exploration of experimental results requires both statistical and annotative information. Therefore, appropriate analysis tools must bring a readily-accessible, flexible combination of statistics and biological annotation to the user's desktop. We present the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA) software and database as such a tool and demonstrate its utility in replicating the findings of an earlier pharmacogenomic study as well as elucidating novel biologically plausible hypotheses. EVA brings all of the often disparate pieces of analysis together in an infinitely flexible visual display that is amenable to any type of statistical result and biological question. Here, we describe the motivations for developing EVA, detail the database and custom graphical user interface (GUI), provide an example of its application to a publicly available pharmacogenomic dataset, and discuss the broad utility of the EVA tool for the pharmacogenomics community. PMID:15759635

  15. A Review of CEFA Software: Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soon-Mook

    2010-01-01

    CEFA 3.02(Browne, Cudeck, Tateneni, & Mels, 2008) is a factor analysis computer program designed to perform exploratory factor analysis. It provides the main properties that are needed for exploratory factor analysis, namely a variety of factoring methods employing eight different discrepancy functions to be minimized to yield initial solutions, a…

  16. Key Words and the Analysis of Exploratory Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrlitz-Biró, Linda; Elbers, Ed; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2013-01-01

    The count of key words indicating the quality of reasoning has been used as a method to observe exploratory talk. However, reasoning in talk does not necessarily contain key words. The analysis of key words leaves unattended other aspects of exploratory talk, such as collaborative processes. The question is: to what extent can the analysis of key…

  17. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  18. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  19. Exploratory versus Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Collegiate Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Tim P.; Legg, David L.

    Twenty-one variables believed to be important indicators of health related physical fitness were measured on male and female college students between 1991 and 1993 (n=433). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used in an attempt to derive important components of physical fitness. The exploratory factor analysis identified…

  20. Phosphazenes for energy production and storage: Applied and exploratory synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Andrew R.

    This dissertation involves progress toward phosphazene-based ion conducting materials with a focus on structure-property relationships to improve these materials. This dissertation also includes some more fundamental exploratory syntheses to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover structure-property relationships that may be useful in designing compounds to fulfill important technical requirements. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to polymers and polyphosphazenes as well as ion-conducting materials and the contribution of polyphosphazene chemistry to that field. Chapter 1 also provides a brief introduction to some analytical techniques. Chapter 2 begins with the use of organophosphates as stand-alone non-volatile and fire-retardant liquid electrolyte media for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as well as their use as plasticizer in polymer gel electrolytes intended for application in lithium batteries. These organophosphates are the smallest phosphorus containing model molecules investigated in this dissertation. A homologous series of oligoalkyleneoxy substituted phosphates was synthesized and the effect of the substituent chain length on viscosity and conductivity was investigated. Small, test-scale DSSCs were constructed and showed promising results with overall cell efficiencies of up to 3.6% under un-optimized conditions. Conductivity measurements were performed on polymer gel-electrolytes based on poly[bis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene] (MEEP) plasticized with the phosphate with the best combination of properties, using a system loaded with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as the charge carrier. In chapter 3 the effect of the cation of the charge carrier species on the anionic conductivity of DSSC type electrolytes is evaluated using hexakis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (MEE-trimer) as a small molecule model for MEEP. The iodides of lithium, sodium, and ammonium as well as the ionic liquid, 1-propyl-3

  1. Mission analysis of the Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, M.A.; Mele, R.; Mozhi, T.A.; Lemeshewsky, W.A.; Truong, T.

    1993-12-31

    The mission of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), as interpreted from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, can be stated succinctly as, ...to conduct subsurface exploration and testing, in support of site suitability determination and license application, in a manner that protects the environment and nuclear waste isolation capabilities of the site. The objective of the ESF mission analysis effort was to expand this general mission statement to the explicit program needs that must be fulfilled by an ESF during the site characterization program. The scope of the ESF mission analysis was limited to the specification of test requirements that must be satisfied by an ESF in support of site characterization and, if the site is determined to be suitable, license application for construction of a geologic repository. The time period covers from initiation of ESF testing through either Presidential recommendation a a geologic repository or Secretarial determination of unsuitability as a geologic repository, whichever comes first. The analysis stems from the requirements contained in the Physical System Requirements (PSR)-Dispose of Waste document and draws upon the extensive technical knowledge behind preparation of the Site Characterization Program Baseline (SCPB).

  2. RCytoscape: tools for exploratory network analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomolecular pathways and networks are dynamic and complex, and the perturbations to them which cause disease are often multiple, heterogeneous and contingent. Pathway and network visualizations, rendered on a computer or published on paper, however, tend to be static, lacking in detail, and ill-equipped to explore the variety and quantities of data available today, and the complex causes we seek to understand. Results RCytoscape integrates R (an open-ended programming environment rich in statistical power and data-handling facilities) and Cytoscape (powerful network visualization and analysis software). RCytoscape extends Cytoscape's functionality beyond what is possible with the Cytoscape graphical user interface. To illustrate the power of RCytoscape, a portion of the Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) data set from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is examined. Network visualization reveals previously unreported patterns in the data suggesting heterogeneous signaling mechanisms active in GBM Proneural tumors, with possible clinical relevance. Conclusions Progress in bioinformatics and computational biology depends upon exploratory and confirmatory data analysis, upon inference, and upon modeling. These activities will eventually permit the prediction and control of complex biological systems. Network visualizations -- molecular maps -- created from an open-ended programming environment rich in statistical power and data-handling facilities, such as RCytoscape, will play an essential role in this progression. PMID:23837656

  3. Seeing the Forest Despite the Trees: The Benefit of Exploratory Data Analysis to Program Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinacore, James M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that there is a benefit to applying techniques of exploratory data analysis (EDA) to program evaluation. The evaluation of a rehabilitation program for people with rheumatoid arthritis (20 subjects and 21 comparisons) through EDA supports the argument, indicating outcomes more precisely than conventional analysis of variance. (SLD)

  4. Graph ranking for exploratory gene data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Microarray technology has made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single experiment. However, the large number of genes greatly increases the challenges of analyzing, comprehending and interpreting the resulting mass of data. Selecting a subset of important genes is inevitable to address the challenge. Gene selection has been investigated extensively over the last decade. Most selection procedures, however, are not sufficient for accurate inference of underlying biology, because biological significance does not necessarily have to be statistically significant. Additional biological knowledge needs to be integrated into the gene selection procedure. Results We propose a general framework for gene ranking. We construct a bipartite graph from the Gene Ontology (GO) and gene expression data. The graph describes the relationship between genes and their associated molecular functions. Under a species condition, edge weights of the graph are assigned to be gene expression level. Such a graph provides a mathematical means to represent both species-independent and species-dependent biological information. We also develop a new ranking algorithm to analyze the weighted graph via a kernelized spatial depth (KSD) approach. Consequently, the importance of gene and molecular function can be simultaneously ranked by a real-valued measure, KSD, which incorporates the global and local structure of the graph. Over-expressed and under-regulated genes also can be separately ranked. Conclusion The gene-function bigraph integrates molecular function annotations into gene expression data. The relevance of genes is described in the graph (through a common function). The proposed method provides an exploratory framework for gene data analysis. PMID:19811684

  5. Choosing the Optimal Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Model Selection Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Zhang, Guangjian; Kim, Cheongtag; Mels, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in the application of exploratory factor analysis is deciding how many factors to retain ("m"). Although this is inherently a model selection problem, a model selection perspective is rarely adopted for this task. We suggest that Cudeck and Henly's (1991) framework can be applied to guide the selection process. Researchers must…

  6. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  7. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…

  8. Exploratory data analysis using set operations and ordinal mapping.

    PubMed

    Churches, Tim

    2003-05-01

    Exploratory data analysis requires the ability to issue ad hoc queries to filter and summarise data sets. As the sizes of health data sets grow, traditional methods of processing data have difficulty in providing acceptable response times for such queries. An alternative method is described which combines complete vertical partitioning of data with set operations on ordinal mappings (SOOM). An initial implementation of the technique provides significantly better performance than a conventional SQL database on typical exploratory data analysis queries. The use of parallel, distributed computation to further increase the performance of the technique appears to be feasible. PMID:12725961

  9. Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  10. An Exploratory Analysis of Performance on the SAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    1984-01-01

    Techniques of exploratory data analysis (EDA) were used to decompose data tables portraying performance of ethnic groups on the Scholastic Aptitude Test. These analyses indicate the size and structure of differences in performance among groups studied, nature of changes across time, and interactions between group membership and time. (Author/DWH)

  11. A Comparative Investigation of Rotation Criteria within Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Daniel A.; Schmitt, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a commonly used statistical technique for examining the relationships between variables (e.g., items) and the factors (e.g., latent traits) they depict. There are several decisions that must be made when using EFA, with one of the more important being choice of the rotation criterion. This selection can be…

  12. Exploratory and Confirmatory Analysis of the Trauma Practices Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Carlton D.; Sprang, Ginny

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study provides psychometric data for the Trauma Practices Questionnaire (TPQ). Method: A nationally randomized sample of 2,400 surveys was sent to self-identified trauma treatment specialists, and 711 (29.6%) were returned. Results: An exploratory factor analysis (N = 319) conducted on a randomly split sample (RSS) revealed…

  13. Performance on the Pharmacy College Admission Test: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawahara, Nancy E.; Ethington, Corinna

    1994-01-01

    Median polishing, an exploratory data statistical analysis technique, was used to study achievement patterns for men and women on the Pharmacy College Admission Test over a six-year period. In general, a declining trend in scores was found, and males performed better than females, with the largest differences found in chemistry and biology.…

  14. An Exploratory Analysis of History Students' Dissertation Acknowledgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrivener, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Librarians and archivists can gain insight into the disciplinary culture of historians, and history doctoral students in particular, by examining the acknowledgment sections of these students' doctoral dissertations. This paper is an exploratory analysis of the 219 history dissertations written at the University of Oklahoma between 1930 and 2005.…

  15. Start and Stop Rules for Exploratory Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Describes a method for choosing rejection probabilities for the tests of independence that are used in constraint-based algorithms of exploratory path analysis. The method consists of generating a Markov or semi-Markov model from the equivalence class represented by a partial ancestral graph and then testing the d-separation implications. (SLD)

  16. An Exploratory Cost-Benefits Analysis of Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Rehabilitation Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Statistics and Studies.

    The results of this exploratory study on cost-benefit analysis of vocational rehabilitation found that, because of vocational rehabilitation services, clients whose cases were closed during fiscal year 1966 will experience an increase of $35 in their earnings and value of work activity over their working lives for every dollar expended on them in…

  17. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations, by…

  18. Exploratory Factor Analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly…

  19. Connectivism in Postsecondary Online Courses: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, Nanette; Lomicky, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores 465 postsecondary students' experiences in online classes through the lens of connectivism. Downes' 4 properties of connectivism (diversity, autonomy, interactivity, and openness) were used as the study design. An exploratory factor analysis was performed. This study found a 4-factor solution. Subjects indicated that autonomy…

  20. Twitter Use in Libraries: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2010-01-01

    Microblogging is a relatively new phenomenon in online social networking that has become increasingly prevalent in the last few years. This study explores the use of Twitter in public and academic libraries to understand microblogging patterns. Analysis of the tweets was conducted in two phases: (1) statistical descriptive analysis and (2) content…

  1. HBCU Efficiency and Endowments: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupet, Jason; Barnum, Darold

    2010-01-01

    Discussions of efficiency among Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are often missing in academic conversations. This article seeks to assess efficiency of individual HBCUs using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a non-parametric technique that can synthesize multiple inputs and outputs to determine a single efficiency score for…

  2. Exploratory analysis of the medical record.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A R

    1983-01-01

    Current patient information systems such as SCAMP have the capacity to store not only highly-structured information such as problem codes, drug lists and laboratory values, but also richer, clinically-descriptive information such as comprehensive natural language problem summaries and other textual data that retain the full clinical information used by physicians in managing their patients. The clinical importance, richness, and extensiveness of this information suggest that techniques which allow computers to process textual data may play a helpful role in clinical research. The analysis programs of the SCAMP system have been developed to explore the potential of this approach. PMID:6600040

  3. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of “exercise readiness” is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key points Assessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined. Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor

  4. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of "exercise readiness" is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key pointsAssessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined.Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor analysis

  5. Applied Behavior Analysis in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John O.

    1982-01-01

    Applied behavioral analysis in education is expanding rapidly. This article describes the dimensions of applied behavior analysis and the contributions this technology offers teachers in the area of systematic applications, direct and daily measurement, and experimental methodology. (CJ)

  6. Big Data Visual Analytics for Exploratory Earth System Simulation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shipman, Galen M.; Smith, Brian E.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Dali; Shi, Xiaoying; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called big data analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today s data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a visual analytics system, called the Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment (EDEN), with specific application to the analysis of complex earth system simulation data sets. EDEN represents the type of interactive visual analysis tools that are necessary to transform data into insight, thereby improving critical comprehension of earth system processes. In addition to providing an overview of EDEN, we describe real-world studies using both point ensembles and global Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) simulations.

  7. Exploratory Causal Analysis in Bivariate Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, James M.

    Many scientific disciplines rely on observational data of systems for which it is difficult (or impossible) to implement controlled experiments and data analysis techniques are required for identifying causal information and relationships directly from observational data. This need has lead to the development of many different time series causality approaches and tools including transfer entropy, convergent cross-mapping (CCM), and Granger causality statistics. In this thesis, the existing time series causality method of CCM is extended by introducing a new method called pairwise asymmetric inference (PAI). It is found that CCM may provide counter-intuitive causal inferences for simple dynamics with strong intuitive notions of causality, and the CCM causal inference can be a function of physical parameters that are seemingly unrelated to the existence of a driving relationship in the system. For example, a CCM causal inference might alternate between ''voltage drives current'' and ''current drives voltage'' as the frequency of the voltage signal is changed in a series circuit with a single resistor and inductor. PAI is introduced to address both of these limitations. Many of the current approaches in the times series causality literature are not computationally straightforward to apply, do not follow directly from assumptions of probabilistic causality, depend on assumed models for the time series generating process, or rely on embedding procedures. A new approach, called causal leaning, is introduced in this work to avoid these issues. The leaning is found to provide causal inferences that agree with intuition for both simple systems and more complicated empirical examples, including space weather data sets. The leaning may provide a clearer interpretation of the results than those from existing time series causality tools. A practicing analyst can explore the literature to find many proposals for identifying drivers and causal connections in times series data

  8. Replication Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis: What It Is and Why It Makes Your Analysis Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Fitzpatrick, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) is a powerful and commonly-used tool for investigating the underlying variable structure of a psychometric instrument. However, there is much controversy in the social sciences with regard to the techniques used in EFA (Ford, MacCallum, & Tait, 1986; Henson & Roberts, 2006) and the reliability of the outcome.…

  9. The Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Dailey, Rene; Lemus, Daisy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the distinct purposes of principal components analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), using two data sets as examples. Reviews the use of each technique in three major communication journals: "Communication Monographs,""Human Communication Research," and "Communication Research." Finds that the use of EFA and PCA indicates…

  10. Applying Threshold Concepts Theory to an Unsettled Field: An Exploratory Study in Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimshurst, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Criminal justice education is a relatively new program in higher education in many countries, and its curriculum and parameters remain unsettled. An exploratory study investigated whether threshold concepts theory provided a useful lens by which to explore student understandings of this multidisciplinary field. Eight high-performing final-year…

  11. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP. PMID:24909881

  12. Statistical inference for exploratory data analysis and model diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Buja, Andreas; Cook, Dianne; Hofmann, Heike; Lawrence, Michael; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Swayne, Deborah F; Wickham, Hadley

    2009-11-13

    We propose to furnish visual statistical methods with an inferential framework and protocol, modelled on confirmatory statistical testing. In this framework, plots take on the role of test statistics, and human cognition the role of statistical tests. Statistical significance of 'discoveries' is measured by having the human viewer compare the plot of the real dataset with collections of plots of simulated datasets. A simple but rigorous protocol that provides inferential validity is modelled after the 'lineup' popular from criminal legal procedures. Another protocol modelled after the 'Rorschach' inkblot test, well known from (pop-)psychology, will help analysts acclimatize to random variability before being exposed to the plot of the real data. The proposed protocols will be useful for exploratory data analysis, with reference datasets simulated by using a null assumption that structure is absent. The framework is also useful for model diagnostics in which case reference datasets are simulated from the model in question. This latter point follows up on previous proposals. Adopting the protocols will mean an adjustment in working procedures for data analysts, adding more rigour, and teachers might find that incorporating these protocols into the curriculum improves their students' statistical thinking. PMID:19805449

  13. Introducing Statistics to Geography Students: The Case for Exploratory Data Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Christopher R.; Fox, Michael F.

