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1

The weaker sex? Exploring lay understandings of gender differences in life expectancy: A qualitative study?  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing interest in gender and health, ‘lay’ perceptions of gender differences in mortality have been neglected. Drawing on semi-structured interview data from 45 men and women in two age cohorts (born in the early 1950s and 1970s) in the UK, we investigated lay explanations for women's longer life expectancy. Our data suggest that respondents were aware of women's increased longevity, but found this difficult to explain. While many accounts were multifactorial, socio-cultural explanations were more common, more detailed and less tentative than biological explanations. Different socio-cultural explanations (i.e. gendered social roles, ‘macho’ constraints on men and gender differences in health-related behaviours) were linked by the perception that life expectancy would converge as men and women's lives became more similar. Health behaviours such as going to the doctor or drinking alcohol were often located within wider structural contexts. Female respondents were more likely to focus on women's reproductive and caring roles, while male respondents were more likely to focus on how men were disadvantaged by their ‘provider’ role. We locate these narratives within academic debates about conceptualising gender: e.g. ‘gender as structure’ versus ‘gender as performance’, ‘gender as difference’ versus ‘gender as diversity’. PMID:18558455

Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate

2008-01-01

2

Understanding cervical cancer: an exploration of lay perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about cervical cancer among the Acholi in northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in Uganda; yet community understanding of the disease is limited. We explored community perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about the local names, causes, symptoms, course, treatment, and prognosis of cervical cancer in order to inform targeted interventions to promote early help-seeking. Methods Twenty four focus group discussions (FGD) with men and women aged 18 – 59 years and ten key informant interviews with persons aged???60 years were conducted at two sites in Gulu district between May and June 2012. A semi-structured interview guide informed by Kleinman’s illness explanatory model and literature on community awareness of cervical cancer was used to collect data. Data analysis was supported with use of ATLAS.ti 6.1 in coding, organizing and tracking data segments. We used content analysis technique in data analysis and organised data into a structured format under distinct themes and categories. Results Cervical cancer was known by the local name “two remo”, meaning “an illness that manifests with bleeding.” Respondents believed that early onset of sexual activity, multiple male sexual partners and multi-parity cause cervical cancer. Respondents in half of FGDs also reported that use of condoms and family planning pills and injections cause cervical cancer. Symptoms of cervical cancer reported included vaginal bleeding, watery vaginal discharge and lower abdominal and waist pain. Respondents in most of the FGDs and key informants perceived cervical cancer as a chronic illness and that it can be treated with both modern and traditional medicines. The majority thought that cervical cancer treatment was supportive; the illness is not curable. Conclusions While some lay beliefs about the causes of cervical cancer suggest some understanding of aetiology of the disease, other perceived causes particularly those related to use of family planning and condoms are potentially hurtful to public health. Awareness campaigns to promote early help-seeking for cervical cancer symptoms need to be culturally-sensitive and context-specific; and include messages on symptoms, risk factors, course, treatment and prognoses. PMID:25028122

2014-01-01

3

Understanding Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity, which is structured as a series of mini-research projects, helps students understand how technological advances have aided the exploration of Antarctica. The printable handout includes a set of 10 research topics in three categories, explorers, Antarctica today, and technological advances for you to assign to small student teams.

4

Lay Understandings of Race: Cultural and Genetic Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine lay understandings of race. Method: Fifteen focus groups were held in the southeastern United States from July to October of 2001. Results: The lay understanding of race is multifactorial, conceptualizing race as defined in part by genetics and in part by culture. Conclusions: The multifactorial understanding of race used by lay people is important to geneticists for

Tasha N. Dubriwny; Benjamin R. Bates; Jennifer L. Bevan

2004-01-01

5

The lay person's understanding of sexual harassment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on how lay people interpret behavior as sexual harassment is reviewed. An attributional model of this interpretation process is proposed. An experiment testing some of the basic postulates of the attribution model is reported. The results of the experiment generally supported the attribution model.

John B. Pryor

1985-01-01

6

‘Not living life in too much of an excess’: lay men understanding health and well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

While research on lay perspectives of health now has a wellestablished history, specific empirical data on male lay perspectives of health and well-being are largely absent. Drawing on focus group data and in-depth interviews with 20 lay men (including sub-samples of gay men and disabled men), and seven health professionals, this article explores how the men conceptualized ‘health’ and the

Steve Robertson

2006-01-01

7

Poisoned blood, ghaa, and the infected body: lay understandings of arsenicosis in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This article draws on ethnographic data from rural Bangladesh to examine how community members affected by arsenicosis understand, explain, and experience this deadly illness. Biomedically, arsenicosis has been described as a disease caused by drinking arsenic-contaminated water, and it is manifested through physiological complications such as symmetric hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, cancer of the skin, kidney and lungs, and diseases of the blood vessels. This article goes beyond such biomedical discourse and illustrates how arsenicosis has been vernacularized as ghaa in practice. It focuses on lay world views, logic, local knowledge systems, and sociocultural factors that shape popular understandings of the disease. This article is thus a contribution to our understanding of how arsenicosis, apart from its biomedical and clinical manifestations, is understood and experienced by affected individuals living within the particular sociocultural and ecological constraints of rural Bangladesh. PMID:24635028

Islam, M Saiful

2014-01-01

8

Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date-temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus.  

PubMed

Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (GxE) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date-temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for GxE. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs. PMID:18211880

Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J

2008-03-22

9

Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date–temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus  

PubMed Central

Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype–environment interaction (G×E) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11?624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date–temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for G×E. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs. PMID:18211880

Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J

2008-01-01

10

Oral sex and oral cancer in the context of human papillomavirus infection: lay public understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for ano-genital and cervical cancers and has been associated with head and neck\\u000a malignancies in the context of oral sex for the transmission of the virus. However, the level of knowledge that lay people\\u000a have in terms of HPV transmission through oral sex and oral cancer development remains unknown. A pilot sample of

Mario A. BrondaniMario; Mario A. Cruz-Cabrera; Cheryle Colombe

2010-01-01

11

The Lay Public's Understanding and Perception of Dementia in a Developed Asian Nation  

PubMed Central

Background Early detection of dementia aims to improve treatment outcomes. However, poor perception and understanding of dementia are significant barriers. We aim to investigate the public's perception of dementia and identify variables associated with the different profiles of public perception. Methods A custom-designed questionnaire was used to assess laypersons’ knowledge and perception of dementia during a health fair at a public hospital in Singapore, a developed Asian nation. Out of a sample of 370 subjects, 32 declined to participate (response rate = 91.4%). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify meaningful subgroups of subjects from significant associations with multiple indicators of dementia awareness. Multinomial logistic regression was performed exploring variables associated with each of the subgroups derived from LCA. Results The majority of the study participants were female (66.9%), 65 years or older (71.1%), and ethnic Chinese (88.1%). LCA classified the study participants into 3 subgroups: Class 1 (good knowledge, good attitude), Class 2 (good knowledge, poor attitude), and Class 3 (poor knowledge, poor attitude), in proportions of 14.28, 63.83, and 21.88%, respectively. Compared to other classes, participants with good knowledge and good attitude towards dementia (Class 1) were more likely to know someone with dementia and understand the effects of the disease, be married, live in private housing, receive higher monthly income, and not profess belief in Buddhism, Taoism, or Hinduism. Conclusion Our results show that the public in Singapore may not be ready for screening initiatives and early dementia diagnosis. Education efforts should be targeted at lower socioeconomic groups, singles, and those of certain oriental religions. PMID:23139688

Tan, Wai Jia; Hong, Song-Iee; Luo, Nan; Lo, Tong Jen; Yap, Philip

2012-01-01

12

Exploring Children's Understanding of Death Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an investigation of the effects of death education on children and their understanding of death. The participants of this study were eighty 5- and 6-year-olds who were enrolled in a suburban kindergarten in Korea. To examine the level of children's understanding of death, researchers interviewed each child in both the control and…

Lee, Joo Ok; Lee, Joohi; Moon, Sung Seek

2009-01-01

13

Exploring the Development of Historical Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a pilot study on the development of historical understanding of elementary school children. Historical fiction was shared with second, fourth, and sixth grade children who retold the story and answered questions. Results are evaluated and suggestions for history instruction at the elementary level are discussed. (Author/MT)

Levstik, Linda S.; Pappas, Christine C.

1987-01-01

14

Exploring a theoretical framework for understanding doctoral education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the potential of activity theory as a conceptual framework to understand doctoral education. In particular, we highlight its utility as a way of thinking about interactions across the multiple contexts influencing doctoral experience, and its use as a tool to understand the structural tensions students experience. We incorporate an exploration of the strengths and weaknesses

Nick Hopwood; Lynn McAlpine

2007-01-01

15

Using Electronic Interviews to Explore Student Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper reports on methods used to probe student understandings of optical fibers and total internal reflection (TIR). The study was conducted as part of the expansion and improvement of web-based materials for an innovative introductory physics course. Initially, we conducted face-to-face Piaget-style interviews with a convenience sample. Our next step was to interview students taking the course at Rensselaer. Physical limitations necessitated that this be done from a distance, so we conducted "e-interviews" using a Chat Room. In this paper we focus on the e-interview experience, discussing similarities to and differences from the traditional face-to-face approach. In the process, we address how each method informs us about students' activation of prior experiences in making sense of unfamiliar phenomena (e.g., "transfer of learning").

Wagner, Doris J.; Rivera, Janet J.; Mateycik, Frances; Jennings, Sybillyn

2011-01-01

16

Using Electronic Interviews to Explore Student Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on methods used to probe student understandings of optical fibers and total internal reflection (TIR). The study was conducted as part of the expansion and improvement of web-based materials for an innovative introductory physics course. Initially, we conducted face-to-face Piaget-style interviews with a convenience sample. Our next step was to interview students taking the course at Rensselaer. Physical limitations necessitated that this be done from a distance, so we conducted "e-interviews" using a Chat Room. In this paper we focus on the e-interview experience, discussing similarities to and differences from the traditional face-to-face approach. In the process, we address how each method informs us about students' activation of prior experiences in making sense of unfamiliar phenomena (e.g., "transfer of learning").

Wagner, D. J.; Rivera, J. J.; Mateycik, Fran; Jennings, Sybillyn

2005-09-01

17

Edinburgh Research Explorer Understanding the relationships between ecosystem services  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Understanding the relationships between ecosystem services and poverty, Giri, K, Lewis, K & Pinho, P 2014, 'Understanding the relationships between ecosystem services and poverty alleviation: A conceptual framework' Ecosystem Services, vol 7, pp. 34­45., 10.1016/j.ecoser.2013

Millar, Andrew J.

18

Exploring Students' Conceptions of Density: Assessing Nonmajors' Understanding of Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Employing action research in a large-enrollment university-level physical science class, the author assessed students' understanding of density with short answer pop quizzes. The result was that the more opportunities the students had to test, explore, and discuss the concept of density, the greater understanding they demonstrated of the subject.

Roach, Linda E.

2006-10-09

19

Understanding garnet variability: Application of geometallurgy to diamonds and exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peridotitic and eclogitic garnets are a fundamental component in understanding mantle petrology, diamond petrogenesis, and the ascent of mantle materials in kimberlites. They are also critical in exploration programs, as the presence of mantle garnets at the earth's surface provides an indication of dispersion from a deeply derived magmatic carrier. The composition of these garnets further is used as an indicator of diamond prospectivity, on the basis of comparison with garnet compositions known to be in some degree of equilibrium with diamonds. For mantle xenoliths and kimberlites, optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are the main tools used for understanding key mineralogical and textural variability relationships. Mineralogy and texture reflect diamond genesis, metasomatic alteration, fluid migration and manifestation, volcanological processes, peridotite disaggregation, and other manifestations of mantle processes that are observable, describable, and applicable in exploration and mining. Mineralogy and texture studies lead to further questions that are better addressed by higher resolution chemical analysis of isotopes and rare earth elements, or luminescence. Understanding mineralogical and textural variability is the primary geological input for geometallurgy (geomet), the field integrating the earth sciences with the extractive industries. The framework for geomet encompasses geology, mineralogy, deposit modeling and extraction methods for the optimum value return of resources, and it relies on the fact that the mineralogy and texture of rocks influence subsequent interpretation and downstream applications. Developments in this area have been made possible by the new generation of high-speed SEM-based quantitative mineralogical instruments, enabling the statistical assessment of thousands of grains or particles, or samples, and their application to models for exploration, ore deposits, or geomet. For diamonds, this means identification and quantification of large mineralogical and textural data sets, and gives the geologist more involvement in model development. In this study, peridotitic and eclogitic garnets were examined in situ and as xenocrysts to gain understanding of the mineralogical and textural variability of the grains using SEM-based quantitative mineralogy. For concentrate garnets, the new technology presented here is the development of mineral definitions that reflect SEM counts and correlate with EPMA data. Internal compositional variability is mapped across individual grains as compared to EPMA spot analysis; designations of G10-G9 compositions, for example, are more complex when viewed in terms of individual internal grain compositional variability. The new mineral lists based on percentages of Ca-Cr count rates are compared to unknown garnets from exploration samples, and digitally categorized into bins reflecting potential diamond prospectivity or secondary alteration, as desired. The high analysis rate (approx. 150 determinations/second) means the SEM-based technique can be faster and produce more statistical information for the geologist who is making the model assessment in the field. Combined with new nontoxic mineral separation methodology in the field and software on the geologist's laptop, a great deal of interpretation can be accommodated in the field, at a reduced cost for shipping large volumes of samples to a central laboratory. Geomet for diamonds provides the mechanism for thinking of the entirety of a project, and using the geological and mineralogical information to predict process implications.

Hoal, K. O.; Appleby, S. K.; Stammer, J. G.

2009-05-01

20

Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2002-08-01

21

Understanding Movement: A Sociocultural Approach to Exploring Moving Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the article is to outline a sociocultural way of exploring human movement. Our ambition is to develop an analytical framework where moving humans are explored in terms of what it means to move as movements are performed by somebody, for a certain purpose, and in a certain situation. We find this approach in poststructural…

Larsson, Hakan; Quennerstedt, Mikael

2012-01-01

22

Vocational Exploration through Service: The Effect of Service-Learning on Student Understanding of God's Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College is a time of exploration for students. College students who are Christian may also engage in exploration of God's call on their lives, a discernment of their vocation. One pedagogical technique that can help us help students explore vocation is service-learning. To better understand their vocation, students need to understand themselves…

Feenstra, Jennifer S.

2011-01-01

23

Lay abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are the motor behind our daily social activities. Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties understanding others’ emotions. Yet, understanding of own emotions in children with ASD has been largely neglected. Acknowledging and understanding one’s own emotions, and the ability to regulate these emotions to an extent that they can be expressed adaptively,

Rieffe; Oosterveld; Meerum Terwogt; Mootz; Van Leeuwen; Stockmann; Petrides; Hudry; Michalaria; Swami; Sevdalis; Ollendick; Bray; Rogé; Mullet; Guo; Cubells; Ridley; Homewood; Angkustsiri; Krakowiak; Moghaddam; Wardinsky; Kalamkarian; Hertz-Picciotto

2011-01-01

24

A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

2014-01-01

25

Primary Students' Understanding of Tessellation: An Initial Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tessellation is included in many mathematics curricula as one way of developing spatial ideas. If students do not understand tessellation in the intended ways, however, the development of other spatial ideas, such as properties of shapes and symmetry, may be compromised. Van Hiele levels were used as a basis for analysing the descriptions of eight…

Callingham, Rosemary

2004-01-01

26

Exploring Student Beliefs and Understanding in Elementary Science and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study had the goal of investigating the association among elementary students' (N = 276) science and math beliefs and the relationship between those beliefs and teachers' ratings of mathematical and science understanding. Results of structural path analysis indicate that in science, intellectual risk-taking (IRT; the willingness to share…

Beghetto, Ronald A.; Baxter, Juliet A.

2012-01-01

27

Exploring Turkish Upper Primary Level Pupils' Understanding of Digestion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The…

Cakici, Yilmaz

2005-01-01

28

Exploring consumer understanding and preferences for pharmacy quality information  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe consumer understanding of pharmacy quality measures and consumer preferences for pharmacy quality information. Methods: Semi-structured focus group design was combined with survey methods. Adults who filled prescription medications for self-reported chronic illnesses at community pharmacies discussed their understanding of Pharmacy Quality Alliance approved quality measures. Questions examined preference of pharmacy quality information rating systems (e.g. stars versus percentages) and desired data display/formats. During the focus group, participants completed a survey examining their understanding of each pharmacy quality measure. All focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Thirty-four individuals participated (mean age= 62.85; SD=16.05). Participants were unfamiliar with quality measures information and their level of understanding differed for each quality measure. Surveys indicated 94.1% understood “Drug-Drug Interactions” and “Helping Patients Get Needed Medications” better than other measures (e.g., 76.5% understood “Suboptimal Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes”). Qualitative analysis indicated participants preferred an overall pharmacy rating for quick access and use. However, participants also wanted quality measures information displayed by health conditions. Participants favored comparison of their pharmacy to city data instead of state data. Most participants liked star ratings better than percentages, letter grades, or numerical ratings. Conclusions: Individuals who have a chronic illness and regularly use community pharmacies are interested in pharmacy quality measures. However, specific quality measures were not understood by some participants. Participants had specific preferences for the display of pharmacy quality information which will be helpful in the design of appropriate quality report systems. PMID:25580169

Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Mort, Jane R.

2014-01-01

29

Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters  

PubMed Central

We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific principles: conservation of matter, conservation of energy, and the hierarchical nature of biological systems. Data on students' responses to the cluster items and uses of some of the questions in multiple-choice, multiple-true/false, and essay formats are compared. A cross-over study indicates that the multiple-true/false format shows promise as a machine-gradable format that identifies students who have a mixture of accurate and inaccurate ideas. In addition, interviews with students about their choices on three multiple-choice questions reveal the fragility of students' understanding. Collectively, the data show that many undergraduates lack both a basic understanding of the role of photosynthesis in plant metabolism and the ability to reason with scientific principles when learning new content. Implications for instruction are discussed. PMID:22383617

Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2012-01-01

30

08: Ovipositing (egg laying)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once eggs have been fertilized the female lays them in the water. Egg laying behavior is quite varied but falls into two general patterns. Some species lay eggs directly into water by flying low over the water and periodically tapping their tail into the water. Other species, such as this violet (or variable) dancer (Argia fumipennis), lay their eggs on

Frank Gorga

2009-01-01

31

Understanding Words, Understanding Numbers: An Exploration of the Mathematical Profiles of Poor Comprehenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poor comprehenders are children who show significant deficits in their reading comprehension performance, despite average, or above-average word reading ability. To date, there have been no in-depth studies of the mathematical performance profiles of such children. Aims: This study aimed to explore the mathematical profiles of poor…

Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

2010-01-01

32

To understand the cognitive processes involved with probability judgment, decision making, and choice, to explore the implications these processes for  

E-print Network

Objective To understand the cognitive processes involved with probability judgment, decision making at understanding the cognitive processes underlying diagnostic hypothesis generation and human judgment, and choice, to explore the implications these processes for understanding real-world decision making

Dougherty, Michael

33

Understanding Ozone: Exploring the Good and Bad Facets of a Famous Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities that help students distinguish between the beneficial layer of stratospheric ozone and the dangerous ground-level or tropospheric ozone, understand the chemical processes of ozone breakdown in the stratosphere, find the sources of ground-level ozone, and explore the differences in the patterns of ozone concentration over the…

Hanif, Muhammad

1995-01-01

34

Lay perception Crisis 1 Running head: Lay perception Financial Crisis  

E-print Network

Lay perception Crisis 1 Running head: Lay perception Financial Crisis Human Foibles or Systemic Failure -- Lay Perceptions of the 2008-09 Financial Crisis David Leiser Ben-Gurion University Sacha-39" #12;Lay perception Crisis 2 Abstract We examined lay perceptions of the recent financial and economic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Identity, Attachment and Belonging for Young Adults in Australia: Exploring Implicit and Explicit Understandings of Self and Nation (R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research project provided a forum in which young adults explored aspects of identity, attachment and sense of belonging. The aim was to explore diverse and common themes in understanding oneself in geographic context, elicited by implicit and explicit methods. These were facilitated drama sessions and written responses to a self concept inventory. The participants in the exploration of what

Marjorie O'Loughlin; Bronwyn Birdsall; Anna Piccolo; Lesley A. Russell; Laurel J. Bornholt

36

A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning is underway to hold an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. IPY 2007-2008 stands to be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007-2008 is envisioned to be an intense, international campaign of coordinated polar observations and analysis, which will be bipolar in focus, multidisciplinary in scope, and truly international in participation. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their roles in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007 - 2008 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups. Earlier this year, the International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) which met for the first time at the end of July. The Planning Group discussed ways to create an open process that encourages broad input from the international community. The Planning Group began to describe the desired goals of IPY 2007-2008, which should address compelling science issues through multi-national programs, enable scientific programs which would not otherwise occur, attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, and engage the public. The Planning Group has identified three overarching themes that we hope can serve as the foundation for IPY 2007-2008: Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, Decoding the Role of the Poles in Global Change Understanding Polar Processes. The Planning Group envisions focused research activities under each of these major themes. For example, a program to explore the sub-ice environment of East Antarctica would fit under the theme Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, a program of Integrated Polar Observing Networks including environmental instrumentation would fit under Decoding the Role of the Poles in Global Change, and a collaborative effort to study the stability of the cryosphere would fit under Understanding Polar Processes.

Bell, R. E.; Rapley, C.; Elfring, C.; Allison, I.; Bindschadler, R.; Chown, S.; Duhaime, G.; Kotlyakov, V.; Orheim, O.; Zhang, Z.; Kuhn, M.; Schalke, H.; Pandey, P.; Petersen, H. K.; Casassa, G.

2003-12-01

37

Exploring positioning as an analytical tool for understanding becoming mathematics teachers' identities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject positioning? We elaborate on the elusive and interrelated concepts of identity, positioning and power, seen as dynamic and changeable. As these concepts represent three interconnected parts of research analysis in an on-going larger project data from different sources will be used in this illustration. In this paper, we clarify the theoretical stance, ground the concepts historically and strive to connect them to research analysis. In this way, we show that power relations and subject positioning in social settings are critical aspects and need to be taken seriously into account if we aim at understanding becoming teachers' identities.

Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica

2014-05-01

38

To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust.  

PubMed

lawrence n. & richardson j. (2012) Journal of Nursing Management To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust Aim? The aim of this study was to explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons. Background? Modern matrons were re-introduced to the National Health Service in 2002, and effective leadership has been identified as being essential for the role to be successful. However, there is minimal evidence of how modern matrons experience effective leadership. Methods? The study used a descriptive generic qualitative methodology; one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine matrons. This was subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results? Three themes were found to influence modern matron's leadership experiences: leadership behaviours, negative influences and leadership investment. They did not follow one leadership style but adapted this to their situation. Various factors appeared to restrict their leadership effectiveness. Conclusions? The findings suggest that exposure to a range of leadership styles should be included in preparation and CPD for the modern matron role and a more consistent job description and job purpose should be developed. Implications for nursing management? Leadership styles such as transformational leadership alone do not meet the complex demands of nursing leaders, and therefore there is a requirement for greater flexibility in leadership development for all health care professionals. PMID:23410106

Lawrence, Nigel; Richardson, Janet

2012-07-10

39

Lay or Lie?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: LEVEL: High school and college. AUTHOR'S COMMENT: Many would like to abandon the distinction between "lay" and "lie," but I still receive enough questions about it to continue teaching it. Finding that students did not believe me when I taught them to substitute "recline" for "lie," because "The rug…

Dubois, Barbara R.

1983-01-01

40

Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

2012-01-01

41

Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which has been only scarcely explored in the science education literature. A four-tier diagnostic instrument was used. The instrument comprises 25 questions, and each question has an answer tier, a confidence rating for this tier, a reason tier and a confidence rating for this tier. Versions of the instrument were refined iteratively during the preliminary and pilot phases of the study. This study reports on the results obtained from the main phase of the study, using a sample of 140 students. Overall, the diagnostic test was difficult for the students. The students had a mean score of 38 %, based on correct responses for both answer and reason tiers for the questions. It was accompanied by a mean confidence of only 3.49 out of 6 (that is, 58.2 %) for the whole test. The results indicate that transition metals chemistry is a difficult topic for the students. Twenty-four alternative conceptions have been identified in this study, including some indication of their strengths. Some implications of the study are discussed.

Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

2014-12-01

42

An Exploration of Teachers' Efforts to Understand Identity Work and its Relevance to Science Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US educators express concern that students are turning away from the study of science and have little interest in pursuing science careers. Nationally, science achievement scores for 8th graders are unchanged since 1996, but 12th graders' scores have significantly decreased. A shortcoming of education reform efforts is lack of attention to students' developmental needs. Science study should enable students to learn about themselves—to develop and refine their skills, define their values, explore personal interests, and understand the importance of science to themselves and others. Effective secondary science instruction requires attention to students' identity development—the key developmental task of adolescence. Secondary science teachers participated in an 8-week course focused on understanding adolescent identity development and methods for addressing identity. Transcripts of the teachers' online discussions of salient issues were analyzed to determine their perceptions regarding classroom identity work. Teachers identified several assets and obstacles to identity work that were organized into two broad categories: teacher knowledge, training opportunities, and administrative support, or lack of these; and, presence of inflexible curricula, standardized testing regimes, and increased teacher accountability. Implications for student growth and science teacher professional development are discussed.

Smith, M. Cecil; Darfler, Anne

2012-06-01

43

An exploration of middle school science teachers' understandings and teaching practice of science as inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of reports have raised a concern that the U.S. is not meeting the demands of 21st century skill preparation of students, teachers, and practitioners in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). In 2005 and 2006 five reports were released indicating a need for improvement in science and mathematics education in the U.S. The reports were: Keeping America Competitive: Five Strategies To Improve Mathematics and Science Education (Coble & Allen, 2005); National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative: Meeting America's Economic and Security Challenges in the 21st Century (The Association of American Universities, 2006); Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (National Academies Press, 2007); Tapping America's Potential: The Education for Innovation Initiative (Business Roundtable Taskforce , 2005); and Waiting for Sputnik: Basic Research and Strategic Competition (Lewis, 2005). Consensus of data in these reports indicates that the U.S., as compared to other industrialized nations, does not fare very well in science achievement and STEM degree attainment. For example, on the 2003 Program for International Assessment (PISA), 15-year-old students in the U.S. ranked 28th in math and 24th in science literacy (Kuenzi, Matthews, & Mangon, 2006). Furthermore, the U.S. ranked 20th among all nations in the proportion of 24-year-olds who earned degrees in natural sciences or engineering (Kuenzi, 2008). As a result, if the U.S. is to remain scientifically and technologically competitive in the world, it is necessary to increase our efforts to incorporate scientific practices associated with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into the science classroom. Middle school is a critical point in students' science education and it is in middle school that they begin to dislike science. Research indicates that when students learn science through inquiry their interest in and understanding of science increases (Akkus, Gunel & Hand, 2007; Gibson, 2002; Liu, Lee & Linn, 2010). As a result, it is important to explore middle school science teachers' definition of science as inquiry because of its importance in how their understandings are reflected in their practice. Researchers must witness, first- hand, what is taking place in middle school science classrooms with respect to the teaching of scientific inquiry before recommendations for improvements can be made. We must also allow opportunities for middle school science teachers to broach, examine, explore, interpret and report implementation strategies when practicing the elements of scientific inquiry as a science content area. It then stands to reason that more research needs to be done to: (1) assess teachers' knowledge related to reform-based teaching, (2) investigate teachers' views about the goals and purposes of inquiry, and (3) investigate the processes by which teachers carry out SI and motivation for undertaking such a complex and difficult to manage form of instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine middle school science teachers' understandings and skills related to scientific inquiry; how those understandings and skills were translated into classroom practice, and the role the school district played in the development of such understandings and skills.

Castle, Margaret Ann

44

The GPS Analysis Package for Exploration and Understanding of Geodetic Sensor Web Time Series Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the GPS Analysis Package (GAP), a Matlab toolbox for GPS data exploration and understanding. The toolbox is designed to support scientists and engineers studying the motion of the solid Earth both in an academic environment and in the course of NASA missions such as UAVSAR and future InSAR satellite missions. It includes an ensemble of low-level routines to perform basic signal processing operations, such as removal of secular motion, de-noising, and removal of seasonal signals. It also includes a suite of more sophisticated statistical pattern recognition techniques, including hidden Markov models and Bayes nets, to detect changes, identify transient signals, understand regional motion, and uncover relationships between geographically removed nodes in the GPS network. Finally, it provides an assortment of methods for estimating missing observations in the network. We provide usage examples of the package applied to particular scenarios, including the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and ongoing slow slip events in the Cascadia region. We also demonstrate the utility of the package within a web portal and web services environment by showcasing its use in the QuakeSim web portal. The QuakeSim portal allows easy access to GPS data sources provided by multiple institutions as well as a map and plotting interface to quickly assess analysis results. Finally, we show the extensibility of the package to other problem domains and sensor network data sources, demonstrating the analysis tools as applied to seismic network data, autonomous robotic navigation, and fault detection in engineering data streams from the International Space Station.

Granat, R. A.; Moghaddam, B.; Donnellan, A.

2012-12-01

45

Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration  

PubMed Central

Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ?5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with interventions to address gender inequity, support marital relationships, and improve access to perinatal healthcare. PMID:24581309

2014-01-01

46

Toward understanding life under subzero conditions: the significance of exploring psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins.  

PubMed

Understanding the behavior of proteins under freezing conditions is vital for detecting and locating extraterrestrial life in cold environments, such as those found on Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. This review highlights the importance of studying psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins, a topic that has yet to be explored. A strategy for analyzing the psychrophilic RNA helicase protein CsdA (Psyc_1082) from Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures is proposed. The experimental model presented here was developed based on previous data from investigations of Escherichia coli, P. arcticus 273-4, and RNA helicases. P. arcticus 273-4 is considered a model for life in freezing environments. It is capable of growing in temperatures as cold as -10°C by using physiological strategies to survive not only in freezing temperatures but also under low-water-activity and limited-nutrient-availability conditions. The analyses of its genome, transcriptome, and proteome revealed specific adaptations that allow it to inhabit freezing environments by adopting a slow metabolic strategy rather than a cellular dormancy state. During growth at subzero temperatures, P. arcticus 273-4 genes related to energy metabolism and carbon substrate incorporation are downregulated, and genes for maintenance of membranes, cell walls, and nucleic acid motion are upregulated. At -6°C, P. arcticus 273-4 does not upregulate the expression of either RNA or protein chaperones; however, it upregulates the expression of its cold-shock induced DEAD-box RNA helicase protein A (CsdA - Psyc_1082). CsdA - Psyc_1082 was investigated as a key helper protein for sustaining life in subzero conditions. Proving CsdA - Psyc_1082 to be functional as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures may extend the known minimum growth temperature of a mesophilic cell and provide key information about the mechanisms that underlie cold-induced biological systems in icy worlds. PMID:23082745

Kuhn, Emanuele

2012-11-01

47

Exploring Student Understanding of Atoms and Radiation with the Atom Builder Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about radiation requires understanding the general structure of atoms, but many college physics students do not have such understandings. In our efforts to develop inquiry based materials on radiation, we have accumulated additional evidence showing that certain students do indeed have substantial difficulties understanding the basic structure and properties of atoms, and that these difficulties impair their understandings of the simplest radiation processesâemission and ionization. This paper reports on our investigations of student difficulties in understanding basic properties of atoms and ionization and radioactivity. We also describe results from a class using a new pedagogical simulatorâthe Atom Builderâand provide evidence for marked improvement in student understanding.

Johnson, Andy; Hafele, Anna

2013-05-08

48

Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

2010-01-01

49

Understanding Exploring Choosing Getting Into Specialty Personal M C'M Ab t C t ct L  

E-print Network

a Home Understanding Exploring _ S Choosing Getting Into Specialty Personal M C'M Ab t C t ct L _ _ _ !Y o ur s.:celf O: -----"P-'-'ro fl'"le:..._ Y_'_ au on a ogout Writing a Personal Statement The personal statement can be difficult

50

Dynamic interracial/intercultural processes: the role of lay theories of race.  

PubMed

This paper explores how the lay theory approach provides a framework beyond previous stereotype/prejudice research to understand dynamic personality processes in interracial/ethnic contexts. The authors conceptualize theory of race within the Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS), in which lay people's beliefs regarding the essential nature of race sets up a mind-set through which individuals construe and interpret their social experiences. The research findings illustrate that endorsement of the essentialist theory (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) versus the social constructionist theory (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) are associated with different encoding and representation of social information, which in turn affect feelings, motivation, and competence in navigating between racial and cultural boundaries. These findings shed light on dynamic interracial/intercultural processes. Relations of this approach to CAPS are discussed. PMID:19686456

Hong, Ying-yi; Chao, Melody Manchi; No, Sun

2009-10-01

51

Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WEbsites to use for 5th grade Explorers study. Explorers of the Americas - Enchanted Learning'); Explorers of the Americas - Enchanted Learning Lewis Clark - The Journey of the Corps of Discovery Lewis and Clark - The Journey of the Corps of Discovery Gale Group Biography Resources Center Gale Group - Biography Resource Center Discoverer s Web Discoverer's Web The Conquistadors The Conquistadors ...

Laz, Mrs.

2007-11-07

52

"They Just Seem to Live Their Lives in Their Own Little World": Lay Perceptions of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is believed to be higher than that of other conditions, such as Down syndrome or diabetes, yet few studies have explored the ideas lay people have about autism. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how 10 lay people with no knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism.…

Huws, J. C.; Jones, R. S. P.

2010-01-01

53

Story understanding in Genesis : exploring automatic plot construction through commonsense reasoning  

E-print Network

Whether through anecdotes, folklore, or formal history, humans learn the lessons and expectations of life from stories. If we are to build intelligent programs that learn as humans do, such programs must understand stories ...

Low, Harold William Capen, IV

2011-01-01

54

Understanding alternative food networks: exploring the role of short food supply chains in rural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the development and incidence of alternative food networks within a European-wide context. By developing a consistent definition of short food supply chains, we address both the morphology and the dynamics of these, and then examine empirical evidence concerning their incidence and rural development impact across seven EU member states. These developments need to be seen

Henk Renting; Terry K Marsden; Jo Banks

2003-01-01

55

Exploring the Role of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Biomedical Text Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable effort being devoted to mining information from medical and scientific literature, in particular, from Medline abstracts and from full-text articles. Such information is being used, for example, to reconstruct biological pathways, identify pathogenic mechanisms and, importantly, to identify functional relationships that can be used to predict disease onset and its course thereafter. Our interest is in exploring

Debra T. Burhans; Alistair E. R. Campbell; Gary R. Skuse

56

Explorers, Detectives, Matchmakers, and Lion Tamers: Understanding Jigsaw Puzzlers' Techniques and Motivations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do people enjoy jigsaw puzzles, which--challenging and time-consuming as they are--might be considered more like work than play? The author investigates the motivations, preferences, and satisfactions of individuals working on jigsaw puzzles, and she explores how these elements of play relate to the procedures and strategies puzzlers use to…

Garcia, Angela Cora

2013-01-01

57

Exploring the Role of Context in Students' Understanding of Sampling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context provides meaning for data analysis and the evaluation of evidence but may be distracting to students. This research explores the role of context in students' reasoning about sampling: specifically, the relationship between the strength of students' opinions about a topic, which provides the context for a study, and their ability…

Wroughton, Jacqueline R.; McGowan, Herle M.; Weiss, Leigh V.; Cope, Tara M.

