Sample records for exploring lay understandings

  1. Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and others online*EC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennie A. Abrahamson; Karen E. Fisher; Anne G. Turner; Joan C. Durrance; Tammara Combs Turner

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer health information domain. Lay information mediaries (LIMs) seek information on behalf or because of others, without necessarily being asked to do so or engaging in follow up, and have represented more than 50% of

  2. Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date-temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus.

    PubMed

    Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J

    2008-03-22

    Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (GxE) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date-temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for GxE. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs. PMID:18211880

  3. Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date–temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus

    PubMed Central

    Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype–environment interaction (G×E) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11?624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date–temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for G×E. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs. PMID:18211880

  4. Lay understanding of forensic statistics: Evaluation of random match probabilities, likelihood ratios, and verbal equivalents.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William C; Newman, Eryn J

    2015-08-01

    Forensic scientists have come under increasing pressure to quantify the strength of their evidence, but it is not clear which of several possible formats for presenting quantitative conclusions will be easiest for lay people, such as jurors, to understand. This experiment examined the way that people recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (n = 541) responded to 2 types of forensic evidence-a DNA comparison and a shoeprint comparison-when an expert explained the strength of this evidence 3 different ways: using random match probabilities (RMPs), likelihood ratios (LRs), or verbal equivalents of likelihood ratios (VEs). We found that verdicts were sensitive to the strength of DNA evidence regardless of how the expert explained it, but verdicts were sensitive to the strength of shoeprint evidence only when the expert used RMPs. The weight given to DNA evidence was consistent with the predictions of a Bayesian network model that incorporated the perceived risk of a false match from 3 causes (coincidence, a laboratory error, and a frame-up), but shoeprint evidence was undervalued relative to the same Bayesian model. Fallacious interpretations of the expert's testimony (consistent with the source probability error and the defense attorney's fallacy) were common and were associated with the weight given to the evidence and verdicts. The findings indicate that perceptions of forensic science evidence are shaped by prior beliefs and expectations as well as expert testimony and consequently that the best way to characterize and explain forensic evidence may vary across forensic disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25984887

  5. Exploration for Understanding in Cognitive Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluck, Kevin; Stanley, Clayton; Moore, L.; Reitter, David; Halbrügge, Marc

    2010-12-01

    The cognitive modeling and artificial general intelligence research communities may reap greater scientific return on research investments - may achieve an improved understanding of architectures and models - if there is more emphasis on systematic sensitivity and necessity analyses during model development, evaluation, and comparison. We demonstrate this methodological prescription with two of the models submitted for the Dynamic Stocks and Flows (DSF) Model Comparison Challenge, exploring the complex interactions among architectural mechanisms, knowledge-level strategy variants, and task conditions. To cope with the computational demands of these analyses we use a predictive analytics approach similar to regression trees, combined with parallelization on high performance computing clusters, to enable large scale, simultaneous search and exploration.

  6. Toward a framework for understanding lay public's comprehension of disaster and bioterrorism information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alla Keselman; Laura Slaughter; Vimla L. Patel

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade, we have witnessed a significant increase in disaster preparedness and crisis communication efforts. This stands in sharp contrast with paucity of research that deals with the public’s comprehension of disaster information and related decision-making. The objective of this paper is to outline a theoretical and methodological framework for research on lay comprehension of crisis information. The

  7. Lay and expert perceptions of zoonotic risks: understanding conflicting perspectives in the light of moral theory.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K K; Lassen, J; Robinson, P; Sandře, P

    2005-04-01

    As in many other areas, there is a divide between lay and expert perceptions of risk within the food sector, and this can lead to disagreement over priorities in food risk management. The risk perception literature tends to stress that the parties involved in this disagreement have different concepts of risk and hence are bound more or less to talk at cross-purposes. This paper suggests an alternative analysis: In the light of moral theory, the conflicting perspectives can be understood as a genuine moral conflict. When this conflict is conceptualised, a rational dialogue becomes possible. The paper reports a series of qualitative interviews with lay people and experts on zoonotic food risks. The interviews are used to reconstruct the values underlying some of the dominant perspectives. The conflict between these stylised perspectives is then analysed with the help of moral theory. Finally, some consequences for risk communication are made clear. PMID:15808359

  8. Toward a framework for understanding lay public's comprehension of disaster and bioterrorism information.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Slaughter, Laura; Patel, Vimla L

    2005-08-01

    In the last decade, we have witnessed a significant increase in disaster preparedness and crisis communication efforts. This stands in sharp contrast with paucity of research that deals with the public's comprehension of disaster information and related decision-making. The objective of this paper is to outline a theoretical and methodological framework for research on lay comprehension of crisis information. The proposed framework integrates two bodies of research: (1) cognitive science literature on comprehension and decision-making and (2) studies of the effects of anxiety on performance. The paper reviews selected works and methods from both fields, discussing how cognitive perspective could be extended to include emotional factors. We also discuss how further research integrating the proposed framework with public health communication perspective could: (1) provide insights for developing effective disaster communication and (2) inform the development of technological support for disaster communication and for education of lay people and health professionals. PMID:15978875

  9. Laying medicine open: understanding major turning points in the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B

    1999-03-01

    At different times during its history medicine has been laid open to accountability for its scientific and moral quality. This phenonmenon of laying medicine open has sometimes resulted in major turning points in the history of medical ethics. In this paper, I examine two examples of when the laying open of medicine has generated such turning points: eighteenth-century British medicine and late twentieth-century American medicine. In the eighteenth century, the Scottish physician-philosopher, John Gregory (1724-1773), concerned with the unscientific, entrepreneurial, self-interested nature of then current medical practice, laid medicine open to accountability using the tools of ethics and philosophy of medicine. In the process, Gregory wrote the first professional ethics of medicine in the English-language literature, based on the physician's fiduciary responsibility to the patient. In the late twentieth century, the managed practice of medicine has laid medicine open to accountability for its scientific quality and economic cost. This current laying open of medicine creates the challenge of developing medical ethics and bioethics for population-based medical science and practice. PMID:11657315

  10. Preliminary findings exploring the social determinants of Black males' lay health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Johnson, Darin M; Rego, Maria Isabel; Schofield, Kandyce; Amponsah, Alethea; Graham, Louis F

    2012-01-01

    The unequal discussion of Black males' health is a pressing social problem. This study addressed Black males' lay perspectives regarding their health, illness, and mortality, with attention to the determinants of men's health, prevention, lifestyle, and opportunities for health promotion using an exploratory/qualitative research methodology. Participants were 68 Black males aged 15 to 68 years, with an average age of 44 years (SD = 14.5). The narratives represented a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors, ranging from intrapersonal attitudes, interpersonal experiences to discussions about community and public policy injustices. Five prominent themes emerged: (a) lack of chronic disease awareness, (b) fatalism, (c) fear and anxiety of academic-medical settings, (d) hyperactive masculinity fatigue, and (e) the gay-straight divide. The term Tired Black Male Health syndrome was coined in the forum. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of culturally relevant strategies for improving Black male community health engagement. PMID:22105065

  11. Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Lori

    2004-01-01

    In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…

  12. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joo Ok; Lee, Joohi; Moon, Sung Seek

    2009-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the effects of death education on children and their understanding of death. The participants of this study were eighty 5- and 6-year-olds who were enrolled in a suburban kindergarten in Korea. To examine the level of children's understanding of death, researchers interviewed each child in both the control and…

  13. Critical trust: understanding lay perceptions of health and safety risk regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Walls; Nick Pidgeon; Andrew Weyman; Tom Horlick-Jones

    2004-01-01

    The binary opposition of trusting or not trusting is inadequate to understand the often ambiguous and contradictory ideas people possess about risk regulators, particularly when knowledge and experience of such institutions is limited. The paper reports qualitative and quantitative data from a major study of public perceptions (n?=?30 focus groups) of UK risk regulators. We compare the complex and widely

  14. How has neuroscience affected lay understandings of personhood? A review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The prominence of neuroscience in the public sphere has escalated in recent years, provoking questions about how the public engages with neuroscientific ideas. Commentaries on neuroscience’s role in society often present it as having revolutionary implications, fundamentally overturning established beliefs about personhood. The purpose of this article is to collate and review the extant empirical evidence on the influence of neuroscience on commonsense understandings of personhood. The article evaluates the scope of neuroscience’s presence in public consciousness and examines the empirical evidence for three frequently encountered claims about neuroscience’s societal influence: that neuroscience fosters a conception of the self that is based in biology, that neuroscience promotes conceptions of individual fate as predetermined, and that neuroscience attenuates the stigma attached to particular social categories. It concludes that many neuroscientific ideas have assimilated in ways that perpetuate rather than challenge existing modes of understanding self, others and society. PMID:23833053

  15. How has neuroscience affected lay understandings of personhood? A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

    2013-04-01

    The prominence of neuroscience in the public sphere has escalated in recent years, provoking questions about how the public engages with neuroscientific ideas. Commentaries on neuroscience's role in society often present it as having revolutionary implications, fundamentally overturning established beliefs about personhood. The purpose of this article is to collate and review the extant empirical evidence on the influence of neuroscience on commonsense understandings of personhood. The article evaluates the scope of neuroscience's presence in public consciousness and examines the empirical evidence for three frequently encountered claims about neuroscience's societal influence: that neuroscience fosters a conception of the self that is based in biology, that neuroscience promotes conceptions of individual fate as predetermined, and that neuroscience attenuates the stigma attached to particular social categories. It concludes that many neuroscientific ideas have assimilated in ways that perpetuate rather than challenge existing modes of understanding self, others and society. PMID:23833053

  16. Same but Different: Exploring Young Children's Understandings about Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouzourou, Chryso

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore young children's understandings about their peers with disabilities as manifested in their daily interactions in classroom and school routines. Using an ecological perspective, children's expressed views about their peers with disabilities were also explored, to examine how these understandings are situated…

  17. Using Electronic Interviews to Explore Student Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D. J.; Rivera, J. J.; Mateycik, Fran; Jennings, Sybillyn

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports on methods used to probe student understandings of optical fibers and total internal reflection (TIR). The study was conducted as part of the expansion and improvement of web-based materials for an innovative introductory physics course. Initially, we conducted face-to-face Piaget-style interviews with a convenience sample. Our next step was to interview students taking the course at Rensselaer. Physical limitations necessitated that this be done from a distance, so we conducted "e-interviews" using a Chat Room. In this paper we focus on the e-interview experience, discussing similarities to and differences from the traditional face-to-face approach. In the process, we address how each method informs us about students' activation of prior experiences in making sense of unfamiliar phenomena (e.g., "transfer of learning").

  18. Laying the Groundwork for NCLEX Success: An Exploration of Adaptive Quizzing as an Examination Preparation Method.

    PubMed

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A; Phelan, Julia C

    2015-05-01

    First-time NCLEX-RN pass rates are an important indicator of nursing school success and quality. Nursing schools use different methods to anticipate NCLEX outcomes and help prevent student failure and possible threat to accreditation. This study evaluated the impact of a shift in NCLEX preparation policy at a BSN program in the southeast United States. The policy shifted from the use of predictor score thresholds to determine graduation eligibility to a more proactive remediation strategy involving adaptive quizzing. A descriptive correlational design evaluated the impact of an adaptive quizzing system designed to give students ongoing active practice and feedback and explored the relationship between predictor examinations and NCLEX success. Data from student usage of the system as well as scores on predictor tests were collected for three student cohorts. Results revealed a positive correlation between adaptive quizzing system usage and content mastery. Two of the 69 students in the sample did not pass the NCLEX. With so few students failing the NCLEX, predictability of any course variables could not be determined. The power of predictor examinations to predict NCLEX failure could also not be supported. The most consistent factor among students, however, was their content mastery level within the adaptive quizzing system. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25851560

  19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Explore. Discover. Understand.

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    for Business Technologist Takes Modularity to the Next Level Second-Generation Thermal Control Technology tools and end-effectors, highly adaptive thermal control, vision systems, contact dynamic analysisNational Aeronautics and Space Administration Explore. Discover. Understand. h t t p : / / w w w

  20. Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date–temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon E. Brommer; Kalev Rattiste; Alastair J. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (G!E) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (nZ11 624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used

  1. Exploring and Understanding Scientific Metrics in Citation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapivin, Mikalai; Marchese, Maurizio; Casati, Fabio

    This paper explores scientific metrics in citation networks in scientific communities, how they differ in ranking papers and authors, and why. In particular we focus on network effects in scientific metrics and explore their meaning and impact. We initially take as example three main metrics that we believe significant; the standard citation count, the more and more popular h-index, and a variation we propose of PageRank applied to papers (called PaperRank) that is appealing as it mirrors proven and successful algorithms for ranking web pages and captures relevant information present in the whole citation network. As part of analyzing them, we develop generally applicable techniques and metrics for qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing such network-based indexes that evaluate content and people, as well as for understanding the causes of their different behaviors. We put the techniques at work on a dataset of over 260K ACM papers, and discovered that the difference in ranking results is indeed very significant (even when restricting to citation-based indexes), with half of the top-ranked papers differing in a typical 20-element long search result page for papers on a given topic, and with the top researcher being ranked differently over half of the times in an average job posting with 100 applicants.

  2. Vocational Exploration through Service: The Effect of Service-Learning on Student Understanding of God's Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    College is a time of exploration for students. College students who are Christian may also engage in exploration of God's call on their lives, a discernment of their vocation. One pedagogical technique that can help us help students explore vocation is service-learning. To better understand their vocation, students need to understand themselves…

  3. The integrated project AquaTerra of the EU sixth framework lays foundations for better understanding of river-sediment-soil-groundwater systems.

    PubMed

    Gerzabek, M H; Barceló, D; Bellin, A; Rijnaarts, H H M; Slob, A; Darmendrail, D; Fowler, H J; Négrel, Ph; Frank, E; Grathwohl, P; Kuntz, D; Barth, J A C

    2007-07-01

    The integrated project "AquaTerra" with the full title "integrated modeling of the river-sediment-soil-groundwater system; advanced tools for the management of catchment areas and river basins in the context of global change" is among the first environmental projects within the sixth Framework Program of the European Union. Commencing in June 2004, it brought together a multidisciplinary team of 45 partner organizations from 12 EU countries, Romania, Switzerland, Serbia and Montenegro. AquaTerra is an ambitious project with the primary objective of laying the foundations for a better understanding of the behavior of environmental pollutants and their fluxes in the soil-sediment-water system with respect to climate and land use changes. The project performs research as well as modeling on river-sediment-soil-groundwater systems through quantification of deposition, sorption and turnover rates and the development of numerical models to reveal fluxes and trends in soil and sediment functioning. Scales ranging from the laboratory to river basins are addressed with the potential to provide improved river basin management, enhanced soil and groundwater monitoring as well as the early identification and forecasting of impacts on water quantity and quality. Study areas are the catchments of the Ebro, Meuse, Elbe and Danube Rivers and the Brévilles Spring. Here we outline the general structure of the project and the activities conducted within eleven existing sub-projects of AquaTerra. PMID:17166649

  4. Understanding the Basics of Gas Exploration and Production

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Albert, Eric K.

    This presentation from Eric K. Albert explains the basics of gas exploration and production, as well as some of the career opportunities created by the industry. Most of the presentation focuses on natural gas development, exploration and production. He also discusses where the jobs are in the natural gas industry.The presentation may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

  5. Venus Exploration Priorities for Understanding Tectonic and Geodynamic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaze, L. S.

