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Sample records for exploring lay understandings

  1. Beyond 'beer, fags, egg and chips'? Exploring lay understandings of social inequalities in health.

    PubMed

    Popay, Jennie; Bennett, Sharon; Thomas, Carol; Williams, Gareth; Gatrell, Anthony; Bostock, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the limited body of work that has directly explored lay understandings of the causes of health inequalities. Using both quantitative and qualitative methodology, the views of people living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods are compared. The findings support previous research in suggesting that lay theories about causality in relation to health inequalities, like lay concepts of health and illness in general, are multi-factorial. The findings, however, also illustrate how the ways in which questions about health and illness are asked shape people's responses. In the survey reported on here people had no problem offering explanations for health inequalities and, in response to a question asking specifically about area differences in health experience, people living in disadvantaged areas 'constructed' explanations which included, but went beyond, individualistic factors to encompass structural explanations that gave prominence to aspects of 'place'. In contrast, within the context of in-depth interviews, people living in disadvantaged areas were reluctant to accept the existence of health inequalities highlighting the moral dilemmas such questions pose for people living in poor material circumstances. While resisting the notion of health inequalities, however, in in-depth interviews the same people provided vivid accounts of the way in which inequalities in material circumstances have an adverse impact upon health. The paper highlights ways in which different methodologies provide different and not necessarily complementary understandings of lay perspectives on the causes of inequalities in health. PMID:14498942

  2. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    PubMed

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry. PMID:26160501

  3. Lay understanding of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M G; Florig, H K; Nair, I; Cortés, C; Marsh, K; Pavlosky, K

    1990-01-01

    People do not start with a blank slate when they hear risk-communication messages. All such messages are processed through existing knowledge structures and understanding. Hence, to design effective and reliable risk-communication materials one must understand the state of people's knowledge--correct and incorrect--about an issue. We developed a simple "mental model" of what people minimally need to know to make informed decisions about field-related issues. Then we performed studies to explore how and to what extent respondents of various groups understood physical properties of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields. Actual knowledge of respondents was then compared with the predicates of the model. Electrical engineering juniors and semi-technical employees of utilities displayed a good command of most of the concepts in the simple model, but little awareness of the limits to their knowledge. Lay respondents correctly knew only a few of the simplest elements of the model, but they displayed a much greater awareness of the limits to their knowledge. Both lay and semi-technical respondents were found to share several misconceptions. On average, they correctly rank-ordered some common field-exposure conditions by field strength, but they could not differentiate between electric and magnetic fields and could not differentiate among field strengths associated with different appliances. Most respondents dramatically underestimated the range of actual field strengths. Many respondents understood that field strength decreases with distance from a source, but they underestimated the rate of decrease. In contrast to X-rays and microwaves, which respondents appeared to think about in rather similar terms, 60-Hz fields were not thought of as being highly similar to any other agent, although the closest parallels were found with ultrasound. Changes in mood, thought, and behavior, and the existence of an "electrical aura," were all seen as plausible results of exposure to a 60-Hz

  4. Assessing Lay Understanding of Common Presentations of Earthquake Hazard Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. J.; Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) includes, in its introduction to earthquake rupture forecast maps, the assertion that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities -- from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [3] However, psychology research identifies a large gap between lay and expert perception of risk for various hazards [2], and cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [1,4-6] that people neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probabilities, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [7]. The gap between lay and expert use of probability needs to be recognized more clearly by scientific organizations such as WGCEP. This study undertakes to determine how the lay public interprets earthquake hazard information, as presented in graphical map form by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), compiled by the WGCEP and other bodies including the USGS and CGS. It also explores alternate ways of presenting hazard data, to determine which presentation format most effectively translates information from scientists to public. Participants both from California and from elsewhere in the United States are included, to determine whether familiarity -- either with the experience of an earthquake, or with the geography of the forecast area -- affects people's ability to interpret an earthquake hazards map. We hope that the comparisons between the interpretations by scientific experts and by different groups of laypeople will both enhance theoretical understanding of factors that affect information transmission and assist bodies such as the WGCEP in their laudable attempts to help people prepare themselves and their communities for possible natural hazards. [1] Kahneman, D & Tversky, A (1979). Prospect

  5. Understanding Community College Finance: A Primer for the Lay Trustee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherran, Archie L.; Barthelme, Peter A.

    This document provides definitions, methods of computing data, and information regarding state laws, which are needed by California community college lay trustees to successfully execute their responsibilities as board members. Following a brief history of state support for community colleges in California, the author provides: (1) the schedule…

  6. Lay and health care professional understandings of self-management: A systematic review and narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Charles DA; McKevitt, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Self-management is widely promoted but evidence of effectiveness is limited. Policy encourages health care professionals to support people with long-term conditions to learn self-management skills, yet little is known about the extent to which both parties share a common understanding of self-management. Thus, we compared health care professional and lay understandings of self-management of long-term conditions. Methods: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative studies identified from relevant electronic databases, hand-searching of references lists, citation tracking and recommendations by experts. Results: In total, 55 studies were included and quality was assessed using a brief quality assessment tool. Three conceptual themes, each with two subthemes were generated: traditional and shifting models of the professional–patient relationship (self-management as a tool to promote compliance; different expectations of responsibility); quality of relationship between health care professional and lay person (self-management as a collaborative partnership; self-management as tailored support) and putting self-management into everyday practice (the lived experience of self-management; self-management as a social practice). Conclusion: Self-management was conceptualised by health care professionals as incorporating both a biomedical model of compliance and individual responsibility. Lay people understood self-management in wider terms, reflecting biomedical, psychological and social domains and different expectations of responsibility. In different ways, both deviated from the dominant model of self-management underpinned by the concept of self-efficacy. Different understandings help to explain how self-management is practised and may help to account for limited evidence of effectiveness of self-management interventions. PMID:26770733

  7. Poisoned blood, ghaa, and the infected body: lay understandings of arsenicosis in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Saiful

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic data from rural Bangladesh to examine how community members affected by arsenicosis understand, explain, and experience this deadly illness. Biomedically, arsenicosis has been described as a disease caused by drinking arsenic-contaminated water, and it is manifested through physiological complications such as symmetric hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, cancer of the skin, kidney and lungs, and diseases of the blood vessels. This article goes beyond such biomedical discourse and illustrates how arsenicosis has been vernacularized as ghaa in practice. It focuses on lay world views, logic, local knowledge systems, and sociocultural factors that shape popular understandings of the disease. This article is thus a contribution to our understanding of how arsenicosis, apart from its biomedical and clinical manifestations, is understood and experienced by affected individuals living within the particular sociocultural and ecological constraints of rural Bangladesh. PMID:24635028

  8. Charitable giving and lay morality: understanding sympathy, moral evaluations and social positions

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, Balihar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines how charitable giving offers an example of lay morality, reflecting people's capacity for fellow‐feeling, moral sentiments, personal reflexivity, ethical dispositions, moral norms and moral discourses. Lay morality refers to how people should treat others and be treated by them, matters that are important for their subjective and objective well‐being. It is a first person evaluative relation to the world (about things that matter to people). While the paper is sympathetic to the ‘moral boundaries’ approach, which seeks to address the neglect of moral evaluations in sociology, it reveals this approach to have some shortcomings. The paper argues that although morality is always mediated by cultural discourses and shaped by structural factors, it also has a universalizing character because people have fellow‐feelings, shared human conditions, and have reason to value. PMID:27546914

  9. Laying medicine open: understanding major turning points in the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B

    1999-03-01

    At different times during its history medicine has been laid open to accountability for its scientific and moral quality. This phenonmenon of laying medicine open has sometimes resulted in major turning points in the history of medical ethics. In this paper, I examine two examples of when the laying open of medicine has generated such turning points: eighteenth-century British medicine and late twentieth-century American medicine. In the eighteenth century, the Scottish physician-philosopher, John Gregory (1724-1773), concerned with the unscientific, entrepreneurial, self-interested nature of then current medical practice, laid medicine open to accountability using the tools of ethics and philosophy of medicine. In the process, Gregory wrote the first professional ethics of medicine in the English-language literature, based on the physician's fiduciary responsibility to the patient. In the late twentieth century, the managed practice of medicine has laid medicine open to accountability for its scientific quality and economic cost. This current laying open of medicine creates the challenge of developing medical ethics and bioethics for population-based medical science and practice. PMID:11657315

  10. Preliminary findings exploring the social determinants of Black males' lay health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Johnson, Darin M; Rego, Maria Isabel; Schofield, Kandyce; Amponsah, Alethea; Graham, Louis F

    2012-01-01

    The unequal discussion of Black males' health is a pressing social problem. This study addressed Black males' lay perspectives regarding their health, illness, and mortality, with attention to the determinants of men's health, prevention, lifestyle, and opportunities for health promotion using an exploratory/qualitative research methodology. Participants were 68 Black males aged 15 to 68 years, with an average age of 44 years (SD = 14.5). The narratives represented a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors, ranging from intrapersonal attitudes, interpersonal experiences to discussions about community and public policy injustices. Five prominent themes emerged: (a) lack of chronic disease awareness, (b) fatalism, (c) fear and anxiety of academic-medical settings, (d) hyperactive masculinity fatigue, and (e) the gay-straight divide. The term Tired Black Male Health syndrome was coined in the forum. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of culturally relevant strategies for improving Black male community health engagement. PMID:22105065

  11. Exploring Tertiary Students' Understanding of Covalent Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether exposure to increasingly sophisticated mental models at different points in a chemistry education class showed up in patterns of preference and use of models in interpreting physical properties and phenomena. (Contains 92 references.) (DDR)

  12. Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and others online*EC

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Karen E.; Turner, Anne G.; Durrance, Joan C.; Turner, Tammara Combs

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer health information domain. Lay information mediaries (LIMs) seek information on behalf or because of others, without necessarily being asked to do so or engaging in follow up, and have represented more than 50% of health information seekers in prior studies. Methods: A web-based survey was posted on NC Health Info (NCHI) with 211 respondents, self-identified per the information need that brought them to NCHI as 20% LIMs (n = 43), 58% direct users (n = 122), and 22% health or information providers (n = 46). Follow-up telephone interviews were performed with 10% (n = 21). Interview analysis focused on lay participants (n = 15 LIMs and direct users combined). Interviewees were reclassified post-survey as 12 LIMs and 3 direct users when studied information behavior extended beyond NCHI search. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory approach. Results: Surveyed LIMs were 77% female (n = 33) and searched on behalf or because of family members (81%, n = 35) and people they felt “extremely close” to (77%, n = 33). LIMs reported various information seeking barriers “sometimes” to “often.” LIMs searched mostly without prompting (51%, n = 22). Interview results triangulated survey findings regarding gender, tie strength, and prompting. Conclusions: LIMB may be related to gender and relationship tie strength and appears more internally than externally motivated. Further LIMB research is warranted. PMID:18974809

  13. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joo Ok; Lee, Joohi; Moon, Sung Seek

    2009-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the effects of death education on children and their understanding of death. The participants of this study were eighty 5- and 6-year-olds who were enrolled in a suburban kindergarten in Korea. To examine the level of children's understanding of death, researchers interviewed each child in both the control and…

  14. Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Lori

    2004-01-01

    In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…

  15. How has neuroscience affected lay understandings of personhood? A review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The prominence of neuroscience in the public sphere has escalated in recent years, provoking questions about how the public engages with neuroscientific ideas. Commentaries on neuroscience’s role in society often present it as having revolutionary implications, fundamentally overturning established beliefs about personhood. The purpose of this article is to collate and review the extant empirical evidence on the influence of neuroscience on commonsense understandings of personhood. The article evaluates the scope of neuroscience’s presence in public consciousness and examines the empirical evidence for three frequently encountered claims about neuroscience’s societal influence: that neuroscience fosters a conception of the self that is based in biology, that neuroscience promotes conceptions of individual fate as predetermined, and that neuroscience attenuates the stigma attached to particular social categories. It concludes that many neuroscientific ideas have assimilated in ways that perpetuate rather than challenge existing modes of understanding self, others and society. PMID:23833053

  16. What is Life-in Everyday Understanding? A Focus Group Study on Lay Perspectives on the Term Life.

    PubMed

    Kerbe, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The philosophical and scientific debate about definitions of life-as-we-know-it and its value is very diverse. How do non-biologists characterize these issues? We held focus groups to shed light on the role of the term life in laypeople's understanding. Results show that features of early childhood cognition dominate the understanding of the term life even in adulthood. Textbook knowledge and definitions derived from specific knowledge systems and beliefs are of minor importance. For an ethical differentiation between life forms the ability to feel and to suffer is seen as the crucial criterion. We conclude that lay perspectives on the concept of life can shape a normative discourse on existing as well as on new life forms in a crucial way. In addition, these perspectives may also strongly influence the expectations towards the life-as-it-could-be that is brought forward by the artificial life community. While some concepts like metabolism exist both in scientific and in everyday reasoning as criteria for life, the normative discussion on life is dominated by such ideas as a hierarchical order of living kinds, which emphasize "easy to think" concepts of a moral differentiation. These can also form a basis for the moral standing of artificial life. PMID:26649809

  17. Using Electronic Interviews to Explore Student Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D. J.; Rivera, J. J.; Mateycik, Fran; Jennings, Sybillyn

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports on methods used to probe student understandings of optical fibers and total internal reflection (TIR). The study was conducted as part of the expansion and improvement of web-based materials for an innovative introductory physics course. Initially, we conducted face-to-face Piaget-style interviews with a convenience sample. Our next step was to interview students taking the course at Rensselaer. Physical limitations necessitated that this be done from a distance, so we conducted "e-interviews" using a Chat Room. In this paper we focus on the e-interview experience, discussing similarities to and differences from the traditional face-to-face approach. In the process, we address how each method informs us about students' activation of prior experiences in making sense of unfamiliar phenomena (e.g., "transfer of learning").

  18. Exploring lay views on physical activity and their implications for public health policy. A case study from East Belfast.

    PubMed

    Prior, L; Scott, D; Hunter, R; Donnelly, M; Tully, M A; Cupples, M E; Kee, F

    2014-08-01

    It is now recognised that inactive lifestyles underpin much of the disease burden evident in the richer nations of the world. Indeed, the WHO has identified physical inactivity as a 'global public health problem' and has established minimum physical activity (PA) targets for people at different stages of the life-course. Yet, according to WHO, just under 1/3 of working age adults across the globe meet those targets and it is not at all clear how the disjunction between the recommendations of policy makers and the behaviour of ordinary people might be surmounted. Using an opportunity to examine the impact of an urban regeneration project on community residents in East Belfast (Northern Ireland) this paper examines the views of some 113 people on how to increase rates of PA in an area of multiple deprivation. The results of the analysis suggest that lay people rarely consider PA as a discrete issue, or one that centres on individuals and their motivation, but rather as one component in a complex web of concerns, processes and events that include such things as the actions of neighbours and relatives, material and political environments, vandalism, violence, and the weather. We explore and unravel the nature of those concerns using novel methods of content analysis that generate 'issue webs'. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which lay people conceptualize 'activity' and to the manner in which they point to ways of encouraging activity that are rooted in everyday life rather than in the corpocentric, agent-centred and often sport dominated strategies favoured by local policy makers. Our results support those who argue that interventions to increase rates of PA need to move beyond behavioural approaches that focus on individuals and consider the social, political and material contexts in which 'activity' occurs. PMID:24911510

  19. Laying the Groundwork for NCLEX Success: An Exploration of Adaptive Quizzing as an Examination Preparation Method.

    PubMed

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A; Phelan, Julia C

    2015-05-01

    First-time NCLEX-RN pass rates are an important indicator of nursing school success and quality. Nursing schools use different methods to anticipate NCLEX outcomes and help prevent student failure and possible threat to accreditation. This study evaluated the impact of a shift in NCLEX preparation policy at a BSN program in the southeast United States. The policy shifted from the use of predictor score thresholds to determine graduation eligibility to a more proactive remediation strategy involving adaptive quizzing. A descriptive correlational design evaluated the impact of an adaptive quizzing system designed to give students ongoing active practice and feedback and explored the relationship between predictor examinations and NCLEX success. Data from student usage of the system as well as scores on predictor tests were collected for three student cohorts. Results revealed a positive correlation between adaptive quizzing system usage and content mastery. Two of the 69 students in the sample did not pass the NCLEX. With so few students failing the NCLEX, predictability of any course variables could not be determined. The power of predictor examinations to predict NCLEX failure could also not be supported. The most consistent factor among students, however, was their content mastery level within the adaptive quizzing system. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25851560

  20. Children's Understandings of Rurality: Exploring the Interrelationship between Experience and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Jaleh

    2002-01-01

    Explores children's material and discursive experiences of rurality in New Zealand and how they contribute to children's understandings of rurality. Highlights common constructions of reality based on experiences of agriculture, nature, and recreation, as well as children's understandings of rurality from discourse with peers and adults. (Contains…

  1. New exploration and understanding of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Xutian, Stevenson; Zhang, Jun; Louise, Wozniak

    2009-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), originating from oriental philosophy and culture, has been developing through a series of special research and experiments with meditation, accumulation of experiences, and a complete comprehension of ancient theories and methods. However, compared with Conventional Western Medicine (CWM), the theory of TCM is complicated and not easily accepted by Westerners. It is important to explore TCM by using modern scientific techniques and theories. Utilizing his frontier experience and up-to-date scientific knowledge, Dr. Qian Xuesen has been trying to incorporate some key principles with the comprehensive understanding of TCM and clarify difficult but important concepts and principles. Some examples are the existence of invisible matter; 'Qi' and 'Qi monism'; the Heart representing the 'whole will' of human beings; the water environment functioning as a fundamental condition of life; the human body being united with nature and universe as one; the spirit and physical body always being considered unified and connected with the five viscera, especially with the Heart; and the Chinese herbal formula working with different principles than CWM drugs. These works are important for understanding the essence of TCM, the promoting of the modernization of TCM theories by means of the latest of achievements in scientific developments, establishing the direction for future medicines with TCM characteristics, uniting Chinese and Western medicines, and exploiting a bright future for the health of mankind. PMID:19606504

  2. Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2002-08-01

    This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

  3. Understanding Movement: A Sociocultural Approach to Exploring Moving Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Hakan; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to outline a sociocultural way of exploring human movement. Our ambition is to develop an analytical framework where moving humans are explored in terms of what it means to move as movements are performed by somebody, for a certain purpose, and in a certain situation. We find this approach in poststructural…

  4. Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. L.; Cockrell, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, the Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and ground handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early as the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

  5. Exploring Preservice Teachers' Emerging Understandings of Disciplinary Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Avis M.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative inquiry examined 14 secondary preservice teachers' emerging understandings of disciplinary literacy. Data included preservice teachers' written reflections and annotated lesson plans, which were analyzed for understanding of discipline-specific habits of thinking, texts, reading and writing demands of academic texts,…

  6. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  7. Exploring Turkish Upper Primary Level Pupils' Understanding of Digestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakici, Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The…

  8. Exploring Pre-Service Secondary Teachers' Understanding of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laletas, Stella; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Care in teaching has been widely investigated; however, little research has sought secondary pre-service teachers' understandings of caring and their potential responsibility to care for students. Accordingly, semi-structured interviews were employed with four focus groups, involving 12 (2 male and 10 female) participants. Data were analysed…

  9. Primary Students' Understanding of Tessellation: An Initial Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callingham, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Tessellation is included in many mathematics curricula as one way of developing spatial ideas. If students do not understand tessellation in the intended ways, however, the development of other spatial ideas, such as properties of shapes and symmetry, may be compromised. Van Hiele levels were used as a basis for analysing the descriptions of eight…

  10. Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzu-Bin; Li, Jen-Yi; Deng, Feng; Lee, Ling

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of new media technologies, the role of media in a society has been changed that leads researchers to re-construct the meaning of literacy from classic literacy to new media literacy. There have been continuing efforts to understand new media and promote the importance of becoming new media literate among researchers, educators,…

  11. Exploring consumer understanding and preferences for pharmacy quality information

    PubMed Central

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Mort, Jane R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe consumer understanding of pharmacy quality measures and consumer preferences for pharmacy quality information. Methods: Semi-structured focus group design was combined with survey methods. Adults who filled prescription medications for self-reported chronic illnesses at community pharmacies discussed their understanding of Pharmacy Quality Alliance approved quality measures. Questions examined preference of pharmacy quality information rating systems (e.g. stars versus percentages) and desired data display/formats. During the focus group, participants completed a survey examining their understanding of each pharmacy quality measure. All focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Thirty-four individuals participated (mean age= 62.85; SD=16.05). Participants were unfamiliar with quality measures information and their level of understanding differed for each quality measure. Surveys indicated 94.1% understood “Drug-Drug Interactions” and “Helping Patients Get Needed Medications” better than other measures (e.g., 76.5% understood “Suboptimal Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes”). Qualitative analysis indicated participants preferred an overall pharmacy rating for quick access and use. However, participants also wanted quality measures information displayed by health conditions. Participants favored comparison of their pharmacy to city data instead of state data. Most participants liked star ratings better than percentages, letter grades, or numerical ratings. Conclusions: Individuals who have a chronic illness and regularly use community pharmacies are interested in pharmacy quality measures. However, specific quality measures were not understood by some participants. Participants had specific preferences for the display of pharmacy quality information which will be helpful in the design of appropriate quality report systems. PMID

  12. Exploring undergraduates' understanding of photosynthesis using diagnostic question clusters.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joyce M; Anderson, Charles W; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific principles: conservation of matter, conservation of energy, and the hierarchical nature of biological systems. Data on students' responses to the cluster items and uses of some of the questions in multiple-choice, multiple-true/false, and essay formats are compared. A cross-over study indicates that the multiple-true/false format shows promise as a machine-gradable format that identifies students who have a mixture of accurate and inaccurate ideas. In addition, interviews with students about their choices on three multiple-choice questions reveal the fragility of students' understanding. Collectively, the data show that many undergraduates lack both a basic understanding of the role of photosynthesis in plant metabolism and the ability to reason with scientific principles when learning new content. Implications for instruction are discussed. PMID:22383617

  13. Answering the Call: An Examination of the Development of Lay Leadership on Jesuit, Catholic University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Xavier Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The study was an exploration of how participants in lay formation mission and identity programs on three Jesuit higher education campuses understand their experiences of the programs; what competencies were developed as a result of participation; and how the programs helped participants understand the cultural context of Jesuit higher education.…

  14. Exploring Turkish upper primary level pupils' understanding of digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakici, Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The most significant finding was the children's conception of the digestive process as 'melting of foods' rather than 'breaking foods down'. Some other children considered digestion to be a filtering process that is performed by the stomach in order to separate the useful and waste parts of food. These views 'melting of foods' and 'filtering of foods' have not been mentioned in the literature previously. The study revealed that social influences and everyday language had an important impact on children's learning of the digestive process.

  15. Understanding Words, Understanding Numbers: An Exploration of the Mathematical Profiles of Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor comprehenders are children who show significant deficits in their reading comprehension performance, despite average, or above-average word reading ability. To date, there have been no in-depth studies of the mathematical performance profiles of such children. Aims: This study aimed to explore the mathematical profiles of poor…

  16. An Exploration of Young Children's Understandings of Genetics Concepts from Ontological and Epistemological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady; Gribble, Susan J.; Donovan, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research examined 9- to 15-year-old children's understandings about basic genetics concepts and how they integrated those understandings with their broader theories of biology. A cross-sectional case study method was used to explore the students' (n = 90) understandings of basic inheritance and molecular genetics concepts such as gene and…

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Resistance and Perspectival Understanding in Computer-Mediated Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, SoonAh; Song, Kwangok

    2016-01-01

    This discourse analytic study explored the interconnection between resistance and perspectival understanding when students negotiated and constructed understandings in computer-mediated discussions in a graduate level course on the psychology of learning. Findings showed that resistance expressions often accompanied perspectival understanding as…

  18. The Struggle to Understand: Exploring Medical Students' Experiences of Learning and Understanding during a Basic Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weurlander, Maria; Scheja, Max; Hult, Håkan; Wernerson, Annika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research reported in this paper was to explore students' "journey" towards conceptual understanding during an undergraduate course. The task that medical students face--to learn a substantial quantity of detailed knowledge and integrate into a coherent whole in a limited time frame--is demanding. Seven students were…

  19. The Lay Sister in Educational History and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Christine Trimingham

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the construction of lay sisters in a religious order and school setting using a poststructuralist orientation. Explains that in the study documents were examined and interviews were conducted with ex-students, choir nuns, and a lay sister at a small Catholic girls-preparatory boarding school. Explores the narrative of one lay sister.…

  20. Exploring Students' Understanding of Ordinary Differential Equations Using Computer Algebraic System (CAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maat, Siti Mistima; Zakaria, Effandi

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are one of the important topics in engineering mathematics that lead to the understanding of technical concepts among students. This study was conducted to explore the students' understanding of ODEs when they solve ODE questions using a traditional method as well as a computer algebraic system, particularly…

  1. Deepening Students' Understanding of Multiplication and Division by Exploring Divisibility by Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Mills, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how a focus on understanding divisibility rules can be used to help deepen students' understanding of multiplication and division with whole numbers. It is based on research with seven Year 7-8 teachers who were observed teaching a group of students a rule for divisibility by nine. As part of the lesson, students were shown a…

  2. Lay dispositionism and implicit theories of personality.

    PubMed

    Chiu, C Y; Hong, Y Y; Dweck, C S

    1997-07-01

    Lay dispositionism refers to lay people's tendency to use traits as the basic unit of analysis in social perception (L. Ross & R. E. Nisbett, 1991). Five studies explored the relation between the practices indicative of lay dispositionism and people's implicit theories about the nature of personal attributes. As predicted, compared with those who believed that personal attributes are malleable (incremental theorists), those who believed in fixed traits (entity theorists) used traits or trait-relevant information to make stronger future behavioral predictions (Studies 1 and 2) and made stronger trait inferences from behavior (Study 3). Moreover, the relation between implicit theories and lay dispositionism was found in both the United States (a more individualistic culture) and Hong Kong (a more collectivistic culture), suggesting this relation to be generalizable across cultures (Study 4). Finally, an experiment in which implicit theories were manipulated provided preliminary evidence for the possible causal role of implicit theories in lay dispositionism (Study 5). PMID:9216077

  3. An exploration of young children's understandings of genetics concepts from ontological and epistemological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venville, Grady; Gribble, Susan J.; Donovan, Jennifer

    2005-07-01

    This research examined 9- to 15-year-old children's understandings about basic genetics concepts and how they integrated those understandings with their broader theories of biology. A cross-sectional case study method was used to explore the students' (n = 90) understandings of basic inheritance and molecular genetics concepts such as gene and DNA. Data were collected by interview and were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. A theoretical framework consisting of an ontological perspective and an epistemological perspective informed the data analysis. The results indicate that the majority of students had a theory of kinship because they could differentiate between socially and genetically inherited characteristics. While these students had heard of the concepts gene and DNA, a bona fide theory of genetics was elusive because they did not know where genes are or what they do. The discussion explores popular cultural origins of students' understandings and potential ontological and epistemological barriers to further learning about genetics.

  4. EXPLORATIONS OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN UNDERSTANDING AND DRILL IN THE LEARNING PROCESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REYNOLDS, JAMES H.

    FIVE EXPERIMENTS WERE RUN AS A SERIES OF INITIAL EXPLORATIONS TO DETERMINE A WORKABLE, RESEARCH DEFINITION OF THE TERM "UNDERSTANDING" AND TO EVALUATE EXPERIMENTALLY ITS RELATIONSHIP TO DRILL, OR ROTE LEARNING. THE FIVE EXPERIMENTS DEALT WITH THE EFFECTS OF A VISUALLY IMPOSED COGNITIVE STRUCTURE UPON ROTE LEARNING, THE EFFECTS UPON ROTE LEARNING…

  5. Exploring Positioning as an Analytical Tool for Understanding Becoming Mathematics Teachers' Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject…

  6. Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance…

  7. Exploring a Pluralist Understanding of Learning for Sustainability and Its Implications for Outdoor Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Susanne C.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a pluralist understanding of learning for sustainability in educational theory and relates it to outdoor education practice. In brief, this kind of learning can be described as a deep engagement with an individual's multiple identities and the personal location in diverse geo-physical and socio-cultural surroundings. I…

  8. Understanding Ozone: Exploring the Good and Bad Facets of a Famous Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1995-01-01

    Presents activities that help students distinguish between the beneficial layer of stratospheric ozone and the dangerous ground-level or tropospheric ozone, understand the chemical processes of ozone breakdown in the stratosphere, find the sources of ground-level ozone, and explore the differences in the patterns of ozone concentration over the…

  9. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  10. Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance on the applied assessment framework. For this purpose, (a) various types of objective assessment questions were developed and evaluated for assessing meaningful understanding, (b) a specific type of systemic assessment questions (SAQs) was developed and evaluated for assessing systems thinking skills, and (c) the association between students' responses on the applied assessment schemes was explored. The results indicated that properly designed objective questions can effectively capture aspects of students' meaningful understanding. It was also found that the SAQs can elicit systems thinking skills in the context of a formalistic systems thinking theoretical approach. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between students' responses on the two assessment strategies. This research provides evidence that students' systems thinking level within a science domain is significantly related to their meaningful understanding of relative science concepts.

  11. Dual Processing and Discourse Space: Exploring Fifth Grade Students' Language, Reasoning, and Understanding through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in…

  12. Lay or Lie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Barbara R.

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: LEVEL: High school and college. AUTHOR'S COMMENT: Many would like to abandon the distinction between "lay" and "lie," but I still receive enough questions about it to continue teaching it. Finding that students did not believe me when I taught them to substitute "recline" for "lie," because "The rug…

  13. A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Rapley, C.; Elfring, C.; Allison, I.; Bindschadler, R.; Chown, S.; Duhaime, G.; Kotlyakov, V.; Orheim, O.; Zhang, Z.; Kuhn, M.; Schalke, H.; Pandey, P.; Petersen, H. K.; Casassa, G.

    2003-12-01

    Planning is underway to hold an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. IPY 2007-2008 stands to be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007-2008 is envisioned to be an intense, international campaign of coordinated polar observations and analysis, which will be bipolar in focus, multidisciplinary in scope, and truly international in participation. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their roles in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007 - 2008 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups. Earlier this year, the International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) which met for the first time at the end of July. The Planning Group discussed ways to create an open process that encourages broad input from the international community. The Planning Group began to describe the desired goals of IPY 2007-2008, which should address compelling science issues through multi-national programs, enable scientific programs which would not otherwise occur, attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, and engage the public. The Planning Group has identified three overarching themes that we hope can serve as the foundation for IPY 2007-2008: Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, Decoding the Role of the Poles in Global Change Understanding Polar Processes. The Planning Group envisions focused research activities under each of these major themes. For example, a program to explore the sub-ice environment of East Antarctica would fit under the theme Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, a program of Integrated

  14. Exploring positioning as an analytical tool for understanding becoming mathematics teachers' identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject positioning? We elaborate on the elusive and interrelated concepts of identity, positioning and power, seen as dynamic and changeable. As these concepts represent three interconnected parts of research analysis in an on-going larger project data from different sources will be used in this illustration. In this paper, we clarify the theoretical stance, ground the concepts historically and strive to connect them to research analysis. In this way, we show that power relations and subject positioning in social settings are critical aspects and need to be taken seriously into account if we aim at understanding becoming teachers' identities.

  15. USER FRUSTRATION IN HIT INTERFACES: EXPLORING PAST HCI RESEARCH FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICIANS’ EXPERIENCES

    PubMed Central

    Opoku-Boateng, Gloria A.

    2015-01-01

    User frustration research has been one way of looking into clinicians’ experience with health information technology use and interaction. In order to understand how clinician frustration with Health Information Technology (HIT) use occurs, there is the need to explore Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature that addresses both frustration and HIT use. In the past three decades, HCI frustration research has increased and expanded. Researchers have done a lot of work to understand emotions, end-user frustration and affect. This paper uses a historical literature review approach to review the origins of emotion and frustration research and explore the research question; Does HCI research on frustration provide insights on clinicians’ frustration with HIT interfaces? From the literature review HCI research on emotion and frustration provides additional insights that can indeed help explain user frustration in HIT. Different approaches and HCI perspectives also help frame HIT user frustration research as well as inform HIT system design. The paper concludes with a suggested directions on how future design and research may take. PMID:26958238

  16. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse

  17. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. If the witness is not testifying as an expert, the witness' testimony... based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. 18.701 Section...

  18. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

  19. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-10-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them experiment, science fair, and hypothesis, is used to probe the students' knowledge structures. Students from grades four, five, and eight, as well as first-year college students were tested to reveal their knowledge structures relating to the scientific method. Younger students were found to have a naïve view of the science process with little understanding of how science relates to the real world. However, students' conceptions about the scientific process appear to be malleable, with science fairs a potentially strong influencer. The strength of associations between words is observed to change from grade to grade, with younger students placing science fair near the center of their knowledge structure regarding the scientific method, whereas older students conceptualize the scientific method around experiment.

  20. A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapley, C.; Bell, R.

    2004-05-01

    Planning is underway for an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. (IPY 2007/8) which will be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007/8 will be an international programme of coordinated, interdisciplinary, scientific research in the Earth's polar regions to explore new frontiers, to increase our ability to detect changes at the Earth's poles and to deepen our understanding of polar processes and their global linkages. A crucial component of the IPY 2007/8 will be to attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, engineers and leaders and to capture the interest of the public and decision-makers. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their role in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007/8 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups both internationally and nationally. To date 18 nations have formed national committees who are coordinating IPY activities nationally. The International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) to stimulate, encourage and organize a debate on the International Polar Year 2007/8, formulate a set of objectives and develop a high level Science Plan. The Planning Group has sought input from the international science community and to date has received 138 ideas from over 22 nations. This input from the international community covers both poles, global processes and a diverse spectrum of disciplines. To date the input from the science community has identified key questions and proposed projects within the three major themes proposed by the ICSU IPY Planning Group

  1. Greek primary school teachers' understanding of current environmental issues: An exploration of their environmental knowledge and images of nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-03-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena. Using the media as major environmental information sources, in which environmental issues are constructed as environmental risks, teachers are being environmentally educated in lay and not in scientific terms. Moreover, the image of nature emerging from their ideas about the three environmental issues is that of the romantic archetype, which prevails in postindustrial societies. Such a view, though, gives a conceptualization of nature as balance, under which the greenhouse effect and acid rain are seen as exclusively human-induced disturbances.

  2. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-12-01

    Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which has been only scarcely explored in the science education literature. A four-tier diagnostic instrument was used. The instrument comprises 25 questions, and each question has an answer tier, a confidence rating for this tier, a reason tier and a confidence rating for this tier. Versions of the instrument were refined iteratively during the preliminary and pilot phases of the study. This study reports on the results obtained from the main phase of the study, using a sample of 140 students. Overall, the diagnostic test was difficult for the students. The students had a mean score of 38 %, based on correct responses for both answer and reason tiers for the questions. It was accompanied by a mean confidence of only 3.49 out of 6 (that is, 58.2 %) for the whole test. The results indicate that transition metals chemistry is a difficult topic for the students. Twenty-four alternative conceptions have been identified in this study, including some indication of their strengths. Some implications of the study are discussed.

  3. An Exploration of Teachers' Efforts to Understand Identity Work and its Relevance to Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. Cecil; Darfler, Anne

    2012-06-01

    US educators express concern that students are turning away from the study of science and have little interest in pursuing science careers. Nationally, science achievement scores for 8th graders are unchanged since 1996, but 12th graders' scores have significantly decreased. A shortcoming of education reform efforts is lack of attention to students' developmental needs. Science study should enable students to learn about themselves—to develop and refine their skills, define their values, explore personal interests, and understand the importance of science to themselves and others. Effective secondary science instruction requires attention to students' identity development—the key developmental task of adolescence. Secondary science teachers participated in an 8-week course focused on understanding adolescent identity development and methods for addressing identity. Transcripts of the teachers' online discussions of salient issues were analyzed to determine their perceptions regarding classroom identity work. Teachers identified several assets and obstacles to identity work that were organized into two broad categories: teacher knowledge, training opportunities, and administrative support, or lack of these; and, presence of inflexible curricula, standardized testing regimes, and increased teacher accountability. Implications for student growth and science teacher professional development are discussed.

  4. An exploration of middle school science teachers' understandings and teaching practice of science as inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Margaret Ann

    understanding of science increases (Akkus, Gunel & Hand, 2007; Gibson, 2002; Liu, Lee & Linn, 2010). As a result, it is important to explore middle school science teachers' definition of science as inquiry because of its importance in how their understandings are reflected in their practice. Researchers must witness, first- hand, what is taking place in middle school science classrooms with respect to the teaching of scientific inquiry before recommendations for improvements can be made. We must also allow opportunities for middle school science teachers to broach, examine, explore, interpret and report implementation strategies when practicing the elements of scientific inquiry as a science content area. It then stands to reason that more research needs to be done to: (1) assess teachers' knowledge related to reform-based teaching, (2) investigate teachers' views about the goals and purposes of inquiry, and (3) investigate the processes by which teachers carry out SI and motivation for undertaking such a complex and difficult to manage form of instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine middle school science teachers' understandings and skills related to scientific inquiry; how those understandings and skills were translated into classroom practice, and the role the school district played in the development of such understandings and skills.