2013-01-01

58

Using Hydrothermal Plumes and Their Chemical Composition to Identify and Understand Hydrothermal Activity at Explorer Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During June and July, 2002, an extensive survey of the hydrothermal systems of the Explorer Ridge was made aboard the R/V Thomas Thompson. This survey employed hydrocasts and the Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) to locate and map hydrothermal vent fields. A total of 28 hydrocasts (17 verticals and 11 tow-yos) were used to search for hydrothermal activity from 49.5°N to 50.3°N on the Explorer Ridge. During the hydrocasts continuous measurements were made of conductivity, temperature, pressure, light backscatter, eH, Fe, Mn, and pH. Discrete samples were collected for total dissolved Fe and Mn, methane, pH, total CO2, and particulate matter. Most of the strong hydrothermal venting was near the Magic Mountain area of the Explorer Ridge at ~49.76° N, 130.26° W, where strong particulate backscatter signals (~0.130 NTUs) and moderate temperature anomalies (~ 0.05 °C) were detected. The particulate matter causing the backscatter was made up primarily of volatile particulate sulfur (PS) with little to no hydrothermal PFe. PS:PFe ratios exceeded 25 in the areas of most intense venting, . These PFe and PS data suggest that the hydrothermal Fe, if any, is deposited as sulfide minerals beneath the sea floor and that S is far in excess of Fe in the hydrothermal fluids. In the most intense plumes,total dissolvable Fe and Mn were between 20 and 30 nM, pH anomalies exceeded 0.025 pH units (indicating an increase of ~10uM CO2), and methane reached 16nM. These results suggest that the fluids exiting the sea floor are metal-poor and moderately gas-rich.

Resing, J.; Lebon, G.; Baker, E.; Walker, S.; Nakamura, K.; Silvers, B.

2002-12-01

59

Exploring Students' Understanding of Electrochemical Cells Using an Enhanced Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The development of two-tier multiple-choice questions has permitted the diagnosis of students' understanding on various topics in the sciences as well as helped to ascertain the alternative conceptions they have. A limitation of two-tier diagnostic instruments that has been noted in the literature, but which has not been…

Loh, Adrian Sin Loy; Subramaniam, R.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

2014-01-01

60

Exploring Understandings and Responses to Science: A Program of Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will report on the development of a research program by a group of science educators at Kristianstad University, which has its roots in a longitudinal study I conducted concerning students' developing understandings of ecological processes. Following the insights generated in this first study concerning the nature of student…

Hellden, Gustav

2005-01-01

61

The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make…

Cormier, Sebastien; Steinberg, Richard

2010-01-01

62

Exploring the Relationship between Physics-Related Epistemological Beliefs and Physics Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies are reported that investigated the relationship between secondary school students' physics-related epistemological beliefs and physics conceptual understanding. Study 1 involved the development of a Greek Epistemological Beliefs Evaluation Instrument for Physics (GEBEP) which was administered to 394 students (10th graders). Study 2…

Stathopoulou, Christina; Vosniadou, Stella

2007-01-01

63

Teaching Games and Sport for Understanding: Exploring and Reconsidering its Relevance in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 30 years ago the original teaching games for understanding (TGfU) proposition was published in a special edition of the Bulletin of Physical Education (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). In that time TGfU has attracted significant attention from a theoretical and pedagogical perspective as an improved approach to games and sport teaching in physical…

Stolz, Steven; Pill, Shane

2014-01-01

64

Gateways to Understanding: A Model for Exploring and Discerning Meaning from Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research methodologies comprise distinct traditions, each of which is based on its own assumptions and discrete methods for collecting, analyzing and reporting data. This paper examines a distinctive approach to qualitative research that was employed in a recent study to open a gateway to understanding the impact of the shootings at…

Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

2008-01-01

65

Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

2013-01-01

66

Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

2011-01-01

67

Understanding the School Outcomes of Juvenile Offenders: An Exploration of Neighborhood Influences and Motivational Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non–delinquent peers.\\u000a To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine\\u000a academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14–17) living in two urban communities.\\u000a A multilevel path analysis confirmed that youth in

He Len Chung; Edward P. Mulvey; Laurence Steinberg

68

Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Essential Features of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching Using Evidence-Based Reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored preservice elementary teachers' and their mentors' understanding of the essential features of inquiry-based teaching through the use of evidence-based reflection. The web-based video analysis tool (VAT) system was used to support preservice teachers' and mentors' evidence-based reflection during field experiences. Major data sources included VAT reflections and individual interviews. Data analysis indicated that the preservice teachers had been involved in various activities designed to support their understanding of inquiry features in a science methods class; they did not implement all of the features in their actual teaching. Both preservice teachers and mentors had difficulty connecting appropriate inquiry features to each teaching episode, which indicates their lack of understanding of inquiry. Both the preservice teachers and mentors had different levels of understanding for each feature. That is, they tended to understand certain features better than others. They interpreted each feature of inquiry-based science teaching too broadly. They also either had a teacher-centered view or tended to focus on issues unrelated to science teaching.

Seung, Eulsun; Park, Soonhye; Jung, Jinhong

2014-08-01

69

Informing Geospatial Toolset Design: Understanding the Process of Cancer Data Exploration and Analysis  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L.; MacEachren, Alan M.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

2008-01-01

70

The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make connections to the real world, think constructively, and learn the material successfully. However, what happens when making connections to the real world is more complicated. It is one thing to try to figure out how pushing a block with a constant force leads to constant speed, but it is very different to try to build toward an understanding of time dilation. Do the same instructional approaches work here? Also, is it possible that improved instructional approaches lead to improved student approaches when trying to make sense of difficult and very unfamiliar material? In this paper we describe a unique opportunity to perform a controlled experiment by interviewing identical twin brothers working together to resolve the twin paradox. These were intelligent and articulate science students with similar backgrounds but with diverging undergraduate experiences. One happened to take traditional physics classes and the other happened to take classes designed through Physics Education Research.

Cormier, Sebastien; Steinberg, Richard N.

2012-01-20

71

Understanding the Tenets of Agile Software Engineering: Lecturing, Exploration and Critical Thinking  

E-print Network

The use of agile principles and practices in software development is becoming a powerful force in today's workplace. In our quest to develop better products, therefore, it is imperative that we strive to learn and understand the application of Agile methods, principles and techniques to the software development enterprise. Unfortunately, in many educational institutions courses and projects that emphasize Agile Software Development are minimal. At best, students have only limited exposure to the agile philosophy, principles and practices at the graduate and undergraduate levels of education. In an effort to address this concern, we offered a graduate-level course entitled "Agile Software Engineering" in the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech in Fall 2009. The primary objectives of the class were to introduce the values, principles and practices underlying the agile philosophy, and to do so in an atmosphere that encourages debate and critical thinking. The course was designed around three central ...

Soundararajan, Shvetha; Chigani, Amine

2010-01-01

72

Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts ( n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

2014-12-01

73

Understanding the Knowledge and Perceptions About Clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: A Qualitative Exploration  

PubMed Central

This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital’s catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Mansoor, Ali Khan; Mohammad Amin, Chinoy

2013-01-01

74

Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative exploration.  

PubMed

This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Khan, Mansoor Ali; Chinoy, Mohammad Amin

2013-01-01

75

Understanding Positive Play: An Exploration of Playing Experiences and Responsible Gambling Practices.  

PubMed

This study is one of the first to explore in detail the behaviors, attitudes and motivations of players that show no signs of at-risk or problem gambling behavior (so-called 'positive players'). Via an online survey, 1484 positive players were compared with 209 problem players identified using the Lie/Bet screen. The study identified two distinct groups of positive players defined according to their motivations to play and their engagement with responsible gambling (RG) practices. Those positive players that played most frequently employed the most personal RG strategies. Reasons that positive players gave for gambling were focused on leisure (e.g., playing for fun, being entertained, and/or winning a prize). By contrast, problem gamblers were much more focused upon modifying mood states (e.g., excitement, relaxation, depression and playing when bored or upset). The present study also suggests that online gambling is not, by default, inherently riskier than gambling in more traditional ways, as online gambling was the most popular media by which positive players gambled. Furthermore, most positive players reported that it was easier to stick to their limits when playing the National Lottery online compared to traditional retail purchasing of tickets. Problem players were significantly more likely than positive players to gamble with family and friends, suggesting that, contrary to a popular RG message, social play may not be inherently safer than gambling alone. It is proposed that players (generally) may identify more with the term 'positive play' than the term 'RG' which is frequently interpreted as being aimed at people with gambling problems, rather than all players. PMID:25209455

Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D

2014-09-01

76

Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting  

PubMed Central

Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N.R.; Ogilvie, D.

2012-01-01

77

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the Tata Energy Research Institute, the EduGreen Explore Web site allows kids to learn about energy, water, climate change, solid waste, and more. Besides giving good descriptions on these various subjects, students will also gain a global perspective on these issues since the Institute, which is located in India, gives specific information for the country. The site also contains quizzes, maps, activities, and more worth checking out.

2002-01-01

78

Understanding and Exploration of the Biomineralization Mechanisms for the Controllable Synthesis of Nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is mainly concerned with understanding the biomineralization mechanisms, and further extrapolating them for the controllable synthesis of transition metal compound nanomaterials on graphene sheets for energy storage applications in electrochemical capacitors and lithium ion batteries (LIB). Firstly, we have studied the mimetic biomineralization process of CaCO 3 on a stearic acid or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface by in-situ Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and ex-situ electron microscopy. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors are directly nucleated from solvated ions prior to the crystal nuclei on a Langmuir monolayer. On a DPPC monolayer, numerous fresh ACC nanoparticles heterogeneously and continuously nucleated at the air-water interface are transformed into the metastable vaterite nanocrystals. Driven by the trend to decrease surface energy, the vaterite nanocrystals self-aggregate and grow into the loose-packed hollow ellipsoidal vaterite polycrystals. These nanocrystals in vaterite polycrystals are then gradually orientated in the same direction to evolve into tight-packed ellipsoidal mesocrystals. As the crystallization time is further increased, the metastable vaterite mesocrystals are eventually transformed into the most thermodynamically stable calcite crystals. Secondly, organic and inorganic additives control over the shapes, sizes and phases of inorganic nanocrystals and arrange them into ordered structures from amorphous precursors in the organisms. This interesting phenomenon has galvanized many attempts to mimic the biomineralization process for synthesizing novel materials. We have studied the crystallization processes from small citrate molecules stabilized ACC precursors under cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar structures. Amorphous precursors, with a hydrated and disordered structure, are easily transformed and molded into CaCO 3 crystals with novel morphologies, such as, hollow radiating cluster-like particles, hollow sheaf-like crystals, and hollow rods, which are depended on CTAB micellar structures. Besides organic additives, inorganic dopants, such as, Mg2+ ion, are found to be another key factor to influence the polymorph and morphology. We combine two types of additives (Mg 2+ ion and a denatured collagen protein (gelatin)) to direct the mineralization of CaCO3. The polymorphs and morphologies critically depend on gelatin concentration at a given Mg2+ concentration. While, at a given gelatin concentration, the Mg molar percentages in the mother solution, although not a determining factor for the polymorphs, can affect the crystal micro- and nano-structures. The controlled crystallization can be rationalized by the interplay between Mg2+ and gelatin, which mutually enhances their uptake and regulate the concomitant mineralization. The biomineralization process can be divided into the nucleation of amorphous precursors and the subsequent amorphous to crystalline transformation. Thirdly, on the basis of understanding the biomineralization mechanisms discussed above, we extrapolate it to synthesize transition metal compound nanomaterials on graphene sheets for energy storage application. We have applied a bio-inspired approach to prepare CoxNi1-xO (0?x<1) nanorods on graphene sheets, breaking out the Co/Ni molar ratio limitation for the known stable mixed oxide spinel NiCo2O4. This success has allowed us to further screen the compositions for electrochemical capacitor. CoxNi1-xO/graphene composite electrodes achieve a peak specific capacitance as the Co/Ni molar ratio is closed to 1. This bio-inspired approach also is applied for anchoring Ni(OH)2 nanocrystals on graphene sheets. The size and morphology of the Ni(OH)2 nanocrystals can be controlled via altering the treated temperature during the Ostwald ripening process. The specific capacitance decreased with increasing Ni(OH) 2 nanocrystal size, whereas the cycling stability performance increased with increasing the stability of Ni(OH)2 in

Xiao, Junwu

79

Understanding Science and Technology Interactions Through Ocean Science Exploration: A Summer Course for Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to replenish the national supply of science and mathematics educators, the National Science Foundation has supported the formation of the Center for Applications of Information Technology in the Teaching and Learning of Science (ITS) at Texas A&M University. The center staff and affiliated faculty work to change in fundamental ways the culture and relationships among scientists, educational researchers, and teachers. ITS is a partnership among the colleges of education, science, geosciences, agriculture and life science at Texas A&M University. Participants (teachers and graduate students) investigate how science is done and how science is taught and learned; how that learning is assessed, and how scholarly networks among all engaged in this work can be encouraged. While the center can offer graduate degrees most students apply as non-degree seekers. ITS participants are schooled on classroom technology applications, experience working on project teams, and access very current research work being conducted by scientists. ITS offers a certificate program consisting of two summer sessions over two years that results in 12 hours of graduate credit that can be applied to a degree. Interdisciplinary project teams spend three intense weeks connecting current research to classroom practices. During the past summer with the beginning of the two-year sequence, a course was implemented that introduced secondary teachers to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) contributions to major earth science themes, using core and logging data, engineering (technology) tools and processes. Information Technology classroom applications were enhanced through hands-on laboratory exercises, web resources and online databases. The course was structured around the following objectives. 1. Distinguish the purpose and goals of the Ocean Drilling Program from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program and describe the comparable science themes (ocean circulation, marine sedimentation, climate history, sea level change and geological time). This objective will be achieved by correctly answering 8 of 10 multiple choice items on course posttest on science themes of ODP/IODP. 2. Describe the technical tools and processes for determining sea level history by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on coring. 3. Describe the processes for describing a drill core and apply those processes to core samples from Leg 194 by developing a laboratory analysis report on core samples based on protocol for analyzing cores. 4. Explain the distinguishing features of scientific from industrial coring processes by developing a paper that contrasts scientific from industrial coring processes. 5. Describe the substructure of the ocean basin and the scientific tools (equipment and processes) used to explore this substructure by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on bore hole data interpretation. 6. Analyze and interpret data sets from a bore hole by developing a laboratory analysis report on bore-hole data. Student performance data for objectives indicate a 16% average positive change on the science themes addressed in instruction related to objective one occurred. Similarly, a 12% average positive change occurred on science education topics related to earth science among the students in this class. Ongoing contact between faculty members during the academic year is planned as these summer participants engage in implementing IT interventions and professional development experiences based on ocean science data experienced in the summer experience.

Baldauf, J.; Denton, J.

2003-12-01

80

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

81

The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

82

The use of a virtual reality simulator to explore and understand the impact of Linac mis-calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: In recent years there has been interest in using Computer Simulation within Medical training. The VERT (Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training) system is a Flight Simulator for Radiation Oncology professionals, wherein fundamental concepts, techniques and problematic scenarios can be safely investigated. Methods: The system provides detailed simulations of several Linacs and the ability to display DICOM treatment plans. Patients can be mis-positioned with 'set-up errors' which can be explored visually, dosimetrically and using IGRT. Similarly, a variety of Linac calibration and configuration parameters can be altered manually or randomly via controlled errors in the simulated 3D Linac and its component parts. The implication of these can be investigated by following through a treatment scenario or using QC devices available within a Physics software module. Results: One resultant exercise is a systematic mis-calibration of 'lateral laser height' by 2mm. The offset in patient alignment is easily identified using IGRT and once corrected by reference to the 'in-room monitor'. The dosimetric implication is demonstrated to be 0.4% by setting a dosimetry phantom by the lasers (and ignoring TSD information). Finally, the need for recalibration can be shown by the Laser Alignment Phantom or by reference to the front pointer. Conclusions: The VERT system provides a realistic environment for training and enhancing understanding of radiotherapy concepts and techniques. Linac error conditions can be explored in this context and valuable experience gained in a controlled manner in a compressed period of time.

Beavis, Andrew W.; Ward, James W.

2014-03-01

83

Understanding unexpected courses of multiple sclerosis among patients using complementary and alternative medicine: A travel from recipient to explorer  

PubMed Central

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Some MS patients experience unexpected improvements of symptoms, which they relate to their use of CAM. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge and develop understandings of such self-defined unexpected improvement of MS symptoms. Two cases were constructed based on documents and 12 qualitative interviews. Our aim was not to make generalisations from the cases, but to transfer knowledge as working hypotheses. We identified four health-related change processes: the process of losing bodily competence; the process of developing responsibility; the process of taking control; and the process of choosing CAM. The patients explained unexpected improvements in their MS symptoms as results of their own efforts including their choice and use of CAM. In our theoretical interpretations, we found the patients’ redefinition of history, the concept of treatment and the importance of conventional health care to be essential, and leading to a change of patients’ position towards conventional health care from recipients to explorers. The explorers can be perceived as boundary walkers reflecting limitations within the conventional health care system and as initiators regarding what MS patients find useful in CAM. PMID:20616888

Salamonsen, Anita; Launsř, Laila; Kruse, Tove E.; Eriksen, Sissel H.

2010-01-01

84

Climatic adaptation of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred Warren Isabrown female day old chicks were raised for 18 weeks in 3 distinct artificial climates described as temperate (20°C, 60% RH), hot dry (32°C, 40% RH) and hot humid (32°C, 90% RH). At 18 weeks each group was divided into 3 and re-allocated to 3 similar air-conditioned laying rooms as during the growing period. Different diets were

J. Njoya; M. Picard

1994-01-01

85

Exploring Exploring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will investigate, discuss, and determine why humans have always explored the world (and now space) around them. Students determine these reasons for exploration through a class discussion. In the first activity, students use the Internet to examine the characteristics of past explorers and why they conducted their exploration. The students then examine why current explorers - including the students themselves - want to explore other worlds in the Solar System. By the end of the lesson, the students can conclude that no matter what or when we explore - past, present, or future - the reasons for exploration are the same; the motivation for exploration is universal.

86

Understanding the use of just-in-time purchasing in a developing country : The case of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weak supplier bases and weak infrastructures pose significant obstacles to the use of just-in-time (JIT) purchasing in developing countries. Explores the use and effectiveness of JIT purchasing practices in one such developing country, Mexico, in an attempt to lay a foundation for understanding the use of JIT purchasing in developing countries in general. Analyses two distinct activities characteristic of JIT

John J. Lawrence; Holly S. Lewis

1996-01-01

87

How Iranian lay people in three ethnic groups conceptualize a case of a depressed woman: an explanatory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s). Although depression is a major public health problem, little is known about lay people's views of this subject in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore how depression in women is viewed among lay people in three major ethnic groups – Kurd, Turk, and Fars.Design. Participants were selected from public urban healthcare centers. Four focus group discussions

Masoumeh Dejman; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Shervin Assari; Maryam Rasoulian; Alireza Jazayery; Hossein Malekafzali; Monir Baradaran Eftekhari; Katayon Falahat; Solvig Ekblad

2010-01-01

88

Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Essential Features of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching Using Evidence-Based Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored preservice elementary teachers' and their mentors' understanding of the essential features of inquiry-based teaching through the use of evidence-based reflection. The web-based video analysis tool (VAT) system was used to support preservice teachers' and mentors' evidence-based reflection during field…

Seung, Eulsun; Park, Soonhye; Jung, Jinhong

2014-01-01

89

Exploring and Understanding Maryland's Math and Science Teachers' Perspectives on NCLB and Increase Testing: Employing a Phenomenological Inquiry Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore and seek to understand some of Maryland's math and science teachers' thoughts about the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and increase testing. The study utilized a phenomenological inquiry approach and four teachers participated in the study. Two of the teachers taught science and two taught…

Pinder, Patrice Juliet

2013-01-01

90

DO NORTHERN HARRIERS LAY REPLACEMENT CLUTCHES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological difference between North American and European populations of Circus cyaneus is the apparent lack of replacement clutches laid by the North American form (the Northern Harrier) on the failure of the first clutch. I present several lines of evidence that Northern Harriers do lay replacements, but only if their clutches are disturbed during laying or shortly thereafter. Two

ROBERT EDWARD SIMMONS

91

The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, Dongliang

2009-12-01

92

The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, DongLiang

2010-01-01

93

Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the Use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which…

Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

2014-01-01

94

Ultraviolet radiation and laying pullets.  

PubMed

1. Responses to ultraviolet (UV) radiation were studied in two trials. In one trial, sexually mature pullets, that had been maintained on an 8L:16D regimen from 2 d of age, were exposed sequentially, for periods of 9 to 12 d, to a further 8 h of very dim visible light (VDV), to 8 h of UV radiation and, finally, to an extra 8 h of normal light (conventional 16L:8D). Individual ovipositions were recorded during the last 48 h of each treatment. In the second trial, sexually mature pullets which had been allowed to 'free-run' for 14 d under continuous normal illumination (LL), were given, in addition to the normal light, a 12-h period of UV radiation commencing at midday or midnight for a further 15 d. During the final 48 h oviposition times were recorded and 4 food intakes for each 12-h period were determined. 2. In trial 1, mean oviposition time under VDV and UV supplementation was not significantly different from that under the 8L:16D regimen. Transfer to a 16L:8D regimen altered mean time of oviposition by about 4 h. In trial 2, eggs continued to be laid almost at random in all groups. 3. Food intake was suppressed during the 12-h period of UV supplementation compared with that when the birds were not receiving UV. 4. It is concluded that the addition of 8 h of UV radiation (at the intensity used in these studies) to 8 h of normal light does not cause a phase shift in the timing of the 'open-period' for pre-ovulatory luteinising hormone release which determines the time of oviposition. Furthermore, the insertion of 12-h periods of UV into continuous illumination does not entrain egg laying. 5. The suppressing effect of UV on food intake but lack of influence on the timing of the ovulatory cycle suggests that UV (at the intensity used in this study) acts principally at the retinal level and, as a result, stimulates only behavioural responses in laying birds. PMID:10890206

Lewis, P D; Perry, G C; Morris, T R

2000-05-01

95

Transforming Our Understanding of the X-ray Universe: The Imaging X-ray Polarimeter Explorer (IXPE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate X-ray polarimetry can provide unique information on high-energy-astrophysical processes and sources. As there have been no meaningful X-ray polarization measurements of cosmic sources since our pioneering work in the 1970's, the time is ripe to explore this new parameter space in X-ray astronomy. To accomplish this requires a well-calibrated and well understood system that-particularly for an Explorer mission-has technical, cost, and schedule credibility. The system that we shall present satisfies these conditions, being based upon completely calibrated imaging- and polarization-sensitive detectors and proven X-ray-telescope technology.

Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Matt, Giorgio; Marshall, Herman; ODell, Stephen L.; Pavlov, George; Ramsey, Brian; Romani, Roger

2014-01-01

96

Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese  

PubMed Central

Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction); the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1) and Stathmin-2 (STMN2) were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese. PMID:25049869

Luan, Xinhong; Cao, Zhongzan; Xu, Wen; Gao, Ming; Wang, Laiyou; Zhang, Shuwei

2013-01-01

97

Exploring Intercultural and Ethical Understanding through "Ethical Intelligence" and Drama in Asian Texts for the "Australian Curriculum: English"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on Australian texts with Asian representations, which will be discussed in terms of Ethical Intelligence (Weinstein, 2011) explored through drama. This approach aligns with the architecture of the "Australian Curriculum: English" (AC:E, v5, 2013), in particular the general capabilities of "ethical…

Jetnikoff, Anita

2013-01-01

98

Impact through Images: Exploring Student Understanding of Environmental Science through Integrated Place-Based Lessons in the Elementary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early 1800s, the U.S. President Thomas Jefferson assembled a team of explorers led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to forge a waterway connecting the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. How has this environment changed in 200 years and how do elementary students make sense of those changes? This study looks at the impact of…

Muthersbaugh, Debbie; Kern, Anne L.; Charvoz, Rebecca

2014-01-01

99

Family Day Care Educators: An Exploration of Their Understanding and Experiences Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…

Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Davies, Belinda; Smyth, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Herrman, Helen; Sims, Margaret; Harrison, Linda; Cook, Kay; Marshall, Bernie; Williamson, Lara

2012-01-01

100

Ofqual's Reliability Programme: A Case Study Exploring the Potential to Improve Public Understanding and Confidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2008, Ofqual established a two-year programme of research to investigate the nature and extent of (un)reliability within the qualifications, examinations and assessments that it regulated. It was particularly concerned to improve understanding of, and confidence in, this technically complex and politically sensitive phenomenon. The…

Newton, Paul E.

2013-01-01

101

An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

Dawson, Vaille

2007-01-01

102

Analysing Vee Diagram Reflections to Explore Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding the Nature of Science in Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vee diagrams have been a metacognitive tool to help in learning the nature and structure of knowledge by reflecting on the scientific process and making knowledge much more explicit to learners during the practical work. This study aimed to assess pre-service science teachers' understanding some aspects of NOS by analyzing their reflections…

Savran-Gencer, Ayse

2014-01-01

103

Exploring the Usefulness of Two Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding How Organizational Factors Influence Innovation Implementation in Cancer Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors…

Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva

2013-01-01

104

Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

2007-01-01

105

Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

2012-01-01

106

Understanding Science: Misconceptions About Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page explores misinterpretations of the scientific process and explains why these commonly-held beliefs are incorrect. A few examples of such misconceptions are: "Without an experiment, a study is not rigorous or scientific"; "There is a single scientific method that all scientists follow"; "Scientific ideas are absolute"; "The job of a scientist is to find support for his/her hypothesis"; "Investigations that don't reach a firm conclusion are useless." The authors also clarify vocabulary mix-ups that occur when lay language and scientific language use the same words differently (such as "uncertainty", "law", and "error"). This web page is part of the Understanding Science project developed by the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with a diverse group of scientists and teachers.

2010-09-29

107

Exploring Relations Among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas About Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and dinosaurs and plate tectonics. Accepting the theory of evolution was positively correlated with correctly answering the three other questions related to the age of Earth. Furthermore, participants who rejected evolution scored significantly lower on a test of basic science concepts than did participants who held accurate views on human evolution. Study results revealed no apparent association between completion of advanced college science courses and acceptance of evolutionary theory or understanding of science concepts. Implications for elementary science teacher education were discussed.

Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

2012-04-01

108

An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

Dawson, Vaille

2007-03-01

109

48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lay days. 1252.217-75 Section 1252.217-75...Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-75 Lay days. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217...insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay day...

2014-10-01

110

48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lay days. 1352.271-86 Section 1352.271-86...Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-86 Lay days. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is...

2014-10-01

111

Exploring one aspect of pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants using the test of understanding graphs in kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) is a multiple-choice test developed by Beichner in 1994 to assess students’ understanding of kinematics graphs. Many of the items on the TUG-K have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ common difficulties with kinematics graphs. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common difficulties of introductory physics students and explicitly take them into account in their instructional design. We evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of first-year physics graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant training course related to topics covered in the TUG-K. In particular, for each item on the TUG-K, the graduate students were asked to identify which incorrect answer choice they thought would be most commonly selected by introductory physics students if they did not know the correct answer after instruction in relevant concepts. We used the graduate student data and the data from Beichner’s original paper for introductory physics students (which was collected from over 500 college and high school students) to assess this aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of the graduate students, i.e., knowledge of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs as they are revealed by the TUG-K. We find that, although the graduate students, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory student difficulties on the TUG-K, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory students have with graphs in kinematics. In addition, we find that the ability of graduate students to identify the difficulties of introductory students is context dependent and that discussions among the graduate students improved their understanding of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs. Moreover, we find that the ability of American graduate students in identifying common student difficulties is comparable with that of foreign graduate students.

Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

2013-12-01

112

Exploring How Research Experiences For Teachers Changes Their Understandings Of The Nature Of Science And Scientific Inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of science is a prevalent theme across United States national science education standards and frameworks as well as other documents that guide formal and informal science education reform. To support teachers in engaging their students in authentic scientific practices and reformed teaching strategies, research experiences for teachers offered in national laboratories, university research centers, and national field-sites promise opportunities to help teachers update their current understanding of STEM fields and experience firsthand how scientific research is conducted with the end goal of supporting more inquiry-based teaching approaches in their classrooms. This qualitative interpretive study used an adapted Views of Nature of Science and Views on Scientific Inquiry surveys and protocols to investigate changes in 43 practicing teachersÂą understandings about the nature of science and scientific inquiry as a result of participation in one of three summer science research programs. Each program provided participants with research experiences alongside professional researchers as well as activities intended to increase participantsÂą abilities to provide inquiry-based science learning activities for their students. Data were collected using open-ended surveys pre-program, post-program and long-term follow-up surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, along with researcherÂąs observations and field-notes. Participation in these programs led to small, measurable enhancements in teachersÂą understandings of scientific inquiry and the nature of science. TeachersÂą prior experience with research was found to have the strongest relationship to their knowledge of the nature of science and scientific inquiry. The data in this study provides evidence that research experiences can provide valuable experiences to support teachersÂą improved knowledge of how science is conducted. Ĺ

Buxner, Sanlyn R.

2014-12-01

113

Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and SRTM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on interpreting the evolutionary history of the Amazon Basin. We are grateful to Bruce Chapman, Naira Pinto, and the JPL UAVSAR team for supporting the planning and acquisition of the UAVSAR data, and to the NASA Biodiversity Program for providing funding to support the UAVSAR acquisitions. This work was carried out under a grant from the NASA Biodiversity Program and the NSF DIMENSIONS of Biodiversity Program.

McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

2013-12-01

114

A Case Study: The Impact of an Immersion Experience on the Vocation of Lay Teacher-Leaders in American Jesuit High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this case study explores the impact of an immersion experience to a least developed country on the vocation of lay teacher leaders in American Jesuit High Schools. Nine lay teacher leaders engaged in a four stage process of immersion from November 2009 to August 2010. The study employed the conceptual framework of Edward…

Schreiber, Martin J.

2012-01-01

115

Application of community phylogenetic approaches to understand gene expression: differential exploration of venom gene space in predatory marine gastropods  

PubMed Central

Background Predatory marine gastropods of the genus Conus exhibit substantial variation in venom composition both within and among species. Apart from mechanisms associated with extensive turnover of gene families and rapid evolution of genes that encode venom components (‘conotoxins’), the evolution of distinct conotoxin expression patterns is an additional source of variation that may drive interspecific differences in the utilization of species’ ‘venom gene space’. To determine the evolution of expression patterns of venom genes of Conus species, we evaluated the expression of A-superfamily conotoxin genes of a set of closely related Conus species by comparing recovered transcripts of A-superfamily genes that were previously identified from the genomes of these species. We modified community phylogenetics approaches to incorporate phylogenetic history and disparity of genes and their expression profiles to determine patterns of venom gene space utilization. Results Less than half of the A-superfamily gene repertoire of these species is expressed, and only a few orthologous genes are coexpressed among species. Species exhibit substantially distinct expression strategies, with some expressing sets of closely related loci (‘under-dispersed’ expression of available genes) while others express sets of more disparate genes (‘over-dispersed’ expression). In addition, expressed genes show higher dN/dS values than either unexpressed or ancestral genes; this implies that expression exposes genes to selection and facilitates rapid evolution of these genes. Few recent lineage-specific gene duplicates are expressed simultaneously, suggesting that expression divergence among redundant gene copies may be established shortly after gene duplication. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that venom gene space is explored differentially by Conus species, a process that effectively permits the independent and rapid evolution of venoms in these species. PMID:24903151

2014-01-01

116

Multi-domain patient reported outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome: exploring person centered perspectives to better understand symptom severity scores  

PubMed Central

Objectives Patient reported outcomes (PRO) assessing multiple gastrointestinal symptoms are central to characterizing the therapeutic benefit of novel agents for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Common approaches that sum or average responses across different illness components must be unidimensional and have small unique variances to avoid aggregation bias and misinterpretation of clinical data. This study sought to evaluate the unidimensionality of the IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) and to explore person centered cluster analytic methods for characterizing multivariate-based patient profiles. Methods Ninety-eight Rome-diagnosed IBS patients completed the IBS-SSS and a single, global item of symptom severity (UCLA Symptom Severity Scale) at pretreatment baseline of an NIH funded clinical trial. A k-means cluster analyses were performed on participants symptom severity scores. Results The IBS-SSS was not unidimensional. Exploratory cluster analyses revealed four common symptom profiles across five items of the IBS-SSS. One cluster of patients (25%) had elevated scores on pain frequency and bowel dissatisfaction, with less elevated but still high scores on life interference and low pain severity ratings. A second cluster (19%) was characterized by intermediate scores on both pain dimensions, but more elevated scores on bowel dissatisfaction. A third cluster (18%) was elevated across all IBS-SSS sub-components. The fourth and most common cluster (37%) had relatively low scores on all dimensions except bowel dissatisfaction and life interference due to IBS symptoms. Conclusions PRO endpoints and research on IBS more generally relying on multicomponent assessments of symptom severity should take into account the multidimensional structure of symptoms to avoid aggregation bias and to optimize the sensitivity of detecting treatment effects. PMID:23337220

Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Jaccard, James; Baum, Charles

2012-01-01

117

The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

2005-01-01

118

Skill Standards for Open Cut Pipe Laying.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document identifies skill standards for utility construction in a format that uses scenarios to provide a picture of the construction process under consideration. The scenarios provide a general description of the pipe laying and utility construction process. An introduction describes use and benefits of skill standards. Section 2 presents…

Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

119

Science and Me: A Student-Driven Science Outreach Program for Lay Adult Audiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing need for communicating science to the public suggests that future scientists and science educators should be educated in science outreach and trained to communicate with lay audiences. We present a recently developed novel graduate course, which trains students in outreach efforts aimed to increase the public's understanding of…

Alexander, Hannah; Waldron, Anna M.; Abell, Sandra K.

2011-01-01

120

Daily Estradiol and Progesterone Levels Relative to Laying and Onset of Incubation in Canaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female birds may optimize reproduction by modifying clutch size and the timing for the onset of incubation. We measured fecal estradiol-17b (E) and progesterone (P) in laying canaries to better understand how onset of incuba- tion might regulate clutch size. Both E and P rose sharply to maxima 1 day before the first egg was laid. Thereafter, E steadily declined,

Keith W. Sockman; Hubert Schwabl

2001-01-01

121

Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing  

SciTech Connect

Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data.

Brown, P. (Brown University, Providence, RI (United States))

1992-09-01

122

Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing.  

