Science.gov

Sample records for explored environments human

  1. Deep Space Design Environments for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; DeAngelis, G.

    2002-01-01

    Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed.

  2. Deep space environments for human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tripathi, R. K.; Nealy, J. E.; De Angelis, G.

    2004-01-01

    Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. Deep space environments for human exploration.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Clowdsley, M S; Cucinotta, F A; Tripathi, R K; Nealy, J E; De Angelis, G

    2004-01-01

    Mission scenarios outside the Earth's protective magnetic shield are being studied. Included are high usage assets in the near-Earth environment for casual trips, for research, and for commercial/operational platforms, in which career exposures will be multi-mission determined over the astronaut's lifetime. The operational platforms will serve as launching points for deep space exploration missions, characterized by a single long-duration mission during the astronaut's career. The exploration beyond these operational platforms will include missions to planets, asteroids, and planetary satellites. The interplanetary environment is evaluated using convective diffusion theory. Local environments for each celestial body are modeled by using results from the most recent targeted spacecraft, and integrated into the design environments. Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed. PMID:15880915

  4. In Situ Geophysical Exploration by Humans in Mars Analog Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiro, B. R.; Ferrone, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    We carried out three geophysical experiments in Mars analog environments in order to better understand the challenges future astronauts will face when conducting similar surveys on Mars or the Moon. The experiments included a passive seismometer deployment and a time-domain electromagnetic survey at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) on Devon Island, Canada and a seismic refraction survey in southeastern Utah at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). FMARS is located on the rim of the 23 Ma Haughton Crater in a polar desert environment. MDRS is located in an area with sedimentary plateaus and canyons of Jurassic to Cretaceous age. Both facilities were built by The Mars Society to help develop key knowledge about human Mars exploration. Crews of six spend 2-4 weeks in the habitats and conduct eld research on simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) wearing mock spacesuits. The work reported here was conducted in July 2009 at FMARS and February 2010 at MDRS.

  5. The contamination impact of human exploration to a subterranean environment and the implications for further crewed space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Koskinen, Kaisa

    2016-07-01

    The quest of exploring and looking for life in new places is a human desire since centuries. Nowadays, we are not only looking on planet Earth any more, but our endeavours focus on nearby planets in our solar system. It is therefore of great importance to preserve the extra-terrestrial environment and not to contaminate it with terrestrial / human associated bacteria. At this point in time we are not able to send crewed missions to other planets; however, analysing the impact of human exploration on environments is of great planetary protection concern. This can be achieved by obtaining samples from a subterranean environment, where only expert speleologists have access and the human impact is considered very low. For this study, astronauts participating in the 2014 ESA CAVES (Cooperative Adventure for Valuing and Exercising human behaviour and performance Skills) training course, obtained samples from deep within a subterranean environment and returned them to the laboratory for molecular microbial analysis. The diversity of the returned soil samples was analysed by molecular means such as clone library and next-generation sequencing (NGS). It was found that humans have an immense impact on the microbial diversity in the environment. Although the cave system is sparsely entered by humans, a high relative abundance of Staphylococcus spp. and Propionibacteria spp., organisms that are characteristic for human skin, have been recovered. Some samples even showed the presence of human gut associated methanogenic archaea, Methanomassiliicoccus spp. The obtained data from this investigation indicate that human exploration is strongly polluting an environment and may lead to false-positive sign of life on other planets. It is therefore imperative to increase our awareness to this problem as well as work towards new protocols to protect a pristine extraterrestrial environment during exploration.

  6. The Hudson River Plume: Exploring Human Impact on the Coastal Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Janice; Duncan, Ravit; Lichtenwalner, C. Sage; Dunbar, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The Hudson River Watershed contains a variety of geologic, topographic, climatic, and hydrologic features and a diversity of land-use patterns--making it an ideal model for studying human impact on the coastal environment. In this article, the authors present the Hudson River Plume (HRP), a problem-based online module that explores nonpoint-source…

  7. Telepresence in the human exploration of Mars: Field studies in analog environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the role of telepresence in performing exploration of Mars. As part of an effort to develop telepresence to support Mars exploration, NASA is developing telepresence technology and using it to perform exploration in space analog environments. This paper describes experiments to demonstrate telepresence control of an underwater remotely operated vehicle (TROV) to perform scientific field work in isolated and hostile environments. Toward this end, we have developed a telepresence control system and interfaced it to an underwater remotely operated vehicle. This vehicle was used during 1992 to study aquatic ecosystems in Antarctica including a study of the physical and biological environment of permanently ice-covered lake. We also performed a preliminary analysis of the potential for using the TROV to study the benthic ecology under the sea ice in McMurdo sound. These expeditions are opening up new areas of research by using telepresence control of remote vehicles to explore isolated and extreme environments on Earth while also providing an impetus to develop technology which will play a major role in the human exploration of Mars. Antarctic field operations, in particular, provide an excellent analog experience for telepresence operation in space.

  8. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  9. Human Challenges in Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presents an overview using pictures some of the history of human exploration of the new frontiers of Earth and then examines some of the challenges to human exploration of space. Particular attention is given to the environmental factors and to the social and human factors that effect humans in space environments.

  10. Guided exploration in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckhaus, Steffi; Eckel, Gerhard; Strothotte, Thomas

    2001-06-01

    We describe an application supporting alternating interaction and animation for the purpose of exploration in a surround- screen projection-based virtual reality system. The exploration of an environment is a highly interactive and dynamic process in which the presentation of objects of interest can give the user guidance while exploring the scene. Previous systems for automatic presentation of models or scenes need either cinematographic rules, direct human interaction, framesets or precalculation (e.g. precalculation of paths to a predefined goal). We report on the development of a system that can deal with rapidly changing user interest in objects of a scene or model as well as with dynamic models and changes of the camera position introduced interactively by the user. It is implemented as a potential-field based camera data generating system. In this paper we describe the implementation of our approach in a virtual art museum on the CyberStage, our surround-screen projection-based stereoscopic display. The paradigm of guided exploration is introduced describing the freedom of the user to explore the museum autonomously. At the same time, if requested by the user, guided exploration provides just-in-time navigational support. The user controls this support by specifying the current field of interest in high-level search criteria. We also present an informal user study evaluating this approach.

  11. Robots and humans: synergy in planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Landis, Geoffrey A

    2004-12-01

    How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments. PMID:15795977

  12. Robots and humans: synergy in planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Robots and Humans: Synergy in Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments.

  14. Robots and Humans: Synergy in Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments.

  15. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a "baby" robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a "caregiver" to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two "idealized" robot profiles-a "needy" and an "independent" robot-in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the "stress" (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness-"responsive" and "non-responsive"-to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the "needy" and "independent" axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot. PMID:24860492

  16. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment

    PubMed Central

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot–human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a “baby” robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a “caregiver” to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two “idealized” robot profiles—a “needy” and an “independent” robot—in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the “stress” (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness—“responsive” and “non-responsive”—to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the “needy” and “independent” axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot. PMID:24860492

  17. Book Review: Geoarchaeology: Exploring Terrestrial Archives for Evidence of Human Interaction With the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andy J.

    2015-08-01

    This issue of the journal Zeitchrift für Gemorphologie brings together five papers initially delivered at the European Geoscience Union (EGU) General Assembly in 2012, as contributions to a session entitled 'Late Quaternary environments and societies: progress in geoarchaeology' (GM 4.7). This series of papers and the associated volume builds upon an earlier session of the EGU in 2009 (Ghilardi et al., 2009), as well as forming the foundations for subsequent sessions (e.g. Kluiving et al., 2015), with geoarchaeology now forming a regular disciplinary theme of the EGU General Assembly meetings.

  18. Architecture, ethics & the environment: An exploration of nature & the human spirit

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.A.; Payton, N.I.; Tice, D.

    1994-12-31

    Haymount is a new town planned with the belief that Sustainable Development is based upon a Trilogy of: ecology, sociology and economics. The design embodies a holistic approach to the healing of nature and the human spirit. When complete, the town will contain 4000 homes, 250,000 square feet of retail space and a half-million square feet of office/commercial space. At the same time, Haymount will employ state of the art techniques in wastewater, stormwater and wildlife management, utilize non-toxic building materials and techniques, practice energy and water conservation, and accomplish all of this in a manner that discourages use of the automobile while encouraging pedestrian life and community vitality. Yet, Haymount is not a philanthropic exercise. Rather it is a sound business proposition with excellent profit returns to the investors.

  19. Exploration of the relationship between geographical environment and human diseases in ancient China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine, created in the Warring States period (475 to 221 BC) described a phenomenon whereby the eastern, western, northern, southern, and central regions were liable to different diseases. It brought forward the principle of treatment in accordance with local conditions. Lv's Spring and Autumn Annals, Huai Nan Tzu (Huainanzi), and the Regiment of Health (Yangshenglun) in the Qin, Han, Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties all describe regional diseases such as goiter (endemic goiter) and yellowish teeth (dental fluorosis) as being caused by geologic and climatic factors. Zhang (miasma), first mentioned in the Han Dynasty, was considered related to the summer heat and dampness particular to the geographical environment of the south. Zhang was further associated with malaria in the Jin Dynasty. General Treatise on the Etiology and Symptomology of Diseases (Zhubingyuanhou Lun), in the Sui Dynasty, held that as a type of poisonous gas, Zhang was the predisposing cause of malaria, seasonal disease, and barbiers, among other conditions. General Guide (Zhinan Zonglun), in the Southern Song Dynasty, regarded Zhang malaria as a separate disease. Healthy Prescription in the Southern Wuling District (Lingnan Weisheng Fang), in the late Song and early Yuan Dynasties, explicitly put forward the concepts of cold Zhang, hot Zhang, and lockjaw Zhang. Guidelines for Treatment of Zhang Malaria (Zhangnue Zhinan), in the Ming Dynasty, maintained that cold Zhang was equivalent to malaria, while hot Zhang and lockjaw Zhang were equivalent to cold damage, the latter of which can be treated by prescriptions for cold damage. Records on Zhang gas and Zhang disease decreased during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. PMID:22462249

  20. Earth Trek...Explore Your Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This booklet for children emphasizes the exploration and protection of the environment. An introduction discusses the interaction between humankind and the environment, emphasizing that the earth is a closed system. Chapter 1, "Mission: Protect the Water," addresses human dependence on water, water pollution, and water treatment. Chapter 2,…

  1. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  2. Exploration of the Electromagnetic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullekrug, M.

    2009-01-01

    The electromagnetic environment is composed of electric and magnetic fields which result from man-made and natural sources. An elementary experiment is described to explore the electromagnetic environment by measuring electric fields in the frequency range from approximately equal to 10 to 24 000 Hz. The equipment required to conduct the…

  3. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  4. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  5. Preparing for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Joosten, B. Kent

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise is defining architectures and requirements for human exploration that radically reduce the costs of such missions through the use of advanced technologies, commercial partnerships and innovative systems strategies. In addition, the HEDS Enterprise is collaborating with the Space Science Enterprise to acquire needed early knowledge about Mars and to demonstrate critical technologies via robotic missions. This paper provides an overview of the technological challenges facing NASA as it prepares for human exploration. Emphasis is placed on identifying the key technologies including those which will provide the most return in terms of reducing total mission cost and/or reducing potential risk to the mission crew. Top-level requirements are provided for those critical enabling technology options currently under consideration.

  6. Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Owen; McKay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-06-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  7. Composing a Good Strong Story: The Advantages of a Liberal Arts Environment for Experiencing and Exploring the Narrative Complexity of Human Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, William

    2012-01-01

    A liberal arts environment invites the expansion of one's understanding of himself/herself and the world by exposing him/her to multiple disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. For its part, the topic of "narrative" is intrinsically interdisciplinary and, as such, can be explored to particular advantage within a liberal arts…

  8. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  9. Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

  10. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts. PMID:25476836

  11. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts. PMID:25476836

  12. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  13. Environment Challenges for Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Cooke, William B.; Howard, James W.; Parker, Linda N.; Sharp, John; Schunck, Greg; Suggs. Robert W.; Wang, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is designing a new generation of human rated launch and space transportation vehicles to first replace the Space Shuttle fleet, then support develop of a permanent human habitat on the Moon, and ultimately prepare for human exploration of Mars. The ambitious first step beyond low Earth orbit is to develop the infrastructure required for conducting missions to a variety of locations on the lunar surface for periods of a week and establishment of a permanent settlement at one of the lunar poles where crews will serve for periods on the order of approx.200 days. We present an overview of the most challenging aspects of the lunar environment that will need to be addressed when developing transport and habitat infrastructure for long term human presence on the Moon including low temperatures and dusty regolith surfaces, radiation environments due to galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles, charging of lunar infrastructure when exposed to lunar plasma environments, and secondary meteor environments generated by primary impacts on the lunar surface.

  14. Environment and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; And Others

    As a conference report, the booklet is primarily devoted to abstracts of papers presented at a Conference on Environment and Humanities held in Tallahassee, Florida, April 25-27, 1976. Dr. Huston Smith of Syracuse University, the main speaker, addressed the issue of "Humanities and Environmental Awareness." Other topics discussed included: (1)…

  15. Coexistence: Exploration and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, P.S.; Winston, J.G.; Watt, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in our industry today is successfully meeting two needs of the planet that often appear to be conflicting: Meeting the economic needs of the people through sustainable development of natural resources while preserving the integrity and diversity of our environment. Nowhere is this more critical than in the world`s wetlands and rain forests. This presentation demonstrates the principles and practices that have fostered coexistence of environmental protection and sustainable development projects in wetlands and tropical forests in the Americas. Excerpts from two projects are shown. one in a national wildlife refuge in Louisiana, and one in the rain forests of Bolivia.

  16. Miniature Robotic Submarine for Exploring Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Bruhn, Fredrik; Carsey, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The miniature autonomous submersible explorer (MASE) has been proposed as a means of scientific exploration -- especially, looking for signs of life -- in harsh, relatively inaccessible underwater environments. Basically, the MASE would be a small instrumented robotic submarine (see figure) that could launch itself or could be launched from another vehicle. Examples of environments that might be explored by use of the MASE include subglacial lakes, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, acidic or alkaline lakes, brine lenses in permafrost, and ocean regions under Antarctic ice shelves.

  17. Mars Human Exploration Reference Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret

    1998-01-01

    This presentation proposes the next steps for human exploration of Mars. The presentation reviews the reasons for human exploration of Mars. Two different trajectories are proposed: (1) for a long stay mission, and (2) for a short term mission, which could also include a swing by Venus. A reference mission scenario is investigated, which includes forward deployment of two cargo missions, followed by a human piloted mission. The power needs of such a mission include nuclear thermal propulsion, and the possible use of Mars in situ resources. The exploration will require electric propulsion, stationary power source, and a mobile power source. The trajectories required for electric propulsion of earth are shown, and the engineering of a Mars Transportation Habitat are reviewed.

  18. Requirements for Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Catharine

    In the exploration of other planets and the search for life outside of Earth, the unique capabilities provided by human astronauts will only be advantageous if the biological contamination associated with human presence is understood and controlled. Thus, Planetary Protection is a critical element in the human exploration of other solar system bodies, and should be incorporated from the earliest stages of mission planning and development. The issues covered by Planetary Protection involve both 'forward contamination,' or the contamination of other solar system bodies by Earth microbes and organic materials, and 'backward contamination,' which is the contamination of Earth systems by potential alien life. Forward contamination concerns include contamination that might invalidate current or future scientific exploration of a particular solar system body, and/or might disrupt the planetary environment or a potential endogenous (alien) ecosystem. Backward contamination concerns include both immediate and long-term effects on the health of the astronaut explorers from possible biologically-active materials encountered during exploration, as well as the possible contamination of the Earth. Although some degree of forward contamination associated with human astronaut explorers is inevitable, the principles and policies of Planetary Protection that have been imposed on robotic missions by the 1967 Outer Space Treaty should be followed to the greatest extent possible when humans are exploring space. A number of national and international workshops held over the last six years have generated a consensus framework on Planetary Protetction policies and requirements for human missions to Mars, and a 2007 workshop held by NASA has considered the issues and benefits to Planetary Protection that might be offered by a return to the Moon. Conclusions from these workshops are presented and synthesized in the context of future international missions of human exploration.

  19. Human-Robot Planetary Exploration Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyree, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    The EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project at NASA Johnson Space Center studies human-robot interaction and robotic assistance for future human planetary exploration. Over the past four years, the ERA project has been performing field tests with one or more four-wheeled robotic platforms and one or more space-suited humans. These tests have provided experience in how robots can assist humans, how robots and humans can communicate in remote environments, and what combination of humans and robots works best for different scenarios. The most efficient way to understand what tasks human explorers will actually perform, and how robots can best assist them, is to have human explorers and scientists go and explore in an outdoor, planetary-relevant environment, with robots to demonstrate what they are capable of, and roboticists to observe the results. It can be difficult to have a human expert itemize all the needed tasks required for exploration while sitting in a lab: humans do not always remember all the details, and experts in one arena may not even recognize that the lower level tasks they take for granted may be essential for a roboticist to know about. Field tests thus create conditions that more accurately reveal missing components and invalid assumptions, as well as allow tests and comparisons of new approaches and demonstrations of working systems. We have performed field tests in our local rock yard, in several locations in the Arizona desert, and in the Utah desert. We have tested multiple exploration scenarios, such as geological traverses, cable or solar panel deployments, and science instrument deployments. The configuration of our robot can be changed, based on what equipment is needed for a given scenario, and the sensor mast can even be placed on one of two robot bases, each with different motion capabilities. The software architecture of our robot is also designed to be as modular as possible, to allow for hardware and configuration changes. Two focus

  20. Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jason; Osteen, Phil; Fields, MaryAnne

    2012-06-01

    Autonomous exploration and mapping is a vital capability for future robotic systems expected to function in arbitrary complex environments. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end robotic solution for remotely mapping buildings. For a typical mapping system, an unmanned system is directed to enter an unknown building at a distance, sense the internal structure, and, barring additional tasks, while in situ, create a 2-D map of the building. This map provides a useful and intuitive representation of the environment for the remote operator. We have integrated a robust mapping and exploration system utilizing laser range scanners and RGB-D cameras, and we demonstrate an exploration and metacognition algorithm on a robotic platform. The algorithm allows the robot to safely navigate the building, explore the interior, report significant features to the operator, and generate a consistent map - all while maintaining localization.

  1. Exploration of polygonal environments using range data.

    PubMed

    Ekman, A; Torne, A; Stromberg, D

    1997-01-01

    Several robotic problems involve the systematic traversal of the environment, commonly referred to as exploration. We present a strategy for the exploration of unknown finite polygonal environments, using a point robot with 1) no positional uncertainty and 2) an ideal range sensor that measures range in N uniformly distributed directions. The range data vector, obtained from the range sensor, corresponds to a sampled version of a visibility polygon. Visibility polygon edges that do not correspond to environmental edges are called jump edges and the exploration strategy is based on the fact that jump edges indicate directions of possibly unexplored environmental regions. We describe conditions under which it is possible to identify jump edges in the range data. We also show how the exploration strategy can be used in a solution to the terrain acquisition problem and describe conditions under which a solution is guaranteed within a finite number of measurements. PMID:18255863

  2. Flexible-Path Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, B.; Adler, M.; Alkalai, L.; Burdick, G.; Coulter, D.; Jordan, F.; Naderi, F.; Graham, L.; Landis, R.; Drake, B.; Hoffman, S.; Grunsfeld, J.; Seery, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    In the fourth quarter of 2009 an in-house, multi-center NASA study team briefly examined "Flexible Path" concepts to begin understanding characteristics, content, and roles of potential missions consistent with the strategy proposed by the Augustine Committee. We present an overview of the study findings. Three illustrative human/robotic mission concepts not requiring planet surface operations are described: assembly of very large in-space telescopes in cis-lunar space; exploration of near Earth objects (NEOs); exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. For each, a representative mission is described, technology and science objectives are outlined, and a basic mission operations concept is quantified. A fourth type of mission, using the lunar surface as preparation for Mars, is also described. Each mission's "capability legacy" is summarized. All four illustrative missions could achieve NASA's stated human space exploration objectives and advance human space flight toward Mars surface exploration. Telescope assembly missions would require the fewest new system developments. NEO missions would offer a wide range of deep-space trip times between several months and two years. Phobos exploration would retire several Marsclass risks, leaving another large remainder set (associated with entry, descent, surface operations, and ascent) for retirement by subsequent missions. And extended lunar surface operations would build confidence for Mars surface missions by addressing a complementary set of risks. Six enabling developments (robotic precursors, ISS exploration testbed, heavy-lift launch, deep-space-capable crew capsule, deep-space habitat, and reusable in-space propulsion stage) would apply across multiple program sequence options, and thus could be started even without committing to a specific mission sequence now. Flexible Path appears to be a viable strategy, with meaningful and worthy mission content.