    2015-05-01

    Geodynamic science objectives figure prominently in the VEXAG goals and objectives, as well as the roadmap, for Venus exploration. Although some measurements can be made from orbit, many challenges remain for long-term observations from the surface.

  6. Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, th Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and grou handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

  7. Exploring Preservice Teachers' Emerging Understandings of Disciplinary Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Avis M.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative inquiry examined 14 secondary preservice teachers' emerging understandings of disciplinary literacy. Data included preservice teachers' written reflections and annotated lesson plans, which were analyzed for understanding of discipline-specific habits of thinking, texts, reading and writing demands of academic texts,…

  8. Understanding China's Post80 employees' work attitudes: an explorative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinxuan Gu; Lihong Wang; Judy Y. Sun; Yanni Xu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among job and career satisfactions, work commitment, and turnover intentions for the Post-80 employees in China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 290 of China's Post-80 employees from 19 knowledge-intensive companies were surveyed. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Findings – The perceptions of selected Post-80 employees

  9. Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzu-Bin; Li, Jen-Yi; Deng, Feng; Lee, Ling

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of new media technologies, the role of media in a society has been changed that leads researchers to re-construct the meaning of literacy from classic literacy to new media literacy. There have been continuing efforts to understand new media and promote the importance of becoming new media literate among researchers, educators,…

  10. Primary Students' Understanding of Tessellation: An Initial Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callingham, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Tessellation is included in many mathematics curricula as one way of developing spatial ideas. If students do not understand tessellation in the intended ways, however, the development of other spatial ideas, such as properties of shapes and symmetry, may be compromised. Van Hiele levels were used as a basis for analysing the descriptions of eight…

  11. Exploring Turkish Upper Primary Level Pupils' Understanding of Digestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakici, Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The…

  12. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  13. 08: Ovipositing (egg laying)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Gorga

    2009-01-01

    Once eggs have been fertilized the female lays them in the water. Egg laying behavior is quite varied but falls into two general patterns. Some species lay eggs directly into water by flying low over the water and periodically tapping their tail into the water. Other species, such as this violet (or variable) dancer (Argia fumipennis), lay their eggs on

  14. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific principles: conservation of matter, conservation of energy, and the hierarchical nature of biological systems. Data on students' responses to the cluster items and uses of some of the questions in multiple-choice, multiple-true/false, and essay formats are compared. A cross-over study indicates that the multiple-true/false format shows promise as a machine-gradable format that identifies students who have a mixture of accurate and inaccurate ideas. In addition, interviews with students about their choices on three multiple-choice questions reveal the fragility of students' understanding. Collectively, the data show that many undergraduates lack both a basic understanding of the role of photosynthesis in plant metabolism and the ability to reason with scientific principles when learning new content. Implications for instruction are discussed. PMID:22383617

  15. Public health research and lay knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennie Popay; Gareth Williams

    1996-01-01

    Social science research into the social patterning of health and illness is extensive. One important aspects of this has been work on lay knowledge about health and illness. In this paper we develop three main arguments. First, we suggest that recent developments in social science understanding of the nature and significance of lay knowledge should be more widely recognized within

  16. Deepening Students' Understanding of Multiplication and Division by Exploring Divisibility by Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Mills, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how a focus on understanding divisibility rules can be used to help deepen students' understanding of multiplication and division with whole numbers. It is based on research with seven Year 7-8 teachers who were observed teaching a group of students a rule for divisibility by nine. As part of the lesson, students were shown a…

  17. Exploring Students' Understanding of Ordinary Differential Equations Using Computer Algebraic System (CAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maat, Siti Mistima; Zakaria, Effandi

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are one of the important topics in engineering mathematics that lead to the understanding of technical concepts among students. This study was conducted to explore the students' understanding of ODEs when they solve ODE questions using a traditional method as well as a computer algebraic system, particularly…

  18. Lay perception Crisis 1 Running head: Lay perception Financial Crisis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lay perception Crisis 1 Running head: Lay perception Financial Crisis Human Foibles or Systemic Failure -- Lay Perceptions of the 2008-09 Financial Crisis David Leiser Ben-Gurion University Sacha-39" #12;Lay perception Crisis 2 Abstract We examined lay perceptions of the recent financial and economic

  19. Understanding the Chena Hot Springs, Alaska, geothermal system using temperature and pressure data from exploration boreholes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Erkan; Gwen Holdmann; Walter Benoit; David Blackwell

    2008-01-01

    Chena Hot Springs is a small, moderate temperature, deep circulating geothermal system, apparently typical of those associated to hot springs of interior Alaska. Multi-stage drilling was used in some exploration boreholes and was found to be useful for understanding subsurface flow characteristics and developing a conceptual model of the system. The results illustrate how temperature profiles illuminate varying pressure versus

  20. Voyage of Discovery: What Happens When Inservice Teachers Explore Teaching for Understanding through Collaborative Investigation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Jeannie A.

    This study explored elementary school teachers' perspectives on their evolving understanding of themselves and children as learners while they were co-researchers in inquiry about children's thinking. Through collaborative inquiry, professional reading, classroom experimentation, shared stories, and personal reflection, participants created a…

  1. A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Rapley, C.; Elfring, C.; Allison, I.; Bindschadler, R.; Chown, S.; Duhaime, G.; Kotlyakov, V.; Orheim, O.; Zhang, Z.; Kuhn, M.; Schalke, H.; Pandey, P.; Petersen, H. K.; Casassa, G.

    2003-12-01

    Planning is underway to hold an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. IPY 2007-2008 stands to be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007-2008 is envisioned to be an intense, international campaign of coordinated polar observations and analysis, which will be bipolar in focus, multidisciplinary in scope, and truly international in participation. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their roles in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007 - 2008 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups. Earlier this year, the International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) which met for the first time at the end of July. The Planning Group discussed ways to create an open process that encourages broad input from the international community. The Planning Group began to describe the desired goals of IPY 2007-2008, which should address compelling science issues through multi-national programs, enable scientific programs which would not otherwise occur, attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, and engage the public. The Planning Group has identified three overarching themes that we hope can serve as the foundation for IPY 2007-2008: Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, Decoding the Role of the Poles in Global Change Understanding Polar Processes. The Planning Group envisions focused research activities under each of these major themes. For example, a program to explore the sub-ice environment of East Antarctica would fit under the theme Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, a program of Integrated Polar Observing Networks including environmental instrumentation would fit under Decoding the Role of the Poles in Global Change, and a collaborative effort to study the stability of the cryosphere would fit under Understanding Polar Processes.

  2. Exploring students' understanding of reference frames and time in Galilean and special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hosson, C.; Kermen, I.; Parizot, E.

    2010-11-01

    This paper aims at exploring prospective physics teachers' reasoning associated with the concepts of reference frame, time and event which form the framework of the classical kinematics and that of the relativistic kinematics. About 100 prospective physics teachers were surveyed by means of a questionnaire involving classical kinematics situations and relativistic ones. The analysis of the answers shows a deep lack of understanding of both concepts of reference frame and event. Some students think that events may be simultaneous for an observer and not simultaneous for another one, even when both observers are located in the same reference frame. Most of the students surveyed cannot give an answer only depending on the location of the observer when his/her velocity is mentioned as if the movement contaminated the event. This lack of understanding is embodied in reasoning implemented by the population surveyed to address classical kinematics questions and seems to form a major obstacle to grasping relativistic kinematics.

  3. To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Nigel; Richardson, Janet

    2012-07-10

    lawrence n. & richardson j. (2012) Journal of Nursing Management To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust Aim? The aim of this study was to explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons. Background? Modern matrons were re-introduced to the National Health Service in 2002, and effective leadership has been identified as being essential for the role to be successful. However, there is minimal evidence of how modern matrons experience effective leadership. Methods? The study used a descriptive generic qualitative methodology; one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine matrons. This was subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results? Three themes were found to influence modern matron's leadership experiences: leadership behaviours, negative influences and leadership investment. They did not follow one leadership style but adapted this to their situation. Various factors appeared to restrict their leadership effectiveness. Conclusions? The findings suggest that exposure to a range of leadership styles should be included in preparation and CPD for the modern matron role and a more consistent job description and job purpose should be developed. Implications for nursing management? Leadership styles such as transformational leadership alone do not meet the complex demands of nursing leaders, and therefore there is a requirement for greater flexibility in leadership development for all health care professionals. PMID:23410106

  4. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

  5. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

  6. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  7. The Small Laying Flock 

    E-print Network

    Thornberry, Fredrick D.

    1997-05-21

    adverse weather condi- tions and predators. The structure must also protect feeders and be suitable for nests and a roost. Tube feeders and an automatic waterer are recommended for floor layers. Good health is dependent on clean, potable water. A... is housed. Production Pointers 1. Keep backyard poultry away from the pullet and laying flock. 2. Prevent water leaks and keep litter in good condition and manure dry at all times. 3. Keep birds comfortable and protect them against adverse environmen- tal...

  8. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-12-01

    Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which has been only scarcely explored in the science education literature. A four-tier diagnostic instrument was used. The instrument comprises 25 questions, and each question has an answer tier, a confidence rating for this tier, a reason tier and a confidence rating for this tier. Versions of the instrument were refined iteratively during the preliminary and pilot phases of the study. This study reports on the results obtained from the main phase of the study, using a sample of 140 students. Overall, the diagnostic test was difficult for the students. The students had a mean score of 38 %, based on correct responses for both answer and reason tiers for the questions. It was accompanied by a mean confidence of only 3.49 out of 6 (that is, 58.2 %) for the whole test. The results indicate that transition metals chemistry is a difficult topic for the students. Twenty-four alternative conceptions have been identified in this study, including some indication of their strengths. Some implications of the study are discussed.

  9. An Exploration of Teachers' Efforts to Understand Identity Work and its Relevance to Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. Cecil; Darfler, Anne

    2012-06-01

    US educators express concern that students are turning away from the study of science and have little interest in pursuing science careers. Nationally, science achievement scores for 8th graders are unchanged since 1996, but 12th graders' scores have significantly decreased. A shortcoming of education reform efforts is lack of attention to students' developmental needs. Science study should enable students to learn about themselves—to develop and refine their skills, define their values, explore personal interests, and understand the importance of science to themselves and others. Effective secondary science instruction requires attention to students' identity development—the key developmental task of adolescence. Secondary science teachers participated in an 8-week course focused on understanding adolescent identity development and methods for addressing identity. Transcripts of the teachers' online discussions of salient issues were analyzed to determine their perceptions regarding classroom identity work. Teachers identified several assets and obstacles to identity work that were organized into two broad categories: teacher knowledge, training opportunities, and administrative support, or lack of these; and, presence of inflexible curricula, standardized testing regimes, and increased teacher accountability. Implications for student growth and science teacher professional development are discussed.

  10. Lay health advisor activity levels: definitions from the field.

    PubMed

    Altpeter, M; Earp, J A; Bishop, C; Eng, E

    1999-08-01

    One type of lay health advisor model assumes that an effective mechanism for reaching the underserved is through informal advice-givers called natural helpers. Despite the growing use of this approach, few programs have defined what an active lay health advisor does within the natural helping process. To explore perceptions and definitions of lay health advisors' activity, we conducted semistructured, in-person interviews with four field staff who coordinate the advisors' activities in a breast cancer screening program. These staff viewed lay health advisor activity as fluctuating over the course of a year, occurring along a continuum of participation (inactive, moderately active, active, and superactive), and reflecting varying degrees of proactivity and participation in multiple activities. These results suggest an empirical process for refining the definition of an active lay health advisor, improving advisors' productivity in achieving outreach objectives, and managing and monitoring their ongoing activities. PMID:10435234

  11. The GPS Analysis Package for Exploration and Understanding of Geodetic Sensor Web Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granat, R. A.; Moghaddam, B.; Donnellan, A.

    2012-12-01

    We introduce the GPS Analysis Package (GAP), a Matlab toolbox for GPS data exploration and understanding. The toolbox is designed to support scientists and engineers studying the motion of the solid Earth both in an academic environment and in the course of NASA missions such as UAVSAR and future InSAR satellite missions. It includes an ensemble of low-level routines to perform basic signal processing operations, such as removal of secular motion, de-noising, and removal of seasonal signals. It also includes a suite of more sophisticated statistical pattern recognition techniques, including hidden Markov models and Bayes nets, to detect changes, identify transient signals, understand regional motion, and uncover relationships between geographically removed nodes in the GPS network. Finally, it provides an assortment of methods for estimating missing observations in the network. We provide usage examples of the package applied to particular scenarios, including the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and ongoing slow slip events in the Cascadia region. We also demonstrate the utility of the package within a web portal and web services environment by showcasing its use in the QuakeSim web portal. The QuakeSim portal allows easy access to GPS data sources provided by multiple institutions as well as a map and plotting interface to quickly assess analysis results. Finally, we show the extensibility of the package to other problem domains and sensor network data sources, demonstrating the analysis tools as applied to seismic network data, autonomous robotic navigation, and fault detection in engineering data streams from the International Space Station.

  12. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ?5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with interventions to address gender inequity, support marital relationships, and improve access to perinatal healthcare. PMID:24581309

  13. The Small Laying Flock

    E-print Network

    Thornberry, Fredrick D.

    1997-05-21

    then be maintained on a 16 percent protein pullet developer until the first egg is laid. Clean, potable water and feed must always be available. Add poultry vitamins, at the recommended level, to the drinking water the first week to ensure that birds have sufficient... conventional poultry house for a small flock of pullets or laying hens. There should be one nest per four layers. Nests should be 24 inches above the litter. Roost width requirement is 8 inches per bird. Poles should be 14 inches apart and 18 to 36 inches above...

  14. Potential input from metabolomics for exploring and understanding the links between environment and health.

    PubMed

    Bonvallot, Nathalie; Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Chevrier, Cecile; Canlet, Cecile; Debrauwer, Laurent; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed via their environment to multiple chemicals as a consequence of human activities and use of synthetic products. Little knowledge is routinely generated on the hazards of these chemical mixtures. The metabolomic approach is widely used to identify metabolic pathways modified by diseases, drugs, or exposures to toxicants. This review, based on the state of the art of the current applications of metabolomics in environmental health, attempts to determine whether metabolomics might constitute an original approach to the study of associations between multiple, low-dose environmental exposures in humans. Studying the biochemical consequences of complex environmental exposures is a challenge demanding the development of careful experimental and epidemiological designs, in order to take into account possible confounders associated with the high level of interindividual variability induced by different lifestyles. The choices of populations studied, sampling and storage procedures, statistical tools used, and system biology need to be considered. Suggestions for improved experimental and epidemiological designs are described. Evidence indicates that metabolomics may be a powerful tool in environmental health in the identification of both complex exposure biomarkers directly in human populations and modified metabolic pathways, in an attempt to improve understanding the underlying environmental causes of diseases. Nevertheless, the validity of biomarkers and relevancy of animal-to-human extrapolation remain key challenges that need to be properly explored. PMID:24597908

  15. Exploring and Understanding the Benefits of Tutoring Software on Urban Students' Science Achievement: What Are Baltimore City Practitioners' Perspectives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2008-01-01

    Historically, very little research that meets the scientifically based standards as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act has been conducted on the effectiveness of educational technology on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore and seek to understand urban city teachers' perspectives on the benefits or effects of…

  16. The Visuo-Haptic and Haptic Exploration of Letters Increases the Kindergarten-Children's Understanding of the Alphabetic Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of incorporating a visuo-haptic and haptic (tactual-kinaesthetic) exploration of letters in a training designed to develop phonemic awareness, knowledge of letters and letter/sound correspondences, on 5-year-old children's understanding and use of the alphabetic principle. Three interventions, which differed in the…

  17. From Phenotype to Genotype: Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Genetic Inheritance in a Web-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michelle; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Manokore, Viola

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that students face challenges as they learn about genetic inheritance. The challenges could emanate from the fact that genetic inheritance involves unseen processes at different organizational levels. We explored students' understanding of heredity and related concepts such as cells and reproduction using a Web-based Science Inquiry…

  18. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  19. ‘They just seem to live their lives in their own little world’: lay perceptions of autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Huws; R. S. P. Jones

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is believed to be higher than that of other conditions, such as Down syndrome or diabetes, yet few studies have explored the ideas lay people have about autism. Semi?structured interviews were used to explore how 10 lay people with no knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism. Interpretative phenomenological analysis and discourse analysis illuminated

  20. Exploring the Influence of Vocabulary Instruction on Students’ Understanding of Mathematical Concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Micki McConnell

    2008-01-01

    In this action research study of my classroom of 8th grade mathematics, I investigated the influence of vocabulary instruction on students’ understanding of the mathematics concepts. I discovered that knowing the meaning of the vocabulary did play a major role in the students’ understanding of the daily lessons and the ability to take tests. Understanding the vocabulary and the concepts

  1. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  2. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  3. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  4. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  5. Explorers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Laz

    2007-11-07

    WEbsites to use for 5th grade Explorers study. Explorers of the Americas - Enchanted Learning'); Explorers of the Americas - Enchanted Learning Lewis Clark - The Journey of the Corps of Discovery Lewis and Clark - The Journey of the Corps of Discovery Gale Group Biography Resources Center Gale Group - Biography Resource Center Discoverer s Web Discoverer's Web The Conquistadors The Conquistadors ...

