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Understanding cervical cancer: an exploration of lay perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about cervical cancer among the Acholi in northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in Uganda; yet community understanding of the disease is limited. We explored community perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about the local names, causes, symptoms, course, treatment, and prognosis of cervical cancer in order to inform targeted interventions to promote early help-seeking. Methods Twenty four focus group discussions (FGD) with men and women aged 18 – 59 years and ten key informant interviews with persons aged???60 years were conducted at two sites in Gulu district between May and June 2012. A semi-structured interview guide informed by Kleinman’s illness explanatory model and literature on community awareness of cervical cancer was used to collect data. Data analysis was supported with use of ATLAS.ti 6.1 in coding, organizing and tracking data segments. We used content analysis technique in data analysis and organised data into a structured format under distinct themes and categories. Results Cervical cancer was known by the local name “two remo”, meaning “an illness that manifests with bleeding.” Respondents believed that early onset of sexual activity, multiple male sexual partners and multi-parity cause cervical cancer. Respondents in half of FGDs also reported that use of condoms and family planning pills and injections cause cervical cancer. Symptoms of cervical cancer reported included vaginal bleeding, watery vaginal discharge and lower abdominal and waist pain. Respondents in most of the FGDs and key informants perceived cervical cancer as a chronic illness and that it can be treated with both modern and traditional medicines. The majority thought that cervical cancer treatment was supportive; the illness is not curable. Conclusions While some lay beliefs about the causes of cervical cancer suggest some understanding of aetiology of the disease, other perceived causes particularly those related to use of family planning and condoms are potentially hurtful to public health. Awareness campaigns to promote early help-seeking for cervical cancer symptoms need to be culturally-sensitive and context-specific; and include messages on symptoms, risk factors, course, treatment and prognoses.



Assessing Lay Understanding of Common Presentations of Earthquake Hazard Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) includes, in its introduction to earthquake rupture forecast maps, the assertion that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities -- from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [3] However, psychology research identifies a large gap between lay and expert perception of risk for various hazards [2], and cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [1,4-6] that people neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probabilities, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [7]. The gap between lay and expert use of probability needs to be recognized more clearly by scientific organizations such as WGCEP. This study undertakes to determine how the lay public interprets earthquake hazard information, as presented in graphical map form by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), compiled by the WGCEP and other bodies including the USGS and CGS. It also explores alternate ways of presenting hazard data, to determine which presentation format most effectively translates information from scientists to public. Participants both from California and from elsewhere in the United States are included, to determine whether familiarity -- either with the experience of an earthquake, or with the geography of the forecast area -- affects people's ability to interpret an earthquake hazards map. We hope that the comparisons between the interpretations by scientific experts and by different groups of laypeople will both enhance theoretical understanding of factors that affect information transmission and assist bodies such as the WGCEP in their laudable attempts to help people prepare themselves and their communities for possible natural hazards. [1] Kahneman, D & Tversky, A (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica, XLVII: 263-291. [2] Fischhoff, B, Slovic, P, Lichtenstein, S, Read, S & Combs, B (1978). How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Pol Sci, 9, 127-152. [3] [4] Hau, R, Pleskac, TJ, Kiefer, J & Hertwig, R (2008). The Description-Experience Gap in Risky Choice: The Role of Sample Size and Experienced Probabilities. J Behav Decis Making, 21: 493-518. [5] Lichtenstein, S, Slovic, P, Fischhoff, B, Layman, M & Combs, B (1978). Judged frequency of lethal events. J Exp Psy: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 551-578. [6] Hertwig, R, Barron, G, Weber, EU & Erev, I (2006). The role of information sampling in risky choice. In K Fiedler & P Juslin (Eds), Information sampling and adaptive cognition. Pp 75-91. New York: Cambridge University Press. [7] Budescu, DV, Broomell, S & Por HH (2009). Improving communication of uncertainty in the reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Psychol Sci, 20(3), 299-308.

Thompson, K. J.; Krantz, D. H.



Lay Understanding of Familial Risk of Common Chronic Diseases: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE Although the family history is increasingly used for genetic risk assess- ment of common chronic diseases in primary care, evidence suggests that lay understanding about inheritance may confl ict with medical models. This study systematically reviewed and synthesized the qualitative literature exploring under- standing about familial risk held by persons with a family history of cancer, coro- nary artery

Fiona M. Walter; Jon Emery; Dejana Braithwaite; Theresa M. Marteau


‘Not living life in too much of an excess’: lay men understanding health and well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

While research on lay perspectives of health now has a wellestablished history, specific empirical data on male lay perspectives of health and well-being are largely absent. Drawing on focus group data and in-depth interviews with 20 lay men (including sub-samples of gay men and disabled men), and seven health professionals, this article explores how the men conceptualized ‘health’ and the

Steve Robertson



Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and others online*EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer health information domain. Lay information mediaries (LIMs) seek information on behalf or because of others, without necessarily being asked to do so or engaging in follow up, and have represented more than 50% of

Jennie A. Abrahamson; Karen E. Fisher; Anne G. Turner; Joan C. Durrance; Tammara Combs Turner



Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date-temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus  

PubMed Central

Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype–environment interaction (G×E) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11?624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date–temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for G×E. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs.

Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J



Toward a framework for understanding lay public's comprehension of disaster and bioterrorism information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, we have witnessed a significant increase in disaster preparedness and crisis communication efforts. This stands in sharp contrast with paucity of research that deals with the public’s comprehension of disaster information and related decision-making. The objective of this paper is to outline a theoretical and methodological framework for research on lay comprehension of crisis information. The

Alla Keselman; Laura Slaughter; Vimla L. Patel



Understanding lay and religious presidents: Implications for preparation to sustain Catholicity in Catholic higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for Catholic higher education to thrive and maintain its Catholic identity, lay and religious leaders of these institutions need to excel with the knowledge and skills needed to preside over the organizational complexities while weaving the Catholic spiritual component within the culture of the institution. Despite the increasingly complex demands placed on the president of Catholic higher education

Cathleen Marie Raynis Meeker



Oral sex and oral cancer in the context of human papillomavirus infection: lay public understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for ano-genital and cervical cancers and has been associated with head and neck\\u000a malignancies in the context of oral sex for the transmission of the virus. However, the level of knowledge that lay people\\u000a have in terms of HPV transmission through oral sex and oral cancer development remains unknown. A pilot sample of

Mario A. BrondaniMario; Mario A. Cruz-Cabrera; Cheryle Colombe



Exploring Children's Understanding of Death Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an investigation of the effects of death education on children and their understanding of death. The participants of this study were eighty 5- and 6-year-olds who were enrolled in a suburban kindergarten in Korea. To examine the level of children's understanding of death, researchers interviewed each child in both the control and…

Lee, Joo Ok; Lee, Joohi; Moon, Sung Seek



The Lay Public's Understanding and Perception of Dementia in a Developed Asian Nation  

PubMed Central

Background Early detection of dementia aims to improve treatment outcomes. However, poor perception and understanding of dementia are significant barriers. We aim to investigate the public's perception of dementia and identify variables associated with the different profiles of public perception. Methods A custom-designed questionnaire was used to assess laypersons’ knowledge and perception of dementia during a health fair at a public hospital in Singapore, a developed Asian nation. Out of a sample of 370 subjects, 32 declined to participate (response rate = 91.4%). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify meaningful subgroups of subjects from significant associations with multiple indicators of dementia awareness. Multinomial logistic regression was performed exploring variables associated with each of the subgroups derived from LCA. Results The majority of the study participants were female (66.9%), 65 years or older (71.1%), and ethnic Chinese (88.1%). LCA classified the study participants into 3 subgroups: Class 1 (good knowledge, good attitude), Class 2 (good knowledge, poor attitude), and Class 3 (poor knowledge, poor attitude), in proportions of 14.28, 63.83, and 21.88%, respectively. Compared to other classes, participants with good knowledge and good attitude towards dementia (Class 1) were more likely to know someone with dementia and understand the effects of the disease, be married, live in private housing, receive higher monthly income, and not profess belief in Buddhism, Taoism, or Hinduism. Conclusion Our results show that the public in Singapore may not be ready for screening initiatives and early dementia diagnosis. Education efforts should be targeted at lower socioeconomic groups, singles, and those of certain oriental religions.

Tan, Wai Jia; Hong, Song-Iee; Luo, Nan; Lo, Tong Jen; Yap, Philip



Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and others online*EC  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer health information domain. Lay information mediaries (LIMs) seek information on behalf or because of others, without necessarily being asked to do so or engaging in follow up, and have represented more than 50% of health information seekers in prior studies. Methods: A web-based survey was posted on NC Health Info (NCHI) with 211 respondents, self-identified per the information need that brought them to NCHI as 20% LIMs (n?=?43), 58% direct users (n?=?122), and 22% health or information providers (n?=?46). Follow-up telephone interviews were performed with 10% (n?=?21). Interview analysis focused on lay participants (n?=?15 LIMs and direct users combined). Interviewees were reclassified post-survey as 12 LIMs and 3 direct users when studied information behavior extended beyond NCHI search. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory approach. Results: Surveyed LIMs were 77% female (n?=?33) and searched on behalf or because of family members (81%, n?=?35) and people they felt “extremely close” to (77%, n?=?33). LIMs reported various information seeking barriers “sometimes” to “often.” LIMs searched mostly without prompting (51%, n?=?22). Interview results triangulated survey findings regarding gender, tie strength, and prompting. Conclusions: LIMB may be related to gender and relationship tie strength and appears more internally than externally motivated. Further LIMB research is warranted.

Fisher, Karen E.; Turner, Anne G.; Durrance, Joan C.; Turner, Tammara Combs



Public involvement in suicide prevention: understanding and strengthening lay responses to distress  

PubMed Central

Background The slogan "Suicide prevention is everyone's business" has been used in a number of campaigns worldwide in recent years, but most research into suicide prevention has focused on the role of medical professionals in identifying and managing risk. Little consideration has been given to the role that lay people can play in suicide prevention, or to the resources they need in order to do so. The majority of people who take their own lives are not under the care of specialist mental health services, and around half have not had recent contact with their general practitioner. These individuals are not known to be 'at risk' and there is little or no opportunity for clinical intervention. Family members and friends may be the only ones to know that a person is troubled or distressed, and their capacity to recognise, assess and respond to that distress is therefore vitally important. This study aims to discover what the suicidal process looks like from the point of view of relatives and friends and to gain insight into the complex and difficult judgements that people have to make when trying to support a distressed individual. Methods/Design The study uses qualitative methods to build up a detailed picture of 15–20 completed suicides, aged 18–34. Data are gathered by means of in-depth interviews with relatives, friends and others who knew the deceased well. In each case, as many informants as possible are sought using a purposive snowballing technique. Interviews focus on the family and social network of the deceased, the ways in which relatives and friends interpreted and responded to his/her distress, the potential for intervention that may have existed within the lay network and the knowledge, skills and other resources that would have helped members to support the distressed individual more effectively. Discussion The study will inform interventions to promote public mental health awareness and will provide a basis on which to develop community-focussed suicide prevention strategies.

Owens, Christabel; Owen, Gareth; Lambert, Helen; Donovan, Jenny; Belam, Judith; Rapport, Frances; Lloyd, Keith



How has neuroscience affected lay understandings of personhood? A review of the evidence  

PubMed Central

The prominence of neuroscience in the public sphere has escalated in recent years, provoking questions about how the public engages with neuroscientific ideas. Commentaries on neuroscience’s role in society often present it as having revolutionary implications, fundamentally overturning established beliefs about personhood. The purpose of this article is to collate and review the extant empirical evidence on the influence of neuroscience on commonsense understandings of personhood. The article evaluates the scope of neuroscience’s presence in public consciousness and examines the empirical evidence for three frequently encountered claims about neuroscience’s societal influence: that neuroscience fosters a conception of the self that is based in biology, that neuroscience promotes conceptions of individual fate as predetermined, and that neuroscience attenuates the stigma attached to particular social categories. It concludes that many neuroscientific ideas have assimilated in ways that perpetuate rather than challenge existing modes of understanding self, others and society.

Joffe, Helene



Exploring lay views on physical activity and their implications for public health policy. A case study from East Belfast.  


It is now recognised that inactive lifestyles underpin much of the disease burden evident in the richer nations of the world. Indeed, the WHO has identified physical inactivity as a 'global public health problem' and has established minimum physical activity (PA) targets for people at different stages of the life-course. Yet, according to WHO, just under 1/3 of working age adults across the globe meet those targets and it is not at all clear how the disjunction between the recommendations of policy makers and the behaviour of ordinary people might be surmounted. Using an opportunity to examine the impact of an urban regeneration project on community residents in East Belfast (Northern Ireland) this paper examines the views of some 113 people on how to increase rates of PA in an area of multiple deprivation. The results of the analysis suggest that lay people rarely consider PA as a discrete issue, or one that centres on individuals and their motivation, but rather as one component in a complex web of concerns, processes and events that include such things as the actions of neighbours and relatives, material and political environments, vandalism, violence, and the weather. We explore and unravel the nature of those concerns using novel methods of content analysis that generate 'issue webs'. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which lay people conceptualize 'activity' and to the manner in which they point to ways of encouraging activity that are rooted in everyday life rather than in the corpocentric, agent-centred and often sport dominated strategies favoured by local policy makers. Our results support those who argue that interventions to increase rates of PA need to move beyond behavioural approaches that focus on individuals and consider the social, political and material contexts in which 'activity' occurs. PMID:24911510

Prior, L; Scott, D; Hunter, R; Donnelly, M; Tully, M A; Cupples, M E; Kee, F



Understanding garnet variability: Application of geometallurgy to diamonds and exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peridotitic and eclogitic garnets are a fundamental component in understanding mantle petrology, diamond petrogenesis, and the ascent of mantle materials in kimberlites. They are also critical in exploration programs, as the presence of mantle garnets at the earth's surface provides an indication of dispersion from a deeply derived magmatic carrier. The composition of these garnets further is used as an

K. O. Hoal; S. K. Appleby; J. G. Stammer



Exploring Student Understanding of Grades and Report Cards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study was designed to identify how students from a single high school in the rural Midwest perceive grades and report cards. Stratified purposeful random sampling resulted in the inclusion of 14 students who provided journal entries and participated in one-on-one interviews for the purpose of exploring student understanding of…

Gwidt, Kathleen M.



Understanding garnet variability: Application of geometallurgy to diamonds and exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peridotitic and eclogitic garnets are a fundamental component in understanding mantle petrology, diamond petrogenesis, and the ascent of mantle materials in kimberlites. They are also critical in exploration programs, as the presence of mantle garnets at the earth's surface provides an indication of dispersion from a deeply derived magmatic carrier. The composition of these garnets further is used as an indicator of diamond prospectivity, on the basis of comparison with garnet compositions known to be in some degree of equilibrium with diamonds. For mantle xenoliths and kimberlites, optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are the main tools used for understanding key mineralogical and textural variability relationships. Mineralogy and texture reflect diamond genesis, metasomatic alteration, fluid migration and manifestation, volcanological processes, peridotite disaggregation, and other manifestations of mantle processes that are observable, describable, and applicable in exploration and mining. Mineralogy and texture studies lead to further questions that are better addressed by higher resolution chemical analysis of isotopes and rare earth elements, or luminescence. Understanding mineralogical and textural variability is the primary geological input for geometallurgy (geomet), the field integrating the earth sciences with the extractive industries. The framework for geomet encompasses geology, mineralogy, deposit modeling and extraction methods for the optimum value return of resources, and it relies on the fact that the mineralogy and texture of rocks influence subsequent interpretation and downstream applications. Developments in this area have been made possible by the new generation of high-speed SEM-based quantitative mineralogical instruments, enabling the statistical assessment of thousands of grains or particles, or samples, and their application to models for exploration, ore deposits, or geomet. For diamonds, this means identification and quantification of large mineralogical and textural data sets, and gives the geologist more involvement in model development. In this study, peridotitic and eclogitic garnets were examined in situ and as xenocrysts to gain understanding of the mineralogical and textural variability of the grains using SEM-based quantitative mineralogy. For concentrate garnets, the new technology presented here is the development of mineral definitions that reflect SEM counts and correlate with EPMA data. Internal compositional variability is mapped across individual grains as compared to EPMA spot analysis; designations of G10-G9 compositions, for example, are more complex when viewed in terms of individual internal grain compositional variability. The new mineral lists based on percentages of Ca-Cr count rates are compared to unknown garnets from exploration samples, and digitally categorized into bins reflecting potential diamond prospectivity or secondary alteration, as desired. The high analysis rate (approx. 150 determinations/second) means the SEM-based technique can be faster and produce more statistical information for the geologist who is making the model assessment in the field. Combined with new nontoxic mineral separation methodology in the field and software on the geologist's laptop, a great deal of interpretation can be accommodated in the field, at a reduced cost for shipping large volumes of samples to a central laboratory. Geomet for diamonds provides the mechanism for thinking of the entirety of a project, and using the geological and mineralogical information to predict process implications.

Hoal, K. O.; Appleby, S. K.; Stammer, J. G.



Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date–temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus  

Microsoft Academic Search

organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (G!E) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (nZ11 624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used

Jon E. Brommer; Kalev Rattiste; Alastair J. Wilson



Exploring and Understanding Scientific Metrics in Citation Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores scientific metrics in citation networks in scientific communities, how they differ in ranking papers and authors, and why. In particular we focus on network effects in scientific metrics and explore their meaning and impact. We initially take as example three main metrics that we believe significant; the standard citation count, the more and more popular h-index, and a variation we propose of PageRank applied to papers (called PaperRank) that is appealing as it mirrors proven and successful algorithms for ranking web pages and captures relevant information present in the whole citation network. As part of analyzing them, we develop generally applicable techniques and metrics for qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing such network-based indexes that evaluate content and people, as well as for understanding the causes of their different behaviors. We put the techniques at work on a dataset of over 260K ACM papers, and discovered that the difference in ranking results is indeed very significant (even when restricting to citation-based indexes), with half of the top-ranked papers differing in a typical 20-element long search result page for papers on a given topic, and with the top researcher being ranked differently over half of the times in an average job posting with 100 applicants.

Krapivin, Mikalai; Marchese, Maurizio; Casati, Fabio


Understanding the Basics of Gas Exploration and Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from Eric K. Albert explains the basics of gas exploration and production, as well as some of the career opportunities created by the industry. Most of the presentation focuses on natural gas development, exploration and production. He also discusses where the jobs are in the natural gas industry.The presentation may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

Albert, Eric K.



Vocational Exploration through Service: The Effect of Service-Learning on Student Understanding of God's Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College is a time of exploration for students. College students who are Christian may also engage in exploration of God's call on their lives, a discernment of their vocation. One pedagogical technique that can help us help students explore vocation is service-learning. To better understand their vocation, students need to understand themselves…

Feenstra, Jennifer S.



Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Understanding Carbon Storage in Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: Forest Inventory and Analysis data, TOOLS: isee Player, Spreadsheet application. SUMMARY: Compare field collected data with results produced by a forest biomass model to understand the process and challenges scientists face when doing terrestrial carbon cycle research.


Mixed-Methods Exploration of Parents' Health Information Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health literacy—the ability to read, understand, and use health information to make health care decisions—affects health care outcomes, hospitalization costs, and readmission. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study is to determine how two different parent groups (English speaking and Spanish speaking) understand medical care for their children and the procedural and research consent forms required by that care. Quantitative

Carlee Lehna; Jack McNeil



Understanding China's Post80 employees' work attitudes: an explorative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among job and career satisfactions, work commitment, and turnover intentions for the Post-80 employees in China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 290 of China's Post-80 employees from 19 knowledge-intensive companies were surveyed. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Findings – The perceptions of selected Post-80 employees

Qinxuan Gu; Lihong Wang; Judy Y. Sun; Yanni Xu



Primary Students' Understanding of Tessellation: An Initial Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tessellation is included in many mathematics curricula as one way of developing spatial ideas. If students do not understand tessellation in the intended ways, however, the development of other spatial ideas, such as properties of shapes and symmetry, may be compromised. Van Hiele levels were used as a basis for analysing the descriptions of eight…

Callingham, Rosemary



Exploring Student Beliefs and Understanding in Elementary Science and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study had the goal of investigating the association among elementary students' (N = 276) science and math beliefs and the relationship between those beliefs and teachers' ratings of mathematical and science understanding. Results of structural path analysis indicate that in science, intellectual risk-taking (IRT; the willingness to share…

Beghetto, Ronald A.; Baxter, Juliet A.



Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of new media technologies, the role of media in a society has been changed that leads researchers to re-construct the meaning of literacy from classic literacy to new media literacy. There have been continuing efforts to understand new media and promote the importance of becoming new media literate among researchers, educators,…

Lin, Tzu-Bin; Li, Jen-Yi; Deng, Feng; Lee, Ling



A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol



Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters  

PubMed Central

We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific principles: conservation of matter, conservation of energy, and the hierarchical nature of biological systems. Data on students' responses to the cluster items and uses of some of the questions in multiple-choice, multiple-true/false, and essay formats are compared. A cross-over study indicates that the multiple-true/false format shows promise as a machine-gradable format that identifies students who have a mixture of accurate and inaccurate ideas. In addition, interviews with students about their choices on three multiple-choice questions reveal the fragility of students' understanding. Collectively, the data show that many undergraduates lack both a basic understanding of the role of photosynthesis in plant metabolism and the ability to reason with scientific principles when learning new content. Implications for instruction are discussed.

Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark



The integrated project AquaTerra of the EU sixth framework lays foundations for better understanding of river-sediment-soil-groundwater systems.  


The integrated project "AquaTerra" with the full title "integrated modeling of the river-sediment-soil-groundwater system; advanced tools for the management of catchment areas and river basins in the context of global change" is among the first environmental projects within the sixth Framework Program of the European Union. Commencing in June 2004, it brought together a multidisciplinary team of 45 partner organizations from 12 EU countries, Romania, Switzerland, Serbia and Montenegro. AquaTerra is an ambitious project with the primary objective of laying the foundations for a better understanding of the behavior of environmental pollutants and their fluxes in the soil-sediment-water system with respect to climate and land use changes. The project performs research as well as modeling on river-sediment-soil-groundwater systems through quantification of deposition, sorption and turnover rates and the development of numerical models to reveal fluxes and trends in soil and sediment functioning. Scales ranging from the laboratory to river basins are addressed with the potential to provide improved river basin management, enhanced soil and groundwater monitoring as well as the early identification and forecasting of impacts on water quantity and quality. Study areas are the catchments of the Ebro, Meuse, Elbe and Danube Rivers and the Brévilles Spring. Here we outline the general structure of the project and the activities conducted within eleven existing sub-projects of AquaTerra. PMID:17166649

Gerzabek, M H; Barceló, D; Bellin, A; Rijnaarts, H H M; Slob, A; Darmendrail, D; Fowler, H J; Négrel, Ph; Frank, E; Grathwohl, P; Kuntz, D; Barth, J A C



Information literacy skill development and life long learning: exploring nursing students' and academics' understandings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The aim of this study was to map information literacy (IL) skill development in the Bachelor of Nursing (BN) content; identify educational practices in courses to asses students' information literacy (IL) skills; explore BN students' understandings of their IL skill development; and explore students' and academics' understandings of the link between IL skills and life long learning. Design The

Robyn Nayda; Elaine Rankin


Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, the Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and ground handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early as the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

Taylor, J. L.; Cockrell, C. E.



Understanding Words, Understanding Numbers: An Exploration of the Mathematical Profiles of Poor Comprehenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poor comprehenders are children who show significant deficits in their reading comprehension performance, despite average, or above-average word reading ability. To date, there have been no in-depth studies of the mathematical performance profiles of such children. Aims: This study aimed to explore the mathematical profiles of poor…

Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate



Lay abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are the motor behind our daily social activities. Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties understanding others’ emotions. Yet, understanding of own emotions in children with ASD has been largely neglected. Acknowledging and understanding one’s own emotions, and the ability to regulate these emotions to an extent that they can be expressed adaptively,

Rieffe; Oosterveld; Meerum Terwogt; Mootz; Van Leeuwen; Stockmann; Petrides; Hudry; Michalaria; Swami; Sevdalis; Ollendick; Bray; Rogé; Mullet; Guo; Cubells; Ridley; Homewood; Angkustsiri; Krakowiak; Moghaddam; Wardinsky; Kalamkarian; Hertz-Picciotto



SocialWork Practice Innovations: Helping Clients Understand, Explore, and Develop Their Friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates the importance of helping clients understand, explore,anddevelopfriendshipsinsocialworkpractice.Thenatureoffriendshipsis explored. A cross-disciplinary analysis of the literature concerning friendships and their relationship to human health and functioning is discussed. Case examples illustrating the importance of friendships and examples of the conscious use of friendshipsasatargetofinterventionareprovided.

Rich Furman; Kathryn Collins; Janet Swanson


Deepening Students' Understanding of Multiplication and Division by Exploring Divisibility by Nine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how a focus on understanding divisibility rules can be used to help deepen students' understanding of multiplication and division with whole numbers. It is based on research with seven Year 7-8 teachers who were observed teaching a group of students a rule for divisibility by nine. As part of the lesson, students were shown a…

Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Mills, Judith



Understanding the Chena Hot Springs, Alaska, geothermal system using temperature and pressure data from exploration boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chena Hot Springs is a small, moderate temperature, deep circulating geothermal system, apparently typical of those associated to hot springs of interior Alaska. Multi-stage drilling was used in some exploration boreholes and was found to be useful for understanding subsurface flow characteristics and developing a conceptual model of the system. The results illustrate how temperature profiles illuminate varying pressure versus

Kamil Erkan; Gwen Holdmann; Walter Benoit; David Blackwell



Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance on the applied assessment framework. For this purpose, (a) various types of objective assessment questions were developed and evaluated for assessing meaningful understanding, (b) a specific type of systemic assessment questions (SAQs) was developed and evaluated for assessing systems thinking skills, and (c) the association between students' responses on the applied assessment schemes was explored. The results indicated that properly designed objective questions can effectively capture aspects of students' meaningful understanding. It was also found that the SAQs can elicit systems thinking skills in the context of a formalistic systems thinking theoretical approach. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between students' responses on the two assessment strategies. This research provides evidence that students' systems thinking level within a science domain is significantly related to their meaningful understanding of relative science concepts.

Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa



Exploring positioning as an analytical tool for understanding becoming mathematics teachers' identities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject positioning? We elaborate on the elusive and interrelated concepts of identity, positioning and power, seen as dynamic and changeable. As these concepts represent three interconnected parts of research analysis in an on-going larger project data from different sources will be used in this illustration. In this paper, we clarify the theoretical stance, ground the concepts historically and strive to connect them to research analysis. In this way, we show that power relations and subject positioning in social settings are critical aspects and need to be taken seriously into account if we aim at understanding becoming teachers' identities.

Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica



To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust.  


lawrence n. & richardson j. (2012) Journal of Nursing Management To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust Aim? The aim of this study was to explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons. Background? Modern matrons were re-introduced to the National Health Service in 2002, and effective leadership has been identified as being essential for the role to be successful. However, there is minimal evidence of how modern matrons experience effective leadership. Methods? The study used a descriptive generic qualitative methodology; one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine matrons. This was subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results? Three themes were found to influence modern matron's leadership experiences: leadership behaviours, negative influences and leadership investment. They did not follow one leadership style but adapted this to their situation. Various factors appeared to restrict their leadership effectiveness. Conclusions? The findings suggest that exposure to a range of leadership styles should be included in preparation and CPD for the modern matron role and a more consistent job description and job purpose should be developed. Implications for nursing management? Leadership styles such as transformational leadership alone do not meet the complex demands of nursing leaders, and therefore there is a requirement for greater flexibility in leadership development for all health care professionals. PMID:23410106

Lawrence, Nigel; Richardson, Janet



A study of lay graphic communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This PhD thesis aims to describe and analyse lay (non-expert and non-professional) graphic communication and its relation to professional design practice. It investigates the ways in which lay designers understand and make sense of design tasks by examining their practical reasoning and everyday knowledge about design, and their awareness of graphic rules, principles, genres and conventions. It furthermore considers the

Sarah T. Owens



Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

Yoon, Sae Yeol


Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metamorphic belts are complex regions where accretion or collision has added to, or thickened, continental crust. Gold-rich deposits can be formed at all stages of orogen evolution, so that evolving metamorphic belts contain diverse gold deposit types that may be juxtaposed or overprint each other. This partly explains the high level of controversy on the origin of some deposit types, particularly those formed or overprinted/remobilized during the major compressional orogeny that shaped the final geometry of the hosting metamorphic belts. These include gold-dominated orogenic and intrusion-related deposits, but also particularly controversial gold deposits with atypical metal associations. There are a number of outstanding problems for all types of gold deposits in metamorphc belts. These include the following: (1) definitive classifications, (2) unequivocal recognition of fluid and metal sources, (3) understanding of fluid migration and focusing at all scales, (4) resolution of the precise role of granitoid magmatism, (5) precise gold-depositional mechanisms, particularly those producing high gold grades, and (6) understanding of the release of CO2-rich fluids from subducting slabs and subcreted oceanic crust and granitoid magmas at different crustal levels. Research needs to be better coordinated and more integrated, such that detailed fluid-inclusion, trace-element, and isotopic studies of both gold deposits and potential source rocks, using cutting-edge technology, are embedded in a firm geological framework at terrane to deposit scales. Ultimately, four-dimensional models need to be developed, involving high-quality, three-dimensional geological data combined with integrated chemical and fluid-flow modeling, to understand the total history of the hydrothermal systems involved. Such research, particularly that which can predict superior targets visible in data sets available to exploration companies before discovery, has obvious spin-offs for global- to deposit-scale targeting of deposits with superior size and grade in the covered terranes that will be the exploration focus of the twenty-first century.

Groves, D. I.; Goldfarb, R. J.; Robert, F.; Hart, C. J. R.



Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy.

Goicolea, Isabel; Ohman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morras, Ione; Edin, Kerstin



A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning is underway for an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. (IPY 2007/8) which will be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007/8 will be an international programme of coordinated, interdisciplinary, scientific research in the Earth's polar regions to explore new frontiers, to increase our ability to detect changes at the Earth's poles and to deepen our understanding of polar processes and their global linkages. A crucial component of the IPY 2007/8 will be to attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, engineers and leaders and to capture the interest of the public and decision-makers. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their role in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007/8 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups both internationally and nationally. To date 18 nations have formed national committees who are coordinating IPY activities nationally. The International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) to stimulate, encourage and organize a debate on the International Polar Year 2007/8, formulate a set of objectives and develop a high level Science Plan. The Planning Group has sought input from the international science community and to date has received 138 ideas from over 22 nations. This input from the international community covers both poles, global processes and a diverse spectrum of disciplines. To date the input from the science community has identified key questions and proposed projects within the three major themes proposed by the ICSU IPY Planning Group: Exploration of New Frontiers, Understanding Change at the Poles and Decoding Polar Processes. Within the "Exploration" theme, three major concepts advanced by the community are genomic studies of the polar ecosystems, probing the polar deeps and sub-ice environments and studying the influence of the Earth's interior on polar processes. Within the theme of "Change at the Poles" the three major concepts advanced include climate connections and instabilities, solar forcing of the polar atmospheres and polar ecosystems response to change. Within the theme of "Decoding Polar Processes" three major concepts advanced include global forces on Peoples of the North, polar influences on people of the globe and contaminants at the poles. These ideas have been integrated into an outline of the proposed science questions and projects for the International Polar Year to be presented to the science community between April and September of 2004 for debate, discussion and review.

Rapley, C.; Bell, R.



An Exploration of Teachers' Efforts to Understand Identity Work and its Relevance to Science Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US educators express concern that students are turning away from the study of science and have little interest in pursuing science careers. Nationally, science achievement scores for 8th graders are unchanged since 1996, but 12th graders' scores have significantly decreased. A shortcoming of education reform efforts is lack of attention to students' developmental needs. Science study should enable students to learn about themselves—to develop and refine their skills, define their values, explore personal interests, and understand the importance of science to themselves and others. Effective secondary science instruction requires attention to students' identity development—the key developmental task of adolescence. Secondary science teachers participated in an 8-week course focused on understanding adolescent identity development and methods for addressing identity. Transcripts of the teachers' online discussions of salient issues were analyzed to determine their perceptions regarding classroom identity work. Teachers identified several assets and obstacles to identity work that were organized into two broad categories: teacher knowledge, training opportunities, and administrative support, or lack of these; and, presence of inflexible curricula, standardized testing regimes, and increased teacher accountability. Implications for student growth and science teacher professional development are discussed.

Smith, M. Cecil; Darfler, Anne



Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which has been only scarcely explored in the science education literature. A four-tier diagnostic instrument was used. The instrument comprises 25 questions, and each question has an answer tier, a confidence rating for this tier, a reason tier and a confidence rating for this tier. Versions of the instrument were refined iteratively during the preliminary and pilot phases of the study. This study reports on the results obtained from the main phase of the study, using a sample of 140 students. Overall, the diagnostic test was difficult for the students. The students had a mean score of 38 %, based on correct responses for both answer and reason tiers for the questions. It was accompanied by a mean confidence of only 3.49 out of 6 (that is, 58.2 %) for the whole test. The results indicate that transition metals chemistry is a difficult topic for the students. Twenty-four alternative conceptions have been identified in this study, including some indication of their strengths. Some implications of the study are discussed.

Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.



Exploring loss and replacement of loss for understanding the impacts of epilepsy onset: A qualitative investigation.  