  3. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  4. The Future of Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Doug

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the near term future of human space exploration in terms of possible mission scenarios, propulsion technologies, orbital dynamics that lead to Low-Energy Transfer from Earth-Moon LI to Solar Libration Points and Return Potential Staging Point for Human Mars Missions. It also examines the required evolution of mission architecture, solar electric propulsion concept, vehicle concepts for future Mars missions, and an overview of a Mars Mission, Also in this presentation are pictures of several historic personages and occasions, and a view of a Mars Meteorite (i.e., ALH84001.0)

  5. Robots and Humans in Planetary Exploration: Working Together?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Today's approach to human-robotic cooperation in planetary exploration focuses on using robotic probes as precursors to human exploration. A large portion of current NASA planetary surface exploration is focussed on Mars, and robotic probes are seen as precursors to human exploration in: Learning about operation and mobility on Mars; Learning about the environment of Mars; Mapping the planet and selecting landing sites for human mission; Demonstration of critical technology; Manufacture fuel before human presence, and emplace elements of human-support infrastructure

  6. Science strategy for human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Mckay, C. P.; Haberle, R. M.; Andersen, D. T.

    1992-01-01

    The Martian potential for supporting life is considered in this discussion of scientific exploration objectives related to exobiology, climatology, and geology. Two significant areas of research are identified - the habitability of Mars and the general relationship between planetary parameters and life - and an exploration strategy is developed. Four phases of human exploration are determined including: (1) precursor missions for evaluating the Martian environment; (2) emplacement missions for studying specific landing sites; (3) consolidation missions for the development of permanent exploratory-mission bases; and (4) a final utilization phase in which global Martian exploration is conducted. The logistical considerations related to each phase are discussed with specific references to types of vehicles and technology required.

  7. Epileptic database exploration via the R environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunin-Wąsowicz, Dorota; Zieliński, Pawel

    2009-06-01

    Exploration of database of infants with symptomatic epilepsy is presented. The R environment is used for 67 attributes analysis in three groups of infants with epilepsy, different diagnostic results, and different therapeutic procedures . The estimation of the birth weight, time of labor, and Apgar score allows to eliminate these perinatal factors as the reasons for epilepsy. It is also presented, by using R environment, that postinflamatory viral brain damage and microcephaly is strongly connected with severe epilepsy, and, therefore, polytherapy with antiepileptic drugs is necessary.

  8. Exploration and environment - interaction or dilemma?

    SciTech Connect

    Pehrson, I.

    1996-12-31

    The paper briefly introduce activities at Norwegian Continental Shelf before stating a description of actual international agreements, i.e. conventions, protocols and affiliated annexes on environment versus exploration at sea. The paper also indicate Norwegian legislation and regulations concerning environmental issues and demands. Exploration areas on Norwegian Continental Shelf has so far been opened stepwise, and regarding experience and practice, the paper gives an overview of impact assessments and the industry`s environmental program. The environmental risk analysis is put forward as a basic issue to accomplish environmental challenges in exploration activities. An environmental strategy is discussed in view of a total sustainable run of life, i.e. connection between evaluation of (new) areas, throughout licensed phases with exploration, development and production. Also methods and implementation through identification, use of vulnerability criteria and classification in ecological components. The paper describe the environmental program to near-shore exploration activities, especially drilling operations, outside the coastline of Mid- and North-Norway. The program consist of both imposed and requested issues - establishing acceptance criteria, environmental risk analysis carrying out impact analysis etc., plus a plan for information to regional and municipal authorities, local surroundings and media An essential utilizing fresh thinking is the practice of oil collection from well testing with M/V Crystal Sea.

  9. Human Exploration Science Office (KX) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office supports human spaceflight, conducts research, and develops technology in the areas of space orbital debris, hypervelocity impact technology, image science and analysis, remote sensing, imagery integration, and human and robotic exploration science. NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) resides in the Human Exploration Science Office. ODPO provides leadership in orbital debris research and the development of national and international space policy on orbital debris. The office is recognized internationally for its measurement and modeling of the debris environment. It takes the lead in developing technical consensus across U.S. agencies and other space agencies on debris mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. The Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) project evaluates the risks to spacecraft posed by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD). HVIT facilities at JSC and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) use light gas guns, diagnostic tools, and high-speed imagery to quantify the response of spacecraft materials to MMOD impacts. Impact tests, with debris environment data provided by ODPO, are used by HVIT to predict risks to NASA and commercial spacecraft. HVIT directly serves NASA crew safety with MMOD risk assessments for each crewed mission and research into advanced shielding design for future missions. The Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) supports the International Space Station (ISS) and commercial spaceflight through the design of imagery acquisition schemes (ground- and vehicle-based) and imagery analyses for vehicle performance assessments and mission anomaly resolution. ISAG assists the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in the development of camera systems for the Orion spacecraft that will serve as data sources for flight test objectives that lead to crewed missions. The multi-center Imagery Integration Team is led by the Human Exploration Science Office and provides

  10. Designing for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynerson, Charles M.

    2004-02-01

    This presentation addresses a concept-level model that produces technical design parameters and economic feasibility information addressing future human spaceflight exploration platforms. This paper uses a design methodology and analytical tools to create feasible concept design information for these space platforms. The design tool has been validated against a number of actual facility designs, and appropriate modal variables are adjusted to ensure that statistical approximations are valid for subsequent analyses. The tool is then employed in the examination of the impact of various payloads on the power, size (volume), and mass of the platform proposed. The development of the analytical tool employed an approach that accommodated possible payloads characterized as simplified parameters such as power, weight, volume, crew size, and endurance. In creating the approach, basic principles are employed and combined with parametric estimates as necessary. Key system parameters are identified in conjunction with overall system design. Typical ranges for these key parameters are provided based on empirical data extracted from actual human spaceflight systems. In order to provide a credible basis for a valid engineering model, an extensive survey of existing manned space platforms was conducted. This survey yielded key engineering specifications that were incorporated in the engineering model. Data from this survey is also used to create parametric equations and graphical representations in order to establish a realistic range of engineering quantities used in the design of manned space platforms.

  11. The Problems of Human Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    Presented is a summary of considerations Specialized Agencies within the United Nations have given to the problems of the human environment. Uppermost are the problems of pollution--air, water, noise, marine, radiation, food, pesticide--as well as those of economic and social concern, environmental health, and misuse of the environment. Agencies…

  12. Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to Hypobaric Environments: Implications for Low-Pressure Bioregenerative Life Support Systems for Human Exploration Missions and Terraforming on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Jeffrey T.; Corey, Kenneth A.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how hypobaria can affect net photosynthetic (P net) and net evapotranspiration rates of plants is important for the Mars Exploration Program because low-pressured environments may be used to reduce the equivalent system mass of near-term plant biology experiments on landers or future bioregenerative advanced life support systems. Furthermore, introductions of plants to the surface of a partially terraformed Mars will be constrained by the limits of sustainable growth and reproduction of plants to hypobaric conditions. To explore the effects of hypobaria on plant physiology, a low-pressure growth chamber (LPGC) was constructed that maintained hypobaric environments capable of supporting short-term plant physiological studies. Experiments were conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana maintained in the LPGC with total atmospheric pressures set at 101 (Earth sea-level control), 75, 50, 25 or 10 kPa. Plants were grown in a separate incubator at 101 kPa for 6 weeks, transferred to the LPGC, and acclimated to low-pressure atmospheres for either 1 or 16 h. After 1 or 16 h of acclimation, CO2 levels were allowed to drawdown from 0.1 kPa to CO2 compensation points to assess P net rates under different hypobaric conditions. Results showed that P net increased as the pressures decreased from 101 to 10 kPa when CO2 partial pressure (pp) values were below 0.04 kPa (i.e., when ppCO2 was considered limiting). In contrast, when ppCO2 was in the nonlimiting range from 0.10 to 0.07 kPa, the P net rates were insensitive to decreasing pressures. Thus, if CO2 concentrations can be kept elevated in hypobaric plant growth modules or on the surface of a partially terraformed Mars, P net rates may be relatively unaffected by hypobaria. Results support the conclusions that (i) hypobaric plant growth modules might be operated around 10 kPa without undue inhibition of photosynthesis and (ii) terraforming efforts on Mars might require a surface pressure of at least 10 kPa (100 mb) for

  13. Science Driven Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2004-01-01

    Mars appears to be cold dry and dead world. However there is good evidence that early in its history it had liquid water, more active volcanism, and a thicker atmosphere. Mars had this earth-like environment over three and a half billion years ago, during the same time that life appeared on Earth. The main question in the exploration of Mars then is the search for a independent origin of life on that planet. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils. Fossils are not enough. We will want to determine if life on Mars was a separate genesis from life on Earth. For this determination we need to access intact martian life; possibly frozen in the deep old permafrost. Human exploration of Mars will probably begin with a small base manned by a temporary crew, a necessary first start. But exploration of the entire planet will require a continued presence on the Martian surface and the development of a self sustaining community in which humans can live and work for very long periods of time. A permanent Mars research base can be compared to the permanent research bases which several nations maintain in Antarctica at the South Pole, the geomagnetic pole, and elsewhere. In the long run, a continued human presence on Mars will be the most economical way to study that planet in detail. It is possible that at some time in the future we might recreate a habitable climate on Mars, returning it to the life-bearing state it may have enjoyed early in its history. Our studies of Mars are still in a preliminary state but everything we have learned suggests that it may be possible to restore Mars to a habitable climate. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Radiation exposure for human Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, L C; Wilson, J W; Kim, M H; Cucinotta, F A

    2000-11-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human space flight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep-space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays since the missions are of long duration, and accumulated exposures can be high. Because cancer induction rates increase behind low to moderate thicknesses of aluminum shielding, according to available biological data on mammalian exposures to galactic cosmic ray-like ions, aluminum shield requirements for a Mars mission may be prohibitively expensive in terms of mission launch costs. Alternative materials for vehicle construction are under investigation to provide lightweight habitat structures with enhanced shielding properties. In the present paper, updated estimates for astronaut exposures on a Mars mission are presented and shielding properties of alternative materials are compared with aluminum. PMID:11045525

  15. Future Visions for Scientific Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, James

    2005-01-01

    Today, humans explore deep-space locations such as Mars, asteroids, and beyond, vicariously here on Earth, with noteworthy success. However, to achieve the revolutionary breakthroughs that have punctuated the history of science since the dawn of the Space Age has always required humans as "the discoverers," as Daniel Boorstin contends in this book of the same name. During Apollo 17, human explorers on the lunar surface discovered the "genesis rock," orange glass, and humans in space revamped the optically crippled Hubble Space Telescope to enable some of the greatest astronomical discoveries of all time. Science-driven human exploration is about developing the opportunities for such events, perhaps associated with challenging problems such as whether we can identify life beyond Earth within the universe. At issue, however, is how to safely insert humans and the spaceflight systems required to allow humans to operate as they do best in the hostile environment of deep space. The first issue is minimizing the problems associated with human adaptation to the most challenging aspects of deep space space radiation and microgravity (or non-Earth gravity). One solution path is to develop technologies that allow for minimization of the exposure time of people to deep space, as was accomplished in Apollo. For a mission to the planet Mars, this might entail new technological solutions for in-space propulsion that would make possible time-minimized transfers to and from Mars. The problem of rapid, reliable in-space transportation is challenged by the celestial mechanics of moving in space and the so-called "rocket equation." To travel to Mars from Earth in less than the time fuel-minimizing trajectories allow (i.e., Hohmann transfers) requires an exponential increase in the amount of fuel. Thus, month-long transits would require a mass of fuel as large as the dry mass of the ISS, assuming the existence of continuous acceleration engines. This raises the largest technological

  16. Future of Human Space Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Now that the Space Shuttle era is over, NASA is writing the next chapters in human Spaceflight with its commercial and international partners. It is advancing research and technology on the Interna...

  17. 40 CFR 1508.14 - Human environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Human environment. 1508.14 Section 1508.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.14 Human environment. Human environment shall be interpreted comprehensively to include the natural...

  18. 40 CFR 1508.14 - Human environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Human environment. 1508.14 Section 1508.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.14 Human environment. Human environment shall be interpreted comprehensively to include the natural...

  19. 40 CFR 1508.14 - Human environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Human environment. 1508.14 Section 1508.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.14 Human environment. Human environment shall be interpreted comprehensively to include the natural...

  20. 40 CFR 1508.14 - Human environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Human environment. 1508.14 Section 1508.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.14 Human environment. Human environment shall be interpreted comprehensively to include the natural...

  1. 40 CFR 1508.14 - Human environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human environment. 1508.14 Section 1508.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.14 Human environment. Human environment shall be interpreted comprehensively to include the natural...

  2. The Interplanetary Meteoroid Environment for eXploration - (IMEX) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Rachel H.; Sommer, Maximilian; Herzog, Julian; Srama, Ralf; Grün, Eberhard; Rodmann, Jens; Strub, Peter; Vaubaillon, Jérémie; Hornig, Andreas; Bausch, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The 'Interplanetary Meteoroid Environment for eXploration' (IMEX) project, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), aims to characterize dust trails and streams produced by comets in the inner solar system. We are therefore developing a meteoroid stream model that consists of a large database of cometary streams from all known comets in the inner solar system. This model will be able to predict meteor showers from most known comets, that can be observed anywhere in the inner solar system, at any time 1980-2080. This is relevant for investigating meteor showers on the Earth, on other planets, or at spacecraft locations. Such assessment of the dust impact hazard to spacecraft is particularly important in the context of human exploration of the solar system.

  3. Mars scientific investigations as a precursor for human exploration.

    PubMed

    Ahlf, P; Cantwell, E; Ostrach, L; Pline, A

    2000-01-01

    In the past two years, NASA has begun to develop and implement plans for investigations on robotic Mars missions which are focused toward returning data critical for planning human missions to Mars. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions will mark the first time that experiments dedicated to preparation for human exploration will be carried out. Investigations on these missions and future missions range from characterization of the physical and chemical environment of Mars, to predicting the response of biology to the Mars environment. Planning for such missions must take into account existing data from previous Mars missions which were not necessarily focused on human exploration preparation. At the same time, plans for near term missions by the international community must be considered to avoid duplication of effort. This paper reviews data requirements for human exploration and applicability of existing data. It will also describe current plans for investigations and place them within the context of related international activities. PMID:11708369

  4. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Turner, Mark; Caffrey, Robert T.; Hine, Butler Preston

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a Lunar science orbiter mission currently under development to address the goals of the National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) [1] report to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to significant human activities. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage science instrument payload including a neutral mass spectrometer, ultraviolet spectrometer, and dust sensor. In addition to the science payloads, LADEE will fly a laser communications system technology demonstration that could provide a building block for future space communications architectures. LADEE is an important component in NASA's portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large-scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid-development program utilizing a modular bus design launched on the new Minotaur V launch vehicle. Once proven, this capability could enable future lunar missions in a highly cost constrained environment. This paper describes the LADEE objectives, mission design, and technical

  5. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, before sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Dr. Paul Abell discussed some of the physical characteristics of NEOs that will be relevant for EVA considerations, reviewed the current data from previous NEA missions (e.g., Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker and Hayabusa), and discussed why future robotic and human missions to NEAs are important from space exploration and planetary defense perspectives.

  6. Applied Nanotechnology for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yowell, Leonard L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanotechnology for human space exploration is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA's Strategic Vision; 2) Exploration Architecture; 3) Future Exploration Mission Requirements Cannot be met with Conventional Materials; 4) Nanomaterials: Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes; 5) Applied Nanotechnology at JSC: Fundamentals to Applications; 6) Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); 7) Growth, Modeling, Diagnostics and Production; 8) Characterization: Purity, Dispersion and Consistency; 9) Processing; 10) Nanoelectronics: Enabling Technologies; 11) Applications for Human Space Exploration; 12) Exploration Life Support: Atmosphere Revitalization System; 13) Advanced and Exploration Life Support: Regenerable CO2 Removal; 14) Exploration Life Support: Water Recovery; 15) Advanced Life Support: Water Disinfection/Recovery; 16) Power and Energy: Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells; 17) Nanomaterials for EMI Shielding; 18) Active Radiation Dosimeter; 19) Advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) Repair; 20) Thermal Radiation and Impact Protection (TRIPS); 21) Nanotechnology: Astronaut Health Management; 22) JSC Nanomaterials Group Collaborations.

  7. Astrobiology and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, James B.; Drake, B. G.; Beaty, David

    2010-01-01

    In March 2007, the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) chartered the Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), co-chaired by J. B. Garvin and J. S. Levine and consisting of about 30 Mars scientists from the U.S. and Europe. HEM-SAG was one of a half dozen teams charted by NASA to consider the human exploration of Mars. Other teams included: Mars Entry, Descent and Landing, Human Health and Performance, Flight and Surface Systems, and Heliospheric/Astrophysics. The results of these Mars teams and the development of an architecture for the human exploration of Mars were summarized in two recent publications: Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 (B. G. Drake, Editor), 100 pages, July 2009 and Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, NASA Special Publication-2009-566 Addendum (B. G. Drake, Editor), 406 pages, July 2009. This presentation summarizes the HEM-SAG conclusions on astrobiology and the search for life on Mars by humans.

  8. Accessing the Lunar Poles for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. Kent

    2004-01-01

    The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for an American return to the Moon in preparation for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations. The surface environment of the Moon is a challenge for human operations, but recent findings from robotic and Earth-based studies have indicated that the polar regions of the Moon may offer advantages in terms of thermal conditions, availability of solar energy, and access to local resources. While accessing these regions represents a challenge due to orbital dynamics and propulsive performance, methods for accessing the regions with humans are being actively pursued, and environmental data gathering is planned through future robotic missions.

  9. Workshop on Science and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The exploration of Mars will be a multi-decadal activity. Currently, a scientific program is underway, sponsored by NASA's Office of Space Science in the United States, in collaboration with international partners France, Italy, and the European Space Agency. Plans exist for the continuation of this robotic program through the first automated return of Martian samples in 2014. Mars is also a prime long-term objective for human exploration, and within NASA, efforts are being made to provide the best integration of the robotic program and future human exploration missions. From the perspective of human exploration missions, it is important to understand the scientific objectives of human missions, in order to design the appropriate systems, tools, and operational capabilities to maximize science on those missions. In addition, data from the robotic missions can provide critical environmental data - surface morphology, materials composition, evaluations of potential toxicity of surface materials, radiation, electrical and other physical properties of the Martian environment, and assessments of the probability that humans would encounter Martian life forms. Understanding of the data needs can lead to the definition of experiments that can be done in the near-term that will make the design of human missions more effective. This workshop was convened to begin a dialog between the scientific community that is central to the robotic exploration mission program and a set of experts in systems and technologies that are critical to human exploration missions. The charge to the workshop was to develop an understanding of the types of scientific exploration that would be best suited to the human exploration missions and the capabilities and limitations of human explorers in undertaking science on those missions.