    1986-01-01

    Exploratory data analysis (EDA) gives students a feel for the data being considered. Four applications of EDA are discussed: the use of displays, resistant statistics, transformations, and smoothing. (RM)

  14. Applying the Theory of Work Adjustment to Latino Immigrant Workers: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggerth, Donald E.; Flynn, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Blustein mapped career decision making onto Maslow’s model of motivation and personality and concluded that most models of career development assume opportunities and decision-making latitude that do not exist for many individuals from low income or otherwise disadvantaged backgrounds. Consequently, Blustein argued that these models may be of limited utility for such individuals. Blustein challenged researchers to reevaluate current career development approaches, particularly those assuming a static world of work, from a perspective allowing for changing circumstances and recognizing career choice can be limited by access to opportunities, personal obligations, and social barriers. This article represents an exploratory effort to determine if the theory of work adjustment (TWA) might meaningfully be used to describe the work experiences of Latino immigrant workers, a group living with severe constraints and having very limited employment opportunities. It is argued that there is significant conceptual convergence between Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the work reinforcers of TWA. The results of an exploratory, qualitative study with a sample of 10 Latino immigrants are also presented. These immigrants participated in key informant interviews concerning their work experiences both in the United States and in their home countries. The findings support Blustein’s contention that such workers will be most focused on basic survival needs and suggest that TWA reinforcers are descriptive of important aspects of how Latino immigrant workers conceptualize their jobs. PMID:26345693

  15. Hospital design and staff perceptions: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Mroczek, Jana; Mikitarian, George; Vieira, Elizabeth K; Rotarius, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    The movement in the health care design field to focus on "patient-centered care" and "healing environments" is often reflected in the health care facilities' incorporation of features meant to mitigate the stressful nature of serious illness. These features may range from a resource center (to allow patients and families to properly educate themselves about their illness) to providing space in rooms so family members can remain with patients, to more ambient features such as soft lighting, water features, or healing gardens. Research has shown that such features can in fact have positive effects for patients and may reduce stress and speed physical healing. What is not as well understood is how (if at all) the medical staff uses these types of features. Good health care cannot be administered without health care professionals, but factors such as job stress and burnout can impair both the physical and psychological health of the staff. A supportive organizational environment is imperative, but this article will set out to show that a supportive physical environment can be just as necessary in influencing how the staff views their workplace as well as how they might fare with regard to their own health. This article will examine a subset of results from a recent employee satisfaction survey given at a medical center. Exploratory analysis and interpretation will begin to shed light on whether or not building design can have an impact (positive or negative) on staff satisfaction. This can potentially act as a springboard to guide future empirical research in the area of health care design and its impact on staff satisfaction and well-being. By analyzing findings from a recent employee satisfaction survey, we can begin to understand how the hospital staff perceives the design of their building and begin to determine if these perceptions might impact health outcomes among the employees. PMID:16131934

  16. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  17. An Exploratory Analysis of Job and Life Satisfaction among Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.; DeCarlo, James F.

    An exploratory study examined the job and life satisfaction of a sample of 32 female entrepreneurs residing in the tri-state area of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. To compare the entrepreneurs' concepts of life and job satisfaction to those of women in more traditional occupations, researchers also studied a sample of 32 female nursing…

  18. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Differential Ability Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Mardis D.; McIntosh, David E.

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate the underlying structure of the Differential Ability Scales (DAS) using Exploratory Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) with 62 nonclinical preschoolers. While previous factor analyses of the DAS Core subtests revealed the derivation of two distinct factors, the current results revealed only one factor,…

  19. Situated Analysis of Team Handball Players' Decisions: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzen, Benoit; Theunissen, Catherine; Cloes, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate elements involved in decision making in team handball live situations and to provide coaches and educators with teaching recommendations. The study was positioned within the framework of the situated-action paradigm of which two aspects were of particular interest for this project: (a) the relationship…

  20. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SRS-2 Teacher Ratings for Youth with ASD.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew T; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A; Thomeer, Marcus L; Toomey, Jennifer A; Dua, Elissa

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the factor structure and internal consistency of special education teaching staff ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2; Constantino and Gruber 2012), as well as the percentage of ratings falling above pre-established cut scores, for a sample of lower-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 264). Results of the exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor correlated solution. The individual factors and total score demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency reliability for screening purposes. When applying the lowest pre-established cut score (T ≥ 60; minimum indication of clinically significant symptoms/impairments), 85 % of the sample had ratings in that range or higher (more severe). Implications for assessment and future research are provided. PMID:27334872

  1. Old and New Ideas for Data Screening and Assumption Testing for Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Flora, David B.; LaBrish, Cathy; Chalmers, R. Philip

    2011-01-01

    We provide a basic review of the data screening and assumption testing issues relevant to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis along with practical advice for conducting analyses that are sensitive to these concerns. Historically, factor analysis was developed for explaining the relationships among many continuous test scores, which led to the expression of the common factor model as a multivariate linear regression model with observed, continuous variables serving as dependent variables, and unobserved factors as the independent, explanatory variables. Thus, we begin our paper with a review of the assumptions for the common factor model and data screening issues as they pertain to the factor analysis of continuous observed variables. In particular, we describe how principles from regression diagnostics also apply to factor analysis. Next, because modern applications of factor analysis frequently involve the analysis of the individual items from a single test or questionnaire, an important focus of this paper is the factor analysis of items. Although the traditional linear factor model is well-suited to the analysis of continuously distributed variables, commonly used item types, including Likert-type items, almost always produce dichotomous or ordered categorical variables. We describe how relationships among such items are often not well described by product-moment correlations, which has clear ramifications for the traditional linear factor analysis. An alternative, non-linear factor analysis using polychoric correlations has become more readily available to applied researchers and thus more popular. Consequently, we also review the assumptions and data-screening issues involved in this method. Throughout the paper, we demonstrate these procedures using an historic data set of nine cognitive ability variables. PMID:22403561

  2. A computational framework for exploratory data analysis in biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismueller, Axel

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To develop, test, and evaluate a novel unsupervised machine learning method for the analysis of multidimensional biomedical imaging data. Methods: The Exploration Machine (XOM) is introduced as a method for computing low-dimensional representations of high-dimensional observations. XOM systematically inverts functional and structural components of topology-preserving mappings. Thus, it can contribute to both structure-preserving visualization and data clustering. We applied XOM to the analysis of microarray imaging data of gene expression profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and to model-free analysis of functional brain MRI data by unsupervised clustering. For both applications, we performed quantitative comparisons to results obtained by established algorithms. Results: Genome data: Absolute (relative) Sammon error values were 2.21 Â. 103 (1.00) for XOM, 2.45 Â. 103 (1.11) for Sammon's mapping, 2.77 Â. 103 (1.25) for Locally Linear Embedding (LLE), 2.82 Â. 103 (1.28) for PCA, 3.36 Â. 103 (1.52) for Isomap, and 10.19 Â. 103(4.61) for Self-Organizing Map (SOM). - Functional MRI data: Areas under ROC curves for detection of task-related brain activation were 0.984 +/- 0.03 for XOM, 0.983 +/- 0.02 for Minimal-Free-Energy VQ, and 0.979 +/- 0.02 for SOM. Conclusion: We introduce the Exploration Machine as a novel machine learning method for the analysis of multidimensional biomedical imaging data. XOM can be successfully applied to microarray gene expression analysis and to clustering of functional brain MR image time-series. By simultaneously contributing to dimensionality reduction and data clustering, XOM is a useful novel method for data analysis in biomedical imaging.

  3. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Metacognition Scale for Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Eylem; Akpinar, Ercan; Tatar, Nilgun; Ergin, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the Metacognition Scale (MS) which is designed for primary school students. The sample of the study consisted of 426 primary school students in Izmir, Turkey. In order to examine the construct validity of the MS, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. For the validity of…

  4. An Exploratory Factor Analysis Examining Traits, Perceived Fit and Job Satisfaction in Employed College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, John R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is an analysis of 24 variables associated with employee attitudes, behaviors and outcomes. A total of 140 college graduates participated in the study. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) techniques, the research examined relationships among the following variables: perceived fit, job satisfaction, cognitive ability, vocational…

  5. Multimedia Exploratory Data Analysis for Geospatial Data Mining: The Case for Augmented Seriation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Myke

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the role of exploratory data analysis (EDA) for spatial data mining and presents a case study addressing environmental risk assessments in New York State to illustrate the feasibility and usability of augmenting seriation for spatial data analysis. Describes augmentation with multimedia tools to understand relationships among spatial,…

  6. Investigating the Construct Validity of the ISLLC 2008 Standards through Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Soundaram; Babo, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the statistical analysis of the responses from an online survey administered to a sample of US superintendents (n=225) in an attempt to explore and authenticate the construct validity of the ISLLC 2008 Standards through exploratory factor analysis. Using a Principal Axis Factor method, 6 factors were extracted…

  7. Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis for Validating the Phlegm Pattern Questionnaire for Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunho; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jong Yeol; Park, Young-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background. Phlegm pattern questionnaire (PPQ) was developed to evaluate and diagnose phlegm pattern in Korean Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine, but it was based on a dataset from patients who visited the hospital to consult with a clinician regarding their health without any strict exclusion or inclusion. In this study, we reinvestigated the construct validity of PPQ with a new dataset and confirmed the feasibility of applying it to a healthy population. Methods. 286 healthy subjects were finally included and their responses to PPQ were acquired. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted and the model fit was discussed. We extracted a new factor structure by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and compared the two factor structures. Results. In CFA results, the model fit indices are acceptable (RMSEA = 0.074) or slightly less than the good fit values (CFI = 0.839, TLI = 0.860). Many average variances extracted were smaller than the correlation coefficients of the factors, which shows the somewhat insufficient discriminant validity. Conclusions. Through the results from CFA and EFA, this study shows clinically acceptable model fits and suggests the feasibility of applying PPQ to a healthy population with relatively good construct validity and internal consistency. PMID:27051447

  8. Exploratory Study of an Active Landslide in the Adirondacks Using Applied Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, K. W.; Sherrod, L. A.; Kozlowski, A.; Bird, B.; Swiontek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography System. GPR profiles, using a SIR 3000 GSSI radar system with 100MHz antennae, were collected along many of the resistivity lines and through reconnaissance lines in several other locations (e.g. along roads). Surveys identified features such as clay and sand layers as well as depth to the water table. Glacial deposits and bedrock topography were interpreted in three dimensions from the results of these surveys. These techniques were analyzed for their effectiveness in providing exploratory information about the slide. In comparison to other geophysical work on landslides, this study is unique due to the large scale of the slide and the rare opportunity to observe and measure an active landslide. Accordingly, compared to results from studies of other similarly induced inactive landslides that had occurred elsewhere, the conclusions regarding the mechanisms of slope failure on Porter Mountain are more pertinent since the results were obtained from an active slide. Likewise, the conclusions about the mechanisms of this slide can be adapted in studies on currently stable slopes believed to have a high potential for a landslide (particularly other slopes in the Adirondacks region).

  9. Applying HOPSCOTCH as an Exer-Learning Game in English Lessons: Two Exploratory Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucht, Martina; Heidig, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article describes HOPSCOTCH, a design concept for an "exer-learning game" to engage elementary school children in learning. Exer-learning is a new genre of digital learning games that combines playing and learning with physical activity (exercise). HOPSCOTCH is a first design concept for exer-learning games that can be applied to…

  10. Exploratory Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Air Pollution in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champendal, Alexandre; Kanevski, Mikhail; Huguenot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Golay, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Air pollution in the city is an important problem influencing environment, well-being of society, economy, management of urban zones, etc. The problem is extremely difficult due to a very complex distribution of the pollution sources, morphology of the city and dispersion processes leading to multivariate nature of the phenomena and high local spatial-temporal variability. The task of understanding, modelling and prediction of spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in urban zones is an interesting and challenging topic having many research axes from science-based modelling to geostatistics and data mining. The present research mainly deals with a comprehensive exploratory analysis of spatial-temporal air pollution data using statistical, geostatistical and machine learning tools. This analysis helps to 1) understand and model spatial-temporal correlations using variography, 2) explore the temporal evolution of spatial correlation matrix; 3) analyse and visualize an interconnection between measurement stations using network science tools; 4) quantify the availability and predictability of structured patterns. The real data case study deals with spatial-temporal air pollution data of canton Geneva (2002-2011). Carbon dioxide (NO2) have caught our attention. It has effects on health: nitrogen dioxide can irritate the lungs, effects on plants; NO2 contributes to the phenomenon of acid rain. The negative effects of nitrogen dioxides on plants are reducing the growth, production and pesticide resistance. And finally the effects on materials: nitrogen dioxides increase the corrosion. Well-defined patterns of spatial-temporal correlations were detected. The analysis and visualization of spatial correlation matrix for 91 stations were carried out using the network science tools and high levels of clustering were revealed. Moving Window Correlation Matrix and Spatio-temporal variography methods were applied to define and explore the dynamic of our data. More than just

  11. Whatever Happened to Exploratory Data Analysis? An Evaluation of Behavioral Science Statistics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deborah A.; Araki, Cheri J.

    The purpose of this research was to analyze recent statistics textbooks in the behavioral sciences in terms of their coverage of exploratory data analysis (EDA) philosophy and techniques. Twenty popular texts were analyzed. EDA philosophy was not addressed in the vast majority of texts. Only three texts had an entire chapter on EDA. None of the…

  12. Rotation to a Partially Specified Target Matrix in Exploratory Factor Analysis: How Many Targets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Ahn, Soyeon; Jin, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the number of targets specified on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with a complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. Three Monte Carlo studies were performed based on the ratio of the number of observed variables to the number of…

  13. Improving Your Exploratory Factor Analysis for Ordinal Data: A Demonstration Using FACTOR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglin, James

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) methods are used extensively in the field of assessment and evaluation. Due to EFA's widespread use, common methods and practices have come under close scrutiny. A substantial body of literature has been compiled highlighting problems with many of the methods and practices used in EFA, and, in response, many…

  14. The School Counseling Program Implementation Survey: Initial Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Carey, John C.; Harrington, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    This article details the initial development of the School Counseling Program Implementation Survey and psychometric results including reliability and factor structure. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor model that accounted for 54% of the variance of the intercorrelation matrix and a two-factor model that accounted for 47% of…

  15. Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ordinary Least Squares Factor Loadings and Correlations in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Luo, Shanhong

    2010-01-01

    This article is concerned with using the bootstrap to assign confidence intervals for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in ordinary least squares exploratory factor analysis. Coverage performances of "SE"-based intervals, percentile intervals, bias-corrected percentile intervals, bias-corrected accelerated percentile intervals, and…

  16. An Exploratory Analysis of What Truant Students State Are the Reasons They Do Not Attend School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Joseph, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study in Phases 1 and 2 was to conduct an exploratory analysis of what chronically truant students state are the reasons they do not attend school. Methodology. The subjects in this study were 202 randomly selected students from four high schools in Los Angeles County. Subjects responded to the research instrument: (1)…

  17. The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

  18. An Exploratory Analysis of Communication in Peer-Directed Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory analysis examined the nature of asynchronous, text-based communication in peer-directed educational discussions. The nature of communication changed over time and women exhibited greater tendency for epistolary communication than men. Initial posts, which were expository in nature, focused on disseminating information whereas…

  19. Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

  20. High-Dimensional Exploratory Item Factor Analysis by a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    A Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm for high-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood exploratory item factor analysis is proposed. The sequence of estimates from the MH-RM algorithm converges with probability one to the maximum likelihood solution. Details on the computer implementation of this algorithm are provided. The…

  1. The School Counselor Leadership Survey: Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita; Bryan, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the School Counselor Leadership Survey (SCLS). Survey development was a threefold process that resulted in a 39-item survey of 801 school counselors and school counselor supervisors. The exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure that revealed five key dimensions of school counselor…

  2. Application of Local Linear Embedding to Nonlinear Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Haonan; Iyer, Hari

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of a recent dimension reduction technique called Locally Linear Embedding, introduced by Roweis and Saul, for performing an exploratory latent structure analysis. The coordinate variables from the locally linear embedding describing the manifold on which the data reside serve as the latent variable scores. We…

  3. Unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) for Mars observation. Volume 1: Trade analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Delp, Steve E.; Guidry, Michelle A.; Lisano, Michael E.; Packard, James D.; Striepe, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe Systems (MEPS), a space vehicle designed to observe the planet Mars in preparation for manned missions. The options considered for each major element are presented as a trade analysis, and the final vehicle design is defined.

  4. Multilevel Exploratory Factor Analysis: Illustrating Its Surplus Value in Educational Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Haenens, Ellen; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the surplus value of multilevel exploratory factor analysis in educational effectiveness research. Educational researchers often use measures for process variables at the class or school level to explain differences in student outcomes. Recently, van de Vijver and Poortinga (2002) have developed a procedure for multilevel…

  5. Investigating the Structure of the WJ-III Cognitive in Early School Age through Two Exploratory Bifactor Analysis Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2014-01-01

    Two exploratory bifactor methods (e.g., Schmid-Leiman [SL] and exploratory bifactor analysis [EBFA]) were used to investigate the structure of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Cognitive in early school age (age 6-8). The SL procedure is recognized by factor analysts as a preferred method for EBFA. Jennrich and Bentler recently developed an…

  6. Exploratory Climate Data Visualization and Analysis Using DV3D and UVCDAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Earth system scientists are being inundated by an explosion of data generated by ever-increasing resolution in both global models and remote sensors. Advanced tools for accessing, analyzing, and visualizing very large and complex climate data are required to maintain rapid progress in Earth system research. To meet this need, NASA, in collaboration with the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UVCOAT) consortium, is developing exploratory climate data analysis and visualization tools which provide data analysis capabilities for the Earth System Grid (ESG). This paper describes DV3D, a UV-COAT package that enables exploratory analysis of climate simulation and observation datasets. OV3D provides user-friendly interfaces for visualization and analysis of climate data at a level appropriate for scientists. It features workflow inte rfaces, interactive 40 data exploration, hyperwall and stereo visualization, automated provenance generation, and parallel task execution. DV30's integration with CDAT's climate data management system (COMS) and other climate data analysis tools provides a wide range of high performance climate data analysis operations. DV3D expands the scientists' toolbox by incorporating a suite of rich new exploratory visualization and analysis methods for addressing the complexity of climate datasets.