Previous research identifies loss as a key concept for our understanding of the impact of chronic illness. In this in-depth qualitative study, we explored the utility of the concept of loss and loss replacement as a means of gaining a fuller understanding of the implications of a diagnosis of epilepsy for overall quality of life (QOL). Potential participants were identified from the database of a large UK-based randomized controlled trial of antiepileptic drug treatment for new-onset epilepsy and selected using purposive sampling methods. In-depth interviews were conducted with 67 people; interview material was analyzed thematically. Our findings confirm 'loss' as a key concept in understanding epilepsy impact. Participants cited profound physical and social losses, and the links between these and psychological loss were clearly articulated. Informants described two main processes via which the linked losses they experienced occurred: personal withdrawal processes and externally enforced processes. Seizure control was integral to restoring psychological well-being and a sense of normality but was only one of a number of influences moderating the degree of loss experienced following seizure onset. Our work emphasizes that people with epilepsy (PWE) require active support for their continued engagement or reengagement in roles and activities identified as central to their psychological well-being and overall QOL. Achieving this requires a multiagency approach to drive forward key strategies for reduction of the negative impacts of epilepsy and to engender a sense of normality in the context of a condition often experienced as placing the individual outside the socially determined parameters of the 'normal'. PMID:24632355

Jacoby, Ann; Ring, Adele; Whitehead, Margaret; Marson, Anthony; Baker, Gus A



Assessing Age-Related Ossification of the Petro-Occipital Fissure: Laying the Foundation for Understanding the Clinicopathologies of the Cranial Base  

PubMed Central

The petro-occitpital fissure (POF) lies within a critical interface of cranial growth and development in the posterior cranial fossa. The relationships between skeletal and soft tissues make this region especially important for examining biomechanical and basic biologic forces that may mold the cranial base and contribute to significant clinicopathologies associated with the structures located near the POF. Therefore, this study investigates the POF in adults in both preserved human cadavers and dried crania in order to determine if developmental changes can be observed and, if so, their value in age assessment as a model system for describing normal morphogenesis of the POF. This study demonstrates that tissue within the POF undergoes characteristic changes in ossification with age, the onset of which is considerably later than that of other synchondroses of the cranial base. Statistically, there is a moderate to strong correlation between age and stage of ossification within the POF. Further, male crania were observed to reach greater degrees of ossification at a younger age than female crania and that individual asymmetry in ossification of the tissue within the POF was not uncommon. An understanding of the basic temporal biological processes of the POF may yield insight into the development of clinicopathologies in this region of the cranial base.




The GPS Analysis Package for Exploration and Understanding of Geodetic Sensor Web Time Series Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the GPS Analysis Package (GAP), a Matlab toolbox for GPS data exploration and understanding. The toolbox is designed to support scientists and engineers studying the motion of the solid Earth both in an academic environment and in the course of NASA missions such as UAVSAR and future InSAR satellite missions. It includes an ensemble of low-level routines to perform basic signal processing operations, such as removal of secular motion, de-noising, and removal of seasonal signals. It also includes a suite of more sophisticated statistical pattern recognition techniques, including hidden Markov models and Bayes nets, to detect changes, identify transient signals, understand regional motion, and uncover relationships between geographically removed nodes in the GPS network. Finally, it provides an assortment of methods for estimating missing observations in the network. We provide usage examples of the package applied to particular scenarios, including the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and ongoing slow slip events in the Cascadia region. We also demonstrate the utility of the package within a web portal and web services environment by showcasing its use in the QuakeSim web portal. The QuakeSim portal allows easy access to GPS data sources provided by multiple institutions as well as a map and plotting interface to quickly assess analysis results. Finally, we show the extensibility of the package to other problem domains and sensor network data sources, demonstrating the analysis tools as applied to seismic network data, autonomous robotic navigation, and fault detection in engineering data streams from the International Space Station.

Granat, R. A.; Moghaddam, B.; Donnellan, A.



Understanding interactions with the food environment: an exploration of supermarket food shopping routines in deprived neighbourhoods.  


Despite a sustained academic interest in the environmental determinants of diet, relatively little is known about the ways in which individuals interact with their neighbourhood food environment and the use of its most important element, the supermarket. This qualitative study explores how residents of deprived neighbourhoods shop for food and how the supermarket environment influences their choices. Go-along interviews were conducted with 26 residents of Sandwell, a uniformly deprived metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, UK. Routine approaches to food shopping are characterised in terms of planning and reliance on the supermarket environment. Four distinct routines are identified: chaotic and reactive; working around the store; item-by-item; and restricted and budgeted. This suggests that residents of deprived neighbourhoods do not have uniform responses to food environments. Responses to supermarket environments appear to be mediated by levels of individual autonomy. A better understanding of how residents of deprived neighbourhoods interact with their food environment may help optimise environmental interventions aimed at improving physical access to food in these places. PMID:23220374

Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary



Toward understanding life under subzero conditions: the significance of exploring psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins.  


Understanding the behavior of proteins under freezing conditions is vital for detecting and locating extraterrestrial life in cold environments, such as those found on Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. This review highlights the importance of studying psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins, a topic that has yet to be explored. A strategy for analyzing the psychrophilic RNA helicase protein CsdA (Psyc_1082) from Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures is proposed. The experimental model presented here was developed based on previous data from investigations of Escherichia coli, P. arcticus 273-4, and RNA helicases. P. arcticus 273-4 is considered a model for life in freezing environments. It is capable of growing in temperatures as cold as -10°C by using physiological strategies to survive not only in freezing temperatures but also under low-water-activity and limited-nutrient-availability conditions. The analyses of its genome, transcriptome, and proteome revealed specific adaptations that allow it to inhabit freezing environments by adopting a slow metabolic strategy rather than a cellular dormancy state. During growth at subzero temperatures, P. arcticus 273-4 genes related to energy metabolism and carbon substrate incorporation are downregulated, and genes for maintenance of membranes, cell walls, and nucleic acid motion are upregulated. At -6°C, P. arcticus 273-4 does not upregulate the expression of either RNA or protein chaperones; however, it upregulates the expression of its cold-shock induced DEAD-box RNA helicase protein A (CsdA - Psyc_1082). CsdA - Psyc_1082 was investigated as a key helper protein for sustaining life in subzero conditions. Proving CsdA - Psyc_1082 to be functional as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures may extend the known minimum growth temperature of a mesophilic cell and provide key information about the mechanisms that underlie cold-induced biological systems in icy worlds. PMID:23082745

Kuhn, Emanuele



User Characteristics: Professional vs. Lay Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market success of a product largely depends on whether it correctly addresses the user needs. Understanding the user is increasingly becoming important in the design process. Different user models may determine different approaches to design. This paper identifies the characteristics of different types of users, with a specific focus on professional users and lay users. It gives a definition

Selami Cifter; Hua Dong


From Phenotype to Genotype: Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Genetic Inheritance in a Web-Based Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that students face challenges as they learn about genetic inheritance. The challenges could emanate from the fact that genetic inheritance involves unseen processes at different organizational levels. We explored students' understanding of heredity and related concepts such as cells and reproduction using a Web-based Science Inquiry…

Williams, Michelle; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Manokore, Viola



Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.



The Visuo-Haptic and Haptic Exploration of Letters Increases the Kindergarten-Children's Understanding of the Alphabetic Principle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of incorporating a visuo-haptic and haptic (tactual-kinaesthetic) exploration of letters in a training designed to develop phonemic awareness, knowledge of letters and letter/sound correspondences, on 5-year-old children's understanding and use of the alphabetic principle. Three interventions, which differed in the…

Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane



Exploring and Understanding the Benefits of Tutoring Software on Urban Students' Science Achievement: What Are Baltimore City Practitioners' Perspectives?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, very little research that meets the scientifically based standards as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act has been conducted on the effectiveness of educational technology on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore and seek to understand urban city teachers' perspectives on the benefits or effects of…

Pinder, Patrice Juliet



"Everything Is in Parables": An Exploration of Students' Difficulties in Understanding Christian Beliefs Concerning Jesus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of interviews conducted with students (aged 11-13) in four English secondary schools, examining reasons why young people find it difficult to understand Christian beliefs regarding Jesus' miracles, resurrection, and status as the Son of God. For the students in this sample, understanding and belief are closely…

Freathy, Rob; Aylward, Karen



Explore the Past to Understand the Present and Shape the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students need more than the facts. They need a basic understanding of history--where people came from or how civilizations have evolved and interacted. But they also need to understand why this knowledge is important and how it relates to their present. History doesn't just happen; it is made--made by real people who faced real challenges, who had…

Graseck, Susan




USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

Wilburn, D. R.; Porter, K. E.



Exploring the Role of Context in Students' Understanding of Sampling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context provides meaning for data analysis and the evaluation of evidence but may be distracting to students. This research explores the role of context in students' reasoning about sampling: specifically, the relationship between the strength of students' opinions about a topic, which provides the context for a study, and their ability…

Wroughton, Jacqueline R.; McGowan, Herle M.; Weiss, Leigh V.; Cope, Tara M.



Exploring teachers' informal formative assessment practices and students' understanding in the context of scientific inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual structures, and social processes). We describe the informal assessment practices as ESRU cycles—the teacher Elicits

Maria Araceli Ruiz-Primo; Erin Marie Furtak



Understanding "Together and Apart": A Case Study of Edward's Explorations at Nursery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edward was one of 58 children studied by workers and parents as part of a study on Well-being and Resilience at the Pen Green Nursery. Within the larger study, eight children were studied in greater depth in order to explore connections between cognitive and emotional development. Schematic theory and attachment theory were used as frameworks for…

Arnold, Cath



Exploring the Role of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Biomedical Text Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable effort being devoted to mining information from medical and scientific literature, in particular, from Medline abstracts and from full-text articles. Such information is being used, for example, to reconstruct biological pathways, identify pathogenic mechanisms and, importantly, to identify functional relationships that can be used to predict disease onset and its course thereafter. Our interest is in exploring

Debra T. Burhans; Alistair E. R. Campbell; Gary R. Skuse


Teachers' understandings of forgiveness in a troubled society: an empirical exploration and implications for forgiveness pedagogies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore how teachers define forgiveness in a society troubled with political conflict and historical trauma, what reservations they have and what pedagogical opportunities (if any) are created to teach about\\/for forgiveness in schools. More specifically, this is a phenomenological study of how a group of Greek-Cypriot teachers who teach in a troubled society

Michalinos Zembylas; Andri Michaelidou



Understanding divergent evolution of Earth-like planets: the case for a Venus exploration program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Here, we propose a Venus exploration program designed to explain the origin and divergent evolution of the interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in our solar system, and provide greater insight into the conditions that may affect the habitability of terrestrial planets in other solar systems.

Crisp, D.



Lay health advisor activity levels: definitions from the field.  


One type of lay health advisor model assumes that an effective mechanism for reaching the underserved is through informal advice-givers called natural helpers. Despite the growing use of this approach, few programs have defined what an active lay health advisor does within the natural helping process. To explore perceptions and definitions of lay health advisors' activity, we conducted semistructured, in-person interviews with four field staff who coordinate the advisors' activities in a breast cancer screening program. These staff viewed lay health advisor activity as fluctuating over the course of a year, occurring along a continuum of participation (inactive, moderately active, active, and superactive), and reflecting varying degrees of proactivity and participation in multiple activities. These results suggest an empirical process for refining the definition of an active lay health advisor, improving advisors' productivity in achieving outreach objectives, and managing and monitoring their ongoing activities. PMID:10435234

Altpeter, M; Earp, J A; Bishop, C; Eng, E



Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Using Satellite Images to Understand Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: NASA Satellite Images. TOOLS: ImageJ and Image Composite Explorer (ICE) of NASA Earth Observations (NEO). SUMMARY: Use ImageJ to create an animation showing the change in monthly concentration of aerosols over the course of a year and compare it to a similar animation showing change in carbon monoxide concentration. Then use NEO ICE to create histograms and scatter plots, investigating the relationship between aerosol concentration and carbon monoxide concentration.


Exploring Novel Tools for Assessing High School Students' Meaningful Understanding of Organic Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Systemic assessment questions (SAQs) are novel assessment tools used in the context of the Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning (SATL) model. The purpose of this model is to enhance students' meaningful understanding of scientific concepts by use of constructivist concept mapping procedures, which emphasize the development of systems…

Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Vasiliou, Petroula; Tzougraki, Chryssa



Exploring the Relationship between Physics-Related Epistemological Beliefs and Physics Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies are reported that investigated the relationship between secondary school students' physics-related epistemological beliefs and physics conceptual understanding. Study 1 involved the development of a Greek Epistemological Beliefs Evaluation Instrument for Physics (GEBEP) which was administered to 394 students (10th graders). Study 2…

Stathopoulou, Christina; Vosniadou, Stella



Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc.…

Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Shea, Nicole



The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make…

Cormier, Sebastien; Steinberg, Richard



The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging.1 Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make connections to the real world, think constructively, and learn the

Sébastien Cormier; Richard Steinberg



Teaching Games and Sport for Understanding: Exploring and Reconsidering its Relevance in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 30 years ago the original teaching games for understanding (TGfU) proposition was published in a special edition of the Bulletin of Physical Education (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). In that time TGfU has attracted significant attention from a theoretical and pedagogical perspective as an improved approach to games and sport teaching in physical…

Stolz, Steven; Pill, Shane



Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais



Sequential piggyback, dual lay used for Irish Sea pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piggyback and dual pipe lay were used sequentially for the first time in 1993 aboard the lay vessel DLB 1601 in the North Morecambe project, Block 110\\/2a of the Irish Sea. Development was by British Gas Exploration and Production Ltd. A 3-in. OD pipeline was laid piggybacked onto a 36-in. pipeline for the offshore pull operation and then separated in

A. Dutta; M. Guinard



The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make connections to the real world, think constructively, and learn the material successfully. However, what happens when making connections to the real world is more complicated. It is one thing to try to figure out how pushing a block with a constant force leads to constant speed, but it is very different to try to build toward an understanding of time dilation. Do the same instructional approaches work here? Also, is it possible that improved instructional approaches lead to improved student approaches when trying to make sense of difficult and very unfamiliar material? In this paper we describe a unique opportunity to perform a controlled experiment by interviewing identical twin brothers working together to resolve the twin paradox. These were intelligent and articulate science students with similar backgrounds but with diverging undergraduate experiences. One happened to take traditional physics classes and the other happened to take classes designed through Physics Education Research.

Cormier, Sebastien; Steinberg, Richard N.



The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging.1 Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make connections to the real world, think constructively, and learn the material successfully.2 However, what happens when making connections to the real world is more complicated. It is one thing to try to figure out how pushing a block with a constant force leads to constant speed, but it is very different to try to build toward an understanding of time dilation. Do the same instructional approaches work here? Also, is it possible that improved instructional approaches lead to improved student approaches when trying to make sense of difficult and very unfamiliar material? In this paper we describe a unique opportunity to perform a controlled experiment by interviewing identical twin brothers working together to resolve the twin paradox. These were intelligent and articulate science students with similar backgrounds but with diverging undergraduate experiences. One happened to take traditional physics classes and the other happened to take classes designed through Physics Education Research.

Cormier, Sébastien; Steinberg, Richard



A framework for understanding risk perception, explored from the perspective of the water practitioner.  


Sustainable urban water systems are likely to be hybrids of centralized and decentralized infrastructure, managed as an integrated system in water-sensitive cities. The technology for many of these systems is available. However, social and institutional barriers, which can be understood as deeply embedded risk perceptions, have impeded their implementation. Risk perceptions within the water sector are often unrecognized or unacknowledged, despite their role in risk management generally in informing value judgments and specifically in ranking risks to achieve management objectives. There has been very little examination of the role of these risk perceptions in advancing more sustainable water supply management through the adoption of alternative sources. To address this gap, this article presents a framework that can be used as a tool for understanding risk perceptions. The framework is built on the relational theory of risk and presents the range of human phenomena that might influence the perception of an "object at risk" in relation to a "risk object." It has been synthesized from a critical review of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies of perception broadly and risk perception specifically, and interpreted in relation to water practitioners. For a water practitioner, the risk object might be an alternative water system, a component, a process, or a technology, and the object at risk could be public or environmental health, profitability, or professional reputation. This framework has two important functions: to allow practitioners to understand their own and others' risk perceptions, which might differ, and to inform further empirical research. PMID:23915168

Dobbie, Meredith Frances; Brown, Rebekah Ruth



Exploration of picture grammars, grammar learning, and inductive logic programming for image understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grammars have been used for the formal specification of programming languages, and there are a number of commercial products which now use grammars. However, these have tended to be focused mainly on flow control type applications. In this paper, we consider the potential use of picture grammars and inductive logic programming in generic image understanding applications, such as object recognition. A number of issues are considered, such as what type of grammar needs to be used, how to construct the grammar with its associated attributes, difficulties encountered with parsing grammars followed by issues of automatically learning grammars using a genetic algorithm. The concept of inductive logic programming is then introduced as a method that can overcome some of the earlier difficulties.

Ducksbury, P. G.; Kennedy, C.; Lock, Z.



Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Essential Features of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching Using Evidence-Based Reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored preservice elementary teachers' and their mentors' understanding of the essential features of inquiry-based teaching through the use of evidence-based reflection. The web-based video analysis tool (VAT) system was used to support preservice teachers' and mentors' evidence-based reflection during field experiences. Major data sources included VAT reflections and individual interviews. Data analysis indicated that the preservice teachers had been involved in various activities designed to support their understanding of inquiry features in a science methods class; they did not implement all of the features in their actual teaching. Both preservice teachers and mentors had difficulty connecting appropriate inquiry features to each teaching episode, which indicates their lack of understanding of inquiry. Both the preservice teachers and mentors had different levels of understanding for each feature. That is, they tended to understand certain features better than others. They interpreted each feature of inquiry-based science teaching too broadly. They also either had a teacher-centered view or tended to focus on issues unrelated to science teaching.

Seung, Eulsun; Park, Soonhye; Jung, Jinhong



Understanding the Knowledge and Perceptions About Clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: A Qualitative Exploration  

PubMed Central

This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital’s catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful.

Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Mansoor, Ali Khan; Mohammad Amin, Chinoy



Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts (n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth



Teachers' and Parents' Conceptions of Children's Curiosity and Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although curiosity is a characteristic often observed in young children, it has not received much academic interest in recent years. Among its many dimensions, the epistemic nature of curiosity, or the quest for knowledge, deserves attention. To explore the potential application of "epistemic curiosity", it is important to understand how lay

Chak, Amy



Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: using social theory to explore everyday commuting.  


Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work ('active commuting') as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

Guell, C; Panter, J; Jones, N R; Ogilvie, D



"They Just Seem to Live Their Lives in Their Own Little World": Lay Perceptions of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is believed to be higher than that of other conditions, such as Down syndrome or diabetes, yet few studies have explored the ideas lay people have about autism. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how 10 lay people with no knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism.…

Huws, J. C.; Jones, R. S. P.



Understanding and Exploration of the Biomineralization Mechanisms for the Controllable Synthesis of Nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is mainly concerned with understanding the biomineralization mechanisms, and further extrapolating them for the controllable synthesis of transition metal compound nanomaterials on graphene sheets for energy storage applications in electrochemical capacitors and lithium ion batteries (LIB). Firstly, we have studied the mimetic biomineralization process of CaCO 3 on a stearic acid or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface by in-situ Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and ex-situ electron microscopy. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors are directly nucleated from solvated ions prior to the crystal nuclei on a Langmuir monolayer. On a DPPC monolayer, numerous fresh ACC nanoparticles heterogeneously and continuously nucleated at the air-water interface are transformed into the metastable vaterite nanocrystals. Driven by the trend to decrease surface energy, the vaterite nanocrystals self-aggregate and grow into the loose-packed hollow ellipsoidal vaterite polycrystals. These nanocrystals in vaterite polycrystals are then gradually orientated in the same direction to evolve into tight-packed ellipsoidal mesocrystals. As the crystallization time is further increased, the metastable vaterite mesocrystals are eventually transformed into the most thermodynamically stable calcite crystals. Secondly, organic and inorganic additives control over the shapes, sizes and phases of inorganic nanocrystals and arrange them into ordered structures from amorphous precursors in the organisms. This interesting phenomenon has galvanized many attempts to mimic the biomineralization process for synthesizing novel materials. We have studied the crystallization processes from small citrate molecules stabilized ACC precursors under cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar structures. Amorphous precursors, with a hydrated and disordered structure, are easily transformed and molded into CaCO 3 crystals with novel morphologies, such as, hollow radiating cluster-like particles, hollow sheaf-like crystals, and hollow rods, which are depended on CTAB micellar structures. Besides organic additives, inorganic dopants, such as, Mg2+ ion, are found to be another key factor to influence the polymorph and morphology. We combine two types of additives (Mg 2+ ion and a denatured collagen protein (gelatin)) to direct the mineralization of CaCO3. The polymorphs and morphologies critically depend on gelatin concentration at a given Mg2+ concentration. While, at a given gelatin concentration, the Mg molar percentages in the mother solution, although not a determining factor for the polymorphs, can affect the crystal micro- and nano-structures. The controlled crystallization can be rationalized by the interplay between Mg2+ and gelatin, which mutually enhances their uptake and regulate the concomitant mineralization. The biomineralization process can be divided into the nucleation of amorphous precursors and the subsequent amorphous to crystalline transformation. Thirdly, on the basis of understanding the biomineralization mechanisms discussed above, we extrapolate it to synthesize transition metal compound nanomaterials on graphene sheets for energy storage application. We have applied a bio-inspired approach to prepare CoxNi1-xO (0?x<1) nanorods on graphene sheets, breaking out the Co/Ni molar ratio limitation for the known stable mixed oxide spinel NiCo2O4. This success has allowed us to further screen the compositions for electrochemical capacitor. CoxNi1-xO/graphene composite electrodes achieve a peak specific capacitance as the Co/Ni molar ratio is closed to 1. This bio-inspired approach also is applied for anchoring Ni(OH)2 nanocrystals on graphene sheets. The size and morphology of the Ni(OH)2 nanocrystals can be controlled via altering the treated temperature during the Ostwald ripening process. The specific capacitance decreased with increasing Ni(OH) 2 nanocrystal size, whereas the cycling stability performance increased with increasing the stability of Ni(OH)2 in

Xiao, Junwu


Understanding stress-induced immunosuppression: exploration of cytokine and chemokine gene profiles in chicken peripheral leukocytes.  


At present, the poultry meat and egg industry has gained a lot of ground, being viewed as a provider of a healthy alternative to red meat and other protein sources. If this trend is to be maintained, solutions must be found to improve resistance of chickens to disease, which often is weakened by stressful conditions. In poultry, stress-induced immunosuppression is manifested by failures in vaccination and increased morbidity and mortality of flocks. Currently, several modern cellular and molecular approaches are being used to explore the status of the immune system during stress and disease. It is likely that these new techniques will lead to the development of new strategies for preventing and controlling immunosuppression in poultry. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays, a broad spectrum of cytokine, chemokine, and their receptor genes can be quantified in birds and then be used as markers to assess the effects of stress on the immune system. Currently, we are investigating immune and endocrine interactions in the chicken, in particular the cells and molecules that are known to be involved in such interactions in mammals. We have evaluated the effects of corticosterone administration in drinking water on peripheral lymphocyte and heterophil cytokine and chemokine gene profiles. In particular, there seems to be effects on cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression levels in both lymphocytes and heterophils, especially expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-18 and chemokines C-C motif, ligand 1 inflammatory (CCLi1); C-C motif, ligand 2 inflammatory (CCLi2); C-C motif, ligand 5 (CCL5); C-C motif, ligand 16 (CCL16); C-X-C motif ligand 1 inflammatory (CXCLi1); and C-X-C motif ligand 2 inflammatory (CXCLi2), which are initially upregulated and are potentially involved in modulating the adaptive immune response. A chronic treatment with corticosterone downregulates proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that the delayed effects of chronic stress can suppress the immune response. Messenger RNA expression levels of transforming growth factor-beta4 (TGF-beta4) are also upregulated in cortisosterone-treated birds. It appears that the balance between T-helper (Th) 1 and Th2/T regulatory cytokine production is altered in conditions associated with significant changes in plasma corticosterone concentration. Experiments are underway to decipher the cytokine and chemokine responses to vaccination and bacterial challenge on the background of stress-induced immunosuppression. PMID:20308420

Shini, S; Huff, G R; Shini, A; Kaiser, P



The use of a virtual reality simulator to explore and understand the impact of Linac mis-calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: In recent years there has been interest in using Computer Simulation within Medical training. The VERT (Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training) system is a Flight Simulator for Radiation Oncology professionals, wherein fundamental concepts, techniques and problematic scenarios can be safely investigated. Methods: The system provides detailed simulations of several Linacs and the ability to display DICOM treatment plans. Patients can be mis-positioned with 'set-up errors' which can be explored visually, dosimetrically and using IGRT. Similarly, a variety of Linac calibration and configuration parameters can be altered manually or randomly via controlled errors in the simulated 3D Linac and its component parts. The implication of these can be investigated by following through a treatment scenario or using QC devices available within a Physics software module. Results: One resultant exercise is a systematic mis-calibration of 'lateral laser height' by 2mm. The offset in patient alignment is easily identified using IGRT and once corrected by reference to the 'in-room monitor'. The dosimetric implication is demonstrated to be 0.4% by setting a dosimetry phantom by the lasers (and ignoring TSD information). Finally, the need for recalibration can be shown by the Laser Alignment Phantom or by reference to the front pointer. Conclusions: The VERT system provides a realistic environment for training and enhancing understanding of radiotherapy concepts and techniques. Linac error conditions can be explored in this context and valuable experience gained in a controlled manner in a compressed period of time.

Beavis, Andrew W.; Ward, James W.



Understanding unexpected courses of multiple sclerosis among patients using complementary and alternative medicine: A travel from recipient to explorer  

PubMed Central

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Some MS patients experience unexpected improvements of symptoms, which they relate to their use of CAM. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge and develop understandings of such self-defined unexpected improvement of MS symptoms. Two cases were constructed based on documents and 12 qualitative interviews. Our aim was not to make generalisations from the cases, but to transfer knowledge as working hypotheses. We identified four health-related change processes: the process of losing bodily competence; the process of developing responsibility; the process of taking control; and the process of choosing CAM. The patients explained unexpected improvements in their MS symptoms as results of their own efforts including their choice and use of CAM. In our theoretical interpretations, we found the patients’ redefinition of history, the concept of treatment and the importance of conventional health care to be essential, and leading to a change of patients’ position towards conventional health care from recipients to explorers. The explorers can be perceived as boundary walkers reflecting limitations within the conventional health care system and as initiators regarding what MS patients find useful in CAM.

Salamonsen, Anita; Launs?, Laila; Kruse, Tove E.; Eriksen, Sissel H.



Development of automatic welding system applied in subsea pipeline laying  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore deep water oil and gas fields in South China Sea area, an automatic welding system applied in subsea pipeline laying has been developed, which has several features such as GMAW process, two welding carriages with dual torch, narrow gap and internal line up clamp fitted with copper backing rings. The welding carriage is specially designed for

Zhou Canfeng; Jiao Xiangdong; Chen Jiaqing; Ji Wengang; Ji Yipeng; Luo Yu; Gao Hui; Li Zhigang; Zhao Dongyan; Cao Jun; Ding Wenbin



Exploring Exploring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will investigate, discuss, and determine why humans have always explored the world (and now space) around them. Students determine these reasons for exploration through a class discussion. In the first activity, students use the Internet to examine the characteristics of past explorers and why they conducted their exploration. The students then examine why current explorers - including the students themselves - want to explore other worlds in the Solar System. By the end of the lesson, the students can conclude that no matter what or when we explore - past, present, or future - the reasons for exploration are the same; the motivation for exploration is universal.


Exploring Subsurface Flow Paths as a Precursor to Understanding the Spatial Pattern of Weathering in a Rocky Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationship between subsurface flow paths on hillslopes and chemical weathering of bedrock is fundamental to understanding the timing and mechanisms that weather bedrock to create saprolite. The link between chemical weathering of bedrock and contact time with acidic water along flow paths motivates this study. Water drives the chemical alteration of rock into saprolite, yet connected porosity generally declines with depth into the weathered profile. Saprolite formation therefore reflects coupled weathering and permeability development over time. We study the interaction between these two processes in the Boulder Creek watershed, a 1160 km2 catchment that ranges in elevation from high alpine peaks at 4120 masl to the Colorado piedmont at 1480 masl. This research focuses on saprolite development in the 1.7 billion year old Boulder Creek Granodiorite, which is well exposed in the Betasso catchment, at 1900 masl. Six pairs of soil moisture and water potential probes were installed in two vertical profiles in hillslopes at Betasso. Four of these instrument pairs were installed directly into the saprolite, allowing documentation of the timing and magnitude of individual snow melt and rain events. Preliminary data shows distinct responses to rain events, even at the deepest monitoring site. The data collected from these probes guides and informs preliminary modeling of unsaturated zone hydrology on hillslopes. Two dimensional hillslope hydrology models were constructed in VS2DT, a Richards equation-based model, to visualize flow paths in the unsaturated zone. Model variables - hydraulic conductivity of regolith, hydraulic conductivity of saprolite, thickness of regolith, amount of recharge, and slope angle - were explored to determine the conditions necessary for vertical flow into the bedrock and lateral flow in the hillslope. These parameters vary throughout the Boulder Creek watershed with changes in elevation, lithology, and hillslope aspect. We expect fracture density and fracture size in the bedrock to exert the strongest control on both the depth of water penetration into the saprolite-bedrock, and its residence time in the subsurface. Characterizing these parameters in a basic hillslope model will move us toward a process-based understanding of fluid flow in the unsaturated zone and the relationship between chemical weathering and permeability development.

Langston, A. L.; Tucker, G. E.; Anderson, S. P.; Anderson, R. S.



Lay Theory of Race Affects and Moderates Asian Americans' Responses Toward American Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability)

Sun No; Ying-yi Hong; Hsin-Ya Liao; Kyoungmi Lee; Dustin Wood; Melody Manchi Chao



Pipe laying apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus and method are described for laying a pipeline on the bottom of an ocean wherein a wheel-like, buoyant body is adapted to carry a single, continuous length of pipe in the form of horizontal convolutions from a first site at which the pipe is wrapped on the body to a second site where the convolutions are moved into vertical

F. S. Ellers; N. R. Wallace



Qualitative exploration of public and smoker understanding of, and reactions to, an endgame solution to the tobacco epidemic  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing interest in ending the tobacco epidemic and in applying ‘endgame’ solutions to achieve that goal at national levels. We explored the understanding of, and reactions to, a tobacco-free vision and an endgame approach to tobacco control among New Zealand smokers and non-smokers. Methods We recruited participants in four focus groups held in June 2009: M?ori (indigenous people) smokers (n=7); non-M?ori smokers (n=6); M?ori non-smokers (n=7); and non-M?ori non-smokers (n=4). Participants were from the city of Whanganui, New Zealand. We introduced to them the vision of a tobacco-free New Zealand and the concept of a semi-autonomous agency (Tobacco-Free Commission [TFC]) that would control the tobacco market as part of an endgame approach. Results There was mostly strong support for the tobacco-free New Zealand vision among all groups of participants. The reason most commonly given for supporting the vision was to protect children from tobacco. Most participants stated that they understood the TFC concept and reacted positively to it. Nevertheless, rather than focusing on organisational or structural arrangements, participants tended to focus on supporting the specific measures which a future TFC might facilitate such as plain packaging of tobacco products. Various concerns were also raised around the TFC, particularly around the feasibility of its establishment. Conclusions We were able to successfully communicate a complex and novel supply-side focused tobacco control policy intervention to smokers and non-smokers. The findings add to the evidence from national surveys that there is public support, including from smokers, for achieving a tobacco-free vision and using regulatory and policy measures to achieve it. Support for such measures may be enhanced if they are clearly communicated and explained with a rationale which stresses protecting children and future generations from tobacco smoking.



"I feel like half my body is clogged up": Lay models of stroke in Central Aceh, Indonesia.  


Stroke in low and middle income countries is an increasing cause of death and disability, with rates and the estimated burden considerably higher than that of high income countries. Lay explanatory models are believed to be one of the major influences on health seeking behaviour and essential to understand for appropriate education strategies. Despite stroke being a considerable health concern in Indonesia and particularly in Aceh, no studies to date have explored lay stroke models in that context. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study informed by both hermeneutic phenomenology and ethnography. Based in rural communities in Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah in Central Aceh, Indonesia, data were gathered through interviews, photographs and observations with 11 persons with stroke (aged 32-69 years) and 18 of their carers. Fieldwork was conducted over nine months between 2007 and 2008. The study examined lay concepts of stroke, described as a condition resulting from a local blockage in blood from multiple causes, many of which are not recognised within the biomedical frame. The blockage is understood to be reversible and therefore the condition curable. This understanding is embedded and sustained in the specific political, cultural, religious and social context. The results illustrate similarities and differences with other cross-cultural studies and suggest areas of future research and points of consideration for stroke education strategies. PMID:20869145

Norris, Meriel; Allotey, Pascale; Barrett, Geraldine



Automated Tape Laying Machine for Composite Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is related to the manufacture of lightweight graphite composite structures. It is particularly related to automated devices for laying structural tape during manufacture of composite parts. The tape laying device comprises a tape laydown he...

S. E. Hailey



Exploring Adolescents' Multimodal Responses to "The Kite Runner": Understanding How Students Use Digital Media for Academic Purposes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores how adolescent high school students in an AP English class used multiple forms of media (the internet, digital video, slide show software, video editing tools, literary texts, and writing) to respond to and analyze a contemporary novel, "The Kite Runner". Using a multimodal analysis framework, the author explores

Jocius, Robin



Knowing, Understanding and Exploring the Content and Formation of Curriculum Materials: A Chinese Approach To Empower Prospective Elementary School Teachers Pedagogically.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined mathematical methods courses as part of pedagogical training provided to prospective Chinese elementary school teachers through the analysis of textbooks and courses given at two teacher education sites. Results show that knowing, understanding, and exploring the content and design of textbooks used in elementary classrooms were greatly…

Li, Yeping



Transforming Our Understanding of the X-ray Universe: The Imaging X-ray Polarimeter Explorer (IXPE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate X-ray polarimetry can provide unique information on high-energy-astrophysical processes and sources. As there have been no meaningful X-ray polarization measurements of cosmic sources since our pioneering work in the 1970’s, the time is ripe to explore this new parameter space in X-ray astronomy. To accomplish this requires a well-calibrated and well-understood system that—particularly for an Explorer mission—has technical, cost, and schedule credibility. The system that we shall present satisfies these conditions, being based upon completely calibrated imaging- and polarization-sensitive detectors and proven X-ray-telescope technology.

Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Matt, Giorgio; Marshall, Herman L.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Pavlov, George G.; Ramsey, Brian; Romani, Roger W.



Evaluation of a Well-Established Task-Shifting Initiative: The Lay Counselor Cadre in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence supports the implementation of task shifting to address health worker shortages that are common in resource-limited settings. However, there is need to learn from established programs to identify ways to achieve the strongest, most sustainable impact. This study examined the Botswana lay counselor cadre, a task shifting initiative, to explore effectiveness and contribution to the health workforce. Methods This evaluation used multiple methods, including a desk review, a national lay counselor survey (n?=?385; response?=?94%), in-depth interviews (n?=?79), lay counselors focus group discussions (n?=?7), lay counselors observations (n?=?25), and client exit interviews (n?=?47). Results Interview and focus group data indicate that lay counselors contribute to essentially all HIV-related programs in Botswana and they conduct the majority of HIV tests and related counseling at public health facilities throughout the country. Interviews showed that the lay counselor cadre is making the workload of more skilled health workers more manageable and increasing HIV acceptance in communities. The average score on a work-related knowledge test was 74.5%. However for 3 questions, less than half answered correctly. During observations, lay counselors demonstrated average competence for most skills assessed and clients (97.9%) were satisfied with services received. From the survey, lay counselors generally reported being comfortable with their duties; however, some reported clinical duties that extended beyond their training and mandate. Multiple factors affecting the performance of the lay counselors were identified, including insufficient resources, such as private counseling space and HIV test kits; and technical, administrative, and supervisory support. Conclusion Lay counselors are fulfilling an important role in Botswana's healthcare system, serving as the entry point into HIV care, support, and treatment services. Recommendation For this and other similar task shifting initiatives, it is important that lay counselors' responsibilities are clear and that training and support are adequate to optimize their effectiveness.

Ledikwe, Jenny H.; Kejelepula, Mable; Maupo, Kabelo; Sebetso, Siwulani; Thekiso, Mothwana; Smith, Monica; Mbayi, Bagele; Houghton, Nankie; Thankane, Kabo; O'Malley, Gabrielle; Semo, Bazghina-werq



An Autoethnographic Approach to Understanding Asperger's Syndrome: A Personal Exploration of Self-Identity through Reflexive Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes use of autoethnography in which I, as researcher, explore my own awareness of Asperger's syndrome and how this, in turn, has helped me deal with many day to day situations I have encountered. The work illustrates how actively engaging with one's own life story narratives can help the Asperger's learner come to terms with his or…

Hughes, Paul



Family Day Care Educators: An Exploration of Their Understanding and Experiences Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…

Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Davies, Belinda; Smyth, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Herrman, Helen; Sims, Margaret; Harrison, Linda; Cook, Kay; Marshall, Bernie; Williamson, Lara



Understanding Children's Curiosity and Exploration through the Lenses of Lewin's Field Theory: On Developing an Appraisal Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses Lewin's field theory as a framework to appraise children's momentary state of curiosity and exploratory behavior. Discusses two levels of analysis: child-stimulus situation and child-stimulus-adult situation. Argues that a parent can be a barrier hindering a child's exploration, or a facilitator to remove barriers. (Author/SD)

Chak, Amy



Playing the field(s): an exploration of change, conformity and conflict in girls’ understandings of gendered physicality in physical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on data from a year?long ethnographic study of a group of 12? to 13?year?old girls that explored the processes through which they negotiated gendered physicality within the context of physical education. Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and social fields and McNay’s extension of his work underpin a discussion of three contexts where girls experience and process understandings of

Laura A. Hills



Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.



Exploring Second Graders' Understanding of the Text-Illustration Relationship in Picture Storybooks and Informational Picture Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our society is increasingly bombarded with visual imagery; therefore, it is important for educators to be knowledgeable about the elements of art and to use our knowledge to help students deepen their reading understanding. Arizpe & Styles (2003) noted that students must be prepared to work with imagery in the future at high levels of competency,…

Thomas, Lisa Carol



Ofqual's Reliability Programme: A Case Study Exploring the Potential to Improve Public Understanding and Confidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2008, Ofqual established a two-year programme of research to investigate the nature and extent of (un)reliability within the qualifications, examinations and assessments that it regulated. It was particularly concerned to improve understanding of, and confidence in, this technically complex and politically sensitive phenomenon. The…

Newton, Paul E.



An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

Dawson, Vaille



Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel



Exploring the Usefulness of Two Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding How Organizational Factors Influence Innovation Implementation in Cancer Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors…

Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva



Exploring Relations Among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas About Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and dinosaurs and plate tectonics. Accepting the theory of evolution was positively correlated with correctly answering the three other questions related to the age of Earth. Furthermore, participants who rejected evolution scored significantly lower on a test of basic science concepts than did participants who held accurate views on human evolution. Study results revealed no apparent association between completion of advanced college science courses and acceptance of evolutionary theory or understanding of science concepts. Implications for elementary science teacher education were discussed.

Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel



An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

Dawson, Vaille



Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and SRTM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on interpreting the evolutionary history of the Amazon Basin. We are grateful to Bruce Chapman, Naira Pinto, and the JPL UAVSAR team for supporting the planning and acquisition of the UAVSAR data, and to the NASA Biodiversity Program for providing funding to support the UAVSAR acquisitions. This work was carried out under a grant from the NASA Biodiversity Program and the NSF DIMENSIONS of Biodiversity Program.

McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.



Understanding Science: Misconceptions About Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page explores misinterpretations of the scientific process and explains why these commonly-held beliefs are incorrect. A few examples of such misconceptions are: "Without an experiment, a study is not rigorous or scientific"; "There is a single scientific method that all scientists follow"; "Scientific ideas are absolute"; "The job of a scientist is to find support for his/her hypothesis"; "Investigations that don't reach a firm conclusion are useless." The authors also clarify vocabulary mix-ups that occur when lay language and scientific language use the same words differently (such as "uncertainty", "law", and "error"). This web page is part of the Understanding Science project developed by the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with a diverse group of scientists and teachers.



Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: Exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance  

PubMed Central

Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children’s coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six month assessment. Children used an average of 5–6 coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child-report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children’s acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.

Marsac, Meghan L.; Donlon, Katharine A.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Winston, Flaura K.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy



General Behaviors and Perching Behaviors of Laying Hens in Cages with Different Colored Perches  

PubMed Central

Color is one of the perch properties. This study was conducted to investigate the general behaviors and perching behaviors in laying hens under different group size (stocking density), and to understand the perch color (black, white or brown) preference of hens during the night. A total of 390 Hyline Brown laying hens was used, and randomly allocated to three treatments: individual group (G1), group of four hens (G4), and group of eight hens (G8), respectively. There were 30 replicates in each group. The hens in G1, G4 and G8 groups were put into the test cages in which three colored perches were simultaneously provided and allowed for four days of habituation in the new cages. Hens behaviors were recorded using cameras with infrared light sources for the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 14:00 to 16:00; 19:00 to 21:00; 23:30 to 0:30 on the fifth day after transferring the birds into the test cages. The behaviors of hens in every time period were collected and analyzed, and hens positions on the test perches during mid-night were recorded. The results showed that, group size (stocking density) had significant effect on most of the general behaviors of laying hens except exploring behavior. There were great differences in most of the general behaviors during different time periods. In the preference test of perch color during night, the hens showed no clear preference for white, black or brown perches. For perching behaviors, perching time and frequency of transferring from one perch to another was higher on black perches than on white or brown perches in individual groups. In G4 groups, the hens spent more time on white perches during daytime and more frequent transferring during night compared with black or brown perches. The frequency of jumping upon and down from white perches was higher in G8 groups. It can be concluded that although the group sizes in the cage significantly affected most of the general behaviors, we found that no preference of perch color was shown by the caged laying hens in the different group sizes tested in this study.

Chen, D. H.; Bao, J.



Exploring avidity: understanding the potential gains in functional affinity and target residence time of bivalent and heterobivalent ligands  

PubMed Central

Bivalent ligands are increasingly important therapeutic agents. Although the naturally occurring antibodies are predominant, it is becoming more common to combine different antibody fragments or even low molecular weight compounds to generate heterobivalent ligands. Such ligands exhibit markedly increased affinity (i.e. avidity) and target residence time when both pharmacophores can bind simultaneously to their target sites. This is because binding of one pharmacophore forces the second tethered one to stay close to its corresponding site. This ‘forced proximity’ favours its binding and rebinding (once dissociated) to that site. However, rebinding will also take place when the diffusion of freshly dissociated ligands is merely slowed down. The present differential equation-based simulations explore the way both situations affect ligand binding. Both delay the attainment of binding equilibrium (resulting in steep saturation curves) and also increase the target residence time. Competitive ligands are able to interfere in a concentration-dependent manner, although much higher concentrations are required in the ‘forced proximity’ situation. Also, it is only in that situation that the ligand shows increased affinity. These simulations shed light on two practical consequences. Depending on the pharmacokinetic half-life of the bivalent ligand in the body, it may not have sufficient time to achieve equilibrium with the target. This will result in lower potency than expected, although it would have significant advantages in terms of residence time. In in vitro experiments, the manifestation of steep saturation curves and of accelerated dissociation in the presence of competitive ligands could mistakenly be interpreted as evidence for non-competitive, allosteric interactions.

Vauquelin, Georges; Charlton, Steven J



Multi-domain patient reported outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome: exploring person centered perspectives to better understand symptom severity scores  

PubMed Central

Objectives Patient reported outcomes (PRO) assessing multiple gastrointestinal symptoms are central to characterizing the therapeutic benefit of novel agents for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Common approaches that sum or average responses across different illness components must be unidimensional and have small unique variances to avoid aggregation bias and misinterpretation of clinical data. This study sought to evaluate the unidimensionality of the IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) and to explore person centered cluster analytic methods for characterizing multivariate-based patient profiles. Methods Ninety-eight Rome-diagnosed IBS patients completed the IBS-SSS and a single, global item of symptom severity (UCLA Symptom Severity Scale) at pretreatment baseline of an NIH funded clinical trial. A k-means cluster analyses were performed on participants symptom severity scores. Results The IBS-SSS was not unidimensional. Exploratory cluster analyses revealed four common symptom profiles across five items of the IBS-SSS. One cluster of patients (25%) had elevated scores on pain frequency and bowel dissatisfaction, with less elevated but still high scores on life interference and low pain severity ratings. A second cluster (19%) was characterized by intermediate scores on both pain dimensions, but more elevated scores on bowel dissatisfaction. A third cluster (18%) was elevated across all IBS-SSS sub-components. The fourth and most common cluster (37%) had relatively low scores on all dimensions except bowel dissatisfaction and life interference due to IBS symptoms. Conclusions PRO endpoints and research on IBS more generally relying on multicomponent assessments of symptom severity should take into account the multidimensional structure of symptoms to avoid aggregation bias and to optimize the sensitivity of detecting treatment effects.

Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Jaccard, James; Baum, Charles



Application of community phylogenetic approaches to understand gene expression: differential exploration of venom gene space in predatory marine gastropods  

PubMed Central

Background Predatory marine gastropods of the genus Conus exhibit substantial variation in venom composition both within and among species. Apart from mechanisms associated with extensive turnover of gene families and rapid evolution of genes that encode venom components (‘conotoxins’), the evolution of distinct conotoxin expression patterns is an additional source of variation that may drive interspecific differences in the utilization of species’ ‘venom gene space’. To determine the evolution of expression patterns of venom genes of Conus species, we evaluated the expression of A-superfamily conotoxin genes of a set of closely related Conus species by comparing recovered transcripts of A-superfamily genes that were previously identified from the genomes of these species. We modified community phylogenetics approaches to incorporate phylogenetic history and disparity of genes and their expression profiles to determine patterns of venom gene space utilization. Results Less than half of the A-superfamily gene repertoire of these species is expressed, and only a few orthologous genes are coexpressed among species. Species exhibit substantially distinct expression strategies, with some expressing sets of closely related loci (‘under-dispersed’ expression of available genes) while others express sets of more disparate genes (‘over-dispersed’ expression). In addition, expressed genes show higher dN/dS values than either unexpressed or ancestral genes; this implies that expression exposes genes to selection and facilitates rapid evolution of these genes. Few recent lineage-specific gene duplicates are expressed simultaneously, suggesting that expression divergence among redundant gene copies may be established shortly after gene duplication. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that venom gene space is explored differentially by Conus species, a process that effectively permits the independent and rapid evolution of venoms in these species.



Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese  

PubMed Central

Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction); the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1) and Stathmin-2 (STMN2) were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.

Luan, Xinhong; Cao, Zhongzan; Xu, Wen; Gao, Ming; Wang, Laiyou; Zhang, Shuwei



A classification of errors in lay comprehension of medical documents  

PubMed Central

Emphasis on participatory medicine requires that patients and consumers participate in tasks traditionally reserved for healthcare providers. This includes reading and comprehending medical documents, often but not necessarily in the context of interacting with Personal Health Records (PHRs). Research suggests that while giving patients access to medical documents has many benefits (e.g., improved patient-provider communication), lay people often have difficulty understanding medical information. Informatics can address the problem by developing tools that support comprehension; this requires in-depth understanding of the nature and causes of errors that lay people make when comprehending clinical documents. The objective of this study was to develop a classification scheme of comprehension errors, based on lay individuals’ retellings of two documents containing clinical text: a description of a clinical trial and a typical office visit note. While not comprehensive, the scheme can serve as a foundation of further development of a taxonomy of patients’ comprehension errors. Eighty participants, all healthy volunteers, read and retold two medical documents. A data-driven content analysis procedure was used to extract and classify retelling errors. The resulting hierarchical classification scheme contains nine categories and twenty-three subcategories. The most common error made by the participants involved incorrectly recalling brand names of medications. Other common errors included misunderstanding clinical concepts, misreporting the objective of a clinical research study and physician’s findings during a patient’s visit, and confusing and misspelling clinical terms. A combination of informatics support and health education is likely to improve the accuracy of lay comprehension of medical documents.

Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott



Altruistic behavior by egg-laying worker honeybees.  


If a honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony loses its queen, worker bees develop their ovaries and produce male offspring [1]. Kin selection theory predicts that the degree of altruism in queenless colonies should be reduced because the relatedness of workers to a hivemate's offspring is less in queenless colonies than it is to the daughters of the queen in queenright colonies [2-4]. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the behavior and physiology of queenless egg-laying workers. Queenless bees engaged in both personal reproduction and the social foraging and defense tasks that benefited their colony. Laying workers also had larger brood-food-producing and wax glands, showing metabolic investments in both colony maintenance and personal reproduction. Whereas in queenright colonies there is a very clear age-based pattern of division of labor between workers, in queenless colonies the degree of individual specialization was much reduced. Queenless colonies functioned as a collective of reproductive and behaviorally generalist bees that cooperatively maintained and defended their nest. This social structure is similar to that observed in a number of primitively social bee species [5]. Laying workers therefore show a mix of selfish personal reproduction and altruistic cooperative behavior, and the queenless state reveals previously unrecognized plasticity in honeybee social organization. PMID:23910660

Naeger, Nicholas L; Peso, Marianne; Even, Naďla; Barron, Andrew B; Robinson, Gene E



Participant-Observation and Pile Sorting: Methods for Eliciting Local Understandings and Valuations of Plants as a First Step towards Informed Community Participation in Environment and Health Initiatives in Hawai'i  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semistructured interviews were conducted to explore local, lay perceptions and valuations of native and nonnative flora in order to better understand and anticipate community perceptions of, and potential participation in revegetation or eradication conservation efforts in multiethnic communities of Oahu, Hawai'i. The authors detail the…

Gollin, Lisa X.; McMillen, Heather; Wilcox, Bruce



Paraphrase Acquisition from Comparable Medical Corpora of Specialized and Lay Texts  

PubMed Central

Nowadays a large amount of health information is available to the public, but medical language is often difficult for lay people to understand. Developing means to make medical information more comprehensible is therefore a real need. In this regard, a useful resource would be a corpus of specialized and lay paraphrases. To this end, we built comparable corpora of specialized and lay texts on which we applied paraphrasing patterns based on anchors of deverbal noun and verb pairs. The results show that the paraphrases were of good quality (71.4% to 94.2% precision) and that this type of paraphrasing was relevant in the context of studying the differences between specialized and lay language. This study also demonstrates that simple paraphrase acquisition methods can also work on texts with a rather small degree of similarity, once similar text segments are detected.

Deleger, Louise; Zweigenbaum, Pierre



Influence of nest seclusion and nesting material on pre-laying behaviour of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provision of nest sites is beneficial for the welfare of laying hens in intensive production systems. The design of these nest sites has a direct effect on pre-laying behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of screening off the entrances of the nest boxes with non-transparent flaps and providing nesting or flooring material on pre-laying behaviour.

Ester Struelens; Annelies Van Nuffel; Frank A. M. Tuyttens; Lieve Audoorn; Erik Vranken; Johan Zoons; Daniël Berckmans; Frank Ödberg; Stefan Van Dongen; Bart Sonck



Laboratory Astrophysics: Enabling Scientific Discovery and Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Science Strategic Roadmap for Universe Exploration lays out a series of science objectives on a grand scale and discusses the various missions, over a wide range of wavelengths, which will enable discovery. Astronomical spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool we have for exploring the Universe. Experimental and theoretical studies in Laboratory Astrophysics convert ``hard-won data into scientific understanding''. However, the development of instruments with increasingly high spectroscopic resolution demands atomic and molecular data of unprecedented accuracy and completeness. How to meet these needs, in a time of severe budgetary constraints, poses a significant challenge both to NASA, the astronomical observers and model-builders, and the laboratory astrophysics community. I will discuss these issues, together with some recent examples of productive astronomy/ lab astro collaborations. composition.

Kirby, K.


Lay REC members: patient or public?  


In practice, the role of lay members of research ethics committees (RECs) often involves checking the accessibility of written materials, checking that the practical needs of participants have been considered and ensuring that a lay summary of the research will be produced. In this brief report, I argue that all these tasks would be more effectively carried out through a process of patient involvement (PI) in research projects prior to ethical review. Involving patients with direct experience of the topic under investigation brings added value beyond the contributions typically made by lay REC members, who are often not patients themselves. This is because PI tailors the design and conduct of research to the specific interests and concerns of the people who will actually take part in a project and make use of its findings. If a project has PI in its early stages, then a similar input from lay REC members could at best result in duplication of effort and at worst create the potential for conflict. The rationale for lay REC membership will therefore need to change from 'contributing a patient perspective' to 'ensuring transparency and public accountability in REC decisions'. This has implications for addressing more strategic questions about lay REC membership, including who is best recruited to the role and how they should be expected to contribute in practice. PMID:23536688

Staley, Kristina



Student Understanding of Cross Product Direction and Use of Right-Hand Rules: An Exploration of Representation and Context-Dependence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in introductory physics struggle with vector algebra and cross product direction (CPD). While research into student understanding of vector algebra notes representation-dependence can impact student performance, with few exceptions these findings have not been applied to CPD questions or the use of right-hand rules (RHRs). A synthesis of the relevant literature yields four problem features likely to impact CPD understanding: the reasoning type required, the vectorsâ orientations, the need for parallel transport, and the physics context and features (or lack thereof). These categories form the basis of this studyâs exploration of the context- and representation-dependence of student performance on CPD questions. The study analyzed 27 think-aloud interviews of second semester introductory physics students answering 80-100 CPD questions in different contexts and with varying problem features. Features were analyzed for correctness and responses were coded for the methods used and errors made. The results reveal a wide variety of methods and RHRs, many types of errors, and significant context- and representation-dependence for problem features. Problems that required reasoning backward from a resultant presented the biggest challenge for students. Other performance issues stemmed from: 1) physical discomfort in the use of a RHR, 2) the plane of the given vectors, 3) the angle between the vectors, and, 4) misinterpretations of the into- and out-of- page symbols. The parallel transport issue did not appear to be nearly as prevalent for CPD as it is for vector addition and subtraction. This study demonstrated that student difficulty with CPD is not as simple as misapplied RHRs. Student behavior is dependent on question context and its representation of various problem features. This study also confirmed earlier findings regarding difficulties with magnetic fields and forces and provided evidence of difficulties suspected but not yet explored.

Kustusch, Mary B.



Phosphorus, Eggshell Calcium and Phosphorus Levels of Laying Hens in Late Laying Production Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect dietary calcium level and vitamin-D on 3 calcium and phosphorus concentrations in plasma and eggshell of laying hens in late production period. Two hundred forty 70 weeks white lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to ten groups equally (n=24) each treatment was replicates six times. Experimental diets were

S. Canan Bölükbasi; Saban Çelebi; Necati Utlu


What are lay theories of social class?  


Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

Varnum, Michael E W



What Are Lay Theories of Social Class?  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants’ own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people’s beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.

Varnum, Michael E. W.



Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA). This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so that the research outcomes benefit the Aboriginal community. There are a number of factors that influence whether the desired level of engagement can be achieved in practice. These include the level of resourcing for the project and the researchers' efforts to ensure dissemination and research translation; and the capacity of the Aboriginal community to engage with research given other demands upon their time.



Is reporting on interventions a weak link in understanding how and why they work? A preliminary exploration using community heart health exemplars  

PubMed Central

Background The persistent gap between research and practice compromises the impact of multi-level and multi-strategy community health interventions. Part of the problem is a limited understanding of how and why interventions produce change in population health outcomes. Systematic investigation of these intervention processes across studies requires sufficient reporting about interventions. Guided by a set of best processes related to the design, implementation, and evaluation of community health interventions, this article presents preliminary findings of intervention reporting in the published literature using community heart health exemplars as case examples. Methods The process to assess intervention reporting involved three steps: selection of a sample of community health intervention studies and their publications; development of a data extraction tool; and data extraction from the publications. Publications from three well-resourced community heart health exemplars were included in the study: the North Karelia Project, the Minnesota Heart Health Program, and Heartbeat Wales. Results Results are organized according to six themes that reflect best intervention processes: integrating theory, creating synergy, achieving adequate implementation, creating enabling structures and conditions, modifying interventions during implementation, and facilitating sustainability. In the publications for the three heart health programs, reporting on the intervention processes was variable across studies and across processes. Conclusion Study findings suggest that limited reporting on intervention processes is a weak link in research on multiple intervention programs in community health. While it would be premature to generalize these results to other programs, important next steps will be to develop a standard tool to guide systematic reporting of multiple intervention programs, and to explore reasons for limited reporting on intervention processes. It is our contention that a shift to more inclusive reporting of intervention processes would help lead to a better understanding of successful or unsuccessful features of multi-strategy and multi-level interventions, and thereby improve the potential for effective practice and outcomes.

Riley, Barbara L; MacDonald, JoAnne; Mansi, Omaima; Kothari, Anita; Kurtz, Donna; vonTettenborn, Linda I; Edwards, Nancy C



Sloan Digital Sky Survey Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE): Data from a Spectroscopic Survey of 240,000 Stars with g=14-20  

DOE Data Explorer

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The seventh data release (DR7) from the SDSS represented a completion of the overall, original project, though SDSS-III began in 2008. SEGUE, which stands for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration, was one of those three SDSS surveys. The images and spectra obtained by SEGUE allowed astronomers to map the positions and velocities of hundreds of thousands of stars, from faint, relatively near-by (within about 100 pc or roughly 300 light-years) ancient stellar embers known as white dwarfs to bright stellar giants located in the outer reaches of the stellar halo, more than 100,000 light-years away. Encoded within the spectral data are the composition and temperature of these stars, vital clues for determining the age and origin of different populations of stars within the Galaxy. [from the SEGUE page at

Yanny, Brian; Rockosi, Constance; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Knapp, Gillian R.


The Lay Trustee--Up or Out?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lay board of trustees will have to change substantially and rapidly if it is to survive. In response to the many criticisms of the structure and selection procedures of college and university trustees, new patterns are beginning to emerge. Some colleges have taken steps toward a more "representative" selection of trustees. Responsible…

Nelson, Charles A.




Microsoft Academic Search

Noble and Aronson (1942) describe egg-bound females of the leopard frog of Vermont, whose ovulation had been artificially stimulated, as lay­ ing small numbers of eggs in one location and then moving to another place to produce others. They interpreted this, probably correctly, as ab­ normal and cited field observations of Dr. A. H. Wright as probably repre­ senting the



Multi-reel operational lines laying vessel  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed of converting a single pipeline laying vessel having a main storage reel and a privotal ramp pipe straightening and tensioning assembly to a multi-reel pipe laying vessel for the layout of an operational lines array within which a rigid walled pipeline is contained. The method is described comprising the steps of: removing the pivotal support ramp and pipe straightening and tensioning equipment from the deck of the vessel; installing at least one auxiliary operational lines storage reel on the vessel in the upspooling direction of the pipeline stored on the main reel; installing an operational lines laying device adjacent the stern of the vessel, the laying device including operational lines supporting means adapted for providing moving contact for each of a plurality of operational lines and the means interconnected and adapted for moving the operational lines at a common velocity for permitting layout from the vessel in a downward juxtaposed configuration; and providing the main reel and the auxiliary reels with motive power means having both spooling direction power and unspooling direction braking systems.

Recalde, C.E.



Copper Deficiency in the Laying Hen1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper deficiency in the laying hen resulted in anemia and the production of eggs which were abnormal in size and shape. Many of the eggs had shells which were wrinkled and rough in texture. There was also an increase in the number of shell-less eggs. Examination of mal formed egg shells using the scanning electron microscope revealed ultra- structural changes



The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick



Exploring Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module from the Mars Exploration Curriculum serves as an introduction to studying Mars in the classroom develops students' understanding of Mars, the solar system, and planetary exploration. The module introduces many of the intriguing riddles posed by Mars and provides teachers a variety of ways to integrate the study of Mars into their classrooms.


Are vaccination programmes delivered by lay health workers cost-effective? A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A recently updated Cochrane systematic review on the effects of lay or community health workers (LHWs) in primary and community health care concluded that LHW interventions could lead to promising benefits in the promotion of childhood vaccination uptake. However, understanding of the costs and cost-effectiveness of involving LHWs in vaccination programmes remains poor. This paper reviews the costs and

Adrijana Corluka; Damian G Walker; Simon Lewin; Claire Glenton; Inger B Scheel



Universal Declaration of Human Rights, A Lay Version for the Common Man, Woman and Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lay version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (the original version was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948) has been written in simplified vocabulary to make it understandable to a wider range of ages and reading abilities. The declaration consists of a preamble followed by a listing of 30 goals common to…

Tankard, Alice Doumanian


Egg-laying substrate selection for optimal camouflage by quail.  


Camouflage is conferred by background matching and disruption, which are both affected by microhabitat. However, microhabitat selection that enhances camouflage has only been demonstrated in species with discrete phenotypic morphs. For most animals, phenotypic variation is continuous; here we explore whether such individuals can select microhabitats to best exploit camouflage. We use substrate selection in a ground-nesting bird (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica). For such species, threat from visual predators is high and egg appearance shows strong between-female variation. In quail, variation in appearance is particularly obvious in the amount of dark maculation on the light-colored shell. When given a choice, birds consistently selected laying substrates that made visual detection of their egg outline most challenging. However, the strategy for maximizing camouflage varied with the degree of egg maculation. Females laying heavily maculated eggs selected the substrate that more closely matched egg maculation color properties, leading to camouflage through disruptive coloration. For lightly maculated eggs, females chose a substrate that best matched their egg background coloration, suggesting background matching. Our results show that quail "know" their individual egg patterning and seek out a nest position that provides most effective camouflage for their individual phenotype. PMID:23333313

Lovell, P George; Ruxton, Graeme D; Langridge, Keri V; Spencer, Karen A



The attitudes of Greek physicians and lay people on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients.  


The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of lay people and physicians regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients in Greece. The sample consisted of 141 physicians and 173 lay people. A survey questionnaire was used concerning issues such as euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and so forth. Many physicians (42.6%) and lay people (25.4%, P = .002) reported that in the case of a cardiac and/or respiratory arrest, there would not be an effort to revive a terminally ill cancer patient. Only 8.1% of lay people and 2.1% of physicians agreed on physician-assisted suicide (P = .023). Many of the respondents, especially physicians, supported sedation but not euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. However, many of the respondents would prefer the legalization of a terminally ill patient's hastened death. PMID:17060293

Parpa, Efi; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Sakkas, Pavlos; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Pistevou-Gombaki, Kyriaki; Galanos, Antonis; Vlahos, Lambros



The relative density of bone types in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone breakages caused by osteoporosis in laying hens remain commonplace. Studies of this disease are complicated by the presence of medullary bone (MB), a bone type deposited during lay to provide calcium for eggshell formation. In vivo technologies such as Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT), Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and Quantitative Ultrasound (QS) could be used to assess laying hen



Lay theories of gender identity disorder.  


This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered. PMID:24059967

Furnham, Adrian; Sen, Radhika



Laying second Cognac pipeline went smoothly  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1981, McDermott installed the second of the world's two deepest platform-to-shore pipelines - a 16 in-diam gas line running from the Cognac platform in 1020 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico to the Louisiana coast. For the J-tube pull operations, a 12-point mooring system held the lay barge in position 3500 ft from the




From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities  

PubMed Central

Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and framing of the research questions, participants did not display a high level of knowledge about the nature and causes of place-based health inequalities. By extending the scope of lay theorizing to include a focus on solutions, this study offers additional insights for public health. Specifically it suggests that a popular constituency for action on the social determinants of health is unlikely to eventuate from the current popular understandings of possible policy levers.



Exploring the Universe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)

Aviation/Space, 1982



Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent drilling and appraisal on the Southern Utsira High, Norwegian North Sea, has proved several large oil/gas discoveries, including the giant Johan Sverdrup, Edvard Grieg, Draupne, Ragnarrock and Apollo oil fields, making this a prolific petroleum area. The Southern Utsira High contains a variety of hydrocarbon density fluids found at several stratigraphic levels illustrating the compartmentalized nature of accumulations and charge history. The Southern Utsira High has been in a position to receive an oil/gas charge for a considerable period of time, with the basin towards the west most likely generating petroleum from early Eocene (50M Mabp) to its maximum present day burial depth. However, reservoir temperatures on the Southern Utsira High are just above the threshold for biodegradation (80°C). The Southern Utsira High oils are non-biodegraded suggesting that the majority of the oil charged relatively late - ca.3 million years ago to present day. The effects of the glaciation on the filling history of the Southern Utsira High are currently being assessed. It is clear that several erosional surfaces in the Pliocene can be identified, as well as glacial channels and moraine deposits, indicating that significant deposition and erosion occurred in the last five million years. Importantly, the effects of glacial rebound mean that the Southern Utsira High more than likely underwent tilting and possible leakage, not just once, but several times in the last 1 million years. The effects of tilting/leakage of geological areas on oil migration have been recognized by several authors. However, the detailed integration of geological mapping and geochemical evidence has not previously been published. The implications of a detailed assessment of tilting of a ''high' through time are; 1) opening up areas where oil migration is thought to be high risk or impossible; 2) identify possible paleo-oil columns aiding the de-risking of discovery appraisal strategies. The evidence of tilting/leakage of oil accumulations through time can be recognized in several oil fields on the Utsira High. The giant Johan Sverdrup discovery oil columns contain paleo-OWC, residual oil zones/paleo-oil columns, and oil shows considerably deeper than the current OWC or residual oil columns. Lundin has performed detailed mapping of the seabed and water column in the Alvheim/Utsira High areas in order to identify areas of gas leakage and its geological manifestations on the seabed and ultimately resulting in the collection of high quality samples. Results shows that gas leakage is prominent over the Alvheim and Utsira High areas and the implications of this to oil exploration will be discussed. In summary, Lundin's approach to oil migration is to better understand the fluid/gas movement throughout the whole basin through time. The talk will focus on the role of glaciations on the timing of charge from the South Viking Graben, fill-spill directions on the Southern Utsira High, the effects of late tilting/leakage on the charge/re-distribution of oil, and seabed / water column characterization and sampling. All placed in the context of oil exploration.

Stoddart, Daniel



Influence of rearing and lay risk factors on propensity for feather damage in laying hens.  