  6. Exploring Elementary Students' Understanding of Energy and Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin

    2008-01-01

    As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curricula need to develop students' understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change. For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what their students' prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A…

  7. "Everything Is in Parables": An Exploration of Students' Difficulties in Understanding Christian Beliefs Concerning Jesus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freathy, Rob; Aylward, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of interviews conducted with students (aged 11-13) in four English secondary schools, examining reasons why young people find it difficult to understand Christian beliefs regarding Jesus' miracles, resurrection, and status as the Son of God. For the students in this sample, understanding and belief are closely…

  8. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  9. Exploring pre-service teachers' understanding of statistical variation: Implications for teaching and research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sashi Sharma

    oncerns about the importance of variation in statistics education and a lack of research in this topic led to a preliminary study which explored pre-service teachers' ideas in this area. The teachers completed a written questionnaire about variation in sampling and distribution contexts. Responses were categorised in relation to a framework that identified levels of statistical thinking. The results suggest

  10. Understanding divergent evolution of Earth-like planets: the case for a Venus exploration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    2002-01-01

    Here, we propose a Venus exploration program designed to explain the origin and divergent evolution of the interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in our solar system, and provide greater insight into the conditions that may affect the habitability of terrestrial planets in other solar systems.

  11. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter will explore the literature that is relevant to understanding the

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    14 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter will explore the literature that is relevant grades when they are particularly relevant. The second part of this literature review is a brief summary. Brophy and Good (1974, 1986) provide an excellent review of the literature in this area and discuss

  12. CHAPTER 2: Literature Review This chapter will explore the literature that is relevant to understanding the

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    22 CHAPTER 2: Literature Review This chapter will explore the literature that is relevant of this review of the literature will describe two types of research: research on teaching and research of research. The third part of this literature review is a summary of research on effective problem solving

  13. Explorers, Detectives, Matchmakers, and Lion Tamers: Understanding Jigsaw Puzzlers' Techniques and Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Angela Cora

    2013-01-01

    Why do people enjoy jigsaw puzzles, which--challenging and time-consuming as they are--might be considered more like work than play? The author investigates the motivations, preferences, and satisfactions of individuals working on jigsaw puzzles, and she explores how these elements of play relate to the procedures and strategies puzzlers use to…

  14. Exploring the Role of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Biomedical Text Understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra T. Burhans; Alistair E. R. Campbell; Gary R. Skuse

    There is considerable effort being devoted to mining information from medical and scientific literature, in particular, from Medline abstracts and from full-text articles. Such information is being used, for example, to reconstruct biological pathways, identify pathogenic mechanisms and, importantly, to identify functional relationships that can be used to predict disease onset and its course thereafter. Our interest is in exploring

  15. Understanding alternative food networks: exploring the role of short food supply chains in rural development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk Renting; Terry K Marsden; Jo Banks

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore the development and incidence of alternative food networks within a European-wide context. By developing a consistent definition of short food supply chains, we address both the morphology and the dynamics of these, and then examine empirical evidence concerning their incidence and rural development impact across seven EU member states. These developments need to be seen

  16. Teaching Games and Sport for Understanding: Exploring and Reconsidering its Relevance in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven; Pill, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Over 30 years ago the original teaching games for understanding (TGfU) proposition was published in a special edition of the Bulletin of Physical Education (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). In that time TGfU has attracted significant attention from a theoretical and pedagogical perspective as an improved approach to games and sport teaching in physical…

  17. Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

  18. IN-SITU EXPLORATION OF THE VENUS ATMOSPHERE: KEY TO UNDERSTANDING OUR SISTER WORLD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher T. Russell; Gerard Schubert; Kevin Zahnle; David Crisp; Sanjay S. Limaye; Thomas W. Momary

    In-situ sampling of the Venus atmosphere is crucial for understanding the planet's complex history. A detailed inventory of diagnostic atmospheric constituents oxygen - such as the noble gases and their isotopes, and the isotopes of water, nitrogen, and oxygen - can provide fundamental new insights into the origins and early evolution of Venus and nearby planets, including the Earth. Direct

  19. The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Sebastien; Steinberg, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make…

  20. FXplorer: Exploration of Computed Software Behavior - A New Approach to Understanding and Verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luanne Burns; Timothy Daly

    2009-01-01

    The craft of software understanding and verification can benefit from technologies that enable evolution toward a true engineering discipline. In current practice, software developers lack practical means to determine the full functional behavior of programs under development, and even the most thorough testing can provide only partial knowledge of behaviors. Thus, an effective technology for revealing software behaviors could have

  1. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

  2. Exploring Novel Tools for Assessing High School Students' Meaningful Understanding of Organic Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Vasiliou, Petroula; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2011-01-01

    Systemic assessment questions (SAQs) are novel assessment tools used in the context of the Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning (SATL) model. The purpose of this model is to enhance students' meaningful understanding of scientific concepts by use of constructivist concept mapping procedures, which emphasize the development of systems…

  3. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  4. Exploring the role of gaze behavior and object detection in scene understanding.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kiwon; Peng, Yifan; Samaras, Dimitris; Zelinsky, Gregory J; Berg, Tamara L

    2013-01-01

    We posit that a person's gaze behavior while freely viewing a scene contains an abundance of information, not only about their intent and what they consider to be important in the scene, but also about the scene's content. Experiments are reported, using two popular image datasets from computer vision, that explore the relationship between the fixations that people make during scene viewing, how they describe the scene, and automatic detection predictions of object categories in the scene. From these exploratory analyses, we then combine human behavior with the outputs of current visual recognition methods to build prototype human-in-the-loop applications for gaze-enabled object detection and scene annotation. PMID:24367348

  5. Exploring the role of gaze behavior and object detection in scene understanding

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Kiwon; Peng, Yifan; Samaras, Dimitris; Zelinsky, Gregory J.; Berg, Tamara L.

    2013-01-01

    We posit that a person's gaze behavior while freely viewing a scene contains an abundance of information, not only about their intent and what they consider to be important in the scene, but also about the scene's content. Experiments are reported, using two popular image datasets from computer vision, that explore the relationship between the fixations that people make during scene viewing, how they describe the scene, and automatic detection predictions of object categories in the scene. From these exploratory analyses, we then combine human behavior with the outputs of current visual recognition methods to build prototype human-in-the-loop applications for gaze-enabled object detection and scene annotation. PMID:24367348

  6. Transcriptome exploration for further understanding of the tropane alkaloids biosynthesis in Anisodus acutangulus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lijie; Huang, Fenfen; Zhang, Dasheng; Lin, Yuping; Liao, Pan; Zong, Jie; Kai, Guoyin

    2015-08-01

    Tropane alkaloids (TAs) such as anisodamine, anisodine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are extensively used in clinical practice as anticholinergic agents. Anisodus acutangulus produces TAs in root tissue, and although several genes involved in scopolamine biosynthesis have been cloned, yet the biosynthetic pathway of TAs remains poorly understood. To further understand TAs biosynthesis mechanism, transcriptome analysis with deep RNA sequencing in A. acutangulus roots was performed in this study; 48 unigenes related to tropane, piperidine and pyridine alkaloid biosynthesis, 145 linked to the distribution of arginine to TAs biosynthesis, and 86 categorized to terpenoid backbone biosynthesis have been identified in pathway enrichment analyses with eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOG) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. Additionally, 82 unigenes annotated as cytochrome P450 family members seemed to be involved in secondary metabolism. Genes encoding littorine mutase/monooxygenase (CYP80F1), diamine oxidase (DAO), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT) may also play roles in TAs biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, over 1,000 unigenes were identified as potential transcription factors of WRKY, AP2/ERF, MYB and bHLH families, which would be helpful to understand transcriptional regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. These data enable novel insights into A. acutangulus transcriptome, updating the knowledge of TAs biosynthetic mechanism at molecular level. PMID:25876163

  7. Informing Geospatial Toolset Design: Understanding the Process of Cancer Data Exploration and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L.; MacEachren, Alan M.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

  8. A framework for understanding risk perception, explored from the perspective of the water practitioner.

    PubMed

    Dobbie, Meredith Frances; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable urban water systems are likely to be hybrids of centralized and decentralized infrastructure, managed as an integrated system in water-sensitive cities. The technology for many of these systems is available. However, social and institutional barriers, which can be understood as deeply embedded risk perceptions, have impeded their implementation. Risk perceptions within the water sector are often unrecognized or unacknowledged, despite their role in risk management generally in informing value judgments and specifically in ranking risks to achieve management objectives. There has been very little examination of the role of these risk perceptions in advancing more sustainable water supply management through the adoption of alternative sources. To address this gap, this article presents a framework that can be used as a tool for understanding risk perceptions. The framework is built on the relational theory of risk and presents the range of human phenomena that might influence the perception of an "object at risk" in relation to a "risk object." It has been synthesized from a critical review of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies of perception broadly and risk perception specifically, and interpreted in relation to water practitioners. For a water practitioner, the risk object might be an alternative water system, a component, a process, or a technology, and the object at risk could be public or environmental health, profitability, or professional reputation. This framework has two important functions: to allow practitioners to understand their own and others' risk perceptions, which might differ, and to inform further empirical research. PMID:23915168

  9. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of teacher confidence when teaching global change content will continue to drive UGC resource development as the site expands in the future.

  10. Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Khan, Mansoor Ali; Chinoy, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

  11. Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts ( n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

  12. Understanding Positive Play: An Exploration of Playing Experiences and Responsible Gambling Practices.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    This study is one of the first to explore in detail the behaviors, attitudes and motivations of players that show no signs of at-risk or problem gambling behavior (so-called 'positive players'). Via an online survey, 1484 positive players were compared with 209 problem players identified using the Lie/Bet screen. The study identified two distinct groups of positive players defined according to their motivations to play and their engagement with responsible gambling (RG) practices. Those positive players that played most frequently employed the most personal RG strategies. Reasons that positive players gave for gambling were focused on leisure (e.g., playing for fun, being entertained, and/or winning a prize). By contrast, problem gamblers were much more focused upon modifying mood states (e.g., excitement, relaxation, depression and playing when bored or upset). The present study also suggests that online gambling is not, by default, inherently riskier than gambling in more traditional ways, as online gambling was the most popular media by which positive players gambled. Furthermore, most positive players reported that it was easier to stick to their limits when playing the National Lottery online compared to traditional retail purchasing of tickets. Problem players were significantly more likely than positive players to gamble with family and friends, suggesting that, contrary to a popular RG message, social play may not be inherently safer than gambling alone. It is proposed that players (generally) may identify more with the term 'positive play' than the term 'RG' which is frequently interpreted as being aimed at people with gambling problems, rather than all players. PMID:25209455

  13. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: using social theory to explore everyday commuting.

    PubMed

    Guell, C; Panter, J; Jones, N R; Ogilvie, D

    2012-07-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work ('active commuting') as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

  14. Promoting our understanding of neural plasticity by exploring developmental plasticity in early and adult life.

    PubMed

    Rohlfs Domínguez, Paloma

    2014-08-01

    Developmental plasticity (DP) is widely considered to be a property of early life stages, but evidence suggests it can be reactivated in mature brains. For example, recent developments on animal models suggest that experience in enriched environments (EE) can induce DP and enable adult recovery from amblyopia; even when the typical critical period for that recovery has closed. An interesting body of evidence suggests that extrapolation of the rejuvenatory power of that paradigm in mature human brains is feasible. These studies show that exposure to EE throughout life is associated with a delay, or even prevention, of age-related cognitive deficits. Consequently, it can be concluded that DP might underlie the neuroprotective effects against a neurocognitive breakdown that have been observed, and that EE exposure later in life might induce DP in a similar way to early EE exposure. Thus, the DP might exert its influence beyond the typical developing age ranges: childhood and adolescence. Although further research is still required, the observation of EE related neuroprotective effects are a breakthrough in the study of DP in humans and new advances in our understanding of neural plasticity have thus been reached. PMID:24942566

  15. Theories of Intergroup Conflict: A Report of Lay Attributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Castelan Cargile; James J. Bradac; Tim Cole

    2006-01-01

    Lay theory has contributed fundamentally to understanding various phenomena; however, it has not yet been applied to intergroup conflict. Using a series of increasingly structured tasks, the authors allowed college student respondents to report their ideas regarding the varieties of intergroup conflict that exist in their world and the causes of these types of clashes. A general theory of the

  16. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  17. Understanding Science and Technology Interactions Through Ocean Science Exploration: A Summer Course for Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, J.; Denton, J.

    2003-12-01

    In order to replenish the national supply of science and mathematics educators, the National Science Foundation has supported the formation of the Center for Applications of Information Technology in the Teaching and Learning of Science (ITS) at Texas A&M University. The center staff and affiliated faculty work to change in fundamental ways the culture and relationships among scientists, educational researchers, and teachers. ITS is a partnership among the colleges of education, science, geosciences, agriculture and life science at Texas A&M University. Participants (teachers and graduate students) investigate how science is done and how science is taught and learned; how that learning is assessed, and how scholarly networks among all engaged in this work can be encouraged. While the center can offer graduate degrees most students apply as non-degree seekers. ITS participants are schooled on classroom technology applications, experience working on project teams, and access very current research work being conducted by scientists. ITS offers a certificate program consisting of two summer sessions over two years that results in 12 hours of graduate credit that can be applied to a degree. Interdisciplinary project teams spend three intense weeks connecting current research to classroom practices. During the past summer with the beginning of the two-year sequence, a course was implemented that introduced secondary teachers to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) contributions to major earth science themes, using core and logging data, engineering (technology) tools and processes. Information Technology classroom applications were enhanced through hands-on laboratory exercises, web resources and online databases. The course was structured around the following objectives. 1. Distinguish the purpose and goals of the Ocean Drilling Program from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program and describe the comparable science themes (ocean circulation, marine sedimentation, climate history, sea level change and geological time). This objective will be achieved by correctly answering 8 of 10 multiple choice items on course posttest on science themes of ODP/IODP. 2. Describe the technical tools and processes for determining sea level history by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on coring. 3. Describe the processes for describing a drill core and apply those processes to core samples from Leg 194 by developing a laboratory analysis report on core samples based on protocol for analyzing cores. 4. Explain the distinguishing features of scientific from industrial coring processes by developing a paper that contrasts scientific from industrial coring processes. 5. Describe the substructure of the ocean basin and the scientific tools (equipment and processes) used to explore this substructure by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on bore hole data interpretation. 6. Analyze and interpret data sets from a bore hole by developing a laboratory analysis report on bore-hole data. Student performance data for objectives indicate a 16% average positive change on the science themes addressed in instruction related to objective one occurred. Similarly, a 12% average positive change occurred on science education topics related to earth science among the students in this class. Ongoing contact between faculty members during the academic year is planned as these summer participants engage in implementing IT interventions and professional development experiences based on ocean science data experienced in the summer experience.