  7. Exploratory regression analysis: a tool for selecting models and determining predictor importance.

    PubMed

    Braun, Michael T; Oswald, Frederick L

    2011-06-01

    Linear regression analysis is one of the most important tools in a researcher's toolbox for creating and testing predictive models. Although linear regression analysis indicates how strongly a set of predictor variables, taken together, will predict a relevant criterion (i.e., the multiple R), the analysis cannot indicate which predictors are the most important. Although there is no definitive or unambiguous method for establishing predictor variable importance, there are several accepted methods. This article reviews those methods for establishing predictor importance and provides a program (in Excel) for implementing them (available for direct download at http://dl.dropbox.com/u/2480715/ERA.xlsm?dl=1) . The program investigates all 2(p) - 1 submodels and produces several indices of predictor importance. This exploratory approach to linear regression, similar to other exploratory data analysis techniques, has the potential to yield both theoretical and practical benefits. PMID:21298571

  8. Reanalyzing the 16PF-5 Second Order Structure: Exploratory versus Confirmatory Factorial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel; Garcia, Luis F.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the second order structures of the 16PF-5 for 3, 4, 5 and 6 factors are analysed in a sample of 636 undergraduate students and their friends and relatives, with a mean age of 25.09 years (sd: 9.20). A two-stage analysis with Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (EFA and CFA) was performed assigning subjects either to…

  9. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  10. Using Interactive Data Visualizations for Exploratory Analysis in Undergraduate Genomics Coursework: Field Study Findings and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirel, Barbara; Kumar, Anuj; Nong, Paige; Su, Gang; Meng, Fan

    2016-02-01

    Life scientists increasingly use visual analytics to explore large data sets and generate hypotheses. Undergraduate biology majors should be learning these same methods. Yet visual analytics is one of the most underdeveloped areas of undergraduate biology education. This study sought to determine the feasibility of undergraduate biology majors conducting exploratory analysis using the same interactive data visualizations as practicing scientists. We examined 22 upper level undergraduates in a genomics course as they engaged in a case-based inquiry with an interactive heat map. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed students' visual analytic behaviors, reasoning and outcomes to identify student performance patterns, commonly shared efficiencies and task completion. We analyzed students' successes and difficulties in applying knowledge and skills relevant to the visual analytics case and related gaps in knowledge and skill to associated tool designs. Findings show that undergraduate engagement in visual analytics is feasible and could be further strengthened through tool usability improvements. We identify these improvements. We speculate, as well, on instructional considerations that our findings suggested may also enhance visual analytics in case-based modules.

  11. Using Interactive Data Visualizations for Exploratory Analysis in Undergraduate Genomics Coursework: Field Study Findings and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anuj; Nong, Paige; Su, Gang; Meng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Life scientists increasingly use visual analytics to explore large data sets and generate hypotheses. Undergraduate biology majors should be learning these same methods. Yet visual analytics is one of the most underdeveloped areas of undergraduate biology education. This study sought to determine the feasibility of undergraduate biology majors conducting exploratory analysis using the same interactive data visualizations as practicing scientists. We examined 22 upper level undergraduates in a genomics course as they engaged in a case-based inquiry with an interactive heat map. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed students’ visual analytic behaviors, reasoning and outcomes to identify student performance patterns, commonly shared efficiencies and task completion. We analyzed students’ successes and difficulties in applying knowledge and skills relevant to the visual analytics case and related gaps in knowledge and skill to associated tool designs. Findings show that undergraduate engagement in visual analytics is feasible and could be further strengthened through tool usability improvements. We identify these improvements. We speculate, as well, on instructional considerations that our findings suggested may also enhance visual analytics in case-based modules. PMID:26877625

  12. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes.

    PubMed

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  13. An exploratory spatial analysis of soil organic carbon distribution in Canadian eco-regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.-Y.; Li, J.

    2014-11-01

    As the largest carbon reservoir in ecosystems, soil accounts for more than twice as much carbon storage as that of vegetation biomass or the atmosphere. This paper examines spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Canadian forest areas at an eco-region scale of analysis. The goal is to explore the relationship of SOC levels with various climatological variables, including temperature and precipitation. The first Canadian forest soil database published in 1997 by the Canada Forest Service was analyzed along with other long-term eco-climatic data (1961 to 1991) including precipitation, air temperature, slope, aspect, elevation, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from remote sensing imagery. In addition, the existing eco-region framework established by Environment Canada was evaluated for mapping SOC distribution. Exploratory spatial data analysis techniques, including spatial autocorrelation analysis, were employed to examine how forest SOC is spatially distributed in Canada. Correlation analysis and spatial regression modelling were applied to determine the dominant ecological factors influencing SOC patterns at the eco-region level. At the national scale, a spatial error regression model was developed to account for spatial dependency and to estimate SOC patterns based on ecological and ecosystem factors. Based on the significant variables derived from the spatial error model, a predictive SOC map in Canadian forest areas was generated. Although overall SOC distribution is influenced by climatic and topographic variables, distribution patterns are shown to differ significantly between eco-regions. These findings help to validate the eco-region classification framework for SOC zonation mapping in Canada.

  14. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mulaik, S A

    1987-07-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources. From the Greek rationalists and atomists comes the idea that appearance is to be explained by something not observed. From Aristotle comes the idea of induction and seeking common features of things as explanations of them. From Francis Bacon comes the idea of an automatic algorithm for inductively discovering common causes. From Descartes come the ideas of analysis and synthesis that underlie the emphasis on analysis of variables into orthogonal or linearly independent factors and focus on reproducing (synthesizing) the correlation matrix from the factors. From empiricist statisticians like Pearson and Yule comes the idea of exploratory, descriptive statistics. Also from the empiricist heritage comes the false expectation some have that factor analysis yields unique and unambiguous knowledge without prior assumptions -- the inductivist fallacy. This expectation founders on the indeterminacy of factors, even after their loadings are defined by rotation. Indeterminacy is unavoidable in the interpretation of common factors because the process of interpretation is inductive and inductive inferences are not uniquely determined by the data on which they are based. But from Kant we learn not to discard inductive inferences but to treat them as hypotheses that must be tested against additional data to establish their objectivity. And so the conclusions of exploratory factor analyses are never complete without a subsequent confirmatory analysis with additional variables and new data. PMID:26776378

  15. Practical Considerations for Using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Lounsbury, John W.; Richards, Jennifer K.; Huck, Schuyler W.; Skolits, Gary J.; Esquivel, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    The uses and methodology of factor analysis are widely debated and discussed, especially the issues of rotational use, methods of confirmatory factor analysis, and adequate sample size. The variety of perspectives and often conflicting opinions can lead to confusion among researchers about best practices for using factor analysis. The focus of the…

  16. Exploratory Factor Analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition, Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Lauren B; Koch, Ellen I; Saules, Karen K; Jefferson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One change to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nomenclature highlighted in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is the conceptualization of PTSD as a diagnostic category with four distinct symptom clusters. This article presents exploratory factor analysis to test the structural validity of the DSM-5 conceptualization of PTSD via an online survey that included the PTSD Checklist-5. The study utilized a sample of 113 college students from a large Midwestern university and 177 Amazon Mechanical Turk users. Participants were primarily female, Caucasian, single, and heterosexual with an average age of 32 years. Approximately 30% to 35% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD based on two different scoring criteria. Results of the exploratory factor analysis revealed five distinct symptom clusters. The implications for the classification of PTSD are discussed. PMID:26669983

  17. Exploratory Factor Analysis of a Force Concept Inventory Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel; Gray, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    We perform a factor analysis on a "Force Concept Inventory" (FCI) data set collected from 2109 respondents. We address two questions: the appearance of conceptual coherence in student responses to the FCI and some consequences of this factor analysis on the teaching of Newtonian mechanics. We will highlight the apparent conflation of Newton's…

  18. Googling Stroke ASPECTS to Determine Disability: Exploratory Analysis from VISTA-Acute Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Phan, Thanh G.

    2015-01-01

    The summed Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is useful for predicting stroke outcome. The anatomical information in the CT template is rarely used for this purpose because traditional regression methods are not adept at handling collinearity (relatedness) among brain regions. While penalized logistic regression (PLR) can handle collinearity, it does not provide an intuitive understanding of the interaction among network structures in a way that eigenvector method such as PageRank can (used in Google search engine). In this exploratory analysis we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the relationship among ASPECTS regions with respect to disability outcome. The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) was searched for patients who had infarct in at least one ASPECTS region (ASPECTS ≤9, ASPECTS=10 were excluded), and disability (modified Rankin score/mRS). A directed graph was created from a cross correlation matrix (thresholded at false discovery rate of 0.01) of the ASPECTS regions and demographic variables and disability (mRS>2). We estimated the network-based importance of each ASPECTS region by comparing PageRank and node strength measures. These results were compared with those from PLR. There were 185 subjects, average age 67.5± 12.8 years (55% Males). Model 1: demographic variables having no direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank was M2 (0.225, bootstrap 95% CI 0.215-0.347). Model 2: demographic variables having direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank were M2 (0.205, bootstrap 95% CI 0.194-0.367) and M5 (0.125, bootstrap 95% CI 0.096-0.204). Both models illustrate the importance of M2 region to disability. The PageRank method reveals complex interaction among ASPECTS regions with respects to disability. This approach may help to understand the infarcted brain network involved in stroke disability. PMID:25961856

  19. Gene Identification Algorithms Using Exploratory Statistical Analysis of Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shashi Bajaj; Sen, Pradip Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Studying periodic pattern is expected as a standard line of attack for recognizing DNA sequence in identification of gene and similar problems. But peculiarly very little significant work is done in this direction. This paper studies statistical properties of DNA sequences of complete genome using a new technique. A DNA sequence is converted to a numeric sequence using various types of mappings and standard Fourier technique is applied to study the periodicity. Distinct statistical behaviour of periodicity parameters is found in coding and non-coding sequences, which can be used to distinguish between these parts. Here DNA sequences of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed with significant accuracy.

  20. Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment eXtreme scale (EDENx)

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad Allen

    2015-07-01

    EDENx is a multivariate data visualization tool that allows interactive user driven analysis of large-scale data sets with high dimensionality. EDENx builds on our earlier system, called EDEN to enable analysis of more dimensions and larger scale data sets. EDENx provides an initial overview of summary statistics for each variable in the data set under investigation. EDENx allows the user to interact with graphical summary plots of the data to investigate subsets and their statistical associations. These plots include histograms, binned scatterplots, binned parallel coordinate plots, timeline plots, and graphical correlation indicators. From the EDENx interface, a user can select a subsample of interest and launch a more detailed data visualization via the EDEN system. EDENx is best suited for high-level, aggregate analysis tasks while EDEN is more appropriate for detail data investigations.

  1. Exploratory factor analysis of a Force Concept Inventory data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel; Gray, Andrew R.

    2012-12-01

    We perform a factor analysis on a “Force Concept Inventory” (FCI) data set collected from 2109 respondents. We address two questions: the appearance of conceptual coherence in student responses to the FCI and some consequences of this factor analysis on the teaching of Newtonian mechanics. We will highlight the apparent conflation of Newton’s third law with Newton’s first law in one of the FCI questions and suggest an approach to teaching that may avoid this issue. We also note the absence of a distinct factor interpretable as relating specifically to kinematics. Furthermore, we identify and discuss some of the technical difficulties which may be encountered when performing factor analysis on categorical data sets, such as is the case with FCI data sets.

  2. Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment eXtreme scale (EDENx)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-07-01

    EDENx is a multivariate data visualization tool that allows interactive user driven analysis of large-scale data sets with high dimensionality. EDENx builds on our earlier system, called EDEN to enable analysis of more dimensions and larger scale data sets. EDENx provides an initial overview of summary statistics for each variable in the data set under investigation. EDENx allows the user to interact with graphical summary plots of the data to investigate subsets and their statisticalmore » associations. These plots include histograms, binned scatterplots, binned parallel coordinate plots, timeline plots, and graphical correlation indicators. From the EDENx interface, a user can select a subsample of interest and launch a more detailed data visualization via the EDEN system. EDENx is best suited for high-level, aggregate analysis tasks while EDEN is more appropriate for detail data investigations.« less

  3. Research on Internationalisation in Higher Education--Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yemini, Miri; Sagie, Netta

    2016-01-01

    Research on internationalisation in higher education has dramatically expanded over the last several decades. This study aims to provide an overview of the research developments undertaken between 1980 and 2014, on internationalisation in higher education. Explorative, systematic literature screening and analysis were undertaken, encompassing over…

  4. "Library Quarterly," 1956-2004: An Exploratory Bibliometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Arthur P.

    2006-01-01

    "Library Quarterly's" seventy-fifth anniversary invites an analysis of the journal's bibliometric dimension, including contributor attributes, various author rankings, and citation impact. Eugene Garfield's HistCite software, linked to Thomson Scientific's Web of Science, as made available by Garfield, for the period 1956-2004, was used as the…

  5. Voyager: Exploratory Analysis via Faceted Browsing of Visualization Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wongsuphasawat, Kanit; Moritz, Dominik; Anand, Anushka; Mackinlay, Jock; Howe, Bill; Heer, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    General visualization tools typically require manual specification of views: analysts must select data variables and then choose which transformations and visual encodings to apply. These decisions often involve both domain and visualization design expertise, and may impose a tedious specification process that impedes exploration. In this paper, we seek to complement manual chart construction with interactive navigation of a gallery of automatically-generated visualizations. We contribute Voyager, a mixed-initiative system that supports faceted browsing of recommended charts chosen according to statistical and perceptual measures. We describe Voyager's architecture, motivating design principles, and methods for generating and interacting with visualization recommendations. In a study comparing Voyager to a manual visualization specification tool, we find that Voyager facilitates exploration of previously unseen data and leads to increased data variable coverage. We then distill design implications for visualization tools, in particular the need to balance rapid exploration and targeted question-answering. PMID:26390469

  6. Exploratory analysis of environmental interactions in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Cola, Lee; Falcone, Neil L.

    1996-01-01

    As part of its global change research program, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has produced raster data that describe the land cover of the United States using a consistent format. The data consist of elevations, satellite measurements, computed vegetation indices, land cover classes, and ancillary political, topographic and hydrographic information. This open-file report uses some of these data to explore the environment of a (256-km)? region of central California. We present various visualizations of the data, multiscale correlations between topography and vegetation, a path analysis of more complex statistical interactions, and a map that portrays the influence of agriculture on the region's vegetation. An appendix contains C and Mathematica code used to generate the graphics and some of the analysis.

  7. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Korean Version of Hypomania Checklist-32

    PubMed Central

    An, Doyoun; Hong, Kyung Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Hypomania Checklist - 32 (HCL-32) is a self-assessment instrument developed by Angst et al. (2005) to identify bipolarity in the general population, as well as patients with unipolar depression. The principal objective of this study was to assess the factor structure of the Korean version of the HCL-32 for mood disorder patients, via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods The Korean version of HCL-32 were evaluated in a sample of 608 mood disorder patients, including 210 bipolar disorder patients and 398 unipolar disorder patients, all of whom were diagnosed in accordance with either the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV or Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview They were divided randomly into two groups, and then the EFA was administered to group 1 and the CFA was administered to group 2. Results A 3-factor structure for the HCL-32 was generated, which explained 44% of the total variance from EFA. Factor 1, comprising 18 items, was designated as 'elated mood/increased energy'; factor 2, comprising 8 items, was designated as 'risk-taking behavior/irritability'; and factor 3, comprising 2 items, was designated as 'increased sexual activity'. Researchers confirmed the 3-factor solution derived from group 1 by the CFA. Conclusion The primary findings of this study were the replication and confirmation of the 3-factor structure in Korean mood disorder patients; our results were consistent with previous EFAs. PMID:22216043

  8. RNA-Seq workflow: gene-level exploratory analysis and differential expression

    PubMed Central

    Love, Michael I.; Anders, Simon; Kim, Vladislav; Huber, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Here we walk through an end-to-end gene-level RNA-Seq differential expression workflow using Bioconductor packages. We will start from the FASTQ files, show how these were aligned to the reference genome, and prepare a count matrix which tallies the number of RNA-seq reads/fragments within each gene for each sample. We will perform exploratory data analysis (EDA) for quality assessment and to explore the relationship between samples, perform differential gene expression analysis, and visually explore the results. PMID:26674615

  9. Weather analysis and interpretation procedures developed for the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques for providing analyses of meteorological conditions at segments during the growing season were developed for the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment. The main product and analysis tool is the segment-level climagraph which depicts temporally meteorological variables for the current year compared with climatological normals. The variable values for the segment are estimates derived through objective analysis of values obtained at first-order station in the region. The procedures and products documented represent a baseline for future Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting experiments.

  10. The basic importance of applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1986-01-01

    We argue that applied behavior analysis is relevant to basic research. Modification studies, and a broad range of investigations that focus on the precipitating and maintaining conditions of socially significant human behavior, have basic importance. Applied behavior analysis may aid basic researchers in the design of externally valid experiments and thereby enhance the theoretical significance of basic research for understanding human behavior. Applied research with humans, directed at culturally-important problems, will help to propagate the science of human behavior. Such a science will also be furthered by analogue experiments that model socially important behavior. Analytical-applied studies and analogue experiments are forms of applied behavior analysis that could suggest new environment-behavior relationships. These relationships could lead to basic research and principles that further the prediction, control, and understanding of behavior. PMID:22478650

  11. Rorschach assessment of traumatized refugees: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-one multitraumatized mental health patients with refugee backgrounds completed the Rorschach (Meyer & Viglione, 2008), Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (Mollica, McDonald, Massagli, & Silove, 2004), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL Group, 1998) before the start of treatment. The purpose was to gain more in-depth knowledge of an understudied patient group and to provide a prospective basis for later analyses of treatment outcome. Factor analysis of trauma-related Rorschach variables gave 2 components explaining 60% of the variance; the first was interpreted as trauma-related flooding versus constriction and the second as adequate versus impaired reality testing. Component 1 correlated positively with self-reported reexperiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress (r = .32, p < .05). Component 2 correlated positively with self-reported quality of life in the physical, psychological, and social relationships domains (r = .34, .32, and .35, p < .05), and negatively with anxiety (r = -.33, p < .05). Each component also correlated significantly with resources like work experience, education, and language skills. PMID:23570250

  12. Exploratory analysis of TOF-SIMS data from biological surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Fletcher, John S.; Henderson, Alex; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C.