  5. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  6. The GPS Analysis Package for Exploration and Understanding of Geodetic Sensor Web Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granat, R. A.; Moghaddam, B.; Donnellan, A.

    2012-12-01

    We introduce the GPS Analysis Package (GAP), a Matlab toolbox for GPS data exploration and understanding. The toolbox is designed to support scientists and engineers studying the motion of the solid Earth both in an academic environment and in the course of NASA missions such as UAVSAR and future InSAR satellite missions. It includes an ensemble of low-level routines to perform basic signal processing operations, such as removal of secular motion, de-noising, and removal of seasonal signals. It also includes a suite of more sophisticated statistical pattern recognition techniques, including hidden Markov models and Bayes nets, to detect changes, identify transient signals, understand regional motion, and uncover relationships between geographically removed nodes in the GPS network. Finally, it provides an assortment of methods for estimating missing observations in the network. We provide usage examples of the package applied to particular scenarios, including the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and ongoing slow slip events in the Cascadia region. We also demonstrate the utility of the package within a web portal and web services environment by showcasing its use in the QuakeSim web portal. The QuakeSim portal allows easy access to GPS data sources provided by multiple institutions as well as a map and plotting interface to quickly assess analysis results. Finally, we show the extensibility of the package to other problem domains and sensor network data sources, demonstrating the analysis tools as applied to seismic network data, autonomous robotic navigation, and fault detection in engineering data streams from the International Space Station.

  7. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  8. Lay obligations in professional relations.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M

    1985-02-01

    Little has been written recently about the obligations of lay people in professional relationships. Yet the Code of Medical Ethics adopted by the American Medical Association in 1847 included an extensive statement on "Obligations of patients to their physicians'. After critically examining the philosophical foundations of this statement, I provide an alternative account of lay obligations in professional relationships. Based on a hypothetical social contract and included in a full specification of professional as well as lay obligations, this account requires lay people to honor commitments and disclose relevant information. Ethically, the account assumes that all parties in lay-professional relationships should be given equal consideration and respect in determining rights and obligations. Factually, it assumes that the treatment of many illnesses and injuries required collaboration and cooperation among lay persons and health professionals, that medical resources and personnel are limited, and that medicine, nursing, and related health professions, are, in MacIntyre's sense, practices. PMID:3884726

  9. Understanding interactions with the food environment: an exploration of supermarket food shopping routines in deprived neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Despite a sustained academic interest in the environmental determinants of diet, relatively little is known about the ways in which individuals interact with their neighbourhood food environment and the use of its most important element, the supermarket. This qualitative study explores how residents of deprived neighbourhoods shop for food and how the supermarket environment influences their choices. Go-along interviews were conducted with 26 residents of Sandwell, a uniformly deprived metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, UK. Routine approaches to food shopping are characterised in terms of planning and reliance on the supermarket environment. Four distinct routines are identified: chaotic and reactive; working around the store; item-by-item; and restricted and budgeted. This suggests that residents of deprived neighbourhoods do not have uniform responses to food environments. Responses to supermarket environments appear to be mediated by levels of individual autonomy. A better understanding of how residents of deprived neighbourhoods interact with their food environment may help optimise environmental interventions aimed at improving physical access to food in these places. PMID:23220374

  10. To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Nigel; Richardson, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Aim  The aim of this study was to explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons. Background  Modern matrons were re-introduced to the National Health Service in 2002, and effective leadership has been identified as being essential for the role to be successful. However, there is minimal evidence of how modern matrons experience effective leadership. Methods  The study used a descriptive generic qualitative methodology; one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine matrons. This was subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results  Three themes were found to influence modern matron's leadership experiences: leadership behaviours, negative influences and leadership investment. They did not follow one leadership style but adapted this to their situation. Various factors appeared to restrict their leadership effectiveness. Conclusions  The findings suggest that exposure to a range of leadership styles should be included in preparation and CPD for the modern matron role and a more consistent job description and job purpose should be developed. Implications for nursing management  Leadership styles such as transformational leadership alone do not meet the complex demands of nursing leaders, and therefore there is a requirement for greater flexibility in leadership development for all health care professionals. PMID:23410106

  11. Using Rasch Modeling to Explore Students' Understanding of Elementary School Ideas about Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann Abell, Cari F.; DeBoer, George E.

    2015-01-01

    Energy plays a central role in our society, so it is essential that all citizens understand what energy is and how it moves and changes form. However, research has shown that students of all ages have difficulty understanding these abstract concepts. This paper presents a summary of elementary, middle, and high school students' understanding of…

  12. Toward understanding life under subzero conditions: the significance of exploring psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Emanuele

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the behavior of proteins under freezing conditions is vital for detecting and locating extraterrestrial life in cold environments, such as those found on Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. This review highlights the importance of studying psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins, a topic that has yet to be explored. A strategy for analyzing the psychrophilic RNA helicase protein CsdA (Psyc_1082) from Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures is proposed. The experimental model presented here was developed based on previous data from investigations of Escherichia coli, P. arcticus 273-4, and RNA helicases. P. arcticus 273-4 is considered a model for life in freezing environments. It is capable of growing in temperatures as cold as -10°C by using physiological strategies to survive not only in freezing temperatures but also under low-water-activity and limited-nutrient-availability conditions. The analyses of its genome, transcriptome, and proteome revealed specific adaptations that allow it to inhabit freezing environments by adopting a slow metabolic strategy rather than a cellular dormancy state. During growth at subzero temperatures, P. arcticus 273-4 genes related to energy metabolism and carbon substrate incorporation are downregulated, and genes for maintenance of membranes, cell walls, and nucleic acid motion are upregulated. At -6°C, P. arcticus 273-4 does not upregulate the expression of either RNA or protein chaperones; however, it upregulates the expression of its cold-shock induced DEAD-box RNA helicase protein A (CsdA - Psyc_1082). CsdA - Psyc_1082 was investigated as a key helper protein for sustaining life in subzero conditions. Proving CsdA - Psyc_1082 to be functional as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures may extend the known minimum growth temperature of a mesophilic cell and provide key information about the mechanisms that underlie cold-induced biological systems in

  13. A Notional Example of Understanding Human Exploration Traverses on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, John

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Gruener received an M.S. in physical science, with an emphasis in planetary geology, from the University of Houston-Clear Lake in 1994. He then began working with NASA JSC.s Solar System Exploration Division on the development of prototype planetary science instruments, the development of a mineral-based substrate for nutrient delivery to plant growth systems in bio-regenerative life support systems, and in support of the Mars Exploration Rover missions in rock and mineral identification. In 2004, Mr. Gruener again participated in a renewed effort to plan and design missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. He participated in many exploration planning activities, including NASA.s Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Global Exploration Strategy Workshop, Lunar Architecture Team 1 and 2, Constellation Lunar Architecture Team, the Global Point of Departure Lunar Exploration Team, and the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture. Mr. Gruener has also been an active member of the science team supporting NASA.s Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS).

  14. Dynamic interracial/intercultural processes: the role of lay theories of race.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ying-yi; Chao, Melody Manchi; No, Sun

    2009-10-01

    This paper explores how the lay theory approach provides a framework beyond previous stereotype/prejudice research to understand dynamic personality processes in interracial/ethnic contexts. The authors conceptualize theory of race within the Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS), in which lay people's beliefs regarding the essential nature of race sets up a mind-set through which individuals construe and interpret their social experiences. The research findings illustrate that endorsement of the essentialist theory (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) versus the social constructionist theory (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) are associated with different encoding and representation of social information, which in turn affect feelings, motivation, and competence in navigating between racial and cultural boundaries. These findings shed light on dynamic interracial/intercultural processes. Relations of this approach to CAPS are discussed. PMID:19686456

  15. Exploring and Understanding the Benefits of Tutoring Software on Urban Students' Science Achievement: What Are Baltimore City Practitioners' Perspectives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2008-01-01

    Historically, very little research that meets the scientifically based standards as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act has been conducted on the effectiveness of educational technology on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore and seek to understand urban city teachers' perspectives on the benefits or effects of…

  16. From Phenotype to Genotype: Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Genetic Inheritance in a Web-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michelle; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Manokore, Viola

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that students face challenges as they learn about genetic inheritance. The challenges could emanate from the fact that genetic inheritance involves unseen processes at different organizational levels. We explored students' understanding of heredity and related concepts such as cells and reproduction using a Web-based Science Inquiry…

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

  18. The Visuo-Haptic and Haptic Exploration of Letters Increases the Kindergarten-Children's Understanding of the Alphabetic Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of incorporating a visuo-haptic and haptic (tactual-kinaesthetic) exploration of letters in a training designed to develop phonemic awareness, knowledge of letters and letter/sound correspondences, on 5-year-old children's understanding and use of the alphabetic principle. Three interventions, which differed in the…

  19. "Everything Is in Parables": An Exploration of Students' Difficulties in Understanding Christian Beliefs Concerning Jesus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freathy, Rob; Aylward, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of interviews conducted with students (aged 11-13) in four English secondary schools, examining reasons why young people find it difficult to understand Christian beliefs regarding Jesus' miracles, resurrection, and status as the Son of God. For the students in this sample, understanding and belief are closely…

  20. Exploring Elementary Students' Understanding of Energy and Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin

    2008-01-01

    As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curricula need to develop students' understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change. For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what their students' prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A…

  1. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  2. "They Just Seem to Live Their Lives in Their Own Little World": Lay Perceptions of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huws, J. C.; Jones, R. S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is believed to be higher than that of other conditions, such as Down syndrome or diabetes, yet few studies have explored the ideas lay people have about autism. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how 10 lay people with no knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism.…

  3. Understanding the Epistemological Development of Substance Abusing College Students: A Construct Exploration Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delve into the epistemological constructs of substance abusing college students and explore whether consistencies with Baxter Magolda's (1992) epistemic constructs were indicated. The study utilized a qualitative, narrative inquiry research design framed by Baxter Magolda's interview outline. Interviews were…

  4. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-01-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them "experiment," "science fair," and "hypothesis," is used to probe the students' knowledge structures.…

  5. Mapping the Biosphere: exploring species to understand the origin, organization, and sustainability of biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The time is ripe for a comprehensive mission to explore and document Earth’s species. We conclude that a goal to describe 10 million new species in less than 50 years is attainable based on the strength of 250 years of progress, worldwide collections, existing experts, technological innovation, and...

  6. Explorers, Detectives, Matchmakers, and Lion Tamers: Understanding Jigsaw Puzzlers' Techniques and Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Angela Cora

    2013-01-01

    Why do people enjoy jigsaw puzzles, which--challenging and time-consuming as they are--might be considered more like work than play? The author investigates the motivations, preferences, and satisfactions of individuals working on jigsaw puzzles, and she explores how these elements of play relate to the procedures and strategies puzzlers use to…

  7. Exploring the Role of Context in Students' Understanding of Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroughton, Jacqueline R.; McGowan, Herle M.; Weiss, Leigh V.; Cope, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Context provides meaning for data analysis and the evaluation of evidence but may be distracting to students. This research explores the role of context in students' reasoning about sampling: specifically, the relationship between the strength of students' opinions about a topic, which provides the context for a study, and their ability…

  8. Understanding "Together and Apart": A Case Study of Edward's Explorations at Nursery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Cath

    2009-01-01

    Edward was one of 58 children studied by workers and parents as part of a study on Well-being and Resilience at the Pen Green Nursery. Within the larger study, eight children were studied in greater depth in order to explore connections between cognitive and emotional development. Schematic theory and attachment theory were used as frameworks for…

  9. Exploring Understandings of Inclusion in Schools in Zambia and Tanzania Using Reflective Writing and Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Susie

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small-scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South-based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are…

  10. Lay Definitions of Happiness across Nations: The Primacy of Inner Harmony and Relational Connectedness

    PubMed Central

    Delle Fave, Antonella; Brdar, Ingrid; Wissing, Marié P.; Araujo, Ulisses; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Freire, Teresa; Hernández-Pozo, María Del Rocío; Jose, Paul; Martos, Tamás; Nafstad, Hilde E.; Nakamura, Jeanne; Singh, Kamlesh; Soosai-Nathan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In well-being research the term happiness is often used as synonymous with life satisfaction. However, little is known about lay people's understanding of happiness. Building on the available literature, this study explored lay definitions of happiness across nations and cultural dimensions, analyzing their components and relationship with participants' demographic features. Participants were 2799 adults (age range = 30–60, 50% women) living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and United States. They completed the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI), reporting, among other information, their own definition of happiness. Answers comprised definitions referring to a broad range of life domains, covering both the contextual-social sphere and the psychological sphere. Across countries and with little variation by age and gender, inner harmony predominated among psychological definitions, and family and social relationships among contextual definitions. Whereas relationships are widely acknowledged as basic happiness components, inner harmony is substantially neglected. Nevertheless, its cross-national primacy, together with relations, is consistent with the view of an ontological interconnectedness characterizing living systems, shared by several conceptual frameworks across disciplines and cultures. At the methodological level, these findings suggest the potential of a bottom-up, mixed method approach to contextualize psychological dimensions within culture and lay understanding. PMID:26858677

  11. Lay Definitions of Happiness across Nations: The Primacy of Inner Harmony and Relational Connectedness.

    PubMed

    Delle Fave, Antonella; Brdar, Ingrid; Wissing, Marié P; Araujo, Ulisses; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Freire, Teresa; Hernández-Pozo, María Del Rocío; Jose, Paul; Martos, Tamás; Nafstad, Hilde E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Singh, Kamlesh; Soosai-Nathan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In well-being research the term happiness is often used as synonymous with life satisfaction. However, little is known about lay people's understanding of happiness. Building on the available literature, this study explored lay definitions of happiness across nations and cultural dimensions, analyzing their components and relationship with participants' demographic features. Participants were 2799 adults (age range = 30-60, 50% women) living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and United States. They completed the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI), reporting, among other information, their own definition of happiness. Answers comprised definitions referring to a broad range of life domains, covering both the contextual-social sphere and the psychological sphere. Across countries and with little variation by age and gender, inner harmony predominated among psychological definitions, and family and social relationships among contextual definitions. Whereas relationships are widely acknowledged as basic happiness components, inner harmony is substantially neglected. Nevertheless, its cross-national primacy, together with relations, is consistent with the view of an ontological interconnectedness characterizing living systems, shared by several conceptual frameworks across disciplines and cultures. At the methodological level, these findings suggest the potential of a bottom-up, mixed method approach to contextualize psychological dimensions within culture and lay understanding. PMID:26858677

  12. Using Hydrothermal Plumes and Their Chemical Composition to Identify and Understand Hydrothermal Activity at Explorer Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Lebon, G.; Baker, E.; Walker, S.; Nakamura, K.; Silvers, B.

    2002-12-01

    During June and July, 2002, an extensive survey of the hydrothermal systems of the Explorer Ridge was made aboard the R/V Thomas Thompson. This survey employed hydrocasts and the Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) to locate and map hydrothermal vent fields. A total of 28 hydrocasts (17 verticals and 11 tow-yos) were used to search for hydrothermal activity from 49.5°N to 50.3°N on the Explorer Ridge. During the hydrocasts continuous measurements were made of conductivity, temperature, pressure, light backscatter, eH, Fe, Mn, and pH. Discrete samples were collected for total dissolved Fe and Mn, methane, pH, total CO2, and particulate matter. Most of the strong hydrothermal venting was near the Magic Mountain area of the Explorer Ridge at ~49.76° N, 130.26° W, where strong particulate backscatter signals (~0.130 NTUs) and moderate temperature anomalies (~ 0.05 °C) were detected. The particulate matter causing the backscatter was made up primarily of volatile particulate sulfur (PS) with little to no hydrothermal PFe. PS:PFe ratios exceeded 25 in the areas of most intense venting, . These PFe and PS data suggest that the hydrothermal Fe, if any, is deposited as sulfide minerals beneath the sea floor and that S is far in excess of Fe in the hydrothermal fluids. In the most intense plumes,total dissolvable Fe and Mn were between 20 and 30 nM, pH anomalies exceeded 0.025 pH units (indicating an increase of ~10uM CO2), and methane reached 16nM. These results suggest that the fluids exiting the sea floor are metal-poor and moderately gas-rich.

  13. Research into Literacy and Technology in Primary Classrooms: An Exploration of Understandings Generated by Recent Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    While much has been written about the implications for "literacy" of practices surrounding digital technologies, there has been surprisingly little research investigating new literacies in primary classrooms. This review examines the kinds of understandings that have been generated through studies of primary literacy and technology reported during…

  14. Exploring Prospective Teachers' Assessment Practices: Noticing and Interpreting Student Understanding in the Assessment of Written Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente; Bolger, Molly; Tomanek, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to analyze how beginning prospective secondary school teachers approached the analysis of student written responses to formative assessment probes. We sought to identify what elements of students' written work were noticed, what types of inferences of student understanding were built, and what these noticed…

  15. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

  16. Exploring Secondary Students' Understanding of Chemical Kinetics through Inquiry-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chairam, Sanoe; Klahan, Nutsuda; Coll, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    This research is trying to evaluate the feedback of Thai secondary school students to inquiry-based teaching and learning methods, exemplified by the study of chemical kinetics. This work used the multiple-choice questions, scientifically practical diagram and questionnaire to assess students' understanding of chemical kinetics. The findings…

  17. Exploring the Impact of Argumentation on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Dogan, Alev

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of argumentation on pre-service science teachers' (PST) conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. The sample consisted of 57 first-year PSTs enrolled in a teacher education program in Turkey. Thirty two of the 57 PSTs who participated in this study were in the experimental group and 25 in the control group.…

  18. An Epistemological Inquiry into Organic Chemistry Education: Exploration of Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding of Functional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine the levels of conceptual understanding of undergraduate students regarding organic compounds within different functional groups. A total of 60 students who were enrolled in the Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education of a Faculty of Education at a state university in Turkey and who had followed an…

  19. Exploring Students' Understanding of Electrochemical Cells Using an Enhanced Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Adrian Sin Loy; Subramaniam, R.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of two-tier multiple-choice questions has permitted the diagnosis of students' understanding on various topics in the sciences as well as helped to ascertain the alternative conceptions they have. A limitation of two-tier diagnostic instruments that has been noted in the literature, but which has not been…

  20. Maltreated Children's Social Understanding and Empathy: A Preliminary Exploration of Foster Carers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nikki; Banerjee, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that parental abuse and neglect can have adverse effects on children's peer relationships and self-perceptions. Emerging theoretical and empirical work suggests that children's social understanding and empathy could play a key role as mediators of these effects, but we have little knowledge about the viability of such a…

  1. Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

  2. Case Studies of Teachers' Understandings of the Pedagogy of Classroom Talk: Some Critical Moments Explored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coultas, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    This case study research is informed by Vygotsky's view that talk is essential to organise our thoughts and extend our thinking and that, as Barnes suggested, the teacher needs to use the social situation effectively in the classroom to promote talk for learning. This article focuses on pedagogy and teachers' understandings of how talk works in…

  3. Understanding the School Outcomes of Juvenile Offenders: An Exploration of Neighborhood Influences and Motivational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, He Len; Mulvey, Edward P.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non-delinquent peers. To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14-17) living…

  4. Gateways to Understanding: A Model for Exploring and Discerning Meaning from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research methodologies comprise distinct traditions, each of which is based on its own assumptions and discrete methods for collecting, analyzing and reporting data. This paper examines a distinctive approach to qualitative research that was employed in a recent study to open a gateway to understanding the impact of the shootings at…

  5. Exploring the Use of Concept Chains to Structure Teacher Trainees' Understanding of Science. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key…

  6. Exploring the Use of Concept Chains to Structure Teacher Trainees' Understanding of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key…

  7. Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Shea, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc.…

  8. Teaching Games and Sport for Understanding: Exploring and Reconsidering its Relevance in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven; Pill, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Over 30 years ago the original teaching games for understanding (TGfU) proposition was published in a special edition of the Bulletin of Physical Education (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). In that time TGfU has attracted significant attention from a theoretical and pedagogical perspective as an improved approach to games and sport teaching in physical…

  9. The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Sebastien; Steinberg, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make…

  10. Increasing Understanding and Social Acceptance of Individuals with Disabilities through Exploration of Comics Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms as a way to boost academic and social development, not only for children with disabilities, but also for typically developing children. A wide variety of perspectives and abilities in the classroom builds empathy, understanding, and creativity--all…

  11. Teachers Who Support Reggio--Exploring Their Understandings of the Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardzejewska, Kathie; Coutts, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that for an educational innovation to be successful it needs to be more than a good idea--success requires an understanding of how change is implemented. Reggio, a widely-applied, innovative philosophy in early childhood settings, has some support in primary schools. Yet there is very little research to guide primary…

  12. Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler Freidenreich, Hava; Golan Duncan, Ravit; Shea, Nicole

    2011-11-01

    Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc. Genetic literacy entails understanding three interrelated models: a genetic model that describes patterns of genetic inheritance, a meiotic model that describes the process by which genes are segregated into sex cells, and a molecular model that describes the mechanisms that link genotypes to phenotypes within an individual. Currently, much of genetics instruction, especially in terms of the molecular model, occurs at the high school level, and we know little about the ways in which middle school students can reason about these models. Furthermore, we do not know the extent to which carefully designed instruction can help younger students develop coherent and interrelated understandings in genetics. In this paper, we discuss a research study aimed at elucidating middle school students' abilities to reason about the three genetic models. As part of our research, we designed an eight-week inquiry unit that was implemented in a combined sixth- to eighth-grade science classroom. We describe our instructional design and report results based on an analysis of written assessments, clinical interviews, and artifacts of the unit. Our findings suggest that middle school students are able to successfully reason about all three genetic models.

  13. Exploring the neural correlates of goal-directed action and intention understanding.

    PubMed

    Carter, Elizabeth J; Hodgins, Jessica K; Rakison, David H

    2011-01-15

    Because we are a cooperative species, understanding the goals and intentions of others is critical for human survival. In this fMRI study, participants viewed reaching behaviors in which one of four animated characters moved a hand towards one of two objects and either (a) picked up the object, (b) missed the object, or (c) changed his path halfway to lift the other object. The characters included a human, a humanoid robot, stacked boxes with an arm, and a mechanical claw. The first three moved in an identical, human-like biological pattern. Right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) activity increased when the human or humanoid robot shifted goals or missed the target relative to obtaining the original goal. This suggests that the pSTS was engaged differentially for figures that appeared more human-like rather than for all human-like motion. Medial frontal areas that are part of a protagonist-monitoring network with the right pSTS (e.g., Mason and Just, 2006) were most engaged for the human character, followed by the robot character. The current data suggest that goal-directed action and intention understanding require this network and it is used similarly for the two processes. Moreover, it is modulated by character identity rather than only the presence of biological motion. We discuss the implications for behavioral theories of goal-directed action and intention understanding. PMID:20832476

  14. Exploring prospective secondary science teachers' understandings of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics concepts using computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Mustafa

    The primary objective of this case study was to examine prospective secondary science teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics. A computer simulation of basic Mendelian inheritance processes (Catlab) was used in combination with small-group discussions and other instructional scaffolds to enhance prospective science teachers' understandings. The theoretical background for this research is derived from a social constructivist perspective. Structuring scientific inquiry as investigation to develop explanations presents meaningful context for the enhancement of inquiry abilities and understanding of the science content. The context of the study was a teaching and learning course focused on inquiry and technology. Twelve prospective science teachers participated in this study. Multiple data sources included pre- and post-module questionnaires of participants' view of scientific inquiry, pre-posttests of understandings of Mendelian concepts, inquiry project reports, class presentations, process videotapes of participants interacting with the simulation, and semi-structured interviews. Seven selected prospective science teachers participated in in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that while studying important concepts in science, carefully designed inquiry experiences can help prospective science teachers to develop an understanding about the types of questions scientists in that field ask, the methodological and epistemological issues that constrain their pursuit of answers to those questions, and the ways in which they construct and share their explanations. Key findings included prospective teachers' initial limited abilities to create evidence-based arguments, their hesitancy to include inquiry in their future teaching, and the impact of collaboration on thinking. Prior to this experience the prospective teachers held uninformed views of scientific inquiry. After the module, participants demonstrated extended expertise in

  15. The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Sébastien; Steinberg, Richard

    2010-12-01

    A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make connections to the real world, think constructively, and learn the material successfully.2 However, what happens when making connections to the real world is more complicated. It is one thing to try to figure out how pushing a block with a constant force leads to constant speed, but it is very different to try to build toward an understanding of time dilation. Do the same instructional approaches work here? Also, is it possible that improved instructional approaches lead to improved student approaches when trying to make sense of difficult and very unfamiliar material? In this paper we describe a unique opportunity to perform a controlled experiment by interviewing identical twin brothers working together to resolve the twin paradox. These were intelligent and articulate science students with similar backgrounds but with diverging undergraduate experiences. One happened to take traditional physics classes and the other happened to take classes designed through Physics Education Research.

  16. A framework for understanding risk perception, explored from the perspective of the water practitioner.

    PubMed

    Dobbie, Meredith Frances; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable urban water systems are likely to be hybrids of centralized and decentralized infrastructure, managed as an integrated system in water-sensitive cities. The technology for many of these systems is available. However, social and institutional barriers, which can be understood as deeply embedded risk perceptions, have impeded their implementation. Risk perceptions within the water sector are often unrecognized or unacknowledged, despite their role in risk management generally in informing value judgments and specifically in ranking risks to achieve management objectives. There has been very little examination of the role of these risk perceptions in advancing more sustainable water supply management through the adoption of alternative sources. To address this gap, this article presents a framework that can be used as a tool for understanding risk perceptions. The framework is built on the relational theory of risk and presents the range of human phenomena that might influence the perception of an "object at risk" in relation to a "risk object." It has been synthesized from a critical review of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies of perception broadly and risk perception specifically, and interpreted in relation to water practitioners. For a water practitioner, the risk object might be an alternative water system, a component, a process, or a technology, and the object at risk could be public or environmental health, profitability, or professional reputation. This framework has two important functions: to allow practitioners to understand their own and others' risk perceptions, which might differ, and to inform further empirical research. PMID:23915168

  17. Exploration of picture grammars, grammar learning, and inductive logic programming for image understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducksbury, P. G.; Kennedy, C.; Lock, Z.

    2003-09-01

    Grammars have been used for the formal specification of programming languages, and there are a number of commercial products which now use grammars. However, these have tended to be focused mainly on flow control type applications. In this paper, we consider the potential use of picture grammars and inductive logic programming in generic image understanding applications, such as object recognition. A number of issues are considered, such as what type of grammar needs to be used, how to construct the grammar with its associated attributes, difficulties encountered with parsing grammars followed by issues of automatically learning grammars using a genetic algorithm. The concept of inductive logic programming is then introduced as a method that can overcome some of the earlier difficulties.

  18. Exploring the use of concept chains to structure teacher trainees' understanding of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key ideas in an increasingly complex and inclusive fashion such that a 'chain' is developed where the initial statements are simple and the final ones more complex. Evaluation of the strategy with trainees over a five-year period revealed promising potential for the strategy as a self-study tool, as well as an audit tool, enabling tutors to more easily identify misconceptions. There was some evidence that trainees found the strategy useful in preparing themselves to teach in the classroom, possibly by enabling meaningful learning to take place according to the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin theory.

  19. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  20. Exploring parents' understandings of their child's journey into offending behaviours: A narrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Susan Frances; Eccles, Fiona Jr; Daiches, Anna; Bowers, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Parents are perhaps the best placed individuals to comment upon their child's life story, including early life experiences, transitions and their child's needs. However, research has rarely focussed on the views of parents of young people who have committed serious offences. This research aimed to explore parents' opinions of which factors may have led to their child becoming involved with the criminal justice system. Interviews were undertaken with six parents who were asked to narrate their child's life journey into offending behaviours. The data were then analysed using narrative analysis techniques, and a shared story was created which incorporated the main transitional stages in the children's journeys, as seen by the parents. The findings suggest that it is not just the child but the whole family who have been in a state of distress throughout the child's life. Systemic and environmental factors are argued to contribute to this distress, and the use of diagnosis for this population is critically evaluated. The research highlights a life story in which the child's and family's distress remains unheard and therefore unresolved. Clinical implications for working with this population are discussed. PMID:26585068

  1. Exploring teachers' informal formative assessment practices and students' understanding in the context of scientific inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araceli Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Furtak, Erin Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual structures, and social processes). We describe the informal assessment practices as ESRU cycles - the teacher Elicits a question; the Student responds; the teacher Recognizes the student's response; and then Uses the information collected to support student learning. By tracking the strategies teachers used in terms of ESRU cycles, we were able to capture differences in assessment practices across the three teachers during the implementation of four investigations of a physical science unit on buoyancy. Furthermore, based on information collected in a three-question embedded assessment administered to assess students' learning, we linked students' level of performance to the teachers' informal assessment practices. We found that the teacher who more frequently used complete ESRU cycles had students with higher performance on the embedded assessment as compared with the other two teachers. We conclude that the ESRU model is a useful way of capturing differences in teachers' informal assessment practices. Furthermore, the study suggests that effective informal formative assessment practices may be associated with student learning in scientific inquiry classrooms.

  2. Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts ( n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

  3. Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Khan, Mansoor Ali; Chinoy, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

  4. Mechanisms of uterine contractility in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kupittayanant, S; Kupittayanant, P; Suwannachat, C

    2009-10-01

    The physiological basis of uterine contractility in laying hens is not well understood, but a better understanding is important for understanding the mechanisms governing egg laying. The characteristics of uterine contractility arising spontaneously or by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) stimulation were therefore examined and the underlying mechanisms investigated. Uterine strips were isolated from laying hens 4h before oviposition and force measured. These strips remained healthy in vitro and produced regular spontaneous contractions. The contractions were phasic and could be recorded for several hours. Exposure to nifedipine, the specific L-type Ca channel blocker, led to the abolition of force. The contraction amplitude and frequency were significantly increased when Bay K8644, an agonist of L-type Ca channels, was applied or when the concentration of extracellular Ca was elevated. Spontaneous contractions were also significantly inhibited by wortmannin, the specific inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). When 1 microM PGF(2alpha) was applied to spontaneously contracting uterus, it significantly increased their amplitude and frequency of the contractions. As with spontaneous contractions, PGF(2alpha)-induced force production was abolished by nifedipine and wortmannin. In the absence of extracellular Ca, a small but tonic force was generated upon application of PGF(2alpha) which was not affected by wortmannin. Thus, extracellular Ca entry and MLCK phosphorylation are essential for uterine force production occurring spontaneously or by PGF(2alpha) stimulation. Our data supports the conclusion that the pathway dependent on extracellular Ca entry and MLCK phosphorylation predominates during PGF(2alpha) stimulation but suggests some involvement of an alternative force-producing pathway, presumably Ca-sensitization. PMID:19081211

  5. Exploring the context of change: Understanding the kinetics of a studio physics implementation effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderle, Patrick J.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Grooms, Jonathon A.

    2013-06-01

    The SCALE-UP studio physics class involves the physical redesign of a classroom to encourage more collaborative interactions and student-centered teaching, an approach shown to increase student learning on several different measures. However, research into the contextual issues involved in implementing a studio course using the SCALE-UP model remains limited. The research presented here explores the impact of situational factors on the implementation and maintenance of a research-based instructional innovation in a large research university. The specific focus of this investigation was the development and implementation of a studio version of an introductory physics course sequence at a large research university in the southeast United States using the SCALE-UP model. Interview, observation, and artifact data (including documents and Email conversations), collected over a period of two years, were analyzed. Using the Teacher Centered Systemic Reform framework, the data were analyzed to develop themes describing forces that both encouraged and restricted the growth of this studio course. Influential forces operated at the classroom, department, university, and broad cultural levels. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the specific nature of innovations implemented and their alignment with desired learning goals and outcomes. The importance of faculty collegiality emerges as a critical departmental force, as does administrative intervention at the department and university level. Broader, societal conversations related to improving undergraduate science education also provided important contextual framing for the change effort studied. The findings highlight important factors to contemplate when undertaking similar change efforts and recommendations from this study are offered for consideration.

  6. Understanding Positive Play: An Exploration of Playing Experiences and Responsible Gambling Practices.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    This study is one of the first to explore in detail the behaviors, attitudes and motivations of players that show no signs of at-risk or problem gambling behavior (so-called 'positive players'). Via an online survey, 1484 positive players were compared with 209 problem players identified using the Lie/Bet screen. The study identified two distinct groups of positive players defined according to their motivations to play and their engagement with responsible gambling (RG) practices. Those positive players that played most frequently employed the most personal RG strategies. Reasons that positive players gave for gambling were focused on leisure (e.g., playing for fun, being entertained, and/or winning a prize). By contrast, problem gamblers were much more focused upon modifying mood states (e.g., excitement, relaxation, depression and playing when bored or upset). The present study also suggests that online gambling is not, by default, inherently riskier than gambling in more traditional ways, as online gambling was the most popular media by which positive players gambled. Furthermore, most positive players reported that it was easier to stick to their limits when playing the National Lottery online compared to traditional retail purchasing of tickets. Problem players were significantly more likely than positive players to gamble with family and friends, suggesting that, contrary to a popular RG message, social play may not be inherently safer than gambling alone. It is proposed that players (generally) may identify more with the term 'positive play' than the term 'RG' which is frequently interpreted as being aimed at people with gambling problems, rather than all players. PMID:25209455

  7. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting

    PubMed Central

    Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N.R.; Ogilvie, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

  8. Exploring cell apoptosis and senescence to understand and treat cancer: an interview with Scott Lowe

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scott W. Lowe is currently principal investigator at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. After beginning his studies in chemical engineering, he decided to take another path and became fascinated by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, which ultimately led to an interest in human disease, particularly cancer. During his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Scott had the opportunity to benefit from the exceptional mentorship of Earl Ruley, David Housman and Tyler Jacks, and contributed to elucidating how the p53 (TP53) tumor suppressor gene limits oncogenic transformation and modulates the cytotoxic response to conventional chemotherapy. This important work earned him a fellowship from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which helped to launch his independent career. Scott is now a leading scientist in the cancer field and his work has helped to shed light on mechanisms of cell apoptosis and senescence to better understand and treat cancer. In this interview, he talks about this incredible scientific journey. PMID:26512122

  9. Exploring cell apoptosis and senescence to understand and treat cancer: an interview with Scott Lowe.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Scott; Cifra, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Scott W. Lowe is currently principal investigator at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. After beginning his studies in chemical engineering, he decided to take another path and became fascinated by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, which ultimately led to an interest in human disease, particularly cancer. During his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Scott had the opportunity to benefit from the exceptional mentorship of Earl Ruley, David Housman and Tyler Jacks, and contributed to elucidating how the p53 (TP53) tumor suppressor gene limits oncogenic transformation and modulates the cytotoxic response to conventional chemotherapy. This important work earned him a fellowship from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which helped to launch his independent career. Scott is now a leading scientist in the cancer field and his work has helped to shed light on mechanisms of cell apoptosis and senescence to better understand and treat cancer. In this interview, he talks about this incredible scientific journey. PMID:26512122

  10. Understanding and Exploration of the Biomineralization Mechanisms for the Controllable Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junwu

    This thesis is mainly concerned with understanding the biomineralization mechanisms, and further extrapolating them for the controllable synthesis of transition metal compound nanomaterials on graphene sheets for energy storage applications in electrochemical capacitors and lithium ion batteries (LIB). Firstly, we have studied the mimetic biomineralization process of CaCO 3 on a stearic acid or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface by in-situ Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and ex-situ electron microscopy. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors are directly nucleated from solvated ions prior to the crystal nuclei on a Langmuir monolayer. On a DPPC monolayer, numerous fresh ACC nanoparticles heterogeneously and continuously nucleated at the air-water interface are transformed into the metastable vaterite nanocrystals. Driven by the trend to decrease surface energy, the vaterite nanocrystals self-aggregate and grow into the loose-packed hollow ellipsoidal vaterite polycrystals. These nanocrystals in vaterite polycrystals are then gradually orientated in the same direction to evolve into tight-packed ellipsoidal mesocrystals. As the crystallization time is further increased, the metastable vaterite mesocrystals are eventually transformed into the most thermodynamically stable calcite crystals. Secondly, organic and inorganic additives control over the shapes, sizes and phases of inorganic nanocrystals and arrange them into ordered structures from amorphous precursors in the organisms. This interesting phenomenon has galvanized many attempts to mimic the biomineralization process for synthesizing novel materials. We have studied the crystallization processes from small citrate molecules stabilized ACC precursors under cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar structures. Amorphous precursors, with a hydrated and disordered structure, are easily transformed and molded into CaCO 3 crystals with

  11. Understanding stress-induced immunosuppression: exploration of cytokine and chemokine gene profiles in chicken peripheral leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Shini, S; Huff, G R; Shini, A; Kaiser, P

    2010-04-01

    At present, the poultry meat and egg industry has gained a lot of ground, being viewed as a provider of a healthy alternative to red meat and other protein sources. If this trend is to be maintained, solutions must be found to improve resistance of chickens to disease, which often is weakened by stressful conditions. In poultry, stress-induced immunosuppression is manifested by failures in vaccination and increased morbidity and mortality of flocks. Currently, several modern cellular and molecular approaches are being used to explore the status of the immune system during stress and disease. It is likely that these new techniques will lead to the development of new strategies for preventing and controlling immunosuppression in poultry. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays, a broad spectrum of cytokine, chemokine, and their receptor genes can be quantified in birds and then be used as markers to assess the effects of stress on the immune system. Currently, we are investigating immune and endocrine interactions in the chicken, in particular the cells and molecules that are known to be involved in such interactions in mammals. We have evaluated the effects of corticosterone administration in drinking water on peripheral lymphocyte and heterophil cytokine and chemokine gene profiles. In particular, there seems to be effects on cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression levels in both lymphocytes and heterophils, especially expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-18 and chemokines C-C motif, ligand 1 inflammatory (CCLi1); C-C motif, ligand 2 inflammatory (CCLi2); C-C motif, ligand 5 (CCL5); C-C motif, ligand 16 (CCL16); C-X-C motif ligand 1 inflammatory (CXCLi1); and C-X-C motif ligand 2 inflammatory (CXCLi2), which are initially upregulated and are potentially involved in modulating the adaptive immune response. A chronic treatment with corticosterone downregulates proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting

  12. Understanding Science and Technology Interactions Through Ocean Science Exploration: A Summer Course for Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, J.; Denton, J.