PubMed

Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data. PMID:1401851

Brown, P

1992-09-01

123

Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

2011-01-01

124

Lay Theories of Gender Identity Disorder  

PubMed Central

This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered. PMID:24059967

Sen, Radhika

2013-01-01

125

From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities  

PubMed Central

Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and framing of the research questions, participants did not display a high level of knowledge about the nature and causes of place-based health inequalities. By extending the scope of lay theorizing to include a focus on solutions, this study offers additional insights for public health. Specifically it suggests that a popular constituency for action on the social determinants of health is unlikely to eventuate from the current popular understandings of possible policy levers. PMID:21281478

2011-01-01

126

Involving lay and professional stakeholders in the development of a research intervention for the DEPICTED Study  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper focuses on stakeholders’ active involvement at key stages of the research as members of a Stakeholder Action Group (SAG), particularly in the context of lay stakeholder involvement. Some challenges that can arise and wider issues (e.g. empowerment, the impact of user involvement) are identified and explored within the literature on service user involvement in health care research, reflecting on the implications for researchers. Background In the DEPICTED study, lay and professional stakeholders were actively involved in developing a complex research intervention. Lay stakeholders comprised teenage and adult patients with diabetes, parents and patient organization representatives. Professional stakeholders were from a range of disciplines. Methods Three 1-day research meetings were attended by 13–17 lay stakeholders and 10–11 professional stakeholders (plus researchers). The SAG was responsible for reviewing evidence, advising on developing ideas for the research intervention and guiding plans for evaluation of the intervention in a subsequent trial. Formal evaluations were completed by stakeholders following each SAG meeting. Results Throughout the first (developmental) stage of this two-stage study, lay and professional stakeholders participated or were actively involved in activities that provided data to inform the research intervention. Lay stakeholders identified the need for and contributed to the design of a patient-held tool, strongly influenced the detailed design and content of the research intervention and outcome questionnaire, thus making a major contribution to the trial design. Conclusion Stakeholders, including teenagers, can be actively involved in designing a research intervention and impact significantly on study outcomes. PMID:20860779

Lowes, Lesley; Robling, Michael R; Bennert, Kristina; Crawley, Charlotte; Hambly, Helen; Hawthorne, Kamila; Gregory, John W

2011-01-01

127

Trait mindfulness is associated with blood pressure and interleukin-6: exploring interactions among subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire to better understand relationships between mindfulness and health.  

PubMed

Mindfulness based interventions have been associated with improvements in physical health; however, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear. The current study explored relationships between trait mindfulness, blood pressure (BP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Relationships between physical health variables and (1) a composite score of mindfulness, (2) individual facets of mindfulness and (3) interactions between theoretically relevant pairs of mindfulness subscales were investigated. One hundred and thirty healthy, young adults [M (SD) age = 21.7(2.7) years] reported trait levels of mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, subscales include: observing, describing, acting with awareness (AWA), nonjudging and nonreactivity), had their resting BP measured and underwent a blood draw to assesses circulating IL-6 levels. Age, gender, body mass index, race/ethnicity, depression and perceived stress were obtained and used as covariates. A composite score of trait mindfulness was associated with lower BP and a trend suggested that it was also associated with lower IL-6. Investigation of individual facets of mindfulness revealed interactions between the subscales AWA and nonjudging, such that higher endorsement of AWA was associated with lower BP only when nonjudging was also high. A second interaction was observed between the subscales observing and nonreactivity, such that higher endorsement of observing was associated with lower IL-6 only when levels of nonreactivity were also high. Trait mindfulness was associated with both BP and IL-6. Examining interactions between facets of mindfulness variables may be important in understanding how mindfulness based interventions influence physiology. PMID:24888477

Tomfohr, Lianne M; Pung, Meredith A; Mills, Paul J; Edwards, Kate

2015-02-01

128

Cestodosis in battery-housed laying hens.  

PubMed

Cestodosis in battery-housed laying hens severely reduced egg production particularly at the time of peak production. Hens were able to consume large numbers of Musca domestica, the intermediate host of Choanotaenia infundibulum following the use of an aerosol insecticide to control flies. A considerable discharge of cestodes followed the use of "Lintex" in the feed resulting in a marked improvement in egg production. The use of an insect growth regulator in the feed showed promise in controlling the breeding of flies. PMID:994133

Abrams, L

1976-09-01

129

Exploring the Universe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)

Aviation/Space, 1982

1982-01-01

130

Exploring Ice in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module includes several lessons aimed at introducing ice science to students. In the first activity, students share personal ice experience stories through drawing, telling, and writing. This enables the teacher to diagnose personal conceptions about ice. Then students explore a big block of ice. They ask and record their questions and start an ice science notebook. Depending on the nature of the questions, the teacher selects appropriate follow-up activities. Other lessons include: Ice Melts,Ice Floats,Ice Flows, Ice is a Mineral, Life in Icy Places, and Ice in Space. Each lesson includes a kinesthetic activity where students mime and act out ice science concepts, creating a science performance laboratory. These experiences lay the foundation for deeper conceptual understanding in later school years. All lessons include extensive background information, a list of national standards addressed, suggested curriculum extensions, a list of resources and photo gallery.

131

The role of romantic attachment security and dating identity exploration in understanding adolescents' sexual attitudes and cumulative sexual risk-taking.  

PubMed

This study addressed how two normative developmental factors, attachment and identity, are associated with adolescents' sexual attitudes and sexual risk-taking behavior. The sample consisted of 2029 adolescents (mean age = 16.2 years) living in the Southeast United States. Path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Higher levels of attachment anxiety predicted more dating identity exploration and less healthy sexual attitudes. Higher levels of attachment avoidance predicted less dating identity exploration and indirectly predicted less healthy sexual attitudes through dating identity exploration. Females with dating or sexual experience showed the weakest associations between the attachment dimensions and dating identity exploration. More dating identity exploration predicted healthier sexual attitudes; this association was strongest for non-virgins. Finally, higher levels of attachment avoidance were associated with higher cumulative sexual risk scores, but only among non-virgin males. Results are interpreted in light of theory and research on attachment, identity exploration, and adolescent sexual relationships. PMID:25598388

McElwain, Alyssa D; Kerpelman, Jennifer L; Pittman, Joe F

2015-02-01

132

Should I lay or should I wait? Egg-laying in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.  

PubMed

Optimality theory predicts that females tend to maximize their offspring survival by choosing the egg-laying site. In this context, the use of conspecific cues allows a more reliable assessment of the habitat quality. To test this hypothesis, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an appropriate biological model as it is a phytophagous mite living in group, protected against external aggression by a common web. Experiments were conducted to determine the respective influence of substrate (living substrate: bean leaf vs. non-living substrate: glass plate), silk and presence of conspecific eggs on the egg-laying behavior of T. urticae females. On both living and non-living substrates, the presence of silk positively influenced the probability of a female to lay an egg, but had no influence on the number of eggs deposited. The egg-laying behavior was mainly determined by the nature of the substrate with mites laying fewer eggs on a non-living substrate than on a living one. The presence of a conspecific egg had no impact on either the probability of laying an egg or on the oviposition rate. This study showed a high variability among females in their fecundity and egg-laying performance. The physiology of females (individual fecundity), the egg-laying substrate and to a lesser extent the presence of silk impacted on the decision of spider mites to lay eggs. PMID:23069806

Clotuche, Gwendoline; Turlure, Camille; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Detrain, Claire; Hance, Thierry

2013-01-01

133

Effects of colored light-emitting diode illumination on behavior and performance of laying hens.  

PubMed

The best method for lighting poultry houses has been an issue for many decades, generating much interest in any new systems that become available. Poultry farmers are now increasingly using colored LED (light-emitting diodes) to illuminate hen houses (e.g., in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, and England). In Switzerland all newly installed systems are now equipped with LED, preferably green ones. The LED give monochromatic light from different wavelengths and have several advantages over conventional illuminants, including high energy efficiency, long life, high reliability, and low maintenance costs. The following study examines the effects of illumination with white, red, and green LED on behavior and production parameters of laying hens. Light intensities in the 3 treatments were adjusted to be perceived by hens as equal. Twenty-four groups of 25 laying hens were kept in identical compartments (5.0 × 3.3 m) equipped with a litter area, raised perches, feed and drinking facilities, and nest boxes. Initially, they were kept under white LED for a 2-wk adaptation period. For the next 4 wk, 8 randomly chosen compartments were lit with red LED (640 nm) and 8 others with green LED (520 nm). Behavior was monitored during the last 2 wk of the trial. Additionally weight gain, feed consumption, onset of lay, and laying performance were recorded. The results showed minor effects of green light on explorative behavior, whereas red light reduced aggressiveness compared with white light. The accelerating effect of red light on sexual development of laying hens was confirmed, and the trial demonstrated that this effect was due to the specific wavelength and not the intensity of light. However, an additional effect of light intensity may exist and should not be excluded. PMID:23472008

Huber-Eicher, B; Suter, A; Spring-Stähli, P

2013-04-01

134

Cecal spirochetosis in commercial laying hens.  

PubMed

Cecal spirochetosis in chickens has been associated with enteric disease and reduced egg production in the United States and Europe. This report describes spirochete overgrowth of cecal mucosa in chickens from a flock of 100,000 commercial layers experiencing diarrhea and a 5% drop in egg production. Spirochetes were demonstrated in the ceca by darkfield and light microscopy. Apical surfaces of cecal enterocytes were covered by a dense layer of spirochetes aligned parallel to each other and perpendicular to the mucosal surface. Weakly beta-hemolytic, indole-negative spirochetes were isolated from the ceca on BJ media under anaerobic conditions at 42 C. Chicken cecal spirochetosis may represent an economically significant enteric disease of laying hens which has heretofore been infrequently recognized. PMID:7702527

Trampel, D W; Jensen, N S; Hoffman, L J

1994-01-01

135

Perch width preferences of laying hens.  

PubMed

1. In order to investigate the effect of perch width on perching behaviour of laying hens, two experiments in which hens could choose between 7 different perch widths (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0 and 10.5 cm) were conducted. In one experiment (EXP-2P) test cages contained two long perches gradually broadening and narrowing stepwise, in the other experiment (EXP-7P) 7 separate short perches differing in width were placed in the test cages. In each experiment 12 groups of 4 hens were filmed during day and night. The behaviour and location of the hens were recorded and whether the nest box affected hen distribution over the perches was investigated. 2. During daytime, in EXP-2P, there was an increase in perch use with increasing perch width. Hens spent less time on perches of 1.5 cm wide compared to perches of 9.0 and 10.5 cm wide. In EXP-7P, the 1.5-cm wide perch was also used the least (but only the difference with 4.5-cm wide perches was statistically significant) but perch use did not increase linearly with perch width. During the night, there were no significant perch width preferences in either experiment. 3. The percentage of active behaviours (preening, walking, drinking, pecking at hen) versus passive behaviours (standing, sitting, sleeping) did not differ significantly according to perch width. 4. In EXP-7P, there was a trend for perch use to decrease with greater distances to the nest box in the morning. 5. A perch width of 1.5 cm is not recommended for laying hens. For wider perch widths, results were equivocal: they tend to support rather than challenge the widespread use of 4.5-cm wide perches in commercial units. PMID:19735010

Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Odberg, F; Sonck, B; Duchateau, L

2009-07-01

136

Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent drilling and appraisal on the Southern Utsira High, Norwegian North Sea, has proved several large oil/gas discoveries, including the giant Johan Sverdrup, Edvard Grieg, Draupne, Ragnarrock and Apollo oil fields, making this a prolific petroleum area. The Southern Utsira High contains a variety of hydrocarbon density fluids found at several stratigraphic levels illustrating the compartmentalized nature of accumulations and charge history. The Southern Utsira High has been in a position to receive an oil/gas charge for a considerable period of time, with the basin towards the west most likely generating petroleum from early Eocene (50M Mabp) to its maximum present day burial depth. However, reservoir temperatures on the Southern Utsira High are just above the threshold for biodegradation (80°C). The Southern Utsira High oils are non-biodegraded suggesting that the majority of the oil charged relatively late - ca.3 million years ago to present day. The effects of the glaciation on the filling history of the Southern Utsira High are currently being assessed. It is clear that several erosional surfaces in the Pliocene can be identified, as well as glacial channels and moraine deposits, indicating that significant deposition and erosion occurred in the last five million years. Importantly, the effects of glacial rebound mean that the Southern Utsira High more than likely underwent tilting and possible leakage, not just once, but several times in the last 1 million years. The effects of tilting/leakage of geological areas on oil migration have been recognized by several authors. However, the detailed integration of geological mapping and geochemical evidence has not previously been published. The implications of a detailed assessment of tilting of a ''high' through time are; 1) opening up areas where oil migration is thought to be high risk or impossible; 2) identify possible paleo-oil columns aiding the de-risking of discovery appraisal strategies. The evidence of tilting/leakage of oil accumulations through time can be recognized in several oil fields on the Utsira High. The giant Johan Sverdrup discovery oil columns contain paleo-OWC, residual oil zones/paleo-oil columns, and oil shows considerably deeper than the current OWC or residual oil columns. Lundin has performed detailed mapping of the seabed and water column in the Alvheim/Utsira High areas in order to identify areas of gas leakage and its geological manifestations on the seabed and ultimately resulting in the collection of high quality samples. Results shows that gas leakage is prominent over the Alvheim and Utsira High areas and the implications of this to oil exploration will be discussed. In summary, Lundin's approach to oil migration is to better understand the fluid/gas movement throughout the whole basin through time. The talk will focus on the role of glaciations on the timing of charge from the South Viking Graben, fill-spill directions on the Southern Utsira High, the effects of late tilting/leakage on the charge/re-distribution of oil, and seabed / water column characterization and sampling. All placed in the context of oil exploration.

Stoddart, Daniel

2014-05-01

137

Investigating Teachers' Exploration of a Professional Development Website: An Innovative Approach to Understanding the Factors that Motivate Teachers to Use Internet-Based Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined an innovative methodology, combining screen capture technology and a retrospective think aloud, for exploring the use of Internet-based resources by elementary teachers. Pre-service and in-service teachers explored "The Balanced Literacy Diet," a free, interactive, and evidenced-informed professional…

Beach, Pamela; Willows, Dale

2014-01-01

138

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-01-01

139

Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of aspects of planetary exploration and protection that may be particularly sensitive or controversial and that could prove problematic from a risk-management standpoint, perhaps warranting a more stringent risk-management approach than would otherwise be the case based on technical considerations alone. The design of the study compares perceptions and attitudes about space exploration relevant to a Mars sample return mission between three respondent groups: (1) members of The Planetary Society, a group representing individuals with a strong interest in space-related issues, (2) a group of university-aged students, representing a population relatively sensitive to environmental hazards, and (3) a group of life scientists outside of the space research community. Members of The Planetary Society received the survey as part of a special issue of The Planetary Report on planetary protection, which contained a number of background articles on planetary protection and related topics. A synopsis of the issue was prepared as an introduction to the survey for the other two groups.

Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

2000-01-01

140

6. Egg-laying in Butterflies Frances S. Chew  

E-print Network

6. Egg-laying in Butterflies Frances S. Chew Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford butterfly lays an egg, thereby abandoning her offspring, her behaviour is the result of physiological in butterflies with the goal of integrating into an evolutionary framework those factors that influence egg

Robbins, Bob

141

Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation  

E-print Network

Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation Y. NYS, P. MONGIN Station de to water, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride was measured in the immature pullet and then in the laying hen before and during egg-shell calcification by an in vivo perfusion procedure. Jejunal calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

Dietary Safflower Phospholipid Reduces Liver Lipids in Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to deter- mine the effects of dietary safflower phospholipids (crude safflower phospholipid and purified safflower phospholipid) on performance and lipid metabolism of laying hens. Sixty-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were divided into four groups of seven birds each, and were given one of four experimental diets containing 5% beef tallow (served as a control,

B. K. AN; H. NISHIYAMA; K. TANAKA; S. OHTANI; T. IWATA; K. TSUTSUMI; M. KASAI

143

Lay Normativity, Family Relatedness and Wrongdoings: An Investigation into Family Responsibilities and Foster Care (Baguuga Beruu) in Kyrgyzstani Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines how family relatedness and perceived moral wrongdoings shape individuals' lay understandings of moral responsibilities between adult kin members. Family responsibilities are always contextual and relational, in that social proximity and remoteness partly influence sympathy and tenderness. We analyse how the Kyrgyz custom of temporary foster care of babies and young children (baguuga beruu) can produce mixed moral

Balihar Sanghera; Aisalkyn Botoeva

144

The epidemiology of ‘bewitchment’ as a lay-reported cause of death in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Cases of premature death in Africa may be attributed to witchcraft. In such settings, medical registration of causes of death is rare. To fill this gap, verbal autopsy (VA) methods record signs and symptoms of the deceased before death as well as lay opinion regarding the cause of death; this information is then interpreted to derive a medical cause of death. In the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, South Africa, around 6% of deaths are believed to be due to ‘bewitchment’ by VA respondents. Methods Using 6874 deaths from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System, the epidemiology of deaths reported as bewitchment was explored, and using medical causes of death derived from VA, the association between perceptions of witchcraft and biomedical causes of death was investigated. Results The odds of having one's death reported as being due to bewitchment is significantly higher in children and reproductive-aged women (but not in men) than in older adults. Similarly, sudden deaths or those following an acute illness, deaths occurring before 2001 and those where traditional healthcare was sought are more likely to be reported as being due to bewitchment. Compared with all other deaths, deaths due to external causes are significantly less likely to be attributed to bewitchment, while maternal deaths are significantly more likely to be. Conclusions Understanding how societies interpret the essential factors that affect their health and how health seeking is influenced by local notions and perceived aetiologies of illness and death could better inform sustainable interventions and health promotion efforts. PMID:21515546

Tollman, Stephen; Byass, Peter; Golooba-Mutebi, Frederick; Kahn, Kathleen

2011-01-01

145

Lay navigator model for impacting cancer health disparities.  

PubMed

This paper recounts experiences, challenges, and lessons learned when implementing a lay patient navigator program to improve cancer care among medically underserved patients who presented in a primary care clinic with a breast or colorectal cancer abnormality. The program employed five lay navigators to navigate 588 patients. Central programmatic elements were the following: (1) use of bilingual lay navigators with familiarity of communities they served; (2) provision of training, education, and supportive activities; (3) multidisciplinary clinical oversight that factored in caseload intensity; and (4) well-developed partnerships with community clinics and social service entities. Deconstruction of healthcare system information was fundamental to navigation processes. We conclude that a lay model of navigation is well suited to assist patients through complex healthcare systems; however, a stepped care model that includes both lay and professional navigation may be optimal to help patients across the entire continuum. PMID:24683043

Meade, Cathy D; Wells, Kristen J; Arevalo, Mariana; Calcano, Ercilia R; Rivera, Marlene; Sarmiento, Yolanda; Freeman, Harold P; Roetzheim, Richard G

2014-09-01

146

What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.  

PubMed

Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214

Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

2014-01-01

147

An Exploration of the Concept Map as an Interview Tool To Facilitate the Externalization of Students' Understandings about Global Atmospheric Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effectiveness of two different types of interviews: one that embeds a concept map, and one that does not embed a concept map in order to elicit post-instructional understandings. Focuses on students' understandings of chlorofluorocarbons and their role in global atmospheric change. Contains 71 references. (DDR)

Rye, James A.; Rubba, Peter A.

1998-01-01

148

EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING..........................................................................................................1 Hand Lay-up in Turbine Blade Fabrication ............................................................1 Drawbacks Inherent to Hand Lay-up ..........................................................4

149

Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.

2012-01-01

150

Understanding curriculum in context: using currere to explore the perceptions, attitudes and practices of white teachers in classrooms with african american students  

E-print Network

. More specifically, the intent was to understand the relationship between the selected White teachers’ perceptions of themselves as White educators, their perceptions of the African American students they teach, and their teaching practices. Further...

Milam, Jennifer Louise

2009-05-15

151

An exploration of the concept map as an interview tool to facilitate the externalization of students' understandings about global atmospheric change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different types of interviews—one that did (POSTICM) and one that did not (POSTI) embed a concept-mapping process—to elicit students' postinstructional understandings about chlorofluorocarbons and their role in global atmospheric change (GAC). A chief criterion measure was accordance, the degree to which students held the ideal postinstructional understanding

James A. Rye; Peter A. Rubba

1998-01-01

152

Help-seeking preferences in the area of mild cognitive impairment: comparing family physicians and the lay public  

PubMed Central

Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild neurocognitive disorder is a well-established clinical entity included in current diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease and in major psychiatric classifications. In all, a loosely defined concern obtained from conceptually different sources (the individual, a knowledgeable informant, or a clinician) regarding a decline in cognition and change in functioning constitutes a sine qua non for initiating diagnostics and providing therapy and support. This concern in practice may translate into complex proactive help-seeking behavior. A better understanding of help-seeking preferences is required in order to promote early detection and management. Objectives To compare help-seeking preferences of family physicians and the lay public in the area of MCI. Methods A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 197 family physicians (self-administered) and 517 persons aged 45 and over from the lay public (face to face). Information regarding familiarity with MCI and help-seeking preferences was assessed. Results The vast majority in both samples reported that family physician, spouse, and children are the most highly recommended sources of help-seeking. In regard to professional sources of help-seeking, a higher percentage of the physicians than the lay public sample consistently recommended seeking help from nurses and social workers and psychiatrists, but a higher percentage of the lay public recommended turning to a neurologist for help. Discussion There were both similarities and differences between family physicians and the lay public in their preferences regarding help-seeking for a person with MCI. Most prominent is the physicians’ greater tendency to recommend professional sources of help-seeking. Conclusion Understanding of help-seeking preferences of both physicians and lay persons might help overcome barriers for establishing diagnosis, receiving care, and improving communication between doctors and patients. PMID:24748779

Werner, Perla; Heinik, Jeremia; Giveon, Shmuel; Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Kitai, Eliezer

2014-01-01

153

Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period  

PubMed Central

Background Cracked shells, due to age related reduction of shell quality, are a costly problem for the industry. Parallel to reduced shell quality the skeleton becomes brittle resulting in bone fractures. Calcium, a main prerequisite for both eggshell and bone, is regulated by estrogen in a complex manner. The effects of estrogen, given in a low continuous dose, were studied regarding factors involved in age related changes in shell quality and bone strength of laying hens. A pellet containing 0.385 mg estradiol 3-benzoate (21-day-release) or placebo was inserted subcutaneously in 20 birds each of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) at 70 weeks of age. Eggs were collected before and during the experiment for shell quality measurements. Blood samples for analysis of total calcium were taken three days after the insertion and at sacrifice (72 weeks). Right femur was used for bone strength measurements and tissue samples from duodenum and shell gland were processed for morphology, immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors (ER?, ER?), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Results Estrogen treatment increased shell thickness of both hybrids. In addition, shell weight and shell deformation improved in eggs from the brown hybrids. The more pronounced effect on eggs from the brown hybrid may be due to a change in sensitivity to estrogen, especially in surface epithelial cells of the shell gland, shown as an altered ratio between ER? and ER?. A regulatory effect of estrogen on CA activity, but not PMCA, was seen in both duodenum and shell gland, and a possible connection to shell quality is discussed. Bone strength was unaffected by treatment, but femur was stronger in LSL birds suggesting that the hybrids differ in calcium allocation between shell and bone at the end of the laying period. Plasma calcium concentrations and egg production were unaffected. Conclusions A low continuous dose of estrogen improves shell strength but not bone strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period. PMID:24884886

2014-01-01

154

Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array…

Le, Tam; Gardner, Susan K.

2010-01-01

155

Pragmatic Abilities in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment: An Exploration of Non-Literal Language and Advanced Theory of Mind Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to explore whether children with a broader range of…

Pijnacker, Judith; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Steenbergen, Bert

2012-01-01

156

Playing the Field(s): An Exploration of Change, Conformity and Conflict in Girls' Understandings of Gendered Physicality in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on data from a year-long ethnographic study of a group of 12- to 13-year-old girls that explored the processes through which they negotiated gendered physicality within the context of physical education. Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and social fields and McNay's extension of his work underpin a discussion of three contexts where…

Hills, Laura A.

2006-01-01

157

IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

158

Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

Grybeck, Donald J.

2006-01-01

159

Comparative Influences of Various Protein Feeds on Laying Hens  

E-print Network

. Conzparative Inflzcences of Various Protein Feeds on Laying Hens 13 Table 6C November 2, 1920, to October 1, 1921-334 Days /Fish Meal or Tankape ... .I00 Ibs.1 & F Cottonseed 29.7 1 I Meal .......... .:. ...... .none/ Fish Meal or Tankage... ...................................................... 5 Experiment 1-Comparative Value of Meat Scrap. Tankzge 2nd Cotton- ................................ . seed Meal for Laying Hens 6 ............................ Time. Objects. Stock Used. Feeds Used G Prices of Feeds...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

1924-01-01

160

Effects of dietary calcium sources on laying hen performance  

E-print Network

egg-type laying hens fed diets in which the calcium source, calcium level and combination of calcium sources varied in order to determine which source and combination produced the best egg shell quality. The substitution of one...-third of the supplemental calcium as large particle calcium carbonate in a complete laying hen diet was found to significantly improve egg shell quality. Percent egg production, feed conversion and egg weights were not significantly affected by the source or particle...

Brister, Roy David

2012-06-07

161

Understanding How Teacher and Student Talk with Each Other: An Exploration of How "Repair" Displays the Co-Management of Talk-in-Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essence of my argument is that Practitioner Research can be pursued not only by observing whole classes, but also by observing what happens when a teacher talks to a student outside of the classroom setting. What this setting offers to practitioner-researchers is a unique opportunity to understand what both the teacher and the student do to…

Nakamura, Ian

2008-01-01

162

Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

2012-01-01

163

Exploring the Association Between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2–9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ, and parents completed measures of remaining variables. ASD diagnosis was associated with level of

Laura A. Niditch; R. Enrique Varela; Jodi L. Kamps; Trenesha Hill

2012-01-01

164

Children's and lay adults' views about thermal equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes an investigation into studentsâ and adultsâ understanding of a simple thermal system by conducting interviews that explored the constructs and explanatory ideas used by children and adults in interpreting the outcome of a heating experiment. Researchers found that many interviewees' reasoning about heat phenomena used an elementary 'on=hot/off=cold' principle. Some implications of these findings for the teaching of heat and temperature are discussed.

Arnold, Mike; Millar, Robin

2006-05-23

165

SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF X-333 ON THE TOXICITY OF AFLATOXIN AND PESTICIDES IN THE LAYING HEN  

E-print Network

SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF X-333 ON THE TOXICITY OF AFLATOXIN AND PESTICIDES IN THE LAYING HEN V. de WITH OR WITHOUT DEFICIENCY DURING THE LAYING PERIOD ON THE PERFORMANCES OF THE LAYING HEN M. LARBIER J. GUILLAUME was split into 2 batches of hens reared in cages and fed a complete laying diet (N) or a lysine deficient

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

Laying the groundwork for assisted rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation -- To provide to physical therapists a monitoring system with effective and accurate patient monitoring and evolution analysis. Research approach -- We analyzed therapy sessions with tetraplegic patients to better understand the rehabilitation process and highlight the major requirements for a technology-enhanced tool. We developed a prototype able to automate and improve the current monitoring and follow-up processes. Findings\\/Design

Rita Pereira; Tiago Guerreiro; Hugo Nicolau; Daniel Gonçalves; Joaquim Jorge

2010-01-01

167

Using Exoplanet Models to Explore NGSS and the Nature of Science and as a Tool for Understanding the Scientific Results from NIRCam/JWST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our Solar System is no longer unique. To date, about 1,800 planets are known to orbit over 1,100 other stars and nearly 50% are in multiple-planet systems. Planetary systems seem [to be] fairly common and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the Goldilocks Zone, suggesting there may be other habitable planets. To this end, characterizing the atmospheric chemistries of such planets is a major science goal of the NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.For NIRCam's E/PO program with the Girl Scouts of the USA, we have produced scale models and associated activities to compare the size, scale, and dynamics of the Solar System with several exoplanet systems. Our models illustrate the techniques used to investigate these systems: radial velocity, transits, direct observations, and gravitational microlensing. By comparing and contrasting these models, we place our Solar System in a more cosmic context and enable discussion of current questions within the scientific community: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Is our present definition of a planet a good definition in the context of other planetary systems? Are there other planets/moons that might harbor life as we know it?These models are appropriate for use in classrooms and conform to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include, for example, understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding the nature of scientific models.

Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Higgins, Michelle L.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

2014-11-01

168

A Short Guide to Understanding Individual Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-part guide is designed to help community college instructors understand and respond to individual differences in their students. First, the preface lays out a framework for an in-depth examination of individual learning differences by posing the following questions: (1) Is learning a single function or a composite of different types of…

Rubadeau, Duane O.; And Others

169

The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

2008-01-01

170

A fundamental understanding of catechol and water adsorption on a hydrophilic silica surface: exploring the underwater adhesion mechanism of mussels on an atomic scale.  

PubMed

Mussels have a remarkable ability to bond to solid surfaces under water. From a microscopic perspective, the first step of this process is the adsorption of dopa molecules to the solid surface. In fact, it is the catechol part of the dopa molecule that is interacting with the surface. These molecules are able to make reversible bonds to a wide range of materials, even underwater. Previous experimental and theoretical efforts have produced only a limited understanding of the mechanism and quantitative details of the competitive adsorption of catechol and water on hydrophilic silica surfaces. In this work, we uncover the nature of this competitive absorption by atomic scale modeling of water and catechol adsorbed at the geminal (001) silica surface using density functional theory calculations. We find that catechol molecules displace preadsorbed water molecules and bond directly on the silica surface. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we observe this process in detail. We also calculate the interaction force as a function of distance, and observe a maximum of 0.5 nN of attraction. The catechol has a binding energy of 23 kcal/mol onto the silica surface with adsorbed water molecules. PMID:24835420

Mian, Shabeer Ahmad; Yang, Li-Ming; Saha, Leton Chandra; Ahmed, E; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ganz, Eric

2014-06-17

171

Understanding in contemporary epistemology   

E-print Network

My main aim is to contribute to the exploration of the nature of the epistemic state of understanding. It seems that the most productive way in which this might be done is by (i) investigating what sort of conditions ...

Gordon, Emma Catherine

2012-06-27

172

Detection of jumping and landing force in laying hens using wireless wearable sensors.  

PubMed

Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird movement, an automated sensor technology could facilitate understanding regarding the interaction between noncage laying hens and their housing. A method for detecting jumps and flight trajectories could help explain how jumps from different heights affect hen landing impact. In this study, a wearable sensor-based jump detection mechanism for egg-laying hens was designed and implemented. Hens were fitted with a lightweight (10 g) wireless body-mounted sensor to remotely sample accelerometer data. Postprocessed data could detect occurrence of jumps from a perch to the ground, time of jump initiation, time of landing, and force of landing. Additionally, the developed technology could estimate the approximate height of the jump. Hens jumping from heights of 41 and 61 cm were found to land with an average force of 81.0 ± 2.7 N and 106.9 ± 2.6 N, respectively, assuming zero initial velocity (P < 0.001). This paper establishes the technological feasibility of using body-mounted sensor technology for jump detection by hens in different noncage housing configurations. PMID:25172929

Banerjee, D; Daigle, C L; Dong, B; Wurtz, K; Newberry, R C; Siegford, J M; Biswas, S

2014-11-01

173

Why don't birds lay more eggs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty years ago David Lack put forward a key hypothesis in life-history theory: that avian clutch is ultimately determined by the number of young that parents can provide with food. Since then, a plethora of brood manipulations has shown that birds can rear more young than the number of eggs they lay, and prompted a search for negative effects of

Pat Monaghan; Ruedi G. Nager

1997-01-01

174

Laying a Solid Foundation: Strategies for Effective Program Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The replication of proven social programs is a cost-effective and efficient way to achieve large-scale, positive social change. Yet there has been little guidance available about how to approach program replication and limited development of systems--at local, state or federal levels--to support replication efforts. "Laying a Solid Foundation:…

Summerville, Geri

2009-01-01

175

Laying the foundations for a World Wide Argument Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper lays theoretical and software foundations for a World Wide Argument Web (WWAW): a large-scale Web of inter-connected arguments posted by individ- uals to express their opinions in a structured manner. First, we extend the recently proposed Argument Interchange Format (AIF) to express arguments with a struc- ture based on Walton's theory of argumentation schemes. Then, we describe an

Iyad Rahwan; Fouad Zablith; Chris Reed

2007-01-01

176

MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO INDUCED MOLTING IN LAYING HENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Induced molting in laying hens by feed withdrawal (FW) is a common practice in the U.S., which has led to public concern regarding their well-being, and there is a pressing need to evaluate physiological changes resulting from prolonged feed withdrawal (FW). A total of 168 hens from Hy-line W-92 li...

177

Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

178

211. EQUIPMENT LAYING FIRST LANE OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT NEAR THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

211. EQUIPMENT LAYING FIRST LANE OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT NEAR THE CAPITAL OVERLOOK, 1931. NOTE THE BEGINNING OF BITUMINOUS TYPE OF TEMPORARY PAVEMENT TO ALLOW FOR SETTLEMENT IN HYDRAULIC FILL AREAS. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

179

Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

180

10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

2011-01-01

181

10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

2010-01-01

182

10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

2012-01-01

183

10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

2013-01-01

184

10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.  

10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

2014-01-01

185

Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay

Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

2012-01-01

186

7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core of the 105-B pile. This view is towards the rear of the pile. The gun barrels can be seen protruding into the pile. D-3047 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

187

Informed consent: towards improved lay-friendliness of patient information sheets.  

PubMed

Regional research ethics committee (REC) members have voiced a need for the linguistic improvement of informed consent documents to ensure duly informed consent and to ease committee deliberation. We have little knowledge of what elements of language use hamper comprehension, or of the extent of medical researchers' appreciation of this problem and their willingness to accept intervention. This qualitative, explorative study proposes an intervention design and tests its feasibility and acceptability. Semi-structured interviews with potential REC applicants informed a linguistic intervention benchmarked against existing guidelines, mandated locally and nationally, and then evaluated quantitatively in a semi-controlled set-up and qualitatively via questionnaires. Potential applicants professed the psychological acceptability of linguistic intervention. The intervention comprised a downloadable Microsoft Word template outlining information structure, a detailed guideline offering advice for each move and self-selected linguistic screening. It was used by 14 applicants and had a measurable effect on REC deliberation time and approval rates. The intervention instruments overall made it easier for applicants to produce informed consent documents meeting prescribed ethical standards concerning lay-friendliness. In conclusion, it was found that linguistic intervention is relevant, feasible and psychologically acceptable to REC applicants; it aids their text production process and seems to enhance the lay-friendliness of these texts. PMID:25233558

Pilegaard, Morten; Ravn, Hanne Berg

2013-01-01

188

The expert and the lay public: reflections on influenza A (H1N1) and the risk society.  

PubMed

Trust between the lay public and scientific experts is a key element to ensuring the efficient implementation of emergency public health measures. In modern risk societies, the management and elimination of risk have become preeminent drivers of public policy. In this context, the protection of public trust is a complex task. Those actors involved in public health decision-making and implementation (e.g., mass vaccination for influenza A virus) are confronted with growing pressures and responsibility to act. However, they also need to accept the limits of their own expertise and recognize the ability of lay publics to understand and be responsible for public health. Such a shared responsibility for risk management, if grounded in participative public debates, can arguably strengthen public trust in public health authorities and interventions. PMID:22397338

Dupras, Charles; Williams-Jones, Bryn

2012-04-01

189

Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game  

E-print Network

Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game: Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness Margaret A. Martinez Senior Thesis in Psychology Advisor: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema April 19, 2010 #12;Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 2 Abstract The present study

Scholl, Brian

190

Laying order, hatching asynchrony and nestling body mass in Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reproductive biology of a box-nesting population of Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor in southeastern Wisconsin, USA. We were interested particularly in the relationship between laying order and hatching order and the extent to which each was a predictor of nestling body mass. We found that laying order was a significant predictor of hatching order. Laying and hatching order

Ethan D. Clotfelter; Linda A. Whittingham; Peter O. Dunn

2000-01-01

191

Infrared Detection: Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource outlines experiments and explorations for students to understand the physics of infrared emission and detection. Simple tools are used. Questions meant to guide and engage students are included.