    2008-12-01

    The application of multivariate analytical tools enables simplification of TOF-SIMS datasets so that useful information can be extracted from complex spectra and images, especially those that do not give readily interpretable results. There is however a challenge in understanding the outputs from such analyses. The problem is complicated when analysing images, given the additional dimensions in the dataset. Here we demonstrate how the application of simple pre-processing routines can enable the interpretation of TOF-SIMS spectra and images. For the spectral data, TOF-SIMS spectra used to discriminate bacterial isolates associated with urinary tract infection were studied. Using different criteria for picking peaks before carrying out PC-DFA enabled identification of the discriminatory information with greater certainty. For the image data, an air-dried salt stressed bacterial sample, discussed in another paper by us in this issue, was studied. Exploration of the image datasets with and without normalisation prior to multivariate analysis by PCA or MAF resulted in different regions of the image being highlighted by the techniques.

  13. Critical care physician cognitive task analysis: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Fackler, James C; Watts, Charles; Grome, Anna; Miller, Thomas; Crandall, Beth; Pronovost, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction For better or worse, the imposition of work-hour limitations on house-staff has imperiled continuity and/or improved decision-making. Regardless, the workflow of every physician team in every academic medical centre has been irrevocably altered. We explored the use of cognitive task analysis (CTA) techniques, most commonly used in other high-stress and time-sensitive environments, to analyse key cognitive activities in critical care medicine. The study objective was to assess the usefulness of CTA as an analytical tool in order that physician cognitive tasks may be understood and redistributed within the work-hour limited medical decision-making teams. Methods After approval from each Institutional Review Board, two intensive care units (ICUs) within major university teaching hospitals served as data collection sites for CTA observations and interviews of critical care providers. Results Five broad categories of cognitive activities were identified: pattern recognition; uncertainty management; strategic vs. tactical thinking; team coordination and maintenance of common ground; and creation and transfer of meaning through stories. Conclusions CTA within the framework of Naturalistic Decision Making is a useful tool to understand the critical care process of decision-making and communication. The separation of strategic and tactical thinking has implications for workflow redesign. Given the global push for work-hour limitations, such workflow redesign is occurring. Further work with CTA techniques will provide important insights toward rational, rather than random, workflow changes. PMID:19265517

  14. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality Factors Contributed to Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; Rajmohan, V.; Sushil, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient “r”. Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide. PMID:24379499

  15. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  16. The development and exploratory analysis of the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ)

    PubMed Central

    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. Design The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Participants Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. Measures The 34-item Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach α coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. Results The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (α=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: ‘vulnerability of the back’; ‘relationship between back pain and injury’; ‘activity participation while experiencing back pain’; ‘prognosis of back pain’ and ‘psychological influences on recovery’. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (α=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (α between 0.50 and 0.78). Conclusions The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument

  17. Factor analysis of positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Khess, C. R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Controversy persists with regard to how best we can categorize symptomatic dimension of Schizophrenia. Aim of the study was to compute factorial dimensions in Indian subset of schizophrenic patients and to compare them with five factor pentagonal model extracted in western studies. Materials and Methods: 150 inpatients of Schizophrenia with acute exacerbation were subjected to PANSS rating within one week of admission and statistical calculation done based on exploratory factor analysis. Results: Five factors namely negative, autistic, activation, positive and depression were extracted wherein negative factors showed highest percentage of total variance supporting five factor modal of western literature Conclusion: A consensus is gradually emerging regarding symptomatic dimensions of Schizophrenia. PMID:23226846

  18. Cladistic analysis applied to the classification of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hone, D. W. E.; Mahony, S. H.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Martin, K. T.

    2007-11-01

    Cladistics is a systematic method of classification that groups entities on the basis of sharing similar characteristics in the most parsimonious manner. Here cladistics is applied to the classification of volcanoes using a dataset of 59 Quaternary volcanoes and 129 volcanic edifices of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Volcano and edifice characteristics recorded in the database include attributes of volcano size, chemical composition, dominant eruptive products, volcano morphology, dominant landforms, volcano age and eruptive history. Without characteristics related to time the volcanic edifices divide into two groups, with characters related to volcano size, dominant composition and edifice morphology being the most diagnostic. Analysis including time based characteristics yields four groups with a good correlation between these groups and the two groups from the analysis without time for 108 out of 129 volcanic edifices. Thus when characters are slightly changed the volcanoes still form similar groupings. Analysis of the volcanoes both with and without time yields three groups based on compositional, eruptive products and morphological characters. Spatial clusters of volcanic centres have been recognised in the Tohoku region by Tamura et al. ( Earth Planet Sci Lett 197:105 106, 2002). The groups identified by cladistic analysis are distributed unevenly between the clusters, indicating a tendency for individual clusters to form similar kinds of volcanoes with distinctive but coherent styles of volcanism. Uneven distribution of volcano types between clusters can be explained by variations in dominant magma compositions through time, which are reflected in eruption products and volcanic landforms. Cladistic analysis can be a useful tool for elucidating dynamic igneous processes that could be applied to other regions and globally. Our exploratory study indicates that cladistics has promise as a method for classifying volcanoes and potentially elucidating dynamic

  19. Defining applied behavior analysis: An historical analogy

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Samuel M.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines two criteria for a definition of applied behavior analysis. The criteria are derived from a 19th century attempt to establish medicine as a scientific field. The first criterion, experimental determinism, specifies the methodological boundaries of an experimental science. The second criterion, philosophic doubt, clarifies the tentative nature of facts and theories derived from those facts. Practices which will advance the science of behavior are commented upon within each criteria. To conclude, the problems of a 19th century form of empiricism in medicine are related to current practices in applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478557

  20. Applied mathematics analysis of the multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, H.; Kar, A. K.; Tacgin, E.

    2012-08-01

    A methodology is developed for the analysis of the multibody systems that is applied on the vehicle as a case study. The previous study emphasizes the derivation of the multibody dynamics equations of motion for bogie [2]. In this work, we have developed a guide-way for the analysis of the dynamical behavior of the multibody systems for mainly validation, verification of the realistic mathematical model and partly for the design of the alternative optimum vehicle parameters.

  1. Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in an Exploratory Factor Analysis Using Comparison Data of Known Factorial Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, John; Roche, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used routinely in the development and validation of assessment instruments. One of the most significant challenges when one is performing EFA is determining how many factors to retain. Parallel analysis (PA) is an effective stopping rule that compares the eigenvalues of randomly generated data with those for…

  2. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Taeho; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective instrument to measure student readiness in online learning with reliable predictors of online learning success factors such as learning outcomes and learner satisfaction. The validity and reliability of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) instrument were tested using exploratory factor…

  3. Applied behavior analysis and statistical process control?

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, B L

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines Pfadt and Wheeler's (1995) suggestions that the methods of statistical process control (SPC) be incorporated into applied behavior analysis. The research strategies of SPC are examined and compared to those of applied behavior analysis. I argue that the statistical methods that are a part of SPC would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with the problems with which they deal and would, therefore, likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Examples of these kinds of results and decisions are drawn from the cases and data Pfadt and Wheeler present. This paper also describes and clarifies many common misconceptions about SPC, including W. Edwards Deming's involvement in its development, its relationship to total quality management, and its confusion with various other methods designed to detect sources of unwanted variability. PMID:7592156

  4. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  5. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  6. Exploratory Search on Twitter Utilizing User Feedback and Multi-Perspective Microblog Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zilincik, Michal; Navrat, Pavol; Koskova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, besides typical information retrieval, a broader concept of information exploration – exploratory search - is emerging into the foreground. In addition, more and more valuable information is presented in microblogs on social networks. We propose a new method for supporting the exploratory search on the Twitter social network. The method copes with several challenges, namely brevity of microblogs called tweets, limited number of available ratings and the need to process the recommendations online. In order to tackle the first challenge, the representation of microblogs is enriched by information from referenced links, topic summarization and affect analysis. The small number of available ratings is raised by interpreting implicit feedback trained by feedback model during browsing. Recommendations are made by a preference model that models user’s preferences over tweets. The evaluation shows promising results even when navigating in the space of brief pieces of information, making recommendations based only on a small number of ratings, and by optimizing the models to process in real time. PMID:24265724

  7. Exploratory search on Twitter utilizing user feedback and multi-perspective microblog analysis.

    PubMed

    Zilincik, Michal; Navrat, Pavol; Koskova, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, besides typical information retrieval, a broader concept of information exploration--exploratory search--is emerging into the foreground. In addition, more and more valuable information is presented in microblogs on social networks. We propose a new method for supporting the exploratory search on the Twitter social network. The method copes with several challenges, namely brevity of microblogs called tweets, limited number of available ratings and the need to process the recommendations online. In order to tackle the first challenge, the representation of microblogs is enriched by information from referenced links, topic summarization and affect analysis. The small number of available ratings is raised by interpreting implicit feedback trained by feedback model during browsing. Recommendations are made by a preference model that models user's preferences over tweets. The evaluation shows promising results even when navigating in the space of brief pieces of information, making recommendations based only on a small number of ratings, and by optimizing the models to process in real time. PMID:24265724

  8. Caldwell University's Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A

    2016-05-01

    Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth. These strategies, along with a consideration of potential challenges, might prove useful in guiding academicians who are interested in starting their own programs in behavior analysis. PMID:27606194

  9. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Diego A; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  10. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Diego A.; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H.; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T.

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  11. Exploratory factor analysis and psychometric evaluation of the teacher reporting attitude scale for child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis. The scale isolated three dimensions: commitment to the reporting role, confidence in the system's response to reports, and concerns about reporting. These three factors accounted for 37.5% of the variance in the 14-item measure. Alpha coefficients for the subscales were 0.769 (commitment), 0.617 (confidence), and 0.661 (concerns). The findings provide insights into the complexity of studying teachers' attitudes toward reporting of child sexual abuse and have implications for future research. PMID:22994689

  12. FACTOR 9.2: A Comprehensive Program for Fitting Exploratory and Semiconfirmatory Factor Analysis and IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J.

    2013-01-01

    FACTOR 9.2 was developed for three reasons. First, exploratory factor analysis (FA) is still an active field of research although most recent developments have not been incorporated into available programs. Second, there is now renewed interest in semiconfirmatory (SC) solutions as suitable approaches to the complex structures are commonly found…

  13. Technical Communications in Aeronautics: Results of an Exploratory Study. An Analysis of Managers' and Nonmanagers' Responses. NASA Technical Memorandum 101625.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that aerospace managers and nonmanagers have different technical communications practices. Five secondary assumptions were established for the analysis: (1) that the…

  14. Exploratory Bifactor Analysis of the WJ-III Cognitive in Adulthood via the Schmid-Leiman Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson-III cognitive in the adult time period (age 20 to 90 plus) was analyzed using exploratory bifactor analysis via the Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization procedure. The results of this study suggested possible overfactoring, a different factor structure from that posited in the Technical Manual and a lack of invariance across both…

  15. Rotation Criteria and Hypothesis Testing for Exploratory Factor Analysis: Implications for Factor Pattern Loadings and Interfactor Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Thomas A.; Sass, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has long been used in the social sciences to depict the relationships between variables/items and latent traits. Researchers face many choices when using EFA, including the choice of rotation criterion, which can be difficult given that few research articles have discussed and/or demonstrated their differences.…

  16. A Unified Approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis with Missing Data, Nonnormal Data, and in the Presence of Outliers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Marshall, Linda L.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a rescaled Bartless-corrected statistic for evaluating the number of factors in exploratory factor analysis with missing data, nonnormal data, and in the presence of outliers. Numerical results illustrate the sensitivity of classical methods and advantages of the proposed procedures. (SLD)

  17. The trade-off between hospital cost and quality of care. An exploratory empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Morey, R C; Fine, D J; Loree, S W; Retzlaff-Roberts, D L; Tsubakitani, S

    1992-08-01

    The debate concerning quality of care in hospitals, its "value" and affordability, is increasingly of concern to providers, consumers, and purchasers in the United States and elsewhere. We undertook an exploratory study to estimate the impact on hospital-wide costs if quality-of-care levels were varied. To do so, we obtained costs and service output data regarding 300 U.S. hospitals, representing approximately a 5% cross section of all hospitals operating in 1983; both inpatient and outpatient services were included. The quality-of-care measure used for the exploratory analysis was the ratio of actual deaths in the hospital for the year in question to the forecasted number of deaths for the hospital; the hospital mortality forecaster had earlier (and elsewhere) been built from analyses of 6 million discharge abstracts, and took into account each hospital's actual individual admissions, including key patient descriptors for each admission. Such adjusted death rates have increasingly been used as potential indicators of quality, with recent research lending support for the viability of that linkage. The authors then utilized the economic construct of allocative efficiency relying on "best practices" concepts and peer groupings, built using the "envelopment" philosophy of Data Envelopment Analysis and Pareto efficiency. These analytical techniques estimated the efficiently delivered costs required to meet prespecified levels of quality of care. The marginal additional cost per each death deferred in 1983 was estimated to be approximately $29,000 (in 1990 dollars) for the average efficient hospital. Also, over a feasible range, a 1% increase in the level of quality of care delivered was estimated to increase hospital cost by an average of 1.34%. This estimated elasticity of quality on cost also increased with the number of beds in the hospital. PMID:1640765

  18. Tropospheric Delay Raytracing Applied in VLBI Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, D. S.; Eriksson, D.; Gipson, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric delay modeling error continues to be one of the largest sources of error in VLBI analysis. For standard operational solutions, we use the VMF1 elevation-dependent mapping functions derived from ECMWF data. These mapping functions assume that tropospheric delay at a site is azimuthally symmetric. As this assumption does not reflect reality, we have determined the raytrace delay along the signal path through the troposphere for each VLBI quasar observation. We determined the troposphere refractivity fields from the pressure, temperature, specific humidity and geopotential height fields of the NASA GSFC GEOS-5 numerical weather model. We discuss results from analysis of the CONT11 R&D and the weekly operational R1+R4 experiment sessions. When applied in VLBI analysis, baseline length repeatabilities were better for 66-72% of baselines with raytraced delays than with VMF1 mapping functions. Vertical repeatabilities were better for 65% of sites.

  19. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) normative sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analytic techniques that were not reported in the in the CTONI-2 "Examiner's Manual". Results…

  20. Wavelet analysis applied to the IRAS cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William D.; Wilson, Robert W.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of infrared cirrus clouds is analyzed with Laplacian pyramid transforms, a form of non-orthogonal wavelets. Pyramid and wavelet transforms provide a means to decompose images into their spatial frequency components such that all spatial scales are treated in an equivalent manner. The multiscale transform analysis is applied to IRAS 100 micrometer maps of cirrus emission in the north Galactic pole region to extract features on different scales. In the maps we identify filaments, fragments and clumps by separating all connected regions. These structures are analyzed with respect to their Hausdorff dimension for evidence of the scaling relationships in the cirrus clouds.

  1. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J.M; Foxx, Richard M; Jacobson, John W; Green, Gina; Mulick, James A

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We also consider the features of PBS that have facilitated its broad dissemination and how ABA might benefit from emulating certain practices of the PBS movement. PMID:22478452

  2. Sneak analysis applied to process systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetton, Cris

    Traditional safety analyses, such as HAZOP, FMEA, FTA, and MORT, are less than effective at identifying hazards resulting from incorrect 'flow' - whether this be flow of information, actions, electric current, or even the literal flow of process fluids. Sneak Analysis (SA) has existed since the mid nineteen-seventies as a means of identifying such conditions in electric circuits; in which area, it is usually known as Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA). This paper extends the ideas of Sneak Circuit Analysis to a general method of Sneak Analysis applied to process plant. The methods of SA attempt to capitalize on previous work in the electrical field by first producing a pseudo-electrical analog of the process and then analyzing the analog by the existing techniques of SCA, supplemented by some additional rules and clues specific to processes. The SA method is not intended to replace any existing method of safety analysis; instead, it is intended to supplement such techniques as HAZOP and FMEA by providing systematic procedures for the identification of a class of potential problems which are not well covered by any other method.

  3. Visualized Exploratory Spatiotemporal Analysis of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ji-Xia; Wang, Jin-Feng; Li, Zhong-Jie; Wang, Yan; Lai, Sheng-Jie; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In epidemiological research, major studies have focused on theoretical models; however, few methods of visual analysis have been used to display the patterns of disease distribution. Design For this study, a method combining the space-time cube (STC) with space-time scan statistics (STSS) was used to analyze the pattern of incidence of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in Guangdong Province from May 2008 to March 2009. In this research, STC was used to display the spatiotemporal pattern of incidence of HFMD, and STSS were used to detect the local aggregations of the disease. Setting The hand-foot-mouth disease data were obtained from Guangdong Province from May 2008 to March 2009, with a total of 68,130 cases. Results The STC analysis revealed a differential pattern of HFMD incidence among different months and cities and also showed that the population density and average precipitation are correlated with the incidence of HFMD. The STSS analysis revealed that the most likely aggregation includes the Shenzhen, Foshan and Dongguan populations, which are the most developed regions in Guangdong Province. Conclusion Both STC and STSS are efficient tools for the exploratory data analysis of disease transmission. STC clearly displays the spatiotemporal patterns of disease. Using the maximum likelihood ratio, the STSS model precisely locates the most likely aggregation. PMID:26605919

  4. Utilizing Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis to Examine Health and Environmental Disparities in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Osiecki, Kristin M.; Kim, Seijeoung; Chukwudozie, Ifeanyi B.; Calhoun, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities research has focused primarily on racial and socioeconomic differences in health outcomes. Although neighborhood characteristics and the concept of built environment have been shown to affect individual health, measuring the effects of environmental risks on health has been a less developed area of disparities research. To examine spatial associations and the distribution of geographic patterns of sociodemographic characteristics, environmental cancer risk, and cancer rates, we utilized existing data from multiple sources. The findings from our initial analysis, which concerned with proximity to environmental hazards and at-risk communities, were consistent with results of previous studies, which often reported mixed relationships between health disparity indicators and environmental burden. However, further analysis with refined models showed that several key demographic and subdomains of cancer risk measures were shown to have spatial components. With the application of exploratory spatial data analysis, we were able to identify areas with both high rates of poverty and racial minorities to further examine for possible associations to environmental cancer risk. Global spatial autocorrelation found spatial clustering with percent black, percent poverty, point and non-point cancer risks requiring further spatial analysis to determine relationship of significance based on geography. This methodology was based upon particular assumptions associated with data and applications, which needed to be met. We conclude that careful assessment of the data and applications were required to properly interpret the findings in understanding the relationship between vulnerable populations and environmental burden. PMID:26594302

  5. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height

  6. The underlying relationships between the observed practices as revealed by an exploratory factor analysis of equip ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, Jenesta Rae

    The Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol (EQUIP) is an instrument to measure the amount and quality of inquiry instruction of science and mathematics classrooms. The EQUIP rubric includes detailed descriptions for the inquiry practices that it measures. This study analyzed a large dataset of Texas science teacher observations using a discriminant factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis. The discriminant factor analysis found the inquiry instruction practices of primary (1st-5th grade) science teachers and secondary (6th-12th grade) science teachers to differ greatly, with primary science teachers using inquiry practices more often than secondary science teachers. Based on this information the primary and secondary datasets were analyzed separately with the exploratory factor analysis. The resulting factors indicate a variety of differences in the observed practices. The results also, suggest that discourse practices play a divergent but influential role for both datasets. Potential implications for professional development and future research are discussed.