    2003-12-01

    , sea level change and geological time). This objective will be achieved by correctly answering 8 of 10 multiple choice items on course posttest on science themes of ODP/IODP. 2. Describe the technical tools and processes for determining sea level history by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on coring. 3. Describe the processes for describing a drill core and apply those processes to core samples from Leg 194 by developing a laboratory analysis report on core samples based on protocol for analyzing cores. 4. Explain the distinguishing features of scientific from industrial coring processes by developing a paper that contrasts scientific from industrial coring processes. 5. Describe the substructure of the ocean basin and the scientific tools (equipment and processes) used to explore this substructure by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on bore hole data interpretation. 6. Analyze and interpret data sets from a bore hole by developing a laboratory analysis report on bore-hole data. Student performance data for objectives indicate a 16% average positive change on the science themes addressed in instruction related to objective one occurred. Similarly, a 12% average positive change occurred on science education topics related to earth science among the students in this class. Ongoing contact between faculty members during the academic year is planned as these summer participants engage in implementing IT interventions and professional development experiences based on ocean science data experienced in the summer experience.

  13. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  14. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder Etiology: Lay Beliefs and the Role of Cultural Values and Social Axioms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Xin; Zaroff, Charles M.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research examining the explanations given by the public (i.e. lay beliefs) for autism spectrum disorder often reveals a reasonably accurate understanding of the biogenetic basis of the disorder. However, lay beliefs often manifest aspects of culture, and much of this work has been conducted in western cultures. In this study, 215…

  16. Understanding unexpected courses of multiple sclerosis among patients using complementary and alternative medicine: A travel from recipient to explorer

    PubMed Central

    Salamonsen, Anita; Launsø, Laila; Kruse, Tove E.; Eriksen, Sissel H.

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Some MS patients experience unexpected improvements of symptoms, which they relate to their use of CAM. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge and develop understandings of such self-defined unexpected improvement of MS symptoms. Two cases were constructed based on documents and 12 qualitative interviews. Our aim was not to make generalisations from the cases, but to transfer knowledge as working hypotheses. We identified four health-related change processes: the process of losing bodily competence; the process of developing responsibility; the process of taking control; and the process of choosing CAM. The patients explained unexpected improvements in their MS symptoms as results of their own efforts including their choice and use of CAM. In our theoretical interpretations, we found the patients’ redefinition of history, the concept of treatment and the importance of conventional health care to be essential, and leading to a change of patients’ position towards conventional health care from recipients to explorers. The explorers can be perceived as boundary walkers reflecting limitations within the conventional health care system and as initiators regarding what MS patients find useful in CAM. PMID:20616888

  17. The use of a virtual reality simulator to explore and understand the impact of Linac mis-calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavis, Andrew W.; Ward, James W.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: In recent years there has been interest in using Computer Simulation within Medical training. The VERT (Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training) system is a Flight Simulator for Radiation Oncology professionals, wherein fundamental concepts, techniques and problematic scenarios can be safely investigated. Methods: The system provides detailed simulations of several Linacs and the ability to display DICOM treatment plans. Patients can be mis-positioned with 'set-up errors' which can be explored visually, dosimetrically and using IGRT. Similarly, a variety of Linac calibration and configuration parameters can be altered manually or randomly via controlled errors in the simulated 3D Linac and its component parts. The implication of these can be investigated by following through a treatment scenario or using QC devices available within a Physics software module. Results: One resultant exercise is a systematic mis-calibration of 'lateral laser height' by 2mm. The offset in patient alignment is easily identified using IGRT and once corrected by reference to the 'in-room monitor'. The dosimetric implication is demonstrated to be 0.4% by setting a dosimetry phantom by the lasers (and ignoring TSD information). Finally, the need for recalibration can be shown by the Laser Alignment Phantom or by reference to the front pointer. Conclusions: The VERT system provides a realistic environment for training and enhancing understanding of radiotherapy concepts and techniques. Linac error conditions can be explored in this context and valuable experience gained in a controlled manner in a compressed period of time.

  18. A qualitative study to explore health professionals' experience of treating gout: understanding perceived barriers to effective gout management.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Chloe; Hulme, Richard; Dalbeth, Nicola; Gow, Peter; Arroll, Bruce; Lindsay, Karen

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The management of gout is challenging and mainly occurs in primary care. This study aims to explore the experience of treating gout among primary care clinicians and understand the perceived barriers to effective therapy. METHODS Fourteen health professionals from primary care practices in South Auckland were recruited. Each participated in a semi-structured interview exploring their experience of treating and managing gout patients were analysed thematically. FINDINGS Participants described the large burden of gout in their communities and the importance of the clinician-patient relationship in gout management. Four themes summarise the perceived barriers to effective urate lowering therapy (ULT); unique gout factors, eg its intermittent nature and potential for stigmatisation; systemic barriers to optimal treatment, or barriers that emerge from working within a certain organisation; uncertainty about ownership, or who should carry responsibility for overcoming barriers to optimal treatment; and cultural barriers to optimal treatment. CONCLUSION Clinicians in primary practice perceive gout management to be mainly acute rather than preventive care. Patients may be stigmatised and management difficult particularly when diet is emphasised over ULT. Practice nurses are a group potentially available and willing to assist in educating patients. These findings may be helpful in planning for and improving healthcare in gout. KEYWORDS Gout; general practice; uric acid; primary health care; allopurinol; primary prevention. PMID:27477557

  19. Lay voices on allergic conditions in children: parents' narratives and the negotiation of a diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Sonja Olin

    2004-04-01

    Allergic conditions can be seen as an increasing as well as debated health problem in Western societies, but lay notions and experiences of these conditions are still not fully understood. As much attention is given to prevention of allergic conditions in early childhood, for example as medical advice to parents of young children, it is of particular interest to look at lay understandings of allergic conditions in childhood. This study, carried out in Sweden, explores understandings of child allergy, drawing on interviews with parents of children under 6 years, in a period when the children are medically assessed. The interviews are analysed as illness narratives, with a focus on how the parents explain the child's illness. The analysis reveals a complex pattern. The parents on the one hand refer to a shared knowledge about causes to allergic conditions, such as factors in the physical environment, family life-style and genetic causes. On the other hand, this knowledge is re-appropriated and intertwined with the parents' own experiences of allergic conditions in the process of making sense of the illness in their own child. In their stories, the parents link a potential allergic condition in the child to their own identities as allergic or non-allergic persons and to their family illness history. Child allergy is in this sense constructed as a "family condition". PMID:14759677

  20. Evaluation of a Well-Established Task-Shifting Initiative: The Lay Counselor Cadre in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Ledikwe, Jenny H.; Kejelepula, Mable; Maupo, Kabelo; Sebetso, Siwulani; Thekiso, Mothwana; Smith, Monica; Mbayi, Bagele; Houghton, Nankie; Thankane, Kabo; O’Malley, Gabrielle; Semo, Bazghina-werq

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence supports the implementation of task shifting to address health worker shortages that are common in resource-limited settings. However, there is need to learn from established programs to identify ways to achieve the strongest, most sustainable impact. This study examined the Botswana lay counselor cadre, a task shifting initiative, to explore effectiveness and contribution to the health workforce. Methods This evaluation used multiple methods, including a desk review, a national lay counselor survey (n = 385; response = 94%), in-depth interviews (n = 79), lay counselors focus group discussions (n = 7), lay counselors observations (n = 25), and client exit interviews (n = 47). Results Interview and focus group data indicate that lay counselors contribute to essentially all HIV-related programs in Botswana and they conduct the majority of HIV tests and related counseling at public health facilities throughout the country. Interviews showed that the lay counselor cadre is making the workload of more skilled health workers more manageable and increasing HIV acceptance in communities. The average score on a work-related knowledge test was 74.5%. However for 3 questions, less than half answered correctly. During observations, lay counselors demonstrated average competence for most skills assessed and clients (97.9%) were satisfied with services received. From the survey, lay counselors generally reported being comfortable with their duties; however, some reported clinical duties that extended beyond their training and mandate. Multiple factors affecting the performance of the lay counselors were identified, including insufficient resources, such as private counseling space and HIV test kits; and technical, administrative, and supervisory support. Conclusion Lay counselors are fulfilling an important role in Botswana's healthcare system, serving as the entry point into HIV care, support, and treatment services. Recommendation

  1. Exploring the role of positive and negative consequences in understanding perceptions and evaluations of individual drinking events

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christine M.; Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Tollison, Sean J.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    While research has established that drinking more alcohol is associated with experiencing more positive and negative alcohol-related consequences, less is known about how college students evaluate their drinking experiences. Evaluations of drinking events may vary with factors such as how much one drinks, which consequences one experiences, and the context (i.e., where and with whom) one drinks on a given occasion. This research used daily data (Level 2: N=166 students, 61% female; Level 1: N=848 person drinking days) to explore the relationship between quantity of alcohol consumed and experience of specific domains of positive and negative consequences and to examine how the experience of specific consequences related to overall evaluation of the drinking experience. Drinking on a given day was positively associated with experiencing more negative (social and personal) and more positive (image, fun/social, and relaxation) consequences. With respect to the formation of overall impressions, negative (social and personal) consequences were associated with less favorable evaluations whereas positive (image, fun/social, and relaxation) consequences were associated with more favorable evaluations of the drinking experience. Indirect effects analyses suggested that consequences (negative personal, negative social, positive fun/social, and positive relaxation) significantly mediated the relationship between drinking and overall evaluation at the daily level. These results underscore the importance of considering both positive and negative consequences in understanding students’ choices to drink and how they evaluate their experiences. PMID:20385445

  2. To do good might hurt bad: exploring nurses' understanding and approach to suffering in forensic psychiatric settings.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Mattias; Fredriksson, Lennart; Wiklund Gustin, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Patients in forensic psychiatric settings not only have to deal with their mental illness, but also memories of criminal activities and being involuntarily hospitalized. The aim of the present study was to explore how nurses working in forensic psychiatric services understand and approach patients' experiences of suffering. Data were generated by semistructured interviews with psychiatric nurses from two different forensic psychiatric units in Sweden. Data were analysed by means of a hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's hermeneutics. The findings are reflected in four main themes: (i) ignoring suffering; (ii) explaining suffering as a natural and inevitable part of daily life in the forensic context; (iii) ascribing meaning to suffering; and, (iv) being present in suffering. To engage in alleviating suffering is a struggle that demands courage and the strength to reflect on its character and consequences. To encounter suffering means that nurses are not only confronted with patients' suffering, but also their own reactions to those patients. If suffering is not recognized or encountered, there is a risk that actions may have a negative impact on patients. PMID:25639292

  3. Lay epidemiology and the interpretation of low‐risk drinking guidelines by adults in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Douglas; Meier, Petra S.; Li, Jessica; Bauld, Linda; Hastings, Gerard; Holmes, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To explore how the concept of lay epidemiology can enhance understandings of how drinkers make sense of current UK drinking guidelines. Methods Qualitative study using 12 focus groups in four sites in northern England and four sites in central Scotland. Participants were 66 male and female drinkers, aged between 19 and 65 years, of different socio‐economic backgrounds. Data were analysed thematically using a conceptual framework of lay epidemiology. Results Current drinking guidelines were perceived as having little relevance to participants' drinking behaviours and were generally disregarded. Daily guidelines were seen as irrelevant by drinkers whose drinking patterns comprised heavy weekend drinking. The amounts given in the guidelines were seen as unrealistic for those motivated to drink for intoxication, and participants measured alcohol intake in numbers of drinks or containers rather than units. Participants reported moderating their drinking, but this was out of a desire to fulfil work and family responsibilities, rather than concerns for their own health. The current Australian and Canadian guidelines were preferred to UK guidelines, as they were seen to address many of the above problems. Conclusions Drinking guidelines derived from, and framed within, solely epidemiological paradigms lack relevance for adult drinkers who monitor and moderate their alcohol intake according to their own knowledge and risk perceptions derived primarily from experience. Insights from lay epidemiology into how drinkers regulate and monitor their drinking should be used in the construction of drinking guidelines to enhance their credibility and efficacy. PMID:26212155

  4. A self-regulating feed-forward circuit controlling C. elegans egg-laying behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mi; Chung, Samuel H.; Fang-Yen, Chris; Craig, Caroline; Kerr, Rex A.; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.; Mazur, Eric; Schafer, William R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Egg-laying in Caenorhabditis elegans has been well studied at the genetic and behavioral levels. However, the neural basis of egg-laying behavior is still not well understood; in particular, the roles of specific neurons and the functional nature of the synaptic connections in the egg-laying circuit remain uncharacterized. Results We have used in vivo neuroimaging and laser surgery to address these questions in intact, behaving animals. We have found that the HSN neurons play a central role in driving egg-laying behavior through direct excitation of the vulval muscles and VC motorneurons. The VC neurons play a dual role in the egg-laying circuit, exciting the vulval muscles while feedback-inhibiting the HSNs. Interestingly, the HSNs are active in the absence of synaptic input, suggesting that egg-laying may be controlled through modulation of autonomous HSN activity. Indeed, body touch appears to inhibit egg-laying in part by interfering with HSN calcium oscillations. Conclusions The egg-laying motor circuit comprises a simple three-component system combining feed-forward excitation and feedback inhibition. This microcircuit motif is common in the C. elegans nervous system as well as in the mammalian cortex; thus, understanding its functional properties in C. elegans may provide insight into its computational role in more complex brains. PMID:18818084

  5. Lunar volatiles: a clue for understanding the evolution of the Moon and a resource to its exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, Mikhail

    experimentally [3] that the forming gases are qualitatively similar for various rocky materials including meteorites of different classes. Such gas mixtures have the following characteristics: the CO/CO2 ratio is ³1, hydrocarbons are presented mainly by alkenes and PAHs, sulfur containing gases are presented by SO2, CS2, H2S, and COS in decreasing sequence, production of HCN, and noticeable release of water. Isotopic composition of volatile elements reflects the projectile to target proportion of their source. Gas-analytic package (GAP) of the Lunar-Resource mission: It is very important to investigate all the inventory of polar volatiles as well as isotopic composition of volatile elements to understand the real source of lunar volatiles and to evaluate their validity as a resource for the Moon exploration. The GAP is aimed on comprehensive investigation of the inventory of volatiles in the regolith of polar regions. It consists of three instruments: 1) Thermal Analyzer; 2) Gas Chromatograph with Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer for isotopic measurements of H, O, and C in evolved gases; and 3) Neutral Gas Mass-Spectrometer. References: [1] Mitrofanov, I. G. et al. 2010. Science 330: 483-486. [2] Colaprete, A. et al. 2010. Science 330: 463-468. [3] Gerasimov, M.V. 2002. Geological Society of America Special Paper 356: 705-716. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by P-22 Program of the RAS.

  6. Lay Religious Vocation and Wesleyan Holiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Randy G.

    1996-01-01

    Considers the role of lay vocation (here broadly defined as the servanthood of nonordained persons within and without the church) in everyday life and religious education. Discusses the relationship between lay vocation and the holiness movement, a perfectionist doctrine that arose in U.S. Protestantism in the late 19th century. (MJP)

  7. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay day... Contractor shall not be paid as lay day time. (d) Payment of lay day time shall constitute complete... work in addition to that required under the basic contract. (b) No lay day time shall be paid until...

  8. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay day... Contractor shall not be paid as lay day time. (d) Payment of lay day time shall constitute complete... work in addition to that required under the basic contract. (b) No lay day time shall be paid until...

  9. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay day... Contractor shall not be paid as lay day time. (d) Payment of lay day time shall constitute complete... work in addition to that required under the basic contract. (b) No lay day time shall be paid until...

  10. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay day... Contractor shall not be paid as lay day time. (d) Payment of lay day time shall constitute complete... work in addition to that required under the basic contract. (b) No lay day time shall be paid until...

  11. An Exploration of Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Art and the Place of Art in the Primary School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Jenny; Gupta, Mani Das; Lee, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Some research within developmental psychology shows a slow period of development in children's expressive drawings during the primary school years. Developmental researchers suggest that "educational factors" could contribute to this dip in development but have not explored these factors. This study explores links between educational policy--in…

  12. Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Essential Features of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching Using Evidence-Based Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seung, Eulsun; Park, Soonhye; Jung, Jinhong

    2014-01-01

    This study explored preservice elementary teachers' and their mentors' understanding of the essential features of inquiry-based teaching through the use of evidence-based reflection. The web-based video analysis tool (VAT) system was used to support preservice teachers' and mentors' evidence-based reflection during field…

  13. Exploring and Understanding Maryland's Math and Science Teachers' Perspectives on NCLB and Increase Testing: Employing a Phenomenological Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and seek to understand some of Maryland's math and science teachers' thoughts about the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and increase testing. The study utilized a phenomenological inquiry approach and four teachers participated in the study. Two of the teachers taught science and two taught…

  14. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the Use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which…

  15. A classification of errors in lay comprehension of medical documents

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis on participatory medicine requires that patients and consumers participate in tasks traditionally reserved for healthcare providers. This includes reading and comprehending medical documents, often but not necessarily in the context of interacting with Personal Health Records (PHRs). Research suggests that while giving patients access to medical documents has many benefits (e.g., improved patient-provider communication), lay people often have difficulty understanding medical information. Informatics can address the problem by developing tools that support comprehension; this requires in-depth understanding of the nature and causes of errors that lay people make when comprehending clinical documents. The objective of this study was to develop a classification scheme of comprehension errors, based on lay individuals’ retellings of two documents containing clinical text: a description of a clinical trial and a typical office visit note. While not comprehensive, the scheme can serve as a foundation of further development of a taxonomy of patients’ comprehension errors. Eighty participants, all healthy volunteers, read and retold two medical documents. A data-driven content analysis procedure was used to extract and classify retelling errors. The resulting hierarchical classification scheme contains nine categories and twenty-three subcategories. The most common error made by the participants involved incorrectly recalling brand names of medications. Other common errors included misunderstanding clinical concepts, misreporting the objective of a clinical research study and physician’s findings during a patient’s visit, and confusing and misspelling clinical terms. A combination of informatics support and health education is likely to improve the accuracy of lay comprehension of medical documents. PMID:22925723

  16. Transforming Our Understanding of the X-ray Universe: The Imaging X-ray Polarimeter Explorer (IXPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Matt, Giorgio; Marshall, Herman; ODell, Stephen L.; Pavlov, George; Ramsey, Brian; Romani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Accurate X-ray polarimetry can provide unique information on high-energy-astrophysical processes and sources. As there have been no meaningful X-ray polarization measurements of cosmic sources since our pioneering work in the 1970's, the time is ripe to explore this new parameter space in X-ray astronomy. To accomplish this requires a well-calibrated and well understood system that-particularly for an Explorer mission-has technical, cost, and schedule credibility. The system that we shall present satisfies these conditions, being based upon completely calibrated imaging- and polarization-sensitive detectors and proven X-ray-telescope technology.

  17. Lay REC members: patient or public?

    PubMed

    Staley, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    In practice, the role of lay members of research ethics committees (RECs) often involves checking the accessibility of written materials, checking that the practical needs of participants have been considered and ensuring that a lay summary of the research will be produced. In this brief report, I argue that all these tasks would be more effectively carried out through a process of patient involvement (PI) in research projects prior to ethical review. Involving patients with direct experience of the topic under investigation brings added value beyond the contributions typically made by lay REC members, who are often not patients themselves. This is because PI tailors the design and conduct of research to the specific interests and concerns of the people who will actually take part in a project and make use of its findings. If a project has PI in its early stages, then a similar input from lay REC members could at best result in duplication of effort and at worst create the potential for conflict. The rationale for lay REC membership will therefore need to change from 'contributing a patient perspective' to 'ensuring transparency and public accountability in REC decisions'. This has implications for addressing more strategic questions about lay REC membership, including who is best recruited to the role and how they should be expected to contribute in practice. PMID:23536688

  18. Exploring Adolescents' Multimodal Responses to "The Kite Runner": Understanding How Students Use Digital Media for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocius, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how adolescent high school students in an AP English class used multiple forms of media (the internet, digital video, slide show software, video editing tools, literary texts, and writing) to respond to and analyze a contemporary novel, "The Kite Runner". Using a multimodal analysis framework, the author explores…

  19. An Autoethnographic Approach to Understanding Asperger's Syndrome: A Personal Exploration of Self-Identity through Reflexive Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article makes use of autoethnography in which I, as researcher, explore my own awareness of Asperger's syndrome and how this, in turn, has helped me deal with many day to day situations I have encountered. The work illustrates how actively engaging with one's own life story narratives can help the Asperger's learner come to terms with his or…

  20. Impact through Images: Exploring Student Understanding of Environmental Science through Integrated Place-Based Lessons in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie; Kern, Anne L.; Charvoz, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1800s, the U.S. President Thomas Jefferson assembled a team of explorers led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to forge a waterway connecting the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. How has this environment changed in 200 years and how do elementary students make sense of those changes? This study looks at the impact of…

  1. Family Day Care Educators: An Exploration of Their Understanding and Experiences Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Davies, Belinda; Smyth, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Herrman, Helen; Sims, Margaret; Harrison, Linda; Cook, Kay; Marshall, Bernie; Williamson, Lara

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…

  2. Paraphrase acquisition from comparable medical corpora of specialized and lay texts.

    PubMed

    Deléger, Louise; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays a large amount of health information is available to the public, but medical language is often difficult for lay people to understand. Developing means to make medical information more comprehensible is therefore a real need. In this regard, a useful resource would be a corpus of specialized and lay paraphrases. To this end we built comparable corpora of specialized and lay texts on which we applied paraphrasing patterns based on anchors of deverbal noun and verb pairs. The results show that the paraphrases were of good quality (71.4% to 94.2% precision) and that this type of paraphrases was relevant in the context of studying the differences between specialized and lay language. This study also demonstrates that simple paraphrase acquisition methods can also work on texts with a rather small degree of similarity, once similar text segments are detected. PMID:18999095

  3. Towards An Understanding of Mobile Touch Navigation in a Stereoscopic Viewing Environment for 3D Data Exploration.

    PubMed

    Lopez, David; Oehlberg, Lora; Doger, Candemir; Isenberg, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    We discuss touch-based navigation of 3D visualizations in a combined monoscopic and stereoscopic viewing environment. We identify a set of interaction modes, and a workflow that helps users transition between these modes to improve their interaction experience. In our discussion we analyze, in particular, the control-display space mapping between the different reference frames of the stereoscopic and monoscopic displays. We show how this mapping supports interactive data exploration, but may also lead to conflicts between the stereoscopic and monoscopic views due to users' movement in space; we resolve these problems through synchronization. To support our discussion, we present results from an exploratory observational evaluation with domain experts in fluid mechanics and structural biology. These experts explored domain-specific datasets using variations of a system that embodies the interaction modes and workflows; we report on their interactions and qualitative feedback on the system and its workflow. PMID:27045916

  4. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  5. A Social-Cognitive Exploration of the Career and College Understanding of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Hyfantis, Justina; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel; Mynatt, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) are less likely to continue their education or become employed after high school. Although transition services are provided, little is known about students' understanding of their post-high school options. Using a social cognitive framework, the authors interviewed students with ID to determine their…

  6. In Search of Critical Thinking in Psychology: An Exploration of Student and Lecturer Understandings in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duro, Elaine; Elander, James; Maratos, Frances A.; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Aubeeluck, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study of understandings of critical thinking in higher education aimed to identify themes that could help to demystify critical thinking and inform its more explicit incorporation in the psychology curriculum. Data collected from focus groups with 26 undergraduate psychology students and individual semistructured interviews with 4…

  7. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  8. Exploring Second Graders' Understanding of the Text-Illustration Relationship in Picture Storybooks and Informational Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carol

    2010-01-01

    Our society is increasingly bombarded with visual imagery; therefore, it is important for educators to be knowledgeable about the elements of art and to use our knowledge to help students deepen their reading understanding. Arizpe & Styles (2003) noted that students must be prepared to work with imagery in the future at high levels of competency,…

  9. Exploring the Usefulness of Two Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding How Organizational Factors Influence Innovation Implementation in Cancer Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors…

  10. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  11. Ofqual's Reliability Programme: A Case Study Exploring the Potential to Improve Public Understanding and Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    In May 2008, Ofqual established a two-year programme of research to investigate the nature and extent of (un)reliability within the qualifications, examinations and assessments that it regulated. It was particularly concerned to improve understanding of, and confidence in, this technically complex and politically sensitive phenomenon. The…

  12. Analysing Vee Diagram Reflections to Explore Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding the Nature of Science in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savran-Gencer, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Vee diagrams have been a metacognitive tool to help in learning the nature and structure of knowledge by reflecting on the scientific process and making knowledge much more explicit to learners during the practical work. This study aimed to assess pre-service science teachers' understanding some aspects of NOS by analyzing their reflections…

  13. An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-01-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

  14. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is defined as an additional day on dry dock or marine railway caused by a Government-issued change. Reimbursement for lay days... been in dry dock. (d) Payment of lay day time shall constitute complete compensation for all...

  15. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is defined as an additional day on dry dock or marine railway caused by a Government-issued change. Reimbursement for lay days... been in dry dock. (d) Payment of lay day time shall constitute complete compensation for all...

  16. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is defined as an additional day on dry dock or marine railway caused by a Government-issued change. Reimbursement for lay days... been in dry dock. (d) Payment of lay day time shall constitute complete compensation for all...

  17. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is defined as an additional day on dry dock or marine railway caused by a Government-issued change. Reimbursement for lay days... been in dry dock. (d) Payment of lay day time shall constitute complete compensation for all...

  18. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is defined as an... floating, whatever the hour, shall not be paid as lay day time, and days when no work is performed by the contractor shall not be paid as lay day time. Days in which work is performed that are considered normal...

  19. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay day... work in addition to that required under the basic contract. (b) No lay day time shall be paid until all... floating, whatever the hour, shall not be paid as lay day time, and days when no work is performed by...

  20. Exploring Relations Among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas About Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and dinosaurs and plate tectonics. Accepting the theory of evolution was positively correlated with correctly answering the three other questions related to the age of Earth. Furthermore, participants who rejected evolution scored significantly lower on a test of basic science concepts than did participants who held accurate views on human evolution. Study results revealed no apparent association between completion of advanced college science courses and acceptance of evolutionary theory or understanding of science concepts. Implications for elementary science teacher education were discussed.

  1. An exploration of Xhosa speaking patients' understanding of cancer treatment and its influence on their treatment experience.

    PubMed

    Lourens, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Cultural beliefs often influence people in seeking appropriate health care. In South Africa, misperceptions and fear about medical interventions contribute to the fact that many indigenous people prefer to make use of traditional healers. This qualitative study explores Xhosa patients' perception of cancer and cancer treatment modalities, and their need for support. Language creates an image of the unknown to which people attach meaning. Oncology social workers play an important role in educating people about cancer and the treatment thereof, as doctors seldom have time to deal with the psychosocial aspects of cancer. Health care providers need to be sensitive to patients' perceptions to render the best possible cancer care. PMID:23311974

  2. Combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics to explore novel microbial interactions: towards a systems-level understanding of human microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bikel, Shirley; Valdez-Lara, Alejandra; Cornejo-Granados, Fernanda; Rico, Karina; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Soberón, Xavier; Del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    The advances in experimental methods and the development of high performance bioinformatic tools have substantially improved our understanding of microbial communities associated with human niches. Many studies have documented that changes in microbial abundance and composition of the human microbiome is associated with human health and diseased state. The majority of research on human microbiome is typically focused in the analysis of one level of biological information, i.e., metagenomics or metatranscriptomics. In this review, we describe some of the different experimental and bioinformatic strategies applied to analyze the 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun sequencing data of the human microbiome. We also discuss how some of the recent insights in the combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics can provide more detailed description on the interactions between microorganisms and viruses in oral and gut microbiomes. Recent studies on viromics have begun to gain importance due to the potential involvement of viruses in microbial dysbiosis. In addition, metatranscriptomic combined with metagenomic analysis have shown that a substantial fraction of microbial transcripts can be differentially regulated relative to their microbial genomic abundances. Thus, understanding the molecular interactions in the microbiome using the combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics is one of the main challenges towards a system level understanding of human microbiome. PMID:26137199

  3. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  4. What Are Lay Theories of Social Class?

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Michael E. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants’ own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people’s beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

  5. Exploring the usefulness of two conceptual frameworks for understanding how organizational factors influence innovation implementation in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors important to the successful implementation of innovations in health care settings; (2) discuss each in relation to the literature; and (3) briefly demonstrate how each may be applied to 3 initiatives involving the implementation of a specific innovation-synoptic reporting tools-in cancer care. Synoptic reporting tools capture information from diagnostic tests, surgeries, and pathology examinations in a standardized, structured manner and contain only the information necessary for patient care. The frameworks selected were the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework and an organizational framework of innovation implementation; these frameworks arise from different disciplines (nursing and management, respectively). The constructs from each framework are examined in relation to the literature, with each construct applied to synoptic reporting tool implementation to demonstrate how each may be used to inform both practice and research in this area. By improving our understanding of existing frameworks, we enhance our ability to more effectively study and target implementation processes. PMID:23512560

  6. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

  7. Intuition versus cognition: a qualitative exploration of how women understand and manage their increased breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Louise; Butow, Phyllis N; Charles, Margaret; Price, Melanie A

    2015-10-01

    Risk comprehension in individuals at increased familial risk of cancer is suboptimal and little is known about how risk is understood and managed by at-risk individuals who do not undergo genetic testing. We qualitatively studied these issues in 36 unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families, including both women who had and had not undergone genetic testing. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and data analysis was guided by Grounded Theory. Risk comprehension and risk management were largely influenced by the individual's experience of coming from a high-risk family, with both tested and untested women relying heavily on their intuition. Although women's cognitive understanding of their risk appeared generally accurate, this objective risk information was considered of secondary value. The findings could be used to guide the development and delivery of information about risk and risk management to genetically tested and untested individuals at increased risk of hereditary cancer. PMID:25820809

  8. The dementia diagnosis: a literature review of information, understanding, and attributions.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura; Combes, Helen; Stokes, Graham

    2015-09-01

    This review examines how people understand and make sense of a dementia diagnosis. The review explores how lay frameworks and information presented at diagnosis may inform a caregiver's understanding of dementia in a family member. Existing qualitative research exploring how caregivers understand and make sense of dementia is reviewed. A literature search was conducted, and the results indicated that family carers often receive little or unclear information about dementia, with diagnostic information often delivered in euphemistic terms. Lack of clarity regarding diagnosis and prognosis creates uncertainty for caregivers and impacts future care planning. Caregiver's understandings of the condition vary, with some symptoms often not attributed to the condition. The literature highlights significant gaps and misconceptions in public knowledge regarding dementia, which raises questions about how family caregivers understand the condition. Further research is required to explore how information is presented to family carers at the time of diagnosis and how this is used to understand the condition. PMID:25515569

  9. Oral cancer: reviewing the present understanding of its molecular mechanism and exploring the future directions for its effective management.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Jatin K; Das, Bibhu R

    2003-04-01

    The present review aims to analyze the information available regarding the molecular mechanisms of Oral Carcinogenesis and explore the future directions where the field of Cancer Biology is venturing. Oncologists have excellently followed the proverb "Necessity is the mother of Invention". The desire to be more precise and comprehensive in their studies has led to the invention of some of the most innovative techniques like laser capture microdissection, comparative genomic hybridization, microarrays, and protein chips etc. Various Biotech companies and Cancer Institutes are on a hunt for anti-cancer drugs and molecular markers for cancers. These revolutionary approaches and the new breed of Oncologists have made the field very exciting and have generated the hope that finally the war against cancer would be won. In the end it is urged that the lead taken in other cancers like colon, breast, leukemia will be emulated in oral cancer. This is expected to provide a molecular blueprint for HNSCC, thus helping to identify suitable markers for the early detection of pre-neoplastic lesions, as well as novel targets for its pharmacological intervention. PMID:12618193

  10. What ecological factors can affect albumen corticosterone levels in the clutches of seabirds? Timing of breeding, disturbance and laying order in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).

    PubMed

    Poisbleau, M; Demongin, L; Angelier, F; Dano, S; Lacroix, A; Quillfeldt, P

    2009-06-01

    Female birds deposit corticosterone into their eggs. Elevated concentrations of this hormone may interfere with the development of their offspring, and mothers should thus regulate corticosterone levels deposited into the eggs adaptively. However, if females are unable to regulate deposition, then the corticosterone concentration in eggs should reflect that in female plasma and should be influenced by stressors to the females. We measured corticosterone levels in the albumen of rockhopper penguins, and assessed their relationship with hatching order, human disturbance and laying date. Rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) lay two eggs, of which the second egg (B-egg) is larger and hatches faster than the first egg (A-egg). The chick hatching from the B-egg is also much more likely to survive than its sibling. Albumen corticosterone concentrations were lower in B-eggs. However, as B-eggs contained more albumen than A-eggs, the total corticosterone deposited in the albumen was not significantly different between the two eggs. Daily disturbance by human observers during albumen production did not influence albumen corticosterone levels. Laying date had an effect on total albumen corticosterone through a higher albumen mass. However, we observed a high individual component in the composition of eggs from the same clutch. Thus, more work is required to explore the hypotheses of passive versus active transfer to eggs and to understand the adaptive value of contrary effects on the amount and concentration of corticosterone. PMID:19341737

  11. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

  12. Application of community phylogenetic approaches to understand gene expression: differential exploration of venom gene space in predatory marine gastropods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predatory marine gastropods of the genus Conus exhibit substantial variation in venom composition both within and among species. Apart from mechanisms associated with extensive turnover of gene families and rapid evolution of genes that encode venom components (‘conotoxins’), the evolution of distinct conotoxin expression patterns is an additional source of variation that may drive interspecific differences in the utilization of species’ ‘venom gene space’. To determine the evolution of expression patterns of venom genes of Conus species, we evaluated the expression of A-superfamily conotoxin genes of a set of closely related Conus species by comparing recovered transcripts of A-superfamily genes that were previously identified from the genomes of these species. We modified community phylogenetics approaches to incorporate phylogenetic history and disparity of genes and their expression profiles to determine patterns of venom gene space utilization. Results Less than half of the A-superfamily gene repertoire of these species is expressed, and only a few orthologous genes are coexpressed among species. Species exhibit substantially distinct expression strategies, with some expressing sets of closely related loci (‘under-dispersed’ expression of available genes) while others express sets of more disparate genes (‘over-dispersed’ expression). In addition, expressed genes show higher dN/dS values than either unexpressed or ancestral genes; this implies that expression exposes genes to selection and facilitates rapid evolution of these genes. Few recent lineage-specific gene duplicates are expressed simultaneously, suggesting that expression divergence among redundant gene copies may be established shortly after gene duplication. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that venom gene space is explored differentially by Conus species, a process that effectively permits the independent and rapid evolution of venoms in these species. PMID:24903151

  13. Invited Review: The Myosins: Exploration of the Development of Our Current Understanding of These Mutations in the Motor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Leinwand, Leslie; Warshaw, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic (HCM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathies are inherited diseases with a high incidence of death due to electrical abnormalities or outflow tract obstruction. In many of the families afflicted with either disease, causative mutations have been identified in various sarcomeric proteins. In this review, we focus on mutations in the cardiac muscle molecular motor, myosin and its associated light chains. Despite the >300 identified mutations there is still no clear understanding of how these mutations within the same myosin molecule can lead to the dramatically different clinical phenotypes associated with HCM and DCM. Localizing mutations within myosin’s molecular structure provides insight into the potential consequence of these perturbations to key functional domains of the motor. Review of biochemical and biophysical data that characterize the functional capacities of these mutant myosins suggests that mutant myosins with enhanced contractility lead to HCM while those displaying reduced contractility lead to DCM. With gain and loss of function potentially being the primary consequence of a specific mutation, how these functional changes trigger the hypertrophic response and lead to the distinct HCM and DCM phenotypes will be the future investigative challenge. PMID:22821910

  14. Seeking to understand: using generic qualitative research to explore access to medicines and pharmacy services among resettled refugees.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese

    2016-06-01

    Introduction There are challenges associated with selecting a qualitative research approach. In a field abundant with terminology and theories, it may be difficult for a pharmacist to know where and how to begin a qualitative research journey. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into generic qualitative research and to describe the journey of data collection of a novice qualitative researcher in the quest to answer her research question: 'What are the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services for resettled refugees in Queensland, Australia?' Methodology Generic qualitative research draws on the strengths of one or more qualitative approaches. The aim is to draw out participants' ideas about things that are 'outside themselves'; rather than focussing on their inner feelings the research seeks to understand a phenomenon, a process, or the perspectives of participants. Sampling is designed to obtain a broad range of opinions about events and experiences and data collection includes interviews, questionnaires or surveys; thematic analysis is often used to analyse data. When to use Generic qualitative research provides an opportunity to develop research designs that fit researchers' epistemological stance and discipline, with research choices, including methodology and methods, being informed by the research question. Limitations Generic qualitative research is one of many methodologies that may be used to answer a research question and there is a paucity of literature about how to do it well. There is also debate about its validity as a qualitative methodology. PMID:26873481

  15. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  16. Laying hens learn to avoid feathers.