  18. "I feel like half my body is clogged up": Lay models of stroke in Central Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Meriel; Allotey, Pascale; Barrett, Geraldine

    2010-11-01

    Stroke in low and middle income countries is an increasing cause of death and disability, with rates and the estimated burden considerably higher than that of high income countries. Lay explanatory models are believed to be one of the major influences on health seeking behaviour and essential to understand for appropriate education strategies. Despite stroke being a considerable health concern in Indonesia and particularly in Aceh, no studies to date have explored lay stroke models in that context. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study informed by both hermeneutic phenomenology and ethnography. Based in rural communities in Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah in Central Aceh, Indonesia, data were gathered through interviews, photographs and observations with 11 persons with stroke (aged 32-69 years) and 18 of their carers. Fieldwork was conducted over nine months between 2007 and 2008. The study examined lay concepts of stroke, described as a condition resulting from a local blockage in blood from multiple causes, many of which are not recognised within the biomedical frame. The blockage is understood to be reversible and therefore the condition curable. This understanding is embedded and sustained in the specific political, cultural, religious and social context. The results illustrate similarities and differences with other cross-cultural studies and suggest areas of future research and points of consideration for stroke education strategies. PMID:20869145

  19. Lay explanations for Kentucky's "Coronary Valley".

    PubMed

    Narevic, Egle; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2002-02-01

    Kentucky and its neighboring states have some of the highest coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in the United States, leading researchers to nickname the region "Coronary Valley." Currently, little is known about factors that account for "Coronary Valley"; however, understanding lay perspectives on CHD risk factors may provide insights into this high prevalence of CHD and may guide prevention efforts. In December 1999, a statewide telephone survey was administered to a random sample of Kentucky residents to elicit lay explanations for the high rates of CHD. Standard protocol for descriptive statistics was undertaken. Respondents (N = 624) identified most of the biomedically acknowledged risk factors, with an overwhelming majority acknowledging that high rates of smoking and poor diets contribute to CHD. Older respondents and those who reported having heart disease were more likely than others to identify factors beyond their control, including stress and pollution (p < .0005 and p < .00 1, respectively). After controlling for the presence of heart disease, age differences remained significant only among those who reported no heart disease. Education had marginal significance (p = .027) on explanations for CHD, while gender, racial or ethnic background, and type of community residence had no significant effects. Since most Kentuckians are aware of traditional risk factors underlying CHD, prevention efforts should be directed at removing structural and information barriers to behavior change (e.g., by providing smoking cessation programs) rather than limiting prevention efforts to traditional health education approaches (i.e., increasing knowledge of CHD risk factors). PMID:11845941

  20. Explore

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

  1. The use of a virtual reality simulator to explore and understand the impact of Linac mis-calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavis, Andrew W.; Ward, James W.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: In recent years there has been interest in using Computer Simulation within Medical training. The VERT (Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training) system is a Flight Simulator for Radiation Oncology professionals, wherein fundamental concepts, techniques and problematic scenarios can be safely investigated. Methods: The system provides detailed simulations of several Linacs and the ability to display DICOM treatment plans. Patients can be mis-positioned with 'set-up errors' which can be explored visually, dosimetrically and using IGRT. Similarly, a variety of Linac calibration and configuration parameters can be altered manually or randomly via controlled errors in the simulated 3D Linac and its component parts. The implication of these can be investigated by following through a treatment scenario or using QC devices available within a Physics software module. Results: One resultant exercise is a systematic mis-calibration of 'lateral laser height' by 2mm. The offset in patient alignment is easily identified using IGRT and once corrected by reference to the 'in-room monitor'. The dosimetric implication is demonstrated to be 0.4% by setting a dosimetry phantom by the lasers (and ignoring TSD information). Finally, the need for recalibration can be shown by the Laser Alignment Phantom or by reference to the front pointer. Conclusions: The VERT system provides a realistic environment for training and enhancing understanding of radiotherapy concepts and techniques. Linac error conditions can be explored in this context and valuable experience gained in a controlled manner in a compressed period of time.

  2. The Attitudes of Greek Physicians and Lay People on Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efi Parpa; Kyriaki Mystakidou; Eleni Tsilika; Pavlos Sakkas; Elisabeth Patiraki; Kyriaki Pistevou-Gombaki; Antonis Galanos; Lambros Vlahos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of lay people and physicians regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients in Greece. The sample consisted of 141 physicians and 173 lay people. A survey questionnaire was used concerning issues such as euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and so forth. Many physicians (42.6%) and lay people (25.4%, P

  3. Passive cable laying system for subsea cabled observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengwei Wang; Bin Fu; Ping Ren; Daoyan Wang; Lian Lian

    2010-01-01

    For the developing research and exploring of deep-sea mineral and biological resources, subsea observatory is quite an effective method for long-time automatic data or image collection of subsea environment and creatures. But building an observatory network underwater is complicated and the power\\/optical signal transmission between subsea nodes requires extension cables. In this paper, a new kind of passive cable laying

  4. Qualitative exploration of public and smoker understanding of, and reactions to, an endgame solution to the tobacco epidemic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in ending the tobacco epidemic and in applying ‘endgame’ solutions to achieve that goal at national levels. We explored the understanding of, and reactions to, a tobacco-free vision and an endgame approach to tobacco control among New Zealand smokers and non-smokers. Methods We recruited participants in four focus groups held in June 2009: M?ori (indigenous people) smokers (n=7); non-M?ori smokers (n=6); M?ori non-smokers (n=7); and non-M?ori non-smokers (n=4). Participants were from the city of Whanganui, New Zealand. We introduced to them the vision of a tobacco-free New Zealand and the concept of a semi-autonomous agency (Tobacco-Free Commission [TFC]) that would control the tobacco market as part of an endgame approach. Results There was mostly strong support for the tobacco-free New Zealand vision among all groups of participants. The reason most commonly given for supporting the vision was to protect children from tobacco. Most participants stated that they understood the TFC concept and reacted positively to it. Nevertheless, rather than focusing on organisational or structural arrangements, participants tended to focus on supporting the specific measures which a future TFC might facilitate such as plain packaging of tobacco products. Various concerns were also raised around the TFC, particularly around the feasibility of its establishment. Conclusions We were able to successfully communicate a complex and novel supply-side focused tobacco control policy intervention to smokers and non-smokers. The findings add to the evidence from national surveys that there is public support, including from smokers, for achieving a tobacco-free vision and using regulatory and policy measures to achieve it. Support for such measures may be enhanced if they are clearly communicated and explained with a rationale which stresses protecting children and future generations from tobacco smoking. PMID:22974338

  5. Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Essential Features of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching Using Evidence-Based Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seung, Eulsun; Park, Soonhye; Jung, Jinhong

    2014-01-01

    This study explored preservice elementary teachers' and their mentors' understanding of the essential features of inquiry-based teaching through the use of evidence-based reflection. The web-based video analysis tool (VAT) system was used to support preservice teachers' and mentors' evidence-based reflection during field…

  6. Exploring and Understanding Maryland's Math and Science Teachers' Perspectives on NCLB and Increase Testing: Employing a Phenomenological Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and seek to understand some of Maryland's math and science teachers' thoughts about the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and increase testing. The study utilized a phenomenological inquiry approach and four teachers participated in the study. Two of the teachers taught science and two taught…

  7. Understanding reasons for asthma outpatient (non)attendance and exploring the role of telephone and e-consulting in facilitating access to care: exploratory qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. van Baar; H. Joosten; J. Car; G. Freeman; M. R. Partridge; C. van Weel; A. Sheikh

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand factors influencing patients' decisions to attend for outpatient follow up consultations for asthma and to explore patients' attitudes to telephone and email consultations in facilitating access to asthma care. DESIGN: Exploratory qualitative study using in depth interviews. SETTING: Hospital outpatient clinic in West London. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen patients with moderate to severe asthma (12 \\

  8. Constructing Understanding in Primary Science: An Exploration of Process and Outcomes in the Topic Areas of Light and the Earth in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen; Grant, G.; Topping, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the process and outcomes of constructivist methods of enhancing science understanding in the topic areas of light and the earth in space. The sample was drawn from a group of 41 nine-year-old children, delivered in four two-hour weekly sessions. Each session involved different combinations of interactive discussion and…

  9. DO NORTHERN HARRIERS LAY REPLACEMENT CLUTCHES?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT EDWARD SIMMONS

    An ecological difference between North American and European populations of Circus cyaneus is the apparent lack of replacement clutches laid by the North American form (the Northern Harrier) on the failure of the first clutch. I present several lines of evidence that Northern Harriers do lay replacements, but only if their clutches are disturbed during laying or shortly thereafter. Two

  10. Exploring Adolescents' Multimodal Responses to "The Kite Runner": Understanding How Students Use Digital Media for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocius, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how adolescent high school students in an AP English class used multiple forms of media (the internet, digital video, slide show software, video editing tools, literary texts, and writing) to respond to and analyze a contemporary novel, "The Kite Runner". Using a multimodal analysis framework, the author explores

  11. The pheromones of laying workers in two honeybee sister species: Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken; Yang, Mingxian; Wang, Zhengwei; Radloff, Sarah E; Pirk, Christian W W

    2012-04-01

    When a honeybee colony loses its queen, workers activate their ovaries and begin to lay eggs. This is accompanied by a shift in their pheromonal bouquet, which becomes more queen like. Workers of the Asian hive bee Apis cerana show unusually high levels of ovary activation and this can be interpreted as evidence for a recent evolutionary arms race between queens and workers over worker reproduction in this species. To further explore this, we compared the rate of pheromonal bouquet change between two honeybee sister species of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera under queenright and queenless conditions. We show that in both species, the pheromonal components HOB, 9-ODA, HVA, 9-HDA, 10-HDAA and 10-HDA have significantly higher amounts in laying workers than in non-laying workers. In the queenright colonies of A. mellifera and A. cerana, the ratios (9-ODA)/(9-ODA + 9-HDA + 10-HDAA + 10-HDA) are not significantly different between the two species, but in queenless A. cerana colonies the ratio is significant higher than in A. mellifera, suggesting that in A. cerana, the workers' pheromonal bouquet is dominated by the queen compound, 9-ODA. The amount of 9-ODA in laying A. cerana workers increased by over 585% compared with the non-laying workers, that is 6.75 times higher than in A. mellifera where laying workers only had 86% more 9-ODA compared with non-laying workers. PMID:22252612

  12. A classification of errors in lay comprehension of medical documents.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott

    2012-12-01

    Emphasis on participatory medicine requires that patients and consumers participate in tasks traditionally reserved for healthcare providers. This includes reading and comprehending medical documents, often but not necessarily in the context of interacting with Personal Health Records (PHRs). Research suggests that while giving patients access to medical documents has many benefits (e.g., improved patient-provider communication), lay people often have difficulty understanding medical information. Informatics can address the problem by developing tools that support comprehension; this requires in-depth understanding of the nature and causes of errors that lay people make when comprehending clinical documents. The objective of this study was to develop a classification scheme of comprehension errors, based on lay individuals' retellings of two documents containing clinical text: a description of a clinical trial and a typical office visit note. While not comprehensive, the scheme can serve as a foundation of further development of a taxonomy of patients' comprehension errors. Eighty participants, all healthy volunteers, read and retold two medical documents. A data-driven content analysis procedure was used to extract and classify retelling errors. The resulting hierarchical classification scheme contains nine categories and 23 subcategories. The most common error made by the participants involved incorrectly recalling brand names of medications. Other common errors included misunderstanding clinical concepts, misreporting the objective of a clinical research study and physician's findings during a patient's visit, and confusing and misspelling clinical terms. A combination of informatics support and health education is likely to improve the accuracy of lay comprehension of medical documents. PMID:22925723

  13. Altruistic behavior by egg-laying worker honeybees.

    PubMed

    Naeger, Nicholas L; Peso, Marianne; Even, Naďla; Barron, Andrew B; Robinson, Gene E

    2013-08-19

    If a honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony loses its queen, worker bees develop their ovaries and produce male offspring [1]. Kin selection theory predicts that the degree of altruism in queenless colonies should be reduced because the relatedness of workers to a hivemate's offspring is less in queenless colonies than it is to the daughters of the queen in queenright colonies [2-4]. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the behavior and physiology of queenless egg-laying workers. Queenless bees engaged in both personal reproduction and the social foraging and defense tasks that benefited their colony. Laying workers also had larger brood-food-producing and wax glands, showing metabolic investments in both colony maintenance and personal reproduction. Whereas in queenright colonies there is a very clear age-based pattern of division of labor between workers, in queenless colonies the degree of individual specialization was much reduced. Queenless colonies functioned as a collective of reproductive and behaviorally generalist bees that cooperatively maintained and defended their nest. This social structure is similar to that observed in a number of primitively social bee species [5]. Laying workers therefore show a mix of selfish personal reproduction and altruistic cooperative behavior, and the queenless state reveals previously unrecognized plasticity in honeybee social organization. PMID:23910660

  14. Paraphrase Acquisition from Comparable Medical Corpora of Specialized and Lay Texts

    PubMed Central

    Deléger, Louise; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays a large amount of health information is available to the public, but medical language is often difficult for lay people to understand. Developing means to make medical information more comprehensible is therefore a real need. In this regard, a useful resource would be a corpus of specialized and lay paraphrases. To this end, we built comparable corpora of specialized and lay texts on which we applied paraphrasing patterns based on anchors of deverbal noun and verb pairs. The results show that the paraphrases were of good quality (71.4% to 94.2% precision) and that this type of paraphrasing was relevant in the context of studying the differences between specialized and lay language. This study also demonstrates that simple paraphrase acquisition methods can also work on texts with a rather small degree of similarity, once similar text segments are detected. PMID:18999095

  15. To understand the cognitive processes involved with probability judgment, decision making, and choice, to explore the implications these processes for

    E-print Network

    Dougherty, Michael

    at understanding the cognitive processes underlying diagnostic hypothesis generation and human judgment. >> When does the hypothesis generation process lead to biases in information search, hypothesis testing hypothesis generation processes in professional settings. 3 Inform the development of artificial intelligence

  16. A critical review of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wales, A D; Davies, R H

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium has been reported to contaminate egg production across the world, but where Salmonella Enteritidis is endemic it is this latter serovar that dominates egg-borne salmonellosis. However, Salmonella Typhimurium is a major food-borne pathogen so it is important to understand how it can impact the microbiological safety of eggs and what serovar-specific control strategies may be appropriate in the future as control over Salmonella Enteritidis continues to improve. To that end, the present review examines the published literature on Salmonella Typhimurium in laying hens and eggs, with particular reference to comparative studies examining different serovars. Experimentally Salmonella Enteritidis is more often isolated from egg contents and seems to adhere better to reproductive tract mucosa, whilst Salmonella Typhimurium appears to provoke a more intense tissue pathology and immune response, and flock infections are more transient. However, it is observed in many cases that the present body of evidence does not identify clear differences between specific behaviours of the serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, whether in laying hens, in their eggs, or in the laying environment. It is concluded that further long-term experimental and natural infection studies are needed in order to generate a clearer picture. PMID:21879803