Group, Kansas S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2004-03-05

192

Reproductive conflict between laying workers in the ant Aphaenogaster senilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since workers of the ant Aphaenogaster senilis can lay male eggs, reproductive conflict may occur between these workers. We examined the occurrence of worker conflicts\\u000a in groups of workers either with or without the queen. Intranidal aggression was observed in each nest for 10 min each day,\\u000a and the immatures produced were counted once a week for two months. Pairs of workers

Katsuya Ichinose; Alain Lenoir

2009-01-01

193

[Prevalence of Mycoplasmas in commercial layer flocks during laying period].  

PubMed

Within this study's range, laying hens from different housing systems were investigated on prevalence of Mycoplasma sp. for the duration of one laying period, with an emphasis on the two clinically relevant species M. synoviae and M. gallisepticum. Tracheal swabs were analysed for mycoplasms by genus- and species-specific amplification after DNA extraction. Of 919 collected tracheal swabs, 84% were positive for the genus-specific test, while 75% turned out positive for M. synoviae. Mycoplasms were detected at some time during the laying period in all 19 flocks included in this investigation. Using a species-specific PCR, only one flock of a free-range system was free of M. synoviae. On the contrary, PCR analysis did not detect M. gallisepticum in any of the collected samples. Individual and flock examinations revealed no correlation between clinical symptoms and the presence of M. synoviae in hens and flocks, respectively. As the majority of the examined flocks were already positive for M. synoviae upon entry, the establishment of a control regime for Mycoplasma sp. would be advisable for parent stock and rearing facilities. PMID:19517932

Köhn, Stefanie; Spergser, Joachim; Ahlers, Christine; Voss, Matthias; Bartels, Thomas; Rosengarten, Renate; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

2009-01-01

194

Identification and Differential Expression of microRNAs in Ovaries of Laying and Broody Geese (Anser cygnoides) by Solexa Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Recent functional studies have demonstrated that the microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in ovarian gonadal development, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and ovulation in mammals. However, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in the ovarian function of fowl. The goose (Anas cygnoides) is a commercially important food that is cultivated widely in China but the goose industry has been hampered by high broodiness and poor egg laying performance, which are influenced by ovarian function. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the miRNA transcriptomes of ovaries from laying and broody geese were profiled using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics was used to determine differential expression of the miRNAs. As a result, 11,350,396 and 9,890,887 clean reads were obtained in laying and broodiness goose, respectively, and 1,328 conserved known miRNAs and 22 novel potential miRNA candidates were identified. A total of 353 conserved microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between laying and broody ovaries. Compared with miRNA expression in the laying ovary, 127 miRNAs were up-regulated and 126 miRNAs were down-regulated in the ovary of broody birds. A subset of the differentially expressed miRNAs (G-miR-320, G-miR-202, G-miR-146, and G-miR-143*) were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, 130,458 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative target genes. Gene ontology annotation and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in ovarian function, including hormone secretion, reproduction processes and so on. Conclusions The present study provides the first global miRNA transcriptome data in A. cygnoides and identifies novel and known miRNAs that are differentially expressed between the ovaries of laying and broody geese. These findings contribute to our understanding of the functional involvement of miRNAs in the broody period of goose. PMID:24505332

Xu, Qi; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yang; Tong, Yi-Yu; Rong, Guang-Hui; Huang, Zheng-Yang; Zhao, Rong-Xue; Zhao, Wen-Ming; Wu, Xin-sheng; Chang, Guo- Bin; Chen, Guo-Hong

2014-01-01

195

A lay carer's story about epilepsy in an urban South African context: they call it an illness of falling or an illness of fitting because a person shakes and eventually falls.  

PubMed

In South Africa, epilepsy is poorly understood and managed. The different cultural understandings and terms used to explain the condition across the diverse population groups exacerbate this problem. In this article, we describe the findings from a single story about epilepsy which we elicited through a semistructured interview guide in the respondents' natural setting. We used Kleinman and Benson's mini-ethnographic questions to explore the lay carer's explanatory models about epilepsy. Our respondent had different descriptors for epilepsy which include 'an illness of falling', 'an illness of fitting', and 'a thing'. His explanatory models concerning epilepsy were predominantly sociocultural, psychological, economical, and political in nature and were supported by personal examples from his past and present experiences. Key to this man's story is the reality of a strong cultural base of understanding epilepsy, with the added reality of an urbanized world in which people feel alienated from one another and do not necessarily share the same cultural beliefs and practices. Instead of viewing understandings of epilepsy as either 'traditional' or 'western', community-based health promotion interventions must therefore recognize both cultural issues and urban realities and should also incorporate approaches that foster a common ground for patients and carers with very diverse views. The findings of this one interview cannot be generalized but have implications for managing epilepsy in an urban African context. PMID:23838162

Keikelame, Mpoe Johannah; Swartz, Leslie

2013-09-01

196

Safety evaluation of phytosterols in laying hens: effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, and organ development.  

PubMed

Phytosterols are intended for use as a novel food ingredient with plasma cholesterol-lowering activity. Although phytosterols are naturally present in the normal diet, daily consumption is insufficient to ensure plasma cholesterol-lowering levels. Therefore, phytosterols may be added to the diets to achieve the desired cholesterol-lowering activity. A subchronic laying hen safety study was conducted to examine if high-dose phytosterols could affect the safety of hens. Three hundred sixty 21-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds each; after 3 wk, birds were fed diets supplemented with 0, 20, 80, 400, and 800 mg/kg of phytosterols for 12 wk. Throughout the study, clinical observations and laying performance were measured. At the end of the study, birds were subjected to a full postmortem examination: blood samples were taken for clinical pathology, selected organs were weighed, and specified tissues were taken for subsequent histological examination. No treatment-related changes that were considered to be of toxicological significance were observed. Therefore, a nominal phytosterol concentration of 800 mg/kg was considered to be the no-observed-adverse-effect level. PMID:24604846

Shi, S R; Shen, Y R; Chang, L L; Zhou, C J; Bo, Z; Wang, Z Y; Tong, H B; Zou, J M

2014-03-01

197

Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Frito Lay's Electric Delivery Trucks (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 medium-duty Smith Newton electric vehicles (EVs) and 10 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Frito Lay North America in the Seattle, Washington, area. Launched in late 2013, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data, such as fuel economy and maintenance costs, to better understand how to optimize the use of such vehicles in a large-scale commercial operation. In addition to the on-road portion of this evaluation, NREL is analyzing charging data to support total cost of ownership estimations and investigations into smart charging opportunities. NREL is also performing a battery life degradation analysis to quantify battery pack health, track battery performance over time, and determine how various drive cycles and battery charging protocols impact battery life.

Not Available

2014-04-01

198

Exploring Cultures through Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First and second graders can understand that the African continent is made up of many countries and cultures, especially when teachers have maps, picture books, photographs, and artifacts on hand for them to explore. It is important for young students to develop an understanding of maps and how to use them. This article offers suggestions for…

Grady, Bev

2005-01-01

199

Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (natuzyme) in laying hens.  

PubMed

The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers' diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

Lee, K W; Choi, Y I; Moon, E J; Oh, S T; Lee, H H; Kang, C W; An, B K

2014-12-01

200

The functional significance of parasitic egg laying and typical nesting in redhead ducks: an analysis of individual behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the population level, redhead ducks, Aythya americana, lay as many as 75% of their eggs parasitically but at least some females lay and incubate eggs in their own nests ('typical nesting'). Parasitic egg laying by redheads was documented with remote, time-lapse photography of potential host nests, allowing histories of parasitic egg laying and typical nesting to be compiled for

MICHAEL D. SORENSON

1991-01-01

201

Understanding language  

E-print Network

My dissertation concerns the nature of linguistic understanding. A standard view about linguistic understanding is that it is a propositional knowledge state. The following is an instance of this view: given a speaker S ...

Pettit, Dean R. (Dean Reid), 1967-

2003-01-01

202

Understanding classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we argue that understandability should be interpreted as explainable. That is, for predictive models

M. Subianto

2009-01-01

203

Participants' experiences of care during a randomized controlled trial comparing a lay-facilitated angina management programme with usual care: a qualitative study using focus groups  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a qualitative study conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing a lay-facilitated angina management programme with usual care. Its aim was to explore participants' beliefs, experiences, and attitudes to the care they had received during the trial, particularly those who had received the angina management intervention. Background Angina affects over 50 million people worldwide. Over half of these people have symptoms that restrict their daily life and would benefit from knowing how to manage their condition. Design A nested qualitative study within a randomized controlled trial of lay-facilitated angina management. Method We conducted four participant focus groups during 2008; three were with people randomized to the intervention and one with those randomized to control. We recruited a total of 14 participants to the focus groups, 10 intervention, and 4 control. Findings Although recruitment to the focus groups was relatively low by comparison to conventional standards, each generated lively discussions and a rich data set. Data analysis demonstrated both similarities and differences between control and intervention groups. Similarities included low levels of prior knowledge about angina, whereas differences included a perception among intervention participants that lifestyle changes were more easily facilitated with the help and support of a lay-worker. Conclusion Lay facilitation with the Angina Plan is perceived by the participants to be beneficial in supporting self-management. However, clinical expertise is still required to meet the more complex information and care needs of people with stable angina. PMID:22738415

Nelson, Pauline; Cox, Helen; Furze, Gill; Lewin, Robert JP; Morton, Veronica; Norris, Heather; Patel, Nicky; Elton, Peter; Carty, Richard

2013-01-01

204

Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

2012-01-01

205

Public culture and public understanding of genetics: a focus group study.  

PubMed

As the role of genetic science in everyday life has grown, policymakers have become concerned about Americans' understandings of this science. Much effort has been devoted to formal schooling, but less attention has been paid to the role of public culture in shaping public understanding of genetics. Research into public cultural messages about genetics has claimed that the public is likely to adopt problematic accounts, but few studies have explored the public's articulation of these messages. This study is based on 25 focus groups convened to explore the lay public's understanding of genetics. The study found that the public processed a greater variety of messages than assumed by previous researchers, including documentaries, non-science-fiction films, and popular television in addition to previous researchers' focus on science fiction and news media. The study also found that the public does not process the messages through the linear, transmission model assumed by previous research. The public processes messages about genetics complexly and critically. On the basis of these findings, the study suggests that researchers should include a greater variety of texts about genetics in their research and attend more fully to audience processing in addition to content analyses of these texts. PMID:15822248

Bates, Benjamin R

2005-01-01

206

Climate change and micro-geographic variation in laying date.  

PubMed

Climate change has been shown to affect the timing of reproduction, with earlier reproduction being associated with an increase in temperature. Changes in the timing of reproduction arise from changes in food availability as well as other factors, and differences in the timing of reproduction among sites may cause sites with early reproduction to contribute disproportionately to local recruitment. In this study, spatial variation in the laying date of barn swallows Hirundo rustica at 39 sites in a 45-km2 study area during the period 1971-2004 was used to investigate micro-geographic patterns in the timing of breeding. I found that individuals breeding at sites with early reproduction had a disproportionately large reproductive success. Early sites were characterized by early plant phenology, as determined by the date of leafing of the broad-leaved elm Ulmus glabra and date of flowering of the snowdrop Galanthus nivalis during a single year. Such early sites showed greater advancement in laying date between 1971 and 2004 than the average site. Early sites were also generally occupied during more years by a larger number of breeders than were late sites. Breeders at early sites produced more fledglings, and breeders at such sites were characterized by a smaller adult body size and larger secondary sexual characters than individuals at the average site. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that temporal changes in the timing of reproduction occur as a consequence of differential recruitment at phenologically early sites that produce disproportionately large numbers of offspring. PMID:18224340

Mřller, Anders Pape

2008-04-01

207

Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

Miljeteig, Per

1999-01-01

208

Biomorphic Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

Thakoor, Sarita

1999-01-01

209

Are vaccination programmes delivered by lay health workers cost-effective? A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background A recently updated Cochrane systematic review on the effects of lay or community health workers (LHWs) in primary and community health care concluded that LHW interventions could lead to promising benefits in the promotion of childhood vaccination uptake. However, understanding of the costs and cost-effectiveness of involving LHWs in vaccination programmes remains poor. This paper reviews the costs and cost-effectiveness of vaccination programme interventions involving LHWs. Methods Articles were retrieved if the title, keywords or abstract included terms related to 'lay health workers', 'vaccination' and 'economics'. Reference lists of studies assessed for inclusion were also searched and attempts were made to contact authors of all studies included in the Cochrane review. Studies were included after assessing eligibility of the full-text article. The included studies were then reviewed against a set of background and technical characteristics. Results Of the 2616 records identified, only three studies fully met the inclusion criteria, while an additional 11 were retained as they included some cost data. Methodologically, the studies were strong but did not adequately address affordability and sustainability and were also highly heterogeneous in terms of settings and LHW outcomes, limiting their comparability. There were insufficient data to allow any conclusions to be drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of LHW interventions to promote vaccination uptake. Studies focused largely on health outcomes and did illustrate to some extent how the institutional characteristics of communities, such as governance and sources of financial support, influence sustainability. Conclusion The included studies suggest that conventional economic evaluations, particularly cost-effectiveness analyses, generally focus too narrowly on health outcomes, especially in the context of vaccination promotion and delivery at the primary health care level by LHWs. Further studies on the costs and cost-effectiveness of vaccination programmes involving LHWs should be conducted, and these studies should adopt a broader and more holistic approach. PMID:19887002

2009-01-01

210

Relationship between laying sequence and mercury concentration in tree swallow eggs.  

PubMed

When female birds lay eggs, some of their body burden of mercury is eliminated into each egg, potentially leading to declining mercury across the clutch. However, there was no decline in mercury with laying sequence in clutches of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at a mercury-contaminated site, presumably due to daily replenishment of mercury in females during laying. Sampling just one egg from the nest provided an accurate measure of clutch mercury contamination. PMID:20821552

Brasso, Rebecka L; Abdel Latif, Marwa K; Cristol, Daniel A

2010-05-01

211

The SEXTANT Software Exploration Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss a set of functional requirements for software exploration tools and provide initial evidence that various combinations of these features are needed to effectively assist developers in understanding software. We observe that current tools for software exploration only partly support these features. This has motivated the development of SEXTANT, a software exploration tool tightly integrated into

Thorsten Schäfer; Michael Eichberg; Michael Haupt; Mira Mezini

2006-01-01

212

Edinburgh Research Explorer Prevalence and Causes of Prescribing Errors  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Prevalence and Causes of Prescribing Errors Citation for published, Macleod, MJ, Maxwell, S, McKay, GA, McLay, JS, Webb, DJ & Bond, C 2014, 'Prevalence and Causes and investigate your claim. Download date: 28. Jun. 2014 #12;Prevalence and Causes of Prescribing Errors

Hall, Christopher

213

Mixed Race: Understanding Difference in the Genome Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of multiracial individuals' understanding of identity, race and human genetic variation. The debate regarding the correlation between race, genetics and disease has expanded, but limited empirical data has been collected regarding the lay public's perspective. Participants in this study…

Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Bonham, Vence L.

2007-01-01

214

Cave spiders choose optimal environmental factors with respect to the generated entropy when laying their cocoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of a suitable area to spiders where to lay eggs is promoted in terms of Darwinian fitness. Despite its importance, the underlying factors behind this key decision are generally poorly understood. Here, we designed a multidisciplinary study based both on in-field data and laboratory experiments focusing on the European cave spider Meta menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) and aiming at understanding the selective forces driving the female in the choice of the depositional area. Our in-field data analysis demonstrated a major role of air velocity and distance from the cave entrance within a particular cave in driving the female choice. This has been interpreted using a model based on the Entropy Generation Minimization - EGM - method, without invoking best fit parameters and thanks to independent lab experiments, thus demonstrating that the female chooses the depositional area according to minimal level of thermo-fluid-dynamic irreversibility. This methodology may pave the way to a novel approach in understanding evolutionary strategies for other living organisms.

Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Lepore, Emiliano; Ventola, Luigi; Asinari, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola Maria

2015-01-01

215

Cave spiders choose optimal environmental factors with respect to the generated entropy when laying their cocoon.  

PubMed

The choice of a suitable area to spiders where to lay eggs is promoted in terms of Darwinian fitness. Despite its importance, the underlying factors behind this key decision are generally poorly understood. Here, we designed a multidisciplinary study based both on in-field data and laboratory experiments focusing on the European cave spider Meta menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) and aiming at understanding the selective forces driving the female in the choice of the depositional area. Our in-field data analysis demonstrated a major role of air velocity and distance from the cave entrance within a particular cave in driving the female choice. This has been interpreted using a model based on the Entropy Generation Minimization - EGM - method, without invoking best fit parameters and thanks to independent lab experiments, thus demonstrating that the female chooses the depositional area according to minimal level of thermo-fluid-dynamic irreversibility. This methodology may pave the way to a novel approach in understanding evolutionary strategies for other living organisms. PMID:25556697

Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Lepore, Emiliano; Ventola, Luigi; Asinari, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola Maria

2015-01-01

216

Causes of disease in two commercial flocks of laying hens.  

PubMed

Laboratory examination of all birds that were culled or died during an eight-month period in two commerical laying flocks was performed to reveal the causes of disease and their prevalence. The average weekly total of diseased birds was greater in one flock (60-69) than the other (27-37). This resulted mainly from a high incidence in the former flock of leucoses and sarcomas, although losses due to fatty liver syndrome, prolapse and cannibalism and cage layer fatigue were also marginally greater in this flock than the second. Haemangiomas occurred more frequently in the flock with the higher disease level. A total of 273 hens of the 2,000 examined from this flock had single or multiple haemangiomas. Special features of the major causes of disease were outlined and discussed. A conclusion made from this study was that histopathological examination is necessary for accurate diagnosis of avian tumours. PMID:1180772

Grimes, T M

1975-07-01

217

Alleviation of hysteria in laying hens with dietary tryptophan.  

PubMed

A commercial layer breeder flock that was suffering from hysteria was fed a diet containing 5 grams tryptophan/kg for six days. The incidence of episodes of hysteria declined from five times/hour on day 0 to once/hour on day 6 and none on day 8. Feed consumption increased from 107 g to 145 g/hen/day and egg production increased 23% during the six day feeding period. The tryptophan concentration in plasma doubled (from 95.6 to 188.2 mumol/mL). Plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine also increased. Birds that were not in lay, by postmortem examination, had significantly higher plasma valine concentrations (476.4 vs 372.7 mumol/mL). Tryptophan, serotonin and related metabolites increased in both the hypothalamic region and the remainder of the brain following tryptophan feeding, and subsequently declined. High levels of dietary tryptophan may be useful in alleviating hysteria in poultry. PMID:2357668

Laycock, S R; Ball, R O

1990-04-01

218

[Influence of long-term chitosan feeding of laying hens].  

PubMed

Under insufficient vitamin content in a diet of laying hens in compliance with lowered vitamins A, E and carotenoids content in an egg yolk acid- and water-soluble chitosan feeding (10 and 20 mg per 1 kg body mass) within 6-9 months did not render appreciable influence on these vitamins egg content. Long-term inclusion of a sorbent in a forage was not reflected in vitamin B2 level in a whole egg, blood serum and tissues of hens. Chitosan intake didn't lead to total lipids and phospholipids concentration in a whole egg. Under 15 per cent decrease of the sum of polyunsaturated fat acids its administration lead to 24 per cent increase of omega-3 polyunsaturated fat acids in the whole egg. PMID:18030812

Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Filimonova, I V; Kodentsova, O V; Kulakova, S N

2007-01-01

219

Laying characteristics of one- and two-year old pheasants (Phasianus colchicus, L.).  

PubMed

The aim ofthe study was to assess laying traits, the weight of eggs and characters ofthe laying rhythm of pheasants in the first and second years of reproduction. Pheasants (10 cockerels and 50 hens) were kept in aviaries. Daily, individual control of laying was performed beginning with the day of the first laying and ending with the last egg. The following parameters were evaluated: age at first laying, length of the laying period, number of laid eggs and the average weight of the egg in the 8th week of laying. The laying rhythm was also assessed and comprised: the number of egg clutches, the number of eggs in a clutch, the number of eggs in the longest clutch, the number of intervals, the length of intervals and the longest interval between clutches. During the first period of reproduction, in comparison with the second, pheasants laid slightly more eggs of similar average weight. The first laying period was longer than the second and was characterised by a greater number of egg clutches and greater number of intervals between clutches. The greatest number of eggs was laid in 10-egg and longer clutches, although the l-egg clutches were the most numerous. A positive correlation was found between the number of eggs and the number of clutches, the greatest number of eggs in a clutch and the number of intervals between clutches. The similar values of the reproductive characters of one- and two-year old pheasants point to the possibility of longer utilization of these birds than only for one laying period. On the other hand, the considerable variability between the experimental hens with regard to the number and the length of egg clutches, as well as the intervals between them, indicate the possibility to carry out selection taking into account traits characterising the laying rhythm. PMID:17687936

Krystianiak, Stanis?awa; Kontecka, Helena; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Rosi?ski, Andrzej

2007-01-01

220

Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

1989-01-01

221

Effects of diet composition on vanadium toxicity in laying hens.  

PubMed

Vanadium added to laying rations as NH4 VO3, VOCl2 or VOSO4 at levels of 20 to 80 ppm resulted in a rapid and substantial reduction in albumen quality as measured by Haugh units. Dietary vanadium also resulted in reduced egg production, egg weight, body weight, feed consumption, and poorer shell quality as measured by specific gravity. Ascorbic acid at .4 to .5% effectively protected the hen from the reduction in albumen quality, egg production, and body weight for up to 40 ppm vanadium, but not the reduction of egg weight. Replacement of soybean meal by 20% dietary cottonseed meal also protected the hen from the reduction in albumen quality, egg production, and body weight for up to 40 ppm vanadium. Added at levels of 4 to 8 times the molecular concentration of vanadium, EDTA had no consistent effect on vanadium toxicity. Dehydrated grass, at levels of 6 to 12%, maintained egg production but had no effects on the reduction in albumen quality caused by 40 ppm vanadium. Replacement of soybean meal with herring fish meal and part of the grain with sucrose intensified the depression of albumen quality, egg production, and loss of body weight caused by added vanadium. Neither varying dietary protein levels from 12 to 25% using soybean meal nor the addition of 20 ppm chromium had any effect on the toxicity of added vanadium. It appears that vanadium expresses its toxicity in laying hens by several routes since the protective effects of different dietary changes and additives differentially affected the loss of albumen quality, egg production, body weight, and egg weight. PMID:6791152

Ousterhout, L E; Berg, L R

1981-06-01

222

Project Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chicago-based Project Exploration "is the living classroom that involves students and the public in scientific discovery, by connecting kids and families to interactive exhibits, labs, unique science programs and real scientists." Project Exploration focuses on reaching city kids, but every kid (and teachers) should check out this wonderful Web site. Visitors will find tons of activities and features to explore, such as Project Exploration's paleontological expeditions (past and present) and the Mesozoic Garden -- created for the 2003 Chicago Flower and Garden Show. Teachers will also find lesson plans tucked here and there among Project Exploration's dizzying assortment of Web features.

Lyon, Gabrielle; Sereno, Paul

1999-01-01

223

Complete Genome Sequence of Gallibacterium anatis Strain UMN179, Isolated from a Laying Hen with Peritonitis ?  

PubMed Central

Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis. PMID:21602325

Johnson, Timothy J.; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K.; Trampel, Darrell W.; Seemann, Torsten

2011-01-01

224

Complete genome sequence of Gallibacterium anatis strain UMN179, isolated from a laying hen with peritonitis.  

PubMed

Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis. PMID:21602325

Johnson, Timothy J; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K; Trampel, Darrell W; Seemann, Torsten

2011-07-01

225

Evaluation of guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens  

E-print Network

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens. In the 1st experiment, late phase laying hens were fed diets with 0, 5, 10% guar meal (GM) for 56 days or 15% GM for 28 days then switched...

Zhang, Cheng

2005-11-01

226

Evaporative Cooling of Ventral Regions of the Skin in Heat-Stressed Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laying hens held in battery cages in natu- rally ventilated poultry houses in hot countries usually develop hyperthermia, which adversely affects their per- formance. The present means of cooling alleviate to some degree, but cannot eliminate, the stress imposed by heat. A new approach to cooling of laying hens was developed, based on wetting the skin and promoting evaporation of

D. Wolfenson; D. Bachrach; M. Maman; Y. Graber; I. Rozenboim

227

THE LAYING OF REPLACEMENT CLUTCHES BY FALCONIFORMS AND STRIGIFORMS IN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the laying of replacement clutches by North American raptors by reviewing existing literature and presenting data gathered from oological collections and from the double-clutching of wild and captive birds. We found that most species recycle; however, the frequency of recycling declined with an increasing stage of in- cubation. Clutch size did not decrease significantly between layings for

Michael L. Morrison; Brian James Walton

228

Behavioral responses of laying hens to different alfalfa-layer ration combinations fed during molting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several dietary alternatives to feed withdrawal have been proposed to induce a molt in laying hens. This study compared the behavior of laying hens on an alfalfa crumble diet (ALC) to hens which were either full-fed (FF) or hens which had feed withdrawn (FW) during a 9 day trial. Each treatment co...

229

Disorders of Cholecalciferol Metabolism in Old Egg-Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that the rate of cracked or soft-shelled eggs markedly increases in old laying hens. We investigated the effect of age on cholecalciferol me tabolism in different age groups of laying hens. The egg production rate in hens more than 500 days old was maintained within a range of about 70% of that in young hens (230-320

ETSUKO ABE; HIROSHI HORIKAWA; TADAHIRO MASUMURA; MICHIHIRO SUGAHARA; MINORU KUBOTA

230

The provision of TB and HIV/AIDS treatment support by lay health workers in South Africa: a time-and-motion study  

PubMed Central

Background Lay or community health workers (LHWs) are an important human resource in primary health care, and contribute to improving access to care. However, optimal use of LHWs within the health system is often hampered by a poor understanding of how this cadre organizes its work. This study aimed to better understand how LHWs organize and structure their time in providing treatment and adherence support to people on TB treatment and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. Methods Fourteen LHWs participated across three low-income peri-urban communities in Cape Town. Each LHW was observed by a researcher for one day, and data collected on each activity and the time spent on it. Data were summarized in the following categories: travel to the patient’s home, waiting time and patient contact time. Results Ninety-seven attempted visits to patients were observed, and patients were located in 69 of these. On average, LHWs conducted six visits per day, each lasting an average of nine minutes. Forty-six percent of the observed time was spent with patients, with the balance spent on ‘non-contact’ activities, including walking to and waiting for patients. The average walking time between patients was 8 minutes (range: 3 to 15 minutes). Activities during visits comprised medical care (that is ensuring that medication was being taken correctly and that patients were not experiencing side-effects) and social support. Other tasks included conducting home assessments to determine risks to treatment adherence, and tracing patients who had defaulted from treatment. Conclusions Because of their tasks and working environment, LHWs providing support to people on TB treatment and ART in South Africa spend a substantial proportion of their time on ‘non-contact’ activities. Programme managers need to take this into account when developing job descriptions and determining patient case-loads for this cadre. More research is also needed to explore whether these findings apply to other tasks and settings. Strategies should be explored to mitigate the challenges that LHWs experience in locating and supporting patients, including the use of new technologies, such as mobile phones. PMID:24708871

2014-01-01

231

An Overview of the Exploration History of Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty-four years ago, a Nature paper announced the results of study of the Voyager images of the Jovian moon Europa, in which linear fracture-like markings were projected to be evidence of liquid water and active resurfacing [Nature 301, 225 - 226 (20 January 1983)]. This paper was a post-Voyager study that pre-dated the Galileo findings by two decades. Years of modeling had gone into the effort to understand the potential thermal history of the icy moons of Jupiter. Much of the theoretical work concluded that the bodies would have been frozen solid for billions of years, but there was enough work to suggest further in situ investigation was warranted. Behind the scenes was a concerted effort to make the Galilean satellites the focus of unmanned exploration for NASA's planetary science program. The historic significance of this journey of exploration, the manner in which it unfolded, is of relevance to a whole new generation of investigators. In this talk we will present highlights of the entire period of discovery, from the commensurate orbital motions first observed by Galileo himself [1609], that would prove critical to understanding the evolution of Europa; the theoretical work on motions of the celestial bodies by Laplace [1805] that laid the ground work for understanding the resonances; Jeans [1925] speculations about the existence of the atmospheres of the Galilean satellites in his Theory of Gases; to the ground-breaking discovery by Kuiper of the spectral signature of ice on Europa ; the work by Urey [1952] making the cosmochemical arguments about the significance of water ice in the outer solar system; efforts to understand, from photometry and spectrometry, whether surface impurities were endogenic or exogenic in origin; and the work of Johnson and colleagues laying the groundwork for the understanding of the significance of sputtering in the solar system [Johnson, et al., 1982]. We will present highlights of the exploration of the Jupiter system with spacecraft in the 1970's and '80's; and close with the discoveries of the Galileo mission as they unfolded.

Alexander, C. J.; Consolmagno, G.; Greeley, R.; Morrison, D.

2007-12-01

232

Understanding Nano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nanotechnology can be a complicated topic. The Understanding Nano website is dedicated to providing clear and concise explanations of nanotechnology applications along with information on companies working in each area.

233

Understanding Sarcoidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Register for ENews Home > Lung Disease > Sarcoidosis Understanding Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a disease caused by inflammation. Scientists ... pain, or shortness of breath. How Serious Is Sarcoidosis? Nobody can predict how sarcoidosis will affect one ...

234

Youth Exploring Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This session features Youth Exploring Science (YES), Saint Louis Science Center's nationally recognized work-based teen development program. In YES, underserved audiences develop interest and understanding in physics through design engineering projects. I will discuss breaking down barriers, helping youth develop skills, and partnering with community organizations, universities and engineering firms.

Miller, Diane

2008-04-01

235

Exploring Green Jobs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students complete a Myers-Briggs Type Inventory of their personality type as an introductory step to understanding what green jobs might suit their personal styles. From the information on this online tool, they look at different Green Jobs to explore possible careers.

Connecticut Energy Education

236

Exploring Green Jobs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students complete a Myers-Briggs Type Inventory of their personality type as an introductory step to understanding what green jobs might suit their personal styles. From the information on this online tool, they look at different Green Jobs to explore possible careers.

2007-01-01

237

Children's Understanding of Ownership Transfers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of ownership entails the recognition that ownership can be transferred permanently and the ability to differentiate legitimate from illegitimate transfers. Two experiments explored the development of this understanding in 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year olds, using stories about gift-giving and stealing. The possibility that children use…

Blake, Peter R.; Harris, Paul L.

2009-01-01

238

Coastal Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coastal Explorations is a virtual photojournal that allows learners to explore a variety of coastal formations and unique features in many different locations along the California and New Jersey coasts. Learners investigate the differences and similarities between California and New Jersey coasts. Areas to explore include coastal processes and coastal issues such as erosion, how human activities modify shorelines, and development issues people living on the coast encounter.

Alec Bodzin

2004-08-22

239

Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate of DDGS. Hens fed 25% DDGS had the highest N and P retention. PMID:21844261

Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J

2011-09-01

240

Developing lay health worker policy in South Africa: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past half decade South Africa has been developing, implementing and redeveloping its Lay Health Worker (LHW) policies. Research during this period has highlighted challenges with LHW programme implementation. These challenges have included an increased burden of care for female LHWs. The aim of this study was to explore contemporary LHW policy development processes and the extent to which issues of gender are taken up within this process. Methods The study adopted a qualitative approach to exploring policy development from the perspective of policy actors. Eleven policy actors (policy makers and policy commentators) were interviewed individually. Data from the interviews were analysed thematically. Results Considerations of LHW working conditions drove policy redevelopment. From the interviews it seems that gender as an issue never reached the policy making agenda. Although there was strong recognition that the working conditions of LHWs needed to be improved, poor working conditions were not necessarily seen as a gender concern. Our data suggests that in the process of defining the problem which the redeveloped policy had to address, gender was not included. There was no group or body who brought the issue of gender to the attention of policy developers. As such the issue of gender never entered the policy debates. These debates focused on whether it was appropriate to have LHWs, what LHW programme model should be adopted and whether or not LHWs should be incorporated into the formal health system. Conclusion LHW policy redevelopment focused on resolving issues of LHW working conditions through an active process involving many actors and strong debates. Within this process the issue of gender had no champion and never reached the LHW policy agenda. Future research may consider how to incorporate the voices of ordinary women into the policy making process. PMID:22410185

2012-01-01

241

Genetic improvement of laying hens viability using survival analysis  

PubMed Central

The survival of about eight generations of a large strain of laying hens was analysed separating the rearing period (RP) from the production period (PP), after hens were housed. For RP (respectively PP), 97.8% (resp., 94.1% ) of the 109 160 (resp., 100 665) female records were censored after 106 days (resp., 313 days) on the average. A Cox proportional hazards model stratified by flock (= season) and including a hatch-within-flock (HWF) fixed effect seemed to reasonably fit the RP data. For PP, this model could be further simplified to a non-stratified Weibull model. The extension of these models to sire-dam frailty (mixed) models permitted the estimation of the sire genetic variances at 0.261 ± 0.026 and 0.088 ± 0.010 for RP and PP, respectively. Heritabilities on the log scale were equal to 0.48 and 0.19. Non-additive genetic effects could not be detected. Selection was simulated by evaluating all sires and dams, after excluding all records from the last generation. Then, actual parents of this last generation were distributed into four groups according to their own pedigree index. Raw survivor curves of the progeny of extreme parental groups substantially differed (e.g., by 1.7% at 300 days for PP), suggesting that selection based on solutions from the frailty models could be efficient, despite the very large proportion of censored records. PMID:14736405

Ducrocq, Vincent; Besbes, Badi; Protais, Michel

2000-01-01

242

On-lay lamellar keratoplasty for the treatment of keratoconus.  

PubMed Central

On-lay lamellar keratoplasty was performed in 29 patients who had keratoconus. Twelve patients (greater than 1 year follow-up) showed an average decrease in keratometry of 9.13 +/- 2.02 (mean +/- SE) D; 6 patients (6-11 months follow-up) showed an average of 10.15 +/- 2.88 D. Visual acuity continued to improve for about one year after surgery. Six patients with best visual acuities of 20/20 before surgery showed an average visual acuity of 20/29 +/- 11 (mean +/- SD) 4 months after surgery; 4 with more than a year of follow-up achieved an average of 20/26 +/- 9. Four patients with 20/40 preoperatively achieved an average of 20/63 +/- 33 four months after surgery; 3 with more than a year of follow-up showed an average of 20/38 +/- 13. All patients with successful grafts can now tolerate contact lenses for daily wear. Images PMID:6349676

McDonald, M B; Koenig, S B; Safir, A; Kaufman, H E

1983-01-01

243

Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches  

PubMed Central

Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

2014-01-01

244

Understanding Waveguides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers the concept of waveguides. Students will explore the "angle of incidence, angle of refraction, and how light is transmitted through a waveguide for communication." Students have the option to do this lesson as either a guided or independent inquiry exercise. The lesson is divided into three parts: Refraction tank, Gelatin Waveguide, and Optical Fibers. Student and Teacher guides for each of the three parts are included. 

2014-08-13

245

Identifying risk factors for eggshell contamination by Bacillus cereus group bacteria in French laying farms.  