  10. Exploring a novel environment improves motivation and promotes recall of words

    PubMed Central

    Schomaker, Judith; van Bronkhorst, Marthe L. V.; Meeter, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Active exploration of novel environments is known to increase plasticity in animals, promoting long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and enhancing memory formation. These effects can occur during as well as after exploration. In humans novelty’s effects on memory have been investigated with other methods, but never in an active exploration paradigm. We therefore investigated whether active spatial exploration of a novel compared to a previously familiarized virtual environment promotes performance on an unrelated word learning task. Exploration of the novel environment enhanced recall, generally thought to be hippocampus-dependent, but not recognition, believed to rely less on the hippocampus. Recall was better for participants that gave higher presence ratings for their experience in the virtual environment. These ratings were higher for the novel compared to the familiar virtual environment, suggesting that novelty increased attention for the virtual rather than real environment; however, this did not explain the effect of novelty on recall. PMID:25191297

  11. Achieving a balance - Science and human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the opportunities for advancing the scientific understanding of Mars through a research program, conducted under the egis of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, which emphasizes the element of human exploration as well as the requisite robotic component. A Mars exploration program that involves such complementary human/robotic components will entail the construction of a closed ecological life-support system, long-duration spacecraft facilities for crews, and the development of extraterrestrial resources; these R&D imperatives will have great subsequent payoffs, both scientific and economic.

  12. Achieving a balance - Science and human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The linkage between science and human exploration is close. Currently, proponents of science and human presence themes identified by the Synthesis Group as the most important themes of Mars exploration, tend to have reservations about the other camp. Mechanisms that integrate the program themes are essential, to gain the advocacies of the exploration communities and find optimal solutions to the technical problems. Without such mechanisms, it will be difficult to gain widespread acceptance of the SEI as the strategic horizon for the U.S. civilian space program.

  13. Earth Trek...Explore Your Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    This publication introduces children to water, air, and noise pollution, solid waste disposal, and pesticide use problems. Several pollution problems are explained and the importance of solving them is stressed. Some concepts such as recycling, closed systems, and environments that are related to pollution problems are also introduced. Each…

  14. Robotic Follow-Up for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Deans, Matthew C.; Adams, Byron; Allan, Mark; Altobelli, Martha; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Cohen, Tamar; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Garber, Joshua; Palmer, Elizabeth; Heggy, Essam; Jurgens, Frank; Kennedy, Tim; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Pascal; Lee, Susan Y.; Lees, David; Lundy, Mike; Park, Eric; Pedersen, Liam; Smith, Trey; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Wheeler, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    We are studying how "robotic follow-up" can improve future planetary exploration. Robotic follow-up, which we define as augmenting human field work with subsequent robot activity, is a field exploration technique designed to increase human productivity and science return. To better understand the benefits, requirements, limitations and risks associated with this technique, we are conducting analog field tests with human and robot teams at the Haughton Crater impact structure on Devon Island, Canada. In this paper, we discuss the motivation for robotic follow-up, describe the scientific context and system design for our work, and present results and lessons learned from field testing.

  15. Exploring neural code in natural environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemenman, Ilya

    2010-03-01

    Neurons communicate by means of stereotyped pulses, called action potentials or spikes, and a central issue in systems neuroscience is to understand this neural coding. We study how sensory information is encoded in sequences of spikes, using motion detection in the blowfly as a model system. To emphasize the importance of the environment, and specifically the statistics of its dynamics, on shaping the animal's response, we perform experiments in an environment maximally similar to the natural one. This results in a number of unexpected, striking observations about the structure of the neural code in this system, typically unseen in simpler, more traditional experimental setups. First, the timing of spikes is important with a precision roughly two orders of magnitude greater than the temporal dynamics of the stimulus, which is behaviorally controlled in the natural settings. Second, the fly goes a long way to utilize the redundancy in the stimulus in order to optimize the neural code and encode efficiently more refined features than would be possible otherwise, providing sufficient information about the stimulus in time for behavioral decision making. This implies that the neural code, even in low-level vision, may be significantly context (that is, environment and behavior) dependent. The presentation is based on: I Nemenman, GD Lewen, W Bialek, RR de Ruyter van Steveninck. Neural Coding of Natural Stimuli: Information at Sub-Millisecond Resolution. PLoS Comput Biol 4 (3): e1000025, 2008.

  16. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  17. Exploration Atmospheres for Beyond-LEO Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, Donald, L.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure and oxygen concentration of human-occupied space vehicles and habitats are an important life support parameter. The atmosphere is critical in terms of not only safety but also in terms of maximizing human capabilities at the point of scientific discovery. Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO) will include extravehicular activity (EVA). EVAs are carried out in low pressure (4.3 psi/29.6 kilopascals) space suits running at 100 percent oxygen. New suits currently in development will be capable of running at a range of pressures between approximately 8.2 psi/56.5 kilopascals and 4.3 psi/29.6 kilopascals. In order to carry out high-frequency EVA phases of a mission safely and more efficiently, it is advantageous to have cabin or vehicle atmospheres at lower total pressure and higher oxygen concentrations. This allows for much reduced pre-breathe times for a fixed risk of decompression sickness and thus more efficient EVAs. The recommended oxygen concentration is 32% and represents a trade with respect to controlling the risk of decompression sickness and risk of fire. Work carried out by NASA in 2006 and continued in 2012 established an atmospheric pressure and oxygen concentration to optimize EVA. This paper will review previous work and describe current recommendations for beyond-LEO human exploration missions.

  18. Human Adaptation To Isolated And Confined Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sna Sybil

    1992-01-01

    Data from Antarctic research station analyzed. Report describes study of physiology and psychology of humans in isolated and confined environment. Suggests ways in which such environments made more acceptable to human inhabitants.

  19. Thermography to explore plant-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Costa, J Miguel; Grant, Olga M; Chaves, M Manuela

    2013-10-01

    Stomatal regulation is a key determinant of plant photosynthesis and water relations, influencing plant survival, adaptation, and growth. Stomata sense the surrounding environment and respond rapidly to abiotic and biotic stresses. Stomatal conductance to water vapour (g s) and/or transpiration (E) are therefore valuable physiological parameters to be monitored in plant and agricultural sciences. However, leaf gas exchange measurements involve contact with leaves and often interfere with leaf functioning. Besides, they are time consuming and are limited by the sampling characteristics (e.g. sample size and/or the high number of samples required). Remote and rapid means to assess g s or E are thus particularly valuable for physiologists, agronomists, and ecologists. Transpiration influences the leaf energy balance and, consequently, leaf temperature (T leaf). As a result, thermal imaging makes it possible to estimate or quantify g s and E. Thermal imaging has been successfully used in a wide range of conditions and with diverse plant species. The technique can be applied at different scales (e.g. from single seedlings/leaves through whole trees or field crops to regions), providing great potential to study plant-environment interactions and specific phenomena such as abnormal stomatal closure, genotypic variation in stress tolerance, and the impact of different management strategies on crop water status. Nevertheless, environmental variability (e.g. in light intensity, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) affects the accuracy of thermal imaging measurements. This review presents and discusses the advantages of thermal imaging applications to plant science, agriculture, and ecology, as well as its limitations and possible approaches to minimize them, by highlighting examples from previous and ongoing research. PMID:23599272

  20. Automation and robotics for Human MARS Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Richter, L. A. J.; Griethe, W.; Hofmann, P.; Putz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are currently considered as a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. Since September 2000 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich (Germany) leads a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program.. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. This paper presents a summary of the results of this Mars A&R study. The AROMA study is conducted in parallel with two other Mars Exploration Studies, which are: All three studies focus on the design of co-operative European missions within an international human Mars exploration initiative and are funded by ESA. The mission architectures study defines the overall human Mars exploration scenario on which the AROMA study and the Power study is based. The AROMA study is performed in order to identify European A&R development goals for the Human Mars Exploration. Special emphasis is given to A&R technologies and systems which promise to provide particular strategic technological importance and a leadership role for Europe. On the basis of the Mars exploration scenario outline adopted in the Mission Architectures Study the human mission to Mars can be divided into two different phases. Initially the mission starts with a Robotic Outpost Phase. The Robotic outpost system will be landed at pre-selected sites in order to search for life forms and the existence of water and to analyse the composition of the Martian surface, geology and atmosphere. A&R systems i.e. rovers, autonomous instrument packages will perform a number of missions with scientific and technology development objectives and explore the surface of Mars as part of preparations

  1. Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) conducts and coordinates research projects that provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Program is divided into 6 major elements, which a) Provide the Program s knowledge and capabilities to conduct research, addressing the human health and performance risks. b) Advance the readiness levels of technology and countermeasures to the point of transfer to the customer programs and organizations. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is a partner with the HRP in developing a successful research program. 3

  2. Benefits of Microalgae for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrecchia, Angelique; Bebout, Brad M.; Murphy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Algae have long been known to offer a number of benefits to support long duration human space exploration. Algae contain proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and lipids needed for human consumption, and can be produced using waste streams, while consuming carbon dioxide, and producing oxygen. In comparison with higher plants, algae have higher growth rates, fewer environmental requirements, produce far less "waste" tissue, and are resistant to digestion and/or biodegradation. As an additional benefit, algae produce many components (fatty acids, H2, etc.) which are useful as biofuels. On Earth, micro-algae survive in many harsh environments including low humidity, extremes in temperature, pH, and as well as high salinity and solar radiation. Algae have been shown to survive inmicro-gravity, and can adapt to high and low light intensity while retaining their ability to perform nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis. Studies have demonstrated that some algae are resistant to the space radiation environment, including solar ultraviolet radiation. It remains to be experimentally demonstrated, however, that an algal-based system could fulfil the requirements for a space-based Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) under comparable spaceflight power, mass, and environmental constraints. Two specific challenges facing algae cultivation in space are that (i) conventional growth platforms require large masses of water, which in turn require a large amount of propulsion fuel, and (ii) most nutrient delivery mechanisms (predominantly bubbling) are dependent on gravity. To address these challenges, we have constructed a low water biofilm based bioreactor whose operation is enabled by capillary forces. Preliminary characterization of this Surface Adhering BioReactor (SABR) suggests that it can serve as a platform for cultivating algae in space which requires about 10 times less mass than conventional reactors without sacrificing growth rate. Further work is necessary to

  3. Exploring Placentophagy in Humans: Problems and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Marraccini, Marisa E; Gorman, Kathleen S

    2015-01-01

    Placentophagy, the practice of afterbirth ingestion among humans, has grown among middle-class, white women in Western societies. Although the reasons for placentophagy are varied, it is generally promoted as a means to help postpartum women stabilize mood, enhance recovery, and increase milk production. Virtually no studies have explored the effects of placentophagy on humans, and several researchers have called for studies examining the effects of human placentophagy. However, prior to examining the effects of placentophagy, a number of methodological issues need to be addressed. The present review explores research examining the effects of placentophagy in animals and humans and presents the theoretical assumptions behind placentophagy and its effects. Methodological issues related to placentophagy research are clarified, and existing research related to the nutritional and hormonal components of the placenta and their effects on milk production and postpartum depression are reviewed. Finally, implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26255799

  4. ILEWG roadmap Robotic and Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We shall discuss the rationale and roadmap of ongoing Moon missions, and how they can prepare for future human exploration. Various fundamental scientific investigations can be performed with robots and humans: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life. The roadmap includes also enabling technologies that prepare for the best syenrgies between robots and humans: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package;Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector, Support equipment for astronaut sorties; life science precursors for life support systems. We shall adddress requirements for robotic precursor programmes, global robotic village, technology development, resource utilisation, human aspects, science and exploration from lunar sorties, transition towards permanent settlements and lunar bases.

  5. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Davis, Wanda L.

    1989-01-01

    The major planetary quarantine issues associated with human exploration of Mars, which is viewed as being more likely to harbor indigenous life than is the moon, are discussed. Special attention is given to the environmental impact of human missions to Mars due to contamination and mechanical disturbances of the local environment, the contamination issues associated with the return of humans, and the planetary quarantine strategy for a human base. It is emphasized that, in addition to the question of indigenous life, there may be some concern of returning to earth the earth microorganisms that have spent some time in the Martian environment. It is suggested that, due to the fact that a robot system can be subjected to more stringent controls and protective treatments than a mission involving humans, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate many planetary-quarantine concerns about returning samples.

  6. Human space exploration the next fifty years.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration. PMID:22363199

  7. Human Space Exploration The Next Fifty Years

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration. PMID:22363199

  8. Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

  9. Connecting Robots and Humans in Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Louis

    2000-07-01

    Mars exploration is a very special public interest. It's preeminence in the national space policy calling for "sustained robotic presence on the surface," international space policy (witness the now aborted international plan for sample return, and also aborted Russian "national Mars program") and the media attention to Mars exploration are two manifestations of that interest. Among a large segment of the public there is an implicit (mis)understanding that we are sending humans to Mars. Even among those who know that isn't already a national or international policy, many think it is the next human exploration goal. At the same time the resources for Mars exploration in the U.S. and other country's space programs are a very small part of space budgets. Very little is being applied to direct preparations for human flight. This was true before the 1999 mission losses in the United States, and it is more true today. The author's thesis is that the public interest and the space program response to Mars exploration are inconsistent. This inconsistency probably results from an explicit space policy contradiction: Mars exploration is popular because of the implicit pull of Mars as the target for human exploration, but no synergy is permitted between the human and robotic programs to carry out the program. It is not permitted because of narrow, political thinking. In this paper we try to lay out the case for overcoming that thinking, even while not committing to any premature political initiative. This paper sets out a rationale for Mars exploration and uses it to then define recommended elements of the programs: missions, science objectives, technology. That consideration is broader than the immediate issue of recovering from the failures of Mars Climate OrbIter, Mars Polar Lander and the Deep Space 2 microprobes in late 1999. But we cannot ignore those failures. They are causing a slow down Mars exploration. Not only were the three missions lost, with their planned

  10. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars.

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Davis, W L

    1989-01-01

    Current planetary quarantine considerations focus on robotic missions and attempt a policy of no biological contamination. The presence of humans on Mars, however, will inevitably result in biological contamination and physical alteration of the local environment. The focus of planetary quarantine must therefore shift toward defining and minimizing the inevitable contamination associated with humans. This will involve first determining those areas that will be affected by the presence of a human base, then verifying that these environments do not harbor indigenous life nor provide sites for Earth bacteria to grow. Precursor missions can provide salient information that can make more efficient the planning and design of human exploration missions. In particular, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate the concern about returning samples with humans or the return of humans themselves from a planetary quarantine perspective. Without a robotic return the cost of quarantine that would have to be added to a human mission may well exceed the cost of a robotic return mission. Even if the preponderance of scientific evidence argues against the presence of indigenous life, it must be considered as part of any serious planetary quarantine analysis for missions to Mars. If there is life on Mars, the question of human exploration assumes an ethical dimension. PMID:11537372

  11. Exploring the Effectiveness of Online Education in K-12 Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heafner, Tina L., Ed.; Hartshorne, Richard, Ed.; Petty, Teresa, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of technology in classrooms is rapidly emerging as a way to provide more educational opportunities for students. As virtual learning environments become more popular, evaluating the impact of this technology on student success is vital. "Exploring the Effectiveness of Online Education in K-12 Environments" combines…

  12. Flourishing: Exploring Predictors of Mental Health within the College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the predictive factors of student mental health within the college environment. Participants: Students enrolled at 7 unique universities during years 2008 (n = 1,161) and 2009 (n = 1,459). Methods: Participants completed survey measures of mental health, consequences of alcohol use, and engagement in the college environment.…

  13. Returners and explorers dichotomy in human mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Luca; Simini, Filippo; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Pedreschi, Dino; Giannotti, Fosca; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-09-01

    The availability of massive digital traces of human whereabouts has offered a series of novel insights on the quantitative patterns characterizing human mobility. In particular, numerous recent studies have lead to an unexpected consensus: the considerable variability in the characteristic travelled distance of individuals coexists with a high degree of predictability of their future locations. Here we shed light on this surprising coexistence by systematically investigating the impact of recurrent mobility on the characteristic distance travelled by individuals. Using both mobile phone and GPS data, we discover the existence of two distinct classes of individuals: returners and explorers. As existing models of human mobility cannot explain the existence of these two classes, we develop more realistic models able to capture the empirical findings. Finally, we show that returners and explorers play a distinct quantifiable role in spreading phenomena and that a correlation exists between their mobility patterns and social interactions.

  14. Returners and explorers dichotomy in human mobility.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Luca; Simini, Filippo; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Pedreschi, Dino; Giannotti, Fosca; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    The availability of massive digital traces of human whereabouts has offered a series of novel insights on the quantitative patterns characterizing human mobility. In particular, numerous recent studies have lead to an unexpected consensus: the considerable variability in the characteristic travelled distance of individuals coexists with a high degree of predictability of their future locations. Here we shed light on this surprising coexistence by systematically investigating the impact of recurrent mobility on the characteristic distance travelled by individuals. Using both mobile phone and GPS data, we discover the existence of two distinct classes of individuals: returners and explorers. As existing models of human mobility cannot explain the existence of these two classes, we develop more realistic models able to capture the empirical findings. Finally, we show that returners and explorers play a distinct quantifiable role in spreading phenomena and that a correlation exists between their mobility patterns and social interactions. PMID:26349016

  15. Returners and explorers dichotomy in human mobility

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Luca; Simini, Filippo; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Pedreschi, Dino; Giannotti, Fosca; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    The availability of massive digital traces of human whereabouts has offered a series of novel insights on the quantitative patterns characterizing human mobility. In particular, numerous recent studies have lead to an unexpected consensus: the considerable variability in the characteristic travelled distance of individuals coexists with a high degree of predictability of their future locations. Here we shed light on this surprising coexistence by systematically investigating the impact of recurrent mobility on the characteristic distance travelled by individuals. Using both mobile phone and GPS data, we discover the existence of two distinct classes of individuals: returners and explorers. As existing models of human mobility cannot explain the existence of these two classes, we develop more realistic models able to capture the empirical findings. Finally, we show that returners and explorers play a distinct quantifiable role in spreading phenomena and that a correlation exists between their mobility patterns and social interactions. PMID:26349016

  16. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management

  17. Astrobiological benefits of human space exploration.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered. PMID:20735249

  18. Astrobiological Benefits of Human Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2010-08-01

    An ambitious program of human space exploration, such as that envisaged in the Global Exploration Strategy and considered in the Augustine Commission report, will help advance the core aims of astrobiology in multiple ways. In particular, a human exploration program will confer significant benefits in the following areas: (i) the exploitation of the lunar geological record to elucidate conditions on early Earth; (ii) the detailed study of near-Earth objects for clues relating to the formation of the Solar System; (iii) the search for evidence of past or present life on Mars; (iv) the provision of a heavy-lift launch capacity that will facilitate exploration of the outer Solar System; and (v) the construction and maintenance of sophisticated space-based astronomical tools for the study of extrasolar planetary systems. In all these areas a human presence in space, and especially on planetary surfaces, will yield a net scientific benefit over what can plausibly be achieved by autonomous robotic systems. A number of policy implications follow from these conclusions, which are also briefly considered.

  19. Enabling human exploration of space - A life sciences overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaiser, Karen K.; Sulzman, Frank M.