1. Feather pecking is one of the major problems facing the egg industry in non-cage systems and is set to become even more of an issue with the European Union ban on the keeping of laying hens in barren battery cages which comes into force in 2012 and the prospect of a ban on beak-trimming. Reducing feather pecking without resorting to beak treatment is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. We report here a longitudinal study that included over 335,500 birds from 22 free range and organic laying farms. Accelerated failure time models and proportional hazards models were used to examine the effects of a wide range of factors (management, environment and bird) on development of substantial feather damage in lay. Particular emphasis was placed on risk factors during rear and on practices that could feasibly be changed or implemented. 3. The age at which a flock exhibits substantial feather damage could be predicted both by factors in the environment and by early symptoms in the birds themselves. Factors that were associated with earlier onset of severe feather damage included the presence of chain feeders, raised levels of carbon dioxide and ammonia, higher sound and light levels, particularly in younger birds. Increased feather damage (even very slight) in birds at 17-20 weeks of age was also highly predictive of the time of onset of severe feather damage during lay. Increased feed intake also indicated that a flock was at risk of early severe feather damage. 4. Birds that stayed on the same farm for rearing and lay showed later onset of serious feather damage than those that experienced a change in farm from rearing to lay. However, an increased number of changes between rearing and lay (feeder type, drinker type, light intensity etc) was not associated with earlier onset of serious feather damage. Further research needs to be done on the role of the transition from rearing to lay as a risk factor for FP in lay. PMID:21161778

Drake, K A; Donnelly, C A; Dawkins, M Stamp



Involving lay and professional stakeholders in the development of a research intervention for the DEPICTED Study  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper focuses on stakeholders’ active involvement at key stages of the research as members of a Stakeholder Action Group (SAG), particularly in the context of lay stakeholder involvement. Some challenges that can arise and wider issues (e.g. empowerment, the impact of user involvement) are identified and explored within the literature on service user involvement in health care research, reflecting on the implications for researchers. Background In the DEPICTED study, lay and professional stakeholders were actively involved in developing a complex research intervention. Lay stakeholders comprised teenage and adult patients with diabetes, parents and patient organization representatives. Professional stakeholders were from a range of disciplines. Methods Three 1-day research meetings were attended by 13–17 lay stakeholders and 10–11 professional stakeholders (plus researchers). The SAG was responsible for reviewing evidence, advising on developing ideas for the research intervention and guiding plans for evaluation of the intervention in a subsequent trial. Formal evaluations were completed by stakeholders following each SAG meeting. Results Throughout the first (developmental) stage of this two-stage study, lay and professional stakeholders participated or were actively involved in activities that provided data to inform the research intervention. Lay stakeholders identified the need for and contributed to the design of a patient-held tool, strongly influenced the detailed design and content of the research intervention and outcome questionnaire, thus making a major contribution to the trial design. Conclusion Stakeholders, including teenagers, can be actively involved in designing a research intervention and impact significantly on study outcomes.

Lowes, Lesley; Robling, Michael R; Bennert, Kristina; Crawley, Charlotte; Hambly, Helen; Hawthorne, Kamila; Gregory, John W



Differential expression profiling of hypothalamus genes in laying period and ceased period Huoyan geese.  


The hypothalamus plays a central role in controlling poultry reproductive activity. To increase our understanding of genes involved in egg laying of Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the hypothalamus of laying period and ceased period Huoyan geese were investigated using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 95 differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 46 up-regulated and 49 down-regulated sequences showed homology to known genes of the non-redundant NCBI databases. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that these genes were mainly involved in anatomical structure development, signal transduction, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, biosynthetic process, cellular protein modification process, cell differentiation, transport, cell adhesion, and reproduction. Ten ESTs were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Whose most part of results were consistent with the SSH results. Of note, AdipoR2, Nrg1, and NCAM1, which related with secretion of GnRH and other hormones, were identified to be differentially expressed between laying period and ceased period. These findings provided a new source for mining genes related to higher laying performance of Huoyan geese, which facilitate our understanding of the reproductive biology of the goose. PMID:24496856

Luan, Xinhong; Cao, Zhongzan; Li, Rongrong; Liu, Mei; Hu, Jianmin



Impact of the lay-off length on +Gz tolerance.  


There are many factors affecting pilots' +Gz-tolerance. Recently, attention of the aviation community has been focused on lay-off and it's impact on +Gz-tolerance. Pilots of the Polish Air Force (PAF) have dealt with that problem for several years now. The aim of the study was to provide insight on how lay-off periods with different duration impact +Gz-tolerance. Methods: 95 male jet pilots from the PAF participated in the study. Every one had at least two weeks lay-off period (non-medical reasons). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the length of lay-off period (2-4 weeks; 5-13 weeks; 14-26 weeks; 27-154 weeks), All pilots were subjected to a centrifuge exposure in GOR (0.1 G/s) or ROR (1.0 G/s) profiles, depending on the pre-lay-off exposure. Post-lay-off exposures were carried out directly after lay-off. 18 jet pilots without any lay-off constituted the control group. Results: The difference between pre- and post-lay-off G-tolerance limit (-0,93 +/- 0,53) was statistically significant (p<0.01) only for one group, where lay-off period ranged between two and four weeks. No statistically significant differences were found where influence of other factors like total and yearly flight hours, heart rate gain (AHR) or physical activity measured as maximal oxygen intake were considered. Conclusions: 2-4 weeks of lay-off period decreases +Gz tolerance is statistically significant manner. Subsequent increase of lay-off period does not result in mean tolerance changes for group, however in certain individuals critical decrement of +Gz tolerance occurs. Total and last year flying hours, physical fitness does not modify impact of lay-off period on +Gz tolerance. PMID:15002601

Mikuliszyn, Romuald; Kowalski, Wieslaw; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof



Exploring multi/full polarised SAR imagery for understanding surface soil moisture and roughness by using semi-empirical and theoretical models and field experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to water stress and drought, which is expected to have severe direct impact on agricultural productivity. Improved knowledge of the spatial and temporal patterns of near surface soil moisture, as monitored by remote sensing, can be used to better mitigate and adapt to severe drought situations by means of adjusted irrigation strategies. The presented project is aiming to conjointly employ field monitoring and spaceborne SAR to support adaptive water resources management and best agricultural practice. To make substantial progress in decision-making for an optimised irrigation strategy, a regular, e.g. weekly, monitoring of near surface soil moisture in various agricultural land-uses is anticipated. This becomes possible with current co-polarised ENVISAT/ASAR Alternating Polarisation (AP) Mode imagery (C-band). However, since the backscattering signal is affected by several surface characteristics, a better measurement/estimation of surface roughness is crucial in retrieving near-surface soil moisture. The sensor PALSAR, on board ALOS, and the more recently launched satellite-Radarsat-2 provide new opportunities to retrieve information about surface roughness by means of full-polarised, high-resolution L-band and C-band radar data respectively. It is expected that these data sources can be utilised to better separate the dielectric from the surface roughness component in radar backscattering. For parameter retrieval and validation, intensive in-situ measurements are conducted in a fully equipped agricultural area in a Mediterranean environment in Sardinia, Italy, while ENVISAT/ASAR, ALOS/PALSAR and Radarsat-2 data are acquired. A close range digital photogrammetric technique is applied to monitor surface roughness. This paper is aiming at exploring the capability of ENVISAT/ASAR AP Mode imagery and Radarsat-2 data for near surface soil moisture inversion using ALOS/PALSAR and close-range digital photogrammetry for surface roughness retrieval. A semi-empirical model is tested and a theoretical model AIEM is utilised for further understanding. Results demonstrate that the semi-empirical soil moisture retrieval algorithm, which was developed in studies in humid climate conditions, must be carefully adapted to the drier Mediterranean environment. Modifying the approach by incorporating regional field data, led to a considerable improvement of the algorithms performance. In addition, it is found that the current representation of soil surface roughness in the AIEM is insufficient to account for the specific heterogeneities on the field scale. The findings in this study indicate the necessity for future research, which must be extended to a more integrated combination of current sensors, e.g. ENVISAT/ASAR, ALOS/PALSAR and Radarsat-2 imagery and advanced development of soil moisture retrieval model for multi/full polarised radar imagery.

Dong, Lu; Marzahn, Philip; Ludwig, Ralf



Mixed Race: Understanding Difference in the Genome Era  

PubMed Central

This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of multiracial individuals’ understanding of identity, race and human genetic variation. The debate regarding the correlation between race, genetics and disease has expanded, but limited empirical data has been collected regarding the lay public’s perspective. Participants in this study explore their identity and its relationships to their health care interactions. Participants also share their views on race-based therapeutics, health disparities and the connections between race, ancestry and genetics. Their voices highlight the limitations of racial categories in describing differences within our increasingly diverse communities. The genomic era will be a pivotal period in challenging current understandings and uses of racial categories in health.

Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Bonham, Vence L.



Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.



Search for QTL affecting the shape of the egg laying curve of the Japanese quail  

PubMed Central

Background Egg production is of critical importance in birds not only for their reproduction but also for human consumption as the egg is a highly nutritive and balanced food. Consequently, laying in poultry has been improved through selection to increase the total number of eggs laid per hen. This number is the cumulative result of the oviposition, a cyclic and repeated process which leads to a pattern over time (the egg laying curve) which can be modelled and described individually. Unlike the total egg number which compounds all variations, the shape of the curve gives information on the different phases of egg laying, and its genetic analysis using molecular markers might contribute to understand better the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to perform the first QTL search for traits involved in shaping the egg laying curve, in an F2 experiment with 359 female Japanese quail. Results Eight QTL were found on five autosomes, and six of them could be directly associated with egg production traits, although none was significant at the genome-wide level. One of them (on CJA13) had an effect on the first part of the laying curve, before the production peak. Another one (on CJA06) was related to the central part of the curve when laying is maintained at a high level, and the four others (on CJA05, CJA10 and CJA14) acted on the last part of the curve where persistency is determinant. The QTL for the central part of the curve was mapped at the same position on CJA06 than a genome-wide significant QTL for total egg number detected previously in the same F2. Conclusion Despite its limited scope (number of microsatellites, size of the phenotypic data set), this work has shown that it was possible to use the individual egg laying data collected daily to find new QTL which affect the shape of the egg laying curve. Beyond the present results, this new approach could also be applied to longitudinal traits in other species, like growth and lactation in ruminants, for which good marker coverage of the genome and theoretical models with a biological significance are available.

Minvielle, Francis; Kayang, Boniface B; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Miwa, Mitsuru; Vignal, Alain; Gourichon, David; Neau, Andre; Monvoisin, Jean-Louis; Ito, Shin' ichi



An exploration of the concept map as an interview tool to facilitate the externalization of students' understandings about global atmospheric change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different types of interviews—one that did (POSTICM) and one that did not (POSTI) embed a concept-mapping process—to elicit students' postinstructional understandings about chlorofluorocarbons and their role in global atmospheric change (GAC). A chief criterion measure was accordance, the degree to which students held the ideal postinstructional understanding

James A. Rye; Peter A. Rubba



Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.



Pragmatic Abilities in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment: An Exploration of Non-Literal Language and Advanced Theory of Mind Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to explore whether children with a broader range of…

Pijnacker, Judith; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Steenbergen, Bert



Working on Mars: Understanding How Scientists, Engineers and Rovers Interacted Across Space and Time during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation summarizes the scheduling and planning difficulties inherent in operating the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) during the overlapping terrestrial day and Martian sol. The presentation gives special empahsis to communication between the teams controlling the rovers from Earth, and keeping track of time on the two planets.

Wales, Roxana C.



Multi-reel operational lines laying vessel  

SciTech Connect

A straightening and tensioning device for use on a reel pipelaying vessel adapted for laying out at least two operational lines in a body of water is described comprising: a pair of multi-track pipe straightening and tensioning assemblies adapted for positioning in opposed facing directions on either side of an array of the operational lines, a series of adjustable guide rollers mounted within the carriage base to enable the establishment of different curvatures in the facing directions of the chain tracks; adjustment means mounted within the carriage base and adapted for enabling independent adjustment of the guide rollers; and motive means mounted on the carriage base and adapted for enabling the driving of the plurality of endless chain tracks to exert tension force on the operational lines parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof.

Recalde, C.E.



Automated Composite Tape Lay-Up Using Robotic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated composite tape laying systems primarily intended for the manufacture of highly contoured jet engine nacelle skins are described. Processes, robots, end-effectors, and the software required to effectively automate composite part fabrication using long, flat strips of composite material called tapes are discussed. The tape-laying process is described in detail

Howard B. Olsen; John J. Craig




Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian follicles of Eastern and Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna and S. neglecta) and Hermit and Townsend's Warblers (Dendmica occidentalis and D. townsendi) grow and regress sufficiently rapidly for laying intervals to be distinguished. We describe how to deduce clutch size from counts of ovarian follicles and to estimate laying dates from curves describing the growth of preovulatory and regression of



Laying Performance and Egg Quality of Hens Supplemented with Sodium Bicarbonate During the Late Laying Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine effects of dietary NaHCO supplementation on egg 3 production and egg quality during the late laying period. Hisex Brown layers, 54 wks of age, were blocked according to the cage location and then assigned randomly to receive one of four diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% NaHCO for 75 d. Each diet was



Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of aspects of planetary exploration and protection that may be particularly sensitive or controversial and that could prove problematic from a risk-management standpoint, perhaps warranting a more stringent risk-management approach than would otherwise be the case based on technical considerations alone. The design of the study compares perceptions and attitudes about space exploration relevant to a Mars sample return mission between three respondent groups: (1) members of The Planetary Society, a group representing individuals with a strong interest in space-related issues, (2) a group of university-aged students, representing a population relatively sensitive to environmental hazards, and (3) a group of life scientists outside of the space research community. Members of The Planetary Society received the survey as part of a special issue of The Planetary Report on planetary protection, which contained a number of background articles on planetary protection and related topics. A synopsis of the issue was prepared as an introduction to the survey for the other two groups.

Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul



Exploring application of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour to self-injurious behaviour among women prisoners: Proposing a new model of understanding.  


The current study examines the application of capacity, psychological distress, coping and personality to an understanding of self-injurious behaviour, with a specific focus on testing the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour (IPTSB). One hundred and ninety women prisoners took part, completing a history questionnaire and measures of personality, coping styles and psychological distress. It was expected that self-injurious behaviour would be predicted by higher levels of emotional functioning difficulties, by an increased capacity to engage in such behaviours, by previous self-injurious behaviour, decreased levels of emotional stability and increased levels of emotional coping behaviour. Results supported the capacity component of the IPTSB, indicating that an increased history of self-injurious behaviour and of engagement in reckless behaviour were particular predictors. Increased psychological distress in some domains was also a predictor although the exact domain varied across the type of self-injurious engagement Increased levels of extraversion and decreased emotional coping predicted increased self-injurious engagement, although emotional coping only related to threats and cognition. The results point to the applicability of Interpersonal-Psychological Theory to understanding self-injurious behaviour and the importance of developing a revised model. The paper presents this in the form of the Integrated Model of Self-Injurious Activity. PMID:22153833

Ireland, Jane L; York, Charlotte



What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.  


Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214

Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro



Predicting the Lay Preventive Strategies in Response to Avian Influenza from Perceptions of the Threat  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of patterns of behaviors that lay people would engage in to protect themselves from the risk of infection in the case of avian influenza outbreak, as well as the lay perceptions of the threat that underlie these risk reduction strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A population-based survey (N?=?1003) was conducted in 2008 to understand and describe how the French public might respond to a possible outbreak. Factor analyses highlighted three main categories of risk reduction strategies consisting of food quality assurance, food avoidance, and animal avoidance. In combination with the fear of contracting avian influenza, mental representations associated with the manifestation and/or transmission of the disease were found to significantly and systematically shape the behavioral responses to the perceived threat. Conclusions/Significance This survey provides insight into the nature and predictors of the protective patterns that might be expected from the general public during a novel domestic outbreak of avian influenza.

Raude, Jocelyn; Setbon, Michel



Sketchpad Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app can be used to drag, manipulate and animate visual mathematics to develop and generalize student understanding of fundamental concepts across elementary mathematics. For elementary purposes click on the book in the bottom right of the screen and then select the Elementary Mathematics Guide. Within the Elementary Mathematics guide there are eight activities that can be completed using this application. Each activity includes an exploration with guiding questions.



A fundamental understanding of catechol and water adsorption on a hydrophilic silica surface: exploring the underwater adhesion mechanism of mussels on an atomic scale.  


Mussels have a remarkable ability to bond to solid surfaces under water. From a microscopic perspective, the first step of this process is the adsorption of dopa molecules to the solid surface. In fact, it is the catechol part of the dopa molecule that is interacting with the surface. These molecules are able to make reversible bonds to a wide range of materials, even underwater. Previous experimental and theoretical efforts have produced only a limited understanding of the mechanism and quantitative details of the competitive adsorption of catechol and water on hydrophilic silica surfaces. In this work, we uncover the nature of this competitive absorption by atomic scale modeling of water and catechol adsorbed at the geminal (001) silica surface using density functional theory calculations. We find that catechol molecules displace preadsorbed water molecules and bond directly on the silica surface. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we observe this process in detail. We also calculate the interaction force as a function of distance, and observe a maximum of 0.5 nN of attraction. The catechol has a binding energy of 23 kcal/mol onto the silica surface with adsorbed water molecules. PMID:24835420

Mian, Shabeer Ahmad; Yang, Li-Ming; Saha, Leton Chandra; Ahmed, E; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ganz, Eric



Help-seeking preferences in the area of mild cognitive impairment: comparing family physicians and the lay public  

PubMed Central

Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild neurocognitive disorder is a well-established clinical entity included in current diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease and in major psychiatric classifications. In all, a loosely defined concern obtained from conceptually different sources (the individual, a knowledgeable informant, or a clinician) regarding a decline in cognition and change in functioning constitutes a sine qua non for initiating diagnostics and providing therapy and support. This concern in practice may translate into complex proactive help-seeking behavior. A better understanding of help-seeking preferences is required in order to promote early detection and management. Objectives To compare help-seeking preferences of family physicians and the lay public in the area of MCI. Methods A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 197 family physicians (self-administered) and 517 persons aged 45 and over from the lay public (face to face). Information regarding familiarity with MCI and help-seeking preferences was assessed. Results The vast majority in both samples reported that family physician, spouse, and children are the most highly recommended sources of help-seeking. In regard to professional sources of help-seeking, a higher percentage of the physicians than the lay public sample consistently recommended seeking help from nurses and social workers and psychiatrists, but a higher percentage of the lay public recommended turning to a neurologist for help. Discussion There were both similarities and differences between family physicians and the lay public in their preferences regarding help-seeking for a person with MCI. Most prominent is the physicians’ greater tendency to recommend professional sources of help-seeking. Conclusion Understanding of help-seeking preferences of both physicians and lay persons might help overcome barriers for establishing diagnosis, receiving care, and improving communication between doctors and patients.

Werner, Perla; Heinik, Jeremia; Giveon, Shmuel; Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Kitai, Eliezer



Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period  

PubMed Central

Background Cracked shells, due to age related reduction of shell quality, are a costly problem for the industry. Parallel to reduced shell quality the skeleton becomes brittle resulting in bone fractures. Calcium, a main prerequisite for both eggshell and bone, is regulated by estrogen in a complex manner. The effects of estrogen, given in a low continuous dose, were studied regarding factors involved in age related changes in shell quality and bone strength of laying hens. A pellet containing 0.385 mg estradiol 3-benzoate (21-day-release) or placebo was inserted subcutaneously in 20 birds each of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) at 70 weeks of age. Eggs were collected before and during the experiment for shell quality measurements. Blood samples for analysis of total calcium were taken three days after the insertion and at sacrifice (72 weeks). Right femur was used for bone strength measurements and tissue samples from duodenum and shell gland were processed for morphology, immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors (ER?, ER?), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Results Estrogen treatment increased shell thickness of both hybrids. In addition, shell weight and shell deformation improved in eggs from the brown hybrids. The more pronounced effect on eggs from the brown hybrid may be due to a change in sensitivity to estrogen, especially in surface epithelial cells of the shell gland, shown as an altered ratio between ER? and ER?. A regulatory effect of estrogen on CA activity, but not PMCA, was seen in both duodenum and shell gland, and a possible connection to shell quality is discussed. Bone strength was unaffected by treatment, but femur was stronger in LSL birds suggesting that the hybrids differ in calcium allocation between shell and bone at the end of the laying period. Plasma calcium concentrations and egg production were unaffected. Conclusions A low continuous dose of estrogen improves shell strength but not bone strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period.



A Long-Term Study of Science Literacy and Attitudes Towards Science: Exploring Changes Among College Undergraduate and Public Understanding over Twenty-Two Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing science literacy has been an important goal of science educators and policy makers for many years. Various studies including international, school, and public comparisons have painted a bleak picture of science literacy in the United States. We are conducting a study focused on undergraduates’ science literacy using a database of over 10,000 student responses from a large research university collected over a twenty-two year period, between 1989 - 2011. Survey questions were derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators), some of which are still used in public assessments of science literacy. Analysis has shown that our university students outperform the public on almost all topics on the survey. Despite targeted university interventions and the rise of public access to knowledge, student science literacy scores have not changed over twenty-two years. Demographic variables explain less than 10% of the variance in students’ scores of which the number of university science courses completed is the best predictor. There is a small correlation between students’ beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon and lower science literacy scores but students’ beliefs about science and technology also explain little variance in their overall scores. We have also compared responses of scientists and students on the same questions about science. We will discuss implications of evaluating students’ scientific knowledge in a time when students have access to more resources than ever before, an important goal as we continue to work towards increasing students’ understanding of scientific concepts. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, C.; Antonellis, J.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS



Response of laying hens to supplemental niacin.  


Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental niacin on laying hen performance and liver fat and egg cholesterol content. In Experiment 1, 16 replicate groups of four adjacently caged birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets calculated to contain 22, 44, 66, or 132 mg supplemental niacin/kg (23.2, 38.7, 57.0, and 143 mg/kg niacin by analysis). Egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and eggshell quality were assessed each 28 days through a 364-day trial period. After 280 days, cholesterol content on three eggs per replicate was measured. At the end of the study, one bird per replicate was killed for subjective scoring of liver fat content. In Experiment 2, 24 birds from the control treatment (22 mg/kg supplemental niacin) of Experiment 1 were retained and fed for a subsequent 28-day period. Over this time, eight birds were each fed diets containing 22, 522, or 1,022 mg/kg supplemental niacin. Egg cholesterol content was measured in eggs collected on the last 3 days of the study. In Experiment 1, birds fed 66 or 132 mg/kg supplemental niacin/kg produced more eggs (P less than .05) than birds fed 22mg/kg. Niacin supplementation affected shell quality (P less than .05). Dietary niacin level had no effect on egg cholesterol content of liver lipid evaluation. In Experiment 2, supplementary niacin levels up to 1,022 mg/kg, which more closely stimulates therapeutic levels used for humans, again failed to affect egg cholesterol content. PMID:1852695

Leeson, S; Caston, L J; Summers, J D



Controlled Molecular Adsorption on Si: Laying a Foundation for Molecular Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of and control over molecular adsorption on silicon has advanced very significantly in the last several years. It is now possible to provide a microscopic picture of structure and bonding in covalently attached molecule-silicon surface systems. This detailed understanding of adsorbate-surface structures was entirely lacking when the first wave of enthusiasm for molecular devices crested roughly 20 years ago. While many ideas for molecule-scale devices have been put forward in the past, the tools - both synthetic and analytical - to pursue those ideas did not exist. Now, the control necessary to begin exploring ways to incorporate organic function into existing technologies or, eventually, to make new molecule-scale devices is within reach [1]. Experimental and modeling methods have emerged that effectively extend the resolution of STM to see the details of adsorbed molecule structure and bonding. In the next several years it is now realistic to expect structures and concepts dreamed about for decades to begin to be realized. This talk will focus on a self-directed growth process for creating molecular nanostructures on silicon [2] and extensions of that [3-5]. 1. Controlled Molecular Adsorption on Si: Laying a Foundation for Molecular Devices, R.A. Wolkow, Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, 50, 413-41, 1999. 2. Self-Directed Growth of Molecular Nano-Structures on Silicon, G.P Lopinski, D.D.M. Wayner and R.A. Wolkow, Nature 406, 48 (2000). 3. Electronic structure and STM images of self-assembled styrene lines on a Si(100) surface, W.A. Hofer, A.J. Fisher, G.P. Lopinski and R.A. Wolkow, Chem Phys Lett, 365, 129-134 (2002) 4. Patterning of vinyl ferrocene on H-Si(100) via self directed growth of molecular lines and STM induced decomposition, Peter Kruse and R.A.Wolkow, Nano Lett.; 2, 807-810 (2002). 5. Organic modification of hydrogen terminated silicon surfaces, Danial D. M. Wayner and Robert A. Wolkow, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 23-34 (2002).

Wolkow, Robert A.



Investigation of Composite Tape Lay-Up Devices for an Automated Tape Lay-Up System (ATLAS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report presents research information on the design, fabrication, and testing of composite tape-laying devices for the ATLAS Machine, which proved the ability to compact pre-preg tape to irregular compound shapes. (Author)

L. B. Ross J. Sueta



Chance, choice and control: lay debate on prenatal social sex selection.  


Assisted reproductive technologies are typically positioned as increasing the range of choices open to the healthcare consumer, thereby enhancing 'reproductive freedom'. In this paper, we question the equivalence of reproductive choice and personal freedom in ethical theory, using results from a project investigating how lay people make ethical evaluations about the new genetic and reproductive technologies. We took the topic of social sex selection by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and used group discussions and interviews in the north-east of England to trace how lay people develop and express their ethical evaluations, and to identify the implicit or explicit normative framework that gave rise to their opinions on prenatal sex selection. There was a striking level of ambivalence towards choice in general and reproductive choice in particular. Participants offered few positive statements and numerous reasons why reproductive choice might be problematic. Our participants' argumentation shares with mainstream bioethical analysis the weighing of the possible harms of prenatal sex selection for social reasons against the harm of restricting reproductive freedom. However, unlike most secular-liberal bioethicists, many of our participants concluded that prenatal sex selection is undesirable because it is an expression of parental preference instead of a response to the future child's need. Our interpretation of their reasoning is that they work from an ideal of "good parents", one of the features of which is the relinquishing of control over their children, except to protect them from harm. This voluntary self-limitation does not indicate reduced autonomy, because parental autonomy can only operate within the limits set by this relational framework. We suggest that a model of relational autonomy captures our lay participants' framing of the problem better than a more traditional understanding of autonomy. Our study also shows that in appropriately structured discussion of bioethical issues, lay people can articulate reasons for their opinions that are grounded in sophisticated and morally relevant concepts. PMID:16459006

Scully, Jackie Leach; Banks, Sarah; Shakespeare, Tom W



Children's and lay adults' views about thermal equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes an investigation into studentsâ and adultsâ understanding of a simple thermal system by conducting interviews that explored the constructs and explanatory ideas used by children and adults in interpreting the outcome of a heating experiment. Researchers found that many interviewees' reasoning about heat phenomena used an elementary 'on=hot/off=cold' principle. Some implications of these findings for the teaching of heat and temperature are discussed.

Arnold, Mike; Millar, Robin



Chronic Stress in Battery Hens: Measuring Corticosterone in Laying Hen Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been growing social and scientific interest in recent years in laying hen welfare. Stress is an animal welfare parameter that has been found to alter laying hens' physiology and social behaviour. Our study aims to test the effects of the different housing systems (laying cage, barn and free range) on the laying hens' welfare. In this study we

Elena Bulmer; Diego Gil



Beyond the knowledge deficit: recent research into lay and expert attitudes to food risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a ‘knowledge deficit’ among lay people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive

Janus Hansen; Lotte Holm; Lynn Frewer; Paul Robinson; Peter Sandře



[The vitamin A supply of laying hens including during rearing. 2. Effect of varied vitamin A supplementation of mixed feed in rearing on production in the laying period].  


In six experiments with laying hybrids the influence of a varied nutritive beta-carotene and vitamin A supply during rearing on the performance in the laying period was tested. Basal rations poor in carotene without vitamin A supplementation in the rearing period diminished feed intake and laying performance in the laying period, retarded the beginning of intensive laying and increased feed expenditure per 100 g egg if the feed for laying hens contained less than 5000 IU vitamin A per kg. Relations between varied vitamin A supply and the performance parameters of the laying performance could not be proved if chick and young hen feed with maize even without vitamin A supplement or if rearing feed with approximately 2500 IU vitamin A or laying hen feed greater than 5000 IU vitamin A supply were used. PMID:2383177

Richter, G; Sitte, E; Petzold, M



Understanding by Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores ways to design courses and units to emphasize understanding and uncoverage rather than coverage, offering practical solutions for teacher-designers. It focuses on a different use for performance assessment, concluding that performance is the key to assessing understanding. The book analyzes the logic of backward design as an…

Wiggins, Grant; McTighe, Jay


School Science, Citizenship and the Public Understanding of Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative and qualitative studies of public understanding of science conducted in many countries provide important insights into the extent to which lay citizens understand important scientific concepts, and the ways in which they seek and use scientific knowledge. Identifies some dimensions of "citizen science" and examines their implications…

Jenkins, E. W.



Social injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the attitudes towards suicide of lay persons in Ghana  

PubMed Central

One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants’ view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study.

Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa



Effects of a Perch in Conventional Cages for Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 720 Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens (SCWL's Shaver 288) were studied from 22 to 82 weeks of age for the effect of a perch on production, egg weight, exterior egg quality and egg rolling-out efficiency, plumage condition, foot health, claw length, throat skin health, mortality, live weight, behaviour and usage of the perch at different times

Ragnar Tauson



Natural language generation of biomedical argumentation for lay audiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an architecture for natural language generation of biomedical argumentation. The goal is to reconstruct the normative arguments that a domain expert would provide, in a manner that is transparent to a lay audience. Transparency means that an argument's structure and functional components are accessible to its audience. Transparency is necessary before an audience can fully comprehend, evaluate

Nancy Green; Rachael Dwight; Kanyamas Navoraphan; Brian Stadler



Dehydrated Kitchen Waste as a Feedstuff for Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dehydrated kitchen waste (DKW) product as a feedstuff for laying hens. Fresh food wastes of a retirement house were prepared for the experiment. This was mostly leftover food, plate scrapings and cooking residue. The kitchen waste was blended and dried by the temperature in the heater set at 80 to 85




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. CONSTRUCTION CRANE LAYING SECTIONS OF TRACK RAIL FOR ORIGINAL 10,000-FOOT TRACK. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA


A spatial factor influencing food consumption in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A reduction in the number of cages occupied by laying hens in a row of battery cages lead to a mean increase in food intake per bird of about 4% compared with birds housed in similar rows in which all the cages were occupied.

R. H. Davis; A. H. Sykes



Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay

Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra



How should public health professionals engage with lay epidemiology?  

PubMed Central

Lay epidemiology” is a term used to describe the processes through which health risks are understood and interpreted by laypeople. It is seen as a barrier to public health when the public disbelieves or fails to act on public health messages. Two elements to lay epidemiology are proposed: (a) empirical beliefs about the nature of illness and (b) values about the place of health and risks to health in a good life. Both elements have to be dealt with by effective public health schemes or programmes, which would attempt to change the public's empirical beliefs and values. This is of concern, particularly in a context in which the lay voice is increasingly respected. Empirically, the scientific voice of standard epidemiology should be deferred to by the lay voice, provided a clear distinction exists between the measurement of risk, which is empirical, and its weighting, which is based on values. Turning to engagement with values, health is viewed to be an important value and is discussed and reflected on by most people. Public health professionals are therefore entitled and advised to participate in that process. This view is defended against some potential criticisms.

Allmark, P; Tod, A



Laying a Solid Foundation: Strategies for Effective Program Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The replication of proven social programs is a cost-effective and efficient way to achieve large-scale, positive social change. Yet there has been little guidance available about how to approach program replication and limited development of systems--at local, state or federal levels--to support replication efforts. "Laying a Solid Foundation:…

Summerville, Geri



Lay Theories of Suicide Among Austrian Psychology Undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lester and Bean's (1992) Attribution of Causes to Suicide Scale gauges lay theories of suicide including intrapsychic problems, interpersonal conflicts, and societal forces as causes. Results obtained with its German form (n = 165 Austrian psychology undergraduates) showed no sex differences and no social-desirability effects. Intriguingly, all three subscales were moderately intercorrelated, thereby indicating respondents' general agreement (or disagreement) with

Martin Voracek; Lisa Mariella Loibl; David Lester



Laying out and visualizing large trees using a hyperbolic space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new focus+context (fisheye) scheme for visualizing and manipulating large hierarchies. The essence of our approach is to lay out the hierarchy uniformly on the hyperbolic plane and map this plane onto a circular display region. The projection onto the disk provides a natural mechanism for assigning more space to a portion of the hierarchy while still embedding

John Lamping; Rarnana Rao



Trials of the Manufacture and Machine Laying of Mastic Asphalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of trials was undertaken to investigate: the manufacture of mastic asphalt on a conventional rolled-asphalt mixing plant with an additional dryer, and the machine-laying of mastic asphalt. Both waterproofing-grade mastic asphalt and paving-grade ...

D. H. Mathews B. W. Ferne



Exploring Mayan Numerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an exploration activity involving Mayan numerals, which can be adapted by teachers at various levels to help students better understand the concept of place value and appreciate contributions to mathematics made by an indigenous Central American culture.

Farmer, Jeff D.; Powers, Robert A.



Infrared Detection: Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource outlines experiments and explorations for students to understand the physics of infrared emission and detection. Simple tools are used. Questions meant to guide and engage students are included.

Zollman, Dean



From dose rate to websites: making measurements accessible, understandable and helpful to the lay public.  


The key role of public information in emergency preparedness has more recently been corroborated by the experience of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP. Information should meet quality criteria such as openness, accessibility and authenticity. Existing information portals of radiation monitoring networks were frequently used even in Europe, although there was no imminent radiation risk. BfS responded by increasing the polling frequency, publishing current data not validated, refurbishing the website of the BfS '' and adding explanatory text. Public feedback served as a valuable input for improving the site's design. Additional services were implemented for developers of smart phone apps. Websites similar to 'ODLInfo' are available both on European and international levels. NGOs and grass root projects established platforms for uploading and visualising private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 March 2011. The BfS site is compared with other platforms. Government information has to compete with non-official sources. Options on information strategies are discussed. PMID:24993007

Zähringer, M; Luff, R; Schiesewitz, M; Burbeck, S; Högg, R



Exploring Magnetic Field Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the magnetic field of a bar magnet as an introduction to understanding Earth's magnetic field. First, learners explore and play with magnets and compasses. Then, learners trace the field lines of the magnet using the compass on a large piece of paper. This activity will also demonstrate why prominences are always "loops."




Understanding Coronaviruses  


... Field Search Button Advanced Search NIAID Home Health & Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Coronaviruses > Understanding Coronaviruses Coronaviruses Understanding Coronaviruses Overview Symptoms ...