    PubMed

    Harlander-Matauschek, A; Wassermann, F; Zentek, J; Bessei, W

    2008-09-01

    Previous work demonstrated an association between feather pecking and feather eating in laying hens. This raised the question if digestive feedback affects feather eating or feather pecking in laying hens. We hypothesized that feathers enriched with sugar form a positive feedback and feathers enriched with quinine sulfate form a negative feedback. Forty-eight laying hens were kept in individual cages and fed a pelleted diet ad libitum. Twenty-four birds were offered feathers on a daily basis; 12 of these birds were offered feathers soaked in 4% quinine sulfate solution (Q), and the other 12 were offered feathers soaked in 4% sucrose solution (S). The other 24 birds were kept as a control (C) without access to feathers. After a 10-d feather feeding period, 3 groups of 4 S and 4 C birds each and 3 groups of 4 Q and 4 C birds each were assembled. Feather-pecking behavior was recorded over a period of 8 d. The number of Q feathers eaten was significantly lower than the number of S feathers. Birds that were offered Q feathers in the feather feeding phase showed significantly less severe feather pecking than S and C birds. The results clearly show that Q as an unpalatable substance was the signal the animal used to avoid damaging the feather cover in laying hens. PMID:18753438

  17. Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egdall, Ira Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six…

  18. Skill Standards for Open Cut Pipe Laying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for utility construction in a format that uses scenarios to provide a picture of the construction process under consideration. The scenarios provide a general description of the pipe laying and utility construction process. An introduction describes use and benefits of skill standards. Section 2 presents…

  19. A Case Study: The Impact of an Immersion Experience on the Vocation of Lay Teacher-Leaders in American Jesuit High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study explores the impact of an immersion experience to a least developed country on the vocation of lay teacher leaders in American Jesuit High Schools. Nine lay teacher leaders engaged in a four stage process of immersion from November 2009 to August 2010. The study employed the conceptual framework of Edward…

  20. What Makes the Difference? Teachers Explore What Must be Taught and What Must be Learned in Order to Understand the Particulate Character of Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikström, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The concept of matter, especially its particulate nature, is acknowledged as being one of the key concept areas in learning science. Within the framework of learning studies and variation theory, and with results from science education research as a starting point, six lower secondary school science teachers tried to enhance students' learning by exploring what must be learnt in order to understand the concept in specific way. It was found that variation theory was a useful guiding principle when teachers are engaged in pedagogical design, analysis of lessons, and evaluation of students learning, as well as a valuable tool for adapting research results into practice.

  1. What Makes the Difference? Teachers Explore What Must be Taught and What Must be Learned in Order to Understand the Particulate Character of Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikström, Anna

    2014-10-01

    The concept of matter, especially its particulate nature, is acknowledged as being one of the key concept areas in learning science. Within the framework of learning studies and variation theory, and with results from science education research as a starting point, six lower secondary school science teachers tried to enhance students' learning by exploring what must be learnt in order to understand the concept in specific way. It was found that variation theory was a useful guiding principle when teachers are engaged in pedagogical design, analysis of lessons, and evaluation of students learning, as well as a valuable tool for adapting research results into practice.

  2. Participant-Observation and Pile Sorting: Methods for Eliciting Local Understandings and Valuations of Plants as a First Step towards Informed Community Participation in Environment and Health Initiatives in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollin, Lisa X.; McMillen, Heather; Wilcox, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Semistructured interviews were conducted to explore local, lay perceptions and valuations of native and nonnative flora in order to better understand and anticipate community perceptions of, and potential participation in revegetation or eradication conservation efforts in multiethnic communities of Oahu, Hawai'i. The authors detail the…

  3. The fluidity of disclosure: a longitudinal exploration of women's experience and understanding of HIV disclosure in the context of pregnancy and early motherhood.

    PubMed

    Moses, Susan; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    HIV disclosure is emphasised as an important component of efforts to prevent HIV transmission, including those to prevent transmission from mother to child. Studies which approach disclosure as a dichotomous variable that is either present or absent have generated a significant body of research describing disclosure patterns, antecedents, barriers and consequences. This study joins a growing body of research which explores disclosure as a complex, selective and gradual process occurring within the context of relationships. Using a qualitative, longitudinal ethnographic approach, the study explores HIV-positive women's subjective experience of disclosure and how they make meaning and understand disclosure processes during pregnancy and early motherhood. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of field notes from participant observation and in-depth interview transcripts suggests that women may experience disclosure as a more fluid construct than previously assumed. In contrast to the traditional dichotomous and linear approach to understanding disclosure, the meaning ascribed to disclosure "events" and behaviours was changeable and even reversible over time. These shifts occurred alongside changes in women's internal, interpersonal and material worlds and served important psychological and social functions. The findings have important implications for HIV counsellors working to encourage disclosure in the context of prevention interventions. PMID:23110311

  4. Laboratory Astrophysics: Enabling Scientific Discovery and Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, K.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Science Strategic Roadmap for Universe Exploration lays out a series of science objectives on a grand scale and discusses the various missions, over a wide range of wavelengths, which will enable discovery. Astronomical spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool we have for exploring the Universe. Experimental and theoretical studies in Laboratory Astrophysics convert "hard-won data into scientific understanding". However, the development of instruments with increasingly high spectroscopic resolution demands atomic and molecular data of unprecedented accuracy and completeness. How to meet these needs, in a time of severe budgetary constraints, poses a significant challenge both to NASA, the astronomical observers and model-builders, and the laboratory astrophysics community. I will discuss these issues, together with some recent examples of productive astronomy/lab astro collaborations.

  5. Science and Me: A Student-Driven Science Outreach Program for Lay Adult Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hannah; Waldron, Anna M.; Abell, Sandra K.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing need for communicating science to the public suggests that future scientists and science educators should be educated in science outreach and trained to communicate with lay audiences. We present a recently developed novel graduate course, which trains students in outreach efforts aimed to increase the public's understanding of…

  6. Detecting Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens and Eggs after Experimental Infection at Different Oral Dose Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attribution of human illness to eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis has led to substantial commitments of resources (by both government and industry) to risk reduction and testing programs in egg-laying flocks. Cost-effective application of testing requires a thorough understanding of ...

  7. Investigation of surface roughness and lay on metal flow in hot forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, David J.

    A study was conducted to explore the possibility of using machining marks (i.e. surface roughness and lay) as a parameter for die design. The study was performed using 6061-T6 aluminum 1.25" diameter rounds and 0.25" square bar stock to investigate the effects of temperature, surface roughness, and lay on metal flow and friction factor. Metal flow was assessed using component true strains and spread ratio. Compression testing was performed using an instrumented die set that was mounted on a 10 ton hydraulic pres. Cigar tests were performed where the axis of the specimen were oriented at angles of 0 o, 45o and 90o with respect to the surface lay on the compression platens. Ring tests were completed to quantify friction factor at different die temperatures and surface roughness values. Results indicate that die temperature has a strong effect on bulge radius and friction factor. Lay and surface roughness were found to exhibit an effect on metal flow but surface lay of the dies was not discernible on friction factor. The study was repeated under limited conditions using graphite lubricant in order to discover if the trend was repeatable using conditions observed in industry. This was found to be the case.

  8. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  9. 48 CFR 3052.217-94 - Lay days (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (HSAR) 48 CFR 3017.9000(a) and (b), insert the following clause: Lay Days (DEC 2003) (a) Lay day time... floating, whatever the hour, shall not be paid as lay day time, and days when no work is performed by the... when the vessel remains on the dry dock or marine railway as a result of any change that involves...

  10. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and laying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wintering and laying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and laying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lay-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  11. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and laying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wintering and laying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and laying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lay-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  12. Lay Theories of Gender Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered. PMID:24059967

  13. Pathogenic bacteria and timing of laying

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Soler, Juan J; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup; Galván, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria constitute a serious threat to viability of many organisms. Because growth of most bacteria is favored by humid and warm environmental conditions, earlier reproducers in seasonal environments should suffer less from the negative consequences of pathogenic bacteria. These relationships, and the effects on reproductive success, should be particularly prominent in predators because they are frequently exposed to pathogenic microorganisms from sick prey. Here, we presented and tested this hypothesis by sampling bacteria on adult and nestling goshawks Accipiter gentilis. We predicted that early breeders and their offspring should have fewer bacteria than those reproducing later during the breeding season. Adult goshawks with a high abundance of Staphylococcus on their beak and claws were easier to capture and their laying date was delayed. Moreover, goshawks that laid their eggs later had offspring with more Staphylococcus on their beaks and claws. The strength of the association between laying date and bacterial density of nestlings was stronger during the warm spring of 2013, when nestlings suffered from a higher abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Hatching failure and fledging failure were more common in nests with a higher abundance of Staphylococcus independently of the number of years occupied, laying date, and age of the female nest owner. These findings imply that timing of reproduction may be under the influence of pathogenic bacteria. Because early breeding goshawks produce more recruits than later breeders, our results suggest a role for pathogenic bacteria in the optimal timing of reproduction. PMID:25937910

  14. Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P. )

    1992-09-01

    Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data.

  15. Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1992-09-01

    Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data. PMID:1401851

  16. Investigation of a reflective pedagogy to encourage pre-service physics teachers to explore argumentation as an aid to conceptual understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Greg; Cooper, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    An emerging focus of recent science education research advocates the benefits of using argumentation as an approach in which teachers can better engage students in a more authentic experience of the epistemic work of scientists (Bricker and Bell, 2008). Logical argument and critical thinking are considered essential skills for an effective and successful undertaking of scientific inquiry and analysis. Early research suggests the practise of encouraging students to engage in scientific discourse in the classroom (Kuhn, 2010) can provide rich experiences for students and teachers to hone their cognitive abilities. This paper explores the use of critical `discussion problems' purposefully designed for pre-service physics teachers to investigate their own alternative conceptual understandings of key physics ideas. It also discusses how these problems are then used to generate classroom discourse which focuses on the importance of developing effective pedagogical content knowledge (See Shulman, 1986 for a detailed explanation of pedagogical content knowledge) rather than just mastery of scientific content and its mathematical applications. Further, the paper will detail a preliminary study in which pre-service physics teachers were introduced to a number of discussion problems via an online learning environment and asked to first consider the problem and post a solution in isolation from their peers. A considerable challenge was persuading the pre-service teachers to resist the common practice of "Googling the answer" via the internet before posting their solution attempt. Although most students initially appeared to believe that posting "the correct" answer was the main task objective, the vast majority eventually came to realise that discussing the range of unresearched solutions was much more beneficial for their conceptual understanding and professional practice. Over time, this approach generally encouraged students to post original ideas and to be less influenced

  17. From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and

  18. Cestodosis in battery-housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Abrams, L

    1976-09-01

    Cestodosis in battery-housed laying hens severely reduced egg production particularly at the time of peak production. Hens were able to consume large numbers of Musca domestica, the intermediate host of Choanotaenia infundibulum following the use of an aerosol insecticide to control flies. A considerable discharge of cestodes followed the use of "Lintex" in the feed resulting in a marked improvement in egg production. The use of an insect growth regulator in the feed showed promise in controlling the breeding of flies. PMID:994133

  19. Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egdall, Ira Mark

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity1 quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six hour-and-a-half weekly sessions. Students are mostly retired or semi-retired adults like me. Most are college educated, but with little or no formal physics education.

  20. Lay perceptions of breast cancer in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Naanyu, Violet; Asirwa, Chite Fredrick; Wachira, Juddy; Busakhala, Naftali; Kisuya, Job; Otieno, Grieven; Keter, Alfred; Mwangi, Anne; Omenge, Orango Elkanah; Inui, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore lay perceptions of causes, severity, presenting symptoms and treatment of breast cancer. METHODS: In October-November 2012, we recruited men and women (18 years and older) from households and health facilities in three different parts of Western Kenya, chosen for variations in their documented burdens of breast cancer. A standardized and validated tool, the breast cancer awareness measure (BCAM), was administered in face-to-face interviews. Survey domains covered included socio-demographics, opinions about causes, symptoms, severity, and treatment of breast cancer. Descriptive analyses were done on quantitative data while open-ended answers were coded, and emerging themes were integrated into larger categories in a qualitative analysis. The open-ended questions had been added to the standard BCAM for the purposes of learning as much as the investigators could about underlying lay beliefs and perceptions. RESULTS: Most respondents were female, middle-aged (mean age 36.9 years), married, and poorly educated. Misconceptions and lack of knowledge about causes of breast cancer were reported. The following (in order of higher to lower prevalence) were cited as potential causes of the condition: Genetic factors or heredity (n = 193, 12.3%); types of food consumed (n = 187, 11.9%); witchcraft and curses (n = 108, 6.9%); some family planning methods (n = 56, 3.6%); and use of alcohol and tobacco (n = 46, 2.9%). When asked what they thought of breast cancer’s severity, the most popular response was “it is a killer disease” (n = 266, 19.7%) a lethal condition about which little or nothing can be done. While opinions about presenting symptoms and signs of breast cancer were able to be elicited, such as an increase in breast size and painful breasts, early-stage symptoms and signs were not widely recognized. Some respondents (14%) were ignorant of available treatment altogether while others felt breast cancer treatment is both dangerous and expensive. A

  1. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    PubMed

    Bain, M M; Nys, Y; Dunn, I C

    2016-06-01

    In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production. One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the "long life" layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and welfare of the birds in longer laying cycles. These multiple goals require knowledge and consideration of the bird's physiology, nutritional requirements, which vary depending on age and management system, reproductive status and choice of the selection criteria applied. The recent advent of molecular genetics offers considerable hope that these multiple elements can be balanced for the good of all in the industry including the hens. The "long life" layer, which will be capable of producing 500 eggs in a laying cycle of 100 weeks, is therefore on the horizon, bringing with it the benefits of a more efficient utilisation of diminishing resources, including land, water, raw materials for feed as well as a reduction in waste, and an overall reduced carbon footprint. PMID:26982003

  2. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Bain, M. M.; Nys, Y.; Dunn, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production.One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the “long life” layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and welfare of the birds in longer laying cycles. These multiple goals require knowledge and consideration of the bird’s physiology, nutritional requirements, which vary depending on age and management system, reproductive status and choice of the selection criteria applied.The recent advent of molecular genetics offers considerable hope that these multiple elements can be balanced for the good of all in the industry including the hens.The “long life” layer, which will be capable of producing 500 eggs in a laying cycle of 100 weeks, is therefore on the horizon, bringing with it the benefits of a more efficient utilisation of diminishing resources, including land, water, raw materials for feed as well as a reduction in waste, and an overall reduced carbon footprint. PMID:26982003

  3. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA). This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so that the research outcomes

  4. Front elevation, building for a laying out floor and drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation, building for a laying out floor and drawing room, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa, March 7, 1893, H.E.F., scale 1/8 = 1 foot. (Photograph of architect's drawing of the drawing rooms and laying out floor building, compay drawing no. 14423, held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Drawing Room & Laying-Out Floor Building, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  5. Trait mindfulness is associated with blood pressure and interleukin-6: exploring interactions among subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire to better understand relationships between mindfulness and health.

    PubMed

    Tomfohr, Lianne M; Pung, Meredith A; Mills, Paul J; Edwards, Kate

    2015-02-01

    Mindfulness based interventions have been associated with improvements in physical health; however, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear. The current study explored relationships between trait mindfulness, blood pressure (BP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Relationships between physical health variables and (1) a composite score of mindfulness, (2) individual facets of mindfulness and (3) interactions between theoretically relevant pairs of mindfulness subscales were investigated. One hundred and thirty healthy, young adults [M (SD) age = 21.7(2.7) years] reported trait levels of mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, subscales include: observing, describing, acting with awareness (AWA), nonjudging and nonreactivity), had their resting BP measured and underwent a blood draw to assesses circulating IL-6 levels. Age, gender, body mass index, race/ethnicity, depression and perceived stress were obtained and used as covariates. A composite score of trait mindfulness was associated with lower BP and a trend suggested that it was also associated with lower IL-6. Investigation of individual facets of mindfulness revealed interactions between the subscales AWA and nonjudging, such that higher endorsement of AWA was associated with lower BP only when nonjudging was also high. A second interaction was observed between the subscales observing and nonreactivity, such that higher endorsement of observing was associated with lower IL-6 only when levels of nonreactivity were also high. Trait mindfulness was associated with both BP and IL-6. Examining interactions between facets of mindfulness variables may be important in understanding how mindfulness based interventions influence physiology. PMID:24888477

  6. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P < 0.001) and in the late morning for Flock 2 (all P < 0.001). Overall, 174 incidents of piling behavior were observed between the 2 flocks, with piles varying in size, duration, and time of occurrence; however, no smothering was detected. Crowding on the open litter area sometimes occurred during peak periods of synchronous dust bathing and when hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling. PMID:26354762

  7. Effects of dietary L-isoleucine on laying performance and immunomodulation of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dong, X Y; Azzam, M M M; Zou, X T

    2016-10-01

    Isoleucine may be a limiting amino acid for laying hens fed diets with a lowered protein level. An experiment was conducted to examine laying performance and the immune function of laying hens provided diets varying in digestible isoleucine levels during the peak production period. A total number of 400 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens per replicate (4 cages / replicate; 80 hens / treatment). L-isoleucine was added to the experimental diet (14% CP) containing synthetic amino (methionine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine) by zero, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 g/kg, corresponding to 0.54%, 0.64%, 0.74%, 0.84, and 0.94% digestible isoleucine, respectively. At the end of the experiment (wk 40), dietary isoleucine did not affect laying performance or egg quality. Serum albumin concentration increased quadratically (P < 0.05) in response to digestible dietary isoleucine at 0.74%. Serum free isoleucine and lysine increased (P < 0.05) in response to digestible dietary isoleucine at 0.74%. Digestible dietary isoleucine levels did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD). There was no significant (P > 0.05) response of excess digestible isoleucine level on the serum level of IgG, IgA, or IgM. In addition, dietary isoleucine levels did not affect the concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), or interleukin (IL-2 and IL-6) in the ileum. Also, expressions of ileal MUC2 mRNA, sIgA mRNA, and IL-1β mRNA were not changed (P > 0.05) by excess digestible isoleucine level. Furthermore, excess digestible isoleucine level did not change mRNA expression of ileal tight junction protein (claudin-1 and occludin). No effect occurred when isoleucine was supplemented, suggesting that it is

  8. Student Understanding of Cross Product Direction and Use of Right-hand Rules: An Exploration of Representation and Context-dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget

    2011-12-01

    Students in introductory physics struggle with vector algebra and with cross product direction in particular. Some have suggested that this may be due to misapplied right-hand rules, but there are few studies that have had the resolution to explore this. Additionally, previous research on student understanding has noted several kinds of representation-dependence of student performance with vector algebra in both physics and non-physics (or math) contexts (e.g. Hawkins et al., 2009; Van Deventer, 2008). Yet with few exceptions (e.g. Scaife and Heckler, 2010), these findings have not been applied to cross product direction questions or the use of right-hand rules. Also, the extensive work in spatial cognition is particularly applicable to cross product direction due to the spatial and kinesthetic nature of the right-hand rule. A synthesis of the literature from these various fields reveals four categories of problem features likely to impact the understanding of cross product direction: (1) the type of reasoning required, (2) the orientation of the vectors, (3) the need for parallel transport, and (4) the physics context and features (or lack thereof). These features formed the basis of the present effort to systematically explore the context-dependence and representation- dependence of student performance on cross product direction questions. This study used a mix of qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze twenty-seven individual think-aloud interviews. During these interviews, second semester introductory physics students answered 80-100 cross product direction questions in different contexts and with varying problem features. These features were then used as the predictors in regression analyses for correctness and response time. In addition, each problem was coded for the methods used and the errors made to gain a deeper understanding of student behavior and the impact of these features. The results revealed a wide variety of methods (including six

  9. Effects of clofibrate treatment in laying hens.

    PubMed

    König, B; Kluge, H; Haase, K; Brandsch, C; Stangl, G I; Eder, K

    2007-06-01

    Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) has been shown in liver of chicks, but effects of its activation have not yet been investigated. In this study, laying hens were treated with clofibrate, a synthetic PPARalpha agonist, to investigate the effects of PPARalpha activation on liver lipid metabolism. Hens receiving a diet containing 5 g of clofibrate/kg had a lower food intake and higher liver mRNA concentrations of typical PPARalpha target genes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase, bifunctional enzyme, lipoprotein lipase) involved in hepatic mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation and plasma triglyceride clearance than control hens that received the same diet without clofibrate (P<0.05). Hens treated with clofibrate also had lower mRNA concentrations of fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, and low-density lipoprotein receptor, proteins involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake, than hens fed the control diet (P<0.05). These changes in clofibrate-treated hens were accompanied by reduced liver triglyceride concentrations, strongly diminished very low density triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations (P<0.05), a disturbed maturation of egg follicles, a complete stop of egg production, and a markedly reduced plasma 17-beta-estradiol concentration (P<0.05). In conclusion, it is shown that clofibrate has complex effects on hepatic lipid metabolism in laying hens that mimic PPARalpha activation in mammals, affect maturation of egg follicles, and lead to a stop of egg production. Because clofibrate treatment strongly reduced food intake in the hens, some of these effects (i.e., egg production) may have been due to a low energy and nutrient intake. PMID:17495091

  10. Teaching a lay theory before college narrows achievement gaps at scale

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, David S.; Walton, Gregory M.; Brady, Shannon T.; Akcinar, Ezgi N.; Paunesku, David; Keane, Laura; Kamentz, Donald; Ritter, Gretchen; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Urstein, Robert; Gomez, Eric M.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Dweck, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that college students benefit when they understand that challenges in the transition to college are common and improvable and, thus, that early struggles need not portend a permanent lack of belonging or potential. Could such an approach—called a lay theory intervention—be effective before college matriculation? Could this strategy reduce a portion of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic achievement gaps for entire institutions? Three double-blind experiments tested this possibility. Ninety percent of first-year college students from three institutions were randomly assigned to complete single-session, online lay theory or control materials before matriculation (n > 9,500). The lay theory interventions raised first-year full-time college enrollment among students from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds exiting a high-performing charter high school network or entering a public flagship university (experiments 1 and 2) and, at a selective private university, raised disadvantaged students’ cumulative first-year grade point average (experiment 3). These gains correspond to 31–40% reductions of the raw (unadjusted) institutional achievement gaps between students from disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged backgrounds at those institutions. Further, follow-up surveys suggest that the interventions improved disadvantaged students’ overall college experiences, promoting use of student support services and the development of friendship networks and mentor relationships. This research therefore provides a basis for further tests of the generalizability of preparatory lay theories interventions and of their potential to reduce social inequality and improve other major life transitions. PMID:27247409

  11. Teaching a lay theory before college narrows achievement gaps at scale.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Walton, Gregory M; Brady, Shannon T; Akcinar, Ezgi N; Paunesku, David; Keane, Laura; Kamentz, Donald; Ritter, Gretchen; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Urstein, Robert; Gomez, Eric M; Markus, Hazel Rose; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-06-14

    Previous experiments have shown that college students benefit when they understand that challenges in the transition to college are common and improvable and, thus, that early struggles need not portend a permanent lack of belonging or potential. Could such an approach-called a lay theory intervention-be effective before college matriculation? Could this strategy reduce a portion of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic achievement gaps for entire institutions? Three double-blind experiments tested this possibility. Ninety percent of first-year college students from three institutions were randomly assigned to complete single-session, online lay theory or control materials before matriculation (n > 9,500). The lay theory interventions raised first-year full-time college enrollment among students from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds exiting a high-performing charter high school network or entering a public flagship university (experiments 1 and 2) and, at a selective private university, raised disadvantaged students' cumulative first-year grade point average (experiment 3). These gains correspond to 31-40% reductions of the raw (unadjusted) institutional achievement gaps between students from disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged backgrounds at those institutions. Further, follow-up surveys suggest that the interventions improved disadvantaged students' overall college experiences, promoting use of student support services and the development of friendship networks and mentor relationships. This research therefore provides a basis for further tests of the generalizability of preparatory lay theories interventions and of their potential to reduce social inequality and improve other major life transitions. PMID:27247409

  12. Nitrogen and Oxygen Budget ExpLoration (NOBEL) for ESA M5-call: Measurement requirements to understand the atmospheric escape/budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Dandouras, Iannis; Rème, Henri; Marghitu, Octav

    2016-04-01

    The NOBEL mission aims to study the thermal and non-thermal escape of major atmospheric components (nitrogen, oxygen, and their isotopes) from the Earth, a magnetized planet. This requires the first-time exploration of the Earth's entire exosphere as well as the first-time examination of isotope ratios in an extended altitude range from the upper ionosphere (800 km high) up to the magnetosphere. The measurement quality should allow connecting the various types of escape from the Earth to the different gravity mass-filtering and chemical reactions on a geological time scale, such that the result will be used as a good reference to understand the atmospheric/ionospheric evolution of magnetized planets based on their 17,18O/16O isotope ratio and N/O ratio. Since the solar EUV and solar wind conditions during solar maximum at present are comparable to the solar minimum conditions 1-2 billion years ago, the escaping amount and the isotope and N/O ratios should be obtained as a function of external forcing (solar and geomagnetic conditions) to allow a scaling to the past. To achieve these goals, the ion measurements in this mission should be able to separate nitrogen species (N, N2, N+ and N2+) from oxygen (O, O+), near the exobase, in the exosphere (for modelling thermal escape, hydrodynamics escape, and the pre-acceleration amount of non-thermal escape) and up in the magnetosphere (for modelling non-thermal escape and circulation of all ions). Furthermore, these aims require the capability to measure isotope ratios of cold oxygen ions and neutrals. We briefly discuss why we focus on the exosphere, on isotope ratios, and nitrogen measurements, and finally describe the current idea of a mission profile using a spinning satellite in a 500 km × 33000 km altitude high-inclination orbit.

  13. Understanding reasons for asthma outpatient (non)‐attendance and exploring the role of telephone and e‐consulting in facilitating access to care: exploratory qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van Baar, J D; Joosten, H; Car, J; Freeman, G K; Partridge, M R; van Weel, C; Sheikh, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To understand factors influencing patients' decisions to attend for outpatient follow up consultations for asthma and to explore patients' attitudes to telephone and email consultations in facilitating access to asthma care. Design Exploratory qualitative study using in depth interviews. Setting Hospital outpatient clinic in West London. Participants Nineteen patients with moderate to severe asthma (12 “attenders” and 7 “non‐attenders”). Results Patients' main reasons for attending were the wish to improve control over asthma symptoms and a concern not to jeopardise the valued relationship with their doctor. Memory lapses, poor health, and disillusionment with the structure of outpatient care were important factors implicated in non‐attendance. The patients were generally sceptical about the suggestion that greater opportunity for telephone consulting might improve access to care. They expressed concerns about the difficulties in effectively communicating through non‐face to face media and were worried that clinicians would not be in a position to perform an adequate physical examination over the telephone. Email and text messaging were viewed as potentially useful for sending appointment reminders and sharing clinical information but were not considered to be acceptable alternatives to the face to face clinic encounter. Conclusions Memory lapses, impaired mobility due to poor health, and frustration with outpatient clinic organisation resulting in long waiting times and discontinuity of care are factors that deter patients from attending for hospital asthma assessments. The idea of telephone review assessments was viewed with scepticism by most study subjects. Particular attention should be given to explaining to patients the benefits of telephone consultations, and to seeking their views as to whether they would like to try them out before replacing face to face consultations with them. Email and text messaging may have a role in issuing

  14. "Physiology in the News": Using Press Releases to Enhance Lay Communication and Introduce Current Physiology Research to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kevin L.; Poteracki, James M.; Steury, Michael D.; Wehrwein, Erica A.

    2015-01-01

    Michigan State University's senior-level undergraduate physiology capstone laboratory uses a simple exercise termed "Physiology in the News," to help students explore the current research within the field of physiology while also learning to communicate science in lay terms. "Physiology in the News" is an activity that charges…

  15. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  16. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  17. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  18. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  19. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  20. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  1. Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, Julie; Sanders, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lay health workers are key to achieving universal health-care coverage, therefore measuring worker attrition and identifying its determinants should be an integral part of any lay health worker programme. Both published and unpublished research on lay health workers has largely focused on the types of interventions they can deliver effectively. This is an imperative since the main objective of these programmes is to improve health outcomes. However, high attrition rates can undermine the effectiveness of these programmes. There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals’ policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention. PMID:22271950

  2. Talking about colds and flu: the lay diagnosis of two common illnesses among older British people.

    PubMed

    Prior, Lindsay; Evans, Meirion R; Prout, Hayley

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on a study of the ways in which 54 older people in South Wales (UK) talk about the symptoms and causes of cold and influenza (flu). The study was designed to understand why older people might reject or accept the offer of seasonal flu vaccine, and in the course of the interviews respondents were also asked to express their views about the nature and causes of the two key illnesses. The latter are among the most common infections in human beings. In terms of the biomedical paradigm the common cold is caused by numerous respiratory viruses, whilst flu is caused by the influenza virus. Medical diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds without laboratory confirmation. Symptoms of flu include sudden onset of fever and cough, and colds are characterized by sneezing, sore throat, and runny nose, but in practice the symptoms often overlap. In this study we examine the degree by which the views of lay people with respect to both diagnosis and epidemiology diverge with that which is evident in biomedical discourse. Our results indicate that whilst most of the identified symptoms are common to lay and professional people, the former integrate symptoms into a markedly different observational frame from the latter. And as far as causation is concerned it is clear that lay people emphasize the role of 'resistance' and 'immunity' at least as much as 'infection' in accounting for the onset of colds and flu. The data are analyzed using novel methods that focus on the co-occurrence of concepts and are displayed as semantic networks. As well as reporting on its findings the authors draw out some implications of the study for social scientific and policy discussions concerning lay diagnosis, lay expertise and the concept of an expert patient. PMID:21186076

  3. Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    of tilting/leakage of oil accumulations through time can be recognized in several oil fields on the Utsira High. The giant Johan Sverdrup discovery oil columns contain paleo-OWC, residual oil zones/paleo-oil columns, and oil shows considerably deeper than the current OWC or residual oil columns. Lundin has performed detailed mapping of the seabed and water column in the Alvheim/Utsira High areas in order to identify areas of gas leakage and its geological manifestations on the seabed and ultimately resulting in the collection of high quality samples. Results shows that gas leakage is prominent over the Alvheim and Utsira High areas and the implications of this to oil exploration will be discussed. In summary, Lundin's approach to oil migration is to better understand the fluid/gas movement throughout the whole basin through time. The talk will focus on the role of glaciations on the timing of charge from the South Viking Graben, fill-spill directions on the Southern Utsira High, the effects of late tilting/leakage on the charge/re-distribution of oil, and seabed / water column characterization and sampling. All placed in the context of oil exploration.

  4. Investigating Teachers' Exploration of a Professional Development Website: An Innovative Approach to Understanding the Factors that Motivate Teachers to Use Internet-Based Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Pamela; Willows, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined an innovative methodology, combining screen capture technology and a retrospective think aloud, for exploring the use of Internet-based resources by elementary teachers. Pre-service and in-service teachers explored "The Balanced Literacy Diet," a free, interactive, and evidenced-informed professional…

  5. What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.

    PubMed

    Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214

  6. Women's health and social change: the case of lay midwives.

    PubMed

    Kay, B J; Butter, I H; Chang, D; Houlihan, K

    1988-01-01

    One reaction to the medicalization of birth has been the comeback of lay midwives in the past 10 years. While many practice alone as did midwives 80 years ago, now midwives are networking and organizing in regional and statewide groups, an important new distinction in the light of increasing regulatory policy formation by many states. Are these groups the beginnings of traditional bureaucratic health professional organizations or are they better described as alternative women's health groups that espouse nonhierarchical philosophies of women's health? In this article, we describe an empirical study of one such group, the Michigan Midwives' Association, and explore the philosophies and practices of individual members as well as the internal organization of the group and its influence on members. Data were collected using individual telephone interviews with 48 of 50 members, group newsletters and documents, and two spokespersons who developed an oral history of the Association since its origin in 1978. Results suggest that the group plays an important role in reinforcing individually held philosophies about women-controlled birth and in providing social support to health workers practicing outside the traditional system. PMID:3378857

  7. Lay Conceptions of Sexual Minority Groups.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; LaFrance, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Bisexual people are often implored to "pick a side," implying that bisexuality is both more controllable and less desirable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. Bisexual people's status as a social group perceived to fall between a traditionally advantaged group and a traditionally disadvantaged group may have the potential to clarify lay conceptions of sexual orientation. We examined participants' views of groups varying in sexual orientation by randomly assigning participants (including heterosexual men and women as well as gay men and lesbian women) from four samples to evaluate heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual targets (N = 1379). Results provided strong evidence for the previously untested theoretical argument that bisexuality is perceived as less stable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. In addition, participants low in Personal Need for Structure rated female (but not male) bisexuality as relatively stable, suggesting that a preference for simple, binary thinking can partially explain a negative conception of an ostensibly "intermediate" identity. Bisexual targets were perceived as falling between heterosexual and homosexual targets in terms of gender nonconformity, and less decisive, less monogamous, and lacking in positive traits that were associated with homosexual targets. In sum, views of bisexual people were both more negative than and qualitatively different from views of gay men and lesbian women. We discuss the results as an illustration of the complex ways that perceivers' attitudes can differ depending on which target groups they are considering, suggesting that intergroup bias cannot be fully understood without attending to social categories viewed as intermediate. PMID:26597649

  8. Exploring the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)

  9. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. More new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with broken keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  10. Incidence, Severity, and Welfare Implications of Lesions Observed Postmortem in Laying Hens from Commercial Noncage Farms in California and Iowa.