    1989-01-01

    In the transition from the short-duration missions of the Space Shuttle era to long-duration exploration missions, the health and safety of crewmembers must be ensured. The body undergoes many complex physiological changes as a result of its adaptation to a microgravity environment and U.S. and Soviet experiences have shown that time is required for readaptation to gravity. The consequences of these changes for the extended exploration missions envisioned for the future are unknown. A Mars mission may require crewmembers to spend many months in microgravity, and then work effectively in a one-third gravity environment. Other problems may arise when returning crewmembers must readapt to earth's gravity. Life Sciences activities are being planned to systematically address the physiological issues involved with long-term manned exploration missions, through ground-based studies and flight investigations on the Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The areas of focus are artificial gravity, radiation, health care, and space human factors.

  20. Heavy Ion Carcinogenesis and Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Prior to the human exploration of Mars or long duration stays on the Earth s moon, the risk of cancer and other diseases from space radiation must be accurately estimated and mitigated. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been show to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of cancer and other health risks, while obscuring evaluation of the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. Here, we describe how research in cancer radiobiology can support human missions to Mars and other planets.

  1. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Barbee, B. W.; Chodas, P. W.; Kawaguchi, J.; Landis, R. R.; Mazanek, D. D.; Michel, P.

    Due to a number of factors, including a recent U.S. presidential directive, the successful return of an asteroid sample by the Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa in 2010, and the high-visibility airburst impact event over Chelyabinsk, Russia, in 2013, scientific and exploration interest in near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) has never been greater. In particular, NASA and the Japanese and European space agencies have begun expending serious effort to discover and identify appropriate NEA targets for a wide variety of spaceflight activities, including both robotic and human missions. These missions are particularly attractive as they will yield an unprecedented amount of knowledge about the formation of the solar system, provide a stepping-stone approach for future human exploration missions to Mars and beyond, identify materials for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), and test techniques for deflecting potentially hazardous objects that threaten Earth.

  2. Human Exploration Framework Team: Strategy and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Brian K.; Sherwood, Brent; Olson, John

    2011-01-01

    Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) was formulated to create a decision framework for human space exploration that drives out the knowledge, capabilities and infrastructure NASA needs to send people to explore multiple destinations in the Solar System in an efficient, sustainable way. The specific goal is to generate an initial architecture that can evolve into a long term, enterprise-wide architecture that is the basis for a robust human space flight enterprise. This paper will discuss the initial HEFT activity which focused on starting up the cross-agency team, getting it functioning, developing a comprehensive development and analysis process and conducting multiple iterations of the process. The outcome of this process will be discussed including initial analysis of capabilities and missions for at least two decades, keeping Mars as the ultimate destination. Details are provided on strategies that span a broad technical and programmatic trade space, are analyzed against design reference missions and evaluated against a broad set of figures of merit including affordability, operational complexity, and technical and programmatic risk.

  3. Human Exploration of Earth's Neighborhood and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The presentation examines Mars landing scenarios, Earth to Moon transfers comparing direct vs. via libration points. Lunar transfer/orbit diagrams, comparison of opposition class and conjunction class missions, and artificial gravity for human exploration missions. Slides related to Mars landing scenarios include: mission scenario; direct entry landing locations; 2005 opportunity - Type 1; Earth-mars superior conjunction; Lander latitude accessibility; Low thrust - Earth return phase; SEP Earth return sequence; Missions - 200, 2007, 2009; and Mission map. Slides related to Earth to Moon transfers (direct vs. via libration points (L1, L2) include libration point missions, expeditionary vs. evolutionary, Earth-Moon L1 - gateway for lunar surface operations, and Lunar mission libration point vs. lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR). Slides related to lunar transfer/orbit diagrams include: trans-lunar trajectory from ISS parking orbit, trans-Earth trajectories, parking orbit considerations, and landing latitude restrictions. Slides related to comparison of opposition class (short-stay) and conjunction class (long-stay) missions for human exploration of Mars include: Mars mission planning, Earth-Mars orbital characteristics, delta-V variations, and Mars mission duration comparison. Slides related to artificial gravity for human exploration missions include: current configuration, NEP thruster location trades, minor axis rotation, and example load paths.

  4. The Interplanetary Meteoroid Environment for eXploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, R.; Sommer, M.; Srama, R.; Strub, P.; Grün, E.; Rodmann, J.; Vaubaillon, J.; Hornig, A.; Bausch, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Interplanetary Meteoroid Environment for eXploration (IMEX) project, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), aims to characterize dust trails and streams produced by comets in the inner solar system. The goal is to predict meteor showers at any position or time in the solar system, such as at specific spacecraft or planets. This model will allow for the assessment of the dust impact hazard to spacecraft, which is important because hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids can damage or destroy spacecraft or their subsystems through physical damage or electromagnetic effects. Such considerations are particularly important in the context of human exploration of the solar system. Additionally, such a model will allow for scientific study of specific trails and their connections to observed dust phenomena, such as cometary trails and new meteor showers at Earth. We have recently expanded the model to include explicit integrations of large numbers of particles from each comet, utilizing the Constellation platform to perform the calculations. This is a distributed computing system, where currently 10,000 users are donating their idle computing time at home and thus generating a virtual supercomputer of 40,000 host PCs connected via the Internet (aerospaceresearch.net). This form of citizen science provides the required computing performance for simulating millions of particles ejected by each of the ˜400 comets, while developing the relationship between scientists and the general public. The result will be a unique set of saved orbital information for a large number of cometary streams, allowing efficient computation of their locations at any point in space and time. Here we will present the results from several test streams and discuss the progress towards obtaining the full set of integrated particles for each of the selected ˜400 short-period comets. individual Constellation users for their computing time.

  5. Mars scientific investigations as a precursor for human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, P.; Cantwell, E.; Ostrach, L.; Pline, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the past two years, NASA has begun to develop and implement plans for investigations on robotic Mars missions which are focused toward returning data critical for planning human missions to Mars. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions will mark the first time that experiments dedicated to preparation for human exploration will be carried out. Investigations on these missions and future missions range from characterization of the physical and chemical environment of Mars, to predicting the response of biology to the Mars environment. Planning for such missions must take into account existing data from previous Mars missions which were not necessarily focused on human exploration preparation. At the same time, plans for near term missions by the international community must be considered to avoid duplication of effort. This paper reviews data requirements for human exploration and applicability of existing data. It will also describe current plans for investigations and place them within the context of related international activities. c 2000 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human space exploration - From surviving to performing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angelia P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper explores the evolution of human spaceflight by examining the space programs of the United States, Russia, including the former Soviet Union, and China. A simple analysis of the numbers of humans who have flown into space, the durations of the missions flown, and the accumulated flight time of the individuals reveals that spaceflight is decidedly male-dominated and that approximately one out of six individuals flown was a non-career astronaut. In addition, 31 individuals have accumulated long-duration flight experience equivalent to a round trip to Mars. An examination of the evolution of spacecraft that have made these missions possible indicates that the time to accomplish the first four to five flights of a new human space vehicle has increased from less than one year to nearly 10 years.

  7. Exploration Flight Test 1 Afterbody Aerothermal Environment Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam; Lessard, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle included roughly 100 near surface thermocouples on the after body of the vehicle. The temperature traces at each of these instruments have been used to perform inverse environment reconstruction to determine the aerothermal environment experienced during re-entry of the vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the reconstructed environments and identifies critical aspects of the environment. These critical aspects include transition and reaction control system jet influence. A blind test of the process and reconstruction tool was also performed to build confidence in the reconstructed environments. Finally, an uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed to identify the impact of each of the uncertainties on the reconstructed environments.

  8. Mobile Robot for Exploring Cold Liquid/Solid Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergh, Charles; Zimmerman, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Planetary Autonomous Amphibious Robotic Vehicle (PAARV), now at the prototype stage of development, was originally intended for use in acquiring and analyzing samples of solid, liquid, and gaseous materials in cold environments on the shores and surfaces, and at shallow depths below the surfaces, of lakes and oceans on remote planets. The PAARV also could be adapted for use on Earth in similar exploration of cold environments in and near Arctic and Antarctic oceans and glacial and sub-glacial lakes.

  9. Humanization of the Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Claude G.

    The ability of individuals to concentrate on a learning activity is strongly influenced by factors in their environment. Therefore, the author of this paper has offered a number of suggestions about how the classroom environment can be made more conducive to learning. (RH)

  10. Mission Architecture Comparison for Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geffre, Jim; Robertson, Ed; Lenius, Jon

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration outlines a bold new national space exploration policy that holds as one of its primary objectives the extension of human presence outward into the Solar System, starting with a return to the Moon in preparation for the future exploration of Mars and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently engaged in several preliminary analysis efforts in order to develop the requirements necessary for implementing this objective in a manner that is both sustainable and affordable. Such analyses investigate various operational concepts, or mission architectures , by which humans can best travel to the lunar surface, live and work there for increasing lengths of time, and then return to Earth. This paper reports on a trade study conducted in support of NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate investigating the relative merits of three alternative lunar mission architecture strategies. The three architectures use for reference a lunar exploration campaign consisting of multiple 90-day expeditions to the Moon s polar regions, a strategy which was selected for its high perceived scientific and operational value. The first architecture discussed incorporates the lunar orbit rendezvous approach employed by the Apollo lunar exploration program. This concept has been adapted from Apollo to meet the particular demands of a long-stay polar exploration campaign while assuring the safe return of crew to Earth. Lunar orbit rendezvous is also used as the baseline against which the other alternate concepts are measured. The first such alternative, libration point rendezvous, utilizes the unique characteristics of the cislunar libration point instead of a low altitude lunar parking orbit as a rendezvous and staging node. Finally, a mission strategy which does not incorporate rendezvous after the crew ascends from the Moon is also studied. In this mission strategy, the crew returns directly to Earth from the lunar surface, and is

  11. United Nations Conference on the Human Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations General Assembly, New York, NY.

    Compiled in this document are several reports emanating from the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, June 5-16, 1972. Included are (1) Provisional Agenda, (2) Annotations to the Provisional Agenda, (3) Provisional Rules of Procedure, (4) Draft Declaration on the Human Environment, (5) Planning and Management of Human…

  12. Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. W.; Hobbie, J. E.; Baker, A.; Clarke, G.; Doran, P. T.; Karl, D.; Methe, B.; Miller, H.; Mukasa, S. B.; Race, M.; Vincent, W.; Walton, D.; Uhle, M.

    2007-12-01

    Antarctica is renowned for its extreme cold; yet surprisingly, there is liquid water at the base of the Antarctic ice sheet several kilometers beneath the surface. The exploration of these subglacial aquatic environments is in its initial stages, and many fundamental questions about these environments can only be answered by entering and sampling the water. Accordingly, the management of subglacial aquatic environments requires responsible environmental stewardship while allowing field research. As of early 2007, no one has yet drilled into a lake but entry within the next one or two years is likely. Thus, the challenge is to determine the best way of drilling into, extensively sampling, and monitoring these environments. While general guidelines for research in Antarctica are provided in the Antarctic Treaty, currently no clear protocols or standards for minimizing contamination have been established. At the request of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Research Council convened a committee to develop a set of environmental and scientific protection standards needed to responsibly explore the subglacial lake environments in Antarctica. Specifically, the committee was asked to define levels of cleanliness for equipment or devices entering subglacial aquatic environments, develop a sound scientific basis for contamination standards, and recommend the next steps needed to define an overall exploration strategy. This talk will present the findings of that committee. The committee included U.S. and international scientists, and gathered information from the global scientific community. Although a U.S. scientific advisory body produced this study, the committee hopes that its multinational makeup will be recognized and that the recommendations in this report will serve as a basis for broad international discussion about environmental stewardship for the exploration of subglacial aquatic environments.

  13. Research on Human-Robot Joint System for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei

    The lunar exploration in China is in progress. In order to reduce human workload and costs, and conduct researches more effectively and efficiently, human-robot joint systems are necessary for lunar exploration. The concept of human-robot joint system for lunar exploration is studied in this paper. The possible collaborative ways between human and robots and the collaborative activities which can be conducted for lunar exploration are discussed. Moreover, the preliminary configuration of a human-robot joint system is presented.

  14. Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Dynamic Geometry Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Allen; Chan, Yip-Cheung

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a possible dragging experiment in a dynamic geometry environment (DGE) that explores a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic quadrilateral. The dragging modalities identified by Arzarello, Olivero, Paola, and Robutti (2002) and the functions of variation realized in DGE discussed by Leung (2003) will be used as tools…

  15. Designing Digital Environments for Art Education/Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milekic, Slavko

    2000-01-01

    Examines the role of digital technology in the context of art education and art exploration. Discusses the development of digital environments as the next step in the evolution of traditional computers, whose main characteristic is support for simultaneous multiple-user interactions and for social and collaborative activities. (LRW)

  16. Personal Learning Environments and University Teacher Roles Explored Using Delphi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaikh, Zaffar Ahmed; Khoja, Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research using an online Delphi method, which aimed to explore university teacher roles and readiness for learner-centred pedagogy, driven by personal learning environments (PLEs). Using a modified Policy Delphi technique, a group of researchers worked with 34 international experts who are university teachers by…

  17. Learning to explore the structure of kinematic objects in a virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Buckmann, Marcus; Gaschler, Robert; Höfer, Sebastian; Loeben, Dennis; Frensch, Peter A.; Brock, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the quantity and quality of human exploration learning in a virtual environment. Given the everyday experience of humans with physical object exploration, we document substantial practice gains in the time, force, and number of actions needed to classify the structure of virtual chains, marking the joints as revolute, prismatic, or rigid. In line with current work on skill acquisition, participants could generalize the new and efficient psychomotor patterns of object exploration to novel objects. On the one hand, practice gains in exploration performance could be captured by a negative exponential practice function. On the other hand, they could be linked to strategies and strategy change. After quantifying how much was learned in object exploration and identifying the time course of practice-related gains in exploration efficiency (speed), we identified what was learned. First, we identified strategy components that were associated with efficient (fast) exploration performance: sequential processing, simultaneous use of both hands, low use of pulling rather than pushing, and low use of force. Only the latter was beneficial irrespective of the characteristics of the other strategy components. Second, we therefore characterized efficient exploration behavior by strategies that simultaneously take into account the abovementioned strategy components. We observed that participants maintained a high level of flexibility, sampling from a pool of exploration strategies trading the level of psycho-motoric challenges with exploration speed. We discuss the findings pursuing the aim of advancing intelligent object exploration by combining analytic (object exploration in humans) and synthetic work (object exploration in robots) in the same virtual environment. PMID:25904878

  18. Learning to explore the structure of kinematic objects in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Buckmann, Marcus; Gaschler, Robert; Höfer, Sebastian; Loeben, Dennis; Frensch, Peter A; Brock, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the quantity and quality of human exploration learning in a virtual environment. Given the everyday experience of humans with physical object exploration, we document substantial practice gains in the time, force, and number of actions needed to classify the structure of virtual chains, marking the joints as revolute, prismatic, or rigid. In line with current work on skill acquisition, participants could generalize the new and efficient psychomotor patterns of object exploration to novel objects. On the one hand, practice gains in exploration performance could be captured by a negative exponential practice function. On the other hand, they could be linked to strategies and strategy change. After quantifying how much was learned in object exploration and identifying the time course of practice-related gains in exploration efficiency (speed), we identified what was learned. First, we identified strategy components that were associated with efficient (fast) exploration performance: sequential processing, simultaneous use of both hands, low use of pulling rather than pushing, and low use of force. Only the latter was beneficial irrespective of the characteristics of the other strategy components. Second, we therefore characterized efficient exploration behavior by strategies that simultaneously take into account the abovementioned strategy components. We observed that participants maintained a high level of flexibility, sampling from a pool of exploration strategies trading the level of psycho-motoric challenges with exploration speed. We discuss the findings pursuing the aim of advancing intelligent object exploration by combining analytic (object exploration in humans) and synthetic work (object exploration in robots) in the same virtual environment. PMID:25904878

  19. The roles of humans and robots in exploring the solar system.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W

    2004-07-01

    Historically, advocates of solar system exploration have disagreed over whether program goals could be entirely satisfied by robotic missions. Scientists tend to argue that robotic exploration is most cost-effective. However, the human space program has a great deal of support in the general public, thereby enabling the scientific element of exploration to be larger than it might be as a stand-alone activity. A comprehensive strategy of exploration needs a strong robotic component complementing and supporting human missions. Robots are needed for precursor missions, for crew support on planetary surfaces, and for probing dangerous environments. Robotic field assistants can provide mobility, access to scientific sites, data acquisition, visualization of the environment, precision operations, sample acquisition and analysis, and expertise to human explorers. As long as space exploration depends on public funds, space exploration must include an appropriate mix of human and robotic activity. PMID:15791731

  20. Designing a Social Environment for Human-Robot Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amram, Fred M.

    Noting that work is partly a social activity, and that workers' psychological and emotional needs influence their productivity, this paper explores avenues for improving human-robot cooperation and for enhancing worker satisfaction in the environment of flexible automation. The first section of the paper offers a brief overview of the…

  1. Strategies For Human Exploration Leading To Human Colonization of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David; Everett, Harmon

    2009-01-01

    Enabling the commercial development of space is key to the future colonization of space and key to a viable space exploration program. Without commercial development following in the footsteps of exploration it is difficult to justify and maintain public interest in the efforts. NASA's exploration program has suffered from the lack of a good commercial economic strategy for decades. Only small advances in commercial space have moved forward, and only up to Earth orbit with the commercial satellite industry. A way to move beyond this phase is to begin the establishment of human commercial activities in space in partnership with the human exploration program. In 2007 and 2008, the authors researched scenarios to make space exploration and commercial space development more feasible as part of their graduate work in the Space Architecture Program at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture at the University of Houston, Houston, Texas. Through this research it became apparent that the problems facing future colonization are much larger than the technology being developed or the international missions that our space agencies are pursuing. These issues are addressed in this paper with recommendations for space exploration, commercial development, and space policy that are needed to form a strategic plan for human expansion into space. In conclusion, the authors found that the current direction in space as carried out by our space agencies around the world is definitely needed, but is inadequate and incapable of resolving all of the issues that inhibit commercial space development. A bolder vision with strategic planning designed to grow infrastructures and set up a legal framework for commercial markets will go a long way toward enabling the future colonization of space.

  2. Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson J. W. (Editor); Miller, J. (Editor); Konradi, A. (Editor); Cucinotta, F. A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A group of twenty-nine scientists and engineers convened a 'Workshop on Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration' at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The provision of shielding for a Mars mission or a Lunar base from the hazards of space radiations is a critical technology since astronaut radiation safety depends on it and shielding safety factors to control risk uncertainty appear to be great. The purpose of the workshop was to define requirements for the development and evaluation of high performance shield materials and designs and to develop ideas regarding approaches to radiation shielding. The workshop was organized to review the recent experience on shielding strategies gained in studies of the 'Space Exploration Initiative (SEI),' to review the current knowledge base for making shield assessment, to examine a basis for new shielding strategies, and to recommend a strategy for developing the required technologies for a return to the moon or for Mars exploration. The uniqueness of the current workshop arises from the expected long duration of the missions without the protective cover of the geomagnetic field in which the usually small and even neglected effects of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can no longer be ignored. It is the peculiarity of these radiations for which the inter-action physics and biological action are yet to be fully understood.