Metabolism of lipid labeled very low density lipoprotein from laying turkey hens in laying turkey hens and immature turkeys  

SciTech Connect

Labeled very low density lipoprotein of laying turkey hens (VLDL-L) was prepared by injecting 1-/sup 14/C-palmitate abd subsequently isolating the VLDL-L by ultracentrifugation at d.1.006. The isolated VLDL-L then was injected into recipient laying hens, immature males, or immature females. Size exclusion chromatography of recipient laying hen plasma showed no remnant particles of smaller size or greater density than the injected VLDL-L up to 400 min postinjection. In the immature birds of either sex, remnant particles of greater density and smaller size than the injected VLDL-L were present when blood samples were withdrawn at 5 (males) or 1 (females) min postinjection. In laying females, both VLDL-L-triglyceride (VLDL-L-TG) and phospholipids (VLDL-L-PL) had identical fractional clearance rates of .00253 min-1 and had parallel rates of disappearance. The irreversible loss of VLDL-L-TG was 12.8 g/day while it was 4.8 g/day for VLDL-L-PL. Thirty-one percent of the injected radioactivity was isolated in ovarian follicles undergoing rapid development. VLDL-L-TG decayed with a single exponential decay component in both immature males and females, but decayed more rapidly in the males; it also decayed more rapidly in the immature birds of both sexes than in laying females. There was also an increase in triglyceride (TG) radioactivity in lipoproteins of d greater than 1.006. The VLDL-L-PL decayed in a more complex pattern in the immature birds, showing more than a single exponential decay component. There was also an increase in phospholipid (PL) radioactivity in lipoproteins of d greater than 1.006. THe VLDL-TG and PL radioactivities did not decay in a parallel pattern in immature birds where remnant particles of d greater than 1.006 were present soon after lipid labeled VLDL-L injection.

Bacon, W.L.



The relationship between lay and technical views of Escherichia coli O157 risk  

PubMed Central

Here, we bring together and contrast lay (accessible primarily through social science methodologies) and technical (via risk assessment and epidemiological techniques) views of the risk associated with the Escherichia coli O157 pathogen using two case study areas in the Grampian region of Scotland, and North Wales. Epidemiological risk factors of contact with farm animals, visiting farms or farm fields and having a private water supply were associated with postcode districts of higher than average disease incidence in the human population. However, this was not the case for the epidemiological risk factor of consumption of beef burgers, which was independent of disease incidence in the postcode district of residence. The proportion of the population expressing a high knowledge of E. coli O157 was greatest in high-incidence disease districts compared with low-incidence areas (17% cf. 7%). This supports the hypothesis that in high-disease-incidence areas, residents are regularly exposed to information about the disease through local cases, the media, local social networks, etc. or perhaps that individuals are more likely to be motivated to find out about it. However, no statistically significant difference was found between high- and low-incidence postcode districts in terms of the proportion of the population expressing a high likelihood of personal risk of infection (10% cf. 14%), giving a counterintuitive difference between the technical (epidemiological and quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA)) and the lay assessment of E. coli O157 risk. This suggests that lay evaluations of E. coli O157 risk reflect intuitive and experience-based estimates of the risk rather than probabilistic estimates. A generally strong correspondence was found in terms of the rank order given to potential infection pathways, with environment and foodborne infection routes dominating when comparing public understanding with technical modelling results. Two general conclusions follow from the work. First, that integrative research incorporating both lay and technical views of risk is required in order that informed decisions can be made to handle or treat the risk by the groups concerned (e.g. the public, policy makers/risk managers, etc.). Second, when communicating risk, for example, through education programmes, it is important that this process is two-way with risk managers (e.g. including Food Standards Agency officials and communications team, public health infection control and environmental health officers) both sharing information with the public and stakeholder groups, as well as incorporating public knowledge, values and context (e.g. geographical location) into risk-management decisions.

Strachan, N. J. C.; Hunter, C. J.; Jones, C. D. R.; Wilson, R. S.; Ethelberg, S.; Cross, P.; Williams, A. P.; MacRitchie, L.; Rotariu, O.; Chadwick, D.



Exploring Cultures through Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First and second graders can understand that the African continent is made up of many countries and cultures, especially when teachers have maps, picture books, photographs, and artifacts on hand for them to explore. It is important for young students to develop an understanding of maps and how to use them. This article offers suggestions for…

Grady, Bev



Exploring at the Nanoscale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on how nanotechnology has impacted our society and how engineers have learned to explore the world at the nanoscale. Learners participate in hands-on activities to understand exactly how small the nanoscale is, explore how surface area changes at the nano scale, and work in teams to develop futuristic applications of nanotechnology. Specifically, teams of learners examine and measure blocks of tofu or gelatin to determine the surface area. Then they slice the blocks into smaller and smaller pieces, exposing more surfaces, and impacting the surface area. Learners also explore the size of small by comparing various items to understand the size of nano.




Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. METHODS: Based on results from routine

Oddvar Fossum; Désirée S Jansson; Pernille Engelsen Etterlin; Ivar Vĺgsholm



Trail laying behaviour during food recruitment in the ant Lasius niger (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The trail-laying behaviour of foragers of the antLasius niger was observed in the laboratory on a 20 cm bridge between the nest and the food source. We measured both the frequency of trail laying, as defined by the proportion of trips during which trail laying occurred, and its intensity, as defined by the number of marks laid during one

R. Beckers; J. L. Deneubourg; S. Goss



Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions  

PubMed Central

Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented.

Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra



Space exploration in neglect.  


The present study investigated the gaze as well as the head and the eye-in-head movements of neglect patients while they were exploring their surroundings. A random configuration of letters was presented on the inner surface of a sphere that surrounded the subject, requiring free exploratory eye and head movements. The subjects were requested to search for a single (non-existent) target letter. The co-ordination of eye and head movements in patients with neglect resembled the pattern usually observed in healthy subjects orienting to eccentric visual targets. They performed hypometric head movements with additional shifts of eye-in-head position. Moreover, like healthy subjects, the patients with neglect explored space with gaze, with head and eye-in-head movements that were symmetrically distributed around preferred orientations in space. However, in contrast to controls, these centres of exploration were shifted towards the right. The average horizontal position of gaze and of head movements lay right of the body's mid-sagittal plane, the average eye-in-head position right of the head midline. The preferred orientations were located far away from the anatomical limits of horizontal gaze, head and eye-in-head movements. The decrease of exploration towards more eccentric locations left and right of these orientations thus could not be explained by anatomical restrictions. The results argue against a model of neglect that proposes a lateral gradient of attentional orienting towards the ipsilesional side. Exploring the surroundings, the patients did not orient gaze, the head or the eyes in the head towards the extreme ipsilesional side, nor even close to it. The results favour a deviation model suggesting a shift of the whole frame for exploratory behaviour towards the ipsilesional side. In addition to this shift, we found a second component of altered visual exploration in neglect. The patients' head and gaze movements exhibited a reduced variability around the deviated centre of exploration. The variability was not generally reduced but rather concerned specifically the horizontal dimension. The latter was found even when the area of exploration was paralleled between the groups, requiring the control subjects to search only in that part of the letter array that the neglect patients had explored spontaneously. Possible mechanisms, such as a disturbed ability to update the spatial representation of visual targets or an altered neural representation of space in the horizontal dimension, are discussed. PMID:9874486

Karnath, H O; Niemeier, M; Dichgans, J



Assessing Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Try using an assessment cycle to effectively probe students' understanding of scientific concepts. The diagnostic, formative, summative, and confirmatory assessment can be embedded into any unit of study.

Sterling, Donna R.



Multifactorial investigation of various housing systems for laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The advantages and disadvantages of various housing systems for laying hens were compared as a pilot study for work in commercial conditions.2.?At 16 weeks of age, 284 hens were introduced into one of 6 housing systems: two types of conventional cages (small: SC; large: LC), furnished cages (small: SF; large: LF), and non-cage systems (single-tiered aviary: SA; free-range: FR).3.?We evaluated

T. Shimmura; S. Hirahara; T. Azuma; T. Suzuki; Y. Eguchi; K. Uetake; T. Tanaka



52. Photocopied August 1978. LAYING THE CORNER STONE (FIRST PREMOULDED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Production and characterization of antibodies against aflatoxin in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyclonal antibodies against aflatoxins were obtained from egg yolks of laying hens immunized with either aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) or aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA). An indirect enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) involving the use of AFB1?BSA or AFM1?BSA conjugate and anti?chicken IgG?horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate, was developed for monitoring antibody titers and aflatoxin analysis. Production of the

Fun S. Chu



Ocean Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the intent to publicize information on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) major ocean exploration efforts, the Ocean Explorer Website provides a platform to follow such explorations in near real-time, learn about ocean exploration technologies, observe remote marine areas through multimedia technology, and review NOAA's 200-year history of ocean exploration. Additional NOAA resources in the Library include related links, historical books and documents, expedition reports, and journal articles significant to NOAA's historical and current ocean exploration activities. The Calendar and Projects sections provide, respectively, a descriptive schedule of upcoming explorations and information on related activities and events.


Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

Miljeteig, Per



Egg shell colour is affected by laying cage design.  


1. When laying hens are stressed some retain their eggs in the shell gland beyond the normal time of laying and this can result in the deposition of extra-cuticular calcium which makes brown eggs appear paler. 2. Three different types of enriched modified cage were compared: the location where eggs were laid was recorded and shell colour was measured using a reflectometer. 3. In 2 types of cage with enclosed nest boxes more eggs (80%) were laid in the nests than in a design with nest hollows in the open part of the cage (41%). 4. The eggs from the cages with enclosed nests were darker (had less extraneous calcium) than those with open nest hollows. This implies that in the designs with nest boxes fewer eggs had been retained and the hens may have been less stressed. 5. The results support previous evidence that to reduce stress and improve welfare it is desirable to provide enclosed nest sites for caged laying hens. PMID:9925325

Walker, A W; Hughes, B O



[Prevalence of Mycoplasmas in commercial layer flocks during laying period].  


Within this study's range, laying hens from different housing systems were investigated on prevalence of Mycoplasma sp. for the duration of one laying period, with an emphasis on the two clinically relevant species M. synoviae and M. gallisepticum. Tracheal swabs were analysed for mycoplasms by genus- and species-specific amplification after DNA extraction. Of 919 collected tracheal swabs, 84% were positive for the genus-specific test, while 75% turned out positive for M. synoviae. Mycoplasms were detected at some time during the laying period in all 19 flocks included in this investigation. Using a species-specific PCR, only one flock of a free-range system was free of M. synoviae. On the contrary, PCR analysis did not detect M. gallisepticum in any of the collected samples. Individual and flock examinations revealed no correlation between clinical symptoms and the presence of M. synoviae in hens and flocks, respectively. As the majority of the examined flocks were already positive for M. synoviae upon entry, the establishment of a control regime for Mycoplasma sp. would be advisable for parent stock and rearing facilities. PMID:19517932

Köhn, Stefanie; Spergser, Joachim; Ahlers, Christine; Voss, Matthias; Bartels, Thomas; Rosengarten, Renate; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth



Biomorphic Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

Thakoor, Sarita



User Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents hypotheses about how much understanding a user needs to perform skillfully using a computer or a computer program. A framework for characterizing user understanding is presented which includes three criteria for evaluating the representation generated during problem solving: (1) internal coherence--whether the components of…

Riley, Mary S.


Understanding Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Waves is a graduate-level professional development course designed to enhance your understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.



Effects of carbon percentage, Stelmor cooling rate and laying head temperature on tensile strength gain in low carbon steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low carbon steel wire rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subjected to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing process resulting in a variation in wire tensile strength. This research analyzes the effects of carbon percentage, StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature on the tensile strength gain in wire drawn low carbon steels using design of experiments. The probable reasons for variations in tensile strength gain are analyzed by observing the microstructural changes during experiments. Microstructural analysis was done extensively using optical microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and it was found that the tensile strength gain variation is mainly caused by the increase in the dislocation density in wire rod and wire due to high cooling rate and high laying head temperature, within the range considered. This research concludes that a low carbon wire rod can be produced with minimum tensile strength gain, lower dislocation density and finer ferrite grain size by maintaining a low cooling rate in the StelmorRTM cooling zone and low laying head temperature, which is the temperature at which the wire rod coils are laid on the Stelmor RTM deck. It is also concluded from the results of the present study that: (1) The lowest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 (0.07 wt.% Carbon) with low cooling rate of 14°F/s and low laying head temperature of 1500°F. (2) The highest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 with high cooling rate of 26°F/s and high laying head temperature of 1650°F. (3) The effect of StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature and their interaction are found to be the significant factors causing the variation in wire tensile strength gain. The StelmorRTM cooling rate has the most significant effect on tensile strength gain among the three factors. (4) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength gain is very minimal. (5) With an increase in the StelmorRTM cooling rate from 14°F/s to 26°F/s, there is a substantial increase in the dislocation densities in the wire rods and wires, which is the primary cause of the increase in the tensile strength gain. (6) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength gain is very minimal. North Star Steel Texas would benefit substantially from this research by being able to produce better quality wire rods, through better understanding of the factors affecting the tensile strength gain variation. This is expected to lead to a reduction in customer complaints on failure of wire products.

Gade, Surya Prakash


The development of egg-laying behaviour and nest-site selection in a strain of white laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since World War II livestock husbandry has been highly intensificated. This trend was most obvious in the poultry industry. Laying hens used to be housed outdoors in free-range systems, but nowadays these systems have almost entirely been replaced by the battery-cage. In the early sixties scientists and the general public started to express much concern for the well-being of hens

B. Rietveld-Piepers



Lay workers in directly observed treatment (DOT) programmes for tuberculosis in high burden settings: Should they be paid? A review of behavioural perspectives.  


The current global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic has pressured health care managers, particularly in developing countries, to seek for alternative, innovative ways of delivering effective treatment to the large number of TB patients diagnosed annually. One strategy employed is direct observation of treatment (DOT) for all patients. In high-burden settings innovation with this strategy has resulted into the use of lay community members to supervise TB patients during the duration of anti-TB treatment. However, community involvement in health programmes is not a simple matter. There is often a need for continued motivation of community members in order to ensure sustainability of such projects. Lay workers may demand payment for work done particularly if this takes up a reasonable proportion of their time. TB treatment, by its very nature, lasts for a considerable period and this paper seeks to examine behavioural perspectives that attempt to address the issue of whether lay workers in such programmes should be paid for their services. The theories explored suggest intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as factors that lead people to volunteer for health programmes. Intrinsic motivation encompasses such feelings as empathy and altruism as well as other factors such as religious and cultural conviction. The authors argue however that in high-burden TB settings, these factors alone may be inadequate to provide continued motivation for lay worker involvement in health programmes. Extrinsic motivators, of which money is the strongest example, then also serve to keep sustained interest particularly in resource-limited settings where people expect payment for work done. The debate on whether lay workers in health programmes should be paid is thus compounded by issues such as what factors one believes are responsible for motivation in particular contextual settings; how long lay persons are expected to perform tasks at hand; the capacity that exists to pay them and the sustainability of the motivating option chosen. We recommend more qualitative research to be done on this issue in high TB burden settings. PMID:12789106

Kironde, Samson; Bajunirwe, Francis



Calcium transport in strongly calcifying laying birds: mechanisms and regulation.  


Birds that lay long clutches (series of eggs laid sequentially before a "pause day"), among them the high-producing, strongly-calcifying Gallus gallus domesticus (domestic hen) and Coturnix coturnix japonica (Japanese quail), transfer about 10% of their total body calcium daily. They appear, therefore, to be the most efficient calcium-transporters among vertebrates. Such intensive transport imposes severe demands on ionic calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, and activates at least two extremely effective mechanisms for Ca2+ transfer from food and bone to the eggshell. This review focuses on the development, action and regulation of the mechanisms associated with paracellular and transcellular Ca2+ transport in the intestine and the eggshell gland (ESG); it also considers some of the proteins (calbindin, Ca2+ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchange, epithelial calcium channels (TRPVs), osteopontin and carbonic anhydrase (CA) associated with this phenomenon. Calbindins are discussed in some detail, as they appear to be a major component of the transcellular transport system, and as only they have been studied extensively in birds. The review aims to gather old and new knowledge, which could form a conceptual basis, albeit not a completely accepted one, for our understanding of the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. In the intestine, the transcellular pathway appears to compensate for low Ca2+ intake, but in birds fed adequate calcium the major drive for calcium absorption remains the electrochemical potential difference (ECPD) that facilitates paracellular transport. However, the mechanisms involved in Ca2+ transport into the ESG lumen are not yet established. In the ESG, the presence of Ca2+-ATPase and calbindin--two components of the transcellular transport pathway--and the apparently uphill transport of Ca2+ support the idea that Ca2+ is transported via the transcellular pathway. However, the positive (plasma with respect to mucosa) electrical potential difference (EPD) in the ESG, among other findings, indicates that there may be major alternative or complementary paracellular passive transport pathways. The available evidence hints that the flow from the gut to the ESG, which occurs during a relatively short period (11 to 14 h out the 24- to 25.5-h egg cycle), is primarily driven by carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in the ESG, which results in high HCO3(-) content that, in turn, "sucks out" Ca2+ from the intestinal lumen via the blood and ESG cells, and deposits it in the shell crystals. The increased CA activity appears to be dependent on energy input, whereas it seems most likely that the Ca2+ movement is secondary, that it utilizes passive paracellular routes that fluctuate in accordance with the appearance of the energy-dependent CA activity, and that the level of Ca2+ movement mimics that of the CA activity. The on-off signals for the overall phenomenon have not yet been identified. They appear to be associated with the circadian cycle of gonadal hormones, coupled with the egg cycle: it is most likely that progesterone acts as the "off" signal, and that the "on" signal is provided by the combined effect of an as-yet undefined endocrine factor associated with ovulation and with the mechanical strain that results from "egg white" formation and "plumping". This strain may initially trigger the formation of the mammillae and the seeding of shell calcium crystals in the isthmus, and thereafter initiate the formation of the shell in the ESG. PMID:19118637

Bar, Arie



A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.  


Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks. PMID:23300320

Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A



Climacteric hormone therapy in medical and lay texts in Finland from 1955 to 1992.  


The "social shaping of technologies" approach holds that a technology is both socially embedded and that it shapes the social environment. The aim of this study was to investigate how hormone therapy use during the climacterium and subsequently was socially shaped in texts published in the main Finnish medical journals and lay magazines during 1955-1992. In these two arenas physicians, especially gynecologists, played the major role in the debate and their professional knowledge on hormone therapy was mixed with their views on women's status and roles, the quality of life and fears about aging when they were promoting hormone use, especially in the lay magazines. This type of argument for the promotion of hormone use persisted in the most recent texts, despite the availability of substantial evidence both for the against of hormone therapy. Overall, the texts clearly favored the benefits of the therapy. Three periods of differing orientation can be discerned. Attitudes towards hormone therapy tended to be cautious from 1955 through the 1970s, more enthusiastic in the 1980s, and mixed at the start of the 1990s. In the most recent texts critical comments came from individual women who had used the therapy or decided not to, including female physicians and other professionals. The results suggest that hormone therapy is socially embedded, but may also shape perceptions and the understanding of women's aging. The social shaping of the technology approach may improve our understanding of the development of health policy towards women at and after the age of the climacterium. PMID:9226798

Topo, P



Understanding Nano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nanotechnology can be a complicated topic. The Understanding Nano website is dedicated to providing clear and concise explanations of nanotechnology applications along with information on companies working in each area.



Understanding Alzheimer's  


... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...


Effect of Different Calcium Sources and Calcium Intake on Shell Quality and Bone Characteristics of Laying Hens at Sexual Maturity and End of Lay  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: The influence of supplemental calcium given in flour or granular form and calcium intake on bone properties and egg characteristics of brown-egg laying hens was investigated at sexual maturity and at end of lay. Physical and mechanical bone characteristics were determined using 3-point and torsional tests. There was no effect of calcium source on the measured bone characteristics

K. C. Koutoulis; I. Kyriazakis; G. C. Perry; P. D. Lewis



Perimeter Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn the relationship between perimeter and area. A shape will be automatically generated with the area that you choose. Calculate the perimeter of this shape. Perimeter Explorer is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.


Area Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn the relationship between perimeter and area. A shape will be automatically generated with the perimeter that you choose. Calculate the area of this shape. Area Explorer is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.


Shape Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn the relationship between perimeter and area. A random shape will be automatically generated. Calculate the area and perimeter of this shape. Shape Explorer is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.


Exploration Geophysics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

Savit, Carl H.



Geologic Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologic Explorations allows learners to explore a variety of unique geological formations of Utah using Quicktime Virtual Reality (QTVR) panoramas and digital still imagery. Spectacular panoramas and striking images capture Utah's unique geology and invite students to explore and learn interesting facts and concepts central to the study of geology.

Bodzin, Alec



Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Cassava Yeast as Probiotic Source on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of cassava yeast as a probiotic source on laying hens performance and egg quality. Two hundred and sixteen Roman breed laying hens (26 week of age), were used. The laying hens were randomly allocated to 24 pens containing 9 laying hens each with 6 replicates and assigned to receive

Songsak Chumpawadee; Anut Chantiratikul; Suwannee Sataweesuk



Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS): a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK). Method/Design The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service. The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care) from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation) until 6 weeks after birth. The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy) and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools. A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level) to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Qualitative research will explore the POWs' daily work in context. This will complement the findings of the RCT through a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data on the process of the intervention, and identify other contextual factors that affect the implementation of the intervention. Discussion The trial will provide high quality evidence as to whether or not lay support (POW) offered to women identified with social risk factors improves engagement with maternity services and reduces numbers of women with depression. MREC number 10/H1207/23 Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN35027323



Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)



Understanding Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of Understanding Science is to provide a fun, accessible, and free resource that accurately communicates what science is and how it really works. The process of science is exciting, but standard explanations often miss its dynamic nature. Science affects us all everyday, but people often feel cut off from science. Science is an intensely human endeavor, but many portrayals gloss over the passion, curiosity, and even rivalries and pitfalls that characterize all human ventures. Understanding Science gives users an inside look at the general principles, methods, and motivations that underlie all of science.



Balancing exploration and exploitation in motion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computationally efficient motion planning must avoid exhaustive exploration of configuration space. We argue that this can be accomplished most effectively by carefully balancing exploration and exploitation. Exploration seeks to understand configuration space, irrespective of the planning problem, while exploitation acts to solve the problem given the available information obtained by exploration. We present an exploring\\/exploiting tree (EET) planner that balances

Markus Rickert; Oliver Brock; Alois Knoll



Understanding Islam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of Islam to commanders and other military personnel who may be assigned to Islamic countries, be serving with persons following the Muslim faith, and those who would like to learn more about t...

C. H. Sydnor



Understanding Ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad biological approach makes it possible to understand why ageing exists and also why different mammalian species have very different maximum longevities. The adult organism is maintained in a functional state by at least ten major mechanisms, which together comprise a substantial proportion of all biological processes. These maintenance mechanisms eventually fail, because the evolved physiological and anatomical design

Robin Holliday



Understanding Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article demonstrates how to construct two types of graphs, the line plot, and the stem and leaf plot. States that these graphing techniques improve students' ability to understand tabular data. An instructional model is presented for directing lessons which use the two types of graphs. (JDH)

McMann, Francis C.; McMann, Carolyn Jepsen



Understanding Artworlds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum unit consists of four lessons that are designed to broaden students' understanding of art and culture; each lesson can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. The introduction offers a conceptual framework of the Artworlds unit, which takes an inquiry-based approach. The unit's first lesson, "Worlds within Worlds,"…

Erickson, Mary; Clover, Faith


Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

Welty, J. L.; Belthoff, J. R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.



Disorders of cholecalciferol metabolism in old egg-laying hens.  


It has been reported that the rate of cracked or soft-shelled eggs markedly increases in old laying hens. We investigated the effect of age on cholecalciferol metabolism in different age groups of laying hens. The egg production rate in hens more than 500 days old was maintained within a range of about 70% of that in young hens (230-320 days old), whereas the rate of cracked or soft-shelled eggs increased markedly with age. When kidney homogenates from the different age groups were incubated with [3H]-25-hydroxyvitamin D-3, renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity was found to decrease markedly with age. When birds were given intravenously either [3H]-25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 or [3H]-1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3, the accumulation of [3H]-1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 in plasma and target tissue also decreased with age. Forced molting performed in old hens restored eggshell quality. The treatment also restored, though partially, the in vivo accumulation of [3H]-l alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 in the target tissues. These results suggest that the increased rate of cracked or soft-shelled eggs seen in older birds is associated with disorders of vitamin D-3 metabolism. PMID:6278112

Abe, E; Horikawa, H; Masumura, T; Sugahara, M; Kubota, M; Suda, T



Replacing maize with pearl millet in laying hens' diets.  


Pearl millet grain could be considered as an alternative feed ingredient for poultry. In a 12 wks experiment, the performance of laying hens fed diets containing pearl millet were compared with those fed diets containing corn. Maize grain was replaced by pearl millet on an equal-weight at either 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%. Results showed that use of 25, 50 and 75% of pearl millet in place of maize in the diet resulted in similar (P > 0.05) hen-day egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio to those of control group. Totally replacement of maize grain with pearl millet significantly (P < 0.05) reduced all production parameters. Egg quality parameters did not affect by using pearl millet in the diet. These results showed that maize grain can be replaced by pearl millet up to 75% in the diets of laying hens without any adverse effect on hen performance or egg quality. PMID:19705292

Mehri, Mehran; Pourreza, Javad; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali



Coastal Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coastal Explorations is a virtual photojournal that allows learners to explore a variety of coastal formations and unique features in many different locations along the California and New Jersey coasts. Learners investigate the differences and similarities between California and New Jersey coasts. Areas to explore include coastal processes and coastal issues such as erosion, how human activities modify shorelines, and development issues people living on the coast encounter.

Bodzin, Alec; Lemon, Cheryl



The influence of sequential feeding on behaviour, feed intake and feather condition in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding of whole-wheat grains and a protein–mineral concentrate in sequence had been shown to modify behaviour in broilers and performance in laying hens. The objective of this study was to test whether sequential feeding with wheat would induce changes in laying hen's behaviour, feed intake, feather condition, and egg production. These parameters were measured on 320 non-beak-trimmed ISA Brown laying

Dušanka Jordan; Murtala Umar Faruk; Philippe Lescoat; Mohamed Nabil Ali; Ivan Štuhec; Werner Bessei; Christine Leterrier



Factors influencing the egg laying of workers in a captive Bombus terrestris colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The egg-laying behaviour of Bombus terrestris workers was studied in a captive colony by means of video recordings, in order to determine factors that make workers become egg-laying workers.2.The size of a worker as a factor determining her to become a laying worker is only important for the workers that are born from the first batch of eggs. The sequence

C. G. J. van Honk; P.-F. Röseler; H. H. W. Velthuis; J. C. Hoogeveen



Are vaccination programmes delivered by lay health workers cost-effective? A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background A recently updated Cochrane systematic review on the effects of lay or community health workers (LHWs) in primary and community health care concluded that LHW interventions could lead to promising benefits in the promotion of childhood vaccination uptake. However, understanding of the costs and cost-effectiveness of involving LHWs in vaccination programmes remains poor. This paper reviews the costs and cost-effectiveness of vaccination programme interventions involving LHWs. Methods Articles were retrieved if the title, keywords or abstract included terms related to 'lay health workers', 'vaccination' and 'economics'. Reference lists of studies assessed for inclusion were also searched and attempts were made to contact authors of all studies included in the Cochrane review. Studies were included after assessing eligibility of the full-text article. The included studies were then reviewed against a set of background and technical characteristics. Results Of the 2616 records identified, only three studies fully met the inclusion criteria, while an additional 11 were retained as they included some cost data. Methodologically, the studies were strong but did not adequately address affordability and sustainability and were also highly heterogeneous in terms of settings and LHW outcomes, limiting their comparability. There were insufficient data to allow any conclusions to be drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of LHW interventions to promote vaccination uptake. Studies focused largely on health outcomes and did illustrate to some extent how the institutional characteristics of communities, such as governance and sources of financial support, influence sustainability. Conclusion The included studies suggest that conventional economic evaluations, particularly cost-effectiveness analyses, generally focus too narrowly on health outcomes, especially in the context of vaccination promotion and delivery at the primary health care level by LHWs. Further studies on the costs and cost-effectiveness of vaccination programmes involving LHWs should be conducted, and these studies should adopt a broader and more holistic approach.



Understanding Flight  

SciTech Connect

Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

Anderson, David



Understanding resilience  

PubMed Central

Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J.; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathe, Aleksander A.



Understanding Boston  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one begin to understand the workings of a major metropolis? It can be a tough job even for a seasoned expert in urbanology or governance. The Boston Foundation has offered up this area of its website to bring together resources that address the thorniest issues facing the Hub, including public schools, public health, transportation, and housing costs. First up is the Research, Reports, and Forums area, which includes working papers on public health throughout the region, links to the Greater Boston Indicator database, and information about changing models of urban governance throughout the region. The site also includes a group of areas dedicated to Understanding Boston that include Civic Engagement, Community Safety, and Cultural Vitality. Within each of these areas, visitors can look over working papers, read about upcoming events and conferences, and learn about the Foundation's long range plans.


Understanding: "Knowledge", "Belief", and "Understanding"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following paper is intended as an exercise in "friendly criticism" of one of Harvey Siegel's and Mike Smith's ("Knowing, Believing and Understanding", this volume). I'm in substantial sympathy with the general thrust of their paper and my remarks merely provide some criticism of their discussion's conceptual coherence and clarity and a…

Davson-Galle, Peter



Exploring Earthspace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. The magnetopause is discussed at length, including the processes involved in the interaction and satellite explorations of the region in space. This is part of a large web site on Exploring the Earth's Magnetosphere. A Spanish translation is available.

Stern, David



Exploring Global Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eight units in this volume are designed for use by an art teacher/specialist. Thematic ideas are presented, while skills, techniques, and materials are not dictated. The lessons encourage students to compare and contrast cultures, understand their own cultural experiences, and explore differences and commonalities among cultures. The materials…

Needler, Toby; Goodman, Bonnie


Exploring Green Jobs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students complete a Myers-Briggs Type Inventory of their personality type as an introductory step to understanding what green jobs might suit their personal styles. From the information on this online tool, they look at different Green Jobs to explore possible careers.



Microarchitectural exploration with Liberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find the best designs, architects must rapidly simulate many design alternatives and have confidence in the results. Unfortunately, the most prevalent simulator construction methodology, hand-writing monolithic simulators in sequential programming languages, yields simulators that are hard to retarget, limiting the number of designs explored, and hard to understand, instilling little confidence in the model. Simulator construction tools have been

Manish Vachharajani; Neil Vachharajani; David A. Penry; Jason A. Blome; David I. August



Youth Exploring Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This session features Youth Exploring Science (YES), Saint Louis Science Center's nationally recognized work-based teen development program. In YES, underserved audiences develop interest and understanding in physics through design engineering projects. I will discuss breaking down barriers, helping youth develop skills, and partnering with community organizations, universities and engineering firms.

Miller, Diane



Understanding Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students investigate tidal phenomena by exploring water level observational (or predicted tidal) data from several locations around the world that provide examples of semi-diurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides. Students are asked to identify patterns of variability and differences among the sites on time scales of just a few days and over a period of a couple months. The activity is designed more to get students thinking about tides, asking questions about the causes of tidal variations, and thinking about ways to answer these questions, as opposed to providing an explanation of tidal processes. The activity leads to a body of observations that generate numerous questions about tides. The goal is to capture student's interest before spending subsequent class time developing a conceptual/theoretical model of how tides work.

Cook, Tim


Exploring Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This event guide features three related explorations in which learners investigate the following science concepts: how you design and build a structure helps determine how strong it will be; different materials are useful for making different kinds of structures and different parts of structures; and, walls, roofs, and bridges need to be supported in special ways. Exploring Structures is one unit in the Peep Event Kit, which also offers explorations of shadows and ramps, respectively. The guide provides an agenda for a 1-hour science event, a customizable flyer and family handouts (English and Spanish). Learners can view a related Peep and the Big Wide World video story before or after the activity.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Effects of diet composition on vanadium toxicity in laying hens.  


Vanadium added to laying rations as NH4 VO3, VOCl2 or VOSO4 at levels of 20 to 80 ppm resulted in a rapid and substantial reduction in albumen quality as measured by Haugh units. Dietary vanadium also resulted in reduced egg production, egg weight, body weight, feed consumption, and poorer shell quality as measured by specific gravity. Ascorbic acid at .4 to .5% effectively protected the hen from the reduction in albumen quality, egg production, and body weight for up to 40 ppm vanadium, but not the reduction of egg weight. Replacement of soybean meal by 20% dietary cottonseed meal also protected the hen from the reduction in albumen quality, egg production, and body weight for up to 40 ppm vanadium. Added at levels of 4 to 8 times the molecular concentration of vanadium, EDTA had no consistent effect on vanadium toxicity. Dehydrated grass, at levels of 6 to 12%, maintained egg production but had no effects on the reduction in albumen quality caused by 40 ppm vanadium. Replacement of soybean meal with herring fish meal and part of the grain with sucrose intensified the depression of albumen quality, egg production, and loss of body weight caused by added vanadium. Neither varying dietary protein levels from 12 to 25% using soybean meal nor the addition of 20 ppm chromium had any effect on the toxicity of added vanadium. It appears that vanadium expresses its toxicity in laying hens by several routes since the protective effects of different dietary changes and additives differentially affected the loss of albumen quality, egg production, body weight, and egg weight. PMID:6791152

Ousterhout, L E; Berg, L R



Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.  


Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes. PMID:24706955

Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A



Species Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among other things, the Internet is a great way to bring together geographically distant pieces of information and observations. The Species Explorer website does just that, by allowing visitors to contribute their observations of wildlife via their computer or mobile phone quickly and simply. The goals of Species Explorer are diverse and they include the idea that it is important "to encourage the level of 'citizen science' in the general public" and "to provide a platform for parent-child learning." After reading a bit of background about the project, visitors can continue to learn exactly what they will need to participate. After registering, visitors can also explore the existing observations via the Species Explorer Online application. It's a remarkable site and a remarkable idea, and one that will hopefully spur others to participate and maybe even to create new innovations in a similar vein.