    PubMed

    Kajlich, Anya S; Shivaprasad, H L; Trampel, Darrell W; Hill, Ashley E; Parsons, Rebecca L; Millman, Suzanne T; Mench, Joy A

    2016-03-01

    The egg industry is moving away from the use of conventional cages to enriched cage and noncage laying hen housing systems because of animal welfare concerns. In this study, the prevalence and severity of lesions in noncage laying hens from commercial farms in two of the largest egg-producing states, California and Iowa, were evaluated by postmortem examination. Hens that died or were culled were collected during early, mid, and late stages of the laying cycle from 16 houses on three farms. Of the 25 gross lesions identified for study, 22 were observed, with an average of four lesions per hen. Vent cannibalism, reduced feather cover, keel bone deformation, and beak abnormalities were the most frequent lesions, observed in ≥40% of hens. Other common lesions were cloacal prolapse (30.5%), footpad dermatitis (24.3%), and septicemia (23.1%). Beak abnormality and enteric disease had the highest proportion of severe lesions. Pearson chi-square analysis revealed a number of stage-of-lay effects (P ≤ 0.05), some of which differed by state. For both states combined, the lesions observed more frequently during early lay were beak abnormalities, northern fowl mite infestation, and cage layer fatigue, whereas during mid lay, they were poor feather cover, vent cannibalism, footpad dermatitis, keel bone deformation, respiratory disease and roundworms. Feather pecking and cloacal prolapse were most common during late lay. Although differences in hen genetics, farm management practices, and environmental factors could all have affected the results of this study, the information provides a better understanding of hen health in noncage housing systems and could help to identify potential interventions to reduce hen welfare problems. PMID:26953938

  11. Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cracked shells, due to age related reduction of shell quality, are a costly problem for the industry. Parallel to reduced shell quality the skeleton becomes brittle resulting in bone fractures. Calcium, a main prerequisite for both eggshell and bone, is regulated by estrogen in a complex manner. The effects of estrogen, given in a low continuous dose, were studied regarding factors involved in age related changes in shell quality and bone strength of laying hens. A pellet containing 0.385 mg estradiol 3-benzoate (21-day-release) or placebo was inserted subcutaneously in 20 birds each of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) at 70 weeks of age. Eggs were collected before and during the experiment for shell quality measurements. Blood samples for analysis of total calcium were taken three days after the insertion and at sacrifice (72 weeks). Right femur was used for bone strength measurements and tissue samples from duodenum and shell gland were processed for morphology, immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Results Estrogen treatment increased shell thickness of both hybrids. In addition, shell weight and shell deformation improved in eggs from the brown hybrids. The more pronounced effect on eggs from the brown hybrid may be due to a change in sensitivity to estrogen, especially in surface epithelial cells of the shell gland, shown as an altered ratio between ERα and ERβ. A regulatory effect of estrogen on CA activity, but not PMCA, was seen in both duodenum and shell gland, and a possible connection to shell quality is discussed. Bone strength was unaffected by treatment, but femur was stronger in LSL birds suggesting that the hybrids differ in calcium allocation between shell and bone at the end of the laying period. Plasma calcium concentrations and egg production were unaffected. Conclusions A low

  12. An Exploration of the Concept Map as an Interview Tool To Facilitate the Externalization of Students' Understandings about Global Atmospheric Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.; Rubba, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of two different types of interviews: one that embeds a concept map, and one that does not embed a concept map in order to elicit post-instructional understandings. Focuses on students' understandings of chlorofluorocarbons and their role in global atmospheric change. Contains 71 references. (DDR)

  13. Response of laying hens to supplemental niacin.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Caston, L J; Summers, J D

    1991-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental niacin on laying hen performance and liver fat and egg cholesterol content. In Experiment 1, 16 replicate groups of four adjacently caged birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets calculated to contain 22, 44, 66, or 132 mg supplemental niacin/kg (23.2, 38.7, 57.0, and 143 mg/kg niacin by analysis). Egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and eggshell quality were assessed each 28 days through a 364-day trial period. After 280 days, cholesterol content on three eggs per replicate was measured. At the end of the study, one bird per replicate was killed for subjective scoring of liver fat content. In Experiment 2, 24 birds from the control treatment (22 mg/kg supplemental niacin) of Experiment 1 were retained and fed for a subsequent 28-day period. Over this time, eight birds were each fed diets containing 22, 522, or 1,022 mg/kg supplemental niacin. Egg cholesterol content was measured in eggs collected on the last 3 days of the study. In Experiment 1, birds fed 66 or 132 mg/kg supplemental niacin/kg produced more eggs (P less than .05) than birds fed 22mg/kg. Niacin supplementation affected shell quality (P less than .05). Dietary niacin level had no effect on egg cholesterol content of liver lipid evaluation. In Experiment 2, supplementary niacin levels up to 1,022 mg/kg, which more closely stimulates therapeutic levels used for humans, again failed to affect egg cholesterol content. PMID:1852695

  14. Mixed Race: Understanding Difference in the Genome Era

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Bonham, Vence L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of multiracial individuals’ understanding of identity, race and human genetic variation. The debate regarding the correlation between race, genetics and disease has expanded, but limited empirical data has been collected regarding the lay public’s perspective. Participants in this study explore their identity and its relationships to their health care interactions. Participants also share their views on race-based therapeutics, health disparities and the connections between race, ancestry and genetics. Their voices highlight the limitations of racial categories in describing differences within our increasingly diverse communities. The genomic era will be a pivotal period in challenging current understandings and uses of racial categories in health. PMID:19079741

  15. Age-Related Degeneration of the Egg-Laying System Promotes Matricidal Hatching in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Christopher L.; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Summary The identification and characterization of age-related degenerative changes is a critical goal because it can elucidate mechanisms of aging biology and contribute to understanding interventions that promote longevity. Here we document a novel, age-related degenerative change in C. elegans hermaphrodites, an important model system for the genetic analysis of longevity. Matricidal hatching—intra-uterine hatching of progeny that causes maternal death—displayed an age-related increase in frequency and affected ∼70% of mated, wild-type hermaphrodites. The timing and incidence of matricidal hatching were largely independent of the levels of early and total progeny production and the duration of male exposure. Thus, matricidal hatching appears to reflect intrinsic age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system rather than use-dependent damage accumulation. Consistent with this model, mutations that extend longevity by causing dietary restriction significantly delayed matricidal hatching, indicating age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system is controlled by nutrient availability. To identify the underlying tissue defect, we analyzed serotonin signaling that triggers vulval muscle contractions. Mated hermaphrodites displayed an age-related decline in the ability to lay eggs in response to exogenous serotonin, indicating that vulval muscles and/or a further downstream function that is necessary for egg-laying degenerate in an age-related manner. By characterizing a new, age-related degenerative event displayed by C. elegans hermaphrodites, these studies contribute to understanding a frequent cause of death in mated hermaphrodites and establish a model of age-related reproductive complications that may be relevant to the birthing process in other animals such as humans. PMID:23551912

  16. Exploring multi/full polarised SAR imagery for understanding surface soil moisture and roughness by using semi-empirical and theoretical models and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lu; Marzahn, Philip; Ludwig, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to water stress and drought, which is expected to have severe direct impact on agricultural productivity. Improved knowledge of the spatial and temporal patterns of near surface soil moisture, as monitored by remote sensing, can be used to better mitigate and adapt to severe drought situations by means of adjusted irrigation strategies. The presented project is aiming to conjointly employ field monitoring and spaceborne SAR to support adaptive water resources management and best agricultural practice. To make substantial progress in decision-making for an optimised irrigation strategy, a regular, e.g. weekly, monitoring of near surface soil moisture in various agricultural land-uses is anticipated. This becomes possible with current co-polarised ENVISAT/ASAR Alternating Polarisation (AP) Mode imagery (C-band). However, since the backscattering signal is affected by several surface characteristics, a better measurement/estimation of surface roughness is crucial in retrieving near-surface soil moisture. The sensor PALSAR, on board ALOS, and the more recently launched satellite-Radarsat-2 provide new opportunities to retrieve information about surface roughness by means of full-polarised, high-resolution L-band and C-band radar data respectively. It is expected that these data sources can be utilised to better separate the dielectric from the surface roughness component in radar backscattering. For parameter retrieval and validation, intensive in-situ measurements are conducted in a fully equipped agricultural area in a Mediterranean environment in Sardinia, Italy, while ENVISAT/ASAR, ALOS/PALSAR and Radarsat-2 data are acquired. A close range digital photogrammetric technique is applied to monitor surface roughness. This paper is aiming at exploring the capability of ENVISAT/ASAR AP Mode imagery and Radarsat-2 data for near surface soil moisture inversion using ALOS/PALSAR and close

  17. Climate change related to egg-laying trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Sparks, Timothy H.

    1999-06-01

    Analysis of 20 species of UK breeding birds over a 25-year period found a long-term trend towards earlier egg-laying. Further studies have correlated such trends with spring temperatures (one species) or the North Atlantic Oscillation (three species). We have studied a data set spanning 57 years and find that laying date is related to temperature or rainfall for 31 of 36 species (86%), and that 53% of species show long-term trends in laying date over time, of which 37% can be statistically accounted for by changes in climate. These data provide evidence for the large-scale impact of rising temperatures on wildlife. Our analysis of a UKCIP98 national-level climate scenario predicts that average laying dates will be even earlier for 75% of species by the year 2080.

  18. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  19. Neuroethology: lemon-fresh scent makes flies lay eggs.

    PubMed

    Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-16

    A new study reveals how Drosophila uses their sense of smell to decide on where to lay their eggs. These results have exciting implications for the evolution of fruit preference and parasitoid avoidance in fruit flies. PMID:24355790

  20. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

  2. Details of roof truss, building for drawing room and laying ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Details of roof truss, building for drawing room and laying out floor, Johnson Company, Johnstown,m Pa. Jan 19th 1893, H.E.F., scale 3/4 = 1 ft, (photograph of architect's drawing of roof truss detail, company drawing no. 14767, held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Drawing Room & Laying-Out Floor Building, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  3. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-08-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens' movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the 'dark' observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the 'light' observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  4. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. L. M.; Makagon, M. M.; Swanson, J. C.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens’ movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the ‘dark’ observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the ‘light’ observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  5. Exploring the association between cognitive functioning and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: the role of social understanding and aggression.

    PubMed

    Niditch, Laura A; Varela, R Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ, and parents completed measures of remaining variables. ASD diagnosis was associated with level of anxiety, and level of IQ explained this relation. IQ was significantly and positively associated with anxiety. Tests of a developmental model to explain the relation between IQ and anxiety showed that social understanding and aggression mediated the relation for toddlers. For preschool- and early elementary school-aged children, respectively, three-way interactions between IQ, social understanding, and aggression predicted anxiety, and graphs of the interactions suggest that the association between IQ and anxiety is increasingly driven by either aggression or social understanding over the course of childhood. PMID:22417187

  6. Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

    1994-01-01

    Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

  7. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Fröhlich, Ernst K F

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  8. Pragmatic Abilities in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment: An Exploration of Non-Literal Language and Advanced Theory of Mind Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijnacker, Judith; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to explore whether children with a broader range of…

  9. Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Tam; Gardner, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array…

  10. Working on Mars: Understanding How Scientists, Engineers and Rovers Interacted Across Space and Time during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, Roxana C.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation summarizes the scheduling and planning difficulties inherent in operating the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) during the overlapping terrestrial day and Martian sol. The presentation gives special empahsis to communication between the teams controlling the rovers from Earth, and keeping track of time on the two planets.

  11. Playing the Field(s): An Exploration of Change, Conformity and Conflict in Girls' Understandings of Gendered Physicality in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a year-long ethnographic study of a group of 12- to 13-year-old girls that explored the processes through which they negotiated gendered physicality within the context of physical education. Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and social fields and McNay's extension of his work underpin a discussion of three contexts where…

  12. Exploring Elementary Science Methods Course Contexts to Improve Preservice Teachers' NOS of Science Conceptions and Understandings of NOS Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Weiland, Ingrid; Rogers, Meredith Park; Pongsanon, Khemmawaddee; Bilican, Kader

    2014-01-01

    We explored adaptations to an elementary science methods course to determine how varied contexts could improve elementary preservice teachers' conceptions of NOS as well as their ideas for teaching NOS to elementary students. The contexts were (a) NOS Theme in which the course focused on the teaching of science through the consistent teaching…

  13. Effect of corticosterone on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Song, Zhigang; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two groups: one received subcutaneous injection of CORT (2mg/kg body weight, CORT-exposed) and the other received sham-treatment (Control). Treatment of hens with CORT stimulated an increase (P<0.05) in plasma CORT, glucose, uric acid (UA), insulin, cholesterol (Chol) and triiodothyronine (T(3)), but the concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triacylglycerol (TG) were decreased (P<0.05). CORT treatment had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), melanocortin receptor 4 and 5 (MCR-4 and MCR-5) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamus when compared with control hens. However, the expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and melanocortin recepter 1 (MCR-1) were significantly (P<0.05) suppressed while the mRNA levels of ghrelin and cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) were significantly upregulated (P<0.05) in CORT-treated hens. Treatment of laying hens with CORT had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the mRNA levels of CCK in the glandular stomach and the duodenum, and those of ghrelin in the glandular stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum. However, the mRNA levels of CCK in the jejunum and the ileum, and those of ghrelin in the ileum were significantly (P<0.05) suppressed by CORT treatment. In conclusion, these results suggest that CORT plays a unique role in some special neuropeptides (e.g., ghrelin, CART, POMC, CCK and MCRs) and a dynamic balance between these appetite-associated peptides in the hypothalamus and the gastrointestinal tract defines the feeding status of CORT-exposed laying hens. PMID:22554475

  14. Latino men’s qualitative perspectives on a lay health advisor intervention to promote their sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, Kim G.; Downs, Mario; Alonzo, Jorge; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Lay health advisor (LHA) approaches are a promising strategy to reduce health disparities among communities considered “hard to reach” by researchers and practitioners. LHAs have addressed a variety of health issues, but limited studies have included men as LHAs. The purpose of this to study was to better understand the roles of male LHAs and their male-helping relationships. We used an inductive approach to explore Latino men’s perspectives on serving as LHAs for other Latino men and Latino men’s views on receiving sexual health information from a male LHA. We collected qualitative data in 2009 and 2010 as part of an LHA intervention designed to reduce the risk of HIV infection among immigrant Latinos through the social networks of soccer teams. We analyzed and interpreted data from 30 in-depth interviews with Latino men who served as LHAs and their social networks in North Carolina, USA. Participants shared perceptions on social network importance for immigrant Latinos, facilitators and challenges of helping other men, recommendations for intervention modification, and suggestions for future work involving the Latino community. Findings revealed that Latino men are receptive to fulfilling the roles of health advisors and opinion leaders and can effectively serve as LHAs. Social network members valued the social support they received. Working through sports teams and identifying existing leaders to be LHAs may be a culturally congruent approach to meeting Latino community needs. More research is needed on the potential of male LHAs to address other health issues. PMID:25475213

  15. Autism spectrum disorder etiology: Lay beliefs and the role of cultural values and social axioms.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Zaroff, Charles M; Bernardo, Allan Bi

    2016-08-01

    Recent research examining the explanations given by the public (i.e. lay beliefs) for autism spectrum disorder often reveals a reasonably accurate understanding of the biogenetic basis of the disorder. However, lay beliefs often manifest aspects of culture, and much of this work has been conducted in western cultures. In this study, 215 undergraduate university students in Macau, a Special Administrative Region of China, completed self-report measures assessing two beliefs concerning autism spectrum disorder etiology: (1) a belief in parental factors and (2) a belief in genetic factors. Potential correlates of lay beliefs were sought in culture-specific values, and more universal social axioms. Participants were significantly more likely to endorse parenting, relative to genetic factors, as etiological. A perceived parental etiology was predicted by values of mind-body holism. Beliefs in a parental etiology were not predicted by values assessing collectivism, conformity to norms, a belief in a family's ability to obtain recognition through a child's achievement, or interpersonal harmony, nor by the social axioms measured (e.g. social cynicism, reward for application, social complexity, fate control, and religiosity). Beliefs in a genetic etiology were not predicted by either culture-specific values or social axioms. Implications of the current results are discussed. PMID:26408634

  16. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters1

    PubMed Central

    Karcher, D. M.; Jones, D. R.; Abdo, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems

  17. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems

  18. Exploring Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    "Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

  19. Hepatic cholinesterase of laying hens naturally infected by Salmonella Gallinarum (fowl typhoid).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Boiago, Marcel M; Bottari, Nathieli B; do Carmo, Guilherme M; Alves, Mariana Sauzen; Boscato, Carla; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Casagrande, Renata A; Stefani, Lenita M

    2016-09-01

    Salmonella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that may cause foodborne gastroenteritis in humans and animals consisting of over 2000 serovars. The serovar Salmonella Gallinarum is an important worldwide pathogen of poultry. However, little is known on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Salmonella in chickens. The aim of this study was to evaluate cholinesterase and myeloperoxidase activities in hepatic tissue of laying hens naturally infected by S. Gallinarum. Twenty positive liver samples for S. Gallinarum were collected, in addition to seven liver samples from healthy uninfected laying hens (control group). The right liver lobe was homogenized for analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the left lobe was divided into two fragments, one for histopathology and the other for Salmonella isolation. The results showed changes in AChE and BchE activity in the liver of infected laying hens compared to the control group (P < 0.05), i.e. reduced AChE and increased BChE activities in liver samples. Infected animals showed increased MPO activity compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the histopathological findings showed fibrinoid necrosis associated to the infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages,heterophils in the liver of infected hens. These findings suggest that the inflammatory process was attenuated providing a pro-inflammatory action of both enzyme analyzed in order to reduce the free ACh, a molecule which has an anti-inflammatory action. Therefore, our results lead to the hypothesis that cholinesterase plays an important role on the modulation of immune response against S. Gallinarum with an inflammatory effect, contributing to the response against this bacterium. This study should contribute to a better understanding on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in laying hens infected by S. Gallinarum. PMID:27377431

  20. Egg laying in vitro of Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda) in nutritive and nonnutritive media.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A; Fried, B

    1996-01-01

    Egg laying in vitro was studied in Echinostoma caproni adults placed in 10 ml of nutritive or nonnutritive media for 48 h in petri-dish cultures maintained at 37 degrees C in an atmosphere containing 7.6% CO2. Maximal egg laying occurred within 24 h in the defined medium RPMI 1640. Egg laying was significantly greater in this medium than in McCoy's or Locke's solution. Eggs released into the RPMI medium were capable of producing miracidia that were infective to Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Fried and Huffman (1996) referred to a technique used to obtain eggs of Echinostoma caproni in the defined medium RPMI 1640, but details of the study were not given. No information is available on egg laying of echinostomes in vitro. Such information could contribute to a better understanding of egg release in digeneans and would also be helpful in the acquisition of eggs for biology and chemistry studies. Current techniques used to obtain echinostome eggs involve worm homogenization, teasing of eggs from the worms' uteri, or recovery of eggs from feces (see Idris and Fried 1996 for details). The purpose of this communication is to report on an efficient procedure for the acquisition of eggs of E. caproni after the placement of adult worms in the defined medium RPMI 1640. E. caproni adults were grown in ICR mice for either 17 (young worms) or 112 days (old worms) as described previously (Ursone and Fried 1995a). Worms were removed from the small intestines and rinsed rapidly in three changes of sterile Locke's solution containing penicillin (200 IU/ml) and streptomycin (200 micrograms/ml; Fried and Contos 1973). Worms were placed in culture media within 30 min of their removal from hosts. Nutritive media consisted of RPMI 1640 and McCoy's medium (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.). Non-nutritive media consisted of Locke's or Locke's 1:1 (Ursone and Fried 1995b). All media contained antibiotics as described above. PMID:8738289

  1. Exploring Effects of High School Students' Mathematical Processing Skills and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Concepts on Algorithmic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gultepe, Nejla; Yalcin Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students' conceptual understanding of chemical concepts and mathematical processing skills on algorithmic problem-solving skills. The sample (N = 554) included grades 9, 10, and 11 students in Turkey. Data were collected using the instrument "MPC Test" and with interviews. The…

  2. Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

  3. Exploring Musical Expectations: Understanding the Impact of a Year-Long Primary School Music Project in the Context of School, Home and Prior Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a year-long project carried out in three UK primary schools, which aimed to understand the expectations and experiences of children participating in a series of workshops delivered by the chamber music organisation, Music in the Round. Through drawings, discussions, questionnaires and observations, the children's developing…

  4. Evaluation of dietary calcium requirements for laying Longyan shelducks.

    PubMed

    Xia, W G; Zhang, H X; Lin, Y C; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    To establish the dietary Ca requirements for laying ducks during their peak laying period, 5 Ca levels (2.8, 3.2, 3.6, 4.0, and 4.4%) were used, and laying performance, eggshell quality, serum variables, and bone quality were examined. A total of 1,620 Longyan shelducks with similar BW at 20 wk of age were fed for 13 wk in 5 treatment groups, each with 4 replicates of 81 birds. Dietary Ca increased egg production and egg mass (linear, P<0.01) and reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR), but egg weight was not affected. Dietary Ca level did not affect eggshell properties or any reproductive organ index except for shell weight (highest with the 4.0% Ca diet, P<0.05). Serum concentrations of Ca and calcitonin increased with dietary Ca level (linear, P<0.01), and a quadratic response (P<0.01) was seen in alkaline phosphatase activity; the highest values were in ducks fed the 3.6% Ca diet. Tibial fresh weight was affected by dietary Ca (linear and quadratic, P<0.05) with tibiae from the 2.8% Ca ducks weighing less than those from ducks fed any other Ca level. Other tibial measurements were unaffected by dietary Ca. According to the regression model, the Ca levels required for laying Longyan shelducks during their peak laying period are 3.4 and 3.2% for maximal serum alkaline phosphatase activity and tibial fresh weight, respectively. The results showed that diets containing 3.2 to 3.6% Ca provide for superior productive performance and bone quality in laying Longyan shelducks during their peak laying period. PMID:26467016

  5. ERTS-1 imagery as an aid to the understanding of the regional setting of base metal deposits in the North West Cape Province, South Africa. [mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viljoen, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A number of base metal finds have recently focussed attention on the North Western Cape Province of South Africa as an area of great potential mineral wealth. From the point of view of competitive mineral exploration it was essential that an insight into the regional geological controls of the base metal mineralization of the area be obtained as rapidly as possible. Conventional methods of producing a suitable regional geological map were considered to be too time-consuming and ERTS-1 imagery was consequently examined. This imagery has made a significant contribution in the compilation of a suitable map on which to base further mineral exploration programmes. The time involved in the compilation of maps of this nature was found to be only a fraction of the time necessary for the production of similar maps using other methods. ERTS imagery is therefore considered to be valuable in producing accurate regional maps in areas where little or no geological data are available, or in areas of poor access. Furthermore, these images have great potential for rapidly defining the regional extent of metallogenic provinces.

  6. Reactions and coping strategies in lay rescuers who have provided CPR to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mathiesen, Wenche Torunn; Bjørshol, Conrad Arnfinn; Braut, Geir Sverre; Søreide, Eldar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provided by community citizens is of paramount importance for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims' survival. Fortunately, CPR rates by community citizens seem to be rising. However, the experience of providing CPR is rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to explore reactions and coping strategies in lay rescuers who have provided CPR to OHCA victims. Methods, participants This is a qualitative study of 20 lay rescuers who have provided CPR to 18 OHCA victims. We used a semistructured interview guide focusing on their experiences after providing CPR. Setting The study was conducted in the Stavanger region of Norway, an area with very high bystander CPR rates. Results Three themes emerged from the interview analysis: concern, uncertainty and coping strategies. Providing CPR had been emotionally challenging for all lay rescuers and, for some, had consequences in terms of family and work life. Several lay rescuers experienced persistent mental recurrences of the OHCA incident and had concerns about the outcome for the cardiac arrest victim. Unknown or fatal outcomes often caused feelings of guilt and were particularly difficult to handle. Several reported the need to be acknowledged for their CPR attempts. Health-educated lay rescuers seemed to be less affected than others. A common coping strategy was confiding in close relations, preferably the health educated. However, some required professional help to cope with the OHCA incident. Conclusions Lay rescuers experience emotional and social challenges, and some struggle to cope in life after providing CPR in OHCA incidents. Experiencing a positive patient outcome and being a health-educated lay rescuer seem to mitigate concerns. Common coping strategies are attempts to reduce uncertainty towards patient outcome and own CPR quality. Further studies are needed to determine whether an organised professional follow-up can mitigate the concerns and uncertainty

  7. Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Iyngkaran, P; Majoni, W; Cass, A; Sanders, Prashanthan; Ronco, C; Brady, S; Kangaharan, N; Ilton, M; Hare, D L; Thomas, M C

    2015-06-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia. PMID:25637942

  8. Using Exoplanet Models to Explore NGSS and the Nature of Science and as a Tool for Understanding the Scientific Results from NIRCam/JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Higgins, Michelle L.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    2014-11-01

    Our Solar System is no longer unique. To date, about 1,800 planets are known to orbit over 1,100 other stars and nearly 50% are in multiple-planet systems. Planetary systems seem [to be] fairly common and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the Goldilocks Zone, suggesting there may be other habitable planets. To this end, characterizing the atmospheric chemistries of such planets is a major science goal of the NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.For NIRCam's E/PO program with the Girl Scouts of the USA, we have produced scale models and associated activities to compare the size, scale, and dynamics of the Solar System with several exoplanet systems. Our models illustrate the techniques used to investigate these systems: radial velocity, transits, direct observations, and gravitational microlensing. By comparing and contrasting these models, we place our Solar System in a more cosmic context and enable discussion of current questions within the scientific community: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Is our present definition of a planet a good definition in the context of other planetary systems? Are there other planets/moons that might harbor life as we know it?These models are appropriate for use in classrooms and conform to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include, for example, understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding the nature of scientific models.

  9. New Views of the Moon II 2008-2018; An initiative to integrate new lunar information into our fundamental understanding of the Moon and the next stages of international lunar exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C.; Neal, C. R.; Jolliff, B. L.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Mackwell, S.; Lawrence, S.

    2015-10-01

    In 1998, the Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM)sponsored a longterm initiative to improve our understanding of the Moon and its history by integrating all available types of data: in situ investigations, analyses of lunar samples, telescopic observations, and spacecraft datasets. This initiative, New Views of the Moon (NVM-I),was supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate andthe Lunar and Planetary Institute and guided principally by Brad Jolliff, Charles Shearer,Mark Wieczorek,and Clive Neal. The goals of the original NVM-Iinitiative were (1) tosummarize new insights that have been gained about the Moon as a result of recent global data sets(Clementine, Lunar Prospector), and their integration with sample and other data;(2) to define current understanding of the Moon's geologic history, resources, and potential for scientific exploration; and (3) to communicate implications ofknowledge gained from research and exploration of the Moon for planetary science and exploration beyond the Moon. The NVM- Iinitiative ultimately involved contributions and data synthesis from over 100 individual scientists and engineers at numerous workshops and special sessions at worldwide scientific meetings.NVM-I culminated in a book "New Views of the Moon" published in 2006 as volume 60 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry published by the Mineralogical Society of America. In 2012, the book was translated into Chinese.NVM-I went to press prior to analysis of the data from missions flown since 2000, and before the major discoveries from sample analyses made this century

  10. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    to the shed in free-range flocks. This study suggests that hens in the outer range engaged more in walking and foraging activities and showed signs of better welfare than those closer to the shed. Abstract In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower

  11. Reproductive biology in egg-laying mammals.

    PubMed

    Grützner, F; Nixon, B; Jones, R C

    2008-01-01

    The duck-billed platypus and short-beaked echidna are iconic species in Australia. Their morphology and physiology have puzzled scientists all over the world for more than 200 years. Recent genetic studies, particularly the platypus whole-genome sequencing project, have revealed the molecular basis of some of the extraordinary characteristics of monotremes. This and other works demonstrate the great value of research on our most distantly related mammalian relatives for comparative genomics and developmental biology. In this review we focus on the reproductive biology of monotremes and discuss works that unravel genes involved in lactation, testicular descent, gamete biology and fertilization, and early development. In addition we discuss works on the evolution of the complex sex chromosome system in platypus and echidna, which has also significant impact on our general understanding of mammalian sex chromosomes and sex determination. PMID:18769071

  12. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes in Huoyan Goose Ovaries between the Laying Period and Ceased Period

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xinhong; Liu, Dawei; Cao, Zhongzan; Luo, Lina; Liu, Mei; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    The Huoyan goose is famous for its high egg-laying performance and is listed as a nationally protected domestic animal by the Chinese government. To elucidate the key regulatory genes involved in Huoyan goose egg laying, RNA from ovarian tissue during the ceased and laying periods was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. More than 12 million reads were produced in ceased and laying libraries that included 11,896,423 and 12,534,799 clean reads, respectively. More than 20% of the reads were matched to the reference genome, and 23% of the reads were matched to reference genes. Genes with a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001 and log2ratio ≧1 or ≤−1 were characterized as differentially expressed, and 344 up-regulated and 344 down-regulated genes were classified into functional categories. Twelve genes that are mainly involved in pathways for reproduction regulation, such as steroid hormone biosynthesis, GnRH signaling pathways, oocyte meiosis, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, steroid biosynthesis, calcium signaling pathways, and G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway were selected for validation by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, the qRT-PCR results are consistent with the general expression patterns of those genes from the Illumina sequencing. These data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that might increase our understanding of the Huoyan goose's reproductive biology. PMID:25419838

  13. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  14. Situated Motives of Lay Participants in Community Collaboratives for Children's Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Potter, Deborah Anne

    2016-02-01

    Publicly funded programs in many industrialized countries increasingly require the participation of citizens. In this article, I explore the "situated motives" of family members who participated alongside professionals in implementing children's mental health programs in two communities in the United States. I conducted in-depth interviews with family members and observed monthly meetings of Community Collaboratives to assess how family members understood their participation. The inductive data analysis demonstrates that family members participated (a) as a therapeutic outlet, (b) to pay it forward, (c) to gain new skills, (d) to have a voice, and/or (e) to empower the community. I then use Giddens' concepts of "life politics" and "emancipatory politics" to explore how these accounts variously reflected lay members' orientations as consumers, empowered individuals, and/or citizen advocates. In the absence of articulated and specific objectives for family participation, these "situated motives" were salient and had implications for how policy was implemented. PMID:25646002

  15. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  16. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  17. Understanding Space, Understanding Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouberg, Erin Hogan

    2002-01-01

    In this time of geopolitical uncertainty, one question that arises repeatedly is how will citizenship be affected by changes in sovereignty? This paper uses the concepts of spaces of dependence and spaces of engagement to understand both formal and substantive citizenship on American Indian reservations in the United States. By studying the…

  18. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings…

  19. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  20. "Picturing" Lay Ministry: Photovoice and Participatory Group Spiritual Gifts Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefz, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    The "Picturing Lay Ministry" project uses the visual methodology of photovoice as a way of generating participatory laity discernment around the topics of calling, rural ministry, and spiritual gifts. The project involves working with curriculum action research embedded within one-day ministry discernment events for laity. Measurement…

  1. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  2. 7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core of the 105-B pile. This view is towards the rear of the pile. The gun barrels can be seen protruding into the pile. D-3047 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  3. AIDS: Lay Perceptions of a Group of Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurink, Evanthe; Schurink, W. J.

    A research design was devised that allowed for the employment of a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods in the collection of data on a group of homosexual men's lay perceptions of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and those social processes at work in coping with the threat of this terminal disease. The research was…

  4. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  5. Lay Leadership in Catholic Schools: Dimensions and Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert R.

    The declining number of priests and nuns as teachers in Catholic schools, combined with the increasing emphasis placed on the role of the laity is shifting responsibility for leadership in Catholic schools to lay persons. The impact of this shift is being experienced in three areas: a new vision of the "ministry of teaching" which places lay…

  6. Lay Psychology Books as an Aid to Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Counseling strategies employed by practitioners have, by necessity, often been the result of subjective observation and intuition. This article discusses a "common sense" technique--the use of lay psychology books--and proposes guidelines for use of the procedure as a viable counseling strategy. (Author)

  7. A Long-Term Study of Science Literacy and Attitudes Towards Science: Exploring Changes Among College Undergraduate and Public Understanding over Twenty-Two Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, C.; Antonellis, J.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    Assessing science literacy has been an important goal of science educators and policy makers for many years. Various studies including international, school, and public comparisons have painted a bleak picture of science literacy in the United States. We are conducting a study focused on undergraduates’ science literacy using a database of over 10,000 student responses from a large research university collected over a twenty-two year period, between 1989 - 2011. Survey questions were derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators), some of which are still used in public assessments of science literacy. Analysis has shown that our university students outperform the public on almost all topics on the survey. Despite targeted university interventions and the rise of public access to knowledge, student science literacy scores have not changed over twenty-two years. Demographic variables explain less than 10% of the variance in students’ scores of which the number of university science courses completed is the best predictor. There is a small correlation between students’ beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon and lower science literacy scores but students’ beliefs about science and technology also explain little variance in their overall scores. We have also compared responses of scientists and students on the same questions about science. We will discuss implications of evaluating students’ scientific knowledge in a time when students have access to more resources than ever before, an important goal as we continue to work towards increasing students’ understanding of scientific concepts. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the

  8. Understanding Standards and Assessment Policy in Science Education: Relating and Exploring Variations in Policy Implementation by Districts and Teachers in Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kevin John Boyett

    Current literature shows that many science teachers view policies of standards-based and test-based accountability as conflicting with research-based instruction in science education. With societal goals of improving scientific literacy and using science to spur economic growth, improving science education policy becomes especially important. To understand perceived influences of science education policy, this study looked at three questions: 1) How do teachers perceive state science standards and assessment and their influence on curriculum and instruction? 2) How do these policy perspectives vary by district and teacher level demographic and contextual differences? 3) How do district leaders' interpretations of and efforts within these policy realms relate to teachers' perceptions of the policies? To answer these questions, this study used a stratified sample of 53 districts across Wisconsin, with 343 middle school science teachers responding to an online survey; science instructional leaders from each district were also interviewed. Survey results were analyzed using multiple regression modeling, with models generally predicting 8-14% of variance in teacher perceptions. Open-ended survey and interview responses were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results suggested that many teachers saw state testing as limiting use of hands-on pedagogy, while standards were seen more positively. Teachers generally held similar views of the degree of influence of standards and testing regardless of their experience, background in science, credentials, or grade level taught. District SES, size and past WKCE scores had some limited correlations to teachers' views of policy, but teachers' perceptions of district policies and leadership consistently had the largest correlation to their views. District leadership views of these state policies correlated with teachers' views. Implications and future research directions are provided. Keywords: science education, policy

  9. A Short Guide to Understanding Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubadeau, Duane O.; And Others

    This four-part guide is designed to help community college instructors understand and respond to individual differences in their students. First, the preface lays out a framework for an in-depth examination of individual learning differences by posing the following questions: (1) Is learning a single function or a composite of different types of…

  10. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

  11. Social injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the attitudes towards suicide of lay persons in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2011-01-01

    One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants' view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study. PMID:22065981

  12. Passerines may be sufficiently plastic to track temperature-mediated shifts in optimum lay date.

    PubMed

    Phillimore, Albert B; Leech, David I; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2016-10-01

    Projecting the fates of populations under climate change is one of global change biology's foremost challenges. Here, we seek to identify the contributions that temperature-mediated local adaptation and plasticity make to spatial variation in nesting phenology, a phenotypic trait showing strong responses to warming. We apply a mixed modeling framework to a Britain-wide spatiotemporal dataset comprising >100 000 records of first egg dates from four single-brooded passerine bird species. The average temperature during a specific time period (sliding window) strongly predicts spatiotemporal variation in lay date. All four species exhibit phenological plasticity, advancing lay date by 2-5 days °C(-1) . The initiation of this sliding window is delayed further north, which may be a response to a photoperiod threshold. Using clinal trends in phenology and temperature, we are able to estimate the temperature sensitivity of selection on lay date (B), but our estimates are highly sensitive to the temporal position of the sliding window. If the sliding window is of fixed duration with a start date determined by photoperiod, we find B is tracked by phenotypic plasticity. If, instead, we allow the start and duration of the sliding window to change with latitude, we find plasticity does not track B, although in this case, at odds with theoretical expectations, our estimates of B differ across latitude vs. longitude. We argue that a model combining photoperiod and mean temperature is most consistent with current understanding of phenological cues in passerines, the results from which suggest that each species could respond to projected increases in spring temperatures through plasticity alone. However, our estimates of B require further validation. PMID:27173755

  13. Informed consent: towards improved lay-friendliness of patient information sheets.

    PubMed

    Pilegaard, Morten; Ravn, Hanne Berg

    2013-01-01

    Regional research ethics committee (REC) members have voiced a need for the linguistic improvement of informed consent documents to ensure duly informed consent and to ease committee deliberation. We have little knowledge of what elements of language use hamper comprehension, or of the extent of medical researchers' appreciation of this problem and their willingness to accept intervention. This qualitative, explorative study proposes an intervention design and tests its feasibility and acceptability. Semi-structured interviews with potential REC applicants informed a linguistic intervention benchmarked against existing guidelines, mandated locally and nationally, and then evaluated quantitatively in a semi-controlled set-up and qualitatively via questionnaires. Potential applicants professed the psychological acceptability of linguistic intervention. The intervention comprised a downloadable Microsoft Word template outlining information structure, a detailed guideline offering advice for each move and self-selected linguistic screening. It was used by 14 applicants and had a measurable effect on REC deliberation time and approval rates. The intervention instruments overall made it easier for applicants to produce informed consent documents meeting prescribed ethical standards concerning lay-friendliness. In conclusion, it was found that linguistic intervention is relevant, feasible and psychologically acceptable to REC applicants; it aids their text production process and seems to enhance the lay-friendliness of these texts. PMID:25233558

  14. From dose rate to websites: making measurements accessible, understandable and helpful to the lay public.

    PubMed

    Zähringer, M; Luff, R; Schiesewitz, M; Burbeck, S; Högg, R

    2014-08-01

    The key role of public information in emergency preparedness has more recently been corroborated by the experience of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP. Information should meet quality criteria such as openness, accessibility and authenticity. Existing information portals of radiation monitoring networks were frequently used even in Europe, although there was no imminent radiation risk. BfS responded by increasing the polling frequency, publishing current data not validated, refurbishing the website of the BfS 'odlinfo.bfs.de' and adding explanatory text. Public feedback served as a valuable input for improving the site's design. Additional services were implemented for developers of smart phone apps. Websites similar to 'ODLInfo' are available both on European and international levels. NGOs and grass root projects established platforms for uploading and visualising private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 March 2011. The BfS site is compared with other platforms. Government information has to compete with non-official sources. Options on information strategies are discussed. PMID:24993007

  15. Controlling Egg Contamination by Understanding Salmonella Enteritidis Infections in Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, public health authorities have reported the transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers of internally contaminated eggs produced by infected hens. Egg contamination is both a cause of food-borne human illness and a principal diagnostic criterion for identifying in...