  7. Applied spectrophotometry: analysis of a biochemical mixture.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Toni A; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the concentration of a given species (RNA, DNA, protein) in isolation (a contrived circumstance) as opposed to determining that concentration in the presence of other species (a more realistic situation). To present the student with a more realistic laboratory experience and also to fill a hole that we believe exists in student experience prior to reaching a biochemistry course, we have devised a three week laboratory experience designed so that students learn to: connect laboratory practice with theory, apply the Beer-Lambert-Bougert Law to biochemical analyses, demonstrate the utility and limitations of example quantitative colorimetric assays, demonstrate the utility and limitations of UV analyses for biomolecules, develop strategies for analysis of a solution of unknown biomolecular composition, use digital micropipettors to make accurate and precise measurements, and apply graphing software. PMID:23625877

  8. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ultrasound Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, C.; Young, M.; Mason, S.; Coble, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Law. J.; Alexander, D.; Ryder, V. Myers; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on ISS have typically averaged 2.3 to 5.3mm Hg, with large fluctuations occurring over periods of hours and days. CO2 has effects on cerebral vascular tone, resulting in vasodilation and alteration of cerebral blood flow(CBF). Increased CBF leads to elevated intracranial pressure(ICP), which is a factor leading to visual disturbance, headaches, and other central nervous system symptoms. Ultrasound of the optic nerve provides a surrogate measurement of ICP. Inflight ultrasounds were implemented as an enhanced screening tool for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome. This analysis examines the relationships between ambient CO2 levels on ISS and ultrasound measures of the eye in an effort to understand how CO2 may be associated with VIIP and to inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data. Results as shown in Figure2, there was a large timeframe where CO2 readings were removed due to sensor fault errors(see Limitations), from June 2011 to January 2012. After extensive cleaning of the CO2 data, metrics for all of the data were calculated (Table2). Preliminary analyses showed possible associations between variability measures of CO2 and AP diameter (Figure3),and average CO2 exposure and ONSD(Figure4). Adjustments for multiple comparisons were not made due to the exploratory nature of the analysis.

  9. Exploratory factor analysis of neuropsychological tests and their relationship to the Brown-Peterson task.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Valérie B; Gagnon, Michèle; Coulombe, Daniel; Messier, Claude

    2006-10-01

    The interference condition of the Brown-Peterson task and the auditory consonant trigrams test was designed to evaluate working memory in that it required a division of attentional processes to complete two cognitive tasks. However, the specific cognitive functions contributing to the performance of this interference task have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to determine what other tasks are comparable to the Brown-Peterson task and conduct an exploratory factor analysis that included the measures from the Brown-Peterson task and other neuropsychological measures. A neuropsychological battery was administered to younger participants (n=107, mean age=20.83) and older participants (n=93, mean age=70.14). Factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution. Performance after the intervening serial subtraction task loaded on an auditory/visual working memory and complex attention factor and had common loadings with working memory subtests of the WAIS-III and the spatial span subtest of the WMS-III. Results suggest that the performance after the intervening serial subtraction task evaluates dual information processing, complex attention, and working memory. PMID:17071363

  10. Exploratory Analysis of Biological Networks through Visualization, Clustering, and Functional Annotation in Cytoscape.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Biological networks define how genes, proteins, and other cellular components interact with one another to carry out specific functions, providing a scaffold for understanding cellular organization. Although in-depth network analysis requires advanced mathematical and computational knowledge, a preliminary visual exploration of biological networks is accessible to anyone with basic computer skills. Visualization of biological networks is used primarily to examine network topology, identify functional modules, and predict gene functions based on gene connectivity within the network. Networks are excellent at providing a bird's-eye view of data sets and have the power of illustrating complex ideas in simple and intuitive terms. In addition, they enable exploratory analysis and generation of new hypotheses, which can then be tested using rigorous statistical and experimental tools. This protocol describes a simple procedure for visualizing a biological network using the genetic interaction similarity network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an example. The visualization procedure described here relies on the open-source network visualization software Cytoscape and includes detailed instructions on formatting and loading the data, clustering networks, and overlaying functional annotations. PMID:26988373

  11. How bandwidth selection algorithms impact exploratory data analysis using kernel density estimation.

    PubMed

    Harpole, Jared K; Woods, Carol M; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Levinson, Cheri A; Lenze, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    Exploratory data analysis (EDA) can reveal important features of underlying distributions, and these features often have an impact on inferences and conclusions drawn from data. Graphical analysis is central to EDA, and graphical representations of distributions often benefit from smoothing. A viable method of estimating and graphing the underlying density in EDA is kernel density estimation (KDE). This article provides an introduction to KDE and examines alternative methods for specifying the smoothing bandwidth in terms of their ability to recover the true density. We also illustrate the comparison and use of KDE methods with 2 empirical examples. Simulations were carried out in which we compared 8 bandwidth selection methods (Sheather-Jones plug-in [SJDP], normal rule of thumb, Silverman's rule of thumb, least squares cross-validation, biased cross-validation, and 3 adaptive kernel estimators) using 5 true density shapes (standard normal, positively skewed, bimodal, skewed bimodal, and standard lognormal) and 9 sample sizes (15, 25, 50, 75, 100, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000). Results indicate that, overall, SJDP outperformed all methods. However, for smaller sample sizes (25 to 100) either biased cross-validation or Silverman's rule of thumb was recommended, and for larger sample sizes the adaptive kernel estimator with SJDP was recommended. Information is provided about implementing the recommendations in the R computing language. PMID:24885339

  12. The underlying factor structure of National Institutes of Health Stroke scale: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Ali; Kahaki, Zahra Zeynali; Sadeghian, Homa; Pourashraf, Maryam; Parviz, Sara; Ghaffarpour, Majid; Ghabaee, Mojdeh

    2012-03-01

    The underlying structure of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) as the most widely used scale in clinical trials has been the focus of little attention. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the clustering pattern of NIHSS items in ischemic stroke patients. A series of 152 consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic strokes admitted to a university affiliated hospital were enrolled. NIHSS score was estimated on admission and correlation coefficients between its items were calculated. Further, exploratory factor analysis was used to study the clustering pattern of NIHSS items. Extinction neglect, visual field, and facial palsy were weakly associated with other NIHSS items. Factor analysis led to a four-factor structure. Factors 1 and 3 were determined by left brain function as items of right arm and leg motor, language and dysarthria loaded on both of them. By contrast, factor 2 reflected right brain involvement. Since visual field and ataxia loaded on factor 4, this factor was primarily associated with posterior strokes. Our study shows that a four-factor structure model is plausible for NIHSS. Further, for the first time, a single distinct factor is identified for posterior strokes. PMID:22023373

  13. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of a short-form of the EMBU among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongquan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Lisong

    2012-02-01

    The present study used a sample of Chinese adolescents and validated a short-form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran: One's Memories of Upbringing (s-EMBU) assessing perceived parental rearing styles. A Chinese revision of the s-EMBU by the authors was administered to a total of 779 high school students, ages 11 to 19 years. Exploratory factor analysis with half of the sample yielded a three-factor solution of Rejection, Emotional Warmth, and Overprotection, accounting for 47.1% of the total variance onthe father form and 48.8% of the total variance on the mother form. Then, confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit of the three-factor model to the data in the other half of the sample. The three subscales consisted of 6, 6, and 7 items, respectively. Scores on these subscales had Cronbach alphas ranging from .71 to .81, indicating adequate internal consistency. These psychometric properties suggest its applicability for research with Chinese adolescents. PMID:22489392

  14. A novel exploratory chemometric approach to environmental monitorring by combining block clustering with Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the serious threats posed to terrestrial ecosystems by industrial contamination, environmental monitoring is a standard procedure used for assessing the current status of an environment or trends in environmental parameters. Measurement of metal concentrations at different trophic levels followed by their statistical analysis using exploratory multivariate methods can provide meaningful information on the status of environmental quality. In this context, the present paper proposes a novel chemometric approach to standard statistical methods by combining the Block clustering with Partial least square (PLS) analysis to investigate the accumulation patterns of metals in anthropized terrestrial ecosystems. The present study focused on copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, and lead transfer along a soil-plant-snai food chain, and the hepatopancreas of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) was used as a biological end-point of metal accumulation. Results Block clustering deliniates between the areas exposed to industrial and vehicular contamination. The toxic metals have similar distributions in the nettle leaves and snail hepatopancreas. PLS analysis showed that (1) zinc and copper concentrations at the lower trophic levels are the most important latent factors that contribute to metal accumulation in land snails; (2) cadmium and lead are the main determinants of pollution pattern in areas exposed to industrial contamination; (3) at the sites located near roads lead is the most threatfull metal for terrestrial ecosystems. Conclusion There were three major benefits by applying block clustering with PLS for processing the obtained data: firstly, it helped in grouping sites depending on the type of contamination. Secondly, it was valuable for identifying the latent factors that contribute the most to metal accumulation in land snails. Finally, it optimized the number and type of data that are best for monitoring the status of metallic

  15. Intercultural comparison of patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea: an exploratory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hush, Julia M; Lee, Haejung; Yung, Vivian; Adams, Roger; Mackey, Martin; Wand, Benedict M; Nelson, Roger; Beattie, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-cultural comparison of the factors that influence patient satisfaction with musculoskeletal physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea. Methods: Prospective studies were conducted in Australia and Korea. Patient satisfaction data were collected using the MedRisk Instrument for Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Physical Therapy Care (MRPS) from a total of 1666 patients who were attending clinics for physiotherapy treatment of a musculoskeletal condition. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify factors determining patient satisfaction in each cohort. Results: A four-factor solution for the MRPS was found for the Australian and Korean data sets, explaining 61 and 55% of the variance respectively. Communication and respect, convenience and quality time and person-focused care were factors common to both countries. One factor unique to Korea was courtesy and propriety. For both cultures, global patient satisfaction was significantly but weakly correlated with the outcome of treatment. Conclusions: The interpersonal aspect of care, namely effective communication and respect from the therapist, appears to be the predominant and universal factor that influences patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care, although other culturally specific factors were identified. Physiotherapists can maximize patient satisfaction with care by addressing those features that uniquely contribute to patient satisfaction in the cultural context in which they are working. PMID:24421620

  16. An Exploratory Framework for Combining CFD Analysis and Evolutionary Optimization into a Single Integrated Computational Environment

    SciTech Connect

    McCorkle, Douglas S.; Bryden, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent reports and workshops have identified integrated computational engineering as an emerging technology with the potential to transform engineering design. The goal is to integrate geometric models, analyses, simulations, optimization and decision-making tools, and all other aspects of the engineering process into a shared, interactive computer-generated environment that facilitates multidisciplinary and collaborative engineering. While integrated computational engineering environments can be constructed from scratch with high-level programming languages, the complexity of these proposed environments makes this type of approach prohibitively slow and expensive. Rather, a high-level software framework is needed to provide the user with the capability to construct an application in an intuitive manner using existing models and engineering tools with minimal programming. In this paper, we present an exploratory open source software framework that can be used to integrate the geometric models, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and optimization tools needed for shape optimization of complex systems. This framework is demonstrated using the multiphase flow analysis of a complete coal transport system for an 800 MW pulverized coal power station. The framework uses engineering objects and three-dimensional visualization to enable the user to interactively design and optimize the performance of the coal transport system.

  17. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies. PMID:26908148

  18. Death and deprivation: an exploratory analysis of deaths in the health and lifestyle survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, K; Gould, M I; Duncan, C

    2000-04-01

    An analysis is undertaken of deaths of respondents in the UK- representative Health and Lifestyle Survey. The sample was originally interviewed in 1984/5 and followed initially until May 1997. Using multilevel logistic and Cox-proportional hazards models, the relationships between death and a wide range of social circumstances and behaviours is explored. It is found that place deprivation interacts with individual social class in accounting for variations in mortality. This is the case even when account is taken of personal health-related behaviour. There appears to be some evidence of a threshold relationship such that the differential effects of social class are only found at high-levels of deprivation. No statistically significant interactions are found for social and behavioural variables, for behavioural and place deprivation variables, and for social and place deprivation variables with the exception of social class. The study is deliberately exploratory and a wide range of models have been fitted which will be subject to more rigorous evaluation as the HALS death study proceeds. PMID:10714927

  19. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    PubMed

    Ullinger, Heather L; Kennedy, Marla J; Schneider, William H; Miller, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies. PMID:26908148

  20. Noninvasive Molecular Detection of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An exploratory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Seema; Benninger, Michael S; Lu, Mei; Havard, Shalita; Worsham, Maria J

    2008-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogenous disease evolving through multi-step carcinogenesis, one of the steps being genetic alterations. Non-invasive identification of HNSCC-specific genetic alterations using saliva would have immense potential in early diagnosis and screening, particularly among high-risk patients. Design In this exploratory study, a prospective cohort of 27HNSCC and 10 healthy controls was examined to determine whether genetic alterations (losses and gains) in saliva DNA differentiated HNSCC patients from normal controls. Saliva DNA was interrogated by a candidate gene panel comprising 82 genes using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay. Results Eleven genes showed some predictive ability in identifying HNSCC cases from normal controls: PMAIP1, PTPN1 ERBB2, ABCC4, UTY, DNMT1, CDKN2B, CDKN2D, NFKB1, TP53 and DCC. Statistical analysis using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) identified 2 genes, PMAIP1 and PTPN1, which correctly discriminated all 27 HNSCC patients (100%) from normal controls. Results were validated using the leave-one-out validation approach. Conclusions Noninvasive high-throughput MLPA identified discrete gene signatures that differentiated HNSCC patients from normal controls providing poof-of-concept for noninvasive HNSCC detection. PMID:19430297

  1. Viewpoints: A High-Performance High-Dimensional Exploratory Data Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazis, P. R.; Levit, C.; Way, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Scientific data sets continue to increase in both size and complexity. In the past, dedicated graphics systems at supercomputing centers were required to visualize large data sets, but as the price of commodity graphics hardware has dropped and its capability has increased, it is now possible, in principle, to view large complex data sets on a single workstation. To do this in practice, an investigator will need software that is written to take advantage of the relevant graphics hardware. The Viewpoints visualization package described herein is an example of such software. Viewpoints is an interactive tool for exploratory visual analysis of large high-dimensional (multivariate) data. It leverages the capabilities of modern graphics boards (GPUs) to run on a single workstation or laptop. Viewpoints is minimalist: it attempts to do a small set of useful things very well (or at least very quickly) in comparison with similar packages today. Its basic feature set includes linked scatter plots with brushing, dynamic histograms, normalization, and outlier detection/removal. Viewpoints was originally designed for astrophysicists, but it has since been used in a variety of fields that range from astronomy, quantum chemistry, fluid dynamics, machine learning, bioinformatics, and finance to information technology server log mining. In this article, we describe the Viewpoints package and show examples of its usage.

  2. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Mauro H.; Magalhães, Fabrício A.; Peixoto, Gustavo H. C.; Pereira, Beatriz M.; Andrade, André G. P.; Menzel, Hans-Joachim K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX), ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM), peak torque (torqueMAX), passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories) have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises. PMID:27437715

  3. Rotation to a partially specified target matrix in exploratory factor analysis in practice.

    PubMed

    Myers, Nicholas D; Jin, Ying; Ahn, Soyeon; Celimli, Seniz; Zopluoglu, Cengiz

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the influence of the number of targets specified on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with a complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. We extended previous research in this area by (a) exploring this phenomenon in situations in which both the common factor model and the targeted pattern matrix contained specification errors and (b) comparing the performance of target rotation to an easier-to-use default rotation criterion (i.e., geomin) under conditions commonly observed in practice. A Monte Carlo study manipulated target error, number of targets, model error, overdetermination, communality, and sample size. Outcomes included bias (i.e., accuracy) and variability (i.e., stability) with regard to the rotated pattern matrix. The effects of target error were negligible for both accuracy and stability, whereas small effects were observed for the number of targets for both outcomes. Further, target rotation outperformed geomin rotation with regard to accuracy but generally performed worse than geomin rotation with regard to stability. These findings underscore the potential importance (or caution, in the case of stability) of using extant, even if incomplete and somewhat inaccurate, substantive measurement theory to inform the rotation criterion in a nonmechanical way. PMID:24903693

  4. Using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale among Asian American college students: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Perry, Justin C; Vance, Kristen S; Helms, Janet E

    2009-04-01

    In this study, an exploratory factor analysis of the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995b) among a sample of Asian American college students (N = 225) was conducted. The factorial structure that emerged revealed mixed results in terms of consistency with the People of Color (POC) theory (Helms, 1995a). The measure's construct validity for Asian Americans may be improved through further scale development and revision. Directions for future research on the PRIAS are discussed. PMID:19485643

  5. Application of the exploratory data analysis for evaluating the toxicity of chlorinated phenol derivatives by various cell models.