  17. An Autoethnographic Approach to Understanding Asperger's Syndrome: A Personal Exploration of Self-Identity through Reflexive Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article makes use of autoethnography in which I, as researcher, explore my own awareness of Asperger's syndrome and how this, in turn, has helped me deal with many day to day situations I have encountered. The work illustrates how actively engaging with one's own life story narratives can help the Asperger's learner come to terms with his or…

  18. Impact through Images: Exploring Student Understanding of Environmental Science through Integrated Place-Based Lessons in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie; Kern, Anne L.; Charvoz, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1800s, the U.S. President Thomas Jefferson assembled a team of explorers led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to forge a waterway connecting the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. How has this environment changed in 200 years and how do elementary students make sense of those changes? This study looks at the impact of…

  19. Lay REC members: patient or public?

    PubMed

    Staley, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    In practice, the role of lay members of research ethics committees (RECs) often involves checking the accessibility of written materials, checking that the practical needs of participants have been considered and ensuring that a lay summary of the research will be produced. In this brief report, I argue that all these tasks would be more effectively carried out through a process of patient involvement (PI) in research projects prior to ethical review. Involving patients with direct experience of the topic under investigation brings added value beyond the contributions typically made by lay REC members, who are often not patients themselves. This is because PI tailors the design and conduct of research to the specific interests and concerns of the people who will actually take part in a project and make use of its findings. If a project has PI in its early stages, then a similar input from lay REC members could at best result in duplication of effort and at worst create the potential for conflict. The rationale for lay REC membership will therefore need to change from 'contributing a patient perspective' to 'ensuring transparency and public accountability in REC decisions'. This has implications for addressing more strategic questions about lay REC membership, including who is best recruited to the role and how they should be expected to contribute in practice. PMID:23536688

  20. Exploring Second Graders' Understanding of the Text-Illustration Relationship in Picture Storybooks and Informational Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carol

    2010-01-01

    Our society is increasingly bombarded with visual imagery; therefore, it is important for educators to be knowledgeable about the elements of art and to use our knowledge to help students deepen their reading understanding. Arizpe & Styles (2003) noted that students must be prepared to work with imagery in the future at high levels of competency,…

  1. Exploring the Usefulness of Two Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding How Organizational Factors Influence Innovation Implementation in Cancer Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors…

  2. An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-01-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

  3. Ofqual's Reliability Programme: A Case Study Exploring the Potential to Improve Public Understanding and Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    In May 2008, Ofqual established a two-year programme of research to investigate the nature and extent of (un)reliability within the qualifications, examinations and assessments that it regulated. It was particularly concerned to improve understanding of, and confidence in, this technically complex and politically sensitive phenomenon. The…

  4. USABILITY OF BUILDINGS, version 18.10.04 Theoretical framework for understanding and exploring usability of buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Jensř; Geir K. Hansen; Tore I. Haugen

    Usability, with focus on the user perspective, is one of the most important, but often most neglected, aspects of building performance. A new CIB Task Group (TG51) has been established to apply concepts of usability, to provide a better understanding of the user experience of buildings and workplaces. Usability is defined as the \\

  5. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  6. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  7. Exploring cultural differences as a means for understanding the global mobile Internet: a theoretical basis and program of research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Urbaczewski; John Wells; Suprateek Sarker; Matti Koivisto

    2002-01-01

    Sets forth a program of research for identifying the pertinent issues that are affecting the adoption and use of mobile electronic commerce applications and collaborative mobile technologies. The primary vehicle for understanding these issues is the observation and analysis of how different cultures utilize these emerging technologies. For example, why is short message service (SMS) messaging so popular in Europe

  8. Exploring Relations Among Preservice Elementary Teachers’ Ideas About Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana C. Rice; Sibel Kaya

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers’ ideas about evolution, their understanding of\\u000a basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of\\u000a human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and dinosaurs and plate\\u000a tectonics. Accepting the theory of evolution was positively correlated

  9. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  10. Combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics to explore novel microbial interactions: towards a systems-level understanding of human microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bikel, Shirley; Valdez-Lara, Alejandra; Cornejo-Granados, Fernanda; Rico, Karina; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Soberón, Xavier; Del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    The advances in experimental methods and the development of high performance bioinformatic tools have substantially improved our understanding of microbial communities associated with human niches. Many studies have documented that changes in microbial abundance and composition of the human microbiome is associated with human health and diseased state. The majority of research on human microbiome is typically focused in the analysis of one level of biological information, i.e., metagenomics or metatranscriptomics. In this review, we describe some of the different experimental and bioinformatic strategies applied to analyze the 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun sequencing data of the human microbiome. We also discuss how some of the recent insights in the combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics can provide more detailed description on the interactions between microorganisms and viruses in oral and gut microbiomes. Recent studies on viromics have begun to gain importance due to the potential involvement of viruses in microbial dysbiosis. In addition, metatranscriptomic combined with metagenomic analysis have shown that a substantial fraction of microbial transcripts can be differentially regulated relative to their microbial genomic abundances. Thus, understanding the molecular interactions in the microbiome using the combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics is one of the main challenges towards a system level understanding of human microbiome. PMID:26137199

  11. A Case Study: The Impact of an Immersion Experience on the Vocation of Lay Teacher-Leaders in American Jesuit High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study explores the impact of an immersion experience to a least developed country on the vocation of lay teacher leaders in American Jesuit High Schools. Nine lay teacher leaders engaged in a four stage process of immersion from November 2009 to August 2010. The study employed the conceptual framework of Edward…

  12. Ocean Exploration: Exploring Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson serves as an introduction to the discoveries and benefits that have resulted from exploration of the Earth's deep oceans. Students will be able to describe at least three human benefits from and identify separate examples of deep ocean exploration. All of the lessons emphasize hands-on activities using online data resources, and each inquiry-based activity includes focus questions, learning objectives, teaching time, background information, evaluations and extensions, as well as resources and student handouts.

  13. Exploring one aspect of pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants using the test of understanding graphs in kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2013-12-01

    The Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) is a multiple-choice test developed by Beichner in 1994 to assess students’ understanding of kinematics graphs. Many of the items on the TUG-K have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ common difficulties with kinematics graphs. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common difficulties of introductory physics students and explicitly take them into account in their instructional design. We evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of first-year physics graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant training course related to topics covered in the TUG-K. In particular, for each item on the TUG-K, the graduate students were asked to identify which incorrect answer choice they thought would be most commonly selected by introductory physics students if they did not know the correct answer after instruction in relevant concepts. We used the graduate student data and the data from Beichner’s original paper for introductory physics students (which was collected from over 500 college and high school students) to assess this aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of the graduate students, i.e., knowledge of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs as they are revealed by the TUG-K. We find that, although the graduate students, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory student difficulties on the TUG-K, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory students have with graphs in kinematics. In addition, we find that the ability of graduate students to identify the difficulties of introductory students is context dependent and that discussions among the graduate students improved their understanding of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs. Moreover, we find that the ability of American graduate students in identifying common student difficulties is comparable with that of foreign graduate students.

  14. Understanding the molecular behavior of organotin compounds to design their effective use as agrochemicals: exploration via quantum chemistry and experiments.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Teodorico C; Rocha, Marcus V J; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Carvalho, Kele T C

    2010-10-01

    The high frequency of contamination by herbicides suggests the need for more active and selective agrochemicals. Organotin compounds are the active component of some herbicides, such as Du-Ter and Brestan, which is also a potent inhibitor of the F1Fo ATP Synthase. That is a key enzyme, because the ATP production is one of the major chemical reactions in living organisms. Thus ATP Synthase is regarded as a prime target for organotin compounds. In this line, molecular modeling studies and DFT calculations were performed in order to understand the molecular behavior of those compounds in solution. In addition, we investigated the reaction mechanism by ESI-MS analyses of the diphenyltin dichloride. Our findings indicate that an unstable key-intermediate generated in situ might take place in the reaction with ATP Synthase. PMID:20645655

  15. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: Exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Donlon, Katharine A.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Winston, Flaura K.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children’s coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six month assessment. Children used an average of 5–6 coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child-report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children’s acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping. PMID:23677925

  16. Understanding Family Migration in Rural South Africa: Exploring Children's Inclusion in the Destination Households of Migrant Parents

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Rachel; Hosegood, Victoria; Newell, Marie-Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Despite the removal of restrictions on movement and increasing female participation in migration, only a minority of migrant parents in South Africa include their children in their destination household. Quantitative analyses of the circumstances in which children accompany a migrant parent have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper uses data about members of rural households in a demographic surveillance population in KwaZulu-Natal and a linked sample survey of adult migrants to examine factors associated with children's inclusion in the destination household of migrant parents, analyse the timing and sequence of children's moves to parental destination households, and describe the composition of parental origin and destination households. The findings confirm that in contemporary South Africa, only a small percentage (14%) of migrants' children who are members of the parental origin household are also members of the parental destination household. Membership of the parental destination household is associated with parental characteristics and the child's age, but not measures of socio-economic status, and children most commonly migrate several years after their migrant parent. Children included in the destination household of migrant fathers frequently live in small households, which also include their mother, whereas children included in the destination household of migrant mothers live in larger households. This study contributes to understanding the contexts of children's inclusion in parental destination households in South Africa and demonstrates the potential of data collected in migrants' origin and destination households. PMID:25983667

  17. Are vaccination programmes delivered by lay health workers cost-effective? A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrijana Corluka; Damian G Walker; Simon Lewin; Claire Glenton; Inger B Scheel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recently updated Cochrane systematic review on the effects of lay or community health workers (LHWs) in primary and community health care concluded that LHW interventions could lead to promising benefits in the promotion of childhood vaccination uptake. However, understanding of the costs and cost-effectiveness of involving LHWs in vaccination programmes remains poor. This paper reviews the costs and

  18. Science and Me: A Student-Driven Science Outreach Program for Lay Adult Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hannah; Waldron, Anna M.; Abell, Sandra K.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing need for communicating science to the public suggests that future scientists and science educators should be educated in science outreach and trained to communicate with lay audiences. We present a recently developed novel graduate course, which trains students in outreach efforts aimed to increase the public's understanding of…

  19. Social Skills: Laying the Foundation for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2010-01-01

    Well-informed teachers of young children recognize the importance of children's social development. The development of social skills lays a critical foundation for later academic achievement as well as work-related skills. Social development is such a key issue with young children that a number of methods to address social skills have been…

  20. Physiological Stress in Laying Hens1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Odihambo Mumma; J. P. Thaxton; Y. Vizzier-Thaxton; W. L. Dodson

    Stress responses in laying hens were medi- ated by continuous infusion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) via osmotic pumps. The ACTH was dissolved in saline solution (0.85%), and each pump delivered 8 IU of ACTH per kilogram of BW per day at the rate of 1 L\\/h for 7 d. Control hens received pumps loaded with saline. Measurements were made at 6

  1. The attitudes of Greek physicians and lay people on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Parpa, Efi; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Sakkas, Pavlos; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Pistevou-Gombaki, Kyriaki; Galanos, Antonis; Vlahos, Lambros

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of lay people and physicians regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients in Greece. The sample consisted of 141 physicians and 173 lay people. A survey questionnaire was used concerning issues such as euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and so forth. Many physicians (42.6%) and lay people (25.4%, P = .002) reported that in the case of a cardiac and/or respiratory arrest, there would not be an effort to revive a terminally ill cancer patient. Only 8.1% of lay people and 2.1% of physicians agreed on physician-assisted suicide (P = .023). Many of the respondents, especially physicians, supported sedation but not euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. However, many of the respondents would prefer the legalization of a terminally ill patient's hastened death. PMID:17060293

  2. Genetics of Egg-Laying William R. Schafer

    E-print Network

    Schafer, William R.

    Genetics of Egg-Laying in Worms William R. Schafer Department of Biology, University of California studied behaviors is egg-laying, the process by which hermaphrodites deposit developing embryos into the environment. Egg-laying involves a simple motor program involving a small net- work of motorneurons

  3. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and laying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Wintering and laying-up. 401.92 Section 401.92 Navigation...General § 401.92 Wintering and laying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lay-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  4. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and laying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Wintering and laying-up. 401.92 Section 401.92 Navigation...General § 401.92 Wintering and laying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lay-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  5. From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and framing of the research questions, participants did not display a high level of knowledge about the nature and causes of place-based health inequalities. By extending the scope of lay theorizing to include a focus on solutions, this study offers additional insights for public health. Specifically it suggests that a popular constituency for action on the social determinants of health is unlikely to eventuate from the current popular understandings of possible policy levers. PMID:21281478

  6. Lay Theories of Gender Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered. PMID:24059967

  7. Perch width preferences of laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Struelens; F. A. M. Tuyttens; B. Ampe; F. Ödberg; B. Sonck; L. Duchateau

    2009-01-01

    1.?In order to investigate the effect of perch width on perching behaviour of laying hens, two experiments in which hens could choose between 7 different perch widths (1·5, 3·0, 4·5, 6·0, 7·5, 9·0 and 10·5 cm) were conducted. In one experiment (EXP-2P) test cages contained two long perches gradually broadening and narrowing stepwise, in the other experiment (EXP-7P) 7 separate

  8. Pathogenic bacteria and timing of laying

    PubMed Central

    Mřller, Anders Pape; Soler, Juan J; Nielsen, Jan Třttrup; Galván, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria constitute a serious threat to viability of many organisms. Because growth of most bacteria is favored by humid and warm environmental conditions, earlier reproducers in seasonal environments should suffer less from the negative consequences of pathogenic bacteria. These relationships, and the effects on reproductive success, should be particularly prominent in predators because they are frequently exposed to pathogenic microorganisms from sick prey. Here, we presented and tested this hypothesis by sampling bacteria on adult and nestling goshawks Accipiter gentilis. We predicted that early breeders and their offspring should have fewer bacteria than those reproducing later during the breeding season. Adult goshawks with a high abundance of Staphylococcus on their beak and claws were easier to capture and their laying date was delayed. Moreover, goshawks that laid their eggs later had offspring with more Staphylococcus on their beaks and claws. The strength of the association between laying date and bacterial density of nestlings was stronger during the warm spring of 2013, when nestlings suffered from a higher abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Hatching failure and fledging failure were more common in nests with a higher abundance of Staphylococcus independently of the number of years occupied, laying date, and age of the female nest owner. These findings imply that timing of reproduction may be under the influence of pathogenic bacteria. Because early breeding goshawks produce more recruits than later breeders, our results suggest a role for pathogenic bacteria in the optimal timing of reproduction. PMID:25937910