  16. CONTROLLING EGG CONTAMINATION BY UNDERSTANDING SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS INFECTIONS IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, public health authorities have reported the transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers of internally contaminated eggs produced by infected hens. Egg contamination is both a cause of food-borne human illness and a principal diagnostic criterion for identifying in...

  17. Beliefs of Health Care Providers, Lay Health Care Providers and Lay Persons in Nigeria Regarding Hypertension. A Systematic Mixed Studies Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinlua, James Tosin; Meakin, Richard; Fadahunsi, Philip; Freemantle, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a major health risk factor for mortality globally, resulting in about 13% of deaths worldwide. In Nigeria, the high burden of hypertension remains an issue for urgent attention. The control of hypertension, among other factors, is strongly determined by personal beliefs about the illness and recommended treatment. Objective The aim of this review is to systematically synthesize available data from all types of studies on beliefs of the Nigerian populace about hypertension Methods We searched the following electronic databases; Medline, EMBase, PsycInfo, AMED from their inception till date for all relevant articles. A modified Kleinman’s explanatory model for hypertension was used as a framework for extraction of data on beliefs about hypertension. Results The search yielded a total of 3,794 hits from which 16 relevant studies (2 qualitative, 11 quantitative and 3 mixed methods studies) met the inclusion criteria for the review. Overall, most health care providers (HCPs) believe that stress is a major cause of hypertension. Furthermore, reported cut-off point for uncomplicated hypertension differed widely among HCPs. Lay Health Care Providers such as Patent Medicine Vendors’ beliefs about hypertension seem to be relatively similar to health care professionals in areas of risk factors for hypertension, course of hypertension and methods of treatment. Among Lay persons, misconception about hypertension was quite high. Although some Nigerians believed that life style habits such as alcohol intake, exercise levels, cigarette smoking were risk factors for developing hypertension, there was discordance between belief and practice of control of risk factors. However, beliefs across numerous ethnic groups and settings (urban/rural) in Nigeria have not been explored. Conclusion In order to achieve control of hypertension in Nigeria, interventions should be informed, among other factors, by adequate knowledge of beliefs regarding hypertension

  18. Mars exploration planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Buoni, Corinne; Niehoff, John

    1993-01-01

    Mars exploration planning is discussed which is based on three scientific objectives: to understand Mars' geologic and geophysical evolution; to understand the present state and past evolution of Martian climate, and to determine the state of present biological activity and past life. The plan assumes a 25-year planning horizon, from 1995-2020, and includes both broad-scale and local exploration capabilities.

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-37 - Keel laying date-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Keel laying date-TB/ALL. 30.10-37 Section 30.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-37 Keel laying date—TB/ALL. The term keel laying date means the date upon which...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-37 - Keel laying date-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Keel laying date-TB/ALL. 30.10-37 Section 30.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-37 Keel laying date—TB/ALL. The term keel laying date means the date upon which...

  1. Thy hydrolysis of phytate phosphorus by chicks and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T S

    1976-11-01

    The chromic oxide balance method was used to determine the amount of natural phytate phosphorus hydrolyzed by chicks and laying hens. Broiler chicks 4 and 9 weeks old and Single Comb White Leghorn hens were fed diets containing corn as the only grain source or diets in which wheat replaced one half of the corn. Feces were collected twice daily during the 7-day test period. The phytate phosphorus recovered in the feces of the 4 and 9 week old chicks and the laying hens fed the diet containing corn was 100, 98, and 92%. When wheat replaced one half of the corn the recovery was 92, 87 and 87%. The phytase activity in wheat was minimal in vivo; whereas, in vitro tests indicated enzyme activity. PMID:1019083

  2. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2014-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented. PMID:21986244

  3. Health and Welfare in Dutch Organic Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Bestman, Monique; Wagenaar, Jan-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands to establish how farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which factors affected health and welfare. Abstract From 2007–2008, data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Our aim was to investigate how organic egg farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which farm factors affected this performance. The flocks in our study were kept on farms with 34 to 25,000 hens (average 9,300 hens). Seventy-one percent of the flocks consisted of ‘silver hybrids’: white hens that lay brown eggs. Fifty-five percent of the flocks were kept in floor-based housing and 45% of the flocks in aviaries. No relation was found between the amount of time spent outdoors during the laying period and mortality at 60 weeks. Flocks that used their outdoor run more intensively had better feather scores. In 40% of the flocks there was mortality caused by predators. The average feed intake was 129 g/day at 30 weeks and 133 g/day at 60 weeks of age. The average percentage of mislaid eggs decreased from three at 30 weeks to two at 60 weeks. The average mortality was 7.8% at 60 weeks. Twenty-five percent of the flocks were not treated for worms in their first 50 weeks. Flubenol© was applied to the flocks that were treated. Ten percent of the flocks followed Flubenol© instructions for use and were wormed five or more times. The other 65% percent were treated irregularly between one and four times. Sixty-eight percent of the flocks showed little or no feather damage, 24% showed moderate damage and 8% showed severe damage. The feather score was better if the hens used the free-range area more intensely, the laying percentage at 60 weeks was higher, and if they were allowed to go

  4. Connecting Robots and Humans in Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Louis

    2000-07-01

    Mars exploration is a very special public interest. It's preeminence in the national space policy calling for "sustained robotic presence on the surface," international space policy (witness the now aborted international plan for sample return, and also aborted Russian "national Mars program") and the media attention to Mars exploration are two manifestations of that interest. Among a large segment of the public there is an implicit (mis)understanding that we are sending humans to Mars. Even among those who know that isn't already a national or international policy, many think it is the next human exploration goal. At the same time the resources for Mars exploration in the U.S. and other country's space programs are a very small part of space budgets. Very little is being applied to direct preparations for human flight. This was true before the 1999 mission losses in the United States, and it is more true today. The author's thesis is that the public interest and the space program response to Mars exploration are inconsistent. This inconsistency probably results from an explicit space policy contradiction: Mars exploration is popular because of the implicit pull of Mars as the target for human exploration, but no synergy is permitted between the human and robotic programs to carry out the program. It is not permitted because of narrow, political thinking. In this paper we try to lay out the case for overcoming that thinking, even while not committing to any premature political initiative. This paper sets out a rationale for Mars exploration and uses it to then define recommended elements of the programs: missions, science objectives, technology. That consideration is broader than the immediate issue of recovering from the failures of Mars Climate OrbIter, Mars Polar Lander and the Deep Space 2 microprobes in late 1999. But we cannot ignore those failures. They are causing a slow down Mars exploration. Not only were the three missions lost, with their planned

  5. The relationship between lay and technical views of Escherichia coli O157 risk

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, N. J. C.; Hunter, C. J.; Jones, C. D. R.; Wilson, R. S.; Ethelberg, S.; Cross, P.; Williams, A. P.; MacRitchie, L.; Rotariu, O.; Chadwick, D.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we bring together and contrast lay (accessible primarily through social science methodologies) and technical (via risk assessment and epidemiological techniques) views of the risk associated with the Escherichia coli O157 pathogen using two case study areas in the Grampian region of Scotland, and North Wales. Epidemiological risk factors of contact with farm animals, visiting farms or farm fields and having a private water supply were associated with postcode districts of higher than average disease incidence in the human population. However, this was not the case for the epidemiological risk factor of consumption of beef burgers, which was independent of disease incidence in the postcode district of residence. The proportion of the population expressing a high knowledge of E. coli O157 was greatest in high-incidence disease districts compared with low-incidence areas (17% cf. 7%). This supports the hypothesis that in high-disease-incidence areas, residents are regularly exposed to information about the disease through local cases, the media, local social networks, etc. or perhaps that individuals are more likely to be motivated to find out about it. However, no statistically significant difference was found between high- and low-incidence postcode districts in terms of the proportion of the population expressing a high likelihood of personal risk of infection (10% cf. 14%), giving a counterintuitive difference between the technical (epidemiological and quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA)) and the lay assessment of E. coli O157 risk. This suggests that lay evaluations of E. coli O157 risk reflect intuitive and experience-based estimates of the risk rather than probabilistic estimates. A generally strong correspondence was found in terms of the rank order given to potential infection pathways, with environment and foodborne infection routes dominating when comparing public understanding with technical modelling results. Two general conclusions

  6. 52. Photocopied August 1978. LAYING THE CORNER STONE (FIRST PREMOULDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopied August 1978. LAYING THE CORNER STONE (FIRST PRE-MOULDED CONCRETE BLOCK) OF THE POWER HOUSE, SEPTEMBER 10, 1900. THE BLOCK IS BEING PLACED ON ONE OF THE MONOLITHIC TAIL RACE (TAIL PIT) BASES. VON SCHON MAY BE THE THIRD PERSON FROM THE RIGHT IN THE CENTER OF THE PICTURE (IN THE GRAY SUIT). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  7. The Expert and the Lay Public: Reflections on Influenza A (H1N1) and the Risk Society

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Trust between the lay public and scientific experts is a key element to ensuring the efficient implementation of emergency public health measures. In modern risk societies, the management and elimination of risk have become preeminent drivers of public policy. In this context, the protection of public trust is a complex task. Those actors involved in public health decision-making and implementation (e.g., mass vaccination for influenza A virus) are confronted with growing pressures and responsibility to act. However, they also need to accept the limits of their own expertise and recognize the ability of lay publics to understand and be responsible for public health. Such a shared responsibility for risk management, if grounded in participative public debates, can arguably strengthen public trust in public health authorities and interventions. PMID:22397338

  8. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    PubMed

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. PMID:26240390

  9. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief. PMID:23489589

  10. Defining workplace bullying behaviour professional lay definitions of workplace bullying.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Paula; Huynh, Amy; Goodman-Delahunty, Jane

    2007-01-01

    As is commonly the case in new areas of research, workplace bullying researchers and practitioners have struggled to establish a single agreed-upon definition of this phenomenon. As a consequence, there are numerous definitions of workplace bullying currently in use around the world to investigate this serious workplace issue, to educate the workforce about this form of harassment and to assess claims involving allegations of workplace bullying. Additionally, little is known about how employees and people in general define workplace bullying behaviour, and whether current researcher, practitioner and legal definitions coincide with lay definitions of bullying. To compare researcher, practitioner and legal definitions of workplace bullying with lay definitions, the content of definitions composed by adults from diverse personal and professional backgrounds (N=1095) was analysed. Results confirmed that components commonly used by researchers and practitioners, including the occurrence of harmful and negative workplace behaviours, were frequently cited by participants as central defining components of bullying behaviour. In addition, lay definitions often included themes of fairness and respect. The emergence of these themes has important consequences for organisations responding to, and attempting to prevent the occurrence of workplace bullying behaviour in that organisations in which bullying is tolerated may violate both local laws as well as their ethical responsibility to provide employees with a safe, professional and respectful workplace. PMID:17692375

  11. A lay patient navigation training curriculum targeting disparities in cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Debbie Chatman; Williamson, Deborah; Cartmell, Kathleen; Jefferson, Melanie

    2011-12-01

    African-Americans experience a disproportionate share of thoracic cancer burden compared to Whites. Low socioeconomic status (SES) and race are factors in low clinical trial enrollment, accounting for the disparities between African-Americans and Whites. Less than 3% of newly diagnosed cancer patients enroll in clinical trials, and of that number, only 10% represent ethnic minorities. The value of clinical trials research is not generalizable without sufficient representation by ethnic minorities. Patient navigation, an intervention designed to ensure timely and efficient access to healthcare, may improve clinical trial enrollment among African-Americans in lung and esophageal trials by influencing a patient's perception of clinical trials. The lack of navigation programs and training may negatively influence standardization of navigation techniques. The purpose of this project was to deliver and evaluate an evidence-based navigation-training curriculum for "lay" navigators. The primary outcomes measured were confidence in the role as navigator, understanding a navigator's role, and knowledge and perception of clinical trials. The results revealed overall confidence in the role as lay navigators increased from pre-to-post test. Lessons learned included the need for preparatory classes to build the navigator's confidence, and additional training components in death and dying. A larger study is warranted to confirm the findings. PMID:23061182

  12. Odyssey's end: lay conceptions of nostalgia reflect its original Homeric meaning.

    PubMed

    Hepper, Erica G; Ritchie, Timothy D; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2012-02-01

    Nostalgia fulfills pivotal functions for individuals, but lacks an empirically derived and comprehensive definition. We examined lay conceptions of nostalgia using a prototype approach. In Study 1, participants generated open-ended features of nostalgia, which were coded into categories. In Study 2, participants rated the centrality of these categories, which were subsequently classified as central (e.g., memories, relationships, happiness) or peripheral (e.g., daydreaming, regret, loneliness). Central (as compared with peripheral) features were more often recalled and falsely recognized (Study 3), were classified more quickly (Study 4), were judged to reflect more nostalgia in a vignette (Study 5), better characterized participants' own nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences (Study 6), and prompted higher levels of actual nostalgia and its intrapersonal benefits when used to trigger a personal memory, regardless of age (Study 7). These findings highlight that lay people view nostalgia as a self-relevant and social blended emotional and cognitive state, featuring a mixture of happiness and loss. The findings also aid understanding of nostalgia's functions and identify new methods for future research. PMID:21859192

  13. Incubating knowledge: A critical exploration with teachers studying live chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchwerk, Susan I.

    This thesis documents a professional development workshop conducted with eight teachers who worked at Drumlin Farm, an outdoor education center, organic farm and wildlife sanctuary (Appendix C). The participants studied live chickens for eight consecutive workshop sessions. Seven years later the same group met for two follow-up sessions to discuss the effects of the workshop on their teaching practice. The workshop and follow-up sessions were conducted using a teaching-research method developed by Eleanor Duckworth called critical exploration (Duckworth, in press). In this thesis, findings from the eight-week workshop and the two followup sessions are documented in a narrative format showing how and what individuals and the group as a whole, came to understand from studying live chickens, as well as the process and application of the critical exploration method. Over the course of the workshop and the follow-up sessions, group explorations focused on the biological concept of broodiness (the desire to sit, tend, and hatch eggs) in domestic laying hens. In the process of developing and investigating their questions about broodiness, the participants developed and used a scientific process. Their experiences as learners in critical exploration with chickens as the subject matter, resulted in participants both thinking about, and modifying, their ideas about teaching and learning.

  14. Disseminating skills to carers of people with eating disorders: an examination of treatment fidelity in lay and professional carer coaches

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Pamela; Hibbs, Rebecca; Rhind, Charlotte; Harrison, Amy; Goddard, Elizabeth; Raenker, Simone; Todd, Gill; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Family members of people with eating disorders (EDs) have high levels of stress and can use maladaptive methods of coping. We have developed an intervention, using motivational interviewing (MI) strategies that trains lay and professional carer coaches (CCs) to support carers of adolescents with EDs to use more adaptive coping procedures. The aim of this study is to measure treatment integrity in coaches with either academic or lived experience. Eleven coaches were trained and supervised by an expert trainer and an ‘expert by experience’ trainer. Six of the coaches had prior training in clinical work and/or psychology and five had personal experience of supporting a loved one with an ED. Two audio-taped sessions (Sessions 3 and 7) from each family coached (n = 22) were assessed for fidelity to MI. Half the sessions (50% n = 11) had a Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity global score above the suggested cut-off for recommended competency. Prior clinical training was related to higher treatment fidelity and experiential training (having coached a greater number of families) improved treatment fidelity in the lay carer group. These preliminary findings suggest that: “lay CCs” can be trained to deliver an intervention based on MI. Further exploration of a more effective means of training, monitoring and supervision is required to maximise the quality of the intervention. PMID:25750802

  15. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  16. School Science, Citizenship and the Public Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, E. W.

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of public understanding of science conducted in many countries provide important insights into the extent to which lay citizens understand important scientific concepts, and the ways in which they seek and use scientific knowledge. Identifies some dimensions of "citizen science" and examines their implications…

  17. Identification and Differential Expression of microRNAs in Ovaries of Laying and Broody Geese (Anser cygnoides) by Solexa Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yang; Tong, Yi-Yu; Rong, Guang-Hui; Huang, Zheng-Yang; Zhao, Rong-Xue; Zhao, Wen-Ming; Wu, Xin-sheng; Chang, Guo- Bin; Chen, Guo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent functional studies have demonstrated that the microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in ovarian gonadal development, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and ovulation in mammals. However, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in the ovarian function of fowl. The goose (Anas cygnoides) is a commercially important food that is cultivated widely in China but the goose industry has been hampered by high broodiness and poor egg laying performance, which are influenced by ovarian function. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the miRNA transcriptomes of ovaries from laying and broody geese were profiled using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics was used to determine differential expression of the miRNAs. As a result, 11,350,396 and 9,890,887 clean reads were obtained in laying and broodiness goose, respectively, and 1,328 conserved known miRNAs and 22 novel potential miRNA candidates were identified. A total of 353 conserved microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between laying and broody ovaries. Compared with miRNA expression in the laying ovary, 127 miRNAs were up-regulated and 126 miRNAs were down-regulated in the ovary of broody birds. A subset of the differentially expressed miRNAs (G-miR-320, G-miR-202, G-miR-146, and G-miR-143*) were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, 130,458 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative target genes. Gene ontology annotation and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in ovarian function, including hormone secretion, reproduction processes and so on. Conclusions The present study provides the first global miRNA transcriptome data in A. cygnoides and identifies novel and known miRNAs that are differentially expressed between the ovaries of laying and broody geese. These findings contribute to our understanding of the functional involvement of miRNAs in the broody

  18. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Frito Lay's Electric Delivery Trucks (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 medium-duty Smith Newton electric vehicles (EVs) and 10 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Frito Lay North America in the Seattle, Washington, area. Launched in late 2013, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data, such as fuel economy and maintenance costs, to better understand how to optimize the use of such vehicles in a large-scale commercial operation. In addition to the on-road portion of this evaluation, NREL is analyzing charging data to support total cost of ownership estimations and investigations into smart charging opportunities. NREL is also performing a battery life degradation analysis to quantify battery pack health, track battery performance over time, and determine how various drive cycles and battery charging protocols impact battery life.

  19. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the bacteriology of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems using Hy-Line W-37 white and Hy-Line brown laying hens. On sampling days for Experiment 1, 2, and 3, twenty eggs were collected from each p...

  20. High-throughput sequencing reveals differential expression of miRNAs in prehierarchal follicles of laying and brooding geese

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; He, Ke; Ren, Ting; Lou, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Broodiness is the primary factor influencing egg production in geese, in which several genes and miRNAs participate. Detailed spatiotemporal profiles of miRNAs encompassing follicle development levels, however, are lacking. In this study, we collected preovulatory follicles (classified as small white follicles, large white follicles, and small yellow follicles) from brooding and laying geese and aimed to analyze microRNA (miRNA or miR) during folliculogenesis. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were used to identify the miRNAs involved in follicle development. The let7 family, miR-10 family, and miR-143 family were abundant in these libraries, and they have been suggested to play a housekeeping role during folliculogenesis. Joint comparisons revealed 23 upregulated and 21 downregulated miRNAs (in at least two comparisons of follicles during brooding and laying, P < 0.1) in the laying stage. Unlike reproduction pathways reported for ovaries, GO and KEGG analysis suggested pathways for cell apoptosis and proliferation, such as the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis, axon guidance, pathways in cancer, tight junctions, focal adhesion, the MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and the Wnt signaling pathway in folliculogenesis. This study revealed the miRNAs that were directly involved in follicular atresia, and our results added to the understanding of the functional involvement of miRNAs during specific stages of follicle development. PMID:27199452

  1. High-throughput sequencing reveals differential expression of miRNAs in prehierarchal follicles of laying and brooding geese.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; He, Ke; Ren, Ting; Lou, Yaping; Zhao, Ayong

    2016-07-01

    Broodiness is the primary factor influencing egg production in geese, in which several genes and miRNAs participate. Detailed spatiotemporal profiles of miRNAs encompassing follicle development levels, however, are lacking. In this study, we collected preovulatory follicles (classified as small white follicles, large white follicles, and small yellow follicles) from brooding and laying geese and aimed to analyze microRNA (miRNA or miR) during folliculogenesis. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were used to identify the miRNAs involved in follicle development. The let7 family, miR-10 family, and miR-143 family were abundant in these libraries, and they have been suggested to play a housekeeping role during folliculogenesis. Joint comparisons revealed 23 upregulated and 21 downregulated miRNAs (in at least two comparisons of follicles during brooding and laying, P < 0.1) in the laying stage. Unlike reproduction pathways reported for ovaries, GO and KEGG analysis suggested pathways for cell apoptosis and proliferation, such as the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis, axon guidance, pathways in cancer, tight junctions, focal adhesion, the MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and the Wnt signaling pathway in folliculogenesis. This study revealed the miRNAs that were directly involved in follicular atresia, and our results added to the understanding of the functional involvement of miRNAs during specific stages of follicle development. PMID:27199452

  2. Lay workers in directly observed treatment (DOT) programmes for tuberculosis in high burden settings: Should they be paid? A review of behavioural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kironde, Samson; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2002-08-01

    The current global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic has pressured health care managers, particularly in developing countries, to seek for alternative, innovative ways of delivering effective treatment to the large number of TB patients diagnosed annually. One strategy employed is direct observation of treatment (DOT) for all patients. In high-burden settings innovation with this strategy has resulted into the use of lay community members to supervise TB patients during the duration of anti-TB treatment. However, community involvement in health programmes is not a simple matter. There is often a need for continued motivation of community members in order to ensure sustainability of such projects. Lay workers may demand payment for work done particularly if this takes up a reasonable proportion of their time. TB treatment, by its very nature, lasts for a considerable period and this paper seeks to examine behavioural perspectives that attempt to address the issue of whether lay workers in such programmes should be paid for their services. The theories explored suggest intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as factors that lead people to volunteer for health programmes. Intrinsic motivation encompasses such feelings as empathy and altruism as well as other factors such as religious and cultural conviction. The authors argue however that in high-burden TB settings, these factors alone may be inadequate to provide continued motivation for lay worker involvement in health programmes. Extrinsic motivators, of which money is the strongest example, then also serve to keep sustained interest particularly in resource-limited settings where people expect payment for work done. The debate on whether lay workers in health programmes should be paid is thus compounded by issues such as what factors one believes are responsible for motivation in particular contextual settings; how long lay persons are expected to perform tasks at hand; the capacity that exists to pay them and the

  3. Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  4. Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (natuzyme) in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Choi, Y I; Moon, E J; Oh, S T; Lee, H H; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2014-12-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers' diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  5. ...as the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory lays off staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The severe cuts in the US government's support for science that occurred late last year continue to reverberate through the country's high-energy-physics community. In late May the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the country's main designer of nuclear weapons, laid off 440 employees after too few had accepted its offer of redundancy packages. Meanwhile, Fermilab near Chicago has given 750 of its 1900 employees an offer of redundancy in the hope that 140 will accept. If fewer than this number choose this option voluntarily, then Fermilab will have to conduct its own lay-offs.

  6. Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS): a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    treat. Qualitative research will explore the POWs' daily work in context. This will complement the findings of the RCT through a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data on the process of the intervention, and identify other contextual factors that affect the implementation of the intervention. Discussion The trial will provide high quality evidence as to whether or not lay support (POW) offered to women identified with social risk factors improves engagement with maternity services and reduces numbers of women with depression. MREC number 10/H1207/23 Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN35027323 PMID:22375895

  7. Mass depopulation of laying hens in whole barns with liquid carbon dioxide: evaluation of welfare impact.

    PubMed

    Turner, P V; Kloeze, H; Dam, A; Ward, D; Leung, N; Brown, E E L; Whiteman, A; Chiappetta, M E; Hunter, D B

    2012-07-01

    Appropriate emergency disaster preparedness is a key priority for agricultural agencies to allow effective response to serious avian disease outbreaks. There is a need to develop rapid, humane, and safe depopulation techniques for poultry that are widely applicable across a range of farm settings. Whole barn depopulation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been investigated as a humane and efficient means of killing large numbers of birds in the event of a reportable disease outbreak. It has also been considered as a method for depopulating barns containing end-of-lay hens, particularly when there is limited local slaughter and rendering capacity. Determining the best method of humanely killing large flocks of birds remains problematic and is being investigated by a coordinated international effort. While whole barn depopulation using CO(2) inhalation has been explored, physiologic responses of chickens have not been characterized in field settings and assessment of animal welfare is hampered without this information. In this study, 12 cull laying hens were surgically instrumented with telemetry transmitters to record electroencephalographs, electrocardiographs, body temperature, and activity during 2 large-scale field CO(2) euthanasia trials of end-of-lay hens. The day following surgery, instrumented hens were placed in barns with other birds, barns were sealed, and animals were killed by CO(2) inhalation delivered via a specially designed liquid CO(2) manifold. Instrumented birds were monitored by infrared thermography, and ambient temperature, CO(2), and O(2) concentrations were recorded. Results from these studies indicate that instrumented hens lost consciousness within 2 min of CO(2) levels reaching 18 to 20%. Mild to moderate head shaking, gasping, and 1 to 2 clonic muscle contractions were noted in hens before unconsciousness; however, brain death followed rapidly (<5 min). Evaluation of welfare costs and benefits suggest clear advantages over catching and

  8. Effects of dietary oxidized oil on laying performance, lipid metabolism, and apolipoprotein gene expression in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yue, H Y; Wang, J; Qi, X L; Ji, F; Liu, M F; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Qi, G H

    2011-08-01

    We studied the effects of dietary oxidized oils on serum lipid metabolic indices, estradiol level, and the gene expression of apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein VLDL-II in laying hens. Hy-Line Grey hens (280 ± 10 d old; average egg production, 90.0 ± 2.5%) were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments, which were supplemented with 0 (control group), 1% (low oxidized group), 2% (moderately oxidized group), or 4% (highly oxidized group) thermally oxidized soybean oil. Each treatment contained 6 replicates, with 12 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 30 d. Laying performance data were recorded weekly. Other indices were measured on d 0, 2, 6, 14, and 30 of the feeding trial. Hens in the moderately and highly oxidized groups had significantly lowered feed conversion ratios (P < 0.05). Those in the highly oxidized group also had decreased concentrations of serum very low density lipoprotein cholesterol on d 30 (P < 0.05) compared with the very low density lipoprotein cholesterol of hens in the moderately oxidized group. Hens in the moderately oxidized group had significantly increased expression of apolipoprotein B-100 (P < 0.05) from d 6 to 30. Consequently, hepatic triglyceride increased in this group on d 30 (P < 0.05). Serum triglyceride decreased in the moderately oxidized group on d 30 (P < 0.05), which may have been caused by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor α. Serum estradiol levels were not significantly affected by oxidized oils at any time of measurement, but were significantly different between d 0 and 30 within the moderately oxidized group. This fact indicated that the effect of oxidized oils on apolipoprotein B-100 might partially be a cumulative result of the increasing secretion of estradiol. The results suggested that oxidized oil may affect the performance of laying hens through the regulation of apolipoproteins and estradiol. PMID:21753210

  9. Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

  10. Buddhist thought and nursing: a hermeneutic exploration.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Graham; Raffin-Bouchal, Shelley; Moules, Nancy J

    2012-04-01

    In this paper I lay out the ground for a creative dialogue between Buddhist thought and contemporary nursing. I start from the observation that in tracing an arc from the existential human experience of suffering to finding compassionate responses to suffering in everyday practice Buddhist thought already appears to present significant affinities with nursing as a practice discipline. I discuss some of the complexities of entering into a cross-cultural dialogue, which is already well under way in the working out of Western forms of Buddhism, and which is beginning to be reflected in nursing literature. I introduce philosophical hermeneutics as a useful framework for elaborating an open and constructive exchange. I then discuss key Mahayana Buddhist concepts of emptiness and two truths that lead to a dynamic and open way of understanding reality and responding in the world. I turn to examples of original texts to give a flavour of the varied and distinctive forms of literature in the Buddhist tradition. This is intended partly to keep the reader alert to cultural difference (from a Western standpoint, that is) while exploring the creative potential of Buddhist thought. Hermeneutics again provides a framework for interpretation. This paper establishes a philosophical ground for a critical and creative dialogue between Buddhist thought and nursing. PMID:22405016

  11. Laying, operating innovations pace move to deeper water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Innovations driven by the offshore industry's move into deeper, colder water and its continuing demand for solid operating research were highlighted in technical papers presented at the 26th Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, May 2--5. For pipe line connecting and laying operations, there were discussions concerning: a diverless jumper connector system for two 12-in. lines to be carried out in 2,130 ft water depth; what's believed to be the first near vertical, deepwater, J-lay project, conducted in 2,860 ft of water; first year results from operation of a prototype subsea, ROV-controlled, lightweight pipe line trencher for flexible lines. In operating research, scientists reported on new laboratory test apparatus and results designed to investigate wax deposition and gel strength of waxy live crude oils. Operators, perhaps for the first time, have data on the impact of oil bubble point, flowrate and paraffin inhibitor on wax deposition and the impact of oil bubble point and pipe size on the gel strength of waxy crudes, including both stock tank oils and live oils.

  12. Perspectives on Latino Lay Health Promoter Programs: Maryland, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Jaschek, Graciela; Martinez, Iveris L.; Brown, Pamela B.; Mora, Sonia E.; Newton, Nancy; Luciani, Ileana

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined common barriers and best practices in the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of Latino lay health promoter programs. Methods. Ten lay health promoter program coordinators serving Maryland Latinos were recruited in 2009 through snowball sampling for in-depth semistructured interviews with a bilingual and bicultural researcher. Program coordinators were asked about recruitment, selection, training, and supervision; key program elements; and evaluation. Analyses were conducted to identify common themes. Results. Respondents had worked up to 13 years in programs focused on such areas as awareness of healthy lifestyles and reducing risk of illness. Coordinators looked for Latino leaders with team-building skills and a desire to help the community. Six programs compensated promoters with stipends; 4 paid an hourly wage. Promoters were usually trained in monthly meetings that actively engaged them. Most programs conducted site visits, practice sessions, and performance evaluations. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that successful health promoter programs require needs assessments, formation of a target population advisory board, identification of appropriate promoters, and a significant amount of training. These findings can be used to guide future programs in the identification, recruitment, and training of health promoters as well as in program monitoring. PMID:22021305

  13. [Food value of spiruline algae for the laying hen].

    PubMed

    Blum, J C; Guillaumin, S; Calet, C

    1975-01-01

    The three diets (composition in table I) were isonitrogenous (16,4 p. 100 crude protein), similar in their content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, but with different levels of spiruline algae : 0 (control); 7.5 or 15 p. 100. Each diet was used for the feeding of 48 hybrid pullets of medium size during a 24-week test period (32 to 56 weeks). Egg production (table II) was slightly better (47.1 g/hen/day) with 7.5 p. 100 of spirulines, compared to the control (45.3 g/hen/day), the difference being significant (P less than 0.01). With 15 p. 100 of spirulines egg production was similar to that observed in the control, but the average egg weight was reduced (58.5 vs 60.5 g) as a result of a lower albumen content. The colour of the egg yolk (table IV) was very light in the controls, but was a deep orange (above the maximum in the Roch scale) with 7.5 or 15 p. 100 of spirulines in the laying hen diet. The diet consumption, feed conversion and live weight variations (table III) show that the energy level is no higher in laying hens (about 2 500 kcal M.E./kg spirulines) than in the broiler. PMID:825006

  14. Growing Fixed With Age: Lay Theories of Malleability Are Target Age-Specific.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Lassetter, Bethany

    2015-11-01

    Beliefs about whether people can change ("lay theories" of malleability) are known to have wide-ranging effects on social motivation, cognition, and judgment. Yet rather than holding an overarching belief that people can or cannot change, perceivers may hold independent beliefs about whether different people are malleable-that is, lay theories may be target-specific. Seven studies demonstrate that lay theories are target-specific with respect to age: Perceivers hold distinct, uncorrelated lay theories of people at different ages, and younger targets are considered to be more malleable than older targets. Both forms of target-specificity are consequential, as target age-specific lay theories predict policy support for learning-based senior services and the rehabilitation of old and young drug users. The implications of target age-specific lay theories for a number of psychological processes, the social psychology of aging, and theoretical frameworks of malleability beliefs are discussed. PMID:26351273

  15. Information Equity, Public Understanding of Science, and the Biotechnology Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Susanna Hornig

    1995-01-01

    States that media effects are largely long-term and indirect, and that lay publics associate more risk with science and technology in their social context than with the underlying science itself. Uses biotechnology to explore media effects issues. Concludes that the scientific community's interests would be better served by news addressing…

  16. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers’ and smokers’ smoking expectations

    PubMed Central

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:24155189

  17. Do Laying Hens with Keel Bone Fractures Experience Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Mohammed A. F.; Nicol, Christine J.; Murrell, Joanna C.

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  18. Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Nicol, Christine J; Murrell, Joanna C

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  19. The wealthy get healthy, the poor get poorly? Lay perceptions of health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rosemary; Kitzinger, Jenny; Hunt, Kate

    2006-05-01

    Research repeatedly identifies an association between health and socio-economic status-richer people are healthier than poorer people. Richard Wilkinson has posited that socio-psychological mechanisms may be part of the explanation for the fact that socio-economic inequalities run right across the social spectrum in wealthy societies. He argues that polarised income distributions within countries have a negative impact on stress, self-esteem and social relations which, in turn, impact on physical well-being. How people experience and perceive inequalities is central to his thesis. However, relatively little empirical work has explored such lay perceptions. We attempt to address this gap by exploring how people see inequality, how they theorise its impact on health, and the extent to which they make personal and social comparisons, by drawing on 14 focus group discussions in Scotland and the north of England. Contrary to other research which suggests that people from more deprived backgrounds are more reluctant to acknowledge the effects of socio-economic deprivation, our findings demonstrate that, in some contexts at least, people from less favourable circumstances converse in a way to suggest that inequalities deeply affect their health and well-being. We discuss these findings in the light of the methodological challenges presented for pursuing such research. PMID:16300870

  20. What do lay people want to know about the disposal of nuclear waste? A mental model approach to the design and development of an online risk communication.

    PubMed

    Skarlatidou, A; Cheng, T; Haklay, M

    2012-09-01

    Public participation requires the involvement of lay people in the decision-making processes of issues that concern them. It is currently practiced in a variety of domains, such as transport and environmental planning. Communicating risks can be a complex task, as there may be significant differences between the risk perceptions of experts and those of lay people. Among the plethora of problems that require public involvement is the site selection of a nuclear waste disposal site in the United Kingdom, which is discussed in this article. Previous ineffective attempts to locate a site provide evidence that the problem has a strong social dimension, and studies ascribe public opposition to a loss of public trust in governmental agencies and decisionmakers, and to a lack of public understanding of nuclear waste issues. Although the mental models approach has been successfully used in the effective communication of such risks as climate change, no attempt has been made to follow a prescriptive mental model approach to develop risk communication messages that inform lay people about nuclear waste disposal. After interviewing 20 lay people and 5 experts, we construct and compare their corresponding mental models to reveal any gaps and misconceptions. The mental models approach is further applied here to identify lay people's requirements regarding what they want to know about nuclear waste, and how this information should be presented so that it is easily understood. This article further describes how the mental models approach was used in the subsequent development of an online information system for the site selection of a nuclear waste repository in the United Kingdom, which is considered essential for the improvement of public understanding and the reestablishment of trust. PMID:22324812

  1. Egg-laying butterflies distinguish predaceous ants by sight.

    PubMed

    Sendoya, Sebastián F; Freitas, André V L; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2009-07-01

    Information about predation risks is critical for herbivorous insects, and natural selection favors their ability to detect predators before oviposition and to select enemy-free foliage when offspring mortality risk is high. Food plants are selected by ovipositing butterflies, and offspring survival frequently varies among plants because of variation in the presence of predators. Eunica bechina butterflies oviposit on Caryocar brasiliense, an ant-defended plant. Experiments with dried Camponotus and Cephalotes ants pinned to leaves revealed that butterflies use ant size and form as visual cues to avoid ovipositing on plant parts occupied by ants more likely to kill larval offspring. Presence of sap-sucking bugs did not affect butterfly oviposition. This is the first demonstration that visual recognition of predators can mediate egg-laying decisions by an insect herbivore and that an insect will discriminate among different species of potential predators. This unusual behavioral capability permits specialization on a risky, ant-defended food plant. PMID:19456265

  2. "How to spot a psychopath". Lay theories of psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Daoud, Yasmine; Swami, Viren

    2009-06-01

    The present study examined lay recognition of psychopathy and beliefs about the behavioural manifestations, aetiology, and treatments of psychopathy. A community sample of 232 participants completed a questionnaire consisting of a vignette-identification task, a ratings task of 45 attitudinal items about psychopathy, and demographics. Analysis of the vignette-identification data showed that participants were significantly less likely to correctly identify a case of psychopathy than they were of either depression or schizophrenia. Factors derived from principal components analysis of the attitudinal items revealed that participants generally believed psychopaths to be intelligent and to have criminal tendencies, and that psychopathy was likely caused by early trauma and stress. Overall, participants may have had monological beliefs about the manifestations, aetiology, and treatments of psychopathy. These results suggest that educational programmes are required to improve mental health literacy in relation to psychopathy among the general public. PMID:18982232

  3. Laying characteristics of one- and two-year old pheasants (Phasianus colchicus, L.).

    PubMed

    Krystianiak, Stanisława; Kontecka, Helena; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Rosiński, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The aim ofthe study was to assess laying traits, the weight of eggs and characters ofthe laying rhythm of pheasants in the first and second years of reproduction. Pheasants (10 cockerels and 50 hens) were kept in aviaries. Daily, individual control of laying was performed beginning with the day of the first laying and ending with the last egg. The following parameters were evaluated: age at first laying, length of the laying period, number of laid eggs and the average weight of the egg in the 8th week of laying. The laying rhythm was also assessed and comprised: the number of egg clutches, the number of eggs in a clutch, the number of eggs in the longest clutch, the number of intervals, the length of intervals and the longest interval between clutches. During the first period of reproduction, in comparison with the second, pheasants laid slightly more eggs of similar average weight. The first laying period was longer than the second and was characterised by a greater number of egg clutches and greater number of intervals between clutches. The greatest number of eggs was laid in 10-egg and longer clutches, although the l-egg clutches were the most numerous. A positive correlation was found between the number of eggs and the number of clutches, the greatest number of eggs in a clutch and the number of intervals between clutches. The similar values of the reproductive characters of one- and two-year old pheasants point to the possibility of longer utilization of these birds than only for one laying period. On the other hand, the considerable variability between the experimental hens with regard to the number and the length of egg clutches, as well as the intervals between them, indicate the possibility to carry out selection taking into account traits characterising the laying rhythm. PMID:17687936

  4. Cave spiders choose optimal environmental factors with respect to the generated entropy when laying their cocoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Lepore, Emiliano; Ventola, Luigi; Asinari, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a suitable area to spiders where to lay eggs is promoted in terms of Darwinian fitness. Despite its importance, the underlying factors behind this key decision are generally poorly understood. Here, we designed a multidisciplinary study based both on in-field data and laboratory experiments focusing on the European cave spider Meta menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) and aiming at understanding the selective forces driving the female in the choice of the depositional area. Our in-field data analysis demonstrated a major role of air velocity and distance from the cave entrance within a particular cave in driving the female choice. This has been interpreted using a model based on the Entropy Generation Minimization - EGM - method, without invoking best fit parameters and thanks to independent lab experiments, thus demonstrating that the female chooses the depositional area according to minimal level of thermo-fluid-dynamic irreversibility. This methodology may pave the way to a novel approach in understanding evolutionary strategies for other living organisms.