    PubMed

    Cernáková, M; Jurásek, P

    1994-01-01

    Exploratory data analysis based on multivariate statistical analysis techniques was introduced as a new approach to expressing the toxicity of chemical substances at the simultaneous acceptance of various cell models. Using principal component analysis and cluster analysis methods the toxicity of chlorinated phenol derivatives on employing some of the cell models (chlorococcal algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, micromycetes, plant and animal cells) was characterized. The previous empirical experience that the toxicity of chlorinated phenol derivatives will increase with a growing degree of chlorination and that the presence of the methoxy group will cause a lowering of the toxic effect was demonstrated. The relationship between groups of tests used was presented. PMID:7729769

  6. Magnetic Analysis Techniques Applied to Desert Varnish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidgall, E. R.; Moskowitz, B. M.; Dahlberg, E. D.; Kuhlman, K. R.

    2003-01-01

    Desert varnish is a black or reddish coating commonly found on rock samples from arid regions. Typically, the coating is very thin, less than half a millimeter thick. Previous research has shown that the primary components of desert varnish are silicon oxide clay minerals (60%), manganese and iron oxides (20-30%), and trace amounts of other compounds [1]. Desert varnish is thought to originate when windborne particles containing iron and manganese oxides are deposited onto rock surfaces where manganese oxidizing bacteria concentrate the manganese and form the varnish [4,5]. If desert varnish is indeed biogenic, then the presence of desert varnish on rock surfaces could serve as a biomarker, indicating the presence of microorganisms. This idea has considerable appeal, especially for Martian exploration [6]. Magnetic analysis techniques have not been extensively applied to desert varnish. The only previous magnetic study reported that based on room temperature demagnetization experiments, there were noticeable differences in magnetic properties between a sample of desert varnish and the substrate sandstone [7]. Based upon the results of the demagnetization experiments, the authors concluded that the primary magnetic component of desert varnish was either magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite ( Fe2O3).

  7. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  8. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs. PMID:24076303

  9. System Learning via Exploratory Data Analysis: Seeing Both the Forest and the Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash Krause, L.

    2014-12-01

    As the amount of observational Earth and Space Science data grows, so does the need for learning and employing data analysis techniques that can extract meaningful information from those data. Space-based and ground-based data sources from all over the world are used to inform Earth and Space environment models. However, with such a large amount of data comes a need to organize those data in a way such that trends within the data are easily discernible. This can be tricky due to the interaction between physical processes that lead to partial correlation of variables or multiple interacting sources of causality. With the suite of Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) data mining codes available at MSFC, we have the capability to analyze large, complex data sets and quantitatively identify fundamentally independent effects from consequential or derived effects. We have used these techniques to examine the accuracy of ionospheric climate models with respect to trends in ionospheric parameters and space weather effects. In particular, these codes have been used to 1) Provide summary "at-a-glance" surveys of large data sets through categorization and/or evolution over time to identify trends, distribution shapes, and outliers, 2) Discern the underlying "latent" variables which share common sources of causality, and 3) Establish a new set of basis vectors by computing Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) which represent the maximum amount of variance for each principal component. Some of these techniques are easily implemented in the classroom using standard MATLAB functions, some of the more advanced applications require the statistical toolbox, and applications to unique situations require more sophisiticated levels of programming. This paper will present an overview of the range of tools available and how they might be used for a variety of time series Earth and Space Science data sets. Examples of feature recognition from both 1D and 2D (e.g. imagery) time series data

  10. The In-Out dispositional affective style questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ): an exploratory factorial analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Marano, Giuseppe; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Boracchi, Patrizia; Lanciano, Tiziana; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The issue of individual differences has always been an important area of research in psychology and, more recently, neuroimaging. A major source of interindividual variability stems from differences in basic affective dispositions. In order to make a contribution to this field of research, we have developed a new type of assessment – the In-Out dispositional affective style questionnaire (IN-OUT DASQ) – to measure the proneness between two different ways of feeling situated: a predominantly body-bound one in the case of the inward tendency and an externally anchored one in the case of the outward tendency (Arciero and Bondolfi, 2009). The IN-OUT DASQ contains two scales of seven items each, Self-centric engagement (SCE) and Other-centric engagement (OCE), as a disposition index for inwardness and outwardness respectively. The exploratory factor analysis in sample 1 (n = 292) confirmed a two-factor solution. Confirmatory factor analysis in sample 2 (n = 300) showed the good fit of this two-factor model. Next, we examined construct validity also investigating the correlations between the IN-OUT DASQ, the Big Five Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule in sample 3 (n = 153). The SCE and OCE scales had robust internal consistency and reliability, though the capacity to discriminate higher inward and outward participants was stronger in SCE. Although further validation research is required, the present study suggests the IN-OUT DASQ has the potential to be a measurement tool for detecting individual differences in social behavior and social affective neuroscience. PMID:25309478

  11. Exploratory Water Budget Analysis of A Transitional Premontane Cloud Forest in Costa Rica Through Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Buckwalter, E. H.; Moore, G. W.; Burns, J. N.; Dennis, A. R.; Dodge, O.; Guffin, E. C.; Morris, E. R.; Oien, R. P.; Orozco, G.; Peterson, A.; Teale, N. G.; Shibley, N. C.; Tourtellotte, N.; Houser, C.; Brooks, S. D.; Brumbelow, J. K.; Cahill, A. T.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Gonzalez, E.; Hallmark, C. T.; McInnes, K. J.; Miller, G. R.; Morgan, C.; Quiring, S. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Roark, E.; Delgado, A.; Ackerson, J. P.; Arnott, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of transitional premontane cloud forests is not well understood. This problem is being addressed by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) study at the Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research & Education in Costa Rica. Exploratory analysis of the water budget within a 20-ha watershed was used to connect three faculty-mentored research areas in ecohydrology, climate, and soil sciences and highlight the roles of 12 undergraduate researchers from 12 different universities. The water budget model is Q = Pn - E - T + ΔG + ΔS where Q = runoff, Pn = net precipitation, E = evaporation, T = transpiration, and ΔG and ΔS are change in groundwater soil water storage, respectively. Additionally, Pn = Pg - I = Tf + Sf + D, where Pg = gross precipitation, I/ΔI = canopy interception or storage, Tf = throughfall, Sf = stemflow, and D = canopy drip. The following terms were well understood Pg (satellite = 34-mm and tower = 38.1-mm) and Q from a recently constructed v-notch weir. We moderately understand Tf + D (30.9-mm from an array of forest rain gages), ΔI (7.2-mm) related to Sf, and T (10.4-mm measured with sapflow sensors). We found that soils were clay loam to silty loam textured Andisols on saprolitic tuft with a mean potential ΔS of 398 mm H2O under laboratory conditions, but in the field the following terms are almost completely unknown and require further field studies including E, ΔG, and ΔS. Recent installation of piezometers will address ΔG. Temporal scaling of measurements to a 1-week period was a challenge as well as the construction, deployment and calibration of instruments. However, this exploration allowed us to determine measurement uncertainties in the water budget, e.g., E, and to set future areas of research to address these uncertainties.

  12. Computer analysis of the exploratory behavior of insects and mites in an olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Bakchine, E; Pham-Delegue, M H; Kaiser, L; Masson, C

    1990-07-01

    A method of quantification of the exploratory behavior of small animals stimulated by an odorant in a four-choice olfactometer, taking into account the interindividual variability of responses, was developed: individual tracks were time sampled according to the animal's walking speed and its positions were recorded according to the X-Y coordinates of the grid set underneath the device, the mesh of the grid suiting the animal's body size. A software, written in BASIC APPLESOFT on an APPLE IIe computer, allowed us to analyze the coordinates either of a single individual or of an experimental sample, leading to: a) the quantification of the insect distribution all over the experimental chamber, expressed in a table numbered according to the grid, where the percentage of position per square either for a given time fraction or the total observation period were reported, b) a graphic representation of the data according to several levels of greys, expressing the frequentation for each square for a given duration of observation. An analysis per time fraction allowed the chronological setup of events to appreciate. c) The collection of the positions among each flow field of the olfactometer for each individual of the experimental sample, for a given duration, was translated as the percentage of time spent in each flow field. Data files gathered these percentages for further statistical treatments. This computer method, which requires little equipment and appears to be easily adaptable to the study of biological models of various size and speed such as honeybees, trichogrammas and varroas mites, is a powerful tool for behavioral studies of small organisms tested in restricted areas. PMID:2236268

  13. Exploratory analysis of the difference between temperature observations recorded by ASOS and conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Guttman, N.B.; Baker, C.B.

    1996-12-01

    The Automated Surface Observing System is currently replacing conventional observations at the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration, and other stations that report hourly observations. From a climatological viewpoint, it is necessary to compare the data from the old and new measuring systems in order to gain an understanding of their differences. These differences may become important when using time series for applications such as the computation of climatic normals, the development of homogeneous datasets for long periods of record for the investigation of climatic change, the placing of event into historical perspective, or the analysis of extreme weather events. This exploratory study of temperature data was undertaken to determine first weather there is a data continuity problem between the two observing systems and second, if there is a problem, to identify the magnitude of the problem. The most important conclusion from this study is that differences in site characteristics, even at the same airport, play as much, if not more, of a role in assessing the comparability of measurements from the two observing systems as does the instrument system bias. The instrument bias at most stations is on the order of a few tenths of a degree Fahrenheit but the siting differences can lead to biases on the order of a couple of degrees. Not only is there a difference in the magnitude of the biases, but there is also a difference in the direction; the instrument bias is usually negative, but the siting biases can be either positive or negative. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  15. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asparouhov, Tihomir; Muthen, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a frequently used multivariate analysis technique in statistics. Jennrich and Sampson (1966) solved a significant EFA factor loading matrix rotation problem by deriving the direct Quartimin rotation. Jennrich was also the first to develop standard errors for rotated solutions, although these have still not made…

  16. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  17. Are Review Skills and Academic Writing Skills Related? An Exploratory Analysis via Multi Source Feedback Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Because students learn from each other as well as lecturers, it is important to create opportunities for collaboration in writing classes. Teachers now benefit from access to plagiarism detectors that can also provide feedback. This exploratory study considers the role of four review types, open and anonymous, involving the students themselves,…

  18. Exploratory Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization via Integrated Topological and Geometric Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer; Diego Mandelli; Michael Pernice; Robert Nourgaliev

    2013-10-01

    and 2) topology-based methodologies to interactively visualize multidimensional data and extract risk-informed insights. Regarding item 1) we employ learning algorithms that aim to infer/predict simulation outcome and decide the coordinate in the input space of the next sample that maximize the amount of information that can be gained from it. Such methodologies can be used to both explore and exploit the input space. The later one is especially used for safety analysis scopes to focus samples along the limit surface, i.e. the boundaries in the input space between system failure and system success. Regarding item 2) we present a software tool that is designed to analyze multi-dimensional data. We model a large-scale nuclear simulation dataset as a high-dimensional scalar function defined over a discrete sample of the domain. First, we provide structural analysis of such a function at multiple scales and provide insight into the relationship between the input parameters and the output. Second, we enable exploratory analysis for users, where we help the users to differentiate features from noise through multi-scale analysis on an interactive platform, based on domain knowledge and data characterization. Our analysis is performed by exploiting the topological and geometric properties of the domain, building statistical models based on its topological segmentations and providing interactive visual interfaces to facilitate such explorations.

  19. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  20. Illness Beliefs regarding the Causes of Diabetes among Latino College Students: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Silvia J.; Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the Klonoff and Landrine Illness-Belief Scale when applied to Latino college students (n = 156; 34% male, 66% female) at high risk for future diabetes onset. Principal factor analysis yielded four significant factors--emotional, folk beliefs, punitive, gene/hereditary--which accounted for 64.5% of variance and…

  1. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Serap; Savci, Sema; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Akdeniz, Bahri; Özpelit, Ebru; Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Karadibak, Didem; Sevinc, Can

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart) is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version) for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization). Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal consistency. Although exploratory factor analysis showed a different subgroup distribution than the original questionnaire, the model was acceptable for the four-factor model hypothesis. Therefore, the questionnaire was rated as reliable. Conclusion These results supported the reliability of the TSK Heart Turkish Version. Since the acceptable four-factor model fits the subgroups and

  2. Assessment As Exploratory Research: A Theoretical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Nancy W.

    With the view that social scientists conduct too little exploratory research, the author outlines the methods and attitudes of the exploratory analyst and describes the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as a source of research data. Exploratory analysis, in which no paradigm is used, is contrasted with confirmatory research, which…

  3. Statistical Uncertainty Analysis Applied to Criticality Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartini, Entin; Andiwijayakusuma, Dinan; Susmikanti, Mike; Nursinta, A. W.

    2010-06-22

    In this paper, we present an uncertainty methodology based on a statistical approach, for assessing uncertainties in criticality prediction using monte carlo method due to uncertainties in the isotopic composition of the fuel. The methodology has been applied to criticality calculations with MCNP5 with additional stochastic input of the isotopic fuel composition. The stochastic input were generated using the latin hypercube sampling method based one the probability density function of each nuclide composition. The automatic passing of the stochastic input to the MCNP and the repeated criticality calculation is made possible by using a python script to link the MCNP and our latin hypercube sampling code.

  4. Science, Skepticism, and Applied Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Matthew P

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoscientific claims concerning medical and psychological treatments of all varieties are commonplace. As behavior analysts, a sound skeptical approach to our science and practice is essential. The present paper offers an overview of science and skepticism and discusses the relationship of skepticism to behavior analysis, with an emphasis on the types of issues concerning behavior analysts in practice. PMID:22477687

  5. Applied Spectrophotometry: Analysis of a Biochemical Mixture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Toni A.; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G.; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the…

  6. An Exploratory Statistical Analysis of a Planet Approach-Phase Guidance Scheme Using Angular Measurements with Significant Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.; Harry, David P., III

    1960-01-01

    An exploratory analysis of vehicle guidance during the approach to a target planet is presented. The objective of the guidance maneuver is to guide the vehicle to a specific perigee distance with a high degree of accuracy and minimum corrective velocity expenditure. The guidance maneuver is simulated by considering the random sampling of real measurements with significant error and reducing this information to prescribe appropriate corrective action. The instrumentation system assumed includes optical and/or infrared devices to indicate range and a reference angle in the trajectory plane. Statistical results are obtained by Monte-Carlo techniques and are shown as the expectation of guidance accuracy and velocity-increment requirements. Results are nondimensional and applicable to any planet within limits of two-body assumptions. The problem of determining how many corrections to make and when to make them is a consequence of the conflicting requirement of accurate trajectory determination and propulsion. Optimum values were found for a vehicle approaching a planet along a parabolic trajectory with an initial perigee distance of 5 radii and a target perigee of 1.02 radii. In this example measurement errors were less than i minute of arc. Results indicate that four corrections applied in the vicinity of 50, 16, 15, and 1.5 radii, respectively, yield minimum velocity-increment requirements. Thrust devices capable of producing a large variation of velocity-increment size are required. For a vehicle approaching the earth, miss distances within 32 miles are obtained with 90-percent probability. Total velocity increments used in guidance are less than 3300 feet per second with 90-percent probability. It is noted that the above representative results are valid only for the particular guidance scheme hypothesized in this analysis. A parametric study is presented which indicates the effects of measurement error size, initial perigee, and initial energy on the guidance

  7. Reliability analysis applied to structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.

  8. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  9. Scanning methods applied to bitemark analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Peter J.; Bush, Mary A.

    2010-06-01

    The 2009 National Academy of Sciences report on forensics focused criticism on pattern evidence subdisciplines in which statements of unique identity are utilized. One principle of bitemark analysis is that the human dentition is unique to the extent that a perpetrator may be identified based on dental traits in a bitemark. Optical and electron scanning methods were used to measure dental minutia and to investigate replication of detail in human skin. Results indicated that being a visco-elastic substrate, skin effectively reduces the resolution of measurement of dental detail. Conclusions indicate caution in individualization statements.

  10. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft.

    PubMed

    Brady, J V

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  11. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  12. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  13. An exploratory analysis of the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Form A (DAS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M; Segal, Zindel V; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have attempted to identify the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). However, no studies have done so using a clinical sample of outpatients likely to generalize to the clinical trials in which the DAS is commonly used. The current investigation utilized exploratory structural equation modeling in an outpatient sample (N = 982) and found support for a one-factor solution (composed of 19 items). This solution was largely confirmed in a second outpatient sample (N = 301). Construct validity was demonstrated in correlations with measures of depression, social interaction anxiety, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:24577308

  14. Exploratory data analysis groupware for qualitative and quantitative electrophoretic gel analysis over the Internet-WebGel.