  9. Pathogenic bacteria and timing of laying.

    PubMed

    Mřller, Anders Pape; Soler, Juan J; Nielsen, Jan Třttrup; Galván, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Pathogenic bacteria constitute a serious threat to viability of many organisms. Because growth of most bacteria is favored by humid and warm environmental conditions, earlier reproducers in seasonal environments should suffer less from the negative consequences of pathogenic bacteria. These relationships, and the effects on reproductive success, should be particularly prominent in predators because they are frequently exposed to pathogenic microorganisms from sick prey. Here, we presented and tested this hypothesis by sampling bacteria on adult and nestling goshawks Accipiter gentilis. We predicted that early breeders and their offspring should have fewer bacteria than those reproducing later during the breeding season. Adult goshawks with a high abundance of Staphylococcus on their beak and claws were easier to capture and their laying date was delayed. Moreover, goshawks that laid their eggs later had offspring with more Staphylococcus on their beaks and claws. The strength of the association between laying date and bacterial density of nestlings was stronger during the warm spring of 2013, when nestlings suffered from a higher abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Hatching failure and fledging failure were more common in nests with a higher abundance of Staphylococcus independently of the number of years occupied, laying date, and age of the female nest owner. These findings imply that timing of reproduction may be under the influence of pathogenic bacteria. Because early breeding goshawks produce more recruits than later breeders, our results suggest a role for pathogenic bacteria in the optimal timing of reproduction. PMID:25937910

  10. Ecosystem Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristen L. Gunckel

    1999-09-01

    The Ecosystem Explorations curriculum includes eleven classroom lessons. The lessons are divided into two sections--Understanding Ecosystems and Human Connections to Ecosystems. The curriculum incorporates scientific inquiry skills, cooperative l

  11. Situating stress: lessons from lay discourses on diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Drew, Elaine M; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Kart, Cary S

    2005-06-01

    In response to the serious toll diabetes takes on health and resources, researchers increasingly are examining physical and psychological pathways that affect and are affected by diabetes, including stress. Although biomedical researchers and practitioners are beginning to recognize the association between stress and diabetes onset and management, laypersons have long-standing and extensive insights into the multiple ways in which stress is associated with the diabetes disease process. In this article, we examine lay perspectives on stress and diabetes among a multiethnic sample of 80 adults. Participants suggest varying arenas in which stress intersects with diabetes, including stress as implicated in the origin of diabetes, as a threat to maintaining glycemic control, as a challenge to self-management, and as a precursor to and a consequence of diabetes complications. An improved understanding of such perspectives may enhance appropriate disease management and develop a more valid conceptualization of stress in research efforts. PMID:15974326

  12. Lay media reporting of rosiglitazone risk: extent, messaging and quality of reporting

    PubMed Central

    Rabi, Doreen M; Lewin, Adriane M; Brown, Garielle E; Edwards, Alun L; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Ghali, William A

    2009-01-01

    Background A meta-analysis suggested the use of rosiglitazone was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Rosiglitazone remained available for use as more definitive safety trials were ongoing. This issue was reported in the lay media. Objective To review lay media articles to determine the extent of media coverage, the nature of the messaging, and to assess the quality of reporting. Methods The Factiva media database was used to identify articles published between May 18 and August 31, 2007. Two reviewers (a lay person and a physician) screened full text articles for eligibility, appraised the articles for their tone (worrisome, neutral, not worrisome), and for the quality of medical data reporting. Results The search identified 156 articles, 95 of which were eligible for our review. Agreement between the lay and medical reviewers in the appraisal of the article tone was 67.4%. Among those with agreement, the articles were often appraised as "worrisome" (75.3%). Among those with disagreement, the lay reviewer was significantly more likely to appraise articles as worrisome compared to the medical reviewer (77.4% vs. 3.2%, X2 = 9.11, P = 0.003). Cardiovascular risk was discussed in 91.6% of the articles, but risk was often reported in qualitative or relative terms. Conclusion There were many lay media articles addressing the safety of rosiglitazone, and the general messaging of these articles was considered "worrisome" by reviewers. Quality of risk reporting in the articles reviewed was poor. The impact of such media coverage on public anxiety and confidence in treatment should be explored. PMID:19630978

  13. Exploring Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module from the Mars Exploration Curriculum serves as an introduction to studying Mars in the classroom develops students' understanding of Mars, the solar system, and planetary exploration. The module introduces many of the intriguing riddles posed by Mars and provides teachers a variety of ways to integrate the study of Mars into their classrooms.

  14. Is reporting on interventions a weak link in understanding how and why they work? A preliminary exploration using community heart health exemplars

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Barbara L; MacDonald, JoAnne; Mansi, Omaima; Kothari, Anita; Kurtz, Donna; vonTettenborn, Linda I; Edwards, Nancy C

    2008-01-01

    Background The persistent gap between research and practice compromises the impact of multi-level and multi-strategy community health interventions. Part of the problem is a limited understanding of how and why interventions produce change in population health outcomes. Systematic investigation of these intervention processes across studies requires sufficient reporting about interventions. Guided by a set of best processes related to the design, implementation, and evaluation of community health interventions, this article presents preliminary findings of intervention reporting in the published literature using community heart health exemplars as case examples. Methods The process to assess intervention reporting involved three steps: selection of a sample of community health intervention studies and their publications; development of a data extraction tool; and data extraction from the publications. Publications from three well-resourced community heart health exemplars were included in the study: the North Karelia Project, the Minnesota Heart Health Program, and Heartbeat Wales. Results Results are organized according to six themes that reflect best intervention processes: integrating theory, creating synergy, achieving adequate implementation, creating enabling structures and conditions, modifying interventions during implementation, and facilitating sustainability. In the publications for the three heart health programs, reporting on the intervention processes was variable across studies and across processes. Conclusion Study findings suggest that limited reporting on intervention processes is a weak link in research on multiple intervention programs in community health. While it would be premature to generalize these results to other programs, important next steps will be to develop a standard tool to guide systematic reporting of multiple intervention programs, and to explore reasons for limited reporting on intervention processes. It is our contention that a shift to more inclusive reporting of intervention processes would help lead to a better understanding of successful or unsuccessful features of multi-strategy and multi-level interventions, and thereby improve the potential for effective practice and outcomes. PMID:18492247

  15. Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egdall, Ira Mark

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity1 quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six hour-and-a-half weekly sessions. Students are mostly retired or semi-retired adults like me. Most are college educated, but with little or no formal physics education.

  16. System and method for laying subsea pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Lunde, P.A.

    1981-06-16

    A system for laying subsea pipelines is disclosed. The pipeline to be laid is wound on a reel which is rotatably mounted on a support structure. Both the support structure and the reel with the wound pipeline are submergible to a seabed. Both members are intended to be expendable in that once they are submerged and mounted on the seabed, they are not subsequently salvaged. After the support structure with the accompanying reel have been secured to the seabed, the pipeline is drawn off of the reel from its fixed location towards the desired termination point for the pipeline.

  17. Trait mindfulness is associated with blood pressure and interleukin-6: exploring interactions among subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire to better understand relationships between mindfulness and health.

    PubMed

    Tomfohr, Lianne M; Pung, Meredith A; Mills, Paul J; Edwards, Kate

    2015-02-01

    Mindfulness based interventions have been associated with improvements in physical health; however, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear. The current study explored relationships between trait mindfulness, blood pressure (BP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Relationships between physical health variables and (1) a composite score of mindfulness, (2) individual facets of mindfulness and (3) interactions between theoretically relevant pairs of mindfulness subscales were investigated. One hundred and thirty healthy, young adults [M (SD) age = 21.7(2.7) years] reported trait levels of mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, subscales include: observing, describing, acting with awareness (AWA), nonjudging and nonreactivity), had their resting BP measured and underwent a blood draw to assesses circulating IL-6 levels. Age, gender, body mass index, race/ethnicity, depression and perceived stress were obtained and used as covariates. A composite score of trait mindfulness was associated with lower BP and a trend suggested that it was also associated with lower IL-6. Investigation of individual facets of mindfulness revealed interactions between the subscales AWA and nonjudging, such that higher endorsement of AWA was associated with lower BP only when nonjudging was also high. A second interaction was observed between the subscales observing and nonreactivity, such that higher endorsement of observing was associated with lower IL-6 only when levels of nonreactivity were also high. Trait mindfulness was associated with both BP and IL-6. Examining interactions between facets of mindfulness variables may be important in understanding how mindfulness based interventions influence physiology. PMID:24888477

  18. Exploring the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)

  19. Front elevation, building for a laying out floor and drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation, building for a laying out floor and drawing room, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa, March 7, 1893, H.E.F., scale 1/8 = 1 foot. (Photograph of architect's drawing of the drawing rooms and laying out floor building, compay drawing no. 14423, held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Drawing Room & Laying-Out Floor Building, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  20. Exploring Ice in the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module includes several lessons aimed at introducing ice science to students. In the first activity, students share personal ice experience stories through drawing, telling, and writing. This enables the teacher to diagnose personal conceptions about ice. Then students explore a big block of ice. They ask and record their questions and start an ice science notebook. Depending on the nature of the questions, the teacher selects appropriate follow-up activities. Other lessons include: Ice Melts,Ice Floats,Ice Flows, Ice is a Mineral, Life in Icy Places, and Ice in Space. Each lesson includes a kinesthetic activity where students mime and act out ice science concepts, creating a science performance laboratory. These experiences lay the foundation for deeper conceptual understanding in later school years. All lessons include extensive background information, a list of national standards addressed, suggested curriculum extensions, a list of resources and photo gallery.

  1. Understanding Postpartum Healthcare Services and Exploring the Challenges and Motivations of Maternal Health Service Providers in the Philippines: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tadashi; Suplido, Sherri Ann; Llave, Cecilia; Tuliao, Maria Teresa R.; Tanaka, Yuko; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the shortage of medical professionals in the Philippines, Barangay Health Workers (BHWs) may play a role in providing postpartum healthcare services. However, as there are no reports regarding BHW activities in postpartum healthcare, we conducted this study to understand postpartum healthcare services and to explore the challenges and motivations of maternal health service providers. Methods: Focus group interview (FGI) of 13 participants was conducted as qualitative research methodology at Muntinlupa City. The results were analyzed according to the interview guide. The proceedings of the FGI were transcribed verbatim, and researchers read and coded the transcripts. The codes were then used to construct categories. Results: Four important activities were highlighted among 11 analysis codes. These activities were “Assessment of postpartum women’s conditions,” “Recommendation to visit a health facility,” “Measurement of blood-pressure and vitamin intake,” and “Providing postpartum health information.” Among five analysis codes, we identified three challenges that BHWs face, which were “No current information regarding postpartum care,” “Some postpartum women do not want to receive healthcare services from BHW,” and “Too many assigned postpartum women.” Among five analysis codes, we identified two reasons for continuing BHW activities, which were “Hospitality to help postpartum women and their family in the community” and “Performance of mission in providing BHW services.” Conclusion: This study is the first to evaluate BHW activities in postpartum healthcare services. Our results indicate that BHWs play a potentially important role in evaluating postpartum women’s physical and mental conditions through home-visiting services. However, several difficulties adversely affected their activities, and these must be addressed to maximize the contributions of BHWs to the postpartum healthcare system.

  2. Understanding reasons for asthma outpatient (non)?attendance and exploring the role of telephone and e?consulting in facilitating access to care: exploratory qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van Baar, J D; Joosten, H; Car, J; Freeman, G K; Partridge, M R; van Weel, C; Sheikh, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To understand factors influencing patients' decisions to attend for outpatient follow up consultations for asthma and to explore patients' attitudes to telephone and email consultations in facilitating access to asthma care. Design Exploratory qualitative study using in depth interviews. Setting Hospital outpatient clinic in West London. Participants Nineteen patients with moderate to severe asthma (12 “attenders” and 7 “non?attenders”). Results Patients' main reasons for attending were the wish to improve control over asthma symptoms and a concern not to jeopardise the valued relationship with their doctor. Memory lapses, poor health, and disillusionment with the structure of outpatient care were important factors implicated in non?attendance. The patients were generally sceptical about the suggestion that greater opportunity for telephone consulting might improve access to care. They expressed concerns about the difficulties in effectively communicating through non?face to face media and were worried that clinicians would not be in a position to perform an adequate physical examination over the telephone. Email and text messaging were viewed as potentially useful for sending appointment reminders and sharing clinical information but were not considered to be acceptable alternatives to the face to face clinic encounter. Conclusions Memory lapses, impaired mobility due to poor health, and frustration with outpatient clinic organisation resulting in long waiting times and discontinuity of care are factors that deter patients from attending for hospital asthma assessments. The idea of telephone review assessments was viewed with scepticism by most study subjects. Particular attention should be given to explaining to patients the benefits of telephone consultations, and to seeking their views as to whether they would like to try them out before replacing face to face consultations with them. Email and text messaging may have a role in issuing reminders about imminent appointments. PMID:16751469

  3. Mixed Race: Understanding Difference in the Genome Era

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Bonham, Vence L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of multiracial individuals’ understanding of identity, race and human genetic variation. The debate regarding the correlation between race, genetics and disease has expanded, but limited empirical data has been collected regarding the lay public’s perspective. Participants in this study explore their identity and its relationships to their health care interactions. Participants also share their views on race-based therapeutics, health disparities and the connections between race, ancestry and genetics. Their voices highlight the limitations of racial categories in describing differences within our increasingly diverse communities. The genomic era will be a pivotal period in challenging current understandings and uses of racial categories in health. PMID:19079741

  4. The ancient art of laying rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, J.; Olsen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a geometrical property of helical structures and show how it accounts for the early art of rope-making. Helices have a maximum number of rotations that can be added to them — and it is shown that this is a geometrical feature, not a material property. This geometrical insight explains why nearly identically appearing ropes can be made from very different materials and it is also the reason behind the unyielding nature of ropes. Maximally rotated strands behave as zero-twist structures. Hence, under strain they neither rotate in one direction nor in the other. The necessity for the rope to be stretched while being laid, known from Egyptian tomb scenes, follows straightforwardly, as does the function of the top, an old tool for laying ropes.

  5. The ancient art of laying rope

    E-print Network

    Jakob Bohr; Kasper Olsen

    2010-08-08

    We describe a geometrical property of helical structures and show how it accounts for the early art of ropemaking. Helices have a maximum number of rotations that can be added to them -- and it is shown that this is a geometrical feature, not a material property. This geometrical insight explains why nearly identically appearing ropes can be made from very different materials and it is also the reason behind the unyielding nature of ropes. The maximally rotated strands behave as zero-twist structures. Under strain they neither rotate one or the other way. The necessity for the rope to be stretched while being laid, known from Egyptian tomb scenes, follows straightforwardly, as does the function of the top, an old tool for laying ropes.

  6. Perch width preferences of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Odberg, F; Sonck, B; Duchateau, L

    2009-07-01

    1. In order to investigate the effect of perch width on perching behaviour of laying hens, two experiments in which hens could choose between 7 different perch widths (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0 and 10.5 cm) were conducted. In one experiment (EXP-2P) test cages contained two long perches gradually broadening and narrowing stepwise, in the other experiment (EXP-7P) 7 separate short perches differing in width were placed in the test cages. In each experiment 12 groups of 4 hens were filmed during day and night. The behaviour and location of the hens were recorded and whether the nest box affected hen distribution over the perches was investigated. 2. During daytime, in EXP-2P, there was an increase in perch use with increasing perch width. Hens spent less time on perches of 1.5 cm wide compared to perches of 9.0 and 10.5 cm wide. In EXP-7P, the 1.5-cm wide perch was also used the least (but only the difference with 4.5-cm wide perches was statistically significant) but perch use did not increase linearly with perch width. During the night, there were no significant perch width preferences in either experiment. 3. The percentage of active behaviours (preening, walking, drinking, pecking at hen) versus passive behaviours (standing, sitting, sleeping) did not differ significantly according to perch width. 4. In EXP-7P, there was a trend for perch use to decrease with greater distances to the nest box in the morning. 5. A perch width of 1.5 cm is not recommended for laying hens. For wider perch widths, results were equivocal: they tend to support rather than challenge the widespread use of 4.5-cm wide perches in commercial units. PMID:19735010

  7. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of aspects of planetary exploration and protection that may be particularly sensitive or controversial and that could prove problematic from a risk-management standpoint, perhaps warranting a more stringent risk-management approach than would otherwise be the case based on technical considerations alone. The design of the study compares perceptions and attitudes about space exploration relevant to a Mars sample return mission between three respondent groups: (1) members of The Planetary Society, a group representing individuals with a strong interest in space-related issues, (2) a group of university-aged students, representing a population relatively sensitive to environmental hazards, and (3) a group of life scientists outside of the space research community. Members of The Planetary Society received the survey as part of a special issue of The Planetary Report on planetary protection, which contained a number of background articles on planetary protection and related topics. A synopsis of the issue was prepared as an introduction to the survey for the other two groups.