  5. Biomorphic Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

  6. Behavioral responses of laying hens to different alfalfa-layer ration combinations fed during molting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several dietary alternatives to feed withdrawal have been proposed to induce a molt in laying hens. This study compared the behavior of laying hens on an alfalfa crumble diet (ALC) to hens which were either full-fed (FF) or hens which had feed withdrawn (FW) during a 9 day trial. Each treatment co...

  7. Dynamic simulation and tension compensation research on subsea umbilical cable laying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Guojun; Zhu, Shaohua; Liu, Jun; Fang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liquan

    2013-12-01

    For studying the dynamic performance of subsea umbilical cable laying system and achieving the goal of cable tension and laying speed control, the rigid finite element method is used to discrete and transform the system into a rigid-flexible coupling multi-body system which consists of rigid elements and spring-damping elements. The mathematical model of subsea umbilical cable laying system kinematic chain is presented with the second order Lagrange equation in the joint coordinate system, and dynamic modeling and simulation is performed with ADAMS. The dynamic analysis is conducted assuming the following three statuses: ideal laying, practical laying under wave disturbance, and practical laying with tension compensation. Results show that motion disturbances of the laying budge under sea waves, especially with heaving and pitching, will cause relatively serious fluctuations in cable tension and laying speed. Tension compensation, i.e., active back tension torque control can restrict continuous tension increasing or decreasing effectively and rapidly, thus avoiding cable breach or buckling.

  8. Effects of repeated oral corticosterone administration on performance and stress parameters of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of repeated stress during rearing on performance and physiology of laying hens was studied using a corticosterone (Cort) model. 240 Hisex laying hens were reared in environmentally controlled battery cages. At 7, 11, and 15 wk of age they were exposed for 1 wk to the following treatments...

  9. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  10. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  11. Mixed Race: Understanding Difference in the Genome Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Bonham, Vence L.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of multiracial individuals' understanding of identity, race and human genetic variation. The debate regarding the correlation between race, genetics and disease has expanded, but limited empirical data has been collected regarding the lay public's perspective. Participants in this study…

  12. Housing conditions alter properties of the tibia and humerus during the laying phase in Lohmann white Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Regmi, P; Smith, N; Nelson, N; Haut, R C; Orth, M W; Karcher, D M

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis in caged hens is one driving factor for the United States egg industry to explore options regarding alternative housing systems for laying hens. The aim of our research was to study the influence of housing systems on tibiae and humeri of 77-week-old Lohmann White hens. Pullets raised in an aviary system were either continued in aviary hen systems (AV) or conventional cages (AC) whereas pullets reared in conventional cages continued in conventional hen cages (CC) or enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. From each group, 120 hens were randomly euthanized and right and left tibae and humeri were excised for structural and mechanical analysis. Volumetric density of the cortical bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Aviary (AV) hens had greater cortical thickness and density but similar outer dimensions to AC hens (P < 0.05). Hens in EN system had humeri with similar cortical thickness and density but wider outer dimensions than the humeri of CC hens (P < 0.05). Cortical geometry of the tibiae was the same for the EN and CC hens, whereas EN hens had denser tibial cortex than CC hens (P < 0.05). Geometrical changes in the humeri suggest that hens in the AV system were better able to protect their structure from endosteal resorption during the laying phase. Humeri of AV and EN hens had increased second moment of area compared to the AC and CC hens; however, the changes were not observed in tibiae. Mechanical property differences were observed, with bones of AV hens having greater failure moment and stiffness than AC hens and the same difference was observed between the EN and CC hens, (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that movement limitation causes loss of bone mass and density whereas provision of moderate movement increases certain bone quality parameters during adulthood in laying hens. PMID:26467011

  13. Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes. PMID:24706955

  14. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient

  15. Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate

  16. Understanding Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Flu Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... By Bonny McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone ...

  17. Understanding Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  18. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  19. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  20. Stress Detection and Classification of Laying Hens by Sound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonguk; Noh, Byeongjoon; Jang, Suin; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Chang, Hong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Stress adversely affects the wellbeing of commercial chickens, and comes with an economic cost to the industry that cannot be ignored. In this paper, we first develop an inexpensive and non-invasive, automatic online-monitoring prototype that uses sound data to notify producers of a stressful situation in a commercial poultry facility. The proposed system is structured hierarchically with three binary-classifier support vector machines. First, it selects an optimal acoustic feature subset from the sound emitted by the laying hens. The detection and classification module detects the stress from changes in the sound and classifies it into subsidiary sound types, such as physical stress from changes in temperature, and mental stress from fear. Finally, an experimental evaluation was performed using real sound data from an audio-surveillance system. The accuracy in detecting stress approached 96.2%, and the classification model was validated, confirming that the average classification accuracy was 96.7%, and that its recall and precision measures were satisfactory. PMID:25656176

  1. Binding profile of spiramycin to oviducal proteins of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N

    2000-12-01

    In vitro protein binding of spiramycin (SP) in the plasma and oviducts of laying hens was studied. The data for SP were compared with those for oxytetracycline (OTC), sulphadimidine (SDD), sulphamonomethoxine (SMM) and sulphaquinoxaline (SQ). The two oviduct segments, magnum (M) and isthmus plus shell gland (IS), were collected. The soluble (cell sap) fractions from the magnum (M-S9) and the isthmus plus shell gland (IS-S9) were used as samples. Plasma protein binding was highest for SQ (81.4%) (P < 0.01), and lowest for SDD (30.9%) (P < 0.01). No M-S9 protein binding of OTC was found. The IS-S9 protein binding of SP (60.4%) was very much higher than those of OTC (0.8%), SDD (4.1%), SMM (4.0%) and SQ (12.3%) (P < 0.01). Biological half-lives of these drugs in egg albumen were directly correlated to the extent of their binding to IS proteins. Of plasma, M-S9 and IS-S9, variation in SP concentration in the ranges from 1 to 20 micrograms/ml did not alter the binding properties of the drug. PMID:11199206

  2. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    PubMed Central

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

  3. Egg mercury levels decline with the laying sequence in charadriiformes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.H. )

    1992-05-01

    Whereas pollutants do not differ in concentration among eggs of one clutch in some bird species, in gulls, terns and grebes several organochlorines show intraclutch variation: Concentrations increase with the laying sequence. Heavy metals, however, are not so intensively studied with respect to intraclutch variation. In contrast to lead and cadmium, mercury is accumulated in great quantities in eggs. Variation in mercury levels between the eggs of one clutch were low compared to interclutch variability in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Peregrine (Falco peregrinus). In gulls, however, intraclutch variation was significant and characterized by higher mercury levels in the first than in subsequently laid eggs, which is the opposite to the trend in organochlorine levels. In this paper, the author reports on investigations of intraclutch variation in mercury levels in three Charadriiform-species, Herring Gull, Common Tern and Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus). The results confirm those previously reported in gulls and point to the importance of the egg in reducing the females' mercury burden. 23 refs, 2 tabs.

  4. Differentially expressed genes for aggressive pecking behaviour in laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aggressive behaviour is an important aspect in the daily lives of animals living in groups. Aggressive animals have advantages, such as better access to food or territories, and they produce more offspring than low ranking animals. The social hierarchy in chickens is measured using the 'pecking order' concept, which counts the number of aggressive pecks given and received. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the 'pecking order'. Results A total of 60 hens from a high feather pecking selection line were divided into three groups: only receivers (R), only peckers (P) and mixed peckers and receivers (P&R). In comparing the R and P groups, we observed that there were 40 differentially expressed genes [false discovery rate (FDR) P < 0.10]. It was not fully clear how the 40 genes regulated aggressive behaviour; however, gene set analysis detected a number of GO identifiers, which were potentially involved in aggressive behavioural processes. These genes code for synaptosomes (GO:0019797), and proteins involved in the regulation of the excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential (GO:0060079), the regulation of the membrane potential (GO:0042391), and glutamate receptor binding (GO:0035254). Conclusion In conclusion, our study provides new insights into which genes are involved in aggressive behaviours in chickens. Pecking and receiving hens exhibited different gene expression profiles in their brains. Following confirmation, the identification of differentially expressed genes may elucidate how the pecking order forms in laying hens at a molecular level. PMID:19925670

  5. Hormonal regulation of medullary bone metabolism in the laying hen

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new organ culture system for the study of bone formation has been developed using medullary bone, a non-structural, metabolically active form of bone which is found in the marrow cavities of egg-laying birds. In the presence of fetal calf serum, bone explants were viable in culture by morphological criteria, and retained large numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and non-collagen protein (NCP) was determined using purified bacterial collagenase. Collagen accounted for over 10% of the total protein labeled. The calcium-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into CDP. The effective dose range of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 0.1 nM to 100 nM, while that of PTH was 1.0 nM to 100 nM. The effect of both hormones was specific for collagen, since /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into NCP was unaffected. Hydroxyproline analysis of bone explants and culture medium revealed that both hormones decreased the total hydroxyroline content of the cultures, suggesting that the inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into DCP is due to inhibition of collagen synthesis.

  6. Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, Elaine L.; Ritchie, Timothy D.; Igou, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well-understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (n = 189) freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others). In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (n = 249) rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (n = 242), participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4A (n = 38) and 4B (n = 102), participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance) during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modeling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer. PMID:25741302

  7. The Evolution of "Association" as a Model for Lay/Religious Collaboration in Catholic Education, Part II: The Emergence of Shared Mission as a Ministry Paradigm, 1986-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidd, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    In Part I of this two-part series (published in the March 2009 issue), the author traced the evolution of the Brothers of the Christian Schools' (Christian Brothers in the United States) understanding of how they related to the lay people with whom they increasingly shared their apostolate of Catholic education. From a stance of wary distance in…

  8. Embodied understanding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner. PMID:26175701

  9. “Sub is a weird drug:” A Web-based study of lay attitudes about use of buprenorphine to self-treat opioid withdrawal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Carlson, Robert; Brigham, Gregory; Cameron, Delroy; Sheth, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background Illicit use of buprenorphine has increased in the U.S., but our understanding of its use remains limited. This study aims to explore Web-forum discussions about the use of buprenorphine to self-treat opioid withdrawal symptoms. Methods PREDOSE, a novel Semantic Web platform, was used to extract relevant posts from a Web-forum that allows free discussions on illicit drugs. First, we extract information about the total number of buprenorphine-related posts per year between 2005 and 2013. Second, PREDOSE was used to identify all posts that potentially contained discussions about buprenorphine and opioid withdrawal. A total number of 1,217 posts that contained these terms were extracted and entered into NVivo data base. A random sample of 404 (33%) posts was selected and content analyzed. Results Buprenorphine-related posts increased over time, peaking in 2011. The posts were about equally divided between those that expressed positive and negative views about the effectiveness of buprenorphine in relieving withdrawal symptoms. Web-forum participants emphasized that buprenorphine’s effectiveness may become compromised because of the “size of a person habit,” and/or when users repeatedly switch back and forth between buprenorphine and other illicit opioids. Most posts reported use of significantly lower amounts of buprenorphine ( 2 mg) than doses used in standard treatment. Concomitant use of other psychoactive substances was also commonly reported, which may present significant health risks. Conclusions Our findings highlight the usefulness of Web-based data in drug abuse research and add new information about lay beliefs about buprenorphine that may help inform prevention and policy measures. PMID:26009867

  10. Developing lay health worker policy in South Africa: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past half decade South Africa has been developing, implementing and redeveloping its Lay Health Worker (LHW) policies. Research during this period has highlighted challenges with LHW programme implementation. These challenges have included an increased burden of care for female LHWs. The aim of this study was to explore contemporary LHW policy development processes and the extent to which issues of gender are taken up within this process. Methods The study adopted a qualitative approach to exploring policy development from the perspective of policy actors. Eleven policy actors (policy makers and policy commentators) were interviewed individually. Data from the interviews were analysed thematically. Results Considerations of LHW working conditions drove policy redevelopment. From the interviews it seems that gender as an issue never reached the policy making agenda. Although there was strong recognition that the working conditions of LHWs needed to be improved, poor working conditions were not necessarily seen as a gender concern. Our data suggests that in the process of defining the problem which the redeveloped policy had to address, gender was not included. There was no group or body who brought the issue of gender to the attention of policy developers. As such the issue of gender never entered the policy debates. These debates focused on whether it was appropriate to have LHWs, what LHW programme model should be adopted and whether or not LHWs should be incorporated into the formal health system. Conclusion LHW policy redevelopment focused on resolving issues of LHW working conditions through an active process involving many actors and strong debates. Within this process the issue of gender had no champion and never reached the LHW policy agenda. Future research may consider how to incorporate the voices of ordinary women into the policy making process. PMID:22410185

  11. The provision of TB and HIV/AIDS treatment support by lay health workers in South Africa: a time-and-motion study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lay or community health workers (LHWs) are an important human resource in primary health care, and contribute to improving access to care. However, optimal use of LHWs within the health system is often hampered by a poor understanding of how this cadre organizes its work. This study aimed to better understand how LHWs organize and structure their time in providing treatment and adherence support to people on TB treatment and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. Methods Fourteen LHWs participated across three low-income peri-urban communities in Cape Town. Each LHW was observed by a researcher for one day, and data collected on each activity and the time spent on it. Data were summarized in the following categories: travel to the patient’s home, waiting time and patient contact time. Results Ninety-seven attempted visits to patients were observed, and patients were located in 69 of these. On average, LHWs conducted six visits per day, each lasting an average of nine minutes. Forty-six percent of the observed time was spent with patients, with the balance spent on ‘non-contact’ activities, including walking to and waiting for patients. The average walking time between patients was 8 minutes (range: 3 to 15 minutes). Activities during visits comprised medical care (that is ensuring that medication was being taken correctly and that patients were not experiencing side-effects) and social support. Other tasks included conducting home assessments to determine risks to treatment adherence, and tracing patients who had defaulted from treatment. Conclusions Because of their tasks and working environment, LHWs providing support to people on TB treatment and ART in South Africa spend a substantial proportion of their time on ‘non-contact’ activities. Programme managers need to take this into account when developing job descriptions and determining patient case-loads for this cadre. More research is also needed to explore whether these findings

  12. Understanding hypernatremia.

    PubMed

    Sam, Ramin; Feizi, Iraj

    2012-01-01

    Understanding hypernatremia is at times difficult for many clinicians. However, hypernatremia can often be deciphered easily with some basic understanding of water and sodium balance. Here, the basic pathophysiological abnormalities underlying the development of sodium disorders are reviewed, and case examples are given. Hypernatremia often arises in the hospital, especially in the intensive care units due to the combination of (1) not being able to drink water; (2) inability to concentrate the urine (most often from having kidney failure); (3) osmotic diuresis from having high serum urea concentrations, and (4) large urine or stool outputs. PMID:22739333

  13. Promoting Health and Wellness in Congregations Through Lay Health Educators: A Case Study of Two Churches.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Hale, W Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Religious institutions are in regular contact with people who need education about and support with health issues. Creating lay health educators to serve in these communities can promote health initiatives centered on education and accessing resources. This paper is a prospective observational report of the impact of trained lay health community congregation members in two faith communities based on an urban setting. We describe health efforts made in an African-American Methodist church and in a Latino Spanish-speaking Catholic church. We review the intricacies in establishing trust with the community, the training of lay health educators, and the implementation strategies and outcomes of health initiatives for these communities. PMID:26014461

  14. Laying Bare Educational Crosstalk: A Study of Discursive Repertoires in the Wake of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Cormac; Laksov, Klara Bolander

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the Bologna process, many European universities are undergoing comprehensive educational reform. Our attention in this paper is focused on how a medical university came to terms with the challenges presented therein. We wished to explore how educators identify, understand and deal with opportunities for change at a medical…

  15. Laying a Foundation in Health and Wellness. Training Guides for the Head Start Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman (James) Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    This training guide is designed to aid Head Start staff in exploring personal understandings of health and wellness and to further their contribution to the health of coworkers, children, and families. It explains the importance of health to Head Start's mission--to encourage social competence; promote the development of personal definitions of…

  16. Understanding Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... a second cancer, including melanoma, sarcoma, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, basal cell cancer, squamous cell skin cancer or myeloma. {{ See your primary care doctor to keep up with other healthcare needs. Understanding Leukemia I page 21 {{ Talk with family and friends about how ...

  17. Understanding Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    Bibliotherapy can help children prepare for and understand the death of a loved one. An annotated bibliography lists references with age level information on attitudes toward death and deaths of a father, friend, grandparent, mother, pet, and sibling. (Author/CL)

  18. Understanding Artworlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Clover, Faith

    This curriculum unit consists of four lessons that are designed to broaden students' understanding of art and culture; each lesson can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. The introduction offers a conceptual framework of the Artworlds unit, which takes an inquiry-based approach. The unit's first lesson, "Worlds within Worlds,"…

  19. Understanding Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, David

    1967-01-01

    To help students understand prejudice, teachers in Verona, New York, planned a unit which incorporated the use of fiction, television, and film. Students were asked to select and read books in the general area of prejudice. A sample reading list of works under the headings of Negro, Jew, Italian, and Irish was provided. After writing extensive…

  20. Understanding Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Val

    This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…

  1. Welfare indicators in laying hens in relation to nest exclusion.

    PubMed

    Alm, M; Tauson, R; Holm, L; Wichman, A; Kalliokoski, O; Wall, H

    2016-06-01

    Consumer concerns about the welfare of laying hens are increasing, leading to increased interest in identifying reliable ways to assess welfare. The present study evaluated invasive and non-invasive welfare indicators in relation to a stressful challenge. The study included 126 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens housed in furnished cages. Welfare indicators were measured between 61 and 70 wk of age in birds excluded from their nests for 5 consecutive d and control birds that had continuous access to nests. Baseline recordings were carried out in both groups prior to and post exclusion period. The assessed indicators were: corticosterone metabolites in droppings (FCM), corticosterone concentration in yolk, corticosterone concentration in plasma, irregularities of eggshells, heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, tonic immobility duration, and feather cover. Behavioral observations showed that the birds had a clear preference for using the secluded nest sites, confirming that they were likely to perceive nest exclusion as an undesirable experience. Further, elevated levels of FCM in droppings, yolk corticosterone concentrations, H:L ratios and irregular eggshells were detected in both nest deprived and control birds during the exclusion. This suggests that these indicators were able to detect an increased stress response arising from nest deprivation, and it is hypothesized that the stress spread to birds in adjacent cages with access to nests. There was a positive and consistent correlation between FCM in droppings and eggshell irregularities, also supporting the use of eggshell irregularities as a potential non-invasive welfare indicator. However, the pattern of the stress response varied between indicators and correlations were generally few and inconsistent, highlighting the complexity of the relationship among welfare indicators. PMID:26994207

  2. Solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

  3. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  4. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  5. Variability in grading diabetic retinopathy from stereo fundus photographs: comparison of physician and lay readers.

    PubMed Central

    Milton, R. C.; Ganley, J. P.; Lynk, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Two physicians and two lay readers were trained according to a detailed protocol in the grading of 17 lesions found in diabetic retinopathy by evaluation of stereo fundus photographs according to a modified Airlie House classification. Intraobserver and interobserver variability of these readers was assessed by two methods: weighted kappa, and frequency of agreement within one grade. In general, physician readers were found to be less variable on replicate readings than were lay leaders, and had slightly better agreement with each other than with the lay readers. The physiological significance of the direction and magnitude of the difference between physician and lay reader variability for individual lesions was often uncertain. Assessment of contribution to disagreement by individual readers was possible and permits future training directed at reducing disagreement to acceptable values. PMID:851521

  6. [Behaviour of laying hens in aviaries--review. Part 1: Social and resting behaviour of hens].

    PubMed

    Moesta, A; Knierim, U; Briese, A; Hartung, J

    2007-12-01

    This literature review gives information about important behaviour categories of laying hens kept in aviary systems. Based on current knowledge, the differences in behaviour of hens in aviaries compared to the behaviour of hens living under "close to natural" conditions are assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. The focus of this first review is put on resting and particularly on social behaviour. So far "optimal" group size for laying hens and consequences of oversized groups for the well-being of laying hens are unknown, thus, rendering further research necessary. Referring to the resting and social behaviour of laying hens, proposals for the design of the housing system aviary are given. A second part will deal with feeding, reproductive and dustbathing behaviour. PMID:18181358

  7. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  8. Understanding: "Knowledge", "Belief", and "Understanding"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davson-Galle, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The following paper is intended as an exercise in "friendly criticism" of one of Harvey Siegel's and Mike Smith's ("Knowing, Believing and Understanding", this volume). I'm in substantial sympathy with the general thrust of their paper and my remarks merely provide some criticism of their discussion's conceptual coherence and clarity and a…

  9. Failed landings after laying hen flight in a commercial aviary over two flock cycles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Goodwin, S L; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many egg producers are adopting alternative housing systems such as aviaries that provide hens a tiered cage and a litter-covered open floor area. This larger, more complex environment permits expression of behaviors not seen in space-limited cages, such as flight. Flight is an exercise important for strengthening bones; but domestic hens might display imperfect flight landings due to poor flight control. To assess the potential implications of open space, we evaluated the landing success of Lohmann white laying hens in a commercial aviary. Video recordings of hens were taken from 4 aviary sections at peak lay, mid lay and end lay across two flock cycles. Observations were made in each focal section of all flights throughout the day noting flight origin and landing location (outer perch or litter) and landing success or failure. In Flock 1, 9.1% of all flights failed and 21% failed in Flock 2. The number of flights decreased across the laying cycle for both flocks. Proportionally more failed landings were observed in the double row sections in Flock 2. Collisions with other hens were more common than slipping on the ground or colliding with aviary structures across sections and flocks. More hens slipped on the ground and collided with physical structures at peak lay for Flock 2 than at other time points. More collisions with other hens were seen at mid and end lay than at peak lay for Flock 2. Landings ending on perches failed more often than landings on litter. These results indicate potential for flight-related hen injuries in aviary systems resulting from failed landings, which may have implications for hen welfare and optimal system design and management. PMID:26527703

  10. Exploration Geochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closs, L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    Contributions in mineral-deposit model formulation, geochemical exploration in glaciated and arid environments, analytical and sampling problems, and bibliographic research were made in symposia held and proceedings volumes published during 1982. Highlights of these symposia and proceedings and comments on trends in exploration geochemistry are…

  11. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  12. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  13. Enantioselective Characteristics and Montmorillonite-Mediated Removal Effects of α-Hexachlorocyclohexane in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueke; Shen, Zhigang; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chang; Yao, Guojun; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is a chiral organochlorine pesticide that is often ubiquitously detected in various environmental matrices and may be absorbed by the human body via food consumption, with serious detriments to human health. In this study, enantioselective degradation kinetics and residues of α-HCH in laying hens were investigated after a single dose of exposure to the pesticide, whereas enantioselectivity and residues of α-HCH in eggs, droppings, and various tissues were investigated after long-term exposure. Meanwhile, montmorillonite (MMT), a feed additive with high capacity of adsorption, was investigated for its ability to remove α-HCH from laying hens. Most non-brain tissues enantioselectively accumulated (-)-α-HCH, while (+)-α-HCH was preferentially accumulated in the brain. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) in most tissues gradually decreased, implying continuous depletion of (+)-α-HCH in laying hens. After 30 days of exposure and 31 days of elimination, the concentration of α-HCH in eggs and tissues of laying hens with MMT-containing feed was lower than that with MMT-free feed, indicating the removal effects of MMT for α-HCH in laying hens. The findings presented herein suggest that modified MMT may potentially be useful in reducing the enrichment of α-HCH in laying hens and eggs, thus lowering the risk of human intake of α-HCH. PMID:27163366

  14. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-01-01

    compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens. PMID:26941727

  15. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens. PMID:26941727

  16. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students and offered…

  17. Children's Understanding of Ownership Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Peter R.; Harris, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of ownership entails the recognition that ownership can be transferred permanently and the ability to differentiate legitimate from illegitimate transfers. Two experiments explored the development of this understanding in 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year olds, using stories about gift-giving and stealing. The possibility that children use…

  18. Understanding Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2014-03-01

    Planetesimals represent turning points in planetary formation, when the materials required for building planets are first incorporated into bodies with radii from tens to hundreds of kilometers or larger, and are sometimes differentiated into metallic cores and silicate mantles. These early celestial bodies are the accretionary step between the dust of the planetary nebula and the cadre of rocky planets. Thus, planetesimals hold the keys to understanding how Earth was formed, when water was deposited on Earth, and why Earth and other rocky planets may differ in composition.

  19. Youth Exploring Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Diane

    2008-04-01

    This session features Youth Exploring Science (YES), Saint Louis Science Center's nationally recognized work-based teen development program. In YES, underserved audiences develop interest and understanding in physics through design engineering projects. I will discuss breaking down barriers, helping youth develop skills, and partnering with community organizations, universities and engineering firms.

  20. Exploring Global Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needler, Toby; Goodman, Bonnie

    The eight units in this volume are designed for use by an art teacher/specialist. Thematic ideas are presented, while skills, techniques, and materials are not dictated. The lessons encourage students to compare and contrast cultures, understand their own cultural experiences, and explore differences and commonalities among cultures. The materials…

  1. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  2. Exploring Racism through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

  3. Understanding resilience.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S; Mathé, Aleksander A

    2013-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences. PMID:23422934

  4. Understanding resilience

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J.; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathé, Aleksander A.

    2013-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences. PMID:23422934

  5. Lay the Foundation for Great Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the "learning leader," exploring "What is professional learning leadership at its core?" Leaders of professional learning come to their responsibility from many roles, from teacher to district administrator, to instructional coach. They set the agenda for professional learning by aligning it to…

  6. How to Fairly Allocate Scarce Medical Resources: Ethical Argumentation under Scrutiny by Health Professionals and Lay People

    PubMed Central

    Rosemann, Thomas; Törnblom, Kjell Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Societies are facing medical resource scarcities, inter alia due to increased life expectancy and limited health budgets and also due to temporal or continuous physical shortages of resources like donor organs. This makes it challenging to meet the medical needs of all. Ethicists provide normative guidance for how to fairly allocate scarce medical resources, but legitimate decisions require additionally information regarding what the general public considers to be fair. The purpose of this study was to explore how lay people, general practitioners, medical students and other health professionals evaluate the fairness of ten allocation principles for scarce medical resources: ‘sickest first’, ‘waiting list’, ‘prognosis’, ‘behaviour’ (i.e., those who engage in risky behaviour should not be prioritized), ‘instrumental value’ (e.g., health care workers should be favoured during epidemics), ‘combination of criteria’ (i.e., a sequence of the ‘youngest first’, ‘prognosis’, and ‘lottery’ principles), ‘reciprocity’ (i.e., those who provided services to the society in the past should be rewarded), ‘youngest first’, ‘lottery’, and ‘monetary contribution’. Methods 1,267 respondents to an online questionnaire were confronted with hypothetical situations of scarcity regarding (i) donor organs, (ii) hospital beds during an epidemic, and (iii) joint replacements. Nine allocation principles were evaluated in terms of fairness for each type of scarcity along 7-point Likert scales. The relationship between demographic factors (gender, age, religiosity, political orientation, and health status) and fairness evaluations was modelled with logistic regression. Results Medical background was a major predictor of fairness evaluations. While general practitioners showed different response patterns for all three allocation situations, the responses by lay people were very similar. Lay people rated ‘sickest first’ and

  7. Explorer 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'This satellite, Explorer 24, was a 12-foot-diameter inflatable sphere developed by an engineering team at Langley. It provided information on complex solar radiation/air-density relationships in the upper atmosphere.' Explorer satellites were inflatable satellites--or satelloons, like Echo, and were developed as a follow-on program. They were intended as a vehicle to study the density of air in the upper atmosphere. Explorer 24 was launched in November 1964. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 191-192.

  8. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Oddvar; Jansson, Désirée S; Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P < 0.001). The study showed a significantly higher occurrence of bacterial and parasitic diseases and cannibalism in laying hens kept in litter-based housing systems and free-range systems than in hens kept in cages (P < 0.001). The occurrence of viral diseases was significantly higher in indoor litter-based housing systems than in cages (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results

  9. Transcriptome sequencing reveals genetic mechanisms underlying the transition between the laying and brooding phases and gene expression changes associated with divergent reproductive phenotypes in chickens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xu; Bai, Xue; Xu, Jin; Zhou, Min; Xu, Haipin; Nie, Qinghua; Lu, Xuemei; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-09-01

    Transition from laying to incubation behavior in chicken is an interesting topic in reproductive biology. The decline of incubation behavior in chicken population has led to considerable phenotypic differences in reproductive traits between breeds. However, the exact genetic mechanism of the reproductive phase transition still largely unknown and little is known about the gene expression changes that contribute to the phenotypic differences. We performed mRNA sequencing to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the transition from laying to brooding and to detect difference in gene regulation underlying the phenotypic diversification using two chicken breeds. The majority of gene expression changes during phase transition were steroidogenesis and hormone-releasing genes. Brooding chickens shared a conservative pattern of greatly inhibited steroidogenic enzyme genes in the pituitary gland, therefore, low levels of steroidogenic enzymes might result in reproductive defects such as ovary regression and brooding onset. The conserved network responsible for brooding behavior was maintained by steroid biosynthesis and hormonal interactions. Interestingly, three transcription factors, SREBF2, NR5A1 and PGR, act as central signal modulators of steroid biosynthesis and hormonal interactions during the transition from laying to brooding modes at the molecular level. Furthermore, Genes correlated with protein synthesis and accumulation showed expression variation between breeds, which might result in different concentrations of and sensitivities to reproduction-related hormones. This study provided a new insight in neuroendocrine system at the molecular level, and helps to understand the genetic and hormonal responses that ultimately translate into behavior in chicken. PMID:27389590

  10. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. I: egg laying, and use of veranda and outdoor area.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on egg production, laying behaviour and use of veranda and outdoor area are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough and perch access at the lowest stocking density (treatment D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Laying percentage was significantly lower (P<0.05) in D12 compared with the other stocking densities (90.6% v. 94.3% (± 0.7)), most likely due to the concomitant reduction in nest space and drinker availability per hen. No systematic effects of density were found on other laying variables (egg weight, eggs laid outside nests, aviary side preferences). Number of hens using the veranda increased with stocking density. Hens primarily used the range near the house (within 50 m) and hens kept at the lowest stocking density and the smallest group size appeared to use the outdoor area more extensively, based on an assessment of vegetation cover (P<0.05). For the measures reported here, the welfare consequences of increased stocking density were assessed to be minor; additional results are reported in the associated article (Steenfeldt and Nielsen, 2015). PMID:25990512

  11. Effect of yeast with bacteriocin from rumen bacteria on laying performance, blood biochemistry, faecal microbiota and egg quality of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, H T; Shih, W Y; Chen, S W; Wang, S Y

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 (albusin B) on physiological state and production performance of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 26-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn (Hyline) laying hens were assigned into five groups including: (i) control group, (ii) yeast control (YC), (iii) 0.125% yeast with bacteriocin (0.125B), (iv) 0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (0.25B) and (v) 0.5% yeast with bacteriocin (0.5B). All supplements were added to the experimental diets of the hens from 26 to 46 weeks of age. Samples were collected every 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein for blood biochemical parameters assay, and faecal samples were collected by swab for the microbiota test. The egg production performance was recorded daily, and fresh eggs were collected for quality test. The blood biochemical assay results indicated that the addition of yeast with bacteriocin decreased the AST (aspartate aminotransferase) activity and it also affects the lactate concentration in laying hen blood. The result of egg quality indicated that yeast with bacteriocin supplementation had no effect on the mass of yolk and the strength of eggshell, but it had positive effect on the laying performance under hot environment. Low concentration bacteriocin (0.125B) supplementation could decrease total yolk cholesterol. The faecal microbiota result indicated that the supplementation of bacteriocin increased the lactobacilli counts. The yeast with bacteriocin supplementation significantly decreased the clostridia counts under hot environment condition, especially in hens receiving 0.25B. Combining the data from clinic chemistry, faecal microbiota, egg production and egg quality, the 0.25B supplementation may result in the best physiological parameter and egg production performance of laying hen. PMID:25404002

  12. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  13. Understanding independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annan, James; Hargreaves, Julia

    2016-04-01

    In order to perform any Bayesian processing of a model ensemble, we need a prior over the ensemble members. In the case of multimodel ensembles such as CMIP, the historical approach of ``model democracy'' (i.e. equal weight for all models in the sample) is no longer credible (if it ever was) due to model duplication and inbreeding. The question of ``model independence'' is central to the question of prior weights. However, although this question has been repeatedly raised, it has not yet been satisfactorily addressed. Here I will discuss the issue of independence and present a theoretical foundation for understanding and analysing the ensemble in this context. I will also present some simple examples showing how these ideas may be applied and developed.

  14. Understanding osteoporosis.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, R.

    1991-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved recently in our understanding of the normal process by which bone mass is regulated. Age-related trabecular bone loss is characterized not simply by a global loss of bone but also by cortical porosity and loss of trabecular connections. Because bone strength depends on architectural as well as material properties, bone quantity alone cannot define fracture risk with precision. Traditional therapies for osteoporosis increase bone mass, and estrogen therapy, in particular, profoundly decreases fracture risk. The pharmacologic restoration of bone quantity and quality, however, remains elusive. Modern biotechnology offers the hope that progress may come about through the development of growth factors and other osteotropic compounds for clinical use. Images PMID:1877231

  15. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  16. Exploring Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    With a temperature higher than the inside of your oven and atmospheric pressure equal to that a kilometer under the ocean, the surface of Venus is one of the most hostile environments in the solar system, and Venus exploration presents a challenge to technology. This lecture presents mission trade-offs and discusses a proposed mission concept for rover and aircraft based exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus. Several approaches to the technology, electronics, mechanical parts, and power systems, are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of Hand Lay-Up and Resin Transfer Molding in Composite Wind Turbine Blade Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    CAIRNS,DOUGLAS S.; SHRAMSTAD,JON D.

    2000-06-01

    The majority of the wind turbine blade industry currently uses low cost hand lay-up manufacturing techniques to process composite blades. While there are benefits to the hand lay-up process, drawbacks inherent to this process along with advantages of other techniques suggest that better manufacturing alternatives may be available. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was identified as a processing alternative and shows promise in addressing the shortcomings of hand lay-up. This report details a comparison of the RTM process to hand lay-up of composite wind turbine blade structures. Several lay-up schedules and critical turbine blade structures were chosen for comparison of their properties resulting from RTM and hand lay-up processing. The geometries investigated were flat plate, thin and thick flanged T-stiffener, I-beam, and root connection joint. It was found that the manufacturing process played an important role in laminate thickness, fiber volume, and weight for the geometries investigated. RTM was found to reduce thickness and weight and increase fiber volumes for all substructures. RTM resulted in tighter material transition radii and eliminated the need for most secondary bonding operations. These results would significantly reduce the weight of wind turbine blades. Hand lay-up was consistently slower in fabrication times for the structures investigated. A comparison of mechanical properties showed no significant differences after employing fiber volume normalization techniques to account for geometry differences resulting from varying fiber volumes. The current root specimen design does not show significant mechanical property differences according to process and exceeds all static and fatigue requirements.