Antinori, Maxim


Exploration Metaphor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's experience in planetary exploration has demonstrated that the desktop workstation is inadequate for many visualization situations. The primary mission displays for the unmanned Surveyor missions to the moon during the mid-1960's, for example, were ...

M. W. Mcgreevy



Cell Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the parts of a virtual animal cell in this interactive activity adapted from the Exploratorium. Learn about various cell structures and the roles they play in cell division, cellular respiration, and protein synthesis.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Aerial Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey



Understanding Condensation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Monica Hartman, Assistant Director for Science in St. Clair County, Michigan, conducted this research while she was the learning specialist in a small suburban district just outside a large Midwestern city. While teaching full time in this district she was also completing her doctoral program in education at the University of Michigan. In this chapter, she tells the story of a "science talk" about condensation among fifth graders. She acted as a source and facilitator of change as she and the fifth-grade teacher worked collaboratively to help students share responsibility for their own learning. She describes their continual assessment of student understanding that occurred as their students struggled to explain observations and as they, the teachers, carefully resisted the temptation to end the struggle by saying "that's right!"

Hartman, Monica



Exploring Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a temperature higher than the inside of your oven and atmospheric pressure equal to that a kilometer under the ocean, the surface of Venus is one of the most hostile environments in the solar system, and Venus exploration presents a challenge to technology. This lecture presents mission trade-offs and discusses a proposed mission concept for rover and aircraft based exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus. Several approaches to the technology, electronics, mechanical parts, and power systems, are discussed.

Landis, Geoffrey A.



Majors Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Put on your safari hat, open your mind and get ready to enter the world of majors explorations. If you ever wondered about a field of study and whether it is right for you, you are about to find out. You will also learn where majors and fields lead for careers that may interest you. All you need for the journey is the mind of the explorer and a commitment to thoroughly investigating the options which await you.

Prentice Hall (Prentice Hall)



Project Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of Project Exploration, a living classroom that involves the public and students, especially city kids and girls, in scientific discoveries involving paleontology. Project Exploration was founded in 1999 to make science accessible to the public, with a special focus on city kids and girls. Interactive exhibits, labs, online journals, unique science programs and interactions with real scientists help people go beyond the edge of science.


Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss



Aiding understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research projects carried out by individual researchers or research teams which communicate the challenge and excitement of their work to a wider public are eligible for entry into the 1999 `Partnerships for Public Understanding' awards scheme. This is organized by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and follows on the success of a pilot scheme launched in 1998 which made 25 grants across the UK. Grant holders are invited to apply for awards to support them in high quality communication projects for the general public, with individual awards normally in the range of ÂŁ10-20k, but higher awards may be made for exceptional projects. This year a special `Year 2000' PPU sum will be available for a proposal which will contribute significantly to public awareness of the likely impact on society of an aspect of science or engineering research during the first half of the new millennium. The awards have been introduced to support the EPSRC's aim of contributing to public awareness of leading edge research; highly innovative projects will be welcomed, as well as the by now more common activities such as interactive exhibits, public lectures, demonstrations and open days. Applicants should be current holders of EPSRC research grants or fellowships, or those who have held these since 1 April 1994. Proposals will be assessed by EPSRC with advice from communications and education specialists, and the closing date for entries is 1 September 1999. Successful bids will be announced towards the end of the year. Further information on the awards can be obtained from Geoffrey Moore at EPSRC (tel: 01793 444241, e-mail:, whilst details of the call for proposals can be found on the website at (see pages `Support for public understanding').



Use of Guar By-Products in High-Production Laying Hen Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A5 × 5 Latin square experiment was con- ductedtoevaluatetheeffectoffeedinglowconcentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was di- vided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per

O. Gutierrez; C. Zhang; A. L. Cartwright; J. B. Care; C. A. Bailey


Use of Exogenous Enzymes on Laying Hens Feeding During the Second Production Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of exogenous enzymes on performance and egg quality of second production cycle laying hens. One hundred and sixty laying hens, 72 week-old, were used during five periods of 28 days each. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and five replicates, using eight birds per experimental

Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; C. F. S. Oliveira; C. C. Goulart; D. F. Figueiredo; R. C. L. Neto



The effect of choline supplementation in growing pullet and laying hen diets.  


Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of choline supplementation on corn-soy-meat-based grower and laying hen diets. Diets contained 2.5% and 3% meat and bone meal in the growing and laying diets, respectively, and on chemical analysis contained 1005 and 1041 ppm of choline respectively. In the first experiment, 1000 ppm of choline were added to the basal growing and laying diets, and in the second experiment the laying diet was supplemented with 550 ppm or 1000 ppm of choline. In both trials, choline supplementation did not increase gains or feed efficiency for pullets from 8 to 20 weeks. However, choline supplementation during the laying period resulted in a statistically significant improvement of egg production and egg size. Supplementation of choline in the growing phase did not affect the laying performance. Laying performance was not improved by 2 micrograms/kg of supplementary vitamin B12 in a 1000 ppm choline supplement diet (78% vs. 76% hen-day production). In the second trial, added levels of choline (0, 500, and 1000 ppm) resulted in egg production from 24 to 64 weeks of 73, 76, and 76% hen-day production, respectively. Egg weights were 59, 61, and 61 g, respectively. This suggests that the total choline requirement of laying hens on a corn-soy-meat diet, and in absence of supplementary methionine, is greater than 1000 ppm but no more than 1500 ppm. PMID:7177996

Tsiagbe, V K; Kang, C W; Sunde, M L



Some effects of high environmental temperatures on the productivity of laying hens (A review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laying hens fed on high energy diets and kept at moderate temperatures will often consume more dietary energy than is required for the maintenance of body weight and maximum possible egg production. Although the mechanisms involved are not well understood laying hens decrease their energy intake at temperatures above 21°C and provided egg production is not adversely affected the efficiency

A. J. Smith



Wind Power Planning Controversies and the Construction of ‘Expert’ and ‘Lay’ Knowledges  

Microsoft Academic Search

UK and Scottish planning policies include commitments to reflect the views of the public. However, this case study of one planning application for a wind farm in rural Scotland highlights the limited role played by lay knowledge within planning processes. The planning application process had two separate stages which structured the roles of lay and expert knowledge differently. Local objectors

Mhairi Aitken



Dynamic simulation and tension compensation research on subsea umbilical cable laying system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For studying the dynamic performance of subsea umbilical cable laying system and achieving the goal of cable tension and laying speed control, the rigid finite element method is used to discrete and transform the system into a rigid-flexible coupling multi-body system which consists of rigid elements and spring-damping elements. The mathematical model of subsea umbilical cable laying system kinematic chain is presented with the second order Lagrange equation in the joint coordinate system, and dynamic modeling and simulation is performed with ADAMS. The dynamic analysis is conducted assuming the following three statuses: ideal laying, practical laying under wave disturbance, and practical laying with tension compensation. Results show that motion disturbances of the laying budge under sea waves, especially with heaving and pitching, will cause relatively serious fluctuations in cable tension and laying speed. Tension compensation, i.e., active back tension torque control can restrict continuous tension increasing or decreasing effectively and rapidly, thus avoiding cable breach or buckling.

Bi, Guojun; Zhu, Shaohua; Liu, Jun; Fang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liquan



Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.  


The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V



Lay Discourses of the Rural: Developments and Implications for Rural Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the (largely British) literature on lay discourses of the rural--people's everyday interpretations of rural places and ideas of the rural. Suggests that lay discourses of the rural are complex and incoherent to an extent that makes it difficult to incorporate them into established academic rural studies. Partly supports the concept of the…

Jones, Owain



Complete genome sequence of Gallibacterium anatis strain UMN179, isolated from a laying hen with peritonitis.  


Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis. PMID:21602325

Johnson, Timothy J; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K; Trampel, Darrell W; Seemann, Torsten



Complete Genome Sequence of Gallibacterium anatis Strain UMN179, Isolated from a Laying Hen with Peritonitis ?  

PubMed Central

Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis.

Johnson, Timothy J.; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K.; Trampel, Darrell W.; Seemann, Torsten



Parental perceptions of the impacts the built environment has on young children?s health: A qualitative examination and lay assessment amongst residents in four Scottish communities.  


The built environment is important for children?s health and development. Qualitative research in four communities in Scotland explored with groups of parents of young children their lay perceptions of their local environment with specific reference to its impact upon their children?s health. Valuing most strong supportive communities; good quality public spaces and social housing, parents? key concerns included anti-social behaviour, incivility and a range of locally-specific concerns. As knowledgeable key gatekeepers to children?s use of home environments and public spaces, parent?s qualitative lay input is important for the development of children?s effective use of outdoor spaces and the built environment over the long term. PMID:24747878

Teedon, Paul; Gillespie, Morag; Lindsay, Kate; Baker, Keith



Understanding disgust.  


Disgust is characterized by a remarkably diverse set of stimulus triggers, ranging from extremely concrete (bad tastes and disease vectors) to extremely abstract (moral transgressions and those who commit them). This diversity may reflect an expansion of the role of disgust over evolutionary time, from an origin in defending the body against toxicity and disease, through defense against other threats to biological fitness (e.g., incest), to involvement in the selection of suitable interaction partners, by motivating the rejection of individuals who violate social and moral norms. The anterior insula, and to a lesser extent the basal ganglia, are implicated in toxicity- and disease-related forms of disgust, although we argue that insular activation is not exclusive to disgust. It remains unclear whether moral disgust is associated with insular activity. Disgust offers cognitive neuroscientists a unique opportunity to study how an evolutionarily ancient response rooted in the chemical senses has expanded into a uniquely human social cognitive domain; many interesting research avenues remain to be explored. PMID:22256964

Chapman, Hanah A; Anderson, Adam K



Understanding the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about understanding the sky including detailed information about the motion of planets, the motion of the Moon, Earth's motion, and seasons. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta




NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project students will investigate via primary documents letters while examining Columbus's correspondences.They will also form historical empathy to understand the background of some of Columbus' questionable actions. Was Columbus justified in taking forceful action to claim the new world? Students will first look at a background information of pre-"New world" Exploration_Columbus Letter (image) Students will examine the letter of Columbus (image) Exploration_Columbus Letter (image) Students will record their observations of what they see and explain what is going on. Students will use ...

Crosland, Mr.



Biodiversity Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Museums Online: South Africa, Biodiversity Explorer "is devoted to showing and explaining the diversity, biology, and interactions of life on earth, particularly the life we have here in southern Africa." Biodiversity Explorer provides an astounding number of information-rich Web pages covering regional plants, scorpions and spiders, insects, vertebrates, and marine life. Visitors will find detailed information (with references) and lots of photos within these pages, each with numerous hypertext links for exploring related topics. Visitors may browse the Web site by category or use the taxon index to locate species of interest. Don't know where to start? The Spotlight feature offers a few interesting examples, such as water bears that can remain dormant for over 100 years and how the San hunters use poisonous beetles for the tips of their arrows.



Exploring Shadows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guide features three related explorations to help learners ages 3-6 investigate shadows via the following science concepts: A shadow is made when an object blocks the light; you can change the size of a shadow by moving an object closer to or farther from the light; and, you can change the shape of a shadow by turning the object. Exploring Shadows is one unit in the Peep Event Kit, which also offers explorations of Structures and ramps, respectively. The guide provides an agenda for a 1-hour science event, a customizable flyer, family handout (English and Spanish) and activity handout (English and Spanish). Learners can view a related Peep and the Big Wide World video story before or after the activity.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Exploring the Brain with Drugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on present data it is suggested that exploration of the brain with drugs allows also exploration of the mind, for which it is the substrate. Drugs may be used to increase understanding of cerebral function in health and disease and to assess functio...

A. S. Marrazzi



The effect of vitamin E on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.  


The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on laying performance, egg quality, egg fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and several biochemical parameters of laying hens fed corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) during the laying period (40 to 63 wk of age). A total of 360 Hy-Line Variety Brown hens were randomly assigned to 6 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 10 hens each. Hens were allocated to diets 1 through 6 in a 3 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments included 3 levels of DDGS (0, 10, and 20%) and 2 levels of vitamin E (0 and 200 mg/kg). The results indicated that yolk color and eggshell thickness increased with increasing DDGS (P < 0.05). However, increasing DDGS to 20% in laying hen diets significantly reduced feed conversion (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 200 mg/kg of vitamin E significantly improved egg production and yolk percentage (P < 0.05). Increasing the dietary levels of vitamin E caused a decrease in cholesterol and an increase in the ?-tocopherol concentration of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with DDGS decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk (P < 0.05). Supplementation with high levels of vitamin E decreased malondialdehyde and increased glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase concentrations of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that DDGS was successfully fed to laying hens at levels up to 10% without adverse effects on laying performance. Additionally, vitamin E supplementation improved egg production and egg quality and provided health benefits to laying hens. PMID:24135600

Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Licong; Shan, Anshan



Priorities for Venus Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus remains one of the most enigmatic bodies in our Solar System. Important questions remain regarding the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, the history of the surface and interior, and how the surface and atmosphere interact. In a broader context, understanding Venus has implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial planets in our Solar System as well as for interpreting the growing set of observations of extra-solar planets. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG), established in 2005, is chartered by NASA's Planetary Science Division and reports its findings to the NASA Advisory Council. Open to all interested scientists, VEXAG regularly evaluates Venus exploration goals, scientific objectives, investigations and critical measurement requirements, including especially recommendations in the NRC Decadal Survey and the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap. At the last general meeting in November 2012, VEXAG resolved to update the scientific priorities and strategies for Venus exploration. To achieve this goal, three major tasks were defined for 2013, (1) update the document prioritizing Goals, Objectives and Investigations for Venus Exploration, (2) develop a Roadmap for Venus exploration that is consistent with VEXAG priorities as well as Planetary Decadal Survey priorities, and (3) develop a white paper on technologies for Venus missions. Proposed versions of all three documents were presented at the VEXAG general meeting in November 2013. Here, we present the findings and final versions of all three documents for community comment and feedback. A follow-on Workshop on Venus Exploration Targets is also being planned for the early summer of 2014. The workshop will provide a forum for the Venus science community to discuss approaches for addressing high priority investigations. Participants will be encouraged to present their ideas for specific targets on Venus (interior, surface and atmosphere) as well as to present specific data requirements (measurement type, resolution, precision, etc.) needed to answer key questions.

Glaze, L. S.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Grimm, R. E.; Herrick, R. R.; Johnston, S.; Limaye, S. S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Ocampo, A.; Thompson, T. W.



Designing Tools for Ocean Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate the types of tools and technology that are used in ocean exploration. As they proceed, they will understand the complexity of ocean exploration, learn about the technological applications and capabilities required for ocean exploration, and discover the importance of teamwork in scientific research projects. As part of the activity, they will plan and perform a simulated "dive" into a model ocean, using sampling tools they have made themselves.


Brain Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brain Explorer is an educational Web site from the Lundbeck Institute that provides a highly visual and informative tour of the brain. Brain Atlas offers a good starting point, with well-designed diagrams of the brain and spinal cord, detailed explanatory information, and a handy pop-up glossary (which contains great graphics of its own). The section titled Neurological Control describes neuron structure and function. Other features include a section on brain disorders and an extensive image gallery. While Brain Explorer offers a thorough look at brain structure and function, it would probably best serve students who are already familiar with the subject but need a comprehensive review.



Exploring Caves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Learning Web unit from the US Geological Survey offers an engaging, interdisciplinary exploration of caves for grades K-3. Although Exploring Caves is listed as a life science unit, it encompasses a wide range of fields: earth science, hydrology, mapping, biology, and anthropology. The unit is linked by an original read-aloud story about the adventures of two kids who get lost in a cave and are helped out by a talking bat (why not?). Each chapter comes with a set of lessons and activities "designed to stimulate thinking and new ways of looking at the world."



Pizza Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access Excellence presents Purdue University's Pizza Explorer, an engaging teaching tool for food science designed for middle and high school students. Students learn about food processing, chemistry, and nutritional composition of eight pizza ingredients. This multimedia, interactive program aims to demonstrate how science applies to everyday life. Students can choose between two interfaces (left brain or right brain) to suit their particular learning style. Other features include a pop-up glossary, quizzes, games, and additional information about each topping (Hot Topics). Pizza Explorer takes some time to download with a 56K connection, but you can play a game while you wait.



Geologic Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest offerings from the North Carolina State University's Web site Science Junction (last mentioned in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report) is the Geologic Explorations page. By clicking on the respective coordinates of each location, users can explore twelve areas in the western United States with 360-degree panoramic QuickTime movies and digital photography. Set up as a type of lesson for students, the main page suggests paying close attention to the unique geologic features and gives a few questions to answer about each area. The site is very easy to use and provides some breathtaking vistas of some of the most beautiful areas of the US.

Bodzin, Alec M.



Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.  


A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate of DDGS. Hens fed 25% DDGS had the highest N and P retention. PMID:21844261

Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J



Understanding childhood depression.  


Major depressive disorder in children is a severe and a chronically disabling disorder. This population appears to be a special group in terms of consequences of poor psychosocial and academic outcome and increased risk of substance abuse, and suicide. Studies have revealed several major findings in genetic, familial, psychological, and biological aspects of such depression, some of which have explored into the issue of its relationship with adult depression. Considerable advances have been made now in the area of childhood depression providing a better understanding of its nature. We review literature available on historical aspect, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and aetiology of childhood depression. PMID:17431280

Malhotra, Savita; Das, Partha Pratim



Statistical Understanding Made Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching statistics can be tough for even experienced instructors, so it is nice to learn about the Statistical Understanding Made Simple (SUMS) website. Created by researchers at the University of Glasgow, the site helps users build "interactive, fun and highly effective tutorials designed to help students understand basic statistics." Visitors who wish to have the resource generator create tutorials will need to register on the site and provide a small data set. Of course, visitors can also check out the "Ready Made Tutorials" area, where they will discover projects that examine the relationship between height and weight and the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on depression. Additionally, the site also contains several games which students can use to explore the effects of standard deviation and histograms.


Exploring Venus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With a temperature higher than the inside of your oven and atmospheric pressure equal to that a kilometer under the ocean, the surface of Venus is one of the most hostile environments in the solar system, and Venus exploration presents a challenge to tech...

G. A. Landis



Exploring Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A generation of change in Higher Education (HE) has seen a progressive shift to utilitarian values and the consequent questioning of the nature, purposes and roles of the university. This in turn leads to the question: what does it mean to be a university academic today? This suite of poems entitled 'Exploring Identity' arose in response to these…

Chowaniec, Janina



Clay Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the possibilities of clay as a natural material. At three stations, learners create sculptures, use natural items such as small pebbles, twigs, and pinecones to embellish clay structures, and paint with clay. These activities help learners discover the sensory qualities of clay as a medium.

Museum, Chicago C.



Exploring Fractals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the subject of fractal geometry focusing on the occurrence of fractal-like shapes in the natural world. Topics include iterated functions, chaos theory, the Lorenz attractor, logistic maps, the Mandelbrot set, and mini-Mandelbrot sets. Provides appropriate computer algorithms, as well as further sources of information. (JJK)

Dewdney, A. K.



Exploring Transformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore transformations of an absolute value function. Step by step instructions guide students in using graphing calculators to examine the effect that stretching and translating has on the coordinates of the graph. Teacher notes and a worksheet are also included to aid in teaching this lesson.



Effects of glycerol on performance, egg traits, some blood parameters and antibody production to SRBC of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the effects of the usage of glycerol from biodiesel production from soybean oil in laying hen diets on laying performance, egg traits, heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H\\/L), some blood parameters and antibody production to SRBC. A total of 180 Lohmann Brown laying hens 39weeks of age were allocated to four dietary treatments with one

Sakine Yalç?n; Handan Erol; Bülent Özsoy; ?lyas Onba??lar; Suzan Yalç?n; Aykut Üner



Feeding diets supplemented with zinc and vitamin A in laying hens: effects on histopathological findings and tissue mineral contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different dietary levels of zinc and vitamin A on tissue mineral accumulation and histopathological alterations were examined in laying hens. For this purpose, 130 Hisex brown laying hens aged 56 weeks were divided into two main groups. Each group of hens were fed on diets supplemented with two different levels of vitamin A (0–10000IUkg?1). Then, laying hens

Sule Kaya; M Ortatatli; S Haliloglu



Effects of Green Tea Powder Feed Supplement on Performance of Hens in the Late Stage of Laying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of green tea powder on the levels of alpha-tocopherol in egg yolk, egg production and egg quality of laying hens were examined. Twenty 84-week-old laying hens were divided into 4 dietary groups of 5 hens each in the late stages of laying. Four levels of green tea powder (0% = control diet, 1%, 5% and 10%) were fed

Sadao Kojima; Yuko Yoshida



Effect of a neuropeptide gene on behavioral states in Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying.  

PubMed Central

Egg-laying behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans involves fluctuation between alternative behavioral states: an inactive state, during which eggs are retained in the uterus, and an active state, during which eggs are laid in bursts. We have found that the flp-1 gene, which encodes a group of structurally related neuropeptides, functions specifically to promote the switch from the inactive to the active egg-laying state. Recessive mutations in flp-1 caused a significant increase in the duration of the inactive phase, yet egg-laying within the active phase was normal. This pattern resembled that previously observed in mutants defective in the biosynthesis of serotonin, a neuromodulator implicated in induction of the active phase. Although flp-1 mutants were sensitive to stimulation of egg-laying by serotonin, the magnitude of their serotonin response was abnormally low. Thus, the flp-1-encoded peptides and serotonin function most likely function in concert to facilitate the onset of the active egg-laying phase. Interestingly, we observed that flp-1 is necessary for animals to down-regulate their rate of egg-laying in the absence of food. Because flp-1 is known to be expressed in interneurons that are postsynaptic to a variety of chemosensory cells, the FLP-1 peptides may function to regulate the activity of the egg-laying circuitry in response to sensory cues.

Waggoner, L E; Hardaker, L A; Golik, S; Schafer, W R



Self propelled dynamically positioned reel pipe laying ship  

SciTech Connect

A self propelled reel pipe laying ship having forward, midship and stern sections, and having a reel mounted at the midship section thereof about a substantially horizontal axis of rotation extending transversely of the ship, such that the load of the reel is distributed downwardly and outwardly substantially in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the ship, the ship further including pipe conditioning means located at the stern section for movement about a pivot axis extending substantially parallel to the rotational axis of the reel and (A) radius control means for imparting a substantially uniform curve to the pipe after it is unspooled from the reel, (B) straightening means for imparting a reverse bending force to the pipe opposite the curvature imparted to the pipe by the reel, and (C) means for guiding the pipe into the water after it emerges from the straightening means; and means for pivoting the pipe conditioning means about its pivot axis to adjust the pipe entry angle at which pipe enters the water after passing through the pipe guide means.

Feldman, N.; Radu, E.J.; Talbot, W.J.; Uyeda, S.T.



Pipe handling apparatus for reel pipe laying system  

SciTech Connect

An offshore system for laying a continuous length of pipe on the sea bottom from a pipe-carrying reel adapted to be mounted on a carrier vessel having an improved pipe handling and conditioning apparatus for working on the unspooled pipe. The improved apparatus includes a pipe straightener for imparting a reverse plastic bending moment to the unspooled pipe passing therethrough , and which comprises at least two pairs of pipe support rollers, each pair being aligned along the pipe path and mounted for rotational movement about respective rotational axes normal to the pipe path and parallel to the plane of the deck of the carrier vessel, and for pivoting movement about a pivot axis located between and substantially parallel to the respective rotational axes. A straightener carriage mounts the pipe straightening means for movement (1) about a pivot axis substantially parallel to the rotational axis of the reel, (2) in a substantially vertical direction relative to the deck of the carrier vessel, and (3) in a direction substantially parallel to the rotational axis of the reel.

Brown, W.A.; Cha, J.H.; Weldon, H.P.; Whyte, D.G.



Genetic improvement of laying hens viability using survival analysis  

PubMed Central

The survival of about eight generations of a large strain of laying hens was analysed separating the rearing period (RP) from the production period (PP), after hens were housed. For RP (respectively PP), 97.8% (resp., 94.1% ) of the 109 160 (resp., 100 665) female records were censored after 106 days (resp., 313 days) on the average. A Cox proportional hazards model stratified by flock (= season) and including a hatch-within-flock (HWF) fixed effect seemed to reasonably fit the RP data. For PP, this model could be further simplified to a non-stratified Weibull model. The extension of these models to sire-dam frailty (mixed) models permitted the estimation of the sire genetic variances at 0.261 ± 0.026 and 0.088 ± 0.010 for RP and PP, respectively. Heritabilities on the log scale were equal to 0.48 and 0.19. Non-additive genetic effects could not be detected. Selection was simulated by evaluating all sires and dams, after excluding all records from the last generation. Then, actual parents of this last generation were distributed into four groups according to their own pedigree index. Raw survivor curves of the progeny of extreme parental groups substantially differed (e.g., by 1.7% at 300 days for PP), suggesting that selection based on solutions from the frailty models could be efficient, despite the very large proportion of censored records.

Ducrocq, Vincent; Besbes, Badi; Protais, Michel



Getting Started in Mars Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an introduction in a series of activities on Mars that use images as integral parts of the lesson. Students are introduced to the images and begin a Mars journal. The purpose is to probe students' understanding of Mars to give the teacher a sense of the students' particular interests, misconceptions, and general understanding of Mars, the solar system, and space exploration.


Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana  

SciTech Connect

The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165�������������������������������°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250���������������¢�������������������������������� of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the ���������������¢��������������������������������center���������������¢������������������������������� of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165�������������������������������°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering



Exploring neural network technology  

SciTech Connect

EPRI is funding several projects to explore neural network technology, a form of artificial intelligence that some believe may mimic the way the human brain processes information. This research seeks to provide a better understanding of fundamental neural network characteristics and to identify promising utility industry applications. Results to date indicate that the unique attributes of neural networks could lead to improved monitoring, diagnostic, and control capabilities for a variety of complex utility operations. 2 figs.

Naser, J.; Maulbetsch, J.



Effect of Cryoprotectants on Chemical, Mechanical and Sensorial Characteristics of Spent Laying Hen Surimi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surimi samples were divided into four groups (C, surimi made from Alaska pollack by water washing with NaCl-free cryoprotectant;\\u000a T1, made from spent laying hen breast by water washing with NaCl-free cryoprotectant; T2, made from spent laying hen breast\\u000a by water washing with NaCl and sugar-free cryoprotectant; T3, made from spent laying hen breast by water washing with NaCl-contained

Sang Keun Jin; Il Suk Kim; Hyun Jung Jung; Dong Hun Kim; Yeung Joon Choi; Sun Jin Hur


Art Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An early innovator in the digitization of artwork (its CD of art images "With Open Eyes" was published in 1995), the Art Institute of Chicago presents Art Explorer, an interactive website where visitors can search for art, save selections into scrapbooks with notes, and share the scrapbooks with friends and students. Art Explorer focuses on the Art Institute's Impressionist and Postimpressionist collections, and includes original artworks, as well as additional resources, including texts, video clips, artist biographies, activities, and games. For example, a search on the artist Georges Seurat retrieves eight artworks, and 42 resources, including a biographical text about Camille Pissaro, one of Seurat's contemporaries, a classroom exercise on color mixing based on Seurat's pointillist style, and a Postimpressionist bibliography, compiled by the Art Institute's Museum Education Department. The scrapbook at is based on this search.


HR Explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the European Laboratory for Particle Physics Research (CERN), Geneva Switzerland we are using OracleHR for managing our human resources since 1995. After the first year of production it became clear that there was a strong need for an easy-to-use Decision Support Tool exploring the data in OracleHR. This paper illustrates an approach which we have adopted to provide on-line

M Möller; J Purvis



Perimeter Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom resource is designed to help science teachers introduce and guide students through topics in modern physics. The lessons, known as Perimeter Explorations, are viewable online and are the product of collaborations between Perimeter Institute's international researchers, outreach staff, and experienced educators. The current topics include "The Mystery of Dark Matter" and "The Challenges of Quantum Reality". The teaching kit includes a 25 minute video, teacher notes, student worksheets, and supplemental materials. Much of the content is available for free download.



Exploration Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using recycled materials, learners will design a transportation vehicle to carry an egg in an egg toss (a rudimentary model of a shock absorbent transport vessel). Learners will consider how their design would protect very delicate and sophisticated equipment over long distances, and how this applies to rockets designed to carry exploration satellites or modules into space. This activity can be found on pages 54-57 of the activity guide.




Science Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Each of the six online investigation brings the expertise and latest scientific discoveries of the Museum's world-class scientists to classrooms across the country. The investigations are:Animals, Adaptation, and the Galápagos Islands; Classify Insects; Journey Into Space; Investigate the Giant Squid; Soar with Bats; and Uncover Lizards and Snakes.


Mars exploration.  


An international flotilla of spacecraft are to be sent to Mars over the next decade in an effort to understand the planet's geology and climate history, and to determine whether some form of life ever started there. At least two spacecraft will be sent at each launch opportunity, and at times up to four spacecraft may be operating simultaneously at the planet. PMID:11449287

Carr, M H; Garvin, J



Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and radar experiments, a very sensitive magnetometer and gradiometer, a subsatellite, and a state-of-the-art optical communication system. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter concept is technologically challenging but feasible, and will gather unique, integrated, interdisciplinary data sets that are of high scientific interest and will provide an unprecedented new context for all other international lunar missions. In fact, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter will further establish Germany as a leader among space-faring nations and will demonstrate expertise and technological know-how, which is "Made in Germany". With its high visibility, LEO will foster the growing acceptance of space exploration in Germany and will capture the imagination of the general public.

Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.



Transcriptome Profiling of the Goose (Anser cygnoides) Ovaries Identify Laying and Broodiness Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background The geese have strong broodiness and poor egg performance. These characteristics are the key issues that hinder the goose industry development. Yet little is known about the mechanisms responsible for follicle development due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to produce a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and to better understand the biological mechanisms of goose follicle development. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis using short-read sequencing technology (Illumina). We obtained 67,315,996 short reads of 100 bp, which were assembled into 130,514 unique sequences by Trinity strategy (mean size?=?753bp). Based on BLAST results with known proteins, these analyses identified 52,642 sequences with a cut-off E-value above 10?5. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology and clusters of orthologous group terms. In addition, we investigated the transcription changes during the goose laying/broodiness period using a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 4.2 million tags per sample and identified a large number of genes associated with follicle development and reproductive biology including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme gene and dopamine beta-hydroxylas gene. We confirm the altered expression levels of the two genes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Conclusions/Significance The obtained goose transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that could promote better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying follicle development and productivity.

Chen, Yang; Tong, YiYu; Rong, GuangHui; Huang, ZhengYang; Zhang, Yang; Chang, GuoBing; Wu, XinSheng; Chen, GuoHong



Developing a Contoured Deposition Head for in situ Tape Laying and Fiber Placement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conformable compaction system employing three individual compactors has been designed for integration into fiber placement and tape laying deposition heads for out-of-autoclave fabrication of thermoplastic contoured parts. The compactors are intended to...

M. A. Lamontia M. B. Gruber S. B. Funck B. J. Waibel R. D. Cope A. B. Hulcher



Development of Composite Tape Laying Process for Advanced Fibrous Reinforced Composite Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the research was to develop and fabricate a numerically controlled prototype tape laying machine for performing layup operations required by airframe structural components of filament reinforced resin matrix composites. Mechanical functio...

H. L. Eaton W. H. Drebing W. O. Sunafrank



25 CFR 11.205 - Are there standards for the appearance of attorneys and lay counselors?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Administration § 11.205 Are there standards for the appearance of attorneys and lay counselors? (a) No defendant in a criminal proceeding shall be denied the right to counsel. (b) The chief magistrate shall prescribe in writing standards...



Current understanding of the process of tooth formation: transfer from the laboratory to the clinic.  


Teeth are typical examples of organs in which genes determine the progress of development from initiation to the final shape, size and structure, whereas environmental factors play a minor role. Advances in gene technology over the last three decades have led to powerful novel methods to explore the mechanisms of embryonic development. Today we know a few hundred genes that regulate tooth development, and mutations in dozens of these genes have been shown to cause aberrations in tooth development in mice and/or humans. The functions of an increasing number of genes in tooth development have been discovered using genetically modified mouse models. We are now beginning to understand the 'programme' underlying the process of tooth formation. Key components of the programme are signals mediating communication between cells and complex gene regulatory networks in which the signal pathways are integrated. Understanding the mechanisms of tooth development at the level of genes, cells and molecules will lay the basis for new ways to prevent and treat dental defects and diseases. Over the last decade knowledge about dental stem cells has accumulated rapidly and novel stem cell technologies have been developed. Combining stem cell research with knowledge on the mechanisms of tooth development may open up novel possibilities for clinical tooth regeneration. PMID:24236691

Thesleff, I



Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.


Lightning Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lightning Explorer provides a map of the U.S. showing recent lightning strikes. The Discover Lightning section includes a FAQ sheet, glossary, bibliography on real-time lightning detection networks, personal safety information, scientific papers, and a link to a photo gallery. The scientific papers cover lightning safety, the physics of lightning, the U.S. Lightning Detection Network and related applications, 3D total lightning, long-range and oceanic lightning detection, and meteorological applications. Products and services include real-time tracking, lightning notification, detection systems and a bulletin board.


Watershed Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use skills gained from the Web-based GIS tutorial to explore the Willamette Watershed in Oregon. A correlation will be found between types of trees and the riparian zone along the McKenzie River. Population in the Willamette Valley and annual rainfall in the Coast Range and the Cascades will be evaluated. Due to the recent downward trend in rainfall, students will be expected to propose a new site for water collection, similar to PortlandâÂÂs Bull Run watershed. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Costello, Vickie



Exploring Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Estuaries introduces students of various ages to the ecology of estuaries, places where freshwater rivers and streams flow into the ocean, mixing with the seawater. It is part of a broader effort by the National Estuary Program to educate the general public about estuaries and to restore and protect these sensitive ecosystems. It offers interactive games and activities as well as virtual tours of Long Island Sound and the Barataria-Terrebonne Estuarine Complex near New Orleans. A glossary page defines technical terms used throughout the site. Resources also are provided for teachers and students interested in learning more about related organizations, publications, and websites.