PubMed

1. The growth of Bacillus cereus group bacteria often limits the shelf-life of pasteurised liquid egg products and is also a putative toxin producer. This study was performed to better understand the route of contamination by B. cereus in egg products by studying the factors affecting eggshell contamination on-farm. 2. Eggs were collected in warm and cold seasons in 50 conventional laying farms in Western France. Egg surfaces were analysed for the presence of B. cereus group bacteria, environmental measurements were recorded and production practices were identified through a questionnaire filled out by the farmers. 3. A total of 44% of the farms were contaminated by mesophilic and 10% by psychrotrophic B. cereus group bacteria. No significant effect of the season was observed, whatever the thermal type. Several procedures were associated with reduced eggshell contamination by mesophilic bacteria, including the limitation of dust formation from manure and feeding and efficient disinfection of the silo, houses and the sanitary wall between houses. 4. The research highlights the need to promote prevention strategies, from farm to fork, for the control of eggshell and putative subsequent egg product contamination by B. cereus group bacteria. PMID:23650940

Kone, A Z; Jan, S; Le Marechal, C; Grosset, N; Gautier, M; Puterflam, J; Baron, F

2013-06-01

246

Developing ovarian cancer stem cell models: laying the pipeline from discovery to clinical intervention.  

PubMed

Despite decades of research, ovarian cancer is still associated with unacceptably high mortality rates, which must be addressed by novel therapeutic approaches. One avenue through which this may be achieved is targeting of tumor-initiating 'Cancer Stem Cells' (CSCs). CSCs are sufficient to generate primary and recurrent disease through extensive rounds of asymmetric division, which maintain the CSC pool while producing the tissues that form the bulk of the tumor. CSCs thrive in the harsh tumor niche, are generally refractory to therapeutic intervention and closely-linked to the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition process, which facilitates invasion and metastasis. While it is well-accepted that CSC-targeting must be assessed as a novel therapeutic avenue, few ovarian CSC models have been developed due to perceived and actual difficulties associated with the process of 'CSC Discovery'. In this article we review contemporary approaches to CSC Discovery and argue that this process should start with an understanding of the specific challenges associated with clinical intervention, laying the pipeline backwards towards CSC Discovery. Such an approach would expedite the bridging of the gap between laboratory isolation and clinical targeting of ovarian CSCs. PMID:25495823

Ffrench, Brendan; Gasch, Claudia; O'Leary, John J; Gallagher, Michael F

2014-01-01

247

Understanding Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from University of California Museum of Paleontology, features free, image-rich teaching resources that communicate what science is and how it works, with a focus on the process of science and its dynamic nature. The project is geared toward K-16 teacher preparation as well as broader public understanding of the nature of science.

University of California Museum of Paleontology

248

Understanding Instructions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…

Milburn, Val

249

Understanding Artworlds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum unit consists of four lessons that are designed to broaden students' understanding of art and culture; each lesson can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. The introduction offers a conceptual framework of the Artworlds unit, which takes an inquiry-based approach. The unit's first lesson, "Worlds within Worlds,"…

Erickson, Mary; Clover, Faith

250

Understanding Prejudice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help students understand prejudice, teachers in Verona, New York, planned a unit which incorporated the use of fiction, television, and film. Students were asked to select and read books in the general area of prejudice. A sample reading list of works under the headings of Negro, Jew, Italian, and Irish was provided. After writing extensive…

Babcock, David

1967-01-01

251

BIODIVERSITY Understanding  

E-print Network

? The decline of forest habitat and the related loss of biodiversity is a worldwide environmental issueBIODIVERSITY FOREST Understanding Biological Health in Our Forests College of Agricultural Sciences) program encourages forest-management activities that conserve native biodiversity. This brochure provides

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

252

Variations of metabolism and feed efficiency in laying R.I.R.-hens in relation to prenatal environmental  

E-print Network

Variations of metabolism and feed efficiency in laying R.I.R.-hens in relation to prenatal in a significantly higher net energy gain nor in a higher feed efficiency above maintenance. Laying RIR hens from production, feed consumption, heat production, hematocrit and serum TSH levels in laying RIR hens (Michels et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

An exploration of tourist shopping  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model to better understand tourists' shopping by investigating factors that influence this consumption activity based on existing literature. Specifically, this study explored the influences...

Oh, Yoon-Jung

2009-05-15

254

A circuit model of the temporal pattern generator of Caenorhabditis egg-laying behavior  

E-print Network

, based on their morphology and their expression of candidate sen- sory transduction molecules [5]. In wild-type worms, low external osmolarity causes constitutive egg-laying and continuous high-frequency calcium oscillations in HSN, while high osmolarity... inhibits egg-laying and silences HSN calcium transients [3]. In ocr-2(vs29) mutant worms, where uv1 function is impaired due to a domi- nant negative missense mutation in a TRPV channel pro- tein, egg-laying in high osmolarity conditions occurs at extremely...

Zhang, Mi; Schafer, William R; Breitling, Rainer

2010-06-07

255

Understanding Flight  

SciTech Connect

Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

Anderson, David

2001-01-31

256

Understanding Drought  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Drought--This webcast provides an introduction to drought. It presents the measures and scales of drought and how drought is monitored. It also covers how drought is predicted, the impacts of drought, and provides information about drought-related resources. This content serves as a foundation to learning more about climate variability and operational climate services and prepares users for the national implementation of NIDIS. This module was last updated on Sept 28, 2009.

2014-09-14

257

Collection understanding  

E-print Network

research. In addition, I would like to thank Dr. Richard Furuta for his interpretation of this work. Thanks also to Dr. Enrique Mallen for providing the image collection of the Online Picasso Project. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT... ................................................................................................................................61 vii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. System overview???????????????????????...26 Figure 2. System design????????????????????????....27 Figure 3. Using streaming collage for understanding the Online Picasso Collection......29 Figure 4...

Chang, Michelle T.

2004-09-30

258

Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

1985-01-01

259

Exploring Linear Functions: Representational Relationships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "series of explorations based on two linked representations of linear functions" allows students to manipulate the values of m and b in linear function f(x) = mx + b and get a visual understanding of the results. This particular site guides student through this exploration by asking them to perform five different manipulations and describe the changes that occur.

2000-01-01

260

Species Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among other things, the Internet is a great way to bring together geographically distant pieces of information and observations. The Species Explorer website does just that, by allowing visitors to contribute their observations of wildlife via their computer or mobile phone quickly and simply. The goals of Species Explorer are diverse and they include the idea that it is important "to encourage the level of 'citizen science' in the general public" and "to provide a platform for parent-child learning." After reading a bit of background about the project, visitors can continue to learn exactly what they will need to participate. After registering, visitors can also explore the existing observations via the Species Explorer Online application. It's a remarkable site and a remarkable idea, and one that will hopefully spur others to participate and maybe even to create new innovations in a similar vein.

Antinori, Maxim

261

Majors Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Put on your safari hat, open your mind and get ready to enter the world of majors explorations. If you ever wondered about a field of study and whether it is right for you, you are about to find out. You will also learn where majors and fields lead for careers that may interest you. All you need for the journey is the mind of the explorer and a commitment to thoroughly investigating the options which await you.

Prentice Hall (Prentice Hall)

2012-01-05

262

Underwater Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Web site comes the Underwater Exploration educational pages. The cool science link tells about decompression, underwater archaeology, student aquanaut research, and more. Other pages include diving, which has information on types of diving and diving hand signals, experiments, quizzes, an underwater exploration timeline, and a tools and gear link that describes such things as scuba gear and diving bells.

2001-01-01

263

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

264

Pythagorean Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the missing side of a right triangle. This activity allows students to explore using Pythagorean theorem to find the hypotenuse or leg of right triangles with varying difficulty. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

265

Priorities for Venus Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus remains one of the most enigmatic bodies in our Solar System. Important questions remain regarding the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, the history of the surface and interior, and how the surface and atmosphere interact. In a broader context, understanding Venus has implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial planets in our Solar System as well as for interpreting the growing set of observations of extra-solar planets. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG), established in 2005, is chartered by NASA's Planetary Science Division and reports its findings to the NASA Advisory Council. Open to all interested scientists, VEXAG regularly evaluates Venus exploration goals, scientific objectives, investigations and critical measurement requirements, including especially recommendations in the NRC Decadal Survey and the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap. At the last general meeting in November 2012, VEXAG resolved to update the scientific priorities and strategies for Venus exploration. To achieve this goal, three major tasks were defined for 2013, (1) update the document prioritizing Goals, Objectives and Investigations for Venus Exploration, (2) develop a Roadmap for Venus exploration that is consistent with VEXAG priorities as well as Planetary Decadal Survey priorities, and (3) develop a white paper on technologies for Venus missions. Proposed versions of all three documents were presented at the VEXAG general meeting in November 2013. Here, we present the findings and final versions of all three documents for community comment and feedback. A follow-on Workshop on Venus Exploration Targets is also being planned for the early summer of 2014. The workshop will provide a forum for the Venus science community to discuss approaches for addressing high priority investigations. Participants will be encouraged to present their ideas for specific targets on Venus (interior, surface and atmosphere) as well as to present specific data requirements (measurement type, resolution, precision, etc.) needed to answer key questions.

Glaze, L. S.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Grimm, R. E.; Herrick, R. R.; Johnston, S.; Limaye, S. S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Ocampo, A.; Thompson, T. W.

2013-12-01

266

PMAC-based Tracking Control System for 8-axis Automated Tape-laying Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a computer numerical control (CNC)-based open hardware architecture system to realize the special functions of automated tape-laying (ATL) in a numerical control system. It associates a programmable multi-axis controller (PMAC) as the motion control unit with programmable numerical controllers (PCL-725, PCL-730) for on-off control. To bring about synchronized movements of the main 5-axis tape-laying head system and

Liu Lin; Li Yong; Wen Liwei; Xiao Jun

2009-01-01

267

Measuring Lay Conceptions of Well-Being: The Beliefs About Well-Being Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of explicit conceptions of well-being have been provided by philosophers and psychologists, but little is known about\\u000a laypersons’ conceptions of well-being. Two studies investigating the content and measurement of lay conceptions of well-being\\u000a are presented. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic procedures, the 16-item Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS)\\u000a was developed to measure lay conceptions of well-being along

Ethan A. McMahanDavid; David Estes

2011-01-01

268

The growth of Tilapia aurea in ponds receiving laying hen wastes  

E-print Network

THE GROWTH OF TILAPIA AUREA IN PONDS RECEIVING LAYING HEN WASTES A Thesis by ROBERT PAUL BURNS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of. MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1978 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE GROWTH OF TILAPIA AUREA IN PONDS RECEIVING LAYING HEN WASTES A Thesis by ROBERT PAUL BURNS Approved as to style and content by: (Cha' man o ittee) Memb r Member) Head of Department...

Burns, Robert Paul

2012-06-07

269

Opening Pathways to Cancer Screening for Vietnamese-American Women: Lay Health Workers Hold a Key  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose.We describe a controlled trial of a community outreach intervention to promote recognition, receipt, and screening-interval maintenance of clinical breast examinations (CBE), mammograms, and Pap smears among Vietnamese-American women.Methods.Over a 3-year period, indigenous lay health workers conducted small-group sessions of Vietnamese women in a low-income district of San Francisco, California. Women in Sacramento, California, served as controls. Lay workers conducted

Joyce Adair Bird; Stephen J. McPhee; Ngoc-The Ha; Bich Le; Thomas Davis; Christopher N. H. Jenkins

1998-01-01

270

Egg Shell Quality and Cholecalciferol Metabolism in Aged Laying Hens1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium-binding protein D28K (calbindin) synthesis, vitamin D metabolism and shell quality were investigated in young and aged laying hens fed diets con taining either cholecalciferol (CC) or its 1-hydroxylated de rivatives. Duodenal calbindin concentration was similar in the young and in the aged laying hens. Exogenous 1-hy droxylated CC derivatives increased duodenal calbindin concentration, regardless of age. Shell weight and

ARIE BAR; JACOB ROSENBERG

271

Understanding resilience  

PubMed Central

Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences. PMID:23422934

Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J.; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathé, Aleksander A.

2013-01-01

272

Identification of putative egg-laying hormone containing neuronal systems in gastropod molluscs.  

PubMed

Of gastropod molluscs, only in the Aplysiidae and the Lymnaeidae have the genes encoding the respective egg-laying hormones been cloned and the neurons controlling egg laying and egg-laying behavior been identified. Immunocytochemistry, using antibodies raised against alpha-CDCP (one of the neuropeptides encoded on the egg-laying hormone gene of Lymnaea stagnalis), identified neurons in various species of gastropods. In the basommatophoran snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, large and small neurons were observed in areas of the central nervous system similar to where immunoreactive cells exist in L. stagnalis, i.e., in the cerebral and pleural ganglia. In the stylommatophoran snail (Helix aspersa) and the slug (Limax maximus), large immunopositive neurons occur in the visceral and right parietal ganglia. In L. maximus, small immunoreactive neurons were found in the cerebral ganglia while in H. aspersa similar cells were observed intermingled with the large cells in the visceral and right parietal ganglia. Similar to the situation in L. stagnalis, in the female part of the reproductive tract of B. glabrata, L. maximus, and A. californica, but not in H. aspersa, neurons and/or fiber tracts are present. The results indicate that egg-laying hormone precursor molecules of gastropod molluscs are phylogenetically closely related. The alpha-CDCP antiserum may allow the identification of hitherto unknown egg-laying regulating systems of gastropod molluscs. PMID:1505734

van Minnen, J; Schallig, H D; Ramkema, M D

1992-04-01

273

Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana  

SciTech Connect

The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165�������������������������������°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250���������������¢�������������������������������� of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the ���������������¢��������������������������������center���������������¢������������������������������� of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165�������������������������������°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

2012-09-26

274

Understanding Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Life is the educational website of The Physiological Society, providing "support for the teaching and learning of physiology." A good place to start is the What is Physiology? area, which offers an overview of this field of human inquiry. The Resources area is a well-designed archive of instructional materials that include "The story of a single heartbeat," "The Science of Life," and "Planning an experiment." It's worth noting that visitors can create their own accounts on the site so they can receive specialized newsletters, tailored website content, and become eligible to enter scientific competitions. Moving along, the Events area lists important goings-on that will be of interest to educators and those involved with science pedagogy. [KMG

275

Understanding Condensation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Monica Hartman, Assistant Director for Science in St. Clair County, Michigan, conducted this research while she was the learning specialist in a small suburban district just outside a large Midwestern city. While teaching full time in this district she was also completing her doctoral program in education at the University of Michigan. In this chapter, she tells the story of a "science talk" about condensation among fifth graders. She acted as a source and facilitator of change as she and the fifth-grade teacher worked collaboratively to help students share responsibility for their own learning. She describes their continual assessment of student understanding that occurred as their students struggled to explain observations and as they, the teachers, carefully resisted the temptation to end the struggle by saying "that's right!"

Hartman, Monica

2007-12-01

276

Understanding Leukemias  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid medical students at all levels understand the laboratory diagnosis of leukemias. It includes introductory material on the basic laboratory tests specific to diagnoses, their general application and pitfalls in interpretation. The introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating the major categories of leukemia. This tutorial focuses on diagnosis and relative little on treatment is included. QuickTime movie player, Flash player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/ . Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun; braunm@indiana.edu.Annotated: falseDisease diagnosis: neoplastic

Braun, Mark

277

Biodiversity Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Museums Online: South Africa, Biodiversity Explorer "is devoted to showing and explaining the diversity, biology, and interactions of life on earth, particularly the life we have here in southern Africa." Biodiversity Explorer provides an astounding number of information-rich Web pages covering regional plants, scorpions and spiders, insects, vertebrates, and marine life. Visitors will find detailed information (with references) and lots of photos within these pages, each with numerous hypertext links for exploring related topics. Visitors may browse the Web site by category or use the taxon index to locate species of interest. Don't know where to start? The Spotlight feature offers a few interesting examples, such as water bears that can remain dormant for over 100 years and how the San hunters use poisonous beetles for the tips of their arrows.

2007-07-02

278

Pizza Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access Excellence presents Purdue University's Pizza Explorer, an engaging teaching tool for food science designed for middle and high school students. Students learn about food processing, chemistry, and nutritional composition of eight pizza ingredients. This multimedia, interactive program aims to demonstrate how science applies to everyday life. Students can choose between two interfaces (left brain or right brain) to suit their particular learning style. Other features include a pop-up glossary, quizzes, games, and additional information about each topping (Hot Topics). Pizza Explorer takes some time to download with a 56K connection, but you can play a game while you wait.

2002-01-01

279

Exploring Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Mary Ann Connors, a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at University of Massachusetts Amherst has developed this website based on a curriculum project previously funded by the National Science Foundation. Exploring Fractals provides an introduction to fractals, explores concepts such as shape and dimension, provides some classroom investigations, demonstrates how to create simple fractals, and offers some additional information for teachers. Diagrams and pictures are used as part of the explanations. Other Internet resources for further investigation are also provided.

2006-01-19

280

Exploring Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Mary Ann Connors, a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at University of Massachusetts Amherst has developed this website based on a curriculum project previously funded by the National Science Foundation. Exploring Fractals provides an introduction to fractals, explores concepts such as shape and dimension, provides some classroom investigations, demonstrates how to create simple fractals, and offers some additional information for teachers. Diagrams and pictures are used as part of the explanations. Other Internet resources for further investigation are also provided.

281

Exploring Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Mary Ann Connors, a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at University of Massachusetts Amherst has developed this website based on a curriculum project previously funded by the National Science Foundation. Exploring Fractals provides an introduction to fractals, explores concepts such as shape and dimension, provides some classroom investigations, demonstrates how to create simple fractals, and offers some additional information for teachers. Diagrams and pictures are used as part of the explanations. Other Internet resources for further investigation are also provided.

2007-12-12

282

Comet Radar Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is a low cost mission that uses sounding radar to image the 3D internal structure of the nucleus of Jupiter-family comet (JFC) Tempel 2. Believed to originate in the Kuiper Belt, JFCs are among the most primitive bodies in the inner solar system. CORE operates a 5 and 15 MHz Radar Reflection Imager from close orbit about the nucleus of Tempel 2, obtaining a dense network of echoes that are used to map its interior dielectric contrasts to high resolution (? m) and resolve the dielectric constants to ? m throughout the 16x8x9 km nucleus. The resulting clear images of internal structure and composition reveal how the nucleus was formed and how it has evolved. Radiometric tracking of the spacecraft orbit results in an interior mass distribution that constrains the radar-based models of interior composition. High-resolution visible and infrared color images provide the surface and exterior boundary conditions for interior models and hypotheses. They present the geology and morphology of the nucleus surface at meter-scales, and also the time-evolving activity, structure and composition of the inner coma. By making deep connections from interior to exterior, the data CORE provides will answer fundamental questions about the earliest stages of planetesimal evolution and planet formation, and lay the foundation for a comet nucleus sample return mission. CORE is led by Prof. Erik Asphaug of the University of California, Santa Cruz and is managed by JPL. It benefits from key scientific and payload contributions by ASI and CNES. The international science team has been assembled on the basis of their key involvement in past and ongoing missions to comets, and in Mars radar missions, and for their expertise in radar data analysis.

Asphaug, Erik; CORE Science Team

2010-10-01

283

Statistical Understanding Made Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching statistics can be tough for even experienced instructors, so it is nice to learn about the Statistical Understanding Made Simple (SUMS) website. Created by researchers at the University of Glasgow, the site helps users build "interactive, fun and highly effective tutorials designed to help students understand basic statistics." Visitors who wish to have the resource generator create tutorials will need to register on the site and provide a small data set. Of course, visitors can also check out the "Ready Made Tutorials" area, where they will discover projects that examine the relationship between height and weight and the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on depression. Additionally, the site also contains several games which students can use to explore the effects of standard deviation and histograms.

284

Understanding the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Discovery Channel website explores the features of our universe. There are three sections covering various aspects of the universe, as well as a section for teachers with tips for using the website in the classroom. The Stargazers section discusses the top ten astronomers who have contributed to our current understanding of the universe: Kepler, Galileo, Brahe, Copernicus, Hubble, Einstein, Newton, Lemaitre, Penzias and Wilson. The Galaxy Tour section provides a field trip beginning in our own galaxy, the Milky Way, then moving to the magellanic clouds, the Andromeda galaxy, the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, unusual galaxies, and information from the Hubble Space Telescope. The It's Awesome section contains further information for understanding the vastness of the universe, light years and time, and includes a cosmic calendar and a mind game. Resources and links are provided for further information.

285

Career Explorations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiences in career exploration in a third grade classroom based on the Foxfire approach to instruction. Students researched careers by writing letters and interviewing real career people. They also set up "junior businesses" in the classroom, which involved designing business cards and purchasing products to sell. Students created a…

Bennett, Carol

1991-01-01

286

Exploring Transformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore transformations of an absolute value function. Step by step instructions guide students in using graphing calculators to examine the effect that stretching and translating has on the coordinates of the graph. Teacher notes and a worksheet are also included to aid in teaching this lesson.

2011-11-25

287

Exploring Probability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive mathematics resource allows the user to explore the outcomes resulting from tossing a coin, rolling a die, and using a spinner to perform single and double event probabilities. The resource includes print activities, solutions, learning strategies, and a board game.

2012-08-02

288

Exploring Fractals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the subject of fractal geometry focusing on the occurrence of fractal-like shapes in the natural world. Topics include iterated functions, chaos theory, the Lorenz attractor, logistic maps, the Mandelbrot set, and mini-Mandelbrot sets. Provides appropriate computer algorithms, as well as further sources of information. (JJK)

Dewdney, A. K.

1991-01-01

289

Exploring maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exploring Maps is an interdisciplinary set of materials on mapping for grades 7-12. Students will learn basic mapmaking and map reading skills and will see how maps can answer fundamental geographic questions: "Where am I?" "What else is here?" "Where am I going?"

U.S. Geological Survey

1993-01-01

290

Postsynaptic ERG potassium channels limit muscle excitability to allow distinct egg-laying behavior states in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

C. elegans regulates egg laying by alternating between an inactive phase and a serotonin-triggered active phase. We found that the conserved ERG potassium channel UNC-103 enables this two-state behavior by limiting excitability of the egg-laying muscles. Using both high-speed video recording and calcium imaging of egg-laying muscles in behaving animals, we found that the muscles appear to be excited at a particular phase of each locomotor body bend. During the inactive phase, this rhythmic excitation infrequently evokes calcium transients or contraction of the egg-laying muscles. During the serotonin-triggered active phase, however, these muscles are more excitable and each body bend is accompanied by a calcium transient that drives twitching or full contraction of the egg-laying muscles. We found that ERG null mutants lay eggs too frequently, and that ERG function is necessary and sufficient in the egg-laying muscles to limit egg laying. ERG K+ channels localize to postsynaptic sites in the egg-laying muscle, and mutants lacking ERG have more frequent calcium transients and contractions of the egg-laying muscles even during the inactive phase. Thus ERG channels set postsynaptic excitability at a threshold so that further adjustments of excitability by serotonin generate two distinct behavioral states. PMID:23303953

Collins, Kevin M.; Koelle, Michael R.

2013-01-01

291

Irrational categorization, natural intolerance and reasonable discrimination: lay representations of prejudice and racism.  

PubMed

This paper explores how the constructs of 'prejudice' and 'racism' were used and understood by respondents in an interview study concerning the settlement of Albanian refugees in Greece. Analysis indicated the existence of multiple, potentially contradictory, common sense understandings of prejudice and racism, analogous to some accounts of the prejudice construct in academic social psychology. However, notwithstanding the fact that respondents displayed multiple understandings of racism or prejudice in theory, these abstract formulations were rarely employed to account for actual instances of discrimination. Specific discriminatory acts against Albanian people were framed instead as matters of fear and risk. By virtue of being cast within a problematic of in/security rather than within the discursive frame of prejudice, particular hostile actions against the Albanian refugees could be glossed as reasonable and understandable. PMID:16762099

Figgou, Lia; Condor, Susan

2006-06-01

292

Understanding Scale: Powers of Ten  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classic film "Powers of Ten" is often employed to catalyze the building of more accurate conceptions of scale, yet its effectiveness is largely unknown. This study examines the impact of the film on students' concepts of size and scale. Twenty-two middle school students and six science teachers participated. Students completed pre- and post-intervention interviews and a Scale Card Sorting (SCS) task; all students observed the film "Powers of Ten." Experienced teachers' views on the efficacy of the film were assessed through a short written survey. Results showed that viewing the film had a positive influence on students' understandings of powers of ten and scale. Students reported that they had more difficulty with sizes outside of the human scale and found small scales more difficult to conceptualize than large scales. Students' concepts of relative size as well as their ability to accurately match metric sizes in scientific notation to metric scale increased from pre- to post-viewing of the film. Experienced teachers reported that the film was a highly effective tool. Teachers reported that the design of the film that allowed students to move slowly from the human scale to the large and small scales and then quickly back again was effective in laying the foundation for understanding the different scales.

Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy; Minogue, James; Broadwell, Bethany; Wiebe, Eric; Carter, Glenda

2007-04-01

293

Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors  

PubMed Central

Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers. PMID:19480710

Sanjana, Parsa; Torpey, Kwasi; Schwarzwalder, Alison; Simumba, Caroline; Kasonde, Prisca; Nyirenda, Lameck; Kapanda, Paul; Kakungu-Simpungwe, Matilda; Kabaso, Mushota; Thompson, Catherine

2009-01-01

294

Evaluation of Hand Lay-Up and Resin Transfer Molding in Composite Wind Turbine Blade Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The majority of the wind turbine blade industry currently uses low cost hand lay-up manufacturing techniques to process composite blades. While there are benefits to the hand lay-up process, drawbacks inherent to this process along with advantages of other techniques suggest that better manufacturing alternatives may be available. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was identified as a processing alternative and shows promise in addressing the shortcomings of hand lay-up. This report details a comparison of the RTM process to hand lay-up of composite wind turbine blade structures. Several lay-up schedules and critical turbine blade structures were chosen for comparison of their properties resulting from RTM and hand lay-up processing. The geometries investigated were flat plate, thin and thick flanged T-stiffener, I-beam, and root connection joint. It was found that the manufacturing process played an important role in laminate thickness, fiber volume, and weight for the geometries investigated. RTM was found to reduce thickness and weight and increase fiber volumes for all substructures. RTM resulted in tighter material transition radii and eliminated the need for most secondary bonding operations. These results would significantly reduce the weight of wind turbine blades. Hand lay-up was consistently slower in fabrication times for the structures investigated. A comparison of mechanical properties showed no significant differences after employing fiber volume normalization techniques to account for geometry differences resulting from varying fiber volumes. The current root specimen design does not show significant mechanical property differences according to process and exceeds all static and fatigue requirements.

CAIRNS,DOUGLAS S.; SHRAMSTAD,JON D.

2000-06-01

295

Teacher-as-researcher: Making a difference through laying a solid foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An educator's determination to make a difference in the lives of her students birthed this inquiry. It is a qualitative study with the use of descriptive statistics in summarizing the survey data. The inquiry is an interweaving of the narrative inquiry method and reflective practice. The study hinges on the works of two great scholars: John Dewey, a philosopher, and Joseph Schwab, a curriculum theorist and scientist. It is all about helping students lay a solid foundation in science so that they may have a thorough understanding of the subject matter and be able to compete with their counterparts nationally and globally. The construction of the solid foundation will include foundational terms in science and their meanings, and the utilization of the SQ4R (a modification of the original SQ3R) study strategies. Other construction materials, as reflected in the voices of the students were discovered, in the study and have added some insight and richness to the study. The intent of this study is to stimulate the interest of fellow educators to examine the ideas shared in this inquiry, and to see how they can find parallel ways to meet the needs of their students. The special needs of our students differ from one classroom to the next. Among the teachers one could also observe a variety of teaching strategies and styles. My hope is for educators who will come across this study, to adopt the findings of this inquiry and adapt them to suit their needs and the needs of their students. The revision process by fellow educators could give birth to a new idea which is what scientific inquiry is all about.

Afiesimama, Jane Tambuomi

296

Development of an Ex Vivo Protocol to Model Bone Fracture in Laying Hens Resulting from Collisions  

PubMed Central

Fractures of the keel bone, a bone extending ventrally from the sternum, are a serious health and welfare problem in free range laying hens. Recent findings suggest that a major cause of keel damage within extensive systems is collisions with internal housing structures, though investigative efforts have been hindered by difficulties in examining mechanisms and likely influencing factors at the moment of fracture. The objectives of this study were to develop an ex vivo impact protocol to model bone fracture in hens caused by collision, to assess impact and bird-related factors influencing fracture occurrence and severity, and to identify correlations of mechanical and structural properties between different skeletal sites. We induced keel bone fractures in euthanized hens using a drop-weight impact tester able to generate a range of impact energies, producing fractures that replicate those commonly found in commercial settings. The results demonstrated that impact energies of a similar order to those expected in normal housing were able to produce fractures, and that greater collision energies resulted in an increased likelihood of fractures and of greater severity. Relationships were also seen with keel’s lateral surface bone mineral density, and the peak reactive force (strength) at the base of the manubrial spine. Correlations were also identified between the keel and long bones with respect to both strength and bone mineral density. This is the first study able to relate impact and bone characteristics with keel bone fracture at the moment of collision. Greater understanding of these relationships will provide means to reduce levels of breakage and severity in commercial systems. PMID:23785487

Toscano, Michael J.; Wilkins, Lindsay J.; Millburn, Georgina; Thorpe, Katherine; Tarlton, John F.

2013-01-01

297

Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India  

PubMed Central

Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons. PMID:24396770

Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

2013-01-01

298

29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

2011-07-01

299

29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

2013-07-01

300

29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

2012-07-01

301

29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

2010-07-01

302

29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.  

...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

2014-07-01

303

Perimeter explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to engage the student in an exploration of the perimeter of shapes formed by adjacent squares on a grid. After the student selects an area, the Java applet generates a closed figure with that area. The student enters the perimeter of the figure, and the answer is checked automatically. The applet limits figures to rectangles and generates two column comparisons of areas and perimeters for multiple figures. From the activity page, What, How, and Why buttons open pages explaining the activity's purpose, function, and how the mathematics fits into the curriculum. Supplemental resources include lesson plans, background information about units and unit conversion, handouts, and exploration questions for analyzing the different shapes that are possible for a constant area. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Foundation, Shodor E.

2004-01-01

304

Art Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An early innovator in the digitization of artwork (its CD of art images "With Open Eyes" was published in 1995), the Art Institute of Chicago presents Art Explorer, an interactive website where visitors can search for art, save selections into scrapbooks with notes, and share the scrapbooks with friends and students. Art Explorer focuses on the Art Institute's Impressionist and Postimpressionist collections, and includes original artworks, as well as additional resources, including texts, video clips, artist biographies, activities, and games. For example, a search on the artist Georges Seurat retrieves eight artworks, and 42 resources, including a biographical text about Camille Pissaro, one of Seurat's contemporaries, a classroom exercise on color mixing based on Seurat's pointillist style, and a Postimpressionist bibliography, compiled by the Art Institute's Museum Education Department. The scrapbook at http://www.artic.edu/artexplorer/viewbook.php?vbook=rylnqtvhyaqm is based on this search.

305

Perimeter Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom resource is designed to help science teachers introduce and guide students through topics in modern physics. The lessons, known as Perimeter Explorations, are viewable online and are the product of collaborations between Perimeter Institute's international researchers, outreach staff, and experienced educators. The current topics include "The Mystery of Dark Matter" and "The Challenges of Quantum Reality". The teaching kit includes a 25 minute video, teacher notes, student worksheets, and supplemental materials. Much of the content is available for free download.

2009-01-14

306

Science Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Each of the six online investigation brings the expertise and latest scientific discoveries of the Museum's world-class scientists to classrooms across the country. The investigations are:Animals, Adaptation, and the Galápagos Islands; Classify Insects; Journey Into Space; Investigate the Giant Squid; Soar with Bats; and Uncover Lizards and Snakes.

307

Marine pipe-lay and recovery. Pt. 7. Subsea line buckling costs soar in deep, rough water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses to preclude buckling must be considered during both pipe-lay operations and after pipe-lay. For pipe-lay operations, preclusion of buckling is taken into account in the design by proper pipe diameter and thickness. Also to be considered are pipe coating, stringer configurations, and tension level. In a wet buckle where the pipeline breaks open and is flooded, 1 to 3

D. Jr. Bynum; I. H. Rapp

1975-01-01

308

"I can't understand your information sheet, doc!" Readability of limited-reach media materials for the lay population.  

PubMed

Patients are provided limited-reach media materials, such as information sheets and pamphlets, as reinforcement of information when the oral healthcare professional is no longer face-to-face. Patients are more likely to use the printed information if text complexity and reader's ability match, or if their need to know the content provokes an urge to read. A number of researchers have developed readability tests. This study used the Fry Readability Graph to plot the results of three independent raters' averages of the number of sentences and the words (syllables) of continuous (prose) and non-continuous (matrix-style) pre-selected passages from several reputable sources. These limited-reach materials are frequently used in academic institutions' community engagement efforts. Several of the limited-reach materials we studied were ranked above the fifth-grade reading level, so consideration must be given to future distribution of these documents in communities where the average reading proficiency is lower. Several limitations, such as the quality of illustrations and measuring the reading level of individuals, were not investigated and must be considered as the authors continue to distribute literature in certain urban and suburban locales. This study is the genesis of an academic institution's community engagement efforts to provide information to clinicians and improve its outreach distribution of limited-reach media for patients who have varying levels of general and health literacy backgrounds. PMID:24611219

Wasson, Waletha; Scarbecz, Mark; Lewis, Maurice W; Ross, Judith; Himel, Van

2013-01-01

309

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This K-12 education program gives students (especially in the Phoenix, AZ area) opportunities to take part in real scientific research led by Central Arizona - Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) scientists. Using this site, students learn data collection techniques used by scientists, called protocols. They collect initial data, using the protocols they have learned, and apply it in looking for patterns at their own research site (schoolyard or backyard). Their data can also be shared with other researchers and school kids to see what patterns in nature exist across the Phoenix metropolitan area. Their own hypotheses and experiments will lead to a better understanding of why those patterns exist and will help them to understand what real scientists are doing in their laboratories. Topics covered include arthropods, beetles, seeds, birds and vegetation.

310

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

311

Lightning Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lightning Explorer provides a map of the U.S. showing recent lightning strikes. The Discover Lightning section includes a FAQ sheet, glossary, bibliography on real-time lightning detection networks, personal safety information, scientific papers, and a link to a photo gallery. The scientific papers cover lightning safety, the physics of lightning, the U.S. Lightning Detection Network and related applications, 3D total lightning, long-range and oceanic lightning detection, and meteorological applications. Products and services include real-time tracking, lightning notification, detection systems and a bulletin board.

312

Exploring Leonardo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Museum of Science (Boston) for the Science Learning Network, the Exploring Leonardo Website investigates the prescient endeavors of a remarkable Renaissance humanist, Leonardo da Vinci. This multimedia site, developed for children in grades four through eight, examines Leonardo's life and his extraordinary accomplishments in painting, sculpture, architecture, engineering, and medicine. Several classroom activities and interactive elements are embedded in the siteĂÂąs rich content, including sections such as Leonardo's Perspective, which describes his unique painting techniques, and The Inventor's Workshop, which provides brief explanations, along with sketches, of the visionary machines he invented. [JJS, AO

313

Exploring Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Estuaries introduces students of various ages to the ecology of estuaries, places where freshwater rivers and streams flow into the ocean, mixing with the seawater. It is part of a broader effort by the National Estuary Program to educate the general public about estuaries and to restore and protect these sensitive ecosystems. It offers interactive games and activities as well as virtual tours of Long Island Sound and the Barataria-Terrebonne Estuarine Complex near New Orleans. A glossary page defines technical terms used throughout the site. Resources also are provided for teachers and students interested in learning more about related organizations, publications, and websites.