  8. Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

    1994-01-01

    Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

  9. Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation Y. NYS, P. MONGIN Station de to water, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride was measured in the immature pullet and then in the laying hen before and during egg-shell calcification by an in vivo perfusion procedure. Jejunal calcium

  10. DETERMINING CLUTCH SIZE AND LAYING DATES USING OVARIAN FOLLICLES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ScoTt F. PEARSON

    Ovarian follicles of Eastern and Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna and S. neglecta) and Hermit and Townsend's Warblers (Dendmica occidentalis and D. townsendi) grow and regress sufficiently rapidly for laying intervals to be distinguished. We describe how to deduce clutch size from counts of ovarian follicles and to estimate laying dates from curves describing the growth of preovulatory and regression of

  11. Comparative Influences of Various Protein Feeds on Laying Hens

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

    1924-01-01

    ...................................................... 5 Experiment 1-Comparative Value of Meat Scrap. Tankzge 2nd Cotton- ................................ . seed Meal for Laying Hens 6 ............................ Time. Objects. Stock Used. Feeds Used G Prices of Feeds... of Meat Scrap with Cottonseed Meal For Laying Hens ........................................ 16 ............................ Time. Object. Stock Used. Feeds Used 16 Prices of Feeds ................................................ 17 Results of.the Test...

  12. EGG-LAYING DEFECTIVE MUTANTS OF THE NEMATODE CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROL TRENT; NANCY TSUNG; H. ROBERT HORVITZ

    1983-01-01

    We have isolated 145 fertile mutants of C. elegons that are defective in egg laying and have characterized 59 of them genetically, behaviorally and phar- macologically. These 59 mutants define 40 new genes called egl, for egg-laying abnormal. Most of the other mutants are defective in previously identified genes. The egl mutants differ with respect to the severity of their

  13. Ohtsuki Kenji and the beginnings of lay analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Blowers, G; Chi, S Y

    2001-02-01

    The authors outline the major role played by Ohtsuki Kenji in the formation of the Japanese Psychoanalytic Society. Unlike the other pioneers of psychoanalysis in Japan, Ohtsuki never went abroad or met Freud. He was a literature graduate who taught himself the fundamentals of psychoanalysis. He organised the translation of Freud's complete works, formed a psychoanalytic training institute and started a journal that carried English-language editorials. These became the major means whereby foreign analysts came to know and understand the Japanese psychoanalytic scene. A number of rival groups amalgamated to form the Japanese Psychoanalytical Association in the mid-fifties, excluding Ohtsuki's group despite its pre-war prominence. The authors reconsider Ohtsuki's role in the light of his many articles, his autobiography, new information uncovered in interviews conducted with current analysts and with Ohtsuki's widow and son. They describe his championing of lay analysis, and his criticisms of medicalisation of the discipline and of the view from abroad that questioned the suitability of Japanese culture for psychoanalytic therapy, as well as his efforts to modify some of the basic tenets of psychoanalysis to accord with his own views in his later work. PMID:11234111

  14. Chronic fenthion toxicity in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Tuler, S M; Bowen, J M

    1999-10-01

    White leghorn laying hens were exposed to weekly dermal applications of either 1 mg fenthion/kg (FEN; low dose) or 4 mg FEN/kg (high dose) for 24 w with the objective of evaluating chronic FEN toxicity. Four of 24 hens at the high dose exhibited transitory loss of proprioception, perching ability, and righting reflex after 8 to 16 w exposure. All hens receiving the high dose lost the ability or desire to jump from a box during the latter half of the FEN exposure period. Inhibition of serum cholinesterase and brain acetylcholinesterase was greater in the high-dose hens. Brain neuropathy target esterase was not inhibited. Behavioral changes were not correlated with changes in brain concentrations of enzymes or neurotransmitters or their metabolites. Muscle fiber abnormalities were more common in the high-dose hens. Muscle electrical activity was recorded electromyographically via telemetry. Fibrillation (denervation) potentials were absent, but amplitude times duration values for motor unit potentials of the peroneus longus muscle for 5 of the 6 4-w evaluation intervals were higher in the high-dose hens. This EMG response suggested presence of a mild neuropathy which was supported by results of ultrastructural examinations of the sciatic nerve. The low dose initially produced 8% stimulation of egg production while the high dose inhibited egg production 10% during the latter 16 w of the study and reduced body weight 8% during this period. PMID:10509433

  15. Help-seeking preferences in the area of mild cognitive impairment: comparing family physicians and the lay public

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Perla; Heinik, Jeremia; Giveon, Shmuel; Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Kitai, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild neurocognitive disorder is a well-established clinical entity included in current diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease and in major psychiatric classifications. In all, a loosely defined concern obtained from conceptually different sources (the individual, a knowledgeable informant, or a clinician) regarding a decline in cognition and change in functioning constitutes a sine qua non for initiating diagnostics and providing therapy and support. This concern in practice may translate into complex proactive help-seeking behavior. A better understanding of help-seeking preferences is required in order to promote early detection and management. Objectives To compare help-seeking preferences of family physicians and the lay public in the area of MCI. Methods A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 197 family physicians (self-administered) and 517 persons aged 45 and over from the lay public (face to face). Information regarding familiarity with MCI and help-seeking preferences was assessed. Results The vast majority in both samples reported that family physician, spouse, and children are the most highly recommended sources of help-seeking. In regard to professional sources of help-seeking, a higher percentage of the physicians than the lay public sample consistently recommended seeking help from nurses and social workers and psychiatrists, but a higher percentage of the lay public recommended turning to a neurologist for help. Discussion There were both similarities and differences between family physicians and the lay public in their preferences regarding help-seeking for a person with MCI. Most prominent is the physicians’ greater tendency to recommend professional sources of help-seeking. Conclusion Understanding of help-seeking preferences of both physicians and lay persons might help overcome barriers for establishing diagnosis, receiving care, and improving communication between doctors and patients. PMID:24748779

  16. Exploring Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    "Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

  17. Exploring DNA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Flitton

    2008-08-13

    Get ready to learn an explore DNA, genes and proteins. By moving through the different topics, you will hopefully gain greater understanding of how DNA, genes, and proteins are all related. DNA to Protein Module You will zoom into the human body to see and read more about DNA. The Journey Into DNA DNA Workshop Activity- You try it! More DNA and Protein Synthesis ...

  18. EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING

    E-print Network

    EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING..........................................................................................................1 Hand Lay-up in Turbine Blade Fabrication

  19. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on laying hen performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, J.W.; Reece, F.N.; Lott, B.D.

    1982-09-01

    In periods of extremely cold weather, energy conservation in a pit-type laying house usually results in a restricted ventilation rate and an increase in air pollutants particularly ammonia. Results show that 200 ppm ammonia for 17 days causes a significant loss in percent egg production and the hens lose a significant amount of weight with a reduced feed intake. Although not satisfactory, it appears that lesser amounts of ammonia (100 ppm) can be tolerated for short periods without an immediate drastic loss in laying performance if a choice has to be made between frozen waterers and cold stress versus atmospheric ammonia in the laying house.

  20. Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cracked shells, due to age related reduction of shell quality, are a costly problem for the industry. Parallel to reduced shell quality the skeleton becomes brittle resulting in bone fractures. Calcium, a main prerequisite for both eggshell and bone, is regulated by estrogen in a complex manner. The effects of estrogen, given in a low continuous dose, were studied regarding factors involved in age related changes in shell quality and bone strength of laying hens. A pellet containing 0.385 mg estradiol 3-benzoate (21-day-release) or placebo was inserted subcutaneously in 20 birds each of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) at 70 weeks of age. Eggs were collected before and during the experiment for shell quality measurements. Blood samples for analysis of total calcium were taken three days after the insertion and at sacrifice (72 weeks). Right femur was used for bone strength measurements and tissue samples from duodenum and shell gland were processed for morphology, immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors (ER?, ER?), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Results Estrogen treatment increased shell thickness of both hybrids. In addition, shell weight and shell deformation improved in eggs from the brown hybrids. The more pronounced effect on eggs from the brown hybrid may be due to a change in sensitivity to estrogen, especially in surface epithelial cells of the shell gland, shown as an altered ratio between ER? and ER?. A regulatory effect of estrogen on CA activity, but not PMCA, was seen in both duodenum and shell gland, and a possible connection to shell quality is discussed. Bone strength was unaffected by treatment, but femur was stronger in LSL birds suggesting that the hybrids differ in calcium allocation between shell and bone at the end of the laying period. Plasma calcium concentrations and egg production were unaffected. Conclusions A low continuous dose of estrogen improves shell strength but not bone strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period. PMID:24884886

  1. Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

  2. Exploring the association between cognitive functioning and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: the role of social understanding and aggression.

    PubMed

    Niditch, Laura A; Varela, R Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ, and parents completed measures of remaining variables. ASD diagnosis was associated with level of anxiety, and level of IQ explained this relation. IQ was significantly and positively associated with anxiety. Tests of a developmental model to explain the relation between IQ and anxiety showed that social understanding and aggression mediated the relation for toddlers. For preschool- and early elementary school-aged children, respectively, three-way interactions between IQ, social understanding, and aggression predicted anxiety, and graphs of the interactions suggest that the association between IQ and anxiety is increasingly driven by either aggression or social understanding over the course of childhood. PMID:22417187

  3. Science and the lay perspective: lay people's involvement in assessing tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, Katharina

    2014-10-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a scientific field that will have an influence on our daily lives. It has the potential to revolutionize medical treatments, but it has also an impact on our human image and is associated with potential risks and ethical aspects. Among the publicly controversial issues are embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, cloning, uncertainties regarding risks and informed consent issues. To maintain public confidence in the science of TE, a good solution is public dialogues with patients and other interested lay people that gives the public the chance to independently evaluate TE issues and build their own opinion based on information from different perspectives. The article describes public participation projects in TE on stem cell research and gene therapy and presents the case study of the EU-Gene Activated Matrices for Bone and Cartilage Regeneration on Arthritis (GAMBA) panels, a dialogue with patient and citizen panels in three European countries. In the GAMBA panels, lay participants assessed the basic research project aimed at finding ways of healing osteoarthritis through a matrix composed of adult stem cells, gene vectors, nanoparticles, and biomaterials. The results of the dialogues in different countries, such as Denmark, Japan, Ireland, Switzerland, and Germany, are compared and the evaluation criteria for high quality dialogues are presented, including multiperspectivity, openness of results, a clear mandate, impartial facilitation of the panels, and transparency. PMID:24083801

  4. Details of roof truss, building for drawing room and laying ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Details of roof truss, building for drawing room and laying out floor, Johnson Company, Johnstown,m Pa. Jan 19th 1893, H.E.F., scale 3/4 = 1 ft, (photograph of architect's drawing of roof truss detail, company drawing no. 14767, held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Drawing Room & Laying-Out Floor Building, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  5. Transcriptome profiling of the hypothalamus during prelaying and laying periods in Sichuan white geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangliang; Li, Qin; Zhao, Xianzhi; Ding, Ning; Han, Qing; Su, Jian; Wang, Qigui

    2015-08-01

    The Sichuan White goose is a Chinese breed well known for the quality of its meat. However, reproductive performance in this goose is not ideal, and little information is available regarding the abundance of transcripts. To better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underpinning prelaying and laying periods in the Sichuan white goose, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to analyze the transcriptome in the hypothalamus. After sequencing and annotation, 26?921 unigenes were obtained, with 48 transcripts up-regulated in the prelaying period and 180 transcripts up-regulated during the laying period. These transcripts were primarily related to diseases, cancers, signaling molecules and interactions, the nervous system and the immune system. Eight transcripts were selected for further analyses with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were mostly consistent with those from the high-throughput RNA sequencing. Among these transcripts, serine/threonine-protein kinase (AMPK), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were differentially expressed during the prelaying and laying periods. The results of this study provide a useful resource for future studies examining the hypothalamus in geese. PMID:25601520

  6. Playing the Field(s): An Exploration of Change, Conformity and Conflict in Girls' Understandings of Gendered Physicality in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a year-long ethnographic study of a group of 12- to 13-year-old girls that explored the processes through which they negotiated gendered physicality within the context of physical education. Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and social fields and McNay's extension of his work underpin a discussion of three contexts where…

  7. Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tam Le; Susan K. Gardner

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array of issues including the lack of funding, the choice of

  8. Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tam Le; Susan K. Gardner

    2010-01-01

    : In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array of issues including the lack of funding, the choice

  9. Chance, choice and control: lay debate on prenatal social sex selection.

    PubMed

    Scully, Jackie Leach; Banks, Sarah; Shakespeare, Tom W

    2006-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies are typically positioned as increasing the range of choices open to the healthcare consumer, thereby enhancing 'reproductive freedom'. In this paper, we question the equivalence of reproductive choice and personal freedom in ethical theory, using results from a project investigating how lay people make ethical evaluations about the new genetic and reproductive technologies. We took the topic of social sex selection by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and used group discussions and interviews in the north-east of England to trace how lay people develop and express their ethical evaluations, and to identify the implicit or explicit normative framework that gave rise to their opinions on prenatal sex selection. There was a striking level of ambivalence towards choice in general and reproductive choice in particular. Participants offered few positive statements and numerous reasons why reproductive choice might be problematic. Our participants' argumentation shares with mainstream bioethical analysis the weighing of the possible harms of prenatal sex selection for social reasons against the harm of restricting reproductive freedom. However, unlike most secular-liberal bioethicists, many of our participants concluded that prenatal sex selection is undesirable because it is an expression of parental preference instead of a response to the future child's need. Our interpretation of their reasoning is that they work from an ideal of "good parents", one of the features of which is the relinquishing of control over their children, except to protect them from harm. This voluntary self-limitation does not indicate reduced autonomy, because parental autonomy can only operate within the limits set by this relational framework. We suggest that a model of relational autonomy captures our lay participants' framing of the problem better than a more traditional understanding of autonomy. Our study also shows that in appropriately structured discussion of bioethical issues, lay people can articulate reasons for their opinions that are grounded in sophisticated and morally relevant concepts. PMID:16459006

  10. Water Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathy Kelly Ellins

    2012-01-01

    Water Exploration uses a project-based learning approach, permitting students to conduct research and build an understanding about water science and critical water-related issues. All learning activities and resources are packaged into three modules, or Legacy Cycles, in a way that enhances student learning by making use of the Internet and computer technology to promote inquiry learning. The Earth Science Literacy Principles provide the organizing framework for the lessons and activities in each Water Exploration Legacy Cycle. The curriculum is applicable to high school science courses such as Earth and Space Science, Advanced Placement Environmental Science, Biology, Chemistry, and Aquatic Science.