  3. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamin; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological

  4. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamine; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological

  5. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  6. Toxicological Risks During Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, T. F.; Lam, C. W.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of toxicological risk assessment of human space flight is to identify and quantify significant risks to astronaut health from air pollution inside the vehicle or habitat, and to develop a strategy for control of those risks. The approach to completing a toxicological risk assessment involves data and experience on the frequency and severity of toxicological incidents that have occurred during space flight. Control of these incidents depends on being able to understand their cause from in-flight and ground-based analysis of air samples, crew reports of air quality, and known failures in containment of toxic chemicals. Toxicological risk assessment in exploration missions must be based on an evaluation of the unique toxic hazards presented by the habitat location. For example, lunar and Martian dust must be toxicologically evaluated to determine the appropriate control measures for exploration missions. Experience with near-earth flights has shown that the toxic products from fires present the highest risk to crew health from air pollution. Systems and payload leaks also present a significant hazard. The health risk from toxicity associated with materials offgassing or accumulation of human metabolites is generally well controlled. Early tests of lunar and Martian dust simulants have shown that each posses the potential to cause fibrosis in the lung in a murine model. Toxicological risks from air pollutants in space habitats originate from many sources. A number of risks have been identified through near-earth operations; however, the evaluation of additional new risks present during exploration missions will be a challenge.

  7. Modeling Operations Costs for Human Exploration Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Operations and support (O&S) costs for human spaceflight have not received the same attention in the cost estimating community as have development costs. This is unfortunate as O&S costs typically comprise a majority of life-cycle costs (LCC) in such programs as the International Space Station (ISS) and the now-cancelled Constellation Program. Recognizing this, the Constellation Program and NASA HQs supported the development of an O&S cost model specifically for human spaceflight. This model, known as the Exploration Architectures Operations Cost Model (ExAOCM), provided the operations cost estimates for a variety of alternative human missions to the moon, Mars, and Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) in architectural studies. ExAOCM is philosophically based on the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) concepts of operational nodes, systems, operational functions, and milestones. This paper presents some of the historical background surrounding the development of the model, and discusses the underlying structure, its unusual user interface, and lastly, previous examples of its use in the aforementioned architectural studies.

  8. Human Exploration Missions - Maturing Technologies to Sustain Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Chiaki; Koch, Bernhard; Reese, Terrence G.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will be long duration with abort scenarios of days to months. Providing crews with the essentials of life such as clean air and potable water means recycling human metabolic wastes back to useful products. Individual technologies are under development for such things as CO2 scrubbing, recovery of O2 from CO2, turning waste water into potable water, and so on. But in order to fully evaluate and mature technologies fully they must be tested in a relevant, high-functionality environment; a systems environment where technologies are challenged with real human metabolic wastes. It is for this purpose that an integrated systems ground testing capability at the Johnson Space Center is being readied for testing. The relevant environment will include deep space habitat human accommodations, sealed atmosphere of 8 psi total pressure and 32% oxygen concentration, life support systems (food, air, water), communications, crew accommodations, medical, EVA, tools, etc. Testing periods will approximate those of the expected missions (such as a near Earth asteroid, Earth ]Moon L2 or L1, the moon, and Mars). This type of integrated testing is needed not only for research and technology development but later during the mission design, development, test, and evaluation phases of preparing for the mission.

  9. Exploring the folkbiological conception of human nature

    PubMed Central

    Linquist, Stefan; Machery, Edouard; Griffiths, Paul E.; Stotz, Karola

    2011-01-01

    Integrating the study of human diversity into the human evolutionary sciences requires substantial revision of traditional conceptions of a shared human nature. This process may be made more difficult by entrenched, ‘folkbiological’ modes of thought. Earlier work by the authors suggests that biologically naive subjects hold an implicit theory according to which some traits are expressions of an animal's inner nature while others are imposed by its environment. In this paper, we report further studies that extend and refine our account of this aspect of folkbiology. We examine biologically naive subjects' judgments about whether traits of an animal are ‘innate’, ‘in its DNA’ or ‘part of its nature’. Subjects do not understand these three descriptions to be equivalent. Both innate and in its DNA have the connotation that the trait is species-typical. This poses an obstacle to the assimilation of the biology of polymorphic and plastic traits by biologically naive audiences. Researchers themselves may not be immune to the continuing pull of folkbiological modes of thought. PMID:21199848

  10. Human Exploration and Avionic Technology Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, Andrew L.

    2005-01-01

    For this workshop, I will identify critical avionic gaps, enabling technologies, high-pay off investment opportunities, promising capabilities, and space applications for human lunar and Mars exploration. Key technology disciplines encompass fault tolerance, miniaturized instrumentation sensors, MEMS-based guidance, navigation, and controls, surface communication networks, and rendezvous and docking. Furthermore, I will share bottom-up strategic planning relevant to manned mission -driven needs. Blending research expertise, facilities, and personnel with internal NASA is vital to stimulating collaborative technology solutions that achieve NASA grand vision. Retaining JSC expertise in unique and critical areas is paramount to our long-term success. Civil servants will maintain key roles in setting technology agenda, ensuring quality results, and integrating technologies into avionic systems and manned missions. Finally, I will present to NASA, academia, and the aerospace community some on -going and future advanced avionic technology programs and activities that are relevant to our mission goals and objectives.

  11. Environmental effects of human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendell, Wendell

    Aerospace engineers use the term Environment to designate a set of externally imposed bound-ary conditions under which a device must operate. Although the parameters may be time-varying, the engineer thinks of the operating environment as being fixed. Any effect the device might have on the environment generally is neglected. In the case where the device is intended to measure the environment, its effect on the measured quantities must be considered. For example, a magnetometer aboard a spacecraft must be extended on a boom to minimize the disturbing influence of the spacecraft on the magnetic field, particularly if the field is weak. In contrast, Environment has taken on political and even ethical connotations in modern Western society, referring to human-induced alterations to those aspects of the terrestrial environment that are required for a healthy and productive life. The so-called Green Movement takes preservation of the environment as its mantra. Scientists are at the center of the debate on environmental issues. However, the concern of scientists over irreversible consequences of hu-man activity extend beyond ecology to preservation of cultural artifacts and to effects that alter the ability to conduct investigations such as light pollution in astronomy. The policy of Planetary Protection applied to science and exploration missions to other bodies in the solar system arises from the concern for deleterious effects in terrestrial ecology from hypothetical extraterrestrial life forms as well as overprints of extraterrestrial environments by terrestrial biology. Some in the scientific community are advocating extension of the planetary protection concept beyond exobiology to include fragile planetary environments by might be permanently altered by human activity e.g., the lunar exosphere. Beyond the scientific community, some environmentalists argue against any changes to the Moon at all, including formation of new craters or the alteration of the natural

  12. Scientific objectives of human exploration of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    While human exploration of Mars is unlikely to be undertaken for science reasons alone, science will be the main beneficiary. A wide range of science problems can be addressed at Mars. The planet formed in a different part of the solar system from the Earth and retains clues concerning compositional and environmental conditions in that part of the solar system when the planets formed. Mars has had a long and complex history that has involved almost as wide a range of processes as occurred on Earth. Elucidation of this history will require a comprehensive program of field mapping, geophysical sounding, in situ analyses, and return of samples to Earth that are representative of the planet's diversity. The origin and evolution of the Mars' atmosphere are very different from the Earth's, Mars having experienced major secular and cyclical changes in climate. Clues as to precisely how the atmosphere has evolved are embedded in its present chemistry, possibly in surface sinks of former atmosphere-forming volatiles, and in the various products of interaction between the atmosphere and surface. The present atmosphere also provides a means of testing general circulation models applicable to all planets. Although life is unlikely to be still extant on Mars, life may have started early in the planet's history. A major goal of any future exploration will, therefore, be to search for evidence of indigenous life.

  13. Human safety in the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Any attempt to establish a continuously staffed base or permanent settlement on the Moon must safely meet the challenges posed by the Moon's surface environment. This environment is drastically different from the Earth's, and radiation and meteoroids are significant hazards to human safety. These dangers may be mitigated through the use of underground habitats, the piling up of lunar materials as shielding, and the use of teleoperated devices for surface operations. The lunar environment is detailed along with concepts for survival.

  14. Analog environments in space human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of what has been learned from space analog environments, which mimic such significant features of space as isolation, confinement, risk, and deprivation; emphasis is placed on the especially successful environments constituted by extended submarine research, undersea habitats, and Antarctic station wintering. Attention is also given to the advantages and limitations of the use of analog environments for space human factors research, and possibilities for such research efforts' management.

  15. Trade Space Assessment for Human Exploration Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, B. Kent

    2006-01-01

    Many human space exploration mission architecture assessments have been performed over the years by diverse organizations and individuals. Direct comparison of metrics among these studies is extremely difficult due to widely varying assumptions involving projected technology readiness, mission goals, acceptable risk criteria, and socio-political environments. However, constant over the years have been the physical laws of celestial dynamics and rocket propulsion systems. A finite diverse yet finite architecture trade space should exist which captures methods of human exploration - particularly of the Moon and Mars - by delineating technical trades and cataloging the physically realizable options of each. A particular architectural approach should then have a traceable path through this "trade tree". It should be pointed out that not every permutation of paths will result in a physically realizable mission approach, but cataloging options that have been examined by past studies should help guide future analysis. This effort was undertaken in two phases by multi-center NASA working groups in the spring and summer of 2004 using more than thirty years of past studies to "flesh out" the Moon-Mars human exploration trade space. The results are presented, not as a "trade tree", which would be unwieldy, but as a "menu" of potential technical options as a function of mission phases. This is envisioned as a tool to aid future mission designers by offering guidance to relevant past analyses.

  16. Exploring perceptions of the educational environment among undergraduate physiotherapy students

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Ingrid; Sundberg, Tobias; Nilsson, Gunnar H.; Laksov, Klara B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore areas of strength and weakness in the educational environment as perceived by undergraduate physiotherapy students and to investigate these areas in relation to the respondents’ demographic characteristics. Methods This study utilized a cross-sectional study design and employed the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure, a 50-item, self-administered inventory relating to a variety of topics directly pertinent to educational environments. Convenience sampling was used, and the scores were compared across demographic variables. All undergraduate physiotherapy students in their first five terms of the programme in a major Swedish university were invited to participate in the study. Results A total of 222 students (80%) completed the inventory. With an overall score of 150/200 (75%), the students rated the educational environment in this institution as “more positive than negative”. Two items consistently received deprived scores - authoritarian teachers and teaching with an overemphasis on factual learning. Students in term 4 differed significantly from others, and students with earlier university education experience perceived the atmosphere more negatively than their counterparts. There were no significant differences with regards to other demographic variables. Conclusions This study provides valuable insight into how undergraduate physiotherapy students perceive their educational environment. In general, students perceived that their educational programme fostered a sound educational environment. However, some areas require remedial measures in order to enhance the educational experience. PMID:25341223

  17. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Delory, G. T.; Hine, Butler P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Horanyi, M.; Colaprete, A.; Benna, M.; Noble, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission was designed to address long-standing scientific questions about the Moon's environment, including the assessment of the composition of the lunar atmosphere, and characterization of the lunar dust environment at low orbital altitudes. LADEE was derived from the Modular Common Spacecraft Bus design that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center; it used modularized subassemblies and existing commercial spaceflight hardware to reduce cost. LADEE was launched on the very first Minotaur V, and was also the first deep space mission launched from Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. LADEE was equipped with two in situ instruments and a remote sensing instrument to address the atmosphere and dust measurement requirements. LADEE also carried the first deep-space optical communications demonstration, the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration. LADEE was launched in early September, 2013, took science data for over 140 days in low lunar orbit, and impacted the surface on April 18, 2014.

  18. Multi-robot exploration strategies for tactical tasks in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Granda, Carlos; Rogers, John G., III; Christensen, H. I.

    2013-05-01

    Mobile robots are already widely used by first responders both in civilian and military operations. Our current goal is to provide the human team with all the information available from an unknown environment quickly and accurate. Also, the robots need to explore autonomous because tele-operating more than two robots is very difficult and demands one person per robot to do it. In this paper the authors describe the results of several experiments on behalf of the MAST CTA. Our exploration strategies developed for the experiments use from two to nine robots which sharing information are able to explore and map an unknown environment. Each robot has a local map of the environment and transmit the measurements information to a central computer which fusion all the data to make a global map. This computer called map coordinator send exploration goals to the robot teams in order to explore the environment in the fastest way available. The performance of our exploration strategies were evaluated in different scenarios and tested in two different mobile robot platforms.

  19. The DEPTHX Project: Autonomous Exploration of Subaqueous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durda, D. D.; Stone, W. C.; DEPTHX Team

    2005-08-01

    NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) program is a science-driven exploration program that funds investigations to explore extreme environments on this planet to help develop the scientific and technological foundations to search for life on other planets. The DEep Phreatic THermal Explorer project (DEPTHX) is an ASTEP-funded field campaign that is making rapid progress in fulfilling these goals by designing and developing the technologies and techniques for exploring the deep ocean under the icy crust of Jupiter's moon Europa and searching for signs of life there. The sonar mapping sub-unit of the DEPTHX vehicle was deployed in May 2005 in the deep (over 300 meters), water-filled cenote of Zacaton, in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Zacaton offers a diversity of microbial life that varies with depth in a geometrically unknown setting, making the cenote a perfect place to test autonomous life form detection, discrimination, and collection. Seven sonar drop sonde missions were conducted reaching a depth of 280 meters. Highly detailed, 3-dimensional co-registered maps of Zacaton's walls were derived from the sonar echo data, revealing for the first time the interior structure of the cenote and the fact that it continues as an unknown void below -280m. These data are now being used as proof tests for the 3D SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) algorithm being developed as the primary navigation sub-system for the vehicle.

  20. LEAD EXPOSURES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment,...

  1. Models to explore genetics of human aging.

    PubMed

    Karasik, David; Newman, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies have bestowed insight into the biological mechanisms underlying inter-individual differences in susceptibility to (or resistance to) organisms’ aging. Recent advances in molecular and genetic epidemiology provide tools to explore the genetic sources of the variability in biological aging in humans. To be successful, the genetic study of a complex condition such as aging requires the clear definition of essential traits that can characterize the aging process phenotypically. Phenotypes of human aging have long relied on mortality rate or exceptional longevity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been shown to present an unbiased approach to the identification of new candidate genes for human diseases. The GWAS approach can also be used for positive health phenotypes such as longevity or a delay in age-related chronic disease, as well as for other age related changes such as loss of telomere length or lens transparency. Sequencing, either in targeted regions or across the whole genome can further identify rare variation that may contribute to the biological aging mechanisms. To date, the results of the GWAS for longevity are rather disappointing, possibly in part due to the small number of individuals with GWAS data who have reached advanced old age.Human aging phenotypes are needed that can be assessed prior to death, and should be both heritable and validated as predictors of longevity. Potentially, phenotypes that focus on “successful” or “healthy” aging will be more powerful as they can be measured in large numbers of people and also are clinically relevant.We postulate that construction of an integrated phenotype of aging can be achieved capitalizing on multiple traits that may have weak correlations, but a shared underlying genetic architecture. This is based on a hypothesis that convergent results from multiple individual aging-related traits will point out the pleiotropic signals responsible for the overall rate of aging of

  2. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  3. Will the US remain the real leader of human space exploration? A comparative assessment of space exploration policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimard, Max

    2012-06-01

    Human space exploration is at a turning point which should find its outcome during the coming decade: Shuttle is being retired, ISS will be exploited up to 2020 minimum. Today the US exploration plans are sucked down into political battles, Europe and Japan are nearly nowhere, Russia's plans are hazy, China's ambitions are clear and implemented, and new actors such as India are raising their profile. In this uncertain environment, the question might be asked: who will be the leaders of human space exploration in 10-15 years from now? The assumption of the paper is that some key enabling factors are essential for a country to play a substantial role in human space exploration: There should be some long term political stability or continuity The domain should be high in the political agenda of the country's decision makers The global budget environment of the country should be positive Space should not be too much competed by other budget "catchers" The paper will propose a tentative comparison of the main space faring countries plans, ambitions and likely positioning, for human space exploration. Starting from the today situation and recent past evolutions, we will try to establish future trends for these key factors, and through that to identify which countries might be the most dynamically engaged in human space exploration.

  4. Human Machine Interfaces for Teleoperators and Virtual Environments Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In a teleoperator system the human operator senses, moves within, and operates upon a remote or hazardous environment by means of a slave mechanism (a mechanism often referred to as a teleoperator). In a virtual environment system the interactive human machine interface is retained but the slave mechanism and its environment are replaced by a computer simulation. Video is replaced by computer graphics. The auditory and force sensations imparted to the human operator are similarly computer generated. In contrast to a teleoperator system, where the purpose is to extend the operator's sensorimotor system in a manner that facilitates exploration and manipulation of the physical environment, in a virtual environment system, the purpose is to train, inform, alter, or study the human operator to modify the state of the computer and the information environment. A major application in which the human operator is the target is that of flight simulation. Although flight simulators have been around for more than a decade, they had little impact outside aviation presumably because the application was so specialized and so expensive.

  5. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  6. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture

    PubMed Central

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Eichler, Evan E.

    2009-01-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, ‘anthropogeny’ (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any ‘genes versus environment’ dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture — perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity. PMID:18802414

  7. Physical environment virtualization for human activities recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poshtkar, Azin; Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2015-05-01

    Human activity recognition research relies heavily on extensive datasets to verify and validate performance of activity recognition algorithms. However, obtaining real datasets are expensive and highly time consuming. A physics-based virtual simulation can accelerate the development of context based human activity recognition algorithms and techniques by generating relevant training and testing videos simulating diverse operational scenarios. In this paper, we discuss in detail the requisite capabilities of a virtual environment to aid as a test bed for evaluating and enhancing activity recognition algorithms. To demonstrate the numerous advantages of virtual environment development, a newly developed virtual environment simulation modeling (VESM) environment is presented here to generate calibrated multisource imagery datasets suitable for development and testing of recognition algorithms for context-based human activities. The VESM environment serves as a versatile test bed to generate a vast amount of realistic data for training and testing of sensor processing algorithms. To demonstrate the effectiveness of VESM environment, we present various simulated scenarios and processed results to infer proper semantic annotations from the high fidelity imagery data for human-vehicle activity recognition under different operational contexts.

  8. Exploring host–microbiota interactions in animal models and humans

    PubMed Central

    Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Howitt, Michael R.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2013-01-01

    The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host–microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host–microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies. PMID:23592793

  9. The Interplanetary Meteoroid Environment for eXploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, R. H.; Sommer, M.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.; Strub, P.; Rodmann, J.; Vaubaillon, J.; Hornig, A.; Bausch, L.; Herzog, J.

    2014-04-01

    The 'Interplanetary Meteoroid Environment for eXploration' (IMEX) project, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), aims to develop a model of recent cometary trails and meteoroid streams in the inner solar system. The goal is to create a database of dust trails from short-period comets in the inner solar system, which can be used for a variety of impact hazard and scientific purposes. Here we discuss the performance of the model for individual trails and the construction of the full database of streams from ~ 400 short period comets.

  10. Object guided autonomous exploration for mobile robots in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Granda, Carlos; Choudhary, Siddarth; Rogers, John G.; Twigg, Jeff; Murali, Varun; Christensen, Henrik I.

    2014-06-01

    Autonomous mobile robotic teams are increasingly used in exploration of indoor environments. Accurate modeling of the world around the robot and describing the interaction of the robot with the world greatly increases the ability of the robot to act autonomously. This paper demonstrates the ability of autonomous robotic teams to find objects of interest. A novel feature of our approach is the object discovery and the use of it to augment the mapping and navigation process. The generated map can then be decomposed into semantic regions while also considering the distance and line of sight to anchor points. The advantage of this approach is that the robot can return a dense map of the region around an object of interest. The robustness of this approach is demonstrated in indoor environments with multiple platforms with the objective of discovering objects of interest.