Studies on effects of nutritional factors on bone structure and osteoporosis in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A modern hybrid strain of laying hen (Hisex) was fed from point of lay to 68 weeks on a control diet and diets containing oystershell, fluoride, 1,25?dihydroxycholecalciferol, ascorbic acid, a lower concentration of phosphorus and a combination of a lower concentration of crude protein and higher concentration of vitamin K. Hens from a much older strain (Brown Leghorn J?line)

J. S. Rennie; R. H. Fleming; H. A. McCormack; C. C. McCorquodale; C. C. Whitehead



Effects of high concentrations of dietary vitamin e and ethoxyquin on the performance of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Three experiments were carried out with light strain laying hens to evaluate the effects of relatively high doses of dietary vitamin E (125 mg\\/kg food) or ethoxyquin (EQ) (250 mg\\/kg food) on their laying performance. The control diet contained 5 and 125 mg\\/kg vitamin E and EQ, respectively. The experimental diets were fed either from one or 32 weeks

I. Bartov; Y. Weisman; E. Wax



PMAC-based Tracking Control System for 8-axis Automated Tape-laying Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a computer numerical control (CNC)-based open hardware architecture system to realize the special functions of automated tape-laying (ATL) in a numerical control system. It associates a programmable multi-axis controller (PMAC) as the motion control unit with programmable numerical controllers (PCL-725, PCL-730) for on-off control. To bring about synchronized movements of the main 5-axis tape-laying head system and

Liu Lin; Li Yong; Wen Liwei; Xiao Jun



Leech egg-laying-like hormone: structure, neuronal distribution and phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells immunoreactive to antisera specifically directed against Lymnaea stagnalis caudo dorsal cells egg-laying hormone (CDCH) or against ?- and ?-peptides (CDCP), encoded on the egg-laying hormone precursor, were detected in central nervous system (CNS) of the rhynchobdellid leech Theromyzon tessulatum. A co-localization of the CDC-like hormone and CDC-like peptides was found in T. tessulatum as in L. stagnalis CNS. ?45

Michel Salzet; Martine Verger-Bocquet; Franck Vandenbulcke; Jan Van Minnen



The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack.  


Imitation crab stick (ICS) samples were divided into 5 treatments, a control composed of commercial ICS containing no breast meat from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which 5, 10, 15, and 20% batter from breast meat of whole spent laying hens was substituted for Alaska pollack surimi, respectively. Imitation crab stick samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher moisture levels than the control sample. However, the myoglobin and metmyoglobin levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among ICS samples. During storage, whiteness was greater in the control sample than in the ICS samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter. The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in response to substituting surimi with spent laying hen breast meat batter. The moisture content and pH were increased as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. The lipid oxidation value (TBA-reactive substances) and protein degradation value (volatile basic nitrogen) tended to increase during storage as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. None of the sensory evaluation items differed among ICS samples during storage, although the color of the final products, mechanical color (by colorimeter), and textural properties did differ among samples. These results indicate that substituting laying hen breast meat batter for Alaska pollack surimi is a very useful method for the production of ICS because it enables the use of a simple production process that does not require steps, such as washing or pH adjustment, for myofibrillar protein recovery. PMID:21753218

Jin, S K; Hur, I C; Jeong, J Y; Choi, Y J; Choi, B D; Kim, B G; Hur, S J



The development of sausage including meat from spent laying hen surimi.  


The sausage samples were made from pork with spent laying hen breast surimi. The samples were divided into 4 groups [sausage made from pork (control) and sausage made from pork with 20% (T1), 40% (T2), and 60% (T3) of spent laying hen breast surimi]. In proximate compositions, the moisture and ash contents of the control were higher than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples in all storage periods. The pH and cooking loss were higher in T3 compared with other sausage samples. However, there was no significant difference in water-holding capacity among the sausage samples, whereas shear force was significantly higher in T2. In meat color, sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples (T1, T2, and T3) have shown to have higher lightness (L) compared with control, and redness (a) was significantly higher in control and T1. Total amino acid content and essential amino acids were increased in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples at 0 d of storage. In fatty acid composition, saturated fatty acid was higher in control than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was lower in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples than control at 2 and 4 wk of storage. Cholesterol content was lower in control compared with sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. In sensory evaluation, most test items were not significantly different among the sausage samples although tenderness was higher in T2 and T3 at 0 d of storage. PMID:18029816

Jin, S K; Kim, I S; Jung, H J; Kim, D H; Choi, Y J; Hur, S J



Understanding the Working College Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. But understanding how employment affects students' educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending…

Perna, Laura W.



Museum Docents' Understanding of Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore docents' perceptions of their interpretive role in art museums and determine how those perceptions shape docents' practice. The objective was to better understand how docents conceive of their role and what shapes the interpretation they give on tours to the public. The conceptual…

Neill, Amanda C.



Perception of Saudi dentists and lay people to altered smile esthetics  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate and compare the perceptions of Saudi dentists and lay people to altered smile features. Methods Thirty-six digital smile photographs with altered features were used. Altered features included the following: crown length, width, gingival level of the lateral incisors, gingival display, midline diastema, and upper midline shift. The photographs were presented to a sample of 30 dentists and 30 lay people with equal gender distribution. Each participant rated each picture with a visual analogue scale, which ranged from 0 (very unattractive) to 100 (very attractive). Results Dentists were more critical than lay people when evaluating symmetrical crown length discrepancies. Compared to lay people, Saudi dentists gave lower ratings to a crown length discrepancy of >2 mm (P < 0.001), crown width discrepancy of ?2 mm (P < 0.05), change in gingiva to lip distance of ?2 mm (P < 0.01), and midline deviation of >1 mm (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between dentists and lay people towards alterations in the gingival level of the lateral incisors or towards a space between the central incisors. No significant sex difference was seen across the groups. Conclusion In this sample, Saudi dentists gave significantly lower attractiveness scores to crown length and crown width discrepancies, midline deviations, and changes in gingiva to lip distance compared to Saudi lay people.

Talic, Nabeel; AlOmar, Samar; AlMaidhan, Asma



The role of contact chemoreception in egg-laying behaviour of locusts.  


Following selection of an appropriate egg-laying site desert locusts lay their eggs at depths in soil by digging their abdomen into the substrate using rhythmic movements of their abdomen and hard, sclerotised ovipositor valves. We have analysed the role of contact chemoreception on egg-laying behaviour and on the rhythmic digging movements of the valves. All chemicals tested acted aversively and reduced both the duration spent egg-laying and the number of eggs laid, with the concentration at which they became aversive being dependent on whether the chemical was normally present in the diet. Chemicals such as sucrose and a lysine glutamate salt prevented egg-laying only at much higher concentrations than known anti-feedants such as nicotine hydrogen tartrate and hydroquinine. Similarly for animals in which fictive digging movements were induced all chemicals stopped the digging rhythm, with sucrose and sodium chloride inhibiting the rhythm at relatively high concentrations compared to NHT and hydroquinone. We conclude that for both egg-laying behaviour and rhythmic digging that the aversiveness of a chemical rather than its identity per se plays a major role in regulating behaviour. PMID:17981293

Newland, Philip L; Yates, Paul



The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India  

PubMed Central

Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community based intervention in three sites in India. This paper describes how the intervention was developed systematically, following the MRC framework for the development of complex interventions. Methods We reviewed the lierature on the burden of schizophrenia and the treatment gap in low and middle income countries and the evidence for community based treatments, and identified intervention components. We then evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of this package of care through formative case studies with individuals with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers and piloted its delivery with 30 families. Results Based on the reviews, our intervention comprised five components (psycho-education; adherence management; rehabilitation; referral to community agencies; and health promotion) to be delivered by trained lay health workers supervised by specialists. The intervention underwent a number of changes as a result of formative and pilot work. While all the components were acceptable and most were feasible, experiences of stigma and discrimination were inadequately addressed; some participants feared that delivery of care at home would lead to illness disclosure; some participants and providers did not understand how the intervention related to usual care; some families were unwilling to participate; and there were delivery problems, for example, in meeting the targeted number of sessions. Participants found delivery by health workers acceptable, and expected them to have knowledge about the subject matter. Some had expectations regarding their demographic and personal characteristics, for example, preferring only females or those who are understanding/friendly. New components to address stigma were then added to the intervention, the collaborative nature of service provision was strengthened, a multi-level supervision system was developed, and delivery of components was made more flexible. Criteria were evolved for the selection and training of the health workers based on participants' expectations. Conclusions A multi-component community based intervention, targeting multiple outcomes, and delivered by trained lay health workers, supervised by mental health specialists, is an acceptable and feasible intervention for treating schizophrenia in India.



Exploring Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this activity, Students will learn several important characteristics about friction. Students will also learn why athletes who curl in the Winter Olympics try to understand and control friction.



Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality  

PubMed Central

The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ? 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality.

Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D



Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality.  


The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ? 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D



Nutrition Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.


Explore Shale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore Shale, a website created by Penn State Public Broadcasting, explains the process of extracting natural gas from the Marcellus shale. The website explains the process in a visual, interactive format: users can click around the site to answer common questions about this process, such as "Who regulates water usage?" and "How much water is used to frack a well?" Users can also navigate the site via directional arrows which will take them down into the drilling site, and explain the process along the way. This site is a particularly good visual explanation of how the process of fracking works. A text-only version is available as well as an "About" section, including a glossary.



Planning Perspectives by Academic, Business, Lay, and Teacher Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive processes of planning operationalize many of the metacognitive abilities necessary for transfer of knowledge. A telephone survey of 30 adults and Delphi methodology were used to explore the vocabulary and content of the mental representations of the nature and function of planning as perceived by experts in cognitive psychology…

Herbert, Margaret E.; Dionne, Jean-Paul


Postsynaptic ERG potassium channels limit muscle excitability to allow distinct egg-laying behavior states in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

C. elegans regulates egg laying by alternating between an inactive phase and a serotonin-triggered active phase. We found that the conserved ERG potassium channel UNC-103 enables this two-state behavior by limiting excitability of the egg-laying muscles. Using both high-speed video recording and calcium imaging of egg-laying muscles in behaving animals, we found that the muscles appear to be excited at a particular phase of each locomotor body bend. During the inactive phase, this rhythmic excitation infrequently evokes calcium transients or contraction of the egg-laying muscles. During the serotonin-triggered active phase, however, these muscles are more excitable and each body bend is accompanied by a calcium transient that drives twitching or full contraction of the egg-laying muscles. We found that ERG null mutants lay eggs too frequently, and that ERG function is necessary and sufficient in the egg-laying muscles to limit egg laying. ERG K+ channels localize to postsynaptic sites in the egg-laying muscle, and mutants lacking ERG have more frequent calcium transients and contractions of the egg-laying muscles even during the inactive phase. Thus ERG channels set postsynaptic excitability at a threshold so that further adjustments of excitability by serotonin generate two distinct behavioral states.

Collins, Kevin M.; Koelle, Michael R.



Media Advisory: NCI and NHGRI Launch Comprehensive Effort to Explore Cancer Genomics

On December 13, 2005, NCI and the National Human Genome Research Institute will host a press conference to launch a human cancer genome pilot project. The project will lay the foundation for exploring genomic changes involved in cancer, with the ultimate goal of developing new means of preventing, detecting and treating cancer.


Exploring Lenses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to encourage students to learn about lenses by examining them firsthand and observing their similarities and differences. They will examine various lenses and write a description of what each one looks like, what objects look like when viewed through them, and other information that they decide is necessary to enhance their understanding of how lenses change the way we look at objects. They will then brainstorm with classmates about uses for the various lenses with a focus on how a scientist might use them and what instruments might use them. As an extension, students can compile a list of scientific instruments and tools that use lenses and then list the types of lenses used in each and compare them to the lenses they have examined.


NASA's Mars Exploration Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information and resources on the NASA Mars Exploration Program, a science-driven program that seeks to understand whether Mars was, is, or can be a habitable world, as suggested by the presence or absence of liquid water. Site materials include overviews of current and past Mars missions and spacecraft, facts and a virtual tour of the planet using the NASA Mars Atlas, and a brief discussion of the perception of Mars in popular culture. For students, there are interactive features, games, and activities. For educators, there are professional development materials, classroom resources (activities and lessons), and information on four major education programs connected with Mars exploration. Other materials include news articles, multimedia presentations, recent images, and updates from current missions.


Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Ionosphere-Thermosphere Understanding through Remote Sensing from Space (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionosphere and thermosphere (IT) system was among the first fields explored at the beginning of the space age. Much progress in understanding the system has been made over the ensuing decades, so much so that the vernacular has evolved from 'IT Exploration' to 'Space Weather'. This evolution is largely a consequence of the recognition that space weather can seriously compromise a host of technological systems in space and on the ground. Societal demands for forecasting space weather place extraordinary requirements on both observational capabilities and detailed understanding. Important challenges remain to be addressed in order to approach a level of capability similar to that of tropospheric weather. These include understanding of the IT response to forcing from solar radiation and solar wind, to forcing from lower altitude processes, understanding of the internal processes that constitute the responses, and identification of the causes of long-term climate change. A systematic approach for meeting many of the challenges has been laid out in the Solar and Space Physics 2012 Decadal Survey. Several space missions have been recommended for implementation in the latter part of the decade. However, near term opportunities to lay the foundation for these missions come with the selection by NASA of ICON and GOLD. Their operational periods are expected to overlap with each other as well as with complementary missions from other agencies, such as SSULI, SSUSI, and COSMIC. Remote sensing instrumentation on these missions fulfills a uniquely important role. From low earth orbit, limb imagers deliver altitude profiles of composition, temperature and winds on local and regional scales. Earth disk imagers from a high altitude perspective not only provide context for local observations, but also column measurements of the O/N2 ratio and temperature. The O/N2 ratio has proven to be an exceptionally useful diagnostic of IT dynamics, especially when paired with independent wind and temperature observations. Selected applications will be presented that demonstrate how remote sensing can be combined with models to yield the requisite understanding of IT processes. Extension of such techniques to the upcoming missions will be explored.

Meier, R. R.



Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India  

PubMed Central

Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons.

Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja



Teacher-as-researcher: Making a difference through laying a solid foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An educator's determination to make a difference in the lives of her students birthed this inquiry. It is a qualitative study with the use of descriptive statistics in summarizing the survey data. The inquiry is an interweaving of the narrative inquiry method and reflective practice. The study hinges on the works of two great scholars: John Dewey, a philosopher, and Joseph Schwab, a curriculum theorist and scientist. It is all about helping students lay a solid foundation in science so that they may have a thorough understanding of the subject matter and be able to compete with their counterparts nationally and globally. The construction of the solid foundation will include foundational terms in science and their meanings, and the utilization of the SQ4R (a modification of the original SQ3R) study strategies. Other construction materials, as reflected in the voices of the students were discovered, in the study and have added some insight and richness to the study. The intent of this study is to stimulate the interest of fellow educators to examine the ideas shared in this inquiry, and to see how they can find parallel ways to meet the needs of their students. The special needs of our students differ from one classroom to the next. Among the teachers one could also observe a variety of teaching strategies and styles. My hope is for educators who will come across this study, to adopt the findings of this inquiry and adapt them to suit their needs and the needs of their students. The revision process by fellow educators could give birth to a new idea which is what scientific inquiry is all about.

Afiesimama, Jane Tambuomi


Development of an Ex Vivo Protocol to Model Bone Fracture in Laying Hens Resulting from Collisions  

PubMed Central

Fractures of the keel bone, a bone extending ventrally from the sternum, are a serious health and welfare problem in free range laying hens. Recent findings suggest that a major cause of keel damage within extensive systems is collisions with internal housing structures, though investigative efforts have been hindered by difficulties in examining mechanisms and likely influencing factors at the moment of fracture. The objectives of this study were to develop an ex vivo impact protocol to model bone fracture in hens caused by collision, to assess impact and bird-related factors influencing fracture occurrence and severity, and to identify correlations of mechanical and structural properties between different skeletal sites. We induced keel bone fractures in euthanized hens using a drop-weight impact tester able to generate a range of impact energies, producing fractures that replicate those commonly found in commercial settings. The results demonstrated that impact energies of a similar order to those expected in normal housing were able to produce fractures, and that greater collision energies resulted in an increased likelihood of fractures and of greater severity. Relationships were also seen with keel’s lateral surface bone mineral density, and the peak reactive force (strength) at the base of the manubrial spine. Correlations were also identified between the keel and long bones with respect to both strength and bone mineral density. This is the first study able to relate impact and bone characteristics with keel bone fracture at the moment of collision. Greater understanding of these relationships will provide means to reduce levels of breakage and severity in commercial systems.

Toscano, Michael J.; Wilkins, Lindsay J.; Millburn, Georgina; Thorpe, Katherine; Tarlton, John F.



Explore UK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Explore UK website is an initiative by the University of Kentucky Special Collections and it is a true delight for anyone with an interest in this storied institution and Kentucky history more generally. First-time visitors will notice a scrolling section of images that introduce the photographs and other documents that are part of this growing collection. The sections here include Images, Athletics Archive, Board of Trustees, and Yearbooks. The Images archive includes over 30,000 images that cover everything from student life to campus buildings. There are a few thematic collections here that should not be missed. First among them is the John Tuska collection, which contains over 1,100 images of pieces created by the celebrated potter/sculptor and University of Kentucky professor. The Buildings area is quite nice as well, as it contains over 1,700 images that document both the architectural ornamentation of various buildings around campus and the overall feel of the campus layout.



A phenomenographic study of the ways of understanding conditional and repetition structures in computer programming languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computers have become an integral part of how engineers complete their work, allowing them to collect and analyze data, model potential solutions and aiding in production through automation and robotics. In addition, computers are essential elements of the products themselves, from tennis shoes to construction materials. An understanding of how computers function, both at the hardware and software level, is essential for the next generation of engineers. Despite the need for engineers to develop a strong background in computing, little opportunity is given for engineering students to develop these skills. Learning to program is widely seen as a difficult task, requiring students to develop not only an understanding of specific concepts, but also a way of thinking. In addition, students are forced to learn a new tool, in the form of the programming environment employed, along with these concepts and thought processes. Because of this, many students will not develop a sufficient proficiency in programming, even after progressing through the traditional introductory programming sequence. This is a significant problem, especially in the engineering disciplines, where very few students receive more than one or two semesters' worth of instruction in an already crowded engineering curriculum. To address these issues, new pedagogical techniques must be investigated in an effort to enhance the ability of engineering students to develop strong computing skills. However, these efforts are hindered by the lack of published assessment instruments available for probing an individual's understanding of programming concepts across programming languages. Traditionally, programming knowledge has been assessed by producing written code in a specific language. This can be an effective method, but does not lend itself well to comparing the pedagogical impact of different programming environments, languages or paradigms. This dissertation presents a phenomenographic research study exploring the different ways of understanding held by individuals of two programming concepts: conditional structures and repetition structures. This work lays the foundation for the development of language independent assessment instruments, which can ultimately be used to assess the pedagogical implications of various programming environments.

Bucks, Gregory Warren


Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide in laying hens stimulates antimicrobial properties of egg white against Staphylococcus aureus.  


The natural protective system of eggs relies on egg yolk immunoglobulins and on antimicrobial proteins/peptides mainly concentrated in the egg white. There is much evidence concerning the specific stimulation of immunoglobulins by antigens but to date, the influence of the hen milieu on the regulation of the egg innate molecular immunity has not been established. To explore the hypothesis of modulation in egg antimicrobial molecules, laying hens were immune-challenged with intravenous injections of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 24 h intervals. Eggs of the control and LPS groups were collected over a period of 21 days following the first LPS injection and the egg white activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were assessed. The increase in egg white anti-S. aureus activity reached 20.9% and 23.4% (p<0.05) respectively on days 5 and 6 after the first LPS injection. Anti-E. coli activity increased moderately only on days 9 and 15 after the LPS treatment. To explore the origin of these increased antimicrobial activities, we analyzed the lysozyme and proteases inhibiting (anti-trypsin and anti-chymotrypsin) activities and the pH variations of egg whites. We recorded no significant variations between the two experimental groups for these potential modulating factors. Finally, using RT-qPCR we studied the expression of several genes coding for antimicrobial proteins and peptides involved in the immune response in the infundibulum and the magnum, Out of the 11 genes, only TLR4 in the magnum and ovocalyxin-36 in infundibulum were over-expressed respectively 24h and 8 days after the first LPS injection. The other candidate genes showed similar or down regulated expression in the LPS group as compared to the control especially during the first 24h. Our results suggest that the hen enhances the albumen antimicrobial activity of its eggs when exposed to immune stimulations or infections. This could be an attempt to preventively reinforce the protection of the embryo with nonspecific antimicrobial agents in addition to the specific antibodies exported to the egg. The origin of this stimulation of egg molecular immunity remains to be characterized amongst the numerous novel egg proteins recently identified. PMID:23351641

Bedrani, Larbi; Helloin, Emmanuelle; Guyot, Nicolas; Nys, Yves



Exploring Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the presence of magnetic fields around magnets, the sun and the earth. They will explore magnetic field lines, understand that magnetic lines of force show the strength and direction of magnetic fields, determine how field lines interact between attracting and repelling magnetic poles, and discover that the earth and sun have magnetic properties. They will also discover that magnetic force is invisible and that a "field of force" is a region or space in which one object can attract or repel another.


29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...



Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)  


... this age start to understand the difference between boys and girls, and can identify themselves as one or the ... have developed a strong sense of being a boy or girl, and continue to explore their bodies even more ...


Social Instability in Laying Quail: Consequences on Yolk Steroids and Offspring's Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Individual phenotypic characteristics of many species are influenced by non-genetic maternal effects. Female birds can influence the development of their offspring before birth via the yolk steroid content of their eggs. We investigated this prenatal maternal effect by analysing the influence of laying females' social environment on their eggs' hormonal content and on their offspring's development. Social instability was applied to groups of laying Japanese quail females. We evaluated the impact of this procedure on laying females, on yolk steroid levels and on the general development of chicks. Agonistic interactions were more frequent between females kept in an unstable social environment (unstable females) than between females kept in a stable social environment (stable females). Testosterone concentrations were higher in unstable females' eggs than in those of stable females. Unstable females' chicks hatched later and developed more slowly during their first weeks of life than those of stable females. The emotional reactivity of unstable females' chicks was higher than that of stable females' chicks. In conclusion, our study showed that social instability applied to laying females affected, in a non-genetic way, their offspring's development, thus stressing the fact that females' living conditions during laying can have transgenerational effects.

Guibert, Floriane; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie; Kotrschal, Kurt; Guemene, Daniel; Bertin, Aline; Mostl, Erich; Houdelier, Cecilia



Data exploration systems for databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data exploration systems apply machine learning techniques, multivariate statistical methods, information theory, and database theory to databases to identify significant relationships among the data and summarize information. The result of applying data exploration systems should be a better understanding of the structure of the data and a perspective of the data enabling an analyst to form hypotheses for interpreting the data. This paper argues that data exploration systems need a minimum amount of domain knowledge to guide both the statistical strategy and the interpretation of the resulting patterns discovered by these systems.

Greene, Richard J.; Hield, Christopher



Exploring Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Immersion Unit provides a coherent series of lessons designed to guide students in developing deep conceptual understanding that is aligned with the standards, key science concepts, and essential features of classroom inquiry (as defined by the National Science Education Standards). Unit Overarching Concepts-Populations of living organisms change or stay the same over time as a result of the interactions between the genetic variations that are expressed by the individuals in the populations and the environment in which the population lives.-Science knowledge advances through inquiry.Unit Supporting Concepts-Individual organisms with certain variations of traits (adaptations) are more likely than others to survive and reproduce successfully.-When environmental conditions change it can affect the survival of both individual organisms and entire species.-Natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms.-A small advantage in escaping a predator, resisting a drug, etc. can lead to the spread of a trait in a modest number of generations.-Mutations are a source of variation in an individualÂs genotype, and it can result in a change in phenotypeÂÂgood or bad.-Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations, using appropriate tools and technology to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.-No matter how well one scientific explanation fits observations, a new explanation might fit them just as well or better, or might fit a wider range of observations. In science, thetesting, revising, and occasional discarding of explanations, new and old, never ends.This unit was developed through the large Math and Science Partnership project called System-wide Change for All Learners and Educators (SCALE), involving a collaboration among Los Angeles School District educators, California State University science and education faculty, and UW-Madison SCALE staff.

Program, The W.


Exploring the Role of Goal Theory in Understanding Training Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model to test conceptions from goal theory within an existing framework of training motivation was developed and tested with employees participating in training in a non-profit organization. It was hypothesized that goal orientation ("distal factors") along with self-efficacy, expectancy and valence ("proximal factors") would predict goal…

Smith, Rebecca; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Caputi, Peter; Hammer, David



How Young Children Understand Electric Circuits: Prediction, Explanation and Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports findings from a study of young children's views about electric circuits. Twenty-eight children aged 5 and 6 years were interviewed. They were shown examples of circuits and asked to predict whether they would work and explain why. They were then invited to try out some of the circuit examples or make circuits of their own…

Glauert, Esme Bridget



Understanding maladaptive perfectionism in college students.  


Admission to nursing programs is highly competitive. Students strive for excellence, but their pursuit of perfectionism may become unhealthy. The author explores current literature to help faculty understand differences in adaptive perfectionism versus maladaptive perfectionism, recognize the signs of maladaptive perfectionism, be aware of the influencing forces, distinguish common effects from critical manifestations, and explore intervention strategies. PMID:22914278

Christman, Elizabeth



Students' Understanding of Z[subscript N  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we explore six students' conceptions of Z[subscript n] in an effort to understand students' conceptions of quotient groups in general. We discovered that there were three different ways our students thought about Z[subscript n], namely as infinite sets, element-set combinations, and representative elements. We explore how…

Siebert, Daniel; Williams, Steven R.



A critical review of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella Typhimurium has been reported to contaminate egg production across the world, but where Salmonella Enteritidis is endemic it is this latter serovar that dominates egg-borne salmonellosis. However, Salmonella Typhimurium is a major food-borne pathogen so it is important to understand how it can impact the microbiological safety of eggs and what serovar-specific control strategies may be appropriate in the

A. D. Wales; R. H. Davies



A mixed-methods assessment of the experiences of lay mental health workers in postearthquake Haiti.  


A mixed-methodological study conducted in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake assessed experiences of 8 lay mental health workers (earthquake survivors themselves) implementing a psychosocial intervention for residents of camps for displaced people in Port-au-Prince. Quantitative results revealed decreased posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, consistently high compassion satisfaction, low burnout, moderate secondary trauma, and high levels of posttraumatic growth measured over 18 months. Qualitative accounts from lay mental health workers revealed enhanced sense of self-worth, purpose, social connection, and satisfaction associated with helping others. Results support the viability of utilizing local lay disaster survivors as implementers of psychosocial intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24826931

James, Leah Emily; Noel, John Roger; Roche Jean Pierre, Yves Merry



Lay theories of bipolar disorder: the causes, manifestations and cures for perceived bipolar disorder.  


This study aimed to investigate lay theories of the cause and treatment of bipolar disorder, and the recognition of its symptoms. This questionnaire-based study included vignette descriptions of mental disorders and 70 items relating to bipolar disorder. It was completed by 173 participants. Bipolar disorder was recognized less than depression but at the same rate as schizophrenia. Contrary to previous research, analysis showed that lay beliefs of the causes of bipolar disorder generally concur with scientific academic theories. Drug treatment was favoured as a cure rather than psychotherapy. Theories of cause and treatment were logically correlated. Overall, the results suggest that lay people have reasonably informed beliefs about the causes and treatments of bipolar disorder, however recognition of the symptoms is poor. PMID:19592439

Furnham, Adrian; Anthony, Elizabeth



Active substance from the serum of laying hens and its effect on uterine smooth muscles.  


Blood serum from laying hens has an excitatory effect on isolated uterine smooth muscles of laying hens. This excitatory effect is not observed for the blood serum of pullets and cocks. After ultrafiltration and gel filtration on Sephadex G25, it was found that the excitatory effect of the blood serum was due to a low-molecular substance (m.w. below 5000 Da). The effect of this active substance was found to be inhibited by indomethacin, brufen and SC 19220. The presence of this substance in the serum of laying hens and its contractile effects, which are probably associated with prostaglandin mechanisms of regulation in the uterine smooth muscles, suggests that it is associated in the processes of oviposition in hens. PMID:2576819

Nikolov, A



Calcium-binding protein and calcium absorption in the laying quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  


A vitamin D3-dependent calcium-binding protein (CaBP) has been found in the intestinal mucosa of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). This protein is similar, if not identical to that of the chick (Gallus domesticus). A similar protein fraction appears also in uterine mucosa of laying quail. Both intestinal and uterine CaBP levels are higher in laying than in non-laying quails. Uterine CaBP was higher during egg shell formation than during uterine inactivity. The slight corresponding difference in the intestinal CaBP was not significant. Intestinal calcium absorption measured with 91Y as a reference substance was higher in birds during formation of egg shell than in those with inactive uteri. The possible role of CaBP in calcium translocation is discussed. PMID:180508

Bar, A; Dubrov, D; Eisner, U; Hurwitz, S



Exploring Metric Symmetry  

SciTech Connect

Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.



Evaluation of West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the task summarized in this paper was to demonstrate a methodology for evaluating alternative strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Lay-up is defined as the period between operational use of tanks for waste storage and final closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to separate the environmental impact statement (EIS) for completion of closure of the WVDP into two separate EISs. The first EIS will cover only waste management and decontamination. DOE expects to complete this EIS in about 18 months. The second EIS will cover final decommissioning and closure and may take up to five years to complete. This approach has been proposed to expedite continued management of the waste and decontamination activities in advance of the final EIS and its associated Record of Decision on final site closure. Final closure of the WVDP site may take 10 to 15 years; therefore, the tanks need to be placed in a safe, stable condition with minimum surveillance during an extended lay-up period. The methodology developed for ranking the potential strategies for lay-up of the WVDP tanks can be used to provide a basis for a decision on the preferred path forward. The methodology is also applicable to determining preferred lay-up approaches at other DOE sites. Some of the alternative strategies identified for the WVDP should also be considered for implementation at the other DOE sites. Each site has unique characteristics that would require unique considerations for lay-up.

McClure, L. W.; Henderson, J. C.; Elmore, M. R.



Effect of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens.  


This study examined the effects of various levels of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and the expression patterns of phosphorus metabolism related genes in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens. A total of 405 28-week-old Dwarf pink-shell laying hens were fed the same corn-soybean basal meals but containing 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35% or 0.40% nonphytate phosphorus. The results showed that feed intake, egg production, and average egg weights were quadratically correlated with dietary nonphytate phosphorus content (P?

Nie, Wei; Yang, Ying; Yuan, Jianmin; Wang, Zhong; Guo, Yuming



Effect of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of various levels of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and the expression patterns of phosphorus metabolism related genes in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens. A total of 405 28-week-old Dwarf pink-shell laying hens were fed the same corn-soybean basal meals but containing 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35% or 0.40% nonphytate phosphorus. The results showed that feed intake, egg production, and average egg weights were quadratically correlated with dietary nonphytate phosphorus content (P?



Effect of expanded cottonseed meal on laying performance, egg quality, concentrations of free gossypol in tissue, serum and egg of laying hens.  


Three hundred and sixty Hy-Line Brown hens, 40 week of age, were allocated to five treatments, each of which included four replicates of 18 hens. After an expanded process of cottonseed meal (CSM), free gossypol content in CSM was decreased from 1.24 to 0.40?g/kg. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal based diets including 6% CSM and 6%, 8% and 10% expanded cottonseed meal (ECSM). Hens fed 8% ECSM had higher (P?laying rate and average egg weight than those fed 6% CSM. The albumen height and Haugh unit in the control group, 6% and 8% ECSM groups were superior (P?laying hens at up to 10% of the total diet and an appropriate replacement of soybean meal with ECSM may improve performance in laying hens. PMID:24428132

Yuan, Chao; Song, Hua-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Jiang, Yuan-Jing; Zhang, Ai-Ting; Azzam, Mahmoud Mostafa; Zou, Xiao-Ting



Evaluating the impact of excess dietary tryptophan on laying performance and immune function of laying hens reared under hot and humid summer conditions.  