  11. Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

  12. Class and comparison: subjective social location and lay experiences of constraint and mobility.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Lay perceptions and experiences of social location have been commonly framed with reference to social class. However, complex responses to, and ambivalence over, class categories have raised interesting analytic questions relating to how sociological concepts are operationalized in empirical research. For example, prior researchers have argued that processes of class dis-identification signify moral unease with the nature of classed inequalities, yet dis-identification may also in part reflect a poor fit between 'social class' as a category and the ways in which people accord meaning to, and evaluate, their related experiences of socio-economic inequality. Differently framed questions about social comparison, aligned more closely with people's own terms of reference, offer an interesting alternative avenue for exploring subjective experiences of inequality. This paper explores some of these questions through an analysis of new empirical data, generated in the context of recession. In the analysis reported here, class identification was common. Nevertheless, whether or not people self identified in class terms, class relevant issues were perceived and described in highly diverse ways, and lay views on class revealed it to be a very aggregated as well as multifaceted construct. It is argued that it enables a particular, not general, perspective on social comparison. The paper therefore goes on to examine how study participants compared themselves with familiar others, identified by themselves. The evidence illuminates social positioning in terms of constraint, agency and (for some) movement, and offers insight into very diverse experiences of inequality, through the comparisons that people made. Their comparisons are situated, and pragmatic, accounts of the material contexts in which people live their lives. Linked evaluations are circumscribed and strongly tied to these proximate material contexts.The paper draws out implications for theorizing lay perspectives on class, and subjective experiences of inequality. PMID:25939681

  13. Effects of zinc on Salmonella in the layer house environments and laying hens, and the ability of zinc to induce molt in laying hens

    E-print Network

    Park, Shinyoung

    2005-02-17

    phase investigated the ability of zinc propionate, as an alternative salt form of zinc, to induce molt in laying hens, the influence of zinc acetate and zinc propionate on gastrointestinal tract fermentation, and susceptibility of laying hens to S...

  14. Sketchpad Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-29

    This iOS app can be used to drag, manipulate and animate visual mathematics to develop and generalize student understanding of fundamental concepts across elementary mathematics. For elementary purposes click on the book in the bottom right of the screen and then select the Elementary Mathematics Guide. Within the Elementary Mathematics guide there are eight activities that can be completed using this application. Each activity includes an exploration with guiding questions.

  15. Egg-Laying Defective Mutants of the Nematode CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Carol; Tsung, Nancy; Horvitz, H. Robert

    1983-01-01

    We have isolated 145 fertile mutants of C. elegans that are defective in egg laying and have characterized 59 of them genetically, behaviorally and pharmacologically. These 59 mutants define 40 new genes called egl, for egg-laying abnormal. Most of the other mutants are defective in previously identified genes. The egl mutants differ with respect to the severity of their egg-laying defects and the presence of behavioral or morphological pleiotropies. We have defined four distinct categories of mutants based on their responses to the pharmacological agents serotonin and imipramine, which stimulate egg laying by wild-type hermaphrodites. These drugs test the functioning of the vulva, the vulval and uterine muscles and the hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs), which innervate the vulval muscles. Mutants representing 14 egl genes fail to respond to serotonin and to imipramine and are likely to be defective in the functioning of the vulva or the vulval and uterine muscles. Four mutants (representing four different genes) lay eggs in response to serotonin but not to imipramine and appear to be egg-laying defective because of defects in the HSNs; three of these four were selected specifically for these drug responses. Mutants representing seven egl genes lay eggs in response to serotonin and to imipramine. One egl mutant responds to imipramine but not to serotonin. The remaining egl mutants show variable or intermediate responses to the drugs. Two of the HSN-defective mutants, egl-1 and her-1(n695), lack HSN cell bodies and are likely to be expressing the normally male-specific program of HSN cell death. Whereas egl-1 animals appear to be defective specifically in HSN development, her-1(n695) animals exhibit multiple morphological pleiotropies, displaying partial transformation of the sexual phenotype of many cells and tissues. At least two of the egl mutants appear to be defective in the processing of environmental signals that modulate egg laying and may define new components of the neural circuitry that control egg laying. PMID:11813735

  16. ERTS-1 imagery as an aid to the understanding of the regional setting of base metal deposits in the North West Cape Province, South Africa. [mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viljoen, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A number of base metal finds have recently focussed attention on the North Western Cape Province of South Africa as an area of great potential mineral wealth. From the point of view of competitive mineral exploration it was essential that an insight into the regional geological controls of the base metal mineralization of the area be obtained as rapidly as possible. Conventional methods of producing a suitable regional geological map were considered to be too time-consuming and ERTS-1 imagery was consequently examined. This imagery has made a significant contribution in the compilation of a suitable map on which to base further mineral exploration programmes. The time involved in the compilation of maps of this nature was found to be only a fraction of the time necessary for the production of similar maps using other methods. ERTS imagery is therefore considered to be valuable in producing accurate regional maps in areas where little or no geological data are available, or in areas of poor access. Furthermore, these images have great potential for rapidly defining the regional extent of metallogenic provinces.

  17. Task shifting in maternal and newborn care: a non-inferiority study examining delegation of antenatal counseling to lay nurse aides supported by job aids in Benin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larissa Jennings; André Sourou Yebadokpo; Jean Affo; Marthe Agbogbe; Aguima Tankoano

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shifting the role of counseling to less skilled workers may improve efficiency and coverage of health services, but evidence is needed on the impact of substitution on quality of care. This research explored the influence of delegating maternal and newborn counseling responsibilities to clinic-based lay nurse aides on the quality of counseling provided as part of a task shifting

  18. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes in Huoyan Goose Ovaries between the Laying Period and Ceased Period

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xinhong; Liu, Dawei; Cao, Zhongzan; Luo, Lina; Liu, Mei; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    The Huoyan goose is famous for its high egg-laying performance and is listed as a nationally protected domestic animal by the Chinese government. To elucidate the key regulatory genes involved in Huoyan goose egg laying, RNA from ovarian tissue during the ceased and laying periods was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. More than 12 million reads were produced in ceased and laying libraries that included 11,896,423 and 12,534,799 clean reads, respectively. More than 20% of the reads were matched to the reference genome, and 23% of the reads were matched to reference genes. Genes with a false discovery rate (FDR) ?0.001 and log2ratio ?1 or ??1 were characterized as differentially expressed, and 344 up-regulated and 344 down-regulated genes were classified into functional categories. Twelve genes that are mainly involved in pathways for reproduction regulation, such as steroid hormone biosynthesis, GnRH signaling pathways, oocyte meiosis, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, steroid biosynthesis, calcium signaling pathways, and G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway were selected for validation by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, the qRT-PCR results are consistent with the general expression patterns of those genes from the Illumina sequencing. These data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that might increase our understanding of the Huoyan goose's reproductive biology. PMID:25419838

  19. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

  20. Bone breakage in laying hens as affected by dietary supplements 

    E-print Network

    Moore, David Joe

    1975-01-01

    BONE BREAKAGE IN LAYING HENS AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS A Thesis by DAVID JOE MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Al!M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1975... Major Subject: Poultry Science (Physiology) BONE BREAKAGE IN LAYING HENS AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS A Thesis by DAVID JOE MOORE Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Comm' ee ad o Department) Member Member '7 I ls&wr g ~, /0...

  1. Interpersonal issues in expressing lay knowledge: a discursive psychology approach.

    PubMed

    De Kok, Bregje; Widdicombe, Sue

    2010-11-01

    This article examines lay knowledge about causes of infertility. We use discursive psychology to analyse semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled Malawians with a fertility problem. We observe that respondents deny knowledge of causes, sometimes emphatically, but this co-occurs with descriptions of potential causes. We show that these respondents thereby address problematic interpersonal issues: namely that one is not entitled to medical knowledge and that negative inferences that may be drawn about someone who knows particular causes of infertility. These findings shed new light on previous observations, and have implications for the study of lay knowledge. PMID:20511284

  2. Social injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the attitudes towards suicide of lay persons in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2011-01-01

    One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants’ view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study. PMID:22065981

  3. Using Exoplanet Models to Explore NGSS and the Nature of Science and as a Tool for Understanding the Scientific Results from NIRCam/JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Higgins, Michelle L.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    2014-11-01

    Our Solar System is no longer unique. To date, about 1,800 planets are known to orbit over 1,100 other stars and nearly 50% are in multiple-planet systems. Planetary systems seem [to be] fairly common and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the Goldilocks Zone, suggesting there may be other habitable planets. To this end, characterizing the atmospheric chemistries of such planets is a major science goal of the NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.For NIRCam's E/PO program with the Girl Scouts of the USA, we have produced scale models and associated activities to compare the size, scale, and dynamics of the Solar System with several exoplanet systems. Our models illustrate the techniques used to investigate these systems: radial velocity, transits, direct observations, and gravitational microlensing. By comparing and contrasting these models, we place our Solar System in a more cosmic context and enable discussion of current questions within the scientific community: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Is our present definition of a planet a good definition in the context of other planetary systems? Are there other planets/moons that might harbor life as we know it?These models are appropriate for use in classrooms and conform to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include, for example, understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding the nature of scientific models.

  4. Understanding in contemporary epistemology 

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Emma Catherine

    2012-06-27

    My main aim is to contribute to the exploration of the nature of the epistemic state of understanding. It seems that the most productive way in which this might be done is by (i) investigating what sort of conditions ...

  5. Reproductive biology in egg-laying mammals.

    PubMed

    Grützner, F; Nixon, B; Jones, R C

    2008-01-01

    The duck-billed platypus and short-beaked echidna are iconic species in Australia. Their morphology and physiology have puzzled scientists all over the world for more than 200 years. Recent genetic studies, particularly the platypus whole-genome sequencing project, have revealed the molecular basis of some of the extraordinary characteristics of monotremes. This and other works demonstrate the great value of research on our most distantly related mammalian relatives for comparative genomics and developmental biology. In this review we focus on the reproductive biology of monotremes and discuss works that unravel genes involved in lactation, testicular descent, gamete biology and fertilization, and early development. In addition we discuss works on the evolution of the complex sex chromosome system in platypus and echidna, which has also significant impact on our general understanding of mammalian sex chromosomes and sex determination. PMID:18769071

  6. The effects of propolis on antibody production by laying hens.

    PubMed

    Freitas, J A; Vanat, N; Pinheiro, J W; Balarin, M R S; Sforcin, J M; Venancio, E J

    2011-06-01

    Propolis is a honeybee product showing several biological properties that enhance the immune response, depending on the concentration and intake period. Because propolis possesses an immunomodulatory action on mammals, the objective of our study was to investigate the effects of propolis on the humoral immune response of laying hens by evaluating antibody production. Laying hens (ISA Brown) were divided into 5 groups with 7 birds each. Group 1 was a nonimmunized control, whereas birds in group 2 were immunized intravenously with SRBC, and those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated intraperitoneally with propolis (2, 10, and 50 mg/kg, respectively) on 3 consecutive days and then inoculated intravenously with SRBC. Hematological and serological analyses were carried out on d 0, 3, and 38. Natural and specific antibody levels were determined by hemagglutination with rabbit red blood cells and SRBC, respectively. Propolis-treated birds (50 mg/kg) showed a significant decline in heterophils and in the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. After SRBC immunization, significant increases in levels of IgG were observed in groups 4 and 5. Furthermore, higher levels of natural antibodies were observed in propolis-treated laying hens. The administration of propolis to laying hens increased the production of IgG specific to SRBC and natural antibodies, and could be used to increase antigen-specific antibody responses to vaccines. PMID:21597063

  7. "Picturing" Lay Ministry: Photovoice and Participatory Group Spiritual Gifts Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefz, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    The "Picturing Lay Ministry" project uses the visual methodology of photovoice as a way of generating participatory laity discernment around the topics of calling, rural ministry, and spiritual gifts. The project involves working with curriculum action research embedded within one-day ministry discernment events for laity. Measurement…

  8. GRASSHOPPER EGG MORTALITY EXPLAINED BY LAYING STRATEGY AND FIRE INTENSITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined fire effects on grasshopper species. Our previous work suggests selective control of some pest grasshoppers with prescribed fire. We tested whether selective control was due to heat damage to eggs that differ by species because of egg laying depth. Deep- (migratory) and ...

  9. Laying a Solid Foundation: Strategies for Effective Program Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, Geri

    2009-01-01

    The replication of proven social programs is a cost-effective and efficient way to achieve large-scale, positive social change. Yet there has been little guidance available about how to approach program replication and limited development of systems--at local, state or federal levels--to support replication efforts. "Laying a Solid Foundation:…

  10. Ascarid infections in laying hens kept in different housing systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Désirée S. Jansson; Ann Nyman; Ivar Vĺgsholm; Dan Christensson; Magnus Göransson; Oddvar Fossum; Johan Höglund

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of ascarid infections in Swedish commercial laying hens in 2004 and 2008 following a recent nationwide change to alternative housing systems but before anthelmintics became available. Also, the influence on prevalence of farm and flock characteristics and management was studied in 2004. The results showed that the overall prevalence was significantly

  11. Original article Simultaneous queen raising and egg laying

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    cells. A low number of worker-laid eggs was found in 7 colonies. In the other colonies, the level that the occurrence of egg-laying workers in colonies that still contain young brood is not a rare phe- nomenon in Africanized bees. No worker-laid eggs were found in any of the colonies once a queen had emerged

  12. Effects of a Perch in Conventional Cages for Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragnar Tauson

    1984-01-01

    A total of 720 Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens (SCWL's Shaver 288) were studied from 22 to 82 weeks of age for the effect of a perch on production, egg weight, exterior egg quality and egg rolling-out efficiency, plumage condition, foot health, claw length, throat skin health, mortality, live weight, behaviour and usage of the perch at different times

  13. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on pullets at point of lay

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, J.W.; Reece, F.N.; Lott, B.D.

    1984-02-01

    Results obtained show that pullets exposed to 200 ppm atmospheric ammonia for 17 days had a reduced feed intake and reduced growth rate when compared to controls. After the ammonia exposure period at point of lay, percent egg production was less and mortality greater for the ammonia exposed group versus the controls.

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO INDUCED MOLTING IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced molting in laying hens by feed withdrawal (FW) is a common practice in the U.S., which has led to public concern regarding their well-being, and there is a pressing need to evaluate physiological changes resulting from prolonged feed withdrawal (FW). A total of 168 hens from Hy-line W-92 li...

  15. Laying out and visualizing large trees using a hyperbolic space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Lamping; Rarnana Rao

    1994-01-01

    We present a new focus+context (fisheye) scheme for visualizing and manipulating large hierarchies. The essence of our approach is to lay out the hierarchy uniformly on the hyperbolic plane and map this plane onto a circular display region. The projection onto the disk provides a natural mechanism for assigning more space to a portion of the hierarchy while still embedding

  16. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

  17. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

  18. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

  19. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

  20. A Long-Term Study of Science Literacy and Attitudes Towards Science: Exploring Changes Among College Undergraduate and Public Understanding over Twenty-Two Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, C.; Antonellis, J.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    Assessing science literacy has been an important goal of science educators and policy makers for many years. Various studies including international, school, and public comparisons have painted a bleak picture of science literacy in the United States. We are conducting a study focused on undergraduates’ science literacy using a database of over 10,000 student responses from a large research university collected over a twenty-two year period, between 1989 - 2011. Survey questions were derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators), some of which are still used in public assessments of science literacy. Analysis has shown that our university students outperform the public on almost all topics on the survey. Despite targeted university interventions and the rise of public access to knowledge, student science