  18. A cost/effectiveness evaluation of lay therapy treatment for child abusing and high risk parents.

    PubMed

    Hornick, J P; Clarke, M E

    1986-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation tested the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of a lay therapy treatment program in comparison with a standard social work treatment approach. A pretest-extended posttest research design was used to follow a group of child abusing and high risk mothers who received lay therapy (N = 27) and a randomized control group of similar clients (N = 28) over a 12-month period. Outcome data were obtained through interview and direct observation of the parents and children at six-month intervals. A variety of standardized instruments were used including Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Test, Coopersmith's Self-Opinion Form, and the Nurturance and Parent Observation Scales, adapted from Baumrind. Treatment success was defined as progression toward the mean scores of a matched comparison group (N = 21) obtained from the general population of the community during the pretest. The results indicated a trend toward improvement on the outcome measures for both treatment groups. The group receiving lay therapy treatment improved only slightly more than the group receiving standard treatment; however, there was also significantly less attrition with the lay therapy group. Analysis of time budget study data indicated that the lay therapists spent an average of 17.46 hours per month with each of their clients thus permitting the social workers to spend considerably less time with lay therapy clients. Analysis of the direct costs of the programs, based on time budget information, indicated that the lay therapy treatment involved more direct client contact than the standard treatment approach and was also substantially more costly. The high cost of the program was attributed to low caseloads and redundancy in supervision. This study presents several practical program and research recommendations. PMID:3091196

  19. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  20. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony § 18.701... based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony...

  1. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony § 18.701... based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony...

  2. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony § 18.701... based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony...

  3. Laying a Community-Based Foundation for Data-Driven Semantic Standards in Environmental Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Boyles, Rebecca; Lawler, Cindy P.; Haugen, Astrid C.; Dearry, Allen; Haendel, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite increasing availability of environmental health science (EHS) data, development, and implementation of relevant semantic standards, such as ontologies or hierarchical vocabularies, has lagged. Consequently, integration and analysis of information needed to better model environmental influences on human health remains a significant challenge. Objectives: We aimed to identify a committed community and mechanisms needed to develop EHS semantic standards that will advance understanding about the impacts of environmental exposures on human disease. Methods: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences sponsored the “Workshop for the Development of a Framework for Environmental Health Science Language” hosted at North Carolina State University on 15–16 September 2014. Through the assembly of data generators, users, publishers, and funders, we aimed to develop a foundation for enabling the development of community-based and data-driven standards that will ultimately improve standardization, sharing, and interoperability of EHS information. Discussion: Creating and maintaining an EHS common language is a continuous and iterative process, requiring community building around research interests and needs, enabling integration and reuse of existing data, and providing a low barrier of access for researchers needing to use or extend such a resource. Conclusions: Recommendations included developing a community-supported web-based toolkit that would enable a) collaborative development of EHS research questions and use cases, b) construction of user-friendly tools for searching and extending existing semantic resources, c) education and guidance about standards and their implementation, and d) creation of a plan for governance and sustainability. Citation: Mattingly CJ, Boyles R, Lawler CP, Haugen AC, Dearry A, Haendel M. 2016. Laying a community-based foundation for data-driven semantic standards in environmental health sciences. Environ

  4. Teacher-as-researcher: Making a difference through laying a solid foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiesimama, Jane Tambuomi

    An educator's determination to make a difference in the lives of her students birthed this inquiry. It is a qualitative study with the use of descriptive statistics in summarizing the survey data. The inquiry is an interweaving of the narrative inquiry method and reflective practice. The study hinges on the works of two great scholars: John Dewey, a philosopher, and Joseph Schwab, a curriculum theorist and scientist. It is all about helping students lay a solid foundation in science so that they may have a thorough understanding of the subject matter and be able to compete with their counterparts nationally and globally. The construction of the solid foundation will include foundational terms in science and their meanings, and the utilization of the SQ4R (a modification of the original SQ3R) study strategies. Other construction materials, as reflected in the voices of the students were discovered, in the study and have added some insight and richness to the study. The intent of this study is to stimulate the interest of fellow educators to examine the ideas shared in this inquiry, and to see how they can find parallel ways to meet the needs of their students. The special needs of our students differ from one classroom to the next. Among the teachers one could also observe a variety of teaching strategies and styles. My hope is for educators who will come across this study, to adopt the findings of this inquiry and adapt them to suit their needs and the needs of their students. The revision process by fellow educators could give birth to a new idea which is what scientific inquiry is all about.

  5. Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India

    PubMed Central

    Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons. PMID:24396770

  6. Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Guard, J; Gast, R K; Buhr, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Abdo, Z; Plumblee, J R; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Robison, C I; Regmi, P; Karcher, D M

    2016-05-01

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-free aviary, conventional cage, and enriched colony cage systems. Environmental and eggshell pool samples were collected from selected cages/segments of the housing systems throughout the production cycle and monitored for Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence. At 77 wk of age, 120 hens per housing system were examined for Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in the: adrenal glands, spleen, ceca, follicles, and upper reproductive tract. All isolates detected from environmental swabs, eggshell pools, and tissues were identified for serotype. Two predominant Salmonella were detected in all samples:S.Braenderup andS.Kentucky.Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni were the only Campylobacter detected in the flocks. Across all housing systems, approximately 7% of hens were colonized with Salmonella, whereas >90% were colonized with Campylobacter Salmonella Braenderup was the isolate most frequently detected in environmental swabs (P<0.0001) and housing system impacted Salmonella spp. shedding (P<0.0001).Campylobacter jejuni was the isolate most frequently found in environmental swabs (P<0.01), while housing system impacted the prevalence of C. coli and jejuniin ceca (P<0.0001). The results of this study provide a greater understanding of the impact of hen housing systems on hen health and product safety. Additionally, producers and academia can utilize the findings to make informed decisions on hen housing and management strategies to enhance hen health and food safety. PMID:26976901

  7. Development of an Ex Vivo Protocol to Model Bone Fracture in Laying Hens Resulting from Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Michael J.; Wilkins, Lindsay J.; Millburn, Georgina; Thorpe, Katherine; Tarlton, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the keel bone, a bone extending ventrally from the sternum, are a serious health and welfare problem in free range laying hens. Recent findings suggest that a major cause of keel damage within extensive systems is collisions with internal housing structures, though investigative efforts have been hindered by difficulties in examining mechanisms and likely influencing factors at the moment of fracture. The objectives of this study were to develop an ex vivo impact protocol to model bone fracture in hens caused by collision, to assess impact and bird-related factors influencing fracture occurrence and severity, and to identify correlations of mechanical and structural properties between different skeletal sites. We induced keel bone fractures in euthanized hens using a drop-weight impact tester able to generate a range of impact energies, producing fractures that replicate those commonly found in commercial settings. The results demonstrated that impact energies of a similar order to those expected in normal housing were able to produce fractures, and that greater collision energies resulted in an increased likelihood of fractures and of greater severity. Relationships were also seen with keel’s lateral surface bone mineral density, and the peak reactive force (strength) at the base of the manubrial spine. Correlations were also identified between the keel and long bones with respect to both strength and bone mineral density. This is the first study able to relate impact and bone characteristics with keel bone fracture at the moment of collision. Greater understanding of these relationships will provide means to reduce levels of breakage and severity in commercial systems. PMID:23785487

  8. Collective Mathematical Understanding as an Improvisational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lyndon C.; Towers, Jo

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of mathematical understanding, and offers a response to the question raised by Martin (2001) at PME-NA about the possibility for and nature of collective mathematical understanding. In referring to collective mathematical understanding we point to the kinds of learning and understanding we may see occurring when…

  9. Understanding delusions.

    PubMed

    Sedler, M J

    1995-06-01

    Delusions traditionally have been considered as fixed, false beliefs, born of morbidity. Whereas this definition serves to orient the clinician to the phenomena at hand, each element breaks down under scrutiny. It has been shown that delusions are not necessarily false, although in some sense they are discordant with reality. When delusions coincide with actual events their judgements can be shown to be independent of this evidential basis; when they refer to disorders of experience, such as first rank symptoms, the experience usually contains a distorted meaning. The supposition that delusions are a variety of belief has itself been questioned. On the one hand, they do not always refer in a meaningful way to anything, or when they do they fail to function as evaluative judgments; instead, delusions are experienced subjectively in ways that are characteristic of knowing rather than believing. On the other hand, delusions are not ascertained clinically by surveying the patient's belief system; rather their failure to achieve the status of objective knowledge leads to the post hoc relegation of delusions to the epistemologic waste basket of beliefs. To treat delusions as necessarily the product of morbidity is essentially tautologous insofar as delusions are, by definition, pathologic; that is, as defective judgments delusions are not simply erroneous, they are disordered. Finally, the fixity of delusions is an empirical matter and varies widely. Underlying this perceived intractability, however, are the subjective certainty and incorrigibility that Jaspers identified and which Spitzer has recast in the form of "epistemological asymmetry" misapplied to external reality. Although delusions typically have been recognized and categorized according to their manifest content, these formal considerations are crucial to understanding the nature of delusions. PMID:7659597

  10. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later). PMID:22351262

  11. Social Instability in Laying Quail: Consequences on Yolk Steroids and Offspring's Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Floriane; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie; Kotrschal, Kurt; Guémené, Daniel; Bertin, Aline; Möstl, Erich; Houdelier, Cécilia

    2010-01-01

    Individual phenotypic characteristics of many species are influenced by non-genetic maternal effects. Female birds can influence the development of their offspring before birth via the yolk steroid content of their eggs. We investigated this prenatal maternal effect by analysing the influence of laying females' social environment on their eggs' hormonal content and on their offspring's development. Social instability was applied to groups of laying Japanese quail females. We evaluated the impact of this procedure on laying females, on yolk steroid levels and on the general development of chicks. Agonistic interactions were more frequent between females kept in an unstable social environment (unstable females) than between females kept in a stable social environment (stable females). Testosterone concentrations were higher in unstable females' eggs than in those of stable females. Unstable females' chicks hatched later and developed more slowly during their first weeks of life than those of stable females. The emotional reactivity of unstable females' chicks was higher than that of stable females' chicks. In conclusion, our study showed that social instability applied to laying females affected, in a non-genetic way, their offspring's development, thus stressing the fact that females' living conditions during laying can have transgenerational effects. PMID:21124926

  12. What is healthy food? Objective nutrient profile scores and subjective lay evaluations in comparison.

    PubMed

    Bucher, T; Müller, B; Siegrist, M

    2015-12-01

    To date, it is unclear how consumers evaluate the healthiness of individual foods and meals and how consumers' perceptions are related to expert opinions. This knowledge is essential for efficient communication of nutrition information with the goal of promoting healthy eating. This study used the fake food buffet method to investigate health perceptions of selected meals and of 54 individual foods and beverages. Lay consumers' subjective healthiness evaluations of meals and foods were compared to objective nutrient profile scores, which were previously shown to correlate highly with expert opinions. The results show that nutrition profile scores and lay evaluations were highly correlated, which indicates that lay people used similar criteria as experts to evaluate the healthiness of foods. However, lay consumers tended to neglect the amount of saturated fat, protein and sodium for their judgments. Also, it was found that while lay consumers were quite able to evaluate single food products, they had difficulties in evaluating entire meals. Future interventions should focus particularly on educating the consumer about the negative effects of diets high in salt and saturated fat and they should improve the consumer's abilities to evaluate entire meals. PMID:26256557

  13. "I can't understand your information sheet, doc!" Readability of limited-reach media materials for the lay population.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Waletha; Scarbecz, Mark; Lewis, Maurice W; Ross, Judith; Himel, Van

    2013-01-01

    Patients are provided limited-reach media materials, such as information sheets and pamphlets, as reinforcement of information when the oral healthcare professional is no longer face-to-face. Patients are more likely to use the printed information if text complexity and reader's ability match, or if their need to know the content provokes an urge to read. A number of researchers have developed readability tests. This study used the Fry Readability Graph to plot the results of three independent raters' averages of the number of sentences and the words (syllables) of continuous (prose) and non-continuous (matrix-style) pre-selected passages from several reputable sources. These limited-reach materials are frequently used in academic institutions' community engagement efforts. Several of the limited-reach materials we studied were ranked above the fifth-grade reading level, so consideration must be given to future distribution of these documents in communities where the average reading proficiency is lower. Several limitations, such as the quality of illustrations and measuring the reading level of individuals, were not investigated and must be considered as the authors continue to distribute literature in certain urban and suburban locales. This study is the genesis of an academic institution's community engagement efforts to provide information to clinicians and improve its outreach distribution of limited-reach media for patients who have varying levels of general and health literacy backgrounds. PMID:24611219

  14. Priorities for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Grimm, R. E.; Herrick, R. R.; Johnston, S.; Limaye, S. S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Ocampo, A.; Thompson, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Venus remains one of the most enigmatic bodies in our Solar System. Important questions remain regarding the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, the history of the surface and interior, and how the surface and atmosphere interact. In a broader context, understanding Venus has implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial planets in our Solar System as well as for interpreting the growing set of observations of extra-solar planets. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG), established in 2005, is chartered by NASA's Planetary Science Division and reports its findings to the NASA Advisory Council. Open to all interested scientists, VEXAG regularly evaluates Venus exploration goals, scientific objectives, investigations and critical measurement requirements, including especially recommendations in the NRC Decadal Survey and the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap. At the last general meeting in November 2012, VEXAG resolved to update the scientific priorities and strategies for Venus exploration. To achieve this goal, three major tasks were defined for 2013, (1) update the document prioritizing Goals, Objectives and Investigations for Venus Exploration, (2) develop a Roadmap for Venus exploration that is consistent with VEXAG priorities as well as Planetary Decadal Survey priorities, and (3) develop a white paper on technologies for Venus missions. Proposed versions of all three documents were presented at the VEXAG general meeting in November 2013. Here, we present the findings and final versions of all three documents for community comment and feedback. A follow-on Workshop on Venus Exploration Targets is also being planned for the early summer of 2014. The workshop will provide a forum for the Venus science community to discuss approaches for addressing high priority investigations. Participants will be encouraged to present their ideas for specific targets on Venus (interior, surface and atmosphere) as well as to present specific data

  15. Exploring Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among apparently…

  16. A Pair of Oviduct-Born Pickpocket Neurons Important for Egg-Laying in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunjin; Choi, Hyun Woo; Zhang, Chen; Park, Zee-Yong; Kim, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    During copulation, male Drosophila transfers Sex Peptide (SP) to females where it acts on internal sensory neurons expressing pickpocket (ppk). These neurons induce a post-mating response (PMR) that includes elevated egg-laying and refractoriness to re-mating. Exactly how ppk neurons regulate the different aspects of the PMR, however, remains unclear. Here, we identify a small subset of the ppk neurons which requires expression of a pre-mRNA splicing factor CG3542 for egg-laying, but not refractoriness to mating. We identify two CG3542-ppk expressing neurons that innervate the upper oviduct and appear to be responsible for normal egg-laying. Our results suggest specific subsets of the ppk neurons are responsible for each PMR component. PMID:27378227

  17. LayTracks3D: A new approach for meshing general solids using medial axis transform

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2015-08-22

    This study presents an extension of the all-quad meshing algorithm called LayTracks to generate high quality hex-dominant meshes of general solids. LayTracks3D uses the mapping between the Medial Axis (MA) and the boundary of the 3D domain to decompose complex 3D domains into simpler domains called Tracks. Tracks in 3D have no branches and are symmetric, non-intersecting, orthogonal to the boundary, and the shortest path from the MA to the boundary. These properties of tracks result in desired meshes with near cube shape elements at the boundary, structured mesh along the boundary normal with any irregular nodes restricted to the MA, and sharp boundary feature preservation. The algorithm has been tested on a few industrial CAD models and hex-dominant meshes are shown in the Results section. Work is underway to extend LayTracks3D to generate all-hex meshes.

  18. High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Assessment - Year-End Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-06-21

    This report documents the preliminary needs assessment of high-level waste (HLW) tank lay-up requirements and considerations for the Hanford Site, Idaho Naitonal Engeineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This assessment includes the development of a high-level requirements and considerations list that evolved from work done for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) earlier in fiscal year (FY) 2001, and is based on individual site conditions and tank retrieval/tank closure schedules. Because schedules are continually subject to change, this assessment is considered preliminary and needs review and validation by the individual sites. The lay-up decision methodology developed for WVDP was based on standard systems engineering principles, and provided a structured framework for producing an effective, technically-defensible lay-up strategy.

  19. Bacteriophage as models for virus removal from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) during re-laying.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, T. J.; Martin, K.

    1993-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using naturally-occurring bacteriophages to assess the impact of re-laying on levels of viral contamination in Crassostrea gigas, the Pacific oyster. Two phages were chosen. One, male-specific (F+), was enumerated using Salmonella typhimurium. The other, a somatic phage, was detected using an, as yet, uncharacterized Escherichia coli. Investigations, using a variety of re-laying sites, demonstrated that numbers of F+ phage in oyster tissue declined more rapidly than those of somatic phage. For example, in oysters placed in commercially-used sea water ponds, F+ phage reached undetectable levels within 2-3 weeks, whereas somatic phage could still be detected 5 weeks after re-laying. The studies suggest that F+ phage may not be a suitable indicator for virus removal and that somatic phage may be better suited to this role. PMID:8405159

  20. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Red Ginseng By-product on Laying Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Serum Immunoglobulin and Microbial Population in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Park, S-B; Kim, C H

    2016-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of red ginseng by-product (RGB) on the laying performance, blood biochemistry, and microbial population in laying hens. A total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (75 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet was prepared, and 2 additional diets were prepared by supplementing 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg of RGB to the basal diet at the expense of corn. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio during 4 weeks of the feeding trial. However, hen-day egg production was significantly greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatment groups than that for the basal treatment group. There were no differences in triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during the 4-week feeding trial. However, RGB supplementation increased (p<0.05) the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM content compared with basal treatment group. The total cholesterol was lower (p<0.05) in the RGB treatments groups than that in the basal treatment group. The intestinal Lactobacillus population was greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatments groups than that for the basal treatment group. However, the numbers of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were not different among dietary treatments. During the entire experiment, there was no significant difference in egg quality among all the treatments. In conclusion, in addition to improving hen-day production, there were positive effects of dietary RGB supplementation on serum immunoglobulin and cholesterol levels in laying hens. PMID:26954140

  1. Understanding and Harnessing Placebo Effects: Clearing Away the Underbrush

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Franklin G.; Brody, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Despite strong growth in scientific investigation of the placebo effect, understanding of this phenomenon remains deeply confused. We investigate critically seven common conceptual distinctions that impede clear understanding of the placebo effect: (1) verum/placebo, (2) active/inactive, (3) signal/noise, (4) specific/nonspecific, (5) objective/subjective, (6) disease/illness, and (7) intervention/context. We argue that some of these should be eliminated entirely, whereas others must be used with caution to avoid bias. Clearing away the conceptual underbrush is needed to lay down a path to understanding and harnessing placebo effects in clinical medicine. PMID:21220523

  2. Evaluation of West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, L. W.; Henderson, J. C.; Elmore, M. R.

    2002-02-25

    The primary objective of the task summarized in this paper was to demonstrate a methodology for evaluating alternative strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Lay-up is defined as the period between operational use of tanks for waste storage and final closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to separate the environmental impact statement (EIS) for completion of closure of the WVDP into two separate EISs. The first EIS will cover only waste management and decontamination. DOE expects to complete this EIS in about 18 months. The second EIS will cover final decommissioning and closure and may take up to five years to complete. This approach has been proposed to expedite continued management of the waste and decontamination activities in advance of the final EIS and its associated Record of Decision on final site closure. Final closure of the WVDP site may take 10 to 15 years; therefore, the tanks need to be placed in a safe, stable condition with minimum surveillance during an extended lay-up period. The methodology developed for ranking the potential strategies for lay-up of the WVDP tanks can be used to provide a basis for a decision on the preferred path forward. The methodology is also applicable to determining preferred lay-up approaches at other DOE sites. Some of the alternative strategies identified for the WVDP should also be considered for implementation at the other DOE sites. Each site has unique characteristics that would require unique considerations for lay-up.

  3. Effect of expanded cottonseed meal on laying performance, egg quality, concentrations of free gossypol in tissue, serum and egg of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Song, Hua-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Jiang, Yuan-Jing; Zhang, Ai-Ting; Azzam, Mahmoud Mostafa; Zou, Xiao-Ting

    2014-05-01

    Three hundred and sixty Hy-Line Brown hens, 40 week of age, were allocated to five treatments, each of which included four replicates of 18 hens. After an expanded process of cottonseed meal (CSM), free gossypol content in CSM was decreased from 1.24 to 0.40 g/kg. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal based diets including 6% CSM and 6%, 8% and 10% expanded cottonseed meal (ECSM). Hens fed 8% ECSM had higher (P<0.05) laying rate and average egg weight than those fed 6% CSM. The albumen height and Haugh unit in the control group, 6% and 8% ECSM groups were superior (P<0.05) to other treatments. Hens fed 6% CSM resulted in severe (P<0.05) egg yolk discoloration. Free gossypol (FG) concentrations in yolk and albumen and tissues of the 6% CSM group were greater (P<0.05) than those in any ECSM treatments. Hens fed 6% CSM and 10% ECSM had the highest (P<0.05) FG concentrations in the liver compared with those in the kidney and muscle, and higher (P<0.05) FG residues in yolk than those in albumen. In conclusion, FG in CSM can be reduced by 68% through an expanded process and ECSM can be available in laying hens at up to 10% of the total diet and an appropriate replacement of soybean meal with ECSM may improve performance in laying hens. PMID:24428132

  4. Effect of daily feed intake in laying period on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition of genetically fat and lean lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Xu, L M; Shan, A S; Hu, J W; Zhang, Y Y; Li, Y H

    2011-04-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feed intake on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition in a Fat line and a Lean line during the laying period (34 to 54 weeks of age). 2. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial design with two dietary intake levels (nutrition recommendation and 75% of recommendation) and two broiler genotypes (Fat line and Lean line). Hens (384 of each line) were randomly divided at 23 weeks of age into 4 treatments, with each treatment represented by 12 replicates of 16 birds each. The experiment started when the rate of lay reached 5% and continued until 54 weeks of age. 3. The results indicated that there was a significant interaction between daily feed intake and genotype on egg production, egg weight, percentage yolk, yolk/albumen ratio and yolk cholesterol content. Fat line hens produced significantly more eggs and had a lower incidence of cracked eggs than the Lean line hens. The reduction in feed intake decreased egg weight and increased egg production, egg-shape index and cholesterol content of yolk significantly. PMID:21491238

  5. Effect of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of various levels of dietary nonphytate phosphorus on laying performance and the expression patterns of phosphorus metabolism related genes in Dwarf pink-shell laying hens. A total of 405 28-week-old Dwarf pink-shell laying hens were fed the same corn-soybean basal meals but containing 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35% or 0.40% nonphytate phosphorus. The results showed that feed intake, egg production, and average egg weights were quadratically correlated with dietary nonphytate phosphorus content (P < 0.05), and the highest egg production, feed intake and average egg weights were achieved when dietary nonphytate phosphorus was at 0.3% (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of intestinal sodium phosphorus co-transporter linearly decreased when dietary nonphytate phosphorus increased. mRNA and protein expression of intestinal calbindin and vitamin D receptor correlated quadratically with dietary nonphytate phosphorus, and the highest expression was found when dietary available phosphorus was at 0.25% to 0.3%. In conclusion, the ideal phosphorus requirement for Dwarf pink-shell layer hens is estimated to be 0.3% in a corn-soybean diet. With this level of phosphorus supplementation, calbindin and vitamin D receptor reached their highest expression. PMID:24028402

  6. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Stacy; Bateiha, Summer

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the degree to which prospective elementary teachers had developed a meaningful and conceptual understanding of what integers are and explored their development of models for multiplication with integers that are related to everyday activities. Additionally, this study explored how these understandings informed…

  7. Poroelastic Analysis of Thomsen Parameters in Finely Layed VTI Media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    2003-03-17

    Thomsen's anisotropy parameters for weak elastic and poroelastic anisotropy are now commonly used in exploration, and can be conveniently expressed in terms of the layer averages of Backus. Although there are five effective shear moduli for any layered VTI medium, only one effective shear modulus for the layered system contains all the dependence of pore fluids on the elastic or poroelastic constants that can be observed in vertically polarized shear waves in VTI media. The effects of the pore fluids on this effective shear modulus can be substantial when the medium behaves in an undrained fashion, as might be expected at higher frequencies such a sonic and ultrasonic for well-logging or laboratory experiments, or at seismic frequencies for lower permeability regions of reservoirs.

  8. Future Exploration of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    Program by NASA during 2014. Given that the science questions about Venus are many - ranging from the surface and interior and extending into the atmosphere to 120 km and beyond, it is likely that there will be opportunities for other efforts to contribute to the comprehensive exploration of Venus. If undertaken in a coordinated and collaborative manner, we may make substantial progress in understanding Venus, why and/or how it evolved differently from Earth. This knowledge will help us understand Earth-like rocky planets around other stars that are being discovered at a rapid pace now.

  9. Obesity in question: understandings of body shape, self and normalcy among children in Malta.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gillian M

    2015-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern in contemporary Malta. This article applies a critical realist approach to exploring body shape in young children, recognising fatness and obesity to be both a biologically and a socially constructed phenomenon. The agentic status of the child is central to the research design aimed at exploring understandings of body shape and how they impact on relational dynamics in the lived experiences of young children in Malta. Ethnographic methods were used in a school setting, working with children (n = 134) in two age groups: 5 and 10-year olds. The findings show a marked difference in the two groups. The obese 5-year-olds, buffered by robust protective strategies in their primary group, seem to be unaware of any difference in body shape. This situation changes in the older group where the fat body is stigmatised and obese children develop private coping strategies to deal with the physical disadvantages, taunting and exclusion by their peers. The data show that there is a culturally entrenched fluidity in the lay concept of obesity that impacts on the process of embodiment in young children and may have a lasting effect on body shape and weight. PMID:25683125

  10. Exploration Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Delores Beasley, NASA Public Affairs, introduces the panel who consist of: Scott "Doc" Horowitz, Associate Administrator of Exploration Systems from NASA Headquarters; Jeff Henley, Constellation Program Manager from NASA Johnson Space Flight Center; and Steve Cook, Manager Exploration Launch Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Scott Horowitz presents a short video entitled, "Ares Launching the Future". He further explains how NASA personnel came up with the name of Ares and where the name Ares was derived. Jeff Henley, updates the Constellation program and Steve Cook presents two slide presentations detailing the Ares l crew launch vehicle and Ares 5 cargo launch vehicle. A short question and answer period from the news media follows.

  11. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  12. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  13. Exploring neural network technology

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J.; Maulbetsch, J.

    1992-12-01

    EPRI is funding several projects to explore neural network technology, a form of artificial intelligence that some believe may mimic the way the human brain processes information. This research seeks to provide a better understanding of fundamental neural network characteristics and to identify promising utility industry applications. Results to date indicate that the unique attributes of neural networks could lead to improved monitoring, diagnostic, and control capabilities for a variety of complex utility operations. 2 figs.

  14. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  15. Are Lay People Good at Recognising the Symptoms of Schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Erritty, Philip; Wydell, Taeko N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to explore the general public’s perception of schizophrenia symptoms and the need to seek-help for symptoms. The recognition (or ‘labelling’) of schizophrenia symptoms, help-seeking behaviours and public awareness of schizophrenia have been suggested as potentially important factors relating to untreated psychosis. Method Participants were asked to rate to what extent they believe vignettes describing classic symptoms (positive and negative) of schizophrenia indicate mental illness. They were also asked if the individuals depicted in the vignettes required help or treatment and asked to suggest what kind of help or treatment. Results Only three positive symptoms (i.e., Hallucinatory behaviour, Unusual thought content and Suspiciousness) of schizophrenia were reasonably well perceived (above 70%) as indicating mental illness more than the other positive or negative symptoms. Even when the participants recognised that the symptoms indicated mental illness, not everyone recommended professional help. Conclusion There may be a need to improve public awareness of schizophrenia and psychosis symptoms, particularly regarding an awareness of the importance of early intervention for psychosis. PMID:23301001

  16. Lay Outreach Workers and the Ohio Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Health Education Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Olga L.

    The Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers Project sought to determine the health education needs of this indigent population in Ohio using the help of lay outreach workers. A bilingual needs assessment survey was developed containing questions on demographics, place of permanent residence, points of travel after working in Ohio, and type of work and…

  17. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...

  18. Health Promotion in the Community: Impact of Faith-Based Lay Health Educators in Urban Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Sundar, Siddhi; Qureshi, Adil; Ooi, Gavyn; Teague, Paula; Daniel Hale, W

    2016-06-01

    Promoting wellness and providing reliable health information in the community present serious challenges. Lay health educators, also known as community health workers, may offer a cost-effective solution to such challenges. This is a retrospective observational study of graduates from the Lay Health Educator Program (LHEP) at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center from 2013 to 2014. Students were enrolled from the surrounding community congregations and from the hospital's accredited clinical pastoral education program. There were 50 events implemented by the lay health educators during the 2014-2015 time period, reaching a total of 2004 individuals. The mean time from date of graduation from the LHEP to implementation of their first health promotional event was 196 ± 76 days. A significant number of lay health educators implemented events within the first year after completing their training. Ongoing monitoring of their community activity and the clinical impact of their efforts should be a priority for future studies. PMID:26902365

  19. AIR QUALITY AND HEN HEALTH STATUS IN THREE TYPES OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HEN HOUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field observational study, three types of laying-hen houses, i.e., high-rise (HR), manure-belt (MB), and cage-free floor-raised (FR), were monitored for environmental temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric ammonia (NH3) during winter and summer conditions in Io...

  20. Improvement of Rural Children's Asthma Self-Management by Lay Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Sharon D.; Fouladi, Rachel T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present analysis is to examine changes in rural children's asthma self-management after they received lay health educator (LHE)-delivered classes. Methods: Elementary schools were randomly assigned to the treatment or attention-control condition and their participating students received either asthma education or…

  1. Assessing the Significance of Salmonella Heidelberg Infections in Egg-Laying Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Heidelberg has been common in North American poultry (including commercial laying flocks) for many years. Public health authorities have implicated both poultry meat and eggs as significant sources for the transmission of S. Heidelberg infections to humans. S. Heidelberg colonizes the int...

  2. Microbiological Consequences of Different Housing Systems for Laying Hens: Field and Experimental Infection Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. In response, substantial government and private industry resources are committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. Envi...

  3. Treatment Adherence in a Lay Health Adviser Intervention to Treat Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, N. E.; Ferketich, A. K.; Paskett, E. D.; Wewers, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lay health advisers (LHAs) are increasingly used to deliver tobacco dependence treatment, especially with low-socioeconomic status (SES) populations. More information is needed about treatment adherence to help interpret mixed evidence of LHA intervention effectiveness. This study examined adherence to behavioral counseling and nicotine patches in…

  4. Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

  5. Triggering and persistence of trail-laying in foragers of the ant Lasius niger.

    PubMed

    Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Detrain, Claire; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2005-03-01

    In the ant Lasius niger, the ability to ingest their own desired volume is the key criterion that rules the recruiting behaviour of scouts. This volume acts as a threshold triggering the trail-laying response of foragers. In this paper, we show that this desired volume is specific to each individual and is kept constant over successive trips to a food source. This individual specificity contrasts with the variability of all individual desired volumes within the colony. In this study, it is also shown that, among L. niger foragers, 14% never participate in the formation of the chemical pathway and never lay a trail over successive trips. Among the others foragers, interindividual differences in the persistence of trail-laying behaviour over successive trips are observed but do not rely on an individual specialisation, in which some ants would lay a trail more frequently and persistently than other scouts. We discuss how an individual in the foraging behaviour can play an essential role in the regulation of food retrieval dynamics. PMID:15749112

  6. A treefrog with reproductive mode plasticity reveals a changing balance of selection for nonaquatic egg laying.

    PubMed

    Touchon, Justin C

    2012-12-01

    Nonaquatic reproduction has evolved repeatedly, but the factors that select for laying eggs on land are not well understood. The treefrog Dendropsophus ebraccatus has plasticity in its reproductive mode, laying eggs that successfully develop in or out of water. This permits the first experimental comparison of the selective agents that shape adult oviposition behavior and embryo developmental capacity. I quantified the sources and strengths of arboreal and aquatic egg mortality and how mortality varies with weather patterns, and I assessed 39 years of daily rainfall patterns to infer historic levels of egg mortality and effects of climate change on the selective balance between aquatic and nonaquatic egg deposition. Aquatic predators and desiccation were the strongest selective agents in water and air, respectively. Egg mortality varied with weather such that aquatic oviposition was advantageous when rainfall was low but laying eggs out of water increased survival when rainfall was high. Additionally, I found that since 1972 there have been significant changes in the rainfall patterns in central Panama, and this has altered the selective landscape acting on egg-laying behavior. This work provides insight into the evolution and maintenance of adaptive phenotypic plasticity as well as historic and current selection on reproduction. PMID:23149398

  7. Older Men's Lay Definitions of Successful Aging over Time: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Robert B.; Swift, Audrey U.; Bayomi, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "successful aging" has become widely accepted in gerontology, yet continues to have no common underlying definition. Researchers have increasingly looked to older individuals for their lay definitions of successful aging. The present analysis is based on responses to five questionnaires administered to surviving participants of the…

  8. Lay Referral Patterns Involved in Cardiac Treatment Decision Making among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Amey, Cheryl H.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Muldoon, Susan B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined age and contextually related factors that are influential in lay referral patterns during cardiac treatment decision making. Design and Methods: A complementary design was used. The Myocardial Infarction (MI) Onset Study identified demographic correlates of who sought medical care for 1,388 MI (heart attack) survivors.…

  9. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  10. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the intr...

  11. Campylobacter species occurrence within internal organs and tissues of commercial caged Leghorn laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently present in the intestinal tract and internal tissues of broiler breeder and broiler chickens. Campylobacter spp. ecology in commercial Leghorn laying hens has not been extensively studied. The objectives of the current study were to determine 1) Campylobacter spp. ...

  12. Lay People's Views of School Food Policy Options: Associations with Confidence, Personal Values and Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsley, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A random population survey administered by mail to examine lay people's views of children's food policies and their associations with demographics, personal values and confidence in authorities was conducted among adults in Victoria, Australia. Three hundred and seventy-seven people responded (response rate 57.6%). The questionnaire contained 35…

  13. Laying the Foundation for Successful Team Performance Trajectories: The Roles of Team Charters and Performance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, John E.; Rapp, Tammy L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for…

  14. Microbiological differences between laying hen strains housed in various production systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sister flocks of three strains of laying hens were housed in conventional cage, free range, and cage free production systems. All flocks were located on a single, commercial-style research facility and provided the same dietary and lighting regimens. Once a season, a sample of shell eggs was asept...

  15. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Niagara University and Niagara University Lay Teachers Association 1987-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niagara Univ., Niagara Falls, NY.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Niagara University (New York) and the Niagara University Lay Teachers Association, a chapter of the American Association of University Professors, covering the period 1987 to 1989 is presented. The agreement covers the following items: recognition, union security, dues checkoff, discrimination policy,…

  16. Oviposition site choice under conflicting risks demonstrates that aquatic predators drive terrestrial egg-laying

    PubMed Central

    Touchon, Justin C.; Worley, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Laying eggs out of water was crucial to the transition to land and has evolved repeatedly in multiple animal phyla. However, testing hypotheses about this transition has been difficult because extant species only breed in one environment. The pantless treefrog, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, makes such tests possible because they lay both aquatic and arboreal eggs. Here, we test the oviposition site choices of D. ebraccatus under conflicting risks of arboreal egg desiccation and aquatic egg predation, thereby estimating the relative importance of each selective agent on reproduction. We also measured discrimination between habitats with and without predators and development of naturally laid aquatic and arboreal eggs. Aquatic embryos in nature developed faster than arboreal embryos, implying no cost to aquatic egg laying. In choice tests, D. ebraccatus avoided habitats with fish, showing that they can detect aquatic egg predators. Most importantly, D. ebraccatus laid most eggs in the water when faced with only desiccation risk, but switched to laying eggs arboreally when desiccation risk and aquatic predators were both present. This provides the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that aquatic predation risk influences non-aquatic oviposition and strongly supports the hypothesis that it was a driver of the evolution of terrestrial reproduction. PMID:25948689

  17. Influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. Many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. The current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-f...

  18. Salmonella Enteritidis deposition in eggs after experimental infection of laying hens with different oral doses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to SE testing and control programs in commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk reduction requires a detailed and...

  19. Formation and Uses of Lay Advisory Groups for the Humanities. Project Report No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, Miriam M.

    Based on the experiences of several community colleges, this report examines successful and unsuccessful strategies utilized in the formation of lay advisory committees for the humanities. The report first presents brief descriptions of successful committee organization efforts at five institutions: Clark College (Vancouver, WA), Brevard Community…

  20. Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...