    PubMed

    Lemkin, P F; Myrick, J M; Lakshmanan, Y; Shue, M J; Patrick, J L; Hornbeck, P V; Thornwal, G C; Partin, A W

    1999-12-01

    Many scientists use quantitative measurements to compare the presence and amount, of various proteins and nucleotides among series of one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) electrophoretic gels. These gels are often scanned into digital image files. Gel spots are then quantified using stand-alone analysis software. However, as more research collaborations take place over the Internet, it has become useful to share intermediate quantitative data between researchers. This allows research group members to investigate their data and share their work in progress. We developed a World Wide Web group-accessible software system, WebGel, for interactively exploring qualitative and quantitative differences between electrophoretic gels. Such Internet databases are useful for publishing quantitative data and allow other researchers to explore the data with respect to their own research. Because intermediate results of one user may be shared with their collaborators using WebGel, this form of active data-sharing constitutes a groupware method for enhancing collaborative research. Quantitative and image gel data from a stand-alone gel image processing system are copied to a database accessible on the WebGel Web server. These data are then available for analysis by the WebGel database program residing on that server. Visualization is critical for better understanding of the data. WebGel helps organize labeled gel images into montages of corresponding spots as seen in these different gels. Various views of multiple gel images, including sets of spots, normalization spots, labeled spots, segmented gels, etc. may also be displayed. These displays are active and may be used for performing database operations directly on individual protein spots by simply clicking on them. Corresponding regions between sets of gels may be visually analyzed using Flicker-comparison (Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 122-140) as one of the WebGel methods for qualitative analysis. Quantitative exploratory data

  15. Analysis of exploratory wells in the Cerro Prieto Field and the Mexicali Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Cobo R., J.M.; Bermejo M., F.J.

    1982-08-10

    Agricultural development in the Mexicali Valley and in the high cost of electric power required to operate the irrigation wells in the Valley prompted the Mexican government to investigate the possibility of taking advantage of thermal manifestations in the area located 28 km southeast of the city of Mexicali to generate electric power and thereby partially decrease the flight of foreign exchange. In 1958, a geologic study of the southern and southeastern zone of Mexicali was conducted to identify the possibilities of tapping geothermal resources. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge of the geologic conditions in this area and, if possible, to establish the location of exploratory and production wells and, on the basis of the results of the former, examine the geologic history in order to gain knowledge and understanding of the structural control of the steam. On the basis of this study, it was recommended that 3 exploratory wells should be drilled in order to locate weak zones that would easily allow for steam flow.

  16. Pressure to change drinking behavior: An exploratory analysis of US general population subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550

  17. Preclosure radiological safety analysis for the exploratory shaft facilities; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.W.; Miller, D.D.; Jardine, L.J.

    1992-06-01

    This study assesses which structures, systems, and components of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) are important to safety when the ESF is converted to become part of the operating waste repository. The assessment follows the methodology required by DOE Procedure AP-6.10Q. Failures of the converted ESF during the preclosure period have been evaluated, along with other underground accidents, to determine the potential offsite radiation doses and associated probabilities. The assessment indicates that failures of the ESF will not result in radiation doses greater than 0.5 rem at the nearest unrestricted area boundary. Furthermore, credible accidents in other underground facilities will not result in radiation doses larger than 0.5 rem, even if any structure, system, or component of the converted ESF fails at the same time. Therefore, no structure, system, or component of the converted ESF is important to safety.

  18. Exploratory proteomic analysis of hypobaric hypoxia and acute mountain sickness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Subudhi, Andrew W.; Hill, Ryan C.; Wilson, Megan J.; Dimmen, Andrew C.; Hansen, Kirk C.; Roach, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective in this exploratory study was to identify novel biomarkers of importance for acute mountain sickness (AMS) using discovery-based proteomic methods. Peripheral blood samples were collected and AMS symptoms were assessed in 20 healthy volunteers prior to [−15 h (baseline) and 0 h; 1,609 m; barometric pressure = 625 mmHg] and after a 9-h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (9 h; 4,875 m; barometric pressure = 425 mmHg). AMS status was assessed using the Lake Louise Questionnaire. Plasma samples were pooled according to AMS status at each time point. Protein composition of the samples was determined by a GeLC-MS/MS approach using two analytical platforms (LTQ-XL linear ion trap mass spectrometer and a LTQ-FT ultra hybrid mass spectrometer) for technical replication. Spectral counting was used to make semiquantitative comparisons of protein abundance between AMS-susceptible (AMS) and AMS-resistant (AMS·R) subjects with exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. After 9 h of hypoxia, the abundance of proteins with antioxidant properties (i.e., peroxiredoxin 6, glutathione peroxidase, and sulfhydryl oxidase 1) rose in AMS but not AMS·R. Our exploratory analyses suggest that exposure to hypobaric hypoxia enhances enzymatic antioxidant systems in AMS vs. AMS·R, which, we propose, may be an overcompensation for hypoxia-induced oxidant production. On the basis of our findings we 1) speculate that quenching oxidant activity may have adverse downstream effects that are of pathophysiological importance for AMS such as interrupting oxidant-sensitive cell signaling and gene transcription and 2) question the existing assumption that increased oxidant production in AMS is pathological. PMID:24265281

  19. A Primer on Bootstrap Factor Analysis as Applied to Health Studies Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wenhua; Miao, Jingang; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate how the bootstrap method could be conducted in exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with a syntax written in SPSS. Methods: The data obtained from the Texas Childhood Obesity Prevention Policy Evaluation project (T-COPPE project) were used for illustration. A 5-step procedure to conduct bootstrap factor analysis (BFA) was…

  20. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Coping Styles and Relationship to Depression Among a Sample of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Samantha M; Begun, Stephanie; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin M; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which measures of coping adequately capture the ways that homeless youth cope with challenges, and the influence these coping styles have on mental health outcomes, is largely absent from the literature. This study tests the factor structure of the Coping Scale using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and then investigates the relationship between coping styles and depression using hierarchical logistic regression with data from 201 homeless youth. Results of the EFA indicate a 3-factor structure of coping, which includes active, avoidant, and social coping styles. Results of the hierarchical logistic regression show that homeless youth who engage in greater avoidant coping are at increased risk of meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. Findings provide insight into the utility of a preliminary tool for assessing homeless youths' coping styles. Such assessment may identify malleable risk factors that could be addressed by service providers to help prevent mental health problems. PMID:25821043

  1. Characterizing Objective Quality of Life and Normative Outcomes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E; Makuch, Renee A; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and (2) identifying predictors of positive normative outcomes and good objective QoL. Findings of an exploratory latent class analysis identified three groups of adults with ASD-Greater Dependence, Good Physical and Mental Health, and Greater Independence. Findings indicate that better daily living skills, better executive function, and more maternal warmth are associated with assignment to better outcome groups. Findings have implications for interventions designed to enhance achievement of normative outcomes and objective QoL. PMID:27207091

  2. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...

  3. An Exploratory Qualitative Analysis of Graduate Student Learning and Division of Labor Resulting from Student Cofacilitation of an Asynchronous Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Natalie B.; Hillarious, Marilyn; Walker, Bryce

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study is an exploratory, retrospective content analysis (Schwandt, 2007) of 81 debrief statements collected over 3 years and written by graduate students in an educational technology graduate program's educational leadership course taught 100% online. Researchers analyzed students' debrief statements of lessons learned and task…

  4. A Third Exploratory Analysis of the Relations Among Institutional Variables: A Study of Institutional Preferences in Medical Student Admissions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Charles R.

    An exploratory factor analysis is used in the study of institutional preferences in medical student admissions. Sources and mathematical derivations of 58 institutional variables are presented. Most of the measures describe attributes related to the admission process. The remainder were selected to represent other dimensions along which medical…

  5. Using exploratory factor analysis of food frequency questionnaires to identify dietary patterns among Yup’ik People

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Tove K.; Austin, Melissa A.; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O’Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Boyer, Bert B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed by the Center for Alaska Native Health Research for studies in Yup’ik people includes market foods and subsistence foods such as moose, seal, waterfowl and salmon that may be related to disease risk. Because the FFQ contains >100 food items, we sought to characterize dietary patterns more simply for use in ongoing pharmacogenomics studies. Design Exploratory factor analysis was used to derive a small number of “factors” that explain a substantial amount of the variation in the Yup’ik diet. We estimated factor scores and measured associations with demographic characteristics and biomarkers. Setting Southwest Alaska, US Subjects 358 Yup’ik people, ≥ 18 years Results We identified 3 factors that each accounted for ≥10% of the common variance: the first characterized by “processed foods” (e.g., salty snacks, sweetened cereals); the second by “fruits and vegetables” (e.g., fresh citrus, potato salad); and the third by “subsistence foods” (seal or walrus soup, non-oily fish). Participants from coastal communities had higher values for the “subsistence” factor, whereas participants from inland communities had higher values for the “fruits and vegetables” factor. A biomarker of marine intake, δ 15N, was correlated with the “subsistence” factor, whereas a biomarker of corn and sugar-cane based market food intake, δ 13C, was correlated with “processed foods”. Conclusions This exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that appear to reflect dietary patterns among Yup’ik based on associations with participant characteristics and biomarkers. These factors will be useful for chronic disease studies in this population. PMID:23290469

  6. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  7. B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew from his science for application, his descriptions of possible applications, and his own applications to nonhuman and human behavior. Second, we found that he explicitly or implicitly addressed all seven dimensions of applied behavior analysis. These contributions and the dimensions notwithstanding, he neither incorporated the field's scientific (e.g., analytic) and social dimensions (e.g., applied) into any program of published research such that he was its originator, nor did he systematically integrate, advance, and promote the dimensions so to have been its founder. As the founder of behavior analysis, however, he was the father of applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478444

  8. DataHub: Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    The DataHub addresses four areas of significant needs: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactives nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc), in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  9. DataHub - Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    DataHub addresses four areas of significant need: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactive nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc.) in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis is on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  10. Some still-current dimensions of applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Donald M.; Wolf, Montrose M.; Risley, Todd R.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty years ago, an anthropological note described the current dimensions of applied behavior analysis as it was prescribed and practiced in 1968: It was, or ought to become, applied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptual, effective, and capable of appropriately generalized outcomes. A similar anthropological note today finds the same dimensions still prescriptive, and to an increasing extent, descriptive. Several new tactics have become evident, however, some in the realm of conceptual analysis, some in the sociological status of the discipline, and some in its understanding of the necessary systemic nature of any applied discipline that is to operate in the domain of important human behaviors. PMID:16795703

  11. Exploratory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Response-Guided Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Hormone Positive Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Retèl, Valesca P.; Lederer, Bianca; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Steuten, Lotte M. G.; van Harten, Wim H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guiding response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (guided-NACT) allows for an adaptative treatment approach likely to improve breast cancer survival. In this study, our primary aim is to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of guided-NACT using as a case study the first randomized controlled trial that demonstrated effectiveness (GeparTrio trial). Materials and Methods As effectiveness was shown in hormone-receptor positive (HR+) early breast cancers (EBC), our decision model compared the health-economic outcomes of treating a cohort of such women with guided-NACT to conventional-NACT using clinical input data from the GeparTrio trial. The expected cost-effectiveness and the uncertainty around this estimate were estimated via probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), from a Dutch societal perspective over a 5-year time-horizon. Results Our exploratory CEA predicted that guided-NACT as proposed by the GeparTrio, costs additional €110, but results in 0.014 QALYs gained per patient. This scenario of guided-NACT was considered cost-effective at any willingness to pay per additional QALY. At the prevailing Dutch willingness to pay threshold (€80.000/QALY) cost-effectiveness was expected with 78% certainty. Conclusion This exploratory CEA indicated that guided-NACT (as proposed by the GeparTrio trial) is likely cost-effective in treating HR+ EBC women. While prospective validation of the GeparTrio findings is advisable from a clinical perspective, early CEAs can be used to prioritize further research from a broader health economic perspective, by identifying which parameters contribute most to current decision uncertainty. Furthermore, their use can be extended to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of alternative guided-NACT scenarios that combine the use of promising imaging techniques together with personalized treatments. PMID:27124410

  12. Female versus male perpetrated femicide: an exploratory analysis of whether offender gender matters.

    PubMed

    Muftić, Lisa R; Baumann, Miranda L

    2012-09-01

    Femicide, the murder of females (most often at the hands of males), is an understudied area in homicide research. Furthermore, femicide perpetrated by females has been all but ignored. One reason this may be is because of the rarity of homicide victimization perpetrated by females. Rather, most homicide incidents consist of a male offender and a male victim. When a homicide does involve a female, either as a victim or as an offender, the other party implicated is generally a male. The primary goal of the proposed study is to provide an in-depth, albeit exploratory, examination of female-perpetrated femicide. Using homicide data taken from the Dallas Homicide Unit, 403 cases of femicide will be analyzed, with special attention devoted to comparing female-perpetrated femicide incidents (n = 39) against male-perpetrated femicide incidents (n = 364). Specifically, the current study will explore the similarities and differences in sociodemographic characteristics of victims and suspects, offense characteristics, and offense circumstances. Contrary to what was expected, results, at first glance, seem to suggest an overwhelming similarity between femicide suspects and victims, irrespective of gender. However, when the relationship between victim and suspect is considered, distinct differences appear. Implications from these findings as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:22491217

  13. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    TD64, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, is one of several groups with high-fidelity fluids design and analysis expertise in the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). TD64 assists personnel working on other programs. The group participates in projects in the following areas: turbomachinery activities, nozzle activities, combustion devices, and the Columbia accident investigation.

  14. The Significance of Regional Analysis in Applied Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Lawrence M.

    Regional analysis is central to applied geographic research, contributing to better planning and policy development for a variety of societal problems facing the United States. The development of energy policy serves as an illustration of the capabilities of this type of analysis. The United States has had little success in formulating a national…

  15. Social Science Exploratory. Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This Idaho Social Science Exploratory course of study applies standards-based content knowledge and skills to an enhanced investigation of geography, history, entrepreneurism, and civic engagement at an eighth-grade level. The exploratory course draws upon the disciplines to emphasize concepts and generalizations from the social sciences, promotes…

  16. Online illegal drug use information: an exploratory analysis of drug-related website viewing by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Dugosh, Karen L; Lynch, Kevin; Mericle, Amy A; Pich, Michele; Forman, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Given the uncertain effects of antidrug media campaigns, and the ease of finding online illegal drug information, research is needed on the Internet role in disseminating drug information to youths. This exploratory study analyzes National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) data on drug website viewing among 12-18 year olds (N = 7,145). Approximately 10.4% reported drug-related website exposure: 5.4% viewed only websites that communicated how to avoid drugs or bad things about drugs (antidrug websites); 1.7% only viewed websites that communicated how to use drugs and good things about drugs (prodrug websites); and 3.2% viewed both types of websites. The low rates of viewing antidrug websites occurred despite efforts in the National Youth Antidrug Media Campaign (NYAMC) to encourage youths to visit such websites. Prodrug website viewers had used inhalants and been offered marijuana, perceived little risk in trying marijuana, intended to use marijuana, had close friends who used drugs, reported low parental monitoring, and had been exposed to antidrug media messages. Viewing antidrug websites was related to gender, income, likelihood of using marijuana in the next 12 months, having close friends who use drugs and talking to friends about avoiding drugs, parental monitoring, and drug prevention exposure. Prior prevention exposure increased drug website viewing overall, perhaps by increasing general curiosity about drugs. Because adolescents increasingly seek health information online, research is needed on how they use the Internet as a drug information source, the temporal relationships of prevention exposure and drug website viewing, and the effects of viewing prodrug websites on drug risk. PMID:19851914

  17. An Instrument to Measure Dental Students' Communication Skills With Patients in Six Specific Circumstances: An Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aalboe, Joanna A; Schumacher, Mitzi M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the internal structure of an instrument assessing dental students' confidence in their ability to communicate with patients in six specific circumstances (anxious, in pain, etc.) using exploratory factor analysis. In a Communication in the Dental Health Care Setting course at a U.S. dental school, second-year dental students in two years (2013 and 2014) responded to the six items on a survey instrument. Of the total 123 students, 122 fully completed the instrument, for a response rate of 99%. Analysis of the results identified a unidimensional scale with regards to patient-specific communication self-efficacy and explained 74% of the total variance. The scale had good internal consistency reflected by high Cronbach's alpha (α=0.929, 95% CI [0.907, 0.947]). These findings suggest the instrument may be a useful tool in assessing the development of patient communication skills in second-year dental students following a course in communication. Further exploration utilizing confirmatory analysis, determining predictive validity, and assessing convergent and discriminant evidence is warranted. PMID:26729685

  18. Quantitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity of Applied Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zheng; Duan, Xiaojun; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of mathematical techniques in scientific research leads to the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. This viewpoint is validated quantitatively here by statistical and network analysis on the corpus PNAS 1999-2013. A network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in a panoramic view is built based on the corpus. Specific network indicators show the hub role of applied mathematics in interdisciplinary research. The statistical analysis on the corpus content finds that algorithms, a primary topic of applied mathematics, positively correlates, increasingly co-occurs, and has an equilibrium relationship in the long-run with certain typical research paradigms and methodologies. The finding can be understood as an intrinsic cause of the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. PMID:26352604

  19. Quantitative Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity of Applied Mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengyuan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of mathematical techniques in scientific research leads to the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. This viewpoint is validated quantitatively here by statistical and network analysis on the corpus PNAS 1999–2013. A network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in a panoramic view is built based on the corpus. Specific network indicators show the hub role of applied mathematics in interdisciplinary research. The statistical analysis on the corpus content finds that algorithms, a primary topic of applied mathematics, positively correlates, increasingly co-occurs, and has an equilibrium relationship in the long-run with certain typical research paradigms and methodologies. The finding can be understood as an intrinsic cause of the interdisciplinarity of applied mathematics. PMID:26352604

  20. Methodology, the matching law, and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vyse, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    The practical value of the quantitative analysis of behavior is limited by two methodological characteristics of this area of research: the use of (a) steady-state strategies and (b) relative vs. absolute response rates. Applied behavior analysts are concerned with both transition-state and steady-state behavior, and applied interventions are typically evaluated by their effects on absolute response rates. Quantitative analyses of behavior will have greater practical value when methods are developed for their extension to traditional rate-of-response variables measured across time. Although steady-state and relative-rate-of-response strategies are appropriate to the experimental analysis of many behavioral phenomena, these methods are rarely used by applied behavior analysts and further separate the basic and applied areas. PMID:22478657

  1. Exploratory data analysis as a tool for similarity assessment and clustering of chiral polysaccharide-based systems used to separate pharmaceuticals in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Klerck, Katrijn; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Mangelings, Debby

    2014-01-24

    In the search for appropriate chromatographic conditions to separate enantiomers, screening strategies are often applied because achieving chiral separations is tedious. These screenings aim to find relatively fast suitable separation conditions. However, the definition of these screenings mostly relies on years of expertise or on the labour- and time-intensive investigation of a broad range of chiral stationary- and mobile phases. A large amount of data is generated using either approach. In this study, the obtained data are investigated in a systematic manner and (dis)similar systems are searched for. For this case study, 48 chromatographic systems were characterized by the enantioresolutions of 29 racemates. Exploratory data analysis was performed by means of projection pursuit, revealing the different enantioselective patterns of the chromatographic systems. To quantify the (dis)similarity, correlation coefficients and Euclidean distances were calculated. These results were visualized in colour maps to allow investigating the degree of (dis)similarity between the systems. These maps proved to be a helpful tool in the selection of dissimilar/orthogonal chromatographic conditions. Hierarchical-cluster-analysis dendrograms were constructed next to evaluate the clustering of similar systems, i.e. with an equivalent enantioselectivity. Screening sequences were extracted and compared with the initial, defined by direct data interpretation. In a final section, selection of dissimilar systems was done by means of the Kennard and Stone algorithm. The systems selected by the applied techniques did not necessarily perform better than the selection by direct data interpretation. Nevertheless, high cumulative success rates are achieved for the selected combinations, due to the broad enantioselectivity, the high individual success rates and the complementarity of the chiral selectors. PMID:24394150

  2. Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: an emerging technology.