  11. Exploration for Agents with Different Personalities in Unknown Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    We present in this paper a personality-based architecture (PA) that combines elements from the subsumption architecture and reinforcement learning to find alternate solutions for problems facing artificial agents exploring unknown environments. The underlying PA algorithm is decomposed into layers according to the different (non-contiguous) stages that our agent passes in, which in turn are influenced by the sources of rewards present in the environment. The cumulative rewards collected by an agent, in addition to its internal composition serve as factors in shaping its personality. In missions where multiple agents are deployed, our solution-goal is to allow each of the agents develop its own distinct personality in order for the collective to reach a balanced society, which then can accumulate the largest possible amount of rewards for the agent and society as well. The architecture is tested in a simulated matrix world which embodies different types of positive rewards and negative rewards. Varying experiments are performed to compare the performance of our algorithm with other algorithms under the same environment conditions. The use of our architecture accelerates the overall adaptation of the agents to their environment and goals by allowing the emergence of an optimal society of agents with different personalities. We believe that our approach achieves much efficient results when compared to other more restrictive policy designs.

  12. Human-computer symbiosis in cyberspace environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J.; Levin, E.; Sergeyev, A.

    2012-06-01

    The main goal of a cyberspace environment is to support decision makers with relevant information on time for operational use. Cyberspace environments depend on geospatial data including terrestrial, aerial/UAV, satellite and other multi-sensor data obtained in electro-optical and other imaging domains. Despite advances in automated geospatial image processing, the "human in the loop" is still necessary because current applications depend upon complex algorithms and adequate classification rules that can only be provided by skilled geospatial professionals. Signals extracted from humans may become an element of a cyberspace system. This paper describes research experiments on integrating an EEG device within geospatial technology.

  13. Ascertaining Human Identity in Night Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourlai, T.; Kalka, N.; Cao, D.; Decann, B.; Jafri, Z.; Nicolo, F.; Whitelam, C.; Zuo, J.; Adjeroh, D.; Cukic, B.; Dawson, J.; Hornak, L.; Ross, A.; Schmid, N. A.

    Understanding patterns of human activity from the fusion of multimodal sensor surveillance sources is an important capability. Most related research emphasizes improvement in the performance of biometric systems in controlled conditions characterized by suitable lighting and favorable acquisition distances. However, the need for monitoring humans in night environments is of equal if not greater importance. This chapter will present techniques for the extraction, processing and matching of biometrics under adverse night conditions in the presence of either natural or artificial illumination. Our work includes capture, analysis and evaluation of a broad range of electromagnetic bands suitable for night-time image acquisition, including visible light, near infrared (IR), extended near IR and thermal IR. We develop algorithms for human detection and tracking from night-time imagery at ranges between 5 and 200 meters. Identification algorithms include face, iris, and gait recognition, supplemented by soft biometric features. Our preliminary research indicates the challenges in performing human identification in night-time environments.

  14. Exploring Mars for Evidence of Habitable Environments and Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The climate of Mars has been more similar to that of Earth than has the climate of any other planet in our Solar System. But Mars still provides a valuable alternative example of how planetary processes and environments can affect the potential presence of life elsewhere. For example, although Mars also differentiated very early into a core, mantle and crust, it then evolved mostly if not completely without plate tectonics and has lost most of its early atmosphere. The Martian crust has been more stable than that of Earth, thus it has probably preserved a more complete record of its earliest history. Orbital observations determined that near-surface water was once pervasive. Orbiters have identified the following diverse aqueous sedimentary deposits: layered phyllosilicates, phyllosilicates in intracrater fans, plains sediments potentially harboring evaporitic minerals, deep phyllosilicates, carbonate-bearing deposits, intracrater clay-sulfate deposits, Meridiani-type layered deposits, valles-type layered deposits, hydrated silica-bearing deposits, and gypsum plains. These features, together with evidence of more vigorous past geologic activity, indicate that early climates were wetter and perhaps also somewhat warmer. The denser atmosphere that was required for liquid water to be stable on the surface also provided more substantial protection from radiation. Whereas ancient climates might have favored habitable environments at least in some localities, clearly much of the Martian surface for most of its history has been markedly less favorable for life. The combination of dry conditions, oxidizing surface environments and typically low rates of sedimentation are not conducive to the preservation of evidence of ancient environments and any biota. Thus a strategy is required whereby candidate sites are first identified and then characterized for their potential to preserve evidence of past habitable environments. Rovers are then sent to explore the most promising

  15. Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments are presented along with a list of attendees. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the state-of-technology and level of maturity of several areas in human-computer interaction and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of these facilities in the design/fabrication and operation of future high-performance engineering systems.

  16. Human utilization of subsurface extraterrestrial environments.

    PubMed

    Boston, P J; Frederick, R D; Welch, S M; Werker, J; Meyer, T R; Sprungman, B; Hildreth-Werker, V; Thompson, S L; Murphy, D L

    2003-06-01

    Caves have been used in the ancient past as shelter or habitat by many organisms (including humans). Since antiquity, humans have explored caves for the minerals they contain and sometimes for ceremonial purposes. Over the past century, caves have become the target of increasing exploration, scientific research, and recreation. The use of caves on extraterrestrial bodies for human habitation has been suggested by several investigators. Lunar lava tube bases received early attention because lava tubes were clearly visible in lunar images from the Apollo Era. More recently, Mars Observer Camera data has shown us clear evidence of large tubes visible in a number of volcanic regions on Mars. The budding field of cave geomicrobiology has direct application to questions about subsurface life on other planets. Caves contain many unusual organisms making their living from unlikely materials like manganese, iron, and sulfur. This makes caves and other subsurface habitats prime targets for astrobiological missions to Mars and possibly other bodies. We present the results of a completed Phase I and on-going Phase II NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) study that intensively examines the possibilities of using extraterrestrial caves as both a resource for human explorers and as a highly promising scientific target for both robotic and future human missions to Mars and beyond. PMID:12959139

  17. Development and demonstration of autonomous behaviors for urban environment exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Fellars, Donald; Kogut, Gregory; Pacis Rius, Estrellina; Schoolov, Misha; Xydes, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Under the Urban Environment Exploration project, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacic (SSC- PAC) is maturing technologies and sensor payloads that enable man-portable robots to operate autonomously within the challenging conditions of urban environments. Previously, SSC-PAC has demonstrated robotic capabilities to navigate and localize without GPS and map the ground oors of various building sizes.1 SSC-PAC has since extended those capabilities to localize and map multiple multi-story buildings within a specied area. To facilitate these capabilities, SSC-PAC developed technologies that enable the robot to detect stairs/stairwells, maintain localization across multiple environments (e.g. in a 3D world, on stairs, with/without GPS), visualize data in 3D, plan paths between any two points within the specied area, and avoid 3D obstacles. These technologies have been developed as independent behaviors under the Autonomous Capabilities Suite, a behavior architecture, and demonstrated at a MOUT site at Camp Pendleton. This paper describes the perceptions and behaviors used to produce these capabilities, as well as an example demonstration scenario.

  18. Destination Deimos: A Design Reference Architecture for Initial Human Exploration of the Mars System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, James S.; Adamo, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    The two biggest challenges to successful human operations in interplanetary space are flight dynamics, constrained by the cold hard physics of the rocket equation, and bioastronautics, the psychophysiological realities of human adaptation, or lack thereof, to the deep space environment. Without substantial innovation in project/mission architecture and vehicle design, human exploration of the Mars system could be problematic for decades. Although a human landing on Mars is inevitable, humans-in-the-loop telerobotic exploration from the outer Martian moon Deimos is the best way to begin. Precursor robotic missions for reconnaissance and local site preparation will be required.

  19. Human Environment Conference: The Rush for Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazell, Robert J.

    1971-01-01

    Describes the maneuvering to offer advice" to the planners of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment by nongovernment organizations, including the International Congress of Scientific Unions, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and the Scientists' Institute for Public Information. (AL)

  20. Exploring NASA Human Spaceflight and Pioneering Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; Wilhite, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle cost analysis of space exploration scenarios is explored via a merger of (1) scenario planning, separating context and (2) modeling and analysis of specific content. Numerous scenarios are presented, leading to cross-cutting recommendations addressing life cycle costs, productivity, and approaches applicable to any scenarios. Approaches address technical and non-technical factors.

  1. Olfactory Environment Design for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, C. S.; Holland, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    Smell is usually deemed the least important of the five senses. To contradict this assertion, however, there is no shortage of scientific literature which concludes that olfaction is of very great significance to humans. Odours have been shown to have a variety of effects on humans, and are capable of changing both behaviour and cognitive processing in ways that we are frequently completely unconscious of. Examples of this include alertness, alteration of mood, capacity for ideation and intellectual performance. To date, the design of human spacecraft has concentrated on making their olfactory environments, where possible, `odour neutral' - that is ensuring that all unpleasant and/or offensive odours are removed. Here it suggested that spacecraft (and other extraterrestrial facilities for human inhabitation) might benefit from having their olfactory environments designed to be `odour positive', that is to use odours and olfaction for the positive benefit of their residents. This paper presents a summary of current olfactory research and considers both its positive and negative implications for humans in space. It then discusses `odour positive' design of spacecraft olfactory environments and the possible benefits accruing from this approach before examining its implications for the architecture of spacecraft environmental control systems.

  2. INTEGRITY - Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    It is proposed to develop a high-fidelity ground facility to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology-all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in duration from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to .build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed, the

  3. Morpheus: Advancing Technologies for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olansen, Jon B.; Munday, Stephen R.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Baine, Michael

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing. Designed to serve as a vertical testbed (VTB) for advanced spacecraft technologies, the vehicle provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. This allows individual technologies to mature into capabilities that can be incorporated into human exploration missions. The Morpheus vehicle is propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a payload of 1100 lb to the lunar surface. In addition to VTB vehicles, the Project s major elements include ground support systems and an operations facility. Initial testing will demonstrate technologies used to perform autonomous hazard avoidance and precision landing on a lunar or other planetary surface. The Morpheus vehicle successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tethered hover tests, leading up to un-tethered free-flights. The initial phase of this development and testing campaign is being conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), with the first fully integrated vehicle firing its engine less than one year after project initiation. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs that traditionally require longer, more expensive development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. Morpheus testing includes three major types of integrated tests. A hot-fire (HF) is a static vehicle test of the LOX/Methane propulsion system. Tether tests (TT) have the vehicle suspended above the ground using a crane, which allows testing of the propulsion and integrated Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in hovering flight without the risk of a vehicle departure or crash. Morpheus free-flights (FF) test the complete Morpheus system without the additional

  4. Exploiting Lunar Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments for Exploration and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.; McKellip, Rodney; Brannon, David P.; Russell, Kristen J.

    2008-01-01

    Near the poles of the Moon, there are permanently shadowed craters whose surface temperatures never exceed 100 K. Craters within craters, commonly referred to as double-shaded craters, have areas where even colder regions exist with, in many cases, temperatures that should never exceed 50 K. The presence of water ice possibly existing in permanently shaded areas of the moon has been hypothesized, discussed, and studied since Watson et al. [1] predicted the possibility of ice on the moon. Ingersoll et al. [2] estimated that the maximum sublimation rate for ice is less than 1 cm per billion years for these types of environments. These potential ice stores have many uses for lunar exploration, potentially providing precious water and rocket fuel for any human exploration or future colonization. The temperatures within these regions offer unprecedented high-vacuum cryogenic environments, which in their natural state could support cryogenic applications such as high-temperature superconductors and associated devices that could be derived. The potential application of naturally occurring cryogenic environments in conjunction with simple methods to augment these environments to achieve even colder temperatures opens the potential use of many additional cryogenic techniques. Besides ice stores and the potential for continuous solar illumination for power production, the unique cryogenic conditions at the lunar poles provide an environment that could reduce the power, weight, and total mass that would have to be carried from the Earth to the Moon for lunar exploration and research.

  5. Exploring the Solar System with a Human Orrery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbury, Peter R.; Gendre, M. A.; Gladman, B.; Kasian, L. E.; Meger, N.

    2009-05-01

    Astronomy instructors, and those teaching other sciences, are slowly coming to the realization that it's not what the instructor does that matters - it's what the students do for themselves. To foster this approach to learning, the instructor's role is to provide an environment - an engaging task, a target for the students' focus and guidance - in which the students discover the concepts for themselves. With this role in mind, for a large class of undergraduate non-Science majors, we adapted the human orrery designed by the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland into one that can be easily built and explored by a class of 30-40 students in a 1-hour tutorial. Students actively and individually explore the scale of the Solar System and the motion of the planets. As the human orrery requires a large, open space, we staged the activity in the foyer of the University library as a public outreach event celebrating IYA2009, generating tremendous enthusiasm and support from students, faculty, library staff and University administration. This work is supported by the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia.

  6. Scripting human animations in a virtual environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Pandya, Abhilash K.; Maida, James C.

    1994-01-01

    The current deficiencies of virtual environment (VE) are well known: annoying lag time in drawing the current view, drastically simplified environments to reduce that time lag, low resolution and narrow field of view. Animation scripting is an application of VE technology which can be carried out successfully despite these deficiencies. The final product is a smoothly moving high resolution animation displaying detailed models. In this system, the user is represented by a human computer model with the same body proportions. Using magnetic tracking, the motions of the model's upper torso, head and arms are controlled by the user's movements (18 degrees of freedom). The model's lower torso and global position and orientation are controlled by a spaceball and keypad (12 degrees of freedom). Using this system human motion scripts can be extracted from the user's movements while immersed in a simplified virtual environment. Recorded data is used to define key frames; motion is interpolated between them and post processing adds a more detailed environment. The result is a considerable savings in time and a much more natural-looking movement of a human figure in a smooth and seamless animation.

  7. Understanding Movement: A Sociocultural Approach to Exploring Moving Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Hakan; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to outline a sociocultural way of exploring human movement. Our ambition is to develop an analytical framework where moving humans are explored in terms of what it means to move as movements are performed by somebody, for a certain purpose, and in a certain situation. We find this approach in poststructural…

  8. Human Exploration and Development of Space: Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell (Editor); Allen, Marc (Editor); Bihner, William (Editor); Craig, Mark (Editor); Crouch, Matthew (Editor); Crouch, Roger (Editor); Flaherty, Chris (Editor); Haynes, Norman (Editor); Horowitz, Steven (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The five goals of the Human Exploration and Development of Space include: 1) Explore the Space Frontier; 2) Expand Scientific Knowledge; 3) Enable Humans to Live and Work Permanently in Space; 4) Enable the Commercial Development of Space; and 5) Share the Experience and Benefits of Discovery.

  9. Exploring Cultural Heritage Resources in a 3d Collaborative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Respaldiza, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Vázquez Hoehne, A.

    2012-06-01

    Cultural heritage is a complex and diverse concept, which brings together a wide domain of information. Resources linked to a cultural heritage site may consist of physical artefacts, books, works of art, pictures, historical maps, aerial photographs, archaeological surveys and 3D models. Moreover, all these resources are listed and described by a set of a variety of metadata specifications that allow their online search and consultation on the most basic characteristics of them. Some examples include Norma ISO 19115, Dublin Core, AAT, CDWA, CCO, DACS, MARC, MoReq, MODS, MuseumDat, TGN, SPECTRUM, VRA Core and Z39.50. Gateways are in place to fit in these metadata standards into those used in a SDI (ISO 19115 or INSPIRE), but substantial work still remains to be done for the complete incorporation of cultural heritage information. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the complexity of cultural heritage resources can be dealt with by a visual exploration of their metadata within a 3D collaborative environment. The 3D collaborative environments are promising tools that represent the new frontier of our capacity of learning, understanding, communicating and transmitting culture.

  10. Robust mobility in human-populated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Juan Pablo; Phillips, Mike; Neuman, Brad; Likhachev, Max

    2012-06-01

    Creating robots that can help humans in a variety of tasks requires robust mobility and the ability to safely navigate among moving obstacles. This paper presents an overview of recent research in the Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) that addresses many of the core requirements for robust mobility in human-populated environments. Safe Interval Path Planning (SIPP) allows for very fast planning in dynamic environments when planning timeminimal trajectories. Generalized Safe Interval Path Planning extends this concept to trajectories that minimize arbitrary cost functions. Finally, generalized PPCP algorithm is used to generate plans that reason about the uncertainty in the predicted trajectories of moving obstacles and try to actively disambiguate the intentions of humans whenever necessary. We show how these approaches consider moving obstacles and temporal constraints and produce high-fidelity paths. Experiments in simulated environments show the performance of the algorithms under different controlled conditions, and experiments on physical mobile robots interacting with humans show how the algorithms perform under the uncertainties of the real world.

  11. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  12. Scalable metadata environments (MDE): artistically impelled immersive environments for large-scale data exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Ruth G.; Margolis, Todd; Prudhomme, Andrew; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Mostafavi, Iman; Lewis, J. P.; Gossmann, Joachim; Singh, Rajvikram

    2014-02-01

    Scalable Metadata Environments (MDEs) are an artistic approach for designing immersive environments for large scale data exploration in which users interact with data by forming multiscale patterns that they alternatively disrupt and reform. Developed and prototyped as part of an art-science research collaboration, we define an MDE as a 4D virtual environment structured by quantitative and qualitative metadata describing multidimensional data collections. Entire data sets (e.g.10s of millions of records) can be visualized and sonified at multiple scales and at different levels of detail so they can be explored interactively in real-time within MDEs. They are designed to reflect similarities and differences in the underlying data or metadata such that patterns can be visually/aurally sorted in an exploratory fashion by an observer who is not familiar with the details of the mapping from data to visual, auditory or dynamic attributes. While many approaches for visual and auditory data mining exist, MDEs are distinct in that they utilize qualitative and quantitative data and metadata to construct multiple interrelated conceptual coordinate systems. These "regions" function as conceptual lattices for scalable auditory and visual representations within virtual environments computationally driven by multi-GPU CUDA-enabled fluid dyamics systems.

  13. Human exploration of space and power development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Aaron

    1991-01-01

    Reasons for mounting the Space Exploration Initiative, the variables facing U.S. planners, and the developmental technologies that will be needed to support this initiative are discussed. The three more advanced technological approaches in the field of power generation described include a lunar-based solar power system, a geosynchronous-based earth orbit solar power satellite system, and the utilization of helium-3/deuterium fusion reaction to create a nuclear fuel cycle. It is noted that the major elements of the SEI will include a heavy-lift launch vehicle, a transfer vehicle and a descent/ascent vehicle for use on lunar missions and adaptable to Mars exploration.

  14. Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment

    PubMed Central

    Meaden, Sean; Koskella, Britt

    2013-01-01

    Interest in using bacteriophages to control the growth and spread of bacterial pathogens is being revived in the wake of widespread antibiotic resistance. However, little is known about the ecological effects that high concentrations of phages in the environment might have on natural microbial communities. We review the current evidence suggesting phage-mediated environmental perturbation, with a focus on agricultural examples, and describe the potential implications for human health and agriculture. Specifically, we examine the known and potential consequences of phage application in certain agricultural practices, discuss the risks of evolved bacterial resistance to phages, and question whether the future of phage therapy will emulate that of antibiotic treatment in terms of widespread resistance. Finally, we propose some basic precautions that could preclude such phenomena and highlight existing methods for tracking bacterial resistance to phage therapeutic agents. PMID:24348468

  15. Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment.