1. Tryptophan (Trp), besides its role as an essential amino acid in protein synthesis, may also have other important effects on laying hens under summer conditions. 2. Babcock Brown layers (n?=?768), 40 weeks of age, were allocated to 4 treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 32 hens. Each group received the same basal diet, formulated with maize and soybean meal, for 8 weeks. Hens were fed on the basal diet with 0·0, 0·2, 0·4, and 0·8?g/kg L-Trp to achieve dietary concentrations of 1·7, 1·9?g/kg, 2·1?g/kg or 2·5?g/kg of Trp, respectively. 3. Supplementing L-Trp had no affect on laying performance. Adding 0·2 or 0·4?g/kg L-Trp improved egg shell strength compared with those fed on the control diet. Serum albumin concentration increased at 0·4?g/kg compared with those receiving 0·0 or 0·8?g/kg Trp. The addition of Trp at 0·4?g/kg increased serum IgM concentration quadratically. Serum superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) increased linearly and quadratically at 0·4?g/kg. 4. In conclusion, we suggest that 0·2 to 0·4?g/kg Trp may have beneficial effects on laying hens under conditions of high temperature and humidity. PMID:23130584

Dong, X Y; Azzam, M M M; Rao, W; Yu, D Y; Zou, X T



Leptin receptor signaling inhibits ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens  

PubMed Central

Background Nutrition intake during growth strongly influences ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens, yet the underlying endocrine regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The relevant research progress is hindered by difficulties in detection of leptin gene and its expression in the chicken. However, a functional leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in the chicken which has been implicated to play a regulatory role in ovarian follicle development and egg laying. The present study targeted LEPR by immunizing against its extracellular domain (ECD), and examined the resultant ovarian follicle development and egg-laying rate in chicken hens. Methods Hens that have been immunized four times with chicken LEPR ECD were assessed for their egg laying rate and feed intake, numbers of ovarian follicles, gene expression profiles, serum lipid parameters, as well as STAT3 signaling pathway. Results Administrations of cLEPR ECD antigen resulted in marked reductions in laying rate that over time eventually recovered to the levels exhibited by the Control hens. Together with the decrease in egg laying rate, cLEPR-immunized hens also exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Parallelled by reductions in feed intake, mRNA gene expression levels of AgRP, orexin, and NPY were down regulated, but of POMC, MC4R and lepR up-regulated in Immunized hen hypothalamus. cLEPR-immunization also promoted expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase3 in theca and fas in granulosa layer, but severely depressed IGF-I expression in both theca and granulosa layers. Conclusions Immunization against cLEPR ECD in egg-laying hens generated antibodies that mimic leptin bioactivity by enhancing leptin receptor transduction. This up-regulated apoptotic gene expression in ovarian follicles, negatively regulated the expression of genes that promote follicular development and hormone secretion, leading to follicle atresia and interruption of egg laying. The inhibition of progesterone secretion due to failure of follicle development also lowered feed intake. These results also demonstrate that immunization against cLEPR ECD may be utilized as a tool for studying bio-functions of cLEPR.



Exploring the Ocean with Robots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to robotic submarines called gliders. Learners make âglidersâ from plastic syringes and compare these to Cartesian bottles and plastic bubbles. Learners can explore the characteristics of buoyancy by adjusting amounts of air and salt water. Learners also investigate the types of information that robots can gather and learn how scientists use this information to understand the ocean.

COSEE Networked Ocean World (COSEE NOW)



Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo…

Adler, Isidore



Insights into Our Understandings of Large Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores prospective teachers' understandings of one million to gain insights into the development of adult understanding of large numbers. Themes in the prospective teachers' work included number associated with a quantity of objects, number as an abstraction, and additive and multiplicative approaches. The authors suggest that the…

Kastberg, Signe E.; Walker, Vicki



David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

Gerson, Hope



Ecological Understanding 1: Ways of Experiencing Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates 10 student teachers' understanding of the different ways in which the function of the ecosystem could be experienced. Explores the functional aspects of the ecosystem using a system approach. Concludes that the idea of transformation is crucial to more complex ways of understanding photosynthesis. (Contains 62 references.) (Author/YDS)

Carlsson, Britta



A Pragmatic Approach to Computational Narrative Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrative understanding is a hard problem for artificial intelligence that requires deep semantic understanding of natural language and broad world knowledge. Early research in this area stalled due to the difficulty of knowledge engineering and a trend in the field towards robustness at the expense of depth. This work explores how a practical integration of more recent resources and theories

Emmett Tomai


World exploration highlights  

SciTech Connect

High petroleum prices have stimulated worldwide exploration. Better understanding of the basic principles of the origin and primary migration of hydrocarbons and of basin tectonic processes have aided in selecting areas that warrant intensive exploration. There is renewed interest in oil prospects of overthrust belts, and attention has been drawn to the high potential of buried Late Tertiary reefs in tropical regions. Advances in seismic data gathering and processing have greatly increased the usefulness of geophysical surveys, once essentially limited to the search for closed structures. Since 1979, oil production has been found in previously unproductive basins, such as the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, and even in newly discovered basins, including southwestern Sudan and the Gulf of Beibu (Tonkin) off southern China. The most significant oil discovery in recent years is the Hibernia field off Newfoundland. Large gas fields have been found in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, off Cameroun in West Africa, onshore and offshore in Spain and in Sharjah on the Arabian Peninsula. Numerous other fields have been found throughout the world, but data are insufficient for estimating the size of many of these discoveries, even though some will certainly prove to be in the giant class. Data on the Soviet Union are insufficient for commenting on recent exploration results. Companies have been granted large new contract areas for petroleum exploration in many countries, some of them in basins already surveyed in reconnaissance, others untouched by modern geophysical methods. Availability of new land rights ensures that the present drive for new oil and gas resources will continue in future years, probably with a similar degree of success. 1 figure.

King, R.E.



Social support during delivery in rural central ghana: a mixed methods study of women's preferences for and against inclusion of a lay companion in the delivery room.  


Summary This study aimed to explore pregnant women's attitudes towards the inclusion of a lay companion as a source of social support during labour and delivery in rural central Ghana. Quantitative demographic and pregnancy-related data were collected from 50 pregnant women presenting for antenatal care at a rural district hospital and analysed using STATA/IC 11.1. Qualitative attitudinal questions were collected from the same women through semi-structured interviews; data were analysed using NVivo 9.0. Twenty-nine out of 50 women (58%) preferred to have a lay companion during facility-based labour and delivery, whereas 21 (42%) preferred to deliver alone with the nurses in a facility. Women desiring a companion were younger, had more antenatal care visits, had greater educational attainment and were likely to be experiencing their first delivery. Women varied in the type of companion they prefer (male partner vs female relative). What was expected in terms of social support differed based upon the type of companion. Male companions were expected to provide emotional support and to 'witness her pain'. Female companions were expected to provide emotional support as well as instrumental, informational and appraisal support. Three qualitative themes were identified that run counter to the inclusion of a lay helper: fear of an evil-spirited companion, a companion not being necessary or helpful, and being 'too shy' of a companion. This research challenges the assumption of a unilateral desire for social support during labour and delivery, and suggests that women differ in the type of companion and type of support they prefer during facility deliveries. Future research is needed to determine the direction of the relationship - whether women desire certain types of support and thus choose companions they believe can meet those needs, or whether women desire a certain companion and adjust their expectations accordingly. PMID:23965280

Alexander, Amir; Mustafa, Aesha; Emil, Sarah A V; Amekah, Ebenezer; Engmann, Cyril; Adanu, Richard; Moyer, Cheryl A



Patient understanding of moles and skin cancer, and factors influencing presentation in primary care: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Melanoma incidence in the UK has doubled over two decades, yet there is conflicting evidence about factors which prompt or delay patients seeking advice. Aim: To explore patient understanding of pigmented skin lesions (moles) and skin cancer, and factors which influence seeking help in primary care. Method Semi-structured interviews with forty MoleMate Trial participants, analysed using the theoretical framework of the Safer-Andersen model of Total Patient Delay. Results Patient understanding and awareness was influenced by personal, family and friends' experiences of moles, skin cancer and other cancers, knowledge of risk factors, and the lay media. The route to consulting was complex and often iterative. For lesions that people could see, detecting and appraising change was influenced by comparisons with a normal mole on themselves, a family member, friend or image. Inferring illness came about with recognition of changes (particularly size) as serious, and associated 'internal' symptoms such as pain. For lesions that people could not see, family, friends and health professionals detected and appraised changes. Deciding to seek help was often prompted by another person or triggered by rapid or multiple changes in a mole. Three of four people subsequently diagnosed with melanoma did not seek help; instead, their GP opportunistically noticed the lesion. Conclusions Changing moles are often perceived as trivial and not signifying possible skin cancer. This study contributes to current national strategies to improve patient awareness and earlier diagnosis of cancer by highlighting factors that can trigger or act as barriers to seeking help. (ISRCTN79932379)



Parsing “Participation” in Action Research: Navigating the Challenges of Lay Involvement in Technically Complex Participatory Science Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory action research (PAR) is widely recognized for its potential to improve environmental problem solving. However, PAR proponents and observers have paid relatively little attention to the ways in which lay participation complicates the research process. In this article, I examine the challenges presented by lay participation in the case of the Drift Catcher, a participatory air monitoring program in

Jill Lindsey Harrison



In Vitro Fermentation Response of Laying Hen Cecal Bacteria to Combinations of Fructooligosaccharide Prebiotics with Alfalfa or a Layer Ration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with alfalfa on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal con- tents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3,000 concentra- tion with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes filled with ground alfalfa or a layer ration with or without fructooligosaccharide

L. M. Donalson; W. K. Kim; V. I. Chalova; P. Herrera; J. L. McReynolds; V. G. Gotcheva; D. Vidanovic; C. L. Woodward; L. F. Kubena; D. J. Nisbet; S. C. Ricke



Potential of alfalfa as an alternative molt induction diet for laying hens: egg quality and consumer acceptability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary molt induction to initiate additional egg laying cycles in commercial laying hen flocks is a wide spread practice in the United States. Feed deprivation is the most commonly used method but this practice has generated several concerns which has lead to research for viable alternative approaches. From a management standpoint a single ingredient molting diet consisting of high fiber-low

K. L. Landers; Z. R. Howard; C. L. Woodward; S. G. Birkhold; S. C. Ricke



Congress explores genome mapping issues  

SciTech Connect

According to Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), the goal of genome mapping projects should be to create tools and lay out a foundation to understand human genetics in the 21st century. Research should include: the improvement of genetic data bases as well as linkages among them; new technologies to handle, detect, clone, sequence, and purify DNA; and pilot projects to determine the sequence of DNA in chromosomes. The report says that although the principal justifications for genome projects are scientific, technical spinoffs such as genetic tests for human diseases, instruments useful in biotechnology, and information useful in developing pharmaceuticals also will result from the work. OTA suggest the creation of an interagency task force to coordinate human genome projects. A single source of advice to all agencies and Congress is necessary because the projects are highly interdependent, and different advisory groups have, to date, made ambiguous or contradictory recommendations, the report states. In late June, the Senate passed legislation that would create a national advisory panel on the human genome. S 1966, The Biotechnology Competitiveness Act of 1988, calls for a panel that would report to Congress within 18 months on the best strategy for completing the mapping and sequencing effort. However, the bill includes no authorizations for either the advisory panel or the mapping project itself. The House is scheduled to hold hearings on a similar bill in July.

Bell, N.



Understanding medical systems.  


The prominence of physicians in highly interdependent medical systems confers tremendous power on them, individually and as a profession. With this power comes an ethical responsibility to be deeply concerned about medical systems. Examples of medical systems include the process of treating patients with diabetes; a hospital; the development and testing of new medical procedures; and a medical practice, including locations of care, billing, and collection of fees for medical care. The physician who is willing to learn about the nature of systems, how to control them, and how to improve them can significantly influence medical systems. Many persons in health care organizations identify strongly with their individual profession or department. Management structures, professional organizations, and methods of billing for services reinforce these divisions. This fragmented environment allows the structure of medical systems to evolve piecemeal from the various actions and points of view of physicians, nurses, administrators, patients, and payers. Improvement results from new structures that are purposefully designed. To achieve improvement, people must look beyond their own professional or organizational identities and see themselves as part of the larger system. Even a rudimentary understanding of the structures and dynamics of systems combined with clinical knowledge can equip a physician to collaborate with colleagues to diagnose faults of a system and design remedies. This paper explores the nature of medical systems and develops ideas their proper application to medicine and the activities of physicians. PMID:9471933

Nolan, T W



NASA establishes office of exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new Office of Exploration that will coordinate agency activities that would “expand the human presence beyond Earth,” particularly to the moon and Mars.Sally K. Ride is serving as the office's acting assistant administrator until mid August. Ride, the first U.S. woman in space, has been in charge of a NASA study to determine a possible new major space goal for the United States. Her study group recently identified four major areas for concentrated examination as possible initiatives for a new national space objective: intensive study of Earth systems for better understanding of how to protect Earth's environment,a stepped-up robotic program to explore the planets, moons, and other solar system bodies,the establishment of a scientific base and a permanent human presence on the moon, andintensive exploration of Mars by robot, followed by human exploration of the planet.


Effects of mould and toxin contaminated barley on laying hens performance and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moulded and mycotoxin containing barley was incorporated into the diets for laying hens to study the effects on performance and health. Health indicators were different blood plasma parameters and liver vitamin A and E levels. A total of 30 hens were fed 3 diets, one supplemented with 30% of toxin?free and two with differently moulded barley from 1997 and 1998

Dalia Garaleviciene; H. Pettersson; Giedre Augonyte; K. Elwinger; J. E. Lindberg



Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14ż32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems incompatible with high productivity. In this study laying hens were

J. van der Meulen; C. Kwakernaak; C. A. Kan



A computer model for welfare assessment of poultry production systems for laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model for welfare assessment in laying hens was constructed. This model, named FOWEL (fowl welfare], uses a description of the production system as input and produces a welfare score as output. To assess the welfare status a formalized procedure based on scientific knowledge is applied. In FOWEL the production system is described using 25 attributes (space per hen,

R. M. De Mol; W. G. P. Schouten; E. Evers; H. Drost; H. W. J. Houwers; A. C. Smits



Relationships between fear of humans, productivity and cage position of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The productivity and behavioural responses of laying hens to humans were examined in relation to the effects of tier, row and position of the cage along the row over three consecutive 4?week periods.2. Birds from the top tier had lower hen?day production, lower egg mass output and poorer efficiency of food utilisation than birds from the bottom tier in

P. H. Hemsworth; J. L. Barnett



Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on Production Traits and Lipid Composition of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding of fish oil at a concentration of 1.5 and 3% in a basal diet to laying hens for one month produced no significant effect on production traits except in the egg number and food conversion parameters. Fish oil had significantly reduced plasma total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and low and very low density lipoproteins. It's suggested that fish oil may



The effects of humic acid on egg production and egg traits of laying hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of humic acid on feed consumption, egg production, feed efficiency, egg weight and external and internal egg quality of laying hens were studied during feeding periods. A total of 180 (Hysex Brown) layers (36 weeks of age) were used in this experiment. There was one control and two experimental groups, each containing 60 hens and 4 subgroups. The




Effects of broccoli stems and leaves meal on production performance and egg quality of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 384 Roman brown shell laying hens were used to study the effects of increasing dietary inclusion of 0, 30, 60 and 90g\\/kg of dried broccoli stems and leaves meal (BSLM) on production performance and egg quality. Hens were randomly allocated to four groups with six replicates of 16 chickens. The results showed that dietary supplementation of BSLM

C. H. Hu; A. Y. Zuo; D. G. Wang; H. Y. Pan; W. B. Zheng; Z. C. Qian; X. T. Zou



Quantitative trait loci for egg quality and production in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for egg quality and produc- tion traits was carried out in laying hens. The resource population was an F2 cross and parental lines were chosen to exhibit the maximum divergence for egg quality and molecular genetic markers. Both the Rhode Island Red (RIR) and synthetic White Leghorn (WL) lines from MTT Agrifood

Maria Tuiskula-Haavisto


Effects of Microbial Phytase Supplementation on Feed Consumption and Egg Production of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of microbial phytase supplementation in diets were investigated on feed intake, egg production and feed efficiency in laying hens. The experiment was carried out between the July 15 to October 15 . 120 Nick Chick White hens at 210 days of age were divided into four groups of 40 each. th th Each cage contained



In vitro antibiotic sensitivity of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains isolated from laying hens in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen isolates of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale isolated from laying hens in India were tested for their susceptibility to various antibiotic agents. Antibiogram pattern of all the 18 O. rhinotracheale isolates were determined in Mueller Hinton agar enriched with 10 per cent sheep blood, with antibiotic discs. All the isolates were resistant to amikacin, cloxacillin, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, metronidazole and triple sulpha. Susceptibility

Ramasamy Gopala; Krishna Murthy; Natarajan Dorairajan; Kulandaivelu Saravanabava


Lay Theories of Bipolar Disorder: the Causes, Manifestations and Cures for Perceived Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate lay theories of the cause and treatment of bipolar disorder, and the recognition of its symptoms. This questionnaire-based study included vignette descriptions of mental disorders and 70 items relating to bipolar disorder. It was completed by 173 participants. Bipolar disorder was recognized less than depression but at the same rate as schizophrenia. Contrary to previous

Adrian Furnham; Elizabeth Anthony



From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants,

Christine Putland; Fran E Baum; Anna M Ziersch



Improvement of Rural Children's Asthma Self-Management by Lay Health Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of the present analysis is to examine changes in rural children's asthma self-management after they received lay health educator (LHE)-delivered classes. Methods: Elementary schools were randomly assigned to the treatment or attention-control condition and their participating students received either asthma education or…

Horner, Sharon D.; Fouladi, Rachel T.



Chance, choice and control: Lay debate on prenatal social sex selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assisted reproductive technologies are typically positioned as increasing the range of choices open to the healthcare consumer, thereby enhancing ‘reproductive freedom’. In this paper, we question the equivalence of reproductive choice and personal freedom in ethical theory, using results from a project investigating how lay people make ethical evaluations about the new genetic and reproductive technologies. We took the topic

Jackie Leach Scully; Sarah Banks; Tom W. Shakespeare



The Use of Dried Tomato Pulp in Diets of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experiment with 288 laying hens from a commercial strain (Hy-line W36), the effect of partial and total replacement of soybean meal, corn grain, wheat grain and wheat bran with dried tomato pulp (DTP) on performance and egg quality was determined. In the 12 week experiment, hens (27 to 38 weeks of age) were allocated to four dietary treatments



Production Performance, Egg Quality and Intestinal Histology in Laying Hens Fed Dietary Dried Fermented Ginger  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effect of dietary Dried Fermented Ginger (DFG) on production performance, egg quality and intestinal histology, 27 White Leghorn laying hens (24 weeks of age) were assigned into three groups of 9 birds each as follows: the control group was fed a basal diet (CP, 17%; ME, 2,850 kcal\\/kg) and the other groups were fed the basal diet

T. Incharoen; K. Yamauchi



Battery gage shape: The laying performance of medium? and light?body weight strains of hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. One thousand two hundred and ninety?six medium? and 1296 lightweight hens were housed, four to a cage, in deep (conventional) cages, 405 mm wide by 460 mm deep, or shallow cages, 610 mm wide by 305 mm deep, between 18 and 70 weeks of age. The performance of the hens during different periods of the laying stage and over

D. J. W. Lee; W. Bolton



TARSUS -A New Generation State of the Art Tactical Artillery Survey and Gun Laying System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, main aspects of the new generation tactical artillery survey and gun laying system development program are described. The aim of the program is to design a fast and accurate artillery survey system, which can effectively be used in the dynamic battlefield of 21st century. Indirect fire support units must be responsive and survivable which require precise positioning

Murat EREN; Özgür ATESOGLU; L. Guner



Effect of Acetic Acid Supplementation on Egg Quality Characteristics of Commercial Laying Hens during Hot Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effects of acetic acid supplement at four levels (control, 200, 400 and 600-ppm in drinking water) on egg production and quality in commercial Brown Leghorn reared birds during the hot season (32°C). One hundred and sixty 30 week-old laying birds were randomly divided into 4 groups and subjected to four levels of acetic

I. T. Kadim; W. Al-Marzooqi; O. Mahgoub; A. Al-Jabri; S. K. Al-Waheebi



Pair Lay Distribution with Regard to Far-End Crosstalk in Symmetric Telecommunication Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The selection of the pair lay distribution to achieve satisfactory far-end crosstalk (FEXT) in symmetrical telecom cables is a problem which frequently has to be faced when dealing with machinery of already existing production lines. In this paper a solut...

C. Tencer A. T. Nogueira



Analysis of LCM-8 Maneuvering Capability Relative to AFAR Cable Laying Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operational plans have been made for laying two cables off Santa Maria Island in the Azores. Recommendations have been sought for improving the safety and reliability of elements of the construction system. It is planned to use two LCM-8 landing craft, on...



Triggering and persistence of trail-laying in foragers of the ant Lasius niger.  


In the ant Lasius niger, the ability to ingest their own desired volume is the key criterion that rules the recruiting behaviour of scouts. This volume acts as a threshold triggering the trail-laying response of foragers. In this paper, we show that this desired volume is specific to each individual and is kept constant over successive trips to a food source. This individual specificity contrasts with the variability of all individual desired volumes within the colony. In this study, it is also shown that, among L. niger foragers, 14% never participate in the formation of the chemical pathway and never lay a trail over successive trips. Among the others foragers, interindividual differences in the persistence of trail-laying behaviour over successive trips are observed but do not rely on an individual specialisation, in which some ants would lay a trail more frequently and persistently than other scouts. We discuss how an individual in the foraging behaviour can play an essential role in the regulation of food retrieval dynamics. PMID:15749112

Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Detrain, Claire; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis



Triggering and persistence of trail-laying in foragers of the ant Lasius niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ant Lasius niger, the ability to ingest their own desired volume is the key criterion that rules the recruiting behaviour of scouts. This volume acts as a threshold triggering the trail-laying response of foragers. In this paper, we show that this desired volume is specific to each individual and is kept constant over successive trips to a food

Anne-Catherine Mailleux; Claire Detrain; Jean-Louis Deneubourg



Animal welfare aspects of outdoor runs for laying hens: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses animal welfare effects of providing an outdoor run to laying hens. Compared with barn systems, the provision of an outdoor run leads to higher space allowances, a higher number and diversity of behavioural and physiological stimuli, and freedom to change between different environments with for instance different climatic conditions. Evidence is presented that these factors may have

U. Knierim



Children's Perceptions of Health and Illness: Images and Lay Concepts in Preadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a growing body of research into children's concepts of illness, many basic questions still remain. This study aims to describe 8- to 11-year olds' lay beliefs of health, illness, health promotion and disease prevention. Children responded to open-ended questions about health and illness by drawing and writing their responses. Two primary…

Piko, Bettina F.; Bak, Judit



Use of guar by-products in high-production laying hen diets.  


A 5x5 Latin square experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding low concentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was divided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per unit. Hens were fed either a nonguar control diet, or 1 of 4 diets containing either 2.5 or 5% guar germ, or 2.5 or 5% guar meal over a 20-wk trial period (five 4-wk periods). No significant differences were observed when feeding either 2.5 or 5% guar germ or meal (P>0.05) on hen-day egg production or feed consumption. Significant differences in egg weight, total egg mass per hen, and feed conversion ratio were detected in hens fed 2.5% guar meal, whereas they remained unchanged for diets containing either level of guar germ or 5% guar meal. Feeding either level of guar germ or guar meal did not affect shell quality (shell thickness, egg breaking force, and specific gravity), Haugh units, or egg yolk color (L*, a*, b*). The results showed that both guar germ and guar meal can be fed to high-production laying hens at up to 5% without adverse effects on laying hen performance. PMID:17495081

Gutierrez, O; Zhang, C; Cartwright, A L; Carey, J B; Bailey, C A



The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A study was conducted to determine the extent of genetically modified (GM) protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in tissues and eggs of laying hens. Because a breakdown of the modified portion of protein was expected due to the digestive process of the hen, an immunoassay test was run. By using a double antibody sandwich format specific for the CP4

J. Ash; C. Novak; S. E. Scheideler


Treatment Adherence in a Lay Health Adviser Intervention to Treat Tobacco Dependence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lay health advisers (LHAs) are increasingly used to deliver tobacco dependence treatment, especially with low-socioeconomic status (SES) populations. More information is needed about treatment adherence to help interpret mixed evidence of LHA intervention effectiveness. This study examined adherence to behavioral counseling and nicotine patches in…

Hood, N. E.; Ferketich, A. K.; Paskett, E. D.; Wewers, M. E.




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR, TRA-642. BEFORE BASEMENT FLOOR IS PLACED, WORKERS LAY CONDUIT RUNS THAT WILL LIE BELOW IT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-541. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 2/15/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID


Community-Based Premarital Prevention: Clergy and Lay Leaders on the Front Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the results of the dissemination of an empirically-based, premarital education program within religious organi- zations. The following major results are discussed with respect to premarital prevention: (a) Clergy and lay leaders were as effective in the short run as our university staff; (b) couples taking the more skills-oriented intervention showed advantages over couples receiving naturally occurring

Scott M. Stanley; Howard J. Markman; Lydia M. Prado; P. Antonio Olmos-Gallo; Laurie Tonelli; Michelle St. Peters; B. Douglas Leber; Michelle Bobulinski; Allan Cordova; Sarah W. Whitton



Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.



Collective Bargaining Agreement between Niagara University and Niagara University Lay Teachers Association 1987-1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collective bargaining agreement between Niagara University (New York) and the Niagara University Lay Teachers Association, a chapter of the American Association of University Professors, covering the period 1987 to 1989 is presented. The agreement covers the following items: recognition, union security, dues checkoff, discrimination policy,…

Niagara Univ., Niagara Falls, NY.


A singular perturbation method for parametric investigation on J-lay installation of deepwater pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum bending moment or curvature in the neighborhood of the touch down point (TDP) and the maximum tension at the top are two key parameters to be controlled during deepwater J-lay installation in order to ensure the safety of the pipe-laying operation and the normal operation of the pipelines. In this paper, the non-linear governing differential equation for getting the two parameters during J-lay installation is proposed and solved by use of singular perturbation technique, from which the asymptotic expression of stiffened catenary is obtained and the theoretical expression of its static geometric configuration as well as axial tension and bending moment is derived. Finite element results are applied to verify this method. Parametric investigation is conducted to analyze the influences of the seabed slope, unit weight, flexural stiffness, water depth, and the pipe-laying tower angle on the maximum tension and moment of pipeline by this method, and the results show how to control the installation process by changing individual parameters.

Wang, Qin; Duan, Meng-lan; Li, Hai-ming; Zhang, Qing-yuan



Exploring medical expressions used by consumers and the media: an emerging view of consumer health vocabularies.  


Healthcare consumers often have difficulty expressing and understanding medical concepts. The goal of this study is to identify and characterize medical expressions or "terms" (linguistic forms and associated concepts) used by consumers and health mediators. In particular, these terms were characterized according to the degree to which they mapped to professional medical vocabularies. Lay participants identified approximately 100,000 term tokens from online discussion forum postings and print media articles. Of the over 81,000 extracted term tokens reviewed, more than 75% were mapped as synonyms or quasi-synonyms to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. While 80% conceptual overlap was found between closely mapped lay (consumer and mediator) and technical (professional) medical terms, about half of these overlapping concepts contained lay forms different from technical forms. This study raises questions about the nature of consumer health vocabularies that we believe have theoretical and practical implications for bridging the medical vocabulary gap between consumers and professionals. PMID:14728258

Tse, Tony; Soergel, Dagobert



Exploring Medical Expressions Used by Consumers and the Media: An Emerging View of Consumer Health Vocabularies  

PubMed Central

Healthcare consumers often have difficulty expressing and understanding medical concepts. The goal of this study is to identify and characterize medical expressions or “terms” (linguistic forms and associated concepts) used by consumers and health mediators. In particular, these terms were characterized according to the degree to which they mapped to professional medical vocabularies. Lay participants identified approximately 100,000 term tokens from online discussion forum postings and print media articles. Of the over 81,000 extracted term tokens reviewed, more than 75% were mapped as synonyms or quasi-synonyms to the Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) Metathesaurus®. While 80% conceptual overlap was found between closely mapped lay (consumer and mediator) and technical (professional) medical terms, about half of these overlapping concepts contained lay forms different from technical forms. This study raises questions about the nature of consumer health vocabularies that we believe have theoretical and practical implications for bridging the medical vocabulary gap between consumers and professionals.

Tse, Tony; Soergel, Dagobert



Effect of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on egg-yolk cholesterol and laying hen performance.  


The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on the laying hen. A total of forty 23-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (10 laying hens/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04% R. capsulatus during the 60-d feeding period. Dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus (0.04%) reduced (P < 0.05) cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum (15 and 11%), as well as in egg-yolk (13 and 16%) over a 60-d feeding period. Cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum as well as egg-yolk were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary R. capsulatus. Supplementation of R. capsulatus in diets increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index in serum. Yolk color was improved (P < 0.05) in the group fed the 0.04% R. capsulatus supplemented diet compared with the control group. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.04% R. capsulatus. Moreover, the supplementation of R. capsulatus in layer diets did not appear to cause any adverse effects on egg production, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh unit, yolk index, and feed conversion efficiency compared with the same parameters for the control laying hens. It is postulated that known and unknown factors are present in R. capsulatus presumably responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect on laying hens. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers. PMID:17369543

Salma, U; Miah, A G; Tareq, K M A; Maki, T; Tsujii, H



Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae contamination in the poultry house environment during erysipelas outbreaks in organic laying hen flocks.  


This study investigated organic laying hen farms for the presence of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in the house environment and from potential carriers (i.e. insects and mice) during ongoing erysipelas outbreaks, and compared the obtained isolates with those from laying hens. The samples were investigated by selective culture followed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction on cultures. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, jejunal contents, manure, dust and swabs from water nipples. Three more samples from the house environment tested positive by polymerase chain reaction compared with selective culture alone. Selected isolates were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). One farm was represented by isolates from laying hens only, and one of these isolates differed in one PFGE band from the others. Different banding patterns were observed for isolates from laying hens and manure on one farm. On the remaining two farms, the isolates from the house environment and laying hens were identical but differed between farms. Outbreaks reoccurred in the next flock on two of the farms, and different PFGE types were isolated from consecutive flocks. Our results suggest an external source of infection, which would explain the previously reported increased risk of outbreaks in free-range flocks. Contaminated manure and dust may represent sources of transmission. For the isolates, MALDI-TOF MS and biochemical typing results were in agreement but, since the type strain of Erysipelothrix tonsillarum was typed as E. rhusiopathiae using MALDI-TOF MS, further studies into this method are needed. PMID:24661145

Eriksson, Helena; Bagge, Elisabeth; Bĺverud, Viveca; Fellström, Claes; Jansson, Désirée S



Current economic bias against exploration  

SciTech Connect

The current economic climate has motivated many companies to greatly reduce their commitment to exploration. The continued de-emphasis on exploration largely results from several biases against exploration in the economic methods employed to justify that investment. This paper explores the cause of that bias and illustrates why that bias is inconsistent with the stated goals of most exploration companies and the future well-being of the industry. After careful review of the biases, the authors propose alternative methods for evaluating exploration ventures. These alternatives are easy to understand and represent an extension of existing knowledge for most people. The methods are easily adaptable to most computer programs or can be included in most spreadsheets. Alternative methods for analyzing the merits of exploration investments are important today. The traditional methods developed during the early days of the industry fail to reflect the changing characteristics of the industry and the depletion of existing reserves. Only by more wisely adapting investing methods can the industry expect to meet the challenges of the future.

Campbell, J.M.; Campbell, C. (John M. Campbell and Co., Norman, OK (USA))



Exploring cultural diversity.  


"Exploring Cultural Diversity" and "Out of the Comfort Zone" are companion articles written from a professor's and student's perspective about experiences in transcultural nursing. The nursing professor describes the planning and implementation phases of the program, and the student describes the life-changing experiences and impressions which occurred. The theory portion of the program takes place at the university in the semester prior to the clinical segment, and the experiential component of the course includes traveling to, living, and practicing within a developing country. A journey to the Dominican Republic in 1994 is recounted. Together the articles emphasize the need for increasing global understanding of the relationship of culture to health in order to promote high level wellness for all the citizens of this planet. PMID:9287597

Levine, M A



Black Hole Explorer Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This board game challenges players (ages 10+) to build a spaceship and fly to a black hole. The game provides opportunities for understanding phenomena based on current black hole research. During the game, players will experience the dangers and excitement of a real space mission, and learn about the nature of black holes by launching scientific probes. The game can be played competitively or as a team (instructions are also provided for playing in large groups. Black Hole Explorer consists of: Game Board, Game Rules, Spacecraft Data sheets, Science Briefing Room document, Event cards (28), Probe result cards (12), Energy tokens (140). Game components are available as PDF downloads; dice and game pieces must be provided by the user. NOTE: tokens and cards need to be cut to size from letter-size cardstock.


Influence of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens.  


This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens. Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (n = 540; 28 wk of age) were randomized into 6 groups, each group with 6 replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet formulated with maize and soybean meal. The treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09% Bacillus licheniformis powder (2 × 10(10) cfu/g) for an 8-wk trial. The results showed that dietary supplementation with 0.01 and 0.03% B. licheniformis significantly increased egg production and egg mass. However, no significant differences were observed in egg weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion efficiency among the 6 groups. Supplementation with different levels of B. licheniformis was found to be effective in improvement of egg quality by increasing egg shell thickness and strength. Compared with control, d-lactate content, diamine oxidase activity, and adrenocorticotropic hormone level in serum decreased significantly, and the level of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone increased significantly in plasma of all the experimental groups. Dietary supplementation with B. licheniformis increased the intestinal villus height and reduced the crypt depth. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis could improve laying performance and egg quality significantly in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing the stress response, upregulating the growth hormone, and improving intestinal health. PMID:23960122

Lei, K; Li, Y L; Yu, D Y; Rajput, I R; Li, W F



Explorations in Chaos Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaos Theory is an interesting and important branch of physics. Many physical systems, such as weather or fluid flow, exhibit chaotic behavior. Experiments in simple mechanical or electrical systems, as well as simple simulations can be used as methods of studying chaos. Using a mechanical method, we connected a speaker and to a frequency modulator to bounce a table tennis ball. We recorded the ball's motion at different frequencies using a video camera. Using Tracker software we observed it's position versus it's velocity in order to analyze its chaotic behavior. For a simple simulation, we used the visual-based programming in LabView to examine chaotic behavior produced by some non-linear differential equations. Results from both the mechanical system and the simulations will be discussed. For future work, we plan to continue to explore some chaotic simulations and perform a sequence of experiments with an electrical system. Exploring these nonlinear chaotic systems can help us to better understand and model many phenomena found in nature.

Maldonado, Armando; Bixler, David



NOAA Ocean Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Follow ocean explorations in near real-time, learn about ocean exploration technologies, observe remote marine flora and fauna in the multimedia gallery, review NOAA's 200-year history of ocean exploration, and discover additional NOAA resources in a virtual library. View current expeditions or take a look back at the archived ones. Most expeditions feature fact sheets, photographs, explorer logs, and ask an explorer.