314

Watershed Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use skills gained from the Web-based GIS tutorial to explore the Willamette Watershed in Oregon. A correlation will be found between types of trees and the riparian zone along the McKenzie River. Population in the Willamette Valley and annual rainfall in the Coast Range and the Cascades will be evaluated. Due to the recent downward trend in rainfall, students will be expected to propose a new site for water collection, similar to PortlandâÂÂs Bull Run watershed. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Costello, Vickie

2011-09-14

315

Number Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive application helps students to learn visually about numbers from their possible arrangements and how those arrangements relate to division, multiplication, and factors. The web applet divides numbers and displays calculation to show the remainder as a number, fraction, or decimal value and allows demonstration of types of numbers such as prime, square, and triangular. The number explorer has automated tests for divisibility, factor pairs, or prime factors. Three different shapes can be used, the original fish swim around and obediently arrange themselves to show number properties. However balls or cards cards can be used instead, these animate faster and are better for displaying numbers.

2012-01-01

316

Exploring Krypto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The rules of Krypto are amazingly simple—combine five numbers using the standard arithmetic operations to create a target number. Finding a solution to one of the more than 3 million possible combinations can be quite a challenge, but learners love it. This game helps to develop number sense, computational skill, and an understanding of the order of operations. Play this game online or use a deck of Krypto cards.

Samuel E. Zordak

2012-01-01

317

Area Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concept of area and ability to find area of irregular shapes constructed of squares on a grid. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the resource does not include student reading material.

2010-01-01

318

Exploring Uranus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice giant planets such as Uranus have become a hot topic in the planetary and exoplanetary communities. This interest is driven by several factors, including the realization that these planets are fundamentally different from terrestrial and gas giant planets, the fact that they challenge current understanding of solar system formation and planetary evolution, and the new discovery that ice giants are abundant in our galaxy.

Hofstadter, Mark; Lamy, Laurent

2014-04-01

319

Exploring Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

Miss Emily

2010-01-29

320

Differential abundance of egg white proteins in laying hens treated with corticosterone.  

PubMed

Stressful environments can affect not only egg production and quality but also gene and protein abundance in the ovary and oviduct in laying hens. The oviductal magnum of laying hens is the organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of egg white proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone as a stress model on the abundance of proteins in the egg white and of mRNA and proteins in the magnum in laying hens. After a 14-day acclimation, 40 laying hens were divided into two groups which were provided for the next 14 days with either control (Control) or corticosterone (Stress) diet containing at 30 mg/kg. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased feed intake (P ? 0.05) and decreased egg production. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS using eggs obtained on days 0 and 5 revealed differential abundance of egg white proteins by Stress: transiently expressed in neural precursors (TENP), hemopexin (HPX), IgY-Fc?3-4, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP) were decreased while ovoinhibitor and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX) were increased on days 5 vs 0 (P ? 0.05). Expression of mRNAs and proteins was also significantly modulated in the magnum of hens in Stress on day 14 (P ? 0.05). In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence showing that dietary corticosterone modulates protein abundance in the egg white in laying hens, and it suggests that environmental stress can differentially modify expression of egg white proteins in laying hens. PMID:25436390

Kim, Jimin; Choi, Yang-Ho

2014-12-24

321

Airborne bacterial reduction by spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water in a laying-hen house.  

PubMed

Spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been considered as a potential approach to reduce airborne bacteria in laying-hen houses. In this study, the effects of spraying SAEW on airborne bacterial reduction were investigated in a laying-hen house as compared with using diluted didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB). Averaged air temperature reduced by approximate 1 degrees C and average relative humidity increased by 3% at a stable ventilation rate (about 2.5 m3 hr(-1) per bird) in the laying-hen house 30 min after spraying (120 mL m(-2)). Compared with the control without spraying, the airborne bacterial concentration was reduced by about 0.70 and 0.37 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3) in the 4 hr after spraying 120 mL m(-2) SAEW (available chlorine concentration [ACC] of 156 mg L(-1)) and diluted DDAB (active compound concentration of 167 mg L(-1)), respectively. Compared with spraying diluted DDAB, spraying SAEW was determined to be more effective for reducing airborne bacterial in laying-hen houses. The effects of spraying SAEW and diluted DDAB on airborne bacterial reduction in the laying-hen house increased with the increasing available chlorine concentrations for SAEW (156, 206, 262 mg L(-1)) and increasing active compound concentrations for diluted DDAB (167, 333, 500 mg L(-1)), respectively. Spraying SAEW and diluted DDAB with two levels of spraying volumes (120 and 90 mL m(-2)) both showed significant differences on airborne bacterial reduction in the laying-hen house (P < 0.05). PMID:24282973

Zheng, Weichao; Kang, Runmin; Wang, Hongning; Li, Baoming; Xu, Changwen; Wang, Shuang

2013-10-01

322

Effects of feeding hygromycin B and chlormadinone acetate on performance of a commercial laying stock  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF FEED1NG HYGROMYCIN R AND CHLORMADINQNE ACETATE ON PERFORMANCE OF A, COMMERCIAL LAYING STOCK A Thesis FER1AL YOUNES SAAD (Mrs. Ferial S. Abd El-Maguid) Submitted to the Graduate Coll. ege of Texas AgM University in partial... of hygromycin. They concluded that the use of 16 and 24 grams per ton of feed duri, ng the laying period depressed egg production. Shumard et al (1958) treated Leghorn hens eighteen months oi' g*, t 11y 'M t, 6 Xth A 'i' Pp. I E 1~1 0 111n with hygromycin B...

Abd El-Maguid, Ferial Saad

1965-01-01

323

[Therapy trials with enrofloxacin (Baytril) in a laying hen flock with Salmonella pullorum infections].  

PubMed

The course of a disease due to Salmonella pullorum in laying chickens is described. The experimental application of enrofloxacin (Baytril) at a dosage of 100 mg/l drinking water for 10 days resulted in a stop of the mortality rate, increment of egg production and reduction of Salmonella excretion. A recurrence of the disease was observed in the fifth week following the end of treatment with high mortality and decreasing egg laying. The treatment lead to a short-dated success but a permanent elimination of the germ from the flock was not achieved. PMID:2651079

Redmann, T; Glünder, G; Schildger, B; Göbel, T; Kaleta, E F

1989-03-01

324

Growing Understanding of Undergraduate Mathematics: A Good Frame Produces Better Tomatoes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I lay a new theoretical framework across my own lecturing in order to understand what is happening. On the one hand, this is a test of the framework. On the other, I gain insights into both better practices and better course design. The framework constructs undergraduate teaching as the interaction between the discipline and the university…

Barton, Bill

2011-01-01

325

Understanding the Police Investigation of the Murder of Stephen Lawrence: A 'Mundane Sociological Analysis'  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Race' is a litmus test for understanding relationships within institutions. Conflicts between ethnic majorities and minorities (and other minorities too) have a capacity to not only bring particular features of racialised relations to view but to also lay bare generic, institutional relationships. In this paper, I argue that the Lawrence Inquiry report directs us to mundane features of policing. Crucially

Simon Douglas Holdaway

1999-01-01

326

Asteroid and comet exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of Venus, Mars, and the Moon have had two major scientific objectives. One was to clarify the processes which control planetary evolution. The fulfillment of this purpose, although far from complete, was eminently successful in generating entirely new perspectives on the growth and differentiation of earth. The second objective, particularly prominent in the planning of the lunar exploration, was to augment the understanding of the virtually unknown preplanetary history of the solar system. This would include the fundamental questions of the origin, emplacement, and state of matter gathered around the sun and some planets. Preplanetary history also inquires into the problems of fractionation, condensation, and non-gravitation aggregation of circumsolar and circumplanetary matter.

Arrhenius, G.; Alfven, H.; Fitzgerald, R.

1973-01-01

327

NASA's Mars Exploration Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information and resources on the NASA Mars Exploration Program, a science-driven program that seeks to understand whether Mars was, is, or can be a habitable world, as suggested by the presence or absence of liquid water. Site materials include overviews of current and past Mars missions and spacecraft, facts and a virtual tour of the planet using the NASA Mars Atlas, and a brief discussion of the perception of Mars in popular culture. For students, there are interactive features, games, and activities. For educators, there are professional development materials, classroom resources (activities and lessons), and information on four major education programs connected with Mars exploration. Other materials include news articles, multimedia presentations, recent images, and updates from current missions.

328

“It Is Like That, We Didn't Understand Each Other”: Exploring the Influence of Patient-Provider Interactions on Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Service Use in Rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Interactions between patients and service providers frequently influence uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa, but this process has not been examined in depth. This study explores how patient-provider relations influence PMTCT service use in four government facilities in Kisesa, Tanzania. Qualitative data were collected in 2012 through participatory group activities with community members (3 male, 3 female groups), in-depth interviews with 21 women who delivered recently (16 HIV-positive), 9 health providers, and observations in antenatal clinics. Data were transcribed, translated into English and analysed with NVIVO9 using an adapted theoretical model of patient-centred care. Three themes emerged: decision-making processes, trust, and features of care. There were few examples of shared decision-making, with a power imbalance in favour of providers, although they offered substantial psycho-social support. Unclear communication by providers, and patients not asking questions, resulted in missed services. Omission of pre-HIV test counselling was often noted, influencing women's ability to opt-out of HIV testing. Trust in providers was limited by confidentiality concerns, and some HIV-positive women were anxious about referrals to other facilities after establishing trust in their original provider. Good care was recounted by some women, but many (HIV-positive and negative) described disrespectful staff including discrimination of HIV-positive patients and scolding, particularly during delivery; exacerbated by lack of materials (gloves, sheets) and associated costs, which frustrated staff. Experienced or anticipated negative staff behaviour influenced adherence to subsequent PMTCT components. Findings revealed a pivotal role for patient-provider relations in PMTCT service use. Disrespectful treatment and lack of informed consent for HIV testing require urgent attention by PMTCT programme managers. Strategies should address staff behaviour, emphasizing ethical standards and communication, and empower patients to seek information about available services. Optimising provider-patient relations can improve uptake of maternal health services more broadly, and ART adherence. PMID:25180575

Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Birdthistle, Isolde; Mshana, Gerry; Michael, Denna; Urassa, Mark

2014-01-01

329

Exploring Krypto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan provides the teacher with an activity for introducing the game Krypto, which helps to develop number sense, computational skill, and an understanding of the order of operations. Players are given five number cards. They combine them, using the standard arithmetic operations, to create a target number. As students investigate the game, they develop strategies for finding solutions efficiently. The plan includes learning objectives, materials needed, questions to ask students, assessment options, extensions, teacher self-reflection questions, and a link to the online version, Primary Krypto, (catalogued separately).

Zordak, Samuel E.

2008-01-01

330

Exploring Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this activity, Students will learn several important characteristics about friction. Students will also learn why athletes who curl in the Winter Olympics try to understand and control friction.

2010-01-01

331

Shape explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet is designed to allow students to practice visualizing and calculating area and perimeter for figures formed by adjacent squares on a grid. After the student selects a size using a slide bar, the Java applet generates a random closed figure. The student enters values for the figure's area and perimeter, which are checked automatically. The applet limits figures to rectangles and generates two column comparisons of areas and perimeters for multiple figures. From the activity page, What, How, and Why buttons open pages that explain the activity's purpose, function, and how the mathematics fits into the curriculum. The applet also references related NCTM standards for grades 6-8. Supplemental resources include lesson plans, background information about units and unit conversion, handouts, and exploration questions about comparing grid line intersections on the interior and exterior of figures. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Foundation, Shodor E.

2004-01-01

332

Data exploration systems for databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data exploration systems apply machine learning techniques, multivariate statistical methods, information theory, and database theory to databases to identify significant relationships among the data and summarize information. The result of applying data exploration systems should be a better understanding of the structure of the data and a perspective of the data enabling an analyst to form hypotheses for interpreting the data. This paper argues that data exploration systems need a minimum amount of domain knowledge to guide both the statistical strategy and the interpretation of the resulting patterns discovered by these systems.

Greene, Richard J.; Hield, Christopher

1992-01-01

333

Exploring Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the presence of magnetic fields around magnets, the sun and the earth. They will explore magnetic field lines, understand that magnetic lines of force show the strength and direction of magnetic fields, determine how field lines interact between attracting and repelling magnetic poles, and discover that the earth and sun have magnetic properties. They will also discover that magnetic force is invisible and that a "field of force" is a region or space in which one object can attract or repel another.

334

Understanding Early Sexual Development (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... this age start to understand the difference between boys and girls, and can identify themselves as one or the ... have developed a strong sense of being a boy or girl, and continue to explore their bodies even more ...

335

Fritz Schott's Contributions to the Understanding of the Ocean Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean circulation and its central significance for global climate lay at the heart of Fritz's research. In the context of hard-won data from his more than 30 research cruises to key regions of the Atlantic and Indian oceans, he made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the wind-driven and thermohaline ocean circulation. His insights and explorations of circulation and dynamics of the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans have led the field and provided a large part of the basis for planning large, international experiments. Fritz's work is also distinguished by his making exceptional use of modeling results, increasingly as the models have improved. His research has provided a much clearer correspondence between the observed ocean-structure and dynamical theory-noting both theoretical successes and limitations. Besides his general interest in the physical oceanography of the World Oceans, most of his research was devoted to the dynamics of tropical oceans with its intense and highly variable current systems. Concerning the Indian Ocean, Fritz's investigated the response of the Somali Current system to the variable monsoon winds in the early 1980's, obtaining high-quality, hydrographic surveys and the first long term direct measurement of ocean currents from moored arrays. His analyses and interpretations provided a synthesis of the complex circulations there. In the tropical Atlantic Ocean Fritz research focused on the western boundary circulation with important contributions to the understanding of the North Brazil Current retroflection, and the variability of the shallow and deep western boundary currents. Trying to solve the fundamental question ‘what is the role of the tropical ocean for climate variability', Fritz initiated large multinational research programs under the umbrella of the World Climate Research Projects WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) and CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability). Fritz was the initiator and driving force behind the Collaborative Research Project "Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation" which was funded from 1996-2006 by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Within this project, he and his colleagues made major contributions to our understanding of the sinking of cold, dense waters in the northern North Atlantic, a process critical for the deep ocean circulation as well as the role played by the Gulf Stream and Deep Western Boundary current system for climate. The starting point of this project was again the observation of the ocean. Vertical velocity and hydrographic measurements during active convection carried out in the Greenland Sea, the Labrador Sea and the Gulf of Lions represents the observational basis of the fundamental work regarding the open-ocean convection.

Visbeck, M.

2009-04-01

336

Under what conditions is euthanasia acceptable to lay people and health professionals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euthanasia is legal only in the Netherlands and Belgium, but it is on occasion performed by physicians elsewhere. We recruited in France two convenience samples of 221 lay people and of 189 professionals (36 physicians, 92 nurses, 48 nurse's aides, and 13 psychologists) and asked them how acceptable it would be for a patient's physician to perform euthanasia in each

Nathalie Teisseyre; Etienne Mullet; Paul Clay Sorum

2005-01-01

337

Innovation and "out of the box" thinking lay the foundation for the College of Engineering and  

E-print Network

of Naval Architects & Marine Engineers/American/Society of Naval Engineers & Marine Technology Society and Management (M.S.) · Marine Engineering Management (GC) · Mechanical Engineering (B.S., M.S., Ph.D.) · OceanInnovation and "out of the box" thinking lay the foundation for the College of Engineering

Fernandez, Eduardo

338

WWLL global lightning detection system: Regional validation study in Erin H. Lay,1,2  

E-print Network

WWLL global lightning detection system: Regional validation study in Brazil Erin H. Lay,1,2 Robert] An experimental lightning detection network, the World Wide Lightning Location network (WWLL), is being developed. This paper provides a ``worst case'' analysis of WWLL location accuracy in Brazil where the VLF lightning

Thomas, Jeremy N.

339

Formation and Uses of Lay Advisory Groups for the Humanities. Project Report No. 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the experiences of several community colleges, this report examines successful and unsuccessful strategies utilized in the formation of lay advisory committees for the humanities. The report first presents brief descriptions of successful committee organization efforts at five institutions: Clark College (Vancouver, WA), Brevard Community…

Beckwith, Miriam M.

340

Measurement of Ammonia Emissions from Laying Hen Houses , Y. Liang2  

E-print Network

Measurement of Ammonia Emissions from Laying Hen Houses H. Xin1 , Y. Liang2 , R.S. Gates3 , E. F the sustainability of the animal industry. This paper describes measurement and some preliminary results of ammonia ammonia (NH3) emission factors for poultry confinement facilities for representative housing types, manure

Kentucky, University of

341

Validation of a real-time cable deployment control system for slack cable laying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validation of a real-time control system for the deployment of submarine communication cables presented. The control system allows the user accurately control cable bottom slack and position the cable along a pre-planned route. The system was successfully used to lay an underwater acoustic tracking range for the US Navy. A total of eight, 40 mile long cables, each having

J. M. Andres; S. R. Jefferies; G. Gillenwaters

1993-01-01

342

Lay Presidents in Jesuit Higher Education: Examining a Culture of Companionship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2006 there has been a notable increase in the number of American Jesuit colleges and universities selecting non-Jesuit leaders to serve in the position of president. These "lay" presidents (i.e., not ordained priests) now comprise approximately one-third of all chief executives in Jesuit institutions, giving rise to questions about…

Russell, Stephanie Rossiter

2012-01-01

343

Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

2007-01-01

344

An investigation of egg deterioration caused by feeding cottonseed meal to laying hens  

E-print Network

gossypoli Tho cottonseed meal ueod in diets 6 and 7 wae ooohod uith in organic salts which have boon found helpful in countoraoting tho toxic affects of tho gossypol in cottonseed mali Diet, 6 is a normal laying ration ueod in the Poultry Division of tho...

Thiegs, Bernard J

1940-01-01

345

A study of the pathogenesis of egg drop syndrome in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally reared and SPF laying hens were infected with egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus and killed at intervals during the first 13 days post inoculation (pi). Tissues were collected and studied using histo?pathological and immunoperoxidase techniques.EDS viral antigen and intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected in the surface epithelium of the nasal cavity of conventional hens 2 to 6 days pi.

Joan A. Smyth; M. A. Platten; J. B. McFerran

1988-01-01

346

Treatment Adherence in a Lay Health Adviser Intervention to Treat Tobacco Dependence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lay health advisers (LHAs) are increasingly used to deliver tobacco dependence treatment, especially with low-socioeconomic status (SES) populations. More information is needed about treatment adherence to help interpret mixed evidence of LHA intervention effectiveness. This study examined adherence to behavioral counseling and nicotine patches in…

Hood, N. E.; Ferketich, A. K.; Paskett, E. D.; Wewers, M. E.

2013-01-01

347

Development of fuel cell bipolar plates from graphite filled wet-lay thermoplastic composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method with the potential to produce economical bipolar plates with high electrical conductivity and mechanical properties is described. Thermoplastic composite materials consisting of graphite particles, thermoplastic fibers and glass or carbon fibers are generated by means of a wet-lay (paper-making) process to yield highly formable sheets. The sheets are then stacked and compression molded to form bipolar plates with

Jianhua Huang; Donald G. Baird; James E. McGrath

2005-01-01

348

TARSUS -A New Generation State of the Art Tactical Artillery Survey and Gun Laying System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, main aspects of the new generation tactical artillery survey and gun laying system development program are described. The aim of the program is to design a fast and accurate artillery survey system, which can effectively be used in the dynamic battlefield of 21st century. Indirect fire support units must be responsive and survivable which require precise positioning

Murat EREN; Özgür ATESOGLU; L. Guner

2006-01-01

349

Laying the Foundation for Successful Team Performance Trajectories: The Roles of Team Charters and Performance Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for…

Mathieu, John E.; Rapp, Tammy L.

2009-01-01

350

Effect of Heat Exposure on Gene Expression of Feed Intake Regulatory Peptides in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of heat stress on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two circumstances: high (31?±?1.5°C; relative humidity, 82.0?±?2.2%) or normal (20?±?2°C, control; relative humidity, 60.1?±?4.5%) ambient environment. Heat stress decreased body weight gain (P < 0.01), feed intake (P < 0.01), laying rate (P < 0.05), average egg mass (P < 0.01), egg production (P < 0.01), shell thickness (P < 0.01), and feed efficiency (P < 0.05). High ambient temperature decreased plasma uric acid (P < 0.05). Heat stress significantly increased mRNA levels of ghrelin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (P < 0.05) and decreased mRNA levels of cholecystokinin (P < 0.05) in the hypothalamus. Heat stress significantly increased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of ghrelin in the glandular stomach and jejunum but significantly decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of cholecystokinin in the duodenum and jejunum. In conclusion, heat stress plays a unique role in some special neuropeptides (e.g., ghrelin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and cholecystokinin), which might participate in the regulation of feed intake in laying hens under high ambient temperature. PMID:22619495

Song, Zhigang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

2012-01-01

351

Strain variations in behavioral traits under heat stress in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat stress is a problem for welfare of animals including laying hens. This study examined whether hens’ responses and adaptation to heat stress are affected by their genetic strain. Ninety 28-week-old White Leghorns from two strains were used: DeKalb XL (DXL), a line of hens individually selected ...

352

Use of lay health educators for smoking cessation in a hard-to-reach urban community.  

PubMed

A description of the use of indigenous lay health educators as they participated in the implementation of a community-based smoking cessation program is provided. The target population was young black women who resided in several urban public housing developments. The intervention, which was conducted in tandem with a larger televised smoking cessation program, consisted of either class sessions conducted by or reminder visits from community lay health educators. The lay health educators were successful in organizing this population, often viewed as difficult to reach, to become more aware of the dangers of smoking and to become more interested in participating in a structured smoking cessation program. They motivated 235 individuals to sign up for the program; of these, 141 attended at least one class session or accepted at least an initial reminder visit. The results suggest that lay health educators may be able to mobilize this population to participate in health promotion programs. However, due to differences in this population related to smoking, the findings indicate that new methods must be developed for sustaining their involvement after they have been reached. PMID:1955578

Lacey, L; Tukes, S; Manfredi, C; Warnecke, R B

1991-10-01

353

Climate change, migratory connectivity and changes in laying date and clutch size of the pied flycatcher  

E-print Network

Climate change, migratory connectivity and changes in laying date and clutch size of the pied., Ahola, M., Eeva, T., Va¨isa¨nen, R. A. and Lehikoinen, E. 2006. Climate change, migratory connectivity Ficedula hypoleuca Pallas, and analysed whether potential changes were explained by changes in climatic

Laaksonen, Toni

354

Psychological Theory as Intergroup Perspective: A Comparative Analysis of “Scientific” and “Lay” Accounts of Crowd Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central argument of this paper is that the popular success of crowd psychology is in part due to its correspondence with the perspective of outgroup members. This is supported by a comparative analysis of traditional crowd psychology and lay accounts of crowd events drawn from street disturbances in St. Pauls, Bristol, in 1980. Five basic types of error are

Stephen Reicher; Jonathan Potter

1985-01-01

355

From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants,

Christine Putland; Fran E Baum; Anna M Ziersch

2011-01-01

356

The Lay Public's Need for School Evaluation InformationEffects of Voting Habits and Parental Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation research suggests that audience characteristics affect the use of evaluation information. Two factors that influence the lay public's need for educational evaluation information are voting habits and parental status. This article examines the relationship between participant voting frequency and parental status on the need for evaluative data. Results indicate that the more frequently parents voted, the more they wanted

Dianna L. Newman; Kay S. Bull

1985-01-01

357

Changes in Pituitary Somatotroph and Lactotroph Distribution in Laying and Incubating Turkey Hens  

E-print Network

Changes in Pituitary Somatotroph and Lactotroph Distribution in Laying and Incubating Turkey Hens Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 Accepted May 21, 1996 Turkey be- havior, and hyperprolactinemia. Although remarkable changes occur in hormonal profiles as turkey

Ramachandran, Ramesh

358

Costs of egg-laying and offspring provisioning: multifaceted parental investment in a digger wasp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nest-building Hymenoptera have been a major testing ground for theories of parental investment and sex allocation. Investment has usually been estimated by the likely costs of offspring provisioning, ignoring other aspects of parental care. Using three experimental treatments, we estimated the costs of egg-laying and provisioning separately under field conditions in a digger wasp Ammophila pubescens. In one treatment, we

Jeremy Field; Ed Turner; Tom Fayle; William A. Foster

2009-01-01

359

Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...

360

Trench Protection and Principles of Pipe Laying. Instructor Manual. Trainee Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains the instructor and trainee manuals for a course dealing with trench protection and principles of pipe laying. Part 1 is the instructor guide for an 80-hour course--12 classroom hours and 68 hours of hands-on exercises. Contents are as follows: a course outline; course schedule; equipment list; material and equipment checklist;…

Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

361

UTILISATION OF NAKED OATS AND BARLEY IN THE FEED OF BROILERS AND LAYING HENS  

E-print Network

UTILISATION OF NAKED OATS AND BARLEY IN THE FEED OF BROILERS AND LAYING HENS J. GUILLAUME C. CALET Three varieties of hulless cereals : two oats and one barley were compared to maize (trial i), to maize, wheat and normal or dehulled oats and barley (trial 2) as main components of isocaloric diets in growing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

Life-history variation in a seed beetle: adult egg-laying vs. larval competitive ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus differ genetically in several traits that mediate intraspecific competition. This study examined competitive interactions between larvae from two strains that differed in their propensity to oviposit on occupied hosts. In a strain (S) where females avoided laying >1 egg\\/seed, larvae were highly competitive; if two larvae entered a small host simultaneously, only one

Frank J. Messina

1991-01-01

363

Using Explicit Teaching to Improve How Bioscience Students Write to the Lay Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The media role model was recently developed to frame how science faculty members can teach their students to write more effectively to lay audiences (14). An Opinion Editorial (Op-Ed) was introduced as a novel assignment for final-year physiology and pharmacology undergraduates. This second phase of this study, reported here, demonstrated the…

Moni, Roger W.; Hryciw, Deanne H.; Poronnik, Philip; Moni, Karen B.

2007-01-01

364

Design of laying nests in furnished cages: influence of nesting material, nest box position and seclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Preferences for three nesting materials and nest box positions were investigated simultaneously in two trials using a furnished cage: one with 18 individual laying hens and one with 18 groups of 5 hens. Following a habituation period in pre-test cages, every hen or group of hens was tested for 2?d: once without and once with plastic flaps at the

E. Struelens; F. A. M. Tuyttens; A. Janssen; T. Leroy; L. Audoorn; E. Vranken; K. De Baere; F. Ödberg; D. Berckmans; J. Zoons; B. Sonck

2005-01-01

365

Lay representations of workplace stress: What do people really mean when they say they are stressed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An individual's beliefs in relation to stress are likely to affect their perceptions, and hence their work-related actions (such as absenteeism). In this paper, lay representations of work stress were investigated utilising semi-structured interviews with 45 individuals from a range of occupations. The meaning of occupational stress, its antecedents and outcomes, and ways by which it may be managed were

Gail Kinman; Fiona Jones

2005-01-01

366

A singular perturbation method for parametric investigation on J-lay installation of deepwater pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum bending moment or curvature in the neighborhood of the touch down point (TDP) and the maximum tension at the top are two key parameters to be controlled during deepwater J-lay installation in order to ensure the safety of the pipe-laying operation and the normal operation of the pipelines. In this paper, the non-linear governing differential equation for getting the two parameters during J-lay installation is proposed and solved by use of singular perturbation technique, from which the asymptotic expression of stiffened catenary is obtained and the theoretical expression of its static geometric configuration as well as axial tension and bending moment is derived. Finite element results are applied to verify this method. Parametric investigation is conducted to analyze the influences of the seabed slope, unit weight, flexural stiffness, water depth, and the pipe-laying tower angle on the maximum tension and moment of pipeline by this method, and the results show how to control the installation process by changing individual parameters.

Wang, Qin; Duan, Meng-lan; Li, Hai-ming; Zhang, Qing-yuan

2013-12-01

367

Improvement of Rural Children's Asthma Self-Management by Lay Health Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of the present analysis is to examine changes in rural children's asthma self-management after they received lay health educator (LHE)-delivered classes. Methods: Elementary schools were randomly assigned to the treatment or attention-control condition and their participating students received either asthma education or…

Horner, Sharon D.; Fouladi, Rachel T.

2008-01-01

368

Community-based Premarital Prevention: Clergy and Lay Leaders on the Front Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the results of the dissemination of an empirically based, premarital education program within religious organizations. Results reveal that clergy and lay leaders were as effective in the short run as university staff. Couples reported that the communication skills components of premarital education were the most helpful. (Contains 48…

Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Prado, Lydia M.; Olmos-Gallo, P. Antonio; Tonelli, Laurie; St. Peters, Michelle; Leber, B. Douglas; Bobulinski, Michelle; Cordova, Allan; Whitton, Sarah W.

2001-01-01

369

Older Men's Lay Definitions of Successful Aging over Time: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of "successful aging" has become widely accepted in gerontology, yet continues to have no common underlying definition. Researchers have increasingly looked to older individuals for their lay definitions of successful aging. The present analysis is based on responses to five questionnaires administered to surviving participants of the…

Tate, Robert B.; Swift, Audrey U.; Bayomi, Dennis J.

2013-01-01

370

Radio-tracking of female Tree Swallows prior to egg-laying  

Microsoft Academic Search

We radio-tracked eight female Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) prior to egg-laying in 2000 and 2001. Six females made movements .2 km to evening roosting sites. Females often roosted farther away than the nearest available roost site, they used different roosts on different nights, and during the day they foraged up to 10 km from their nest site. Thus, female swallows

Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham

371

Egg size and laying order in relation to offspring sex in the extreme sexually size dimorphic brown songlark, Cinclorhamphus cruralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some bird species, mothers can advantage the offspring of one sex either by elevating them in the laying order to promote earlier hatching or by allocating greater resources to eggs of the preferred sex. In size dimorphic species, the predictions as to which sex should benefit most from such pre-laying adjustments are ambiguous. The smaller sex would benefit from

Michael J. L. Magrath; Lyanne Brouwer; Jan Komdeur

2003-01-01

372

Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are two linked disorders in humans. This study examined if excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. One hundred 63-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into two treatments, i.e., fed with a regular diet (control...

373

In Vitro Fermentation Response of Laying Hen Cecal Bacteria to Combinations of Fructooligosaccharide Prebiotics with Alfalfa or a Layer Ration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with alfalfa on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal con- tents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3,000 concentra- tion with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes filled with ground alfalfa or a layer ration with or without fructooligosaccharide

L. M. Donalson; W. K. Kim; V. I. Chalova; P. Herrera; J. L. McReynolds; V. G. Gotcheva; D. Vidanovic; C. L. Woodward; L. F. Kubena; D. J. Nisbet; S. C. Ricke

2008-01-01

374

Exploring Lenses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to encourage students to learn about lenses by examining them firsthand and observing their similarities and differences. They will examine various lenses and write a description of what each one looks like, what objects look like when viewed through them, and other information that they decide is necessary to enhance their understanding of how lenses change the way we look at objects. They will then brainstorm with classmates about uses for the various lenses with a focus on how a scientist might use them and what instruments might use them. As an extension, students can compile a list of scientific instruments and tools that use lenses and then list the types of lenses used in each and compare them to the lenses they have examined.

375

Heritabilities and genetic correlations of laying performance in Muscovy ducks selected in Taiwan.  

PubMed

1. Genetic parameters in the base population of a closed experimental strain of Muscovy ducks, selected for body weight at 10 weeks of age, were estimated from data in 8 successive generations, for the following traits: age at first egg (AGE1EGG), total number of eggs laid at 40 and 52 weeks of age (NEGG40 and NEGG52), number of eggs laid during 15 and 22 weeks in the first laying cycle (NEGG15W and NEGG22W), and their Box-Cox transformed data. 2. The method of multi-trait restricted maximum likelihood with an animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters. Only the results obtained with non-transformed data are shown. 3. Heritability estimates for laying performance showed moderate values, increasing little with age: 0.20+/-0.03 (AGE1EGG), 0.23+/-0.03 (NEGG40), 0.27+/-0.03 (NEGG52), 0.20+/-0.03 (NEGG15W), and 0.22+/-0.03 (NEGG22W). 4. Genetic correlations between laying traits were high. Genetic correlation between AGE1EGG and egg number was negative, it was positive between total numbers of eggs at 40 and 52 weeks and egg numbers in the first laying cycle. 5. Body weight at 10 weeks of age exhibited positive genetic correlations (0.46+/-0.06) with age at first egg and negative with egg production traits (-0.28+/-0.06 to -0.41+/-0.06). 6. The cumulated predicted genetic gains, after 7 generations of selection, expressed per genetic standard deviation unit (sigma(g)) were 0.06 sigma(g), 0.07 sigma(g), 0.17 sigma(g), 0.23 sigma(g), and 0.25 sigma(g) for AGE1EGG, NEGG40, NEGG52, NEGG15W, and NEGG22W, respectively. 7. Selecting Muscovy ducks to improve laying in Taiwanese climatic conditions would be possible using the number of eggs laid up to 52 weeks of age as the selection criterion. Because unintended selection effects for laying traits were present, the selection experiment for body weight at 10 weeks of age was not antagonistic with laying traits. PMID:15222414

Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Liu, S C; Tai, C

2004-04-01

376

Understanding Venus to understand the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite having almost the same size and bulk composition as the Earth, Venus possesses an extreme climate with a surface pressure of 90 bars and temperatures of 740 K. At visible wavelengths the Venus disk appears covered by thick clouds.The core atmospheric processes of Venus and the Earth are similar, despite the different, extraordinary paths they took since their simultaneous formation in the solar system's habitable zone. There are several indications that the composition of the Venus atmosphere has undergone large changes, such as an early runaway climate, and it is likely that the planet has lost a large amount of water through dissociation in the upper atmosphere due to ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent escape of hydrogen. SO2 is thought to originate from volcanism. H2O and SO2 react to form H2SO4 which condenses to form clouds. In past centuries, astronomers and explorers including Captain James Cook observed transits to measure the scale of the solar system. On 5-6 June 2012 we observed the last transit of Venus in this century. Close to the ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by a thin arc of light, called the aureole. We have shown that the deviation due to refraction and the luminosity of the aureole are related to the local density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer. As different portions of the arc can yield different values of these parameters, the rare transit event thus provides a unique insight of the Venus mesosphere. The polar region, significantly brighter in initial phases due to larger scale height of the polar mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by about 15deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Detailed comparative climatology of Venus, an Earth-size planet and understanding why it evolved so differently in its history is crucial to assert the long term evolution of our own planet. Exploring Venus' atmosphere also helps characterize the variety of Earth-size planets near their habitable zone to be discovered around other stars.he atmospheric arc, or aureole, seen from the DST/Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at ~8.5 minutes prior to first contact (NSO/Arcetri)

Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.

2012-12-01

377

Exploring Chocolate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chocolate is "More than a food but less than a drug." From the San Francisco-based site Exploratorium (described in the February 21, 1997 Scout Report) comes a yummy compendium exploring chocolate from bean to bar and beyond. Divided into topical sections, the site examines everything from the processing of the cacao beans into chocolate to the chemical makeup and possible health benefits from indulging. Video and audio clips highlight the text, including video shot in the Amazon showing the process of cutting open and tasting cacao fruit and audio interviews with a chocolate researcher. There is also a tour of a chocolate factory, a great bibliography, and a quick lesson in tempering chocolate to make candies. So if you're looking to improve your temper during the hectic holiday season, indulge yourself for a few minutes at this site. But be warned, by the end of your visit, you'll probably find yourself yearning for something more than a virtual indulgence.