    PubMed

    Meaden, Sean; Koskella, Britt

    2013-01-01

    Interest in using bacteriophages to control the growth and spread of bacterial pathogens is being revived in the wake of widespread antibiotic resistance. However, little is known about the ecological effects that high concentrations of phages in the environment might have on natural microbial communities. We review the current evidence suggesting phage-mediated environmental perturbation, with a focus on agricultural examples, and describe the potential implications for human health and agriculture. Specifically, we examine the known and potential consequences of phage application in certain agricultural practices, discuss the risks of evolved bacterial resistance to phages, and question whether the future of phage therapy will emulate that of antibiotic treatment in terms of widespread resistance. Finally, we propose some basic precautions that could preclude such phenomena and highlight existing methods for tracking bacterial resistance to phage therapeutic agents. PMID:24348468

  16. Human System Drivers for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of DRM4 in terms of the human system includes the ability to meet NASA standards, the inclusion of the human system in the design trade space, preparation for future missions and consideration of a robotic precursor mission. Ensuring both the safety and the performance capability of the human system depends upon satisfying NASA Space Flight Human System Standards.1 These standards in turn drive the development of program-specific requirements for Near-earth Object (NEO) missions. In evaluating DRM4 in terms of these human system standards, the currently existing risk models, technologies and biological countermeasures were used. A summary of this evaluation is provided below in a structure that supports a mission architecture planning activities. 1. Unacceptable Level of Risk The duration of the DRM4 mission leads to an unacceptable level of risk for two aspects of human system health: A. The permissible exposure limit for space flight radiation exposure (a human system standard) would be exceeded by DRM4. B. The risk of visual alterations and abnormally high intracranial pressure would be too high. 1

  17. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    Paravati, Gianluca; Gatteschi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  18. Human exploration of space and power development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Aaron

    1991-01-01

    The possible role of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) in advancing the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative is considered. Three approaches are examined: (1) the use of lunar raw materials to construct a large SPS in GEO, (2) the construction of a similar system on the lunar surface, and (3) a combination of (1) and (2). Emphasis is given to the mining of He-3 from the moon and its use by the SPS.

  19. Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

  20. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA).

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. PMID:14649261

  1. NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Hine, Butler; McClard, Steven; Grayzeck, Edwin; Boroson, Don

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 40 years have passed since the last Apollo missions investigated the mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. The most important questions remain: what is the composition, structure and variability of the tenuous lunar exosphere? What are its origins, transport mechanisms, and loss processes? Is lofted lunar dust the cause of the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor missions and Apollo astronauts? How does such levitated dust arise and move, what is its density, and what is its ultimate fate? The US National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) reports have identified studies of the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment as among the leading priorities for future lunar science missions. These measurements have become particularly important since recent observations by the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission point to significant amounts of water and other volatiles sequestered within polar lunar cold traps. Moreover Chandrayaan/M3, EPOXI and Cassini/VIMS have identified molecular water and hydroxyl on lunar surface regolith grains. Variability in concentration suggests these species are likely to be present in the exosphere, and thus constitute a source for the cold traps. NASA s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is currently under development to address these goals. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. LADEE s results are relevant to surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, will address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and will have

  2. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  3. Human Support Technology Research to Enable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Jitendra

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: Advanced life support. System integration, modeling, and analysis. Progressive capabilities. Water processing. Air revitalization systems. Why advanced CO2 removal technology? Solid waste resource recovery systems: lyophilization. ISRU technologies for Mars life support. Atmospheric resources of Mars. N2 consumable/make-up for Mars life. Integrated test beds. Monitoring and controlling the environment. Ground-based commercial technology. Optimizing size vs capability. Water recovery systems. Flight verification topics.

  4. The Exploration of Mars by Humans: Why Mars? Why Humans?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    As we commemorate the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's historic flight in 1961, the first flight of a human in space, plans are underway for another historic human mission. Plans are being developed for a human mission to Mars. Once we reach Mars, the human species will become the first two-planet species. Both the Bush Administration (in 2004) and the Obama Administration (in 2010) proposed a human mission to Mars as a national goal of the United States.

  5. Estimating the costs of human space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The plan for NASA's new exploration initiative has the following strategic themes: (1) incremental, logical evolutionary development; (2) economic viability; and (3) excellence in management. The cost estimation process is involved with all of these themes and they are completely dependent upon the engineering cost estimator for success. The purpose is to articulate the issues associated with beginning this major new government initiative, to show how NASA intends to resolve them, and finally to demonstrate the vital importance of a leadership role by the cost estimation community.

  6. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  7. SLS-Derived Lab: Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2014-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in work and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Robotic missions have successfully demonstrated transportation, entry, landing and surface operations but for human missions there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) are the unanswered questions concerning long-duration exploration beyond low-earth-orbit. The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside earth's protective geo-magnetic field they cannot be resolved on the earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at the relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 meter and 4.3 meter diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit Habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems, solutions are not obvious, and require integrated, iterative, and multi-disciplinary development. A lunar

  8. A Flexible Path for Human and Robotic Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeyer, David J.; Landis, Robert; Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Falck, Robert D.; Adams, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    During the summer of 2009, a flexible path scenario for human and robotic space exploration was developed that enables frequent, measured, and publicly notable human exploration of space beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The formulation of this scenario was in support of the Exploration Beyond LEO subcommittee of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee that was commissioned by President Obama. Exploration mission sequences that allow humans to visit a wide number of inner solar system destinations were investigated. The scope of destinations included the Earth-Moon and Earth-Sun Lagrange points, near-Earth objects (NEOs), the Moon, and Mars and its moons. The missions examined assumed the use of Constellation Program elements along with existing launch vehicles and proposed augmentations. Additionally, robotic missions were envisioned as complements to human exploration through precursor missions, as crew emplaced scientific investigations, and as sample gathering assistants to the human crews. The focus of the flexible path approach was to gain ever-increasing operational experience through human exploration missions ranging from a few weeks to several years in duration, beginning in deep space beyond LEO and evolving to landings on the Moon and eventually Mars.

  9. The Role of Lunar Development in Human Exploration of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1999-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system can be said to have begun with the Apollo landings on the Moon. The Apollo Project was publicly funded with the narrow technical objective of landing human beings on the Moon. The transportation and life support systems were specialized technical designs, developed in a project management environment tailored to that objective. Most scenarios for future human exploration assume a similar long-term commitment of public funds to a narrowly focused project managed by a large, monolithic organization. Advocates of human exploration of space have not yet been successful in generating the political momentum required to initiate such a project to go to the Moon or to Mars. Alternative scenarios of exploration may relax some or all of the parameters of organizational complexity, great expense, narrow technical focus, required public funding, and control by a single organization. Development of the Moon using private investment is quite possibly a necessary condition for alternative scenarios to succeed.

  10. Human Centered Computing for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay

    2005-01-01

    The science objectives are to determine the aqueous, climatic, and geologic history of a site on Mars where conditions may have been favorable to the preservation of evidence of prebiotic or biotic processes. Human Centered Computing is a development process that starts with users and their needs, rather than with technology. The goal is a system design that serves the user, where the technology fits the task and the complexity is that of the task not of the tool.

  11. Mars Ascent Vehicle Design for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Thomas, Dan; Sutherlin, Steven; Stephens, Walter; Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In NASA's evolvable Mars campaign, transportation architectures for human missions to Mars rely on a combination of solar electric propulsion and chemical propulsion systems. Minimizing the Mars ascent vehicle (MAV) mass is critical in reducing the overall lander mass and also eases the requirements placed on the transportation stages. This paper presents the results of a conceptual design study to obtain a minimal MAV configuration, including subsystem designs and mass summaries.

  12. Science from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Noble, Sarah; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. The spacecraft impacted the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE’s science objectives were twofold: (1) Determine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for particles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exospheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) acquired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wavelength range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. Among the preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longitudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lunar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization processes. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent “shroud” of small dust particles between 0

  13. Robotic Assistance for Human Planetary and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyree, Kimberly S.

    2004-01-01

    Human exploration of space will need robotic assistance in many areas. The type and functionality of such robots needs to be more clearly defined as we resume human missions to the moon and begin human missions to Mars. This paper will identify possible robotic assistants, including their control modes, workplaces, and physical attributes. Current JSC human-robot interaction projects are described, and lessons learned from extensive field tests are given. Future scenario considerations are then detailed. Earth-based testing of varied robotic assistants will provide a means of defining what capabilities are needed for future exploration.

  14. Robonaut 2 Maps The Way For Human Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robonaut 2 is one of the advanced robotic capabilities being developed by NASA to survey deep space and planetary surfaces, and to map the way for future human exploration. From working onboard the...

  15. Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise: The Scientific Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Carl

    1973-01-01

    Presents examples which illustrate the importance of space exploration in diverse aspects of scientific knowledge. Indicates that human beings are today not wise enough to anticipate the practical benefits of planetary studies. (CC)

  16. Future directions in human-environment research.

    PubMed

    Moran, Emilio F; Lopez, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Human-environment research in the 21st century will need to change in major ways. It will need to integrate the natural and the social sciences; it will need to engage stakeholders and citizens in the design of research and in the delivery of science for the benefit of society; it will need to address ethical and democratic goals; and it will need to address a myriad of important theoretical and methodological challenges that continue to impede progress in the advance of sustainability science. PMID:26422805

  17. The human impact on the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Goudie, A.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation of the environment and of landscapes by human actions has become one of the most critical issues on any agenda for the 21st century. This book is a source of information to students in environmental studies, offering an expanded treatment of atmospheric effects - particularly acid deposition, ozone depletion, and the buildup of greenhouse gases - and of future scenarios relating to global warming trends. The author focuses on the critical man/land relationships that result in environmental change, hazards, or degradation, covering plants, animals, soil, waters, geomorphology, climate, and atmosphere.

  18. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuster, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  19. Robotic and Human Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  20. NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team: Lunar Surface Exploration Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s agency wide Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to support the ongoing effort to characterize NASA s future human exploration strategy. The DRM design effort includes specific articulations of transportation and surface elements, technologies and operations required to enable future human exploration of various destinations including the moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars as well as interim cis-lunar targets. In prior architecture studies, transportation concerns have dominated the analysis. As a result, an effort was made to study the human utilization strategy at each specific destination and the resultant impacts on the overall architecture design. In particular, this paper considers various lunar surface strategies as representative scenarios that could occur in a human lunar return, and demonstrates their alignment with the internationally developed Global Exploration Roadmap (GER).

  1. Addressing Human System Risks to Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Francisco, D. R.; Davis, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is contemplating future human exploration missions to destinations beyond low Earth orbit, including the Moon, deep-space asteroids, and Mars. While we have learned much about protecting crew health and performance during orbital space flight over the past half-century, the challenges of these future missions far exceed those within our current experience base. To ensure success in these missions, we have developed a Human System Risk Board (HSRB) to identify, quantify, and develop mitigation plans for the extraordinary risks associated with each potential mission scenario. The HSRB comprises research, technology, and operations experts in medicine, physiology, psychology, human factors, radiation, toxicology, microbiology, pharmacology, and food sciences. Methods: Owing to the wide range of potential mission characteristics, we first identified the hazards to human health and performance common to all exploration missions: altered gravity, isolation/confinement, increased radiation, distance from Earth, and hostile/closed environment. Each hazard leads to a set of risks to crew health and/or performance. For example the radiation hazard leads to risks of acute radiation syndrome, central nervous system dysfunction, soft tissue degeneration, and carcinogenesis. Some of these risks (e.g., acute radiation syndrome) could affect crew health or performance during the mission, while others (e.g., carcinogenesis) would more likely affect the crewmember well after the mission ends. We next defined a set of design reference missions (DRM) that would span the range of exploration missions currently under consideration. In addition to standard (6-month) and long-duration (1-year) missions in low Earth orbit (LEO), these DRM include deep space sortie missions of 1 month duration, lunar orbital and landing missions of 1 year duration, deep space journey and asteroid landing missions of 1 year duration, and Mars orbital and landing missions of 3 years duration. We then

  2. Radiation risk and human space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. Radiation risk and human space exploration.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. PMID:12577903

  4. New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In FY 2001, NASA will undertake a new research and technology program supporting the goals of human exploration: the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploration/Commercialization Technology Initiative (HTCI). The HTCI represents a new strategic approach to exploration technology, in which an emphasis will be placed on identifying and developing technologies for systems and infrastructures that may be common among exploration and commercial development of space objectives. A family of preliminary strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps have been formulated that address "technology for human exploration and development of space (THREADS). These road maps frame and bound the likely content of the HTCL Notional technology themes for the initiative include: (1) space resources development, (2) space utilities and power, (3) habitation and bioastronautics, (4) space assembly, inspection and maintenance, (5) exploration and expeditions, and (6) space transportation. This paper will summarize the results of the THREADS road mapping process and describe the current status and content of the HTCI within that framework. The paper will highlight the space resources development theme within the Initiative and will summarize plans for the coming year.

  5. Human Space Exploration architecture study in TAS-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perino, M. A.

    The international space exploration plans foresee in the next decades multiple robotic and human missions to Moon, Mars and asteroids. The US Space Exploration program addresses the objective "to explore space and extend a human presence across the Solar System". Main steps include the completion of the International Space Station and its utilization in support of space exploration goals, "as the launching point for missions beyond the Low Earth Orbit". Along a parallel matching path, Europe has developed a roadmap for exploration - Aurora - and has supported design activities on combined Moon-Mars Exploration Architectures. Thales Alenia Space - Italia has been involved in the major European activities related to exploration and it is currently analyzing the different exploration scenarios considered by the major Space Agencies with the objective to identify an international reference scenario for exploration taking into account the need to balance collaboration at international level due to the highly demanding nature of planetary exploration missions, and the development of autonomous key capabilities considered of strategic importance.

  6. Architectures for Human Exploration of Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation explores human exploration of Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) key factors including challenges of supporting humans for long-durations in deep-space, incorporation of advanced technologies, mission design constraints, and how many launches are required to conduct a round trip human mission to a NEA. Topics include applied methodology, all chemical NEA mission operations, all nuclear thermal propulsion NEA mission operations, SEP only for deep space mission operations, and SEP/chemical hybrid mission operations. Examples of mass trends between datasets are provided as well as example sensitivity of delta-v and trip home, sensitivity of number of launches and trip home, and expected targets for various transportation architectures.

  7. Teleoperation from Mars Orbit: A proposal for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    For a human expedition to Mars, a case can be made that the best strategy for initial exploration is not to actually land the humans on Mars, but to put the humans into Mars orbit and operate on the surface by the technology of teleoperation. This will provide the results of human exploration, but at greatly reduced risk and cost. Teleoperation of Mars surface robots from a Mars-orbital habitat will operation near real time operation with minimum time delay, giving a virtual presence on the surface. By use of teleoperation, it is possible to vastly simplify the surface exploration mission. We now have no need to develop a human-rated Mars Lander and Mars Ascent Vehicle, and we can send geologists & biologists on the mission; not VTOL pilots. It is a cheaper, simpler, and safer way to explore, and hence it will be a faster way to explore. It has the excitement of being there, at a fraction of the price. Tele-exploration from Mars orbit also allows human (virtual) presence at a wide variety of locations. With an orbital base controlling surface telerobotics, human explorers are not stuck with one base location, but can explore all over Mars. They can explore the polar caps and also near-equatorial canyon regions, from the same orbiting base. This frees the mission from landing site constraints. With no need to select a "grab bag" site that contains a large number of geologically diverse features at or near a single location; it is now possible go to all the best sites-- paleolake sites, river beds, volcanic calderas, lava tube sites, layered terrain, canyons, possible shoreline features, the North and South poles. A near-polar inclination 24-hr 39-minute period Mars orbit, for example, will put the orbital station in line-of-sight of a given region for about 8 hours per day-- one teleoperation shift. Since present day life could exist on Mars, planetary protection is also needed to preserve the (possible) fragile Mars biosphere from competition from ferocious Earth

  8. Innovative Technologies for Human Exploration: Opportunities for Partnerships and Leveraging Novel Technologies External to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hay, Jason; Mullins, Carie; Graham, Rachael; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Reeves, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Human spaceflight organizations have ambitious goals for expanding human presence throughout the solar system. To meet these goals, spaceflight organizations have to overcome complex technical challenges for human missions to Mars, Near Earth Asteroids, and other distant celestial bodies. Resolving these challenges requires considerable resources and technological innovations, such as advancements in human health and countermeasures for space environments; self-sustaining habitats; advanced power and propulsion systems; and information technologies. Today, government space agencies seek cooperative endeavors to reduce cost burdens, improve human exploration capabilities, and foster knowledge sharing among human spaceflight organizations. This paper looks at potential opportunities for partnerships and spin-ins from economic sectors outside the space industry. It highlights innovative technologies and breakthrough concepts that could have significant impacts on space exploration and identifies organizations throughout the broader economy that specialize in these technologies.

  9. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  10. Human life support for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  11. NASA'S Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: An international approach toward bringing science and human exploration together for mutual benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and explora-tion, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. The institute is a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdis-ciplinary, research-focused collaborations. Its relative-ly large domestic teams work together along with in-ternational partners in both traditional and virtual set-tings to bring disparate approaches together for mutual benefit. This talk will describe the research efforts of the nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. com-plement of the Institute and how it is engaging the in-ternational science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. The Institute is centered on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars. It focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science cen-tered around all airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study reported here will represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Mar-tian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environ-ments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. The technical focus ranges from investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. SSERVI enhances the widening knowledgebase of planetary research by acting as a bridge between several differ-ent groups and bringing together researchers from the scientific and exploration communities, multiple disci-plines across the full range of planetary sciences, and domestic and

  12. Kinds of Arguments Emerging While Exploring in a Computerized Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Ilana

    2004-01-01

    In this paper there is a description of a case in which mathematical argumentation emerge and develop between 7th grade students working in an interactive computerized environment without a deliberate mentoring. The computerized environment has its influence on the characteristics of this argumentation which include mathematical regularities based…

  13. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  14. Human Space Exploration: The Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed, to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. Why the Moon? Many questions about the Moon's potential resources and how its history is linked to that of Earth were spurred by the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment for extended expeditions. The Moon also will serve as a training ground before embarking on the longer, more difficult trip to Mars. NASA plans to build a lunar outpost at one of the lunar poles, learn to live off the land, and reduce dePendence on Earth for longer missions. America needs to extend its ability to survive in hostile environments close to our home planet before astronauts will reach Mars, a planet very much like Earth. NASA has worked with scientists to define lunar exploration goals and is addressing the opportunities for a range of scientific study on Mars. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I

  15. Human cognitive function and the obesogenic environment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ashley A; Davidson, Terry L

    2014-09-01

    Evidence is accumulating which suggests that, in addition to leading to unprecedented rates of obesity, the current food environment is contributing to the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Recent experimental research indicates that many of the cognitive deficits associated with obesity involve fundamental inhibitory processes that have important roles in the control of food intake, implicating these cognitive impairments as a risk factor for weight gain. Here, we review experiments that link obesity with deficits in memory, attentional, and behavioral control and contemplate how these deficits may predispose individuals to overeat. Specifically, we discuss how deficits in inhibitory control may reduce one's ability to resist eating when confronted with the variety of foods and food cues that are ubiquitous in today's environment. Special attention is given to the importance of memory inhibition to the control of eating and appetitive behavior, and the role of the hippocampus in this process. We also discuss the potential etiology of both obesity and obesity-related cognitive impairment, highlighting non-human animal research which links both of these effects to the consumption of the modern "Western" diet that is high in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. We conclude that part of what makes the current food environment "obesogenic" is the increased presence of food cues and the increased consumption of a diet which compromises our ability to resist those cues. Improving control over food-related cognitive processing may be useful not only for combating the obesity epidemic but also for minimizing the risk of serious cognitive disorder later in life. PMID:24631299