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, B A

    1987-01-01

    Although the effects of negative reinforcement on human behavior have been studied for a number of years, a comprehensive body of applied research does not exist at this time. This article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. A consideration of research currently being done in these areas suggests the emergence of an applied technology on negative reinforcement. PMID:3323157

  3. Measuring Ethnic Clustering and Exposure with the Q statistic: An Exploratory Analysis of Irish, Germans, and Yankees in 1880 Newark

    PubMed Central

    Páez, Antonio; Ruiz, Manuel; López, Fernando; Logan, John

    2013-01-01

    The study of population patterns has animated a large body of urban social research over the years. An important part of this literature is concerned with the identification and measurement of segregation patterns. Recently, emphatic calls have been made to develop measures that are better able to capture the geography of population patterns. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the Q statistic, developed for the analysis of spatial association of qualitative variables, to the detection of ethnic clustering and exposure patterns. The application is to historical data from 1880 Newark in the United States, with individuals classified by ethnicity and geo-coded by place of residence. Three ethnic groups, termed Irish, Germans, and Yankees are considered. Exploratory analysis with the Q statistic identifies significant differences in the tendency of individuals and building occupancy to cluster by ethnicity. In particular, there is evidence of a strong affinity within ethnic clusters, and some intermingling between Yankee and Irish residents. In contrast, the exposure of Germans to individuals of other groups is found to be more limited. PMID:24855322

  4. Risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, M.L.; Cuéllar-Barboza, A.B.; Bobo, W.V.; Roger, V.L.; Bellivier, F.; Leboyer, M.; West, C.P.; Frye, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence on and estimate the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in bipolar disorder. Method A systematic search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and bibliographies (1946 – May, 2013) was conducted. Case-control and cohort studies of bipolar disorder patients age 15 or older with myocardial infarction or stroke as outcomes were included. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed quality. Estimates of effect were summarized using random-effects meta-analysis. Results Five cohort studies including 13 115 911 participants (27 092 bipolar) were included. Due to the use of registers, different statistical methods, and inconsistent adjustment for confounders, there was significant methodological heterogeneity among studies. The exploratory meta-analysis yielded no evidence for a significant increase in the risk of myocardial infarction: [relative risk (RR): 1.09, 95% CI 0.96–1.24, P = 0.20; I2 = 6%]. While there was evidence of significant study heterogeneity, the risk of stroke in bipolar disorder was significantly increased (RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.29–2.35; P = 0.0003; I2 = 83%). Conclusion There may be a differential risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with bipolar disorder. Confidence in these pooled estimates was limited by the small number of studies, significant heterogeneity and dissimilar methodological features. PMID:24850482

  5. Prenatal Stress, Fearfulness, and the Epigenome: Exploratory Analysis of Sex Differences in DNA Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ostlund, Brendan D.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Crowell, Sheila E.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in utero is a risk factor for the development of problem behavior in the offspring, though precise pathways are unknown. We examined whether DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, NR3C1, was associated with experiences of stress by an expectant mother and fearfulness in her infant. Mothers reported on prenatal stress and infant temperament when infants were 5 months old (n = 68). Buccal cells for methylation analysis were collected from each infant. Prenatal stress was not related to infant fearfulness or NR3C1 methylation in the sample as a whole. Exploratory sex-specific analysis revealed a trend-level association between prenatal stress and increased methylation of NR3C1 exon 1F for female, but not male, infants. In addition, increased methylation was significantly associated with greater fearfulness for females. Results suggest an experience-dependent pathway to fearfulness for female infants via epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Future studies should examine prenatal stress in a comprehensive fashion while considering sex differences in epigenetic processes underlying infant temperament. PMID:27462209

  6. Measuring Ethnic Clustering and Exposure with the Q statistic: An Exploratory Analysis of Irish, Germans, and Yankees in 1880 Newark.

    PubMed

    Páez, Antonio; Ruiz, Manuel; López, Fernando; Logan, John

    2012-01-01

    The study of population patterns has animated a large body of urban social research over the years. An important part of this literature is concerned with the identification and measurement of segregation patterns. Recently, emphatic calls have been made to develop measures that are better able to capture the geography of population patterns. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the Q statistic, developed for the analysis of spatial association of qualitative variables, to the detection of ethnic clustering and exposure patterns. The application is to historical data from 1880 Newark in the United States, with individuals classified by ethnicity and geo-coded by place of residence. Three ethnic groups, termed Irish, Germans, and Yankees are considered. Exploratory analysis with the Q statistic identifies significant differences in the tendency of individuals and building occupancy to cluster by ethnicity. In particular, there is evidence of a strong affinity within ethnic clusters, and some intermingling between Yankee and Irish residents. In contrast, the exposure of Germans to individuals of other groups is found to be more limited. PMID:24855322

  7. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (< 0.32). Out of the final 20 items of the PBI-M, there were 10 items for the care factor, five items for the autonomy factor and five items for the overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  8. Prenatal Stress, Fearfulness, and the Epigenome: Exploratory Analysis of Sex Differences in DNA Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Brendan D; Conradt, Elisabeth; Crowell, Sheila E; Tyrka, Audrey R; Marsit, Carmen J; Lester, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in utero is a risk factor for the development of problem behavior in the offspring, though precise pathways are unknown. We examined whether DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, NR3C1, was associated with experiences of stress by an expectant mother and fearfulness in her infant. Mothers reported on prenatal stress and infant temperament when infants were 5 months old (n = 68). Buccal cells for methylation analysis were collected from each infant. Prenatal stress was not related to infant fearfulness or NR3C1 methylation in the sample as a whole. Exploratory sex-specific analysis revealed a trend-level association between prenatal stress and increased methylation of NR3C1 exon 1F for female, but not male, infants. In addition, increased methylation was significantly associated with greater fearfulness for females. Results suggest an experience-dependent pathway to fearfulness for female infants via epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Future studies should examine prenatal stress in a comprehensive fashion while considering sex differences in epigenetic processes underlying infant temperament. PMID:27462209

  9. EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE CHARACTERISTICS ON THE VARIATION IN PARTITIONING OF NONPOLAR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS TO MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of nonpolar organic contaminants to marine sediments is considered to be controlled by the amount of organic carbon present. However, several studies propose that other characteristics of sediments may affect the partitioning of contaminants. For this exploratory...

  10. Applying Association Rule Discovery Algorithm to Multipoint Linkage Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi; Hishigaki; Takagi

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in large databases (KDD) is being performed in several application domains, for example, the analysis of sales data, and is expected to be applied to other domains. We propose a KDD approach to multipoint linkage analysis, which is a way of ordering loci on a chromosome. Strict multipoint linkage analysis based on maximum likelihood estimation is a computationally tough problem. So far various kinds of approximate methods have been implemented. Our method based on the discovery of association between genetic recombinations is so different from others that it is useful to recheck the result of them. In this paper, we describe how to apply the framework of association rule discovery to linkage analysis, and also discuss that filtering input data and interpretation of discovered rules after data mining are practically important as well as data mining process itself. PMID:11072310

  11. Applied behavior analysis: New directions from the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1983-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis began when laboratory based principles were extended to humans inorder to change socially significant behavior. Recent laboratory findings may have applied relevance; however, the majority of basic researchers have not clearly communicated the practical implications of their work. The present paper samples some of the new findings and attempts to demonstrate their applied importance. Schedule-induced behavior which occurs as a by-product of contingencies of reinforcement is discussed. Possible difficulties in treatment and management of induced behaviors are considered. Next, the correlation-based law of effect and the implications of relative reinforcement are explored in terms of applied examples. Relative rate of reinforcement is then extended to the literature dealing with concurrent operants. Concurrent operant models may describe human behavior of applied importance, and several techniques for modification of problem behavior are suggested. As a final concern, the paper discusses several new paradigms. While the practical importance of these models is not clear at the moment, it may be that new practical advantages will soon arise. Thus, it is argued that basic research continues to be of theoretical and practical importance to applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478574

  12. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  13. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  14. Animal research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Timothy L; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say-do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by a chimpanzee, and unsafe trailer entry by horses) in ways that benefited the animals and the people in charge of them, and 1 described the use of trained rats that performed a service to humans (land-mine detection). We suggest that each of these general research areas merits further attention and that the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is an appropriate outlet for some of these publications. PMID:21709802

  15. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  16. Opportunities for Applied Behavior Analysis in the Total Quality Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmon, William K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper identifies critical components of recent organizational quality improvement programs and specifies how applied behavior analysis can contribute to quality technology. Statistical Process Control and Total Quality Management approaches are compared, and behavior analysts are urged to build their research base and market behavior change…

  17. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  18. B. F. Skinner's Contributions to Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew…

  19. Context, Cognition, and Biology in Applied Behavior Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.

    Behavior analysts are having their professional identities challenged by the roles that cognition and biology are said to play in the conduct and outcome of applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy. For cogniphiliacs, cognition and biology are central to their interventions because cognition and biology are said to reflect various processes,…

  20. Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…

  1. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  2. Toxicogenomics applied to predictive and exploratory toxicology for the safety assessment of new chemical entities: a long road with deep potholes.

    PubMed

    Pognan, François

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology is the perturbation of metabolism by external factors such as xenobiotics, environmental factors or drugs. As such, toxicology covers a broad range of fields from studies of the whole organism responses to minute biochemical events. Mechanistic toxicogenomics is an attempt to harness genomic tools to understand the physiological basis for a toxic event based on an analysis of transcriptional, translational or metabolomic profiles. These studies are complicated by non-toxic adaptive responses in transcript, protein or metabolite expression levels that have to be distinguished from those that are proximally related to the toxic event. Substantial progress has been made on the identification of biomarkers and the establishment of screens derived from such toxicogenomics studies. The ultimate goal, of course, is predictive toxicogenomics, which is an attempt to infer the likelihood of occurrence of a toxic event with exposure to a new agent based upon comparative responses with large databases of gene, protein or metabolite expression data. Gene expression databases are currently limited by the fact that measurable toxic phenotypes generally precede or at best coincide with the earliest observable changes in transcriptional profiles. Unfortunately, predictive protein databases have been limited by technical difficulties. Metabonomics-based databases, which would probably have the highest predictive value, are limited in turn by the inability to perform high dose studies in humans. This chapter will conclude by reviewing those elements of toxicogenomics that apply specifically to the development of anti-infectives and the potential for accurately modelling the toxicity of future drugs. PMID:17195477

  3. Exploratory meta-analysis on lisdexamfetamine versus placebo in adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchalak; Suttajit, Sirijit; Reungyos, Jirayu; Srisurapanont, Manit; Martin, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have promised that lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is effective in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives This systematic review was undertaken to summarize LDX efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability in adult ADHD. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lisdexamfetamine compared with placebo were included for synthesis. Clinical trials published between January 1991 and January 2014 were evaluated. Methods The database of MEDLINE®, EMBASE™, CINAHL®, PsycINFO® and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched in January 2014. Studies were also searched in ClinicalTrials.gov and the EU Clinical Trials Register database. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions were considered. All RCTs of LDX vs placebo reporting final results of: 1) severity of ADHD symptoms and executive function deficit, 2) response or remission rates, 3) overall discontinuation rate, or 4) discontinuation rate due to adverse events were included. The language of the papers was not restricted. All abstracts of studies gathered from the database were examined. After excluding irrelevant trials, the full text version of relevant studies were assessed and extracted for outcomes of interest. Examination of risks of bias, based on the Cochrane bias assessment, was carried out. The efficacy outcomes consisted of the mean end point or change scores for ADHD rating scales, the response rate, and the remission rate. The overall discontinuation rate and the discontinuation rate due to adverse events were measured for acceptability and tolerability, respectively. A random effect model was applied for the synthesis of relative risks (RRs), and weighted mean differences or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 806 final study or safety participants were included. The dosage of lisdexamfetamine was 30 to 70 mg/day. The pooled mean scores of mean change and

  4. Measurement of Mealtime Behaviors in Rural Overweight Children: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ann M.; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Gillette, Meredith Dreyer; Patton, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study presents results of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) in a sample of rural children with overweight and obesity. Relationships between mealtime behavior and health outcomes are also explored. Methods EFA was used to assess the fit of the BPFAS in a group of 160 treatment-seeking children (Mage = 9.11, SD = 1.77) living in rural Midwest communities. Correlations were also computed between factor scores and select health variables (child body mass index z-score and diet variables). Results The EFA identified a 5-factor solution as the best fitting model (Tucker–Lewis Index = .96, root mean square error of approximation = .05), although several items (i.e., 7 of 25) did not load on any factor. 2 factors were correlated with health variables of interest. Conclusion Study results suggest that certain items on the BPFAS may not be appropriate for use with rural children with pediatric overweight or obesity. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:24326908

  5. Exploratory analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence of abnormal white matter structure.

    PubMed

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Doering, Thomas; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Mattos, Paulo; Araújo, Alexandra Prüfer

    2016-06-01

    Abnormalities in the white matter microstructure of the attentional system have been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology that has increasingly been used in studies of white matter microstructure in the brain. The main objective of this work was to perform an exploratory analysis of white matter tracts in a sample of children with ADHD versus typically developing children (TDC). For this purpose, 13 drug-naive children with ADHD of both genders underwent MRI using DTI acquisition methodology and tract-based spatial statistics. The results were compared to those of a sample of 14 age- and gender-matched TDC. Lower fractional anisotropy was observed in the splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, bilateral retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left external capsule and posterior thalamic radiation (including right optic radiation). We conclude that white matter tracts in attentional and motor control systems exhibited signs of abnormal microstructure in this sample of drug-naive children with ADHD. PMID:26620714

  6. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Hawkey, A, Griffiths, K, Babraj, J, and Cobley, JN. Whole-body vibration training and its application to age-related performance decrements: an exploratory analysis. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 555-560, 2016-Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations. PMID:26244828

  7. Exploratory Analysis of Sediment Related Disturbance on Post-Spate Periphyton Retention on the Ste. Marguerite River, Saguenay, Quebec.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, J. J.; Lapointe, M.

    2004-05-01

    Both natural and human induced disturbance can cause significant shifts in the viability and spatial distribution of river organisms. The dominant primary producers in unshaded streams are benthic algae. Algae grow within a biofilm called periphyton and provide the main energy source driving production in higher trophic levels. Literature suggests that periphyton are adapted to a range of both resources (e.g. sunlight and nutrients) and disturbance (e.g. floods and grazing). Site scale studies of flood disturbance effects on periphyton have demonstrated that spatially discrete refuge zones (e.g. gravel clusters, boulders, inside of point bars) exist where periphyton removal after floods is minimal. The purpose of this study is to examine the hypothesis that stable refugia can be found within the drainage basin at larger spatial and temporal scales than previously demonstrated. The intent is to identify refuge zones through the study of geomorphic disturbance processes, resource availability and periphyton resistance. Four sedimentary links, characterized by 30 cross-sections, have been selected on the Ste Marguerite River, each providing a gradient of channel disturbance but limited nutrient variation. A sequence of spates during the 2003 field season were monitored for discharge, temperature, water quality and sediment mobility using fine sediment traps and tracer rocks. The overall approach employs a combination of field work, numerical modeling and statistical analyses. Exploratory data analysis will be presented examining the role of resources and disturbance responsible for sources of variability in post spate algal biomass.

  8. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  9. Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

    PubMed

    Gresham, F M; Gansle, K A; Noell, G H

    1993-01-01

    Functional analysis of behavior depends upon accurate measurement of both independent and dependent variables. Quantifiable and controllable operations that demonstrate these functional relationships are necessary for a science of human behavior. Failure to implement independent variables with integrity threatens the internal and external validity of experiments. A review of all applied behavior analysis studies with children as subjects that have been published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis between 1980 and 1990 found that approximately 16% of these studies measured the accuracy of independent variable implementation. Two thirds of these studies did not operationally define the components of the independent variable. Specific recommendations for improving the accuracy of independent variable implementation and for defining independent variables are discussed. PMID:8331022

  10. Exploratory Analysis of the Comprehensive Application of the Islamic Concept of Zuhd in the Contemporary World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olohunfunmi, Ismail Abdul Fatai

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to present a clear frame work of how to practically apply the concept "Zuhd" to individual Muslim life. It is an empirical research on the Islamic concept of "Zuhd." The method that is employed in the study is qualitative approach, whereby interviews were staged, recorded and transcribed.…