Snyder, Amy.; Spadaccini, Jim.

378

Explore UK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Explore UK website is an initiative by the University of Kentucky Special Collections and it is a true delight for anyone with an interest in this storied institution and Kentucky history more generally. First-time visitors will notice a scrolling section of images that introduce the photographs and other documents that are part of this growing collection. The sections here include Images, Athletics Archive, Board of Trustees, and Yearbooks. The Images archive includes over 30,000 images that cover everything from student life to campus buildings. There are a few thematic collections here that should not be missed. First among them is the John Tuska collection, which contains over 1,100 images of pieces created by the celebrated potter/sculptor and University of Kentucky professor. The Buildings area is quite nice as well, as it contains over 1,700 images that document both the architectural ornamentation of various buildings around campus and the overall feel of the campus layout.

2012-04-06

379

Project Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

1984-01-01

380

Students' Understanding of Z[subscript N  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we explore six students' conceptions of Z[subscript n] in an effort to understand students' conceptions of quotient groups in general. We discovered that there were three different ways our students thought about Z[subscript n], namely as infinite sets, element-set combinations, and representative elements. We explore how…

Siebert, Daniel; Williams, Steven R.

2003-01-01

381

Influence of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens. Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (n = 540; 28 wk of age) were randomized into 6 groups, each group with 6 replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet formulated with maize and soybean meal. The treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09% Bacillus licheniformis powder (2 × 10(10) cfu/g) for an 8-wk trial. The results showed that dietary supplementation with 0.01 and 0.03% B. licheniformis significantly increased egg production and egg mass. However, no significant differences were observed in egg weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion efficiency among the 6 groups. Supplementation with different levels of B. licheniformis was found to be effective in improvement of egg quality by increasing egg shell thickness and strength. Compared with control, d-lactate content, diamine oxidase activity, and adrenocorticotropic hormone level in serum decreased significantly, and the level of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone increased significantly in plasma of all the experimental groups. Dietary supplementation with B. licheniformis increased the intestinal villus height and reduced the crypt depth. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis could improve laying performance and egg quality significantly in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing the stress response, upregulating the growth hormone, and improving intestinal health. PMID:23960122

Lei, K; Li, Y L; Yu, D Y; Rajput, I R; Li, W F

2013-09-01

382

Quest for Exploration Artist Statement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quest for Exploration, by sculptors Julie Rotblatt-Amrany and Omri Amrany, is a contemporary installation sculpture incorporating both figurative elements and symbolic forms. It is constructed of bronze, granite, steel, and glass. The concept includes the quest of humanity for understanding the universe. It presents the 20th-century intersection of humankind into space. Captain James A. Lovell is the subject.

Rotblatt-Amrany, J.; Amrany, O.

2013-04-01

383

The Atmosphere Explorer photoelectron spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Photoelectron Spectrometer (PES) is part of the complement of scientific instruments aboard three NASA Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites that are intended to enhance understanding of the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere. The spectrometer is designed to measure the energy spectrum, angular distribution, and intensity of electrons in the earth's thermosphere. It measures energies between 2 and 500 eV

D. P. Peletier

1975-01-01

384

Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo…

Adler, Isidore

1984-01-01

385

Effects of nutrient dilution and nonstarch polysaccharide concentration in rearing and laying diets on eating behavior and feather damage of rearing and laying hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted with 768 non-cage-housed ISA Brown pullets, of which 576 hens were followed during the laying period, to investigate the separate effects of dietary energy dilution and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) concentration (oat hulls as NSP source) on eating behavior and feather damage. Day-old pullets were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments according to a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (3 dilution and 2 NSP levels), with 8 replicates (pens) per treatment. At 17 wk of age, pens with hens were allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments according to a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (4 dilution and 2 NSP levels), with 6 replicates per treatment. Compared with 0% dilution level, feed intake of laying hens of 10, 15, and 20% dilution levels increased by 8.4% (9.5 g/hen per d), 16.5% (18.1 g/hen per d), and 20.9% (23.6 g/hen per d), respectively. The ME(n) intake was similar for all dilution levels. Hens fed standard-NSP laying diets had similar insoluble NSP intake for all dilution levels (9.3 g/hen per d). Insoluble NSP intake of hens fed high-NSP laying diets increased from 15.6 g/hen per day (0% dilution) to 18.9 g/hen per day (20% dilution). Providing high- vs. standard-NSP layer diet decreased relative proventriculus contents (1.1 vs. 0.3 g/kg of BW) and increased empty gizzard weight (14.3 vs. 24.4 g/kg of BW). Hens that were fed standard-NSP diets had more feather damage compared with hens fed high-NSP diets (0.58 vs. 0.30 arbitrary units). Increasing the insoluble NSP intake resulted in decreased proventricular weight and increased gizzard weight and its contents, which are indicators of improved functioning of the gut, thereby linearly reducing feather damage. Providing diluted rearing diets increased feed intake from the first weeks of life onwards. It was hypothesized that pullets were increasingly "imprinted" on feed as pecking substrate if dilution level increased. This may decrease feather pecking and could explain the improved feather condition at 49 wk of age when 15% diluted rearing diet was fed. PMID:19276419

van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

2009-04-01

386

From "Birth of a Nation" to "Pearl Harbor": The Influence of a Movie's Perspective on Students' Historical Understandings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What and how do students learn from motion pictures, and how does this knowledge interact with the history they learn in school? This is a complex problem-space and one that has seen little empirical research. To lay the groundwork for exploring these questions, a pilot study utilized a qualitative methodology in which high school students viewed…

Paxton, Richard J.; Meyerson, Peter

387

46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-50 Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying...

2011-10-01

388

46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-50 Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying...

2012-10-01

389

46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-50 Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying...

2013-10-01

390

46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-50 Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying...

2010-10-01

391

46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-50 Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying...

2014-10-01

392

Children's Understanding of the Ulysses Conflict  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies explored children's understanding of how the presence of conflicting mental states in a single mind can lead people to act so as to subvert their own desires. Study 1 analyzed explanations by children (4-7 years) and adults of behaviors arising from this sort of "Ulysses conflict" and compared them with their understanding of…

Choe, Katherine S.; Keil, Frank C.; Bloom, Paul

2005-01-01

393

David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

Gerson, Hope

2008-01-01

394

Ecological Understanding 1: Ways of Experiencing Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates 10 student teachers' understanding of the different ways in which the function of the ecosystem could be experienced. Explores the functional aspects of the ecosystem using a system approach. Concludes that the idea of transformation is crucial to more complex ways of understanding photosynthesis. (Contains 62 references.) (Author/YDS)

Carlsson, Britta

2002-01-01

395

Effect of dietary supplementation of bacteriophage on performance, egg quality, and caecal bacterial populations in laying hens.  

PubMed

Abstract 1. Bacteriophages (BP) have gained increasing attention as a treatment of bacterial infection for animals. However, the data pertaining to dietary application of BP for laying hens have been limited. 2. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary BP on laying performance, egg quality, and caecal bacterial populations in laying hens. 3. The dietary BP used in this experiment was a mixture of individual BP targeting Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Derby, and Staphylococcus aureus. 4. A total of 360 Hy-Line Brown laying hens of 32 weeks of age were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicates in a completely randomised design. The basal diet was prepared, and 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg BP mixture was supplemented to the basal diet. Diets were fed to hens for 8 weeks. 5. Laying performance and egg quality were not affected by dietary treatments. As inclusion levels of BP mixture in diets were increased, the DNA copy numbers for Salmonella spp. in the caecal contents decreased linearly, whereas the DNA copy numbers for Escherichia coli in the caecal contents increased linearly. 6. Results indicate that dietary supplementation of BP mixture decreases the target Salmonella spp. populations but increases Escherichia coli populations in the gastrointestinal tract of laying hens with little impact on laying performance and egg quality. PMID:25471539

Kim, J H; Kim, J W; Shin, H S; Kim, M C; Lee, J H; Kim, G-B; Kil, D Y

2014-12-01

396

Characterization of Egg Laying Hen and Broiler Fecal Microbiota in Poultry Farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products. PMID:25329397

Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

2014-01-01

397

Beyond a Shadow of a Doubt? Experts, Lay Knowledge, and the Role of Radiography in the Diagnosis of Silicosis in Britain, c. 1919–1945  

PubMed Central

Summary The history of silicosis provides an important chapter in the history of occupational and environmental health. Recent historical scholarship has drawn attention to the importance of patient attitudes, popular protests, and compensation claims in the formation of a "lay epidemiology" of such a disease, frequently challenging the scientific orthodoxies devised by large corporations and medical specialists. Surprisingly little research has been undertaken on the United Kingdom, which provided much of the early expertise and medical research in respiratory diseases among industrial workers. This article examines the introduction of a particular technique, x-radiography, and its use by radiologists and others in debates on the causes and consequences of silica inhalation by the laboring population in Britain during the early decades of the twentieth century. In contrast to some recent interpretations, and also to the narrative of progress that practitioner historians have developed since the 1940s, this article suggests that the use of this technology was contested for much of this period and the interpretation of X-rays remained disputed and uncertain into the 1950s. The article also questions recent accounts of lay epidemiology as an adequate model for understanding the progress of such innovations in medical history. PMID:21037398

Melling, Joseph

2010-01-01

398

Lost in Translation? A Comparison of Cancer-Genetics Reporting in the Press Release and its Subsequent Coverage in Lay Press1  

PubMed Central

Understanding how genetic science is communicated to the lay public is of great import, given that media coverage of genetics is increasing exponentially and that the ways in which discoveries are presented in the news can have significant effects on a variety of health outcomes. To address this issue, this study examines the presentation of genetic research relating to cancer outcomes and behaviors (i.e., prostate cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, smoking and obesity) in both the press release (N = 23) and its subsequent news coverage (N = 71) by using both quantitative content analysis and qualitative textual analysis. In contrast to earlier studies reporting that news stories often misrepresent genetics by presenting biologically deterministic and simplified portrayals (e.g., Mountcastle-Shah et al., 2003; Ten Eych & Williment, 2003), our data shows no clear trends in the direction of distortion toward deterministic claims in news articles. Also, other errors commonly attributed to science journalism, such as lack of qualifying details and use of oversimplified language (e.g., “fat gene”) are observed in press releases. These findings suggest that the intermediary press release rather than news coverage may serve as a source of distortion in the dissemination of science to the lay public. The implications of this study for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:25568611

Brechman, Jean M.; Lee, Chul-joo; Cappella, Joseph N.

2014-01-01

399

How Young Children Understand Electric Circuits: Prediction, Explanation and Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports findings from a study of young children's views about electric circuits. Twenty-eight children aged 5 and 6 years were interviewed. They were shown examples of circuits and asked to predict whether they would work and explain why. They were then invited to try out some of the circuit examples or make circuits of their own…

Glauert, Esme Bridget

2009-01-01

400

Exploring the Role of Goal Theory in Understanding Training Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model to test conceptions from goal theory within an existing framework of training motivation was developed and tested with employees participating in training in a non-profit organization. It was hypothesized that goal orientation ("distal factors") along with self-efficacy, expectancy and valence ("proximal factors") would predict goal…

Smith, Rebecca; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Caputi, Peter; Hammer, David

2008-01-01

401

What Lives Where & Why? Understanding Biodiversity through Geospatial Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an interactive map-based PDF, students learn key concepts related to biodiversity while developing data-analysis and critical-thinking skills. The Bird Island lesson provides students with experience in translating geospatial data into bar graphs, then interpreting these graphs to compare biodiversity across ecoregions on a fictional island.…

Trautmann, Nancy M.; Makinster, James G.; Batek, Michael

2013-01-01

402

Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2012-01-01

403

Understanding Bereavement in a Christian University: A Qualitative Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological study, based on ecological systems theory, examined the college student bereavement experience in a Christian university. Undergraduate students (N = 127) from a small Christian university provided answers to open-ended questions about their experiences regarding college following a death loss. Results indicate that students…

Walker, Andrea C.; Gewecke, Rachelle; Cupit, Illene N.; Fox, Jeffrey T.

2014-01-01

404

EDUCATION AND PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING. SECOND EDITION. EXPLORATION SERIES IN EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE SECOND EDITION OF A 1959 STUDY EXAMINES THE IMPLICATIONS OF RECENT RESEARCH AND MODERN COMMUNICATION MEDIA FOR PROVIDING EDUCATORS WITH THE CAPACITY TO OBTAIN PUBLIC MORAL AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR SCHOOLS. CITIZEN SUPPORT OF EDUCATION DEPENDS LARGELY ON THE AVAILABILITY AND DISCUSSION OF PERTINENT INFORMATION. BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE THAT…

MCCLOSKEY, GORDON

405

Work—Family Facilitation: Expanding Theoretical Understanding Through Qualitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. Work—family scholarly research is often dominated by a conflict perspective. In this study, employees of a large multinational corporation were asked to describe the positive influences of their work life on their home life and vice versa. Participants most frequently mentioned work place flexibility, financial benefits, and the ability to keep family commitments as important

E. Jeffrey Hill; Sarah Allen; Jenet Jacob; Ashley Ferrin Bair; Sacha Leah Bikhazi; Alisa Van Langeveld; Giuseppe Martinengo; Taralyn Trost Parker; Eric Walker

2007-01-01

406

Effect of rearing and laying house environments on performance of incross egg production type pullets  

E-print Network

Cages Per Cent 82. 3 82. 4 75 ' 5 72. 3 68. 9 67. 0 olony Cages Per Cent 42, 4 72. 3 72. 5 72. 8 66. 3 58. 5 60. 5 53+7 58. 0 For all er1 ds 62. 2 Table XX. Ststisti, cal Analysis of Egg Production of Birds from the Diffexent... / Individual Cages / Colony Cages Floor Pens I / / ~/ I/ 2 g 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 2B-Day Per1ods P1gure 7. Peed Effioienoy for Laying House Managements by 2B-day Periods. Data for feed efficiency Of birds as related to lay1ng housing method are g1ven...

Shupe, William Dale

1960-01-01

407

A company I can trust? Organizational lay theories moderate stereotype threat for women.  

PubMed

Women remain under-represented in the leadership of corporate America. According to stereotype threat theory, this under-representation may persist because women are concerned about being stereotyped in business settings. Three studies investigated whether an entity (fixed), compared with an incremental (malleable), organizational lay theory is threatening for women evaluating a consulting company. Men and women viewed a company mission statement or website containing an entity or incremental theory. Results revealed that women-more so than men-trusted the entity company less than the incremental company. Furthermore, only women's mistrust of the entity company was driven by their expectations about being stereotyped by its management. Notably, when combined with high or low representations of female employees, only organizational lay theories predicted trust. Finally, people's-particularly women's-mistrust of the entity company led them to disengage more before interacting with a representative. Implications for women's experiences and outcomes in workplace settings are discussed. PMID:25534242

Emerson, Katherine T U; Murphy, Mary C

2015-02-01

408

Embryo Development inside Female Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale) Prior to Egg Laying  

PubMed Central

The length of embryo retention prior to oviposition is a critical evolutionary trait. In all oviparous salamanders, which include the vast majority of species in the order, fertilization is thought to occur at the time of egg laying. Embryos then enter the first cleavage stage several hours after being deposited. This pattern holds for previously studied individuals in the Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale complex. Here, we document an instance in which a female Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale was carrying embryos internally that had already reached stage 10 of development. Development likely began several days prior to the start of migration to the breeding pond. This is the first such record for any egg-laying salamander, and suggests a degree of plasticity in the timing of fertilization and development not previously recognized. Further work is needed to ascertain the prevalence, mechanics, and evolutionary significance of this phenomenon. PMID:24651275

Charney, Noah D.; Castorino, John J.; Dobro, Megan J.; Steely, Sarah L.

2014-01-01

409

Effects of Gushukang, a Chinese herbal medicine, on bone characteristics and osteoporosis in laying hens.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the effects of the herb medicine formula Gushukang (GSK) on bone characteristics and osteoporosis in end-of-lay hens. One thousand 55-wk-old ISA caged layers were allotted randomly to 2 groups. The control group was given the basal diet, and the GSK group was given the basal diet supplemented with additional GSK (1 g/kg) for 10 wk. Egg production, shell quality, bone radiographic density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover were determined. The results showed that GSK significantly increased the egg laying rate and decreased the percentage of cracked eggs (P < 0.05).The serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased (P < 0.05) in the GSK-treated group compared with the control group, whereas bone characteristics were significantly improved (P < 0.05). The results suggested that GSK can improve egg production and prevent bone loss by inhibiting bone turnover. PMID:19834084

Zhou, Z-L; Deng, Y-F; Tao, Q-S; Hu, Y-F; Hou, J-F

2009-11-01

410

Embryo development inside female salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale) prior to egg laying.  

PubMed

The length of embryo retention prior to oviposition is a critical evolutionary trait. In all oviparous salamanders, which include the vast majority of species in the order, fertilization is thought to occur at the time of egg laying. Embryos then enter the first cleavage stage several hours after being deposited. This pattern holds for previously studied individuals in the Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale complex. Here, we document an instance in which a female Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale was carrying embryos internally that had already reached stage 10 of development. Development likely began several days prior to the start of migration to the breeding pond. This is the first such record for any egg-laying salamander, and suggests a degree of plasticity in the timing of fertilization and development not previously recognized. Further work is needed to ascertain the prevalence, mechanics, and evolutionary significance of this phenomenon. PMID:24651275

Charney, Noah D; Castorino, John J; Dobro, Megan J; Steely, Sarah L

2014-01-01

411

Video calls from lay bystanders to dispatch centers - risk assessment of information security  

PubMed Central

Background Video calls from mobile phones can improve communication during medical emergencies. Lay bystanders can be instructed and supervised by health professionals at Emergency Medical Communication Centers. Before implementation of video mobile calls in emergencies, issues of information security should be addressed. Methods Information security was assessed for risk, based on the information security standard ISO/IEC 27005:2008. A multi-professional team used structured brainstorming to find threats to the information security aspects confidentiality, quality, integrity, and availability. Results Twenty security threats of different risk levels were identified and analyzed. Solutions were proposed to reduce the risk level. Conclusions Given proper implementation, we found no risks to information security that would advocate against the use of video calls between lay bystanders and Emergency Medical Communication Centers. The identified threats should be used as input to formal requirements when planning and implementing video calls from mobile phones for these call centers. PMID:21958387

2011-01-01

412

Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Traits Related to Fear and Feather Pecking in Laying Hens.  

PubMed

Feather pecking is a well known problem in flocks of laying hens. It is partially controlled by genetics. Fear is frequently reported to be related with feather pecking. The present study reports the result from a quantitative genetic analysis of feather pecking and three fear test traits in laying hens. Fear was recorded by the tonic immobility test, the open field activity and the emergence box test. These were recorded at a juvenile and adult age of the hens. The heritability of feather pecking was 0.16, and in the range between 0.07 and 0.14 for the fear test traits. Genetic correlations between fear measured in the juvenile and in the adult age point to different but correlated traits. Tonic immobility measured early in life was moderately correlated with feather pecking and might be used as a breeding criterion to reduce feather pecking. PMID:25491395

Grams, Vanessa; Bögelein, Stefanie; Grashorn, Michael A; Bessei, Werner; Bennewitz, Jörn

2014-12-10

413

Frito-Lay North America: The Making of a Net-Zero Snack Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementing a sustainability strategy requires firms to consider economic, strategic, environmental, and community perspectives. Suitable for MBA, undergraduate, and executive learners, this sustainability case covers innovation, intrapreneurship, and strategy. An Excel carbon footprint analysis exercise (UVA-S-ENT-0112) accompanies the case; a technical note entitled, "Corporate Greenhouse Accounting: Carbon Footprint Analysis" (UVA-ENT-0113) is an effective complement. Frito-Lay’s Arizona facility pilots a program

Andrea Larson

414

Lay people in court: the experience of defendants, eyewitnesses and victims.  

PubMed

The article considers the effect of criminal trial procedures on the experience at court of victims, witnesses and defendants. Trials for offences involving physical violence were observed, and interviews conducted with those involved. The article highlights communication problems lay people encountered relating to courtroom conventions, discusses alternative procedures granting more room for narrative testimony, and draws parallels between such an approach and principles of research methods directed to securing valid, reliable data. PMID:23713560

Fielding, Nigel G

2013-06-01

415

Evaporative cooling of ventral regions of the skin in heat-stressed laying hens.  

PubMed

Laying hens held in battery cages in naturally ventilated poultry houses in hot countries usually develop hyperthermia, which adversely affects their performance. The present means of cooling alleviate to some degree, but cannot eliminate, the stress imposed by heat. A new approach to cooling of laying hens was developed, based on wetting the skin and promoting evaporation of water from the ventral regions of the bird. The type of plumage in the ventral regions and the exposed skin of the apteria enable more efficient wetting than is possible with dorsal cooling. A ventral cooling regime, comprising an initial period of frequent wettings followed by intermittent wetting for 10 s every 30 min was able to maintain normothermia of laying hens subjected to a 10-h period of heat exposure. Dorsal cooling was less efficient; body temperature and respiration rate were higher and skin temperatures were lower than in ventrally cooled hens. During 10 d of heat exposure, ventrally cooled hens maintained egg weight and shell index (mg/cm2), whereas their food intake decreased moderately. In contrast, egg weight, shell index, and food intake all decreased markedly in uncooled or dorsally cooled hens. Transient alterations in plasma concentrations of corticosterone, progesterone, and estradiol were noted in uncooled and dorsally cooled hens but not in ventrally cooled hens. Results indicate that ventral cooling is an efficient method to alleviate heat stress in laying hens during summer. Successful implementation of ventral cooling in poultry houses will depend on optimal installation of sprinklers and on minimal wetting of manure. PMID:11469662

Wolfenson, D; Bachrach, D; Maman, M; Graber, Y; Rozenboim, I

2001-07-01

416

Heat stress effects on capillary blood flow and its redistribution in the laying hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of heat stress on capillary blood flow (CBF) distribution was examined in laying hens, using 15 micron microspheres, by determining CBF before and after elevating body temperature by 1–2°C. No change was evident in unfeathered metatarsal skin, although its temperature increased by 7°C. Breast skin CBF change was 3.5 times larger than that of back skin. Comb CBF

D. Wolfenson; Yael F. Frei; N. Snapir; A. Berman

1981-01-01

417

Responses of the reproductive vascular system during the egg?formation cycle of unanaesthetised laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Vascular adjustments to the process of egg formation were examined in the unanaesthetised laying hen, by the radioactive microspheres method.2. Three? to four?fold increases in blood flow were found in segments surrounding the egg during its passage along the oviduct, possibly due to an enhanced metabolic activity in the muscle layer of the oviduct.3. Shell?gland blood flow was minimal

D. Wolfenson; Yael F. Frei; A. Berman

1982-01-01

418

Cycle history data and elongation characteristics for polyester and aramid wire-lay construction ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance ropes have unique properties that are derived from their fiber and construction. Wire-lay construction rope manufactured from 1W81 polyester with SeaGuard(R) finish and Kevlar(R) 29 aramid are observed in this study while experiencing 250,000+ cycles of tension-tension fatigue. The results indicate general behavioral trends. The numerical data obtained can be used in computer models to evaluate the appropriate

E. W. Huntley

1997-01-01

419

The risks of using nuclear energy sources in space: Some lay activists` perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of directive and nondirective techniques was used to study the mental models of 30 lay activists regarding the risks of nuclear energy sources in space. Respondents` perceptions were compared with a {open_quotes}expert model{close_quotes} of the processes generating and controlling these risks, in terms of both the substance of their beliefs and several statistical measures of their performance. These

Michael Maharik; Baruch Fischhoff

1992-01-01

420

Relationship Between DDE Concentrations and Laying Sequence in Eggs of Two Passerine Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passerine eggs make useful biomonitors of environmental pollutants. Among passerines, it is not known whether organochlorine contaminants in eggs within the same clutch are independent observations or follow a laying order effect. Intraclutch variation of DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis[(p-chlorophenyl)]ethylene) concentrations was studied in eggs collected from prothonotary warblers (Protonotaria citrea) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) nesting on National Priority List sites in

K. D. Reynolds; S. L. Skipper; G. P. Cobb; S. T. McMurry

2004-01-01

421

Broken bones in domestic fowl: Handling and processing damage in end?of?lay battery hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. 3115 end?of?lay battery hens and carcases were sampled at set points in the sequence of events that occurred between depopulation of the battery cages at the layer farms and the end of the evisceration line in two processing plants. Live birds were killed in a convulsion?free manner and carcases were dissected to determine the incidence of broken bones.2. Of

N. G. Gregory; L. J. Wilkins

1989-01-01

422

Reproductive conflict in honey bees: a stalemate of worker egg-laying and policing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using electrophoretic markers, eggs laid by workers were identified in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies with a queen. Based on extrapolation, these represented about 7% of the unfertilized (male) eggs laid in the colonies.\\u000a A very small proportion of workers (of the order of 0.01%) lay these eggs. Worker-laid eggs are rapidly removed, so that very\\u000a few sons of workers

P. Kirk Visscher

1996-01-01

423

Evolutionary transitions among egg-laying, live-bearing and maternal inputs in sharks and rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sharks and rays are thought to have a large number of independent origins of live-bearing.We examined evolutionary transitions to live-bearing and maternal input to embryos in this subclass by optimizing reproductive characters onto a composite phylogeny. Egg-laying (40% of all species) is the likely ancestral reproductive mode for this clade, and there is evidence that live-bearing has evolved independently

NICHOLAS K. DULVY; JOHN D. REYNOLDS

1997-01-01

424

Thermo2Pro: Knowledge dissemination for deep geothermal exploration  

E-print Network

1/12 Thermo2Pro: Knowledge dissemination for deep geothermal exploration Philippe Calcagno1 geothermal exploration, information system, Web tool, sedimentary basin, dissemination. Abstract The understanding of geology and petrophysical properties is necessary to develop deep geothermal projects. However

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

425

Composite lay-up process with application of elements of augmented reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with virtual tools based on principles of open source philosophy in implementation area of composite lay-up technology. It describes virtual software and hardware elements that are necessary for work in augmented reality environment. In the beginning it focuses on general problems of applications of virtual components and in composite lay-up process. It clarifies the fundamental philosophy of new created application and the process called visual scripting that was used for program development. Further it provides closer view on particular logical sections, where necessary data are harvested and compared with values from virtual arrays. Also the new device is described with adjustment of operating desk, what enables detailed control of any realized manufacturing process. This positioning table can determine and set the position of the working plane using the commands in computer interface or manual changes. Information about exact position of individual layers are obtained in real time thanks to the built-in sensors. One of them manages the data change of the desk position (X, Y, Z), other checks the rotation around main axis situated in the center of the table. New software consists of 4 main logical areas with data packets comming from internal computer components as well as from external devices. In the end the displaying section is able to realize the movement process of virtual item (composite layer) according to its trajectory. Article presents new attitude in realization of composite lay-up process. Finally it deals with possible future improvements and other application possibilities.

Novák-Marcin?in, Jozef; Barna, Jozef; Janák, Miroslav; Fe?ová, Veronika; Nováková-Marcin?inová, L'udmila

2012-03-01

426

Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

Background The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110?g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a ‘zeolite diet’ (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p?Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg. PMID:22676421

2012-01-01

427

Lay perspectives of successful ageing: a systematic review and meta-ethnography  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the current study was to conduct a systematic review of lay perspectives of successful ageing (SA), synthesise these data using a metaethnographic framework and to provide a snapshot of extant lay perspectives of SA. Design A systematic review of layperson perspectives of SA was conducted across MEDLINE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge. Participants Peer-reviewed studies conducting qualitative investigations of lay perspectives of SA were included. Included studies were coded and analysed using NVivo V.9 to examine underlying themes of SA. Results The search strategy identified 7285 articles; 26 articles met the inclusion criteria. Laypersons identified psychosocial components, notably engagement (eg, social engagement), and personal resources (eg, attitude) as integral components of SA more often than ‘physiological’ components, such as longevity or physical functioning. These results also highlight the profound under-representation of non-Western countries and the cultural homogeneity of research participants. Conclusions The current study reveals the importance laypersons place on incorporating psychosocial components into multidimensional models of SA, as well as highlighting the need for increased research with under-represented populations. PMID:23794575

Cosco, Theodore D; Prina, A Matthew; Perales, Jaime; Stephan, Blossom C M; Brayne, Carol

2013-01-01

428

Early petroleum exploration, Rocky Mountain region, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, geology exposed on the flanks of Rocky Mountain uplifts has given unique opportunities to integrate surface and subsurface data to understand the petroleum geology of the intermontane basins. Exploration evolved from drilling near seeps to mapping of surface anticlines, to use of geophysics and subsurface data acquired by drilling. Oil seeps were first recorded by explorers in Wyoming in

1991-01-01

429

Exploring the Relationship Between Pain and Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the goal of this paper to contribute to the conceptual understanding of pain. We specifically explore the relationship between pain and perception, surveying three philosophical works that define pain somehow or other in terms of perception. We critique this work and also explore some of its empirical implications. We briefly consider for each of these accounts how pain

Alice I. Kyburg

430

Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen-day egg production in combination with 10.4 cm/pullet rearing but not with 7.0 cm/pullet rearing space. In a similar manner, hen mortality was greater in the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female feeder space combination that the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination. PMID:24864293

Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Brake, J

2014-07-01

431

Exploring the Early Americas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we understand the initial period of contact between Europeans and Native Americans? An effective way of doing so is through the study of artifacts, including handicrafts, maps, printed documents, and other materials. This online collection from the Library of Congress features selections from over 3,000 rare items that are part of the institution's Jay I. Kislak Collection, and has been since December 2007. After reading the "About" area, visitors can click on the "Themes" area to find sections including Pre-Contact America and Explorations and Encounters. Each area contains remarkable items such as a dramatic map of 16th-century Istanbul, a depiction of the death of Moctezuma, and excerpts from Columbus's account of his 1492 voyage across the Atlantic. Furthermore, the Interactives area contains seven different media-rich experiences, including Reading Pre-Columbian Artifacts and The Buccaneers of America.

2007-12-12

432

Black Hole Explorer Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This board game challenges players (ages 10+) to build a spaceship and fly to a black hole. The game provides opportunities for understanding phenomena based on current black hole research. During the game, players will experience the dangers and excitement of a real space mission, and learn about the nature of black holes by launching scientific probes. The game can be played competitively or as a team (instructions are also provided for playing in large groups. Black Hole Explorer consists of: Game Board, Game Rules, Spacecraft Data sheets, Science Briefing Room document, Event cards (28), Probe result cards (12), Energy tokens (140). Game components are available as PDF downloads; dice and game pieces must be provided by the user. NOTE: tokens and cards need to be cut to size from letter-size cardstock.

433

Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations. PMID:25239534

Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

2014-11-01

434

Lay Abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of children diagnosed with Autism varies greatly around the world. To date most studies have been done in more affluent countries. Iran is unique in that it has a national screening programme for all children prior to starting school. To date over 1.3 million five year olds have been screened for Autism using the Persian translation of a

Samadi; Mahmoodizadeh; McConkey; Hines; Togher; Dykstra; Crais; Baranek; Pring; Hermelin; Remington; Swettenham; Howard-Jones; O’Neil; Cimera; Wehman; Burgess

2012-01-01

435

Exploring the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home site for the online series of Exploring the Environment (ETE). Exploring The Environment features an integrated approach to environmental earth science through modules and activities. The vision of the ETE online series is to promote science-literate and reflective students who are knowledgeable of the earth's processes and their responsibilities for stewardship. The modules and activities incorporate environmental issues such as water quality, deforestation, biodiversity, volcanoes, ozone depletion, and global climate change. Standard problem-solving models, online resources that include relevant satellite imagery, and recommendations for extended inquiry are available to students. Student-directed research generally lasts a minimum of five weeks but often extends throughout the semester. Working cooperatively or individually, students engage in problem-based modules and activities that require them to formulate problem statements; to collect and analyze data; and then to prepare and present their findings, solutions, or recommendations. These findings, solutions, or recommendations should demonstrate students' understanding and awareness of the dynamics of physical, biological and socio-economic variables. The ETE modules can augment existing science courses, and they are interdisciplinary in nature, so that they can also be used in courses such as economics, social studies, and history. Teachers interested in using this site will have to register for a free password, in order to gain access to the Teacher's Pages.

436

Broken bones in domestic fowls: Effect of husbandry system and stunning method in end?of?lay hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of age at sexual maturity, age at culling, and stunning frequency and current on the incidence of broken bones were examined in end?of?lay hens. In addition comparisons were made between 4 different egg?laying breeds, and between battery, perchery and free range husbandry systems.2. High frequency stunning (1500 Hz) caused a reduction in the incidence of broken bones

N. G. Gregory; L. J. Wilkins; S. D. Eleperuma; A. J. Ballantyne; N. D. Overfield

1990-01-01

437

Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial.2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced

H. M. Shang; T. M. Hu; Y. J. Lu; H. X. Wu

2010-01-01

438

NOAA Ocean Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Follow ocean explorations in near real-time, learn about ocean exploration technologies, observe remote marine flora and fauna in the multimedia gallery, review NOAA's 200-year history of ocean exploration, and discover additional NOAA resources in a virtual library. View current expeditions or take a look back at the archived ones. Most expeditions feature fact sheets, photographs, explorer logs, and ask an explorer.

439

Age of Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research an explorer that interests you Use the links provided to find information about an explorer of your choice. Answer the questions provided on the your worksheet. What is the name of your explorer? Where did he travel? Show routes on the map. Who did he sail for? When did he explore? Why did he explore? What was he looking for? What ...

Cade

2010-10-04

440

Venus Exploration opportunities within NASA's Solar System Exploration roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science goals to understand the origin, history and environment of Venus have been driving international space exploration missions for over 40 years. Past missions include the Magellan and Pioneer-Venus missions by the US; the Venera program by the USSR; and the Vega missions through international cooperation. Furthermore, the US National Research Council (NRC), in the 2003 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Decadal Survey, identified Venus as a high priority target, thus demonstrating a continuing interest in Earth's sister planet. In response to the NRC recommendation, the 2005 NASA SSE Roadmap included a number of potential Venus missions arching through all mission classes from small Discovery, to medium New Frontiers and to large Flagship class missions. While missions in all of these classes could be designed as orbiters with remote sensing capabilities, the desire for scientific advancements beyond our current knowledge - including what we expect to learn from the ongoing ESA Venus Express mission - point to in-situ exploration of Venus.

Balint, Tibor; Thompson, Thomas; Cutts, James; Robinson, James

2006-01-01

441

Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG) was established by NASA in July 2005 to identify scientific priorities and strategy for exploration of Venus. This community-based forum is designed to provide scientific input and technology development plans for planning and prioritizing the exploration of Venus over the next several decades. VEXAG is currently composed of two co- chairs and several groups. The focus groups actively solicit input from the scientific community and meet during VEXAG meetings, held at least once a year. VEXAG reports its findings and provides input to NASA, but does not make recommendations. VEXAG holds meetings open to the global scientific community with interest in understanding Venus and receives input from the scientists and engineers around the world on the current open issues regarding understanding Venus as a planet. VEXAG regularly evaluates Venus exploration goals, scientific objectives, investigations and critical measurement requirements, including especially recommendations in the National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey and the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap. VEXAG is coordinating the preparation of several White papers on different topics, including science, technology, and the recent flagship study, relevant to Venus exploration for the current Decadal Survey can be found on the VEXAG website (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/vexag). VEXAG provides a forum for learning about international efforts in exploring Venus and facilitates collaboration in combined observation programs from space and earth based observatories. At present, Venus Express mission launched by European Space Agency in November 2005 is the only active mission collecting data from orbit around Venus since April 2006. It will soon be joined in December 2010 by Japan's Venus Climate Orbiter which is under development for a launch in May 2010. Other missions to Venus are being considered by NASA (Venus Flagship mission), Russia (Venera D) and in the European community (European Venus Explorer). In addition, it is anticipated that several mission concepts will be proposed to NASA's Discovery (Announcement of Opportunity anticipated winter 2010). The three New Frontiers proposals selected by NASA in December 2009 include a proposal for a mission to Venus - Surface and Atmosphere and Geochemical Explorer. The Venus community recognizes that science return can be maximized by coordinating observations as much as feasible. VEXAG is one forum where the discussions can take place and the community is invited to actively participate in the VEXAG meetings and activities. The next VEXAG meeting and a workshop on the Venus atmosphere and its interaction with the surface will be held in Madison, Wisconsin, during 30 August - 2 September 2010. VEXAG's past activities, current efforts and future plans will be presented. The scientific community interested in Venus is invited to participate in VEXAG and support the exploration of Venus by the interested space agencies.