  16. Human Cognitive Function and the Obesogenic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating which suggests that, in addition to leading to unprecedented rates of obesity, the current food environment is contributing to the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Recent experimental research indicates that many of the cognitive deficits associated with obesity involve fundamental inhibitory processes that have important roles in the control of food intake, implicating these cognitive impairments as a risk factor for weight gain. Here, we review experiments that link obesity with deficits in memory, attentional, and behavioral control and contemplate how these deficits may predispose individuals to overeat. Specifically, we discuss how deficits in inhibitory control may reduce one’s ability to resist eating when confronted with the variety of foods and food cues that are ubiquitous in today’s environment. Special attention is given to the importance of memory inhibition to the control of eating and appetitive behavior, and the role of the hippocampus in this process. We also discuss the potential etiology of both obesity and obesity-related cognitive impairment, highlighting non-human animal research which links both of these effects to the consumption of the modern “Western” diet that is high in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. We conclude that part of what makes the current food environment “obesogenic” is the increased presence of food cues and the increased consumption of a diet which compromises our ability to resist those cues. A multi-dimensional intervention which focuses on improving control over food-related cognitive processing may be useful not only for combating the obesity epidemic but also for minimizing the risk of serious cognitive disorder later in life. PMID:24631299

  17. Visual exploration and analysis of human-robot interaction rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Boyles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel interaction paradigm for the visual exploration, manipulation and analysis of human-robot interaction (HRI) rules; our development is implemented using a visual programming interface and exploits key techniques drawn from both information visualization and visual data mining to facilitate the interaction design and knowledge discovery process. HRI is often concerned with manipulations of multi-modal signals, events, and commands that form various kinds of interaction rules. Depicting, manipulating and sharing such design-level information is a compelling challenge. Furthermore, the closed loop between HRI programming and knowledge discovery from empirical data is a relatively long cycle. This, in turn, makes design-level verification nearly impossible to perform in an earlier phase. In our work, we exploit a drag-and-drop user interface and visual languages to support depicting responsive behaviors from social participants when they interact with their partners. For our principal test case of gaze-contingent HRI interfaces, this permits us to program and debug the robots' responsive behaviors through a graphical data-flow chart editor. We exploit additional program manipulation interfaces to provide still further improvement to our programming experience: by simulating the interaction dynamics between a human and a robot behavior model, we allow the researchers to generate, trace and study the perception-action dynamics with a social interaction simulation to verify and refine their designs. Finally, we extend our visual manipulation environment with a visual data-mining tool that allows the user to investigate interesting phenomena such as joint attention and sequential behavioral patterns from multiple multi-modal data streams. We have created instances of HRI interfaces to evaluate and refine our development paradigm. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first program manipulation paradigm that integrates visual programming

  18. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2009-01-01

    This document reviews the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human exploration of Mars. The DRA represents the current best strategy for human missions. The DRA is not a formal plan, but provides a vision and context to tie current systems and technology developments to potential missions to Mars, and it also serves as a benchmark against which alternative architectures can be measured. The document also reviews the objectives and products of the 2007 study that was to update NASA's human Mars mission reference architecture, assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies, develop an understanding of methods for reducing cost/risk of human missions through investment in research, technology development and synergy with other exploration plans. There is also a review of the process by which the DRA will continue to be refined. The unique capacities of human exploration is reviewed. The possible goals and objectives of the first three human missions are presented, along with the recommendation that the mission involve a long stay visiting multiple sites.The deployment strategy is outlined and diagrammed including the pre-deployment of the many of the material requirements, and a six crew travel to Mars on a six month trajectory. The predeployment and the Orion crew vehicle are shown. The ground operations requirements are also explained. Also the use of resources found on the surface of Mars is postulated. The Mars surface exploration strategy is reviewed, including the planetary protection processes that are planned. Finally a listing of the key decisions and tenets is posed.

  19. Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Race, M. S.; Rummel, J. D.; Baker, A.

    2005-01-01

    This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop ("Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions," NASA CP-10086, 1991), but the timing of that workshop allowed neither a careful examination of the full range of issues, nor an appreciation for the Mars that has been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions. Future workshops will also have the advantage of Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and ESA's Mars Express, but the Pingree Park workshop reported here had both the NCR's (1992) concern that "Missions carrying humans to Mars will contaminate the planet" and over a decade of careful study of human exploration objectives to guide them and to reconcile. A daunting challenge, and one that is not going to be simple (as the working title of this meeting, "When Ecologies Collide?" might suggest), it is clear that the planetary protection issues will have to be addressed to enable human explorers to safely and competently extend out knowledge about Mars, and its potential as a home for life whether martian or human.

  20. SLS-Derived Lab- Precursor to Deep Space Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand M.; Lewis, Ruthan; Eppler, Dean; Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    Plans to send humans to Mars are in the works and the launch system is being built. Are we ready? Transportation, entry, landing, and surface operations have been successfully demonstrated for robotic missions. However, for human missions, there are significant, potentially show-stopping issues. These issues, called Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), are the unanswered questions concerning long duration exploration Beyond low Earth Orbit (BEO). The gaps represent a risk of loss of life or mission and because they require extended exposure to the weightless environment outside of earth's protective geo-magnetic field, they cannot be resolved on Earth or on the International Space Station (ISS). Placing a laboratory at a relatively close and stable lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) provides an accessible location with the requisite environmental conditions for conducting SKG research and testing mitigation solutions. Configurations comprised of multiple 3 m and 4.3 m diameter modules have been studied but the most attractive solution uses elements of the human Mars launch vehicle or Space Launch System (SLS) for a Mars proving ground laboratory. A shortened version of an SLS hydrogen propellant tank creates a Skylab-like pressure vessel that flies fully outfitted on a single launch. This not only offers significant savings by incorporating SLS pressure vessel development costs but avoids the expensive ISS approach using many launches with substantial on-orbit assembly before becoming operational. One of the most challenging SKGs is crew radiation protection; this is why SKG laboratory research is combined with Mars transit habitat systems development. Fundamentally, the two cannot be divorced because using the habitat systems for protection requires actual hardware geometry and material properties intended to contribute to shielding effectiveness. The SKGs are difficult problems. The solutions to these problems are not obvious; they require integrated, iterative

  1. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. An argument for human exploration of the moon and Mars.

    PubMed

    Spudis, P D

    1992-01-01

    A debate of the merits of human space travel as opposed to robots is presented. While robotic space travel would be considerably less expensive, the author takes the position that there are certain skills and research abilities that only humans possess. Human contributions to past lunar exploration are considered, along with a discussion of the interaction of humans with robotics or other artificial intelligence or computer driven technologies. The author concludes that while robots and machines are tools which should be incorporated into space travel, they are not adequate substitutes for people. PMID:11539591

  3. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Wireless Technologies and Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.; Lansdowne, Chatwin

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionics architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers and from industry. This paper provides an overview of recent AAE efforts, with particular emphasis on the wireless technologies being evaluated under AES to support human spaceflight.

  4. Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava

    2004-01-01

    This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

  5. The Asteroid Redirect Mission and sustainable human exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Michele; Stich, Steve; McDonald, Mark; Muirhead, Brian; Mazanek, Dan; Abell, Paul; Lopez, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    We present the importance of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) in the context of the Global Exploration Roadmap and NASA's strategy for sustainable human exploration. We also provide status toward baseline of the ARM, including evolution of concept development based on internal NASA analysis and risk reduction, as well as external inputs received. This includes development of mission concept options, key trade studies, and analysis of drivers for both the robotic and crewed mission segments.

  6. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  7. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

  8. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

  9. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

  10. Exploring Learning in a Technology-Enhanced Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.; Watkins, Karen; Williams, Saundra Wall; Courtenay, Bradley; Davis, Mike; Dymock, Darryl

    2001-01-01

    Explores connections between learning and technology based on a participatory action research case study in which students in universities in the United States, England, and Australia created and analyzed cases from their teaching practice. Findings indicate that students' attitudes and perceptions of technology influenced their ability to…

  11. Exploring Lake Ecology in a Computer-Supported Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergazaki, Marida; Zogza, Vassiliki

    2008-01-01

    This study highlights the computer-mediated discursive activity of two dyads of first year educational sciences students, each collaboratively exploring several options for increasing the equilibrium size of a fish population in a lake. Our focus is on peers' attempts to come up with justified predictions about the adequacy of several options for…

  12. DDESC: Dragon database for exploration of sodium channels in human

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Dawe, Adam; Seshadri, Sundararajan Vijayaraghava; Christoffels, Alan; Schaefer, Ulf; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2008-01-01

    Background Sodium channels are heteromultimeric, integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of ion channels. The mutations in genes encoding for sodium channel proteins have been linked with several inherited genetic disorders such as febrile epilepsy, Brugada syndrome, ventricular fibrillation, long QT syndrome, or channelopathy associated insensitivity to pain. In spite of these significant effects that sodium channel proteins/genes could have on human health, there is no publicly available resource focused on sodium channels that would support exploration of the sodium channel related information. Results We report here Dragon Database for Exploration of Sodium Channels in Human (DDESC), which provides comprehensive information related to sodium channels regarding different entities, such as "genes and proteins", "metabolites and enzymes", "toxins", "chemicals with pharmacological effects", "disease concepts", "human anatomy", "pathways and pathway reactions" and their potential links. DDESC is compiled based on text- and data-mining. It allows users to explore potential associations between different entities related to sodium channels in human, as well as to automatically generate novel hypotheses. Conclusion DDESC is first publicly available resource where the information related to sodium channels in human can be explored at different levels. This database is freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via the worldwide web . PMID:19099596

  13. School Culture: A Validation Study and Exploration of Its Relationship with Teachers' Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ping

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring the relationship between school culture and teachers' work environment and further exploring the roles of school culture, teachers' efficacy, beliefs, and behaviors for character education, and teachers' work environment in the relationship between a character education intervention and…

  14. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Martin; Muniyandi, Manivannan; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jung; Krause, Frank; Mueller, Stephanie; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these “explorative stops” (ES) during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: (a) between mean exploration time and duration of ES, (b) between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and (c) the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different Experiments were used. The first two Experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A) and of common objects (B). In Experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For Experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D) and real (E) sunken reliefs. Results: In each Experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For Experiment A: 329.50 ms, Experiment B: 67.47 ms, Experiment C: 189.92 ms, Experiment D: 186.17 ms and Experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory. PMID:24782797

  15. Exploring Quadrilaterals in a Small Group Computing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kevin; White, Tobin

    2012-01-01

    Though cooperative learning has been a topic of considerable interest in educational research, there has been little study specific to learning in the mathematics content area of geometry. This paper seeks to address that gap through a design experiment featuring a novel small-group computing environment for supporting student learning about…

  16. EXPLORING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN A HIGHLY IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geography inherently fills a 3D space and yet we struggle with displaying geography using, primaarily, 2D display devices. Virtual environments offer a more realistically-dimensioned display space and this is being realized in the expanding area of research on 3D Geographic Infor...

  17. Exploring the Food Environment on the Spirit Lake Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattanaik, Swaha; Gold, Abby; McKay, Lacey; Azure, Lane; Larson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand the food environment of the Fort Totten community on the Spirit Lake reservation in east-central North Dakota, as perceived by tribal members and employees at Cankdeska Cikana Community College (CCCC). According to a 2010 report from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the food…

  18. Exploring Parent Perceptions of the Food Environment in Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Megan; Nelson, Toben F.; Harwood, Eileen; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine parent perceptions of the food environment in youth sport. Methods: Eight focus group discussions were held with parents (n = 60) of youth aged 6-13 years participating in basketball programs in Minnesota. Key themes and concepts were identified via transcript-based analysis. Results: Parents reported that youth commonly…

  19. Overview of the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neigut, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Human Research Program at NASA began developing a new confinement analog specifically for conducting research to investigate the effects of confinement on the human system. The HERA (Human Exploration Research Analog) habitat has been used for both 7 and 14 day missions to date to examine and mitigate exploration risks to enable safe, reliable and productive human space exploration. This presentation will describe how the Flight Analogs Project developed the HERA facility and the infrastructure to suit investigator requirements for confinement research and in the process developed a new approach to analog utilization and a new state of the art analog facility. Details regarding HERA operations will be discussed including specifics on the mission simulation utilized for the current 14-day campaign, the specifics of the facility (total volume, overall size, hardware), and the capabilities available to researchers. The overall operational philosophy, mission fidelity including timeline, schedule pressures and cadence, and development and implementation of mission stressors will be presented. Research conducted to date in the HERA has addressed risks associated with behavioral health and performance, human physiology, as well as human factors. This presentation will conclude with a discussion of future research plans for the HERA, including infrastructure improvements and additional research capabilities planned for the upcoming 30-day missions in 2016.

  20. The ISECG* Global Exploration Roadmap as Context for Robotic and Human Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) provides a broad international context for understanding how robotic missions and robotic assets can enable future human exploration of multiple destinations. This presentation will provide a brief high-level review of the GER with a focus on key robotic missions and robotic assets that can provide enabling technology advancements and that also raise interesting operational challenges in both the near-term and long-term. The GER presently features a variety of robotic missions and robotic assets that can provide important technology advancements as well as operational challenges and improvements, in areas ranging from: (a) leveraging the International Space Station, (b) planetary science robotic missions to potential human destinations, (c) micro-g body proximity operations (e.g. asteroids), (d) autonomous operations, (e) high and low-latency telerobotics, (f) human assisted sample return, and (g) contamination control. This presentation will highlight operational and technology challenges in these areas that have feed forward implications for human exploration.

  1. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  2. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  3. Comparison of Human Exploration Architecture and Campaign Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodliff, Kandyce; Cirillo, William; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Shyface, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    As part of an overall focus on space exploration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continues to evaluate potential approaches for sending humans beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). In addition, various external organizations are studying options for beyond LEO exploration. Recent studies include NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign and Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0, JPL's Minimal Mars Architecture; the Inspiration Mars mission; the Mars One campaign; and the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). Each of these potential exploration constructs applies unique methods, architectures, and philosophies for human exploration. It is beneficial to compare potential approaches in order to better understand the range of options available for exploration. Since most of these studies were conducted independently, the approaches, ground rules, and assumptions used to conduct the analysis differ. In addition, the outputs and metrics presented for each construct differ substantially. This paper will describe the results of an effort to compare and contrast the results of these different studies under a common set of metrics. The paper will first present a summary of each of the proposed constructs, including a description of the overall approach and philosophy for exploration. Utilizing a common set of metrics for comparison, the paper will present the results of an evaluation of the potential benefits, critical challenges, and uncertainties associated with each construct. The analysis framework will include a detailed evaluation of key characteristics of each construct. These will include but are not limited to: a description of the technology and capability developments required to enable the construct and the uncertainties associated with these developments; an analysis of significant operational and programmatic risks associated with that construct; and an evaluation of the extent to which exploration is enabled by the construct, including the destinations

  4. Exploration planning in the context of human exploration and development of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Morrison, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that the next step beyond low Earth orbit in attaining the United States' stated goal of 'Expanding human presence beyond the Earth' should be to reestablish a lunar capability, building on the Apollo program, and preparing the way for eventual human missions to Mars. The Moon offers important questions in planetary and Earth science, can provide a unique platform for making astronomical observations of high resolution and sensitivity, and can be in the development path for unlocking resources of the inner solar system to support space activities and return benefits to Earth. NASA's Office of Exploration has undertaken the planning of future lunar exploration missions with the assistance of the Solar System Exploration Division in matters dealing with the quality of scientific data and the manner in which it will be made available to the scientific community. The initial elements of the proposed program include the Lunar Scout missions, which consist of two small identical spacecraft in polar orbit around the Moon, which can accomplish most of the objectives associated with previous proposals for Lunar Polar Orbiters. These missions would be followed by 'Artemis' landers, capable of emplacing up to 200 kg payloads anywhere on the Moon. In addition, the exploration program must incorporate data obtained from other missions, including the Galileo lunar flybys, the Clementine high orbital observations, and Japanese penetrator missions. In the past year, a rather detailed plan for a 'First Lunar Outpost (FLO)' which would place 4 astronauts on the lunar surface for 45 days has been developed as a possible initial step of a renewed human exploration program. In the coming year, the FLO concept will be reviewed and evolved to become more highly integrated with planning for the initial human exploration of Mars, which could come perhaps 5 years after the reestablishment of lunar capability. Both programs could benefit from the common development of

  5. Human response to vibration in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Waddington, David C; Woodcock, James; Peris, Eulalia; Condie, Jenna; Sica, Gennaro; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Steele, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main findings of a field survey conducted in the United Kingdom into the human response to vibration in residential environments. The main aim of this study was to derive exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to vibration from environmental sources. The sources of vibration considered in this paper are railway and construction activity. Annoyance data were collected using questionnaires conducted face-to-face with residents in their own homes. Questionnaires were completed with residents exposed to railway induced vibration (N = 931) and vibration from the construction of a light rail system (N = 350). Measurements of vibration were conducted at internal and external positions from which estimates of 24-h vibration exposure were derived for 1073 of the case studies. Sixty different vibration exposure descriptors along with 6 different frequency weightings were assessed as potential predictors of annoyance. Of the exposure descriptors considered, none were found to be a better predictor of annoyance than any other. However, use of relevant frequency weightings was found to improve correlation between vibration exposure and annoyance. A unified exposure-response relationship could not be derived due to differences in response to the two sources so separate relationships are presented for each source. PMID:24437758

  6. Medical and technology requirements for human solar system exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld; Harris, Leonard; Couch, Lana; Sulzman, Frank; Gaiser, Karen

    1989-01-01

    Measures that need to be taken to cope with the health problems posed by zero gravity and radiation in manned solar system exploration missions are discussed. The particular systems that will be used aboard Space Station Freedom are addressed, and relevant human factors problems are examined. The development of a controlled ecological life support system is addressed.

  7. Integrated network architecture for sustained human and robotic exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary K.; Cesarone, Robert; Deutsch, Leslie; Edwards, Charlie; Soloff, Jason; Ely, Todd; Cook, Brian; Morabito, David; Hemmati, Hamid; Piazzolla, Sabino; Hastrup, Rolf; Abraham, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate is planning a series of human and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and to Mars. These missions will require telecommunication and navigation services. This paper sets forth presumed requirements for such services and presents strawman lunar and Mars telecommunications network architectures to satisfy the presumed requirements.

  8. Identification, Characterization, and Exploration of Environments for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acevedo, Sara E.

    2002-01-01

    A bibliography (18 references) listing the publications during the current grant period of The Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, part of the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Institute is presented. The publications, from the Period of Performance September 1, 2000 to February 28, 2002, primarily cover Mars and its potential for life, as well as extreme environments and primitive life forms on Earth. One of the publications covers Europa and the Galileo spacecraft.

  9. Exploring creative activity: a software environment for multimedia systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrett, Peter W.; Jardine, David A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper examines various issues related to the theory, design, and implementation of a system that supports creative activity for a multimedia environment. The system incorporates artificial intelligence notions to acquire concepts of the problem domain. This paper investigates this environment by considering a model that is a basis for a system, which supports a history of user interaction. A multimedia system that supports creative activity is problematic. It must function as a tool allowing users to experiment dynamically with their own creative reasoning process--a very nebulous task environment. It should also support the acquisition of domain knowledge so that empirical observation can be further evaluated. This paper aims to illustrate that via the reuse of domain-specific knowledge, closely related ideas can be quickly developed. This approach is useful in the following sense: Multimedia navigational systems hardcode referential links with respect to a web or network. Although users can access or control navigation in a nonlinear (static) manner, these referential links are 'frozen' and can not capture their creative actions, which are essential in tutoring or learning applications. This paper describes a multimedia assistant based on the notion of knowledge- links, which allows users to navigate through creative information in a nonlinear (dynamic) fashion. A selection of prototype code based on object-oriented techniques and logic programming partially demonstrates this.

  10. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.