Limaye, Sanjay; Smrekar, Sue

2010-05-01

442

Relationship between DDE concentrations and laying sequence in eggs of two passerine species.  

PubMed

Passerine eggs make useful biomonitors of environmental pollutants. Among passerines, it is not known whether organochlorine contaminants in eggs within the same clutch are independent observations or follow a laying order effect. Intraclutch variation of DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis[(p-chlorophenyl)]ethylene) concentrations was studied in eggs collected from prothonotary warblers (Protonotaria citrea) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) nesting on National Priority List sites in lower Alabama and central Colorado, respectively. All 209 eggs collected for this study contained detectable levels of DDE. Mean concentration of DDE across all prothonotary warbler eggs (mean 8.71 microg/g +/- 1.19, n = 20) was almost two orders of magnitude greater than mean concentrations of DDE in all starling eggs (mean 0.70 microg/g +/- 0.06, n = 189). In both species, there was a large amount of variability among individual eggs of the same clutch and no significant relationship between laying order and DDE concentration. Variation among eggs laid in the same sequential order was high and effectively masked any potential trends in laying order effect. We hypothesized that the variability was caused by the spatial heterogeneity of DDE on our study sites, the nature of egg development within a female passerine, or a combination of these factors. Investigators focusing on lipophilic contaminants should exercise caution when making inferences about contaminant concentrations in an entire clutch of passerine eggs after the collection and analysis of a single egg because our data show that DDE levels in a single egg collected for analysis do not consistently reflect DDE levels in the eggs remaining in the nest. PMID:15386134

Reynolds, K D; Skipper, S L; Cobb, G P; McMurry, S T

2004-10-01

443

Isolation of Salmonella enterica in laying-hen flocks and assessment of eggshell contamination in France.  

PubMed

The present investigation was conducted in conjunction with the European Union baseline study for the estimation of Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen flocks. It aimed at evaluating eggshell contamination in farms positive for Salmonella, characterizing the genetic patterns of Salmonella strains and identifying the factors associated with Salmonella contamination of eggshells. For this purpose, a total of 4,200 eggs were collected from 28 positive flocks and analyzed according to draft Annex D of International Organization for Standardization Method 6579. Molecular characterization of the Salmonella strains was obtained by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method with two restriction enzymes, XbaI and BlnI. The relationship between the presence of Salmonella on eggshells and rearing practices was studied by using multiple correspondence analysis. Results showed that 39.3% of the positive flocks had at least one positive eggshell, with a total of 1.05% of eggshells testing positive for Salmonella. We detected the same serovars on samples taken from the farm and from eggshells within a given flock, with isolates sharing the same genetic pattern in 7 of 11 flocks. Eggshells tested positive for Salmonella in flocks (i) located where delivery trucks pass near air entrances of the poultry house, (ii) with high holding capacity (>30,000 laying hens), and (iii) with more than five positive samples coming from the farm environment, as well as in cases of flocks with a maximum egg-laying rate of >96% and in cases where farmers worked in other animal production. This study provided valuable information that could be used for risk management and risk assessment studies. PMID:19833029

Chemaly, Marianne; Huneau-Salaün, Adeline; Labbe, Annie; Houdayer, Catherine; Petetin, Isabelle; Fravalo, Philippe

2009-10-01

444

Understanding Co-development of Conceptual and Epistemic Understanding through Modeling Practices with Mobile Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study explores how engaging in modeling practice, along with argumentation, leverages students' epistemic and conceptual understanding in an afterschool science/math class of 16 tenth graders. The study also explores how students used mobile Internet phones (smart phones) productively to support modeling practices. As the modeling practices became more challenging, student discussion occurred more often, from what to model to providing explanations for the phenomenon. Students came to argue about evidence that supported their model and how the model could explain target and related phenomena. This finding adds to the literature that modeling practice can help students improve conceptual understanding of subject knowledge as well as epistemic understanding.

Ryu, Suna; Han, Yuhwha; Paik, Seoung-Hey

2015-01-01

445

Lay interpersonal sources for health information related to beliefs about the modifiability of cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Causal beliefs about cancer may influence preventive behaviors and medical care. We examined the relationship between beliefs\\u000a about causation for lung, colon, and skin cancer and the use of lay interpersonal sources of health information (community\\u000a organizations, family, friends).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data from a nationally representative sample of 5,119 adult respondents to the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey\\u000a were analyzed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  About

Beth M. Ford; Kimberly A. Kaphingst

2009-01-01

446

Effects of variations in fish meal quality on performance of laying hens  

E-print Network

Average body scdght, hen~ prodentim, egg seight, , percent of eggs 2-cence end abave~ feed efficiency snd ~ty' es inflnenoed by fish neels k snd 3 alone end snppleeented witkL Qnident@ed factor seeress ~ ~ ~ ~ we ~ ~ o s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ eo ~ ~ 20... Expericentel design need for dstsrnining the effects of varieties in fish nsa1 gaal1ty an perf or@ence of laying hens, shcsing the rendcsL distribntion af rsp3Lcetss of tbs nine tz est%ants 0 ~ ~ ~ f ~ 0tl ~ ~ ~ Q ~ t4 ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ t 'I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ psetaha Ca...

Narasimhamurthy, Pinapaka Venkata Lakshmi

1966-01-01

447

Data Understanding Applied to Optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research is to explore and develop software for supporting visualization and data analysis of search and optimization. Optimization is an ever-present problem in science. The theory of NP-completeness implies that the problems can only be resolved by increasingly smarter problem specific knowledge, possibly for use in some general purpose algorithms. Visualization and data analysis offers an opportunity to accelerate our understanding of key computational bottlenecks in optimization and to automatically tune aspects of the computation for specific problems. We will prototype systems to demonstrate how data understanding can be successfully applied to problems characteristic of NASA's key science optimization tasks, such as central tasks for parallel processing, spacecraft scheduling, and data transmission from a remote satellite.

Buntine, Wray; Shilman, Michael

1998-01-01

448

Understanding Climate Service Science: Balancing Users' Needs with Providers' Capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding Climate Service Science: Balancing Users' Needs with Providers' Capabilities The overall strategic objective of the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI)-Climate is to contribute to highly coordinated knowledge development by not only improving the scientific expertise on climate change risks and adaptation options, but also by connecting that knowledge with decision making. Understanding the nature and scope of those providing climate services and the services being provided and understanding user? needs and requirements is critical to realisation of this strategic objective. The main aim of the JPI-Climate Working Group 2 "Researching and advancing Climate Service Development" is to coordinate knowledge development and transfer to improve the climate (change) services to society and within Europe. In order to avoid duplication of efforts and picking on differences in the quality and nature of information being provided from country to country there is a need for a certain degree of consistency of approaches and quality assurance. The JPI-Climate will bring interaction between the emerging national and European climate services initiatives. Climate services produce strongly science-based client-oriented information. They should be built on a good understanding of the stakeholder needs, and provide easy access to up-to-date information and expertise regarding specific policy or research questions. It is evident from experience that such services need (and are perceived) to be salient, credible and legitimate from the perspective of the intended users and providers of those services, and within the supportive research community. Achieving this aim and developing and delivering the required services necessitates the engagement of the spectrum of users and providers, as well as researchers from the physical, natural, engineering, economics and social sciences - the science underpinning climate services. The JPI-Climate, Module 2 Fast Track Activities (FTAs) are exploring, mapping and analysing users' requirements and climate service providers within Europe. Such information does exist to some degree but are fragmented and relatively little is systematically documented or analysed. These FTAs include a number of national dialogues and will draw on existing information, including that being compiled through previous initiatives and various research projects. However the mapping within the FTAs goes beyond the existing inventories and will lay the ground for a mid- to long-term multidisciplinary research on the governance of CS. The FTAs are intended to identify research gaps and inform the development and delivery of the JPI-Climate strategic research agenda, including those components for the seasonal to decadal predictions, societal transformation and decision support tools. This initiative is a multi-year process of research and information exchange engaging climate service providers and users in Europe, at different levels (regional-national-international) in several loops of national and European dialogues. This presentation will provide some insights into the directions and initial outcomes of the FTAs and what these mean for the science underpinning climate services.

Street, Roger B.; Bley, Dagmar; Manez, Maria

2013-04-01

449

Understanding anisotropy to develop superconducting design principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconductivity is often found in families of compounds which share a common building block (e.g. CuO2 planes in cuprates, FeAs planes in pnictides, and CeIn3 planes in a subset of heavy fermion superconductors). This fact provides a rationale to search for new superconductors, and subsequently a means to try and understand the origin of superconductivity by examining trends in superconducting behavior within a family of superconductors which hopefully transcends any one particular family of compounds. The notion of common building blocks has led us to the recent discovery of superconductivity at 2.1 K in CePt2In7, coexisting magnetism and superconductivity in PuCoIn5, and a correlated paramagnet in PuPt2In7. I will discuss our attempts to understand the role of reduced dimensionality and increased bandwidth within the "115" class of heavy fermion superconductors by examining trends in the charge and spin degrees of freedom that are correlated with superconductivity. In this way, we aim to lay the foundation for a modern, microscopic version of Matthias' rules for unconventional superconductivity from which superconducting design principles can be developed. In collaboration with Eric Bauer, Jianxin Zhu, Paul Tobash, Moaz Altarawneh, HB Rhee, Hironori Sakai, Kris Gofryk, Neil Harrison, and Joe Thompson.

Ronning, Filip

2011-03-01

450

Exploring states of matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will simultate the 3 states of matter; followed by the online quiz. 1. Explore the solids animation. ice 2. Explore the water animation. water animation 3. Explore the gas animation. gas animation 4. Explore comparing the 3 states of matter. compare 3 state Take the quiz. quiz ...

Mrs. Connerley

2010-10-26

451

Exploration August 2013  

E-print Network

for collaborative space exploration missions beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuingThe Global Exploration Roadmap August 2013 International Space Exploration Coordination Group #12 The Global Exploration Roadmap is being developed by space agencies participating in the International Space

Waliser, Duane E.

452

Mars Exploration Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The architecture of NASA's program of robotic Mars exploration missions received an intense scrutiny during the summer months of 1998. We present here the results of that scrutiny, and describe a list of Mars exploration missions which are now being proposed by the nation's space agency. The heart of the new program architecture consists of missions which will return samples of Martian rocks and soil back to Earth for analysis. A primary scientific goal for these missions is to understand Mars as a possible abode of past or present life. The current level of sophistication for detecting markers of biological processes and fossil or extant life forms is much higher in Earth-based laboratories than possible with remotely deployed instrumentation, and will remain so for at least the next decade. Hence, bringing Martian samples back to Earth is considered the best way to search for the desired evidence. A Mars sample return mission takes approximately three years to complete. Transit from Earth to Mars requires almost a single year. After a lapse of time of almost a year at Mars, during which orbital and surface operations can take place, and the correct return launch energy constraints are met, a Mars-to-Earth return flight can be initiated. This return leg also takes approximately one year. Opportunities to launch these 3-year sample return missions occur about every 2 years. The figure depicts schedules for flights to and from Mars for Earth launches in 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009. Transits for less than 180 deg flight angle, measured from the sun, and more than 180 deg are both shown.

Jordan, James F.; Miller, Sylvia L.

2000-01-01

453

Short-term effects of lower oil dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen rations.  

PubMed

Extraction of oil from dried distillers grains has become a common practice among US ethanol producers. The valuable oil has been diverted to markets other than poultry feed, leaving new dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) products higher in fiber and purportedly lower in ME. This study compared 3 DDGS products with 10.3, 7.3, or 5.2% ether extract, respectively, with a corn-soy control ration in young Bovan laying hens for a feeding period from 20 to 33 wk of age. The DDGS was fed at the rate of 20% of the ration. Lower oil content of DDGS had no effect on short-term egg production parameters: feed intake, egg production, egg weight or mass, and hen weight gain. The diets containing lower fat DDGS (5.2%) did have reduced AME and kilocalories per day intake for laying hens. For each percent reduction in oil from a normal DDGS sample (10.3%) to medium oil (7.3%) DDGS, AME decreased 42.3 kcal/kg of diet. However, total kilocalories per day intake did sustain good egg production during this short trial. PMID:25071225

Purdum, Sheila; Hanford, Kathy; Kreifels, Brett

2014-10-01

454

Isolation and characterization of Chlamydophila psittaci isolated from laying hens with cystic oviducts.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to isolate and identify a hypothetical Chlamydiaceae pathogen from laying hens with an oviduct cyst, and to characterize its potential causal relation with decreased egg production. Our clinical survey showed that cystic oviducts were prevalent at rates of 10% and 15.1% in breeder and commercial hen flocks, respectively. Chlamydial antigens were detected in 20 of 50 pharyngeal swabs (40%) and in 17 of 20 oviduct tissues (85%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen detection kits. The isolated pathogen was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci via complement fixation test, PCE-ELISA, and immunofluorescence assay. Avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus were excluded after oviduct tissues were inoculated onto the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonating eggs. The nucleotide sequence of the omp1 gene (accession no. EF202608) from the isolate was similar to that of C. psittaci avian type C (accession no. L25436). Typical cystic oviducts were observed in specific-pathogen-free hens inoculated intraperitoneally with the isolate. The high presence of chlamydial antigen is consistent with the cystic oviducts and poor egg production. We conclude that the isolated C psittaci is most likely associated with cystic oviducts in laying hens. PMID:18459300

Zhang, Faming; Li, Shaowen; Yang, Jianming; Pang, Wanyong; Yang, Li; He, Cheng

2008-03-01

455

Troll Phase 1, large-diameter pipeline pull-in and curve lay-away  

SciTech Connect

During 1995 two 36-in. and one 16-in. pipeline were pulled into the gravity base structure (GBS) of the Troll Phase 1 platform offshore Noway at a waterdepth of 303 m. Pull-in and subsequent riser tie-in welding were on the critical path for completion of the overall project construction program. The prevailing waterdepth dictated the use of a diverless solution and this was achieved by a unique combination of special equipment and construction features. Pipeline risers were pre-installed inside a permanently dry riser shaft, one of the four legs of the FBS. At the bottom of this shaft custom-made sealtubes penetrate the concrete structure acting as pipeline pullhead receivers. Pull-in was carried ut by means of a 500-ton linear winch arrangement on the platform topsides. The associated 115 and 70 mm pull-in cables were guided through 8-in. riser shaft pull-tubes connected at the lower end to the sealtubes. Following pull-in, atmospheric tie-in welding of pipeline to riser completed the operation inside the riser shaft. Pipeline curve lay-away from the platform took care of pipeline thermal expansion rather than diver assisted installation and connection of a traditional expansion spool. The article highlights pipeline pull-in and curve lay-away design and engineering background and construction experiences.

Nonner, R.; Ho, H.; Langford, G. [A/S Norske Shell, Bergen (Norway); D`Onghia, O. [European Marine Contractors Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01

456

[Specialist and lay ethical expertise in public health: issues and challenges for discourse ethics].  

PubMed

In recent decades, both public health professionals and the populations targeted by prevention and health promotion programs have shown an increasing interest in ethical issues since some interventions have been seen as impinging on fundamental rights and values. Insofar as bioethics is not adapted to population interventions and community health issues, a specific expertise in public health ethics is now required. However, ethical expertise in this area faces many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to examine four of these challenges. The first three challenges concern professional or specialist expertise. The paper suggests that expertise in public health ethics should go beyond the search for greater sophistication in defining ethical principles. Experts in public health ethics also need to identify appropriate strategies to include public health professionals in ethical analysis and to adopt a critical and reflexive approach to the status of moral experts and moral expertise. However, the main challenge is to identify appropriate ways of reconciling lay and specialist ethical expertise. The paper argues that secular morality and common morality represent two key sources of lay ethics expertise and that the fundamental values that inform discourse ethics should be derived from both forms of expertise. PMID:22730610

Massé, Raymond

2012-01-01

457

Behavior of pathogenic bacteria in the oyster, Crassostrea commercialis, during depuration, re-laying, and storage.  

PubMed Central

Oysters (Crassostrea commercials) harvested from major cultivation areas within the state of New South Wales, Australia, were commonly contaminated with low levels of the food-poisoning organisms Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Salmonella was found in oysters on only one occasion. These bacteria were cleansed from oysters during oyster purification by re-laying in a non-polluted waterway. Oysters were laboratory contaminated to levels in excess 1,000 cells per g with either B. cereus, C. perfringens, V. parahaemolyticus, Salmonella typhimurium, or S. senftenberg. These species were cleansed from such oysters during purification in a laboratory depuration unit that used ultraviolet light for sterilizing the depuration water. Escherichia coli was also cleansed from oysters under the same re-laying or depuration conditions so that its measurement alone could be used to indicate the cleansing of the above pathogenic species. The levels of these bacteria were also measured during the storage of oysters under conditions that occur during marketing. While B. cereus counts remained relatively stable during storage, the Salmonella spp. gradually decreased in numbers and C. perfringens rapidly died off. V. parahaemolyticus counts increased slightly during the first 4 days of storage, after which decreases occurred. PMID:6257164

Son, N T; Fleet, G H

1980-01-01

458

Effect of dietary defatted diatom biomass on egg production and quality of laying hens  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to determine if feeding laying hens with defatted diatom microalgal biomass (DFA) from biofuel production affected their egg production and health status. Methods Five replicates of 5 individually caged ISA Babcock White leghorn hens were fed 4 diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet, a diet containing 7.5% DFA substituting for soybean meal, and diets containing 7.5% or 15% DFA substituting for corn and soybean meal. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), rate of egg production, egg size, egg mass, and several characteristics of eggs were determined at 4 and 8 wk. Venous blood was sampled at 4 and 8 wk for measurement of 5 biomarkers of health. Results The 15% DFA diet decreased (P laying hens with 7.5% DFA in the corn-soybean meal diet for 8 wk had no adverse effect on their health, egg production, or egg quality, but 15% inclusion reduced feed intake, egg production, and efficiency of feed utilization. PMID:24401600

2014-01-01

459

Understanding Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

Kendall, John S.

2011-01-01

460

Students' Understanding of Tides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the findings of research into students' understanding of tides. Students from secondary school and pre-service primary school teacher trainees were chosen as subjects and their understanding was assessed by questionnaire. (Author/CCM)

Viiri, Jouni

2000-01-01

461

Video Understanding Francois BREMOND  

E-print Network

Video Understanding Francois BREMOND Orion team, INRIA Sophia Antipolis FRANCE Key words of video sequences video understanding= from people detection and tracking to behavior recognition (fighting) of crowds (overcrowding) interactions of people and vehicles (aircraft refueling) Video

Prié, Yannick

462

Assessing Models of Public Understanding In ELSI Outreach Materials  

SciTech Connect

Advances in the science of genetics have implications for individuals and society, and have to be taken into account at the policy level. Studies of ethical, legal and social issues related to genomic research have therefore been integrated in the Human Genome Project (HGP) since the earliest days of the project. Since 1990, three to five percent of the HGP annual budget has been devoted to such studies, under the umbrella of the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) Programs of the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institute of Health, and of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE-ELSI budget has been used to fund a variety of projects that have aimed at ?promoting education and help guide the conduct of genetic research and the development of related medical and public policies? (HGP, 2003). As part of the educational component, a significant portion of DOE-ELSI funds have been dedicated to public outreach projects, with the underlying goal of promoting public awareness and ultimately public discussion of ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding availability of genetic information (Drell, 2002). The essential assumption behind these projects is that greater access to information will lead to more knowledge about ethical, legal and social issues, which in turn will lead to enhanced ability on the part of individuals and communities to deal with these issues when they encounter them. Over the same period of time, new concepts of ?public understanding of science? have emerged in the theoretical realm, moving from a ?deficit? or linear dissemination of popularization, to models stressing lay-knowledge, public engagement and public participation in science policy-making (Lewenstein, 2003). The present project uses the base of DOE-funded ELSI educational project to explore the ways that information about a new and emerging area of science that is intertwined with public issues has been used in educational public settings to affect public understanding of science. After a theoretical background discussion, our approach is three-fold. First, we will provide an overview, a ?map? of DOE-funded of outreach programs within the overall ELSI context to identify the importance of the educational component, and to present the criteria we used to select relevant and representative case studies. Second, we will document the history of the case studies. Finally, we will explore an intertwined set of research questions: (1) To identify what we can expect such projects to accomplish -in other words to determine the goals that can reasonably be achieved by different types of outreach, (2) To point out how the case study approach could be useful for DOE-ELSI outreach as a whole, and (3) To use the case study approach as a basis to test theoretical models of science outreach in order to assess to what extent those models accord with real world outreach activities. For this last goal, we aim at identifying what practices among ELSI outreach activities contribute most to dissemination, or to participation, in other words in which cases outreach materials spark action in terms of public participation in decisions about scientific issues.

Bruce V. Lewenstein, Ph.D.; Dominique Brossard, Ph.D.

2006-03-01

463

Organic matrix morphology and distribution in the palisade layer of eggshells sampled at selected periods during lay.  

PubMed

1. 1 cm2 pieces of eggshells from a commercial battery flock were plasma etched to remove the outer shell membranes. 2. They were decalcified using EDTA (200 g/l, pH 6.9 to 7.0) in paraformaldehyde (20 g/l) and 25% gluteraldehyde (20 ml in 0.98 l) in phosphate buffer, then prepared for light and transmission electron microscopy. 3. Light microscopy revealed a differential distribution of matrix material within all 3 regions of the palisade layer at the beginning of lay. 4. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a more even distribution of matrix at the beginning of lay, although morphological differences were observed. At the end of lay all 3 regions showed an increase in % matrix and vesicles/10 cm2 of micrograph compared to the middle and beginning of lay periods. 5. It is hypothesised that matrix vesicles are involved in the regulation of the physiochemical environment within the forming eggshell and that the decline in shell quality associated with the end of lay is related to a concomitant change in matrix quality. PMID:9649875

Fraser, A C; Bain, M M; Solomon, S E

1998-05-01

464

Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As early as 1609 Galileo's first telescope showed the Moon to be another world. The Moon has thus been the object of intense study not only since the 1960s but for at least the previous three and a half centuries. The first "race to the Moon" was not undertaken by American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts but by German and British selenographers in the nineteenth century, who mapped lunar detail so painstakingly that by 1878 - the year Julius Schmidt of the Athens Observatory published his great Moon map. In part, the reason for the long preoccupation with lunar surface details lay in the fact that the mapping of the Moon provided a form of therapy for astronomically inclined obsessive personalities. In part, too, it lay in the partiality of selenographers for the project - first systematically pursued by Johann Schroeter at the end of the eighteenth century - of discovering evidence of minor changes in the lunar surface. What became a Promethean quest for changes - veils, clouds, landslips, eruptions - was initially tied in with the theory that the lunar surface features had been formed by volcanic eruptions; however, it curiously survived the demise of the volcanic theory and still shows intermittent gasps of life in the largely amateur-driven search for transient lunar phenomena, or TLP. The long era of pre-Apollo lunar studies is a fascinating subject that has never been told in detail. Though there was a lapse of interest in the Moon in the immediate post-Apollo era, there has been a recent "return to the Moon" with the successful Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions. There is also growing evidence of a return of amateur observers to the Moon as an object worthy of their attentions. This is understandable inasmuch as the Moon remains the most accessible planetary realm; it is, moreover, the only alien world open to geological prospecting from the eyepiece of the backyard telescope. In that sense, this book is - like the Moon itself - both timely and timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

465

AUDIOSCAPES: EXPLORING SURFACE INTERFACES FOR MUSIC EXPLORATION  

E-print Network

compression and the wide popularity of portable digital music players. Effective interaction with these largeAUDIOSCAPES: EXPLORING SURFACE INTERFACES FOR MUSIC EXPLORATION Steven R. Ness, George Tzanetakis and visualization methods can be com- bined to create innovative ways of interacting with large au- dio collections

Tzanetakis, George

466

VENUS EXPLORATION ANALYSIS GROUP (VEXAG)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG) was established by NASA in July 2005 to identify scientific priorities and strategy for exploration of Venus. This community-based forum is designed to provide scientific input and technology development plans for planning and prioritizing the exploration of Venus over the next several decades. VEXAG is currently composed of two co- chairs and several groups. The focus groups actively solicit input from the scientific community and meet during VEXAG meetings, held at least once a year. VEXAG reports its findings and provides input to NASA, but does not make recommendations. VEXAG holds meetings open to the global scientific community with interest in understanding Venus and receives input from the scientists and engineers around the world on the current open issues regarding understanding Venus as a planet. VEXAG regularly evaluates Venus exploration goals, scientific objectives, investigations and critical measurement requirements, including especially recommendations in the National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey and the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap. VEXAG is coordinating the preparation of several White papers on different topics, including science, technology, and the recent flagship study, relevant to Venus exploration for the current Decadal Survey can be found on the VEXAG website (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/vexag). VEXAG provides a forum for learning about international efforts in exploring Venus and facilitates collaboration in combined observation programs from space and earth based observatories. At present, Venus Express mission launched by European Space Agency in November 2005 is the only active mission collecting data from orbit around Venus since April 2006. It will soon be joined in December 2010 by Japan’s Venus Climate Orbiter which is under development for a launch in May 2010. Other missions to Venus are being considered by NASA (Venus Flagship mission), Russia (Venera D) and in the European community (European Venus Explorer). In addition, it is anticipated that several mission concepts will be proposed to NASA’s Discovery (Announcement of Opportunity anticipated by end of 2009). The Venus community recognizes that science return can be maximized by coordinating observations as much as feasible. VEXAG is one forum where the discussions can take place and the community is invited to actively participate in the VEXAG meetings and activities. The next VEXAG meeting will be held following the second Inner Planets Panel Meeting, in Irvine, California, October 28-29, 2009 (see website for details). VEXAG’s past activities, current efforts and future plans will be presented. A workshop focused on Venus Atmosphere is being planned for summer 2010 in conjunction with a VEXAG meeting is being tentatively planned for summer 2010.

Limaye, S. S.; Smrekar, S. E.

2009-12-01

467

Differential Expression of Heat Shock Transcription Factors and Heat Shock Proteins after Acute and Chronic Heat Stress in Laying Chickens (Gallus gallus)  

PubMed Central

Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours) or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks) high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (P<0.05). However, oxidation status of lipid and protein and expression of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) 70 and 90 were differently affected by acute and chronic treatment. Tissue-specific responses to thermal challenge were also found among heart, liver and muscle. In the heart, acute heat challenge affected lipid oxidation (P?=?0.05) and gene expression of all 4 HSF gene expression was upregulated (P<0.05). During chronic heat treatment, the HSP 70 mRNA level was increased (P<0.05) and HSP 90 mRNA (P<0.05) was decreased. In the liver, oxidation of protein was alleviated during acute heat challenge (P<0.05), however, gene expression HSF2, 3 and 4 and HSP 70 were highly induced (P<0.05). HSP90 expression was increased by chronic thermal treatment (P<0.05). In the muscle, both types of heat stress increased protein oxidation, but HSFs and HSPs gene expression remained unaltered. Only tendencies to increase were observed in HSP 70 (P?=?0.052) and 90 (P?=?0.054) gene expression after acute heat stress. The differential expressions of HSF and HSP genes in different tissues of laying broiler breeder chickens suggested that anti-heat stress mechanisms might be provoked more profoundly in the heart, by which the muscle was least protected during heat stress. In addition to HSP, HSFs gene expression could be used as a marker during acute heat stress. PMID:25072282

Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Xi, Lin; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

2014-01-01

468

Children's Understanding of Emotion in Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's understanding of emotion in speech was explored in three experiments. In Experiment 1, 4- to 10- year-old children and adults ( N ? 165) judged the happiness or sadness of the speaker from cues conveyed by propositional content and affective paralanguage. When the cues conflicted (i.e., a happy situation was described with sad paralanguage), children relied primarily on content,

J. Bruce Morton; Sandra E. Trehub

2001-01-01

469

Using Hooke's Law to Understand Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the response of springs to forces as a way to begin to understand elastic solid behavior. They gain experience in data collection, spring constant calculation, and comparison and interpretation of graphs and material properties to elucidate material behavior. Conduct this activity before proceeding to the associated lesson.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

470

Understanding Malaysian students as gamers: experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer games are very popular among children, teenager as well as adults. For that matter, computer games should be exploited as medium of teaching and learning. We intended to investigate the possibilities of exploring the idea of adapting computer games for Science learning in class. However, we first need to understand the background and experiences among the users in order

Rubijesmin Abdul Latif

2007-01-01

471

Children's Profiles of Addition and Subtraction Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research explored children's ability to recognize and explain different concepts both with and without reference to physical objects so as to provide insight into the development of children's addition and subtraction understanding. In Study 1, 72 7- to 9-year-olds judged and explained a puppet's activities involving three conceptual…

Canobi, Katherine H.

2005-01-01

472

Understanding a Widely Misunderstood Statistic: Cronbach's "Alpha"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to explore score reliability in virtually all studies, because tests are not reliable. The present paper explains the most frequently used reliability estimate, coefficient alpha, so that the coefficient's conceptual underpinnings will be understood. Researchers need to understand score reliability because of the possible impact…

Ritter, Nicola L.

2010-01-01

473

Conceptual Understandings Resulting from Interactive Science Exhibits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationships between students' free exploration of interactive science museum exhibits, conceptual understandings, and cognitive developmental levels. Classifies participating subjects (n=45), ages 5-13, as preoperational, concrete operational (empirical-inductive), or formal operational (hypothetical-deductive). (Contains 22…

Marek, Edmund A.; Boram, Robert D.; Laubach, Tim; Gerber, Brian L.

2002-01-01

474

Understanding Green Jobs in New Jersey  

E-print Network

Understanding Green Jobs in New Jersey Everyone seems to be talking about "green jobs" and the need concentrated in New Jersey? This brochure will help you to explore whether pursuing a green job -- and green or use fewer natural resources.1 Which green jobs are in New Jersey and what skills do they require

475

A Pedagogy for Understanding the Visual Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author follows a group of honors students as they learn a systematic approach to exploring and understanding works of art. The author has devised both a series of questions that structure a thoughtful investigation into what we see and a path that gradually leads students from the examination of familiar, everyday objects to the analysis and…

Careau, Steven G.

2008-01-01

476

The Longitudinal Development of Understanding of Average.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the development of understanding of the concept of average with students from grades 3 to 9 through interviews. Observed six levels of response based on an hierarchical model of cognitive functioning. Documents usage of ideas associated with the three standard measures of central tendency and representation as strategies for problem…

Watson, Jane M.; Moritz, Jonathan B.

2000-01-01

477

Effect of Dietary Phytase Transgenic Corn on Physiological Characteristics and the Fate of Recombinant Plant DNA in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens. PMID:25049929

Gao, Chunqi; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

2014-01-01

478

Across-line SNP association study for (innate) immune and behavioral traits in laying hens  

PubMed Central

Background An association study between single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNP) and (innate and adaptive) immune parameters but also feather condition score on the back, rump and belly of laying hens was performed. The immune parameters measured in blood samples were natural and acquired antibody titers and complement activity. Feather condition score as a measure of feather damage was determined, this parameter is closely related to feather pecking behavior in hens housed in groups. The aim of the study was to detect associations between genetic markers and immune parameters and feather condition score across nine lines of laying hens, focusing on the feather peckers as well as on the victims of feather pecking. Methods A novel approach based on across-line analysis and testing of the SNP-by-line interaction was performed. Results In total 59 significant associations between SNP and immune traits were detected. Previously identified QTL were confirmed and new associations of genes regulating immune function identified. The IL17A gene (chromosome 3) influences natural and acquired antibody titers and activation of classical and alternative complement pathways. The major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 16 showed significant association with natural and acquired antibody titers and classical complement activity. The IL12B and IRF1 genes on chromosome 13 were associated with natural antibody titers. The direct effect of the genotype of an individual on its feather condition and the associative effect of the genotype of the cage mates on the individual’s feather condition were analyzed. The direct genetic effect can be described as the susceptibility to be pecked at, and the associative genetic effect as the propensity to perform feather pecking. Eleven significant associations were detected for the direct effect, and 81 for the associative effect. The serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) on chromosome 4 was highlighted in both analyses. Conclusions Our results confirmed previously identified QTL and identified new associations of genes regulating immune function. The results for feather condition score supports existing evidence of involvement of the serotonergic system in feather pecking in laying hens. Immune regulatory genes were found to be associated to feather condition score, revealing relationships between the immune system and behavior. PMID:21645297

2011-01-01

479

Shedding of Salmonella in single age caged commercial layer flock at an early stage of lay.  

PubMed

The shedding of Salmonella in a single age commercial egg layer flock was investigated at the onset of lay (18weeks) followed by two longitudinal samplings at 24 and 30weeks. At the age of 18weeks, when the first sampling was performed, the prevalence of Salmonella in faeces was 82.14% whereas all egg belt and dust samples were Salmonella positive by culture method. In later samplings, at the age of 24 and 30weeks, the prevalence of Salmonella in faeces was significantly reduced (p<0.001) to 38.88% and 12.95% respectively, however all egg belt and dust samples remained positive by culture method. The prevalence of Salmonella in faeces collected from the low tier cages was significantly higher (p=0.009) as compared with samples from the high tier cages. In all types of samples processed by culture method, S. Mbandaka was the most frequently (54.40%) isolated serovar followed by S. Worthington (37.60%), S. Anatum (0.8%), and S. Infantis (0.8%). All samples were also tested by real-time PCR method. The observed agreement between culture method and real-time PCR in detecting Salmonella-positive dust and egg belt samples was 100%. There was almost perfect agreement (observed agreement=99.21%) for the detection of Salmonella-positive eggshells. Observed agreement between culture method and real-time PCR for detecting Salmonella-positive shoe cover and faecal samples was, however, moderate (80%) and low (54.27%) respectively. Real-time PCR results showed that there was a significant increase in the load of Salmonella on egg belt, dust and shoe cover samples at the 24 and 30weeks of lay as compared to the 18weeks of lay. Real-time PCR provided a more rapid and reliable method of detection of Salmonella on all dry sample types whereas the traditional culture method proved much more reliable when trying to detect Salmonella in wet faecal samples. PMID:25123093

Gole, Vaibhav C; Caraguel, Charles G B; Sexton, Margaret; Fowler, Chelsea; Chousalkar, Kapil K

2014-10-17

480

Arsenic in Eggs and Excreta of Laying Hens in Bangladesh: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n=248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p<0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r=0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r=0.716), feed and excreta (r=0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r=0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

Awal, M. A.; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M. Z.; Rao, D. Ramkishan

2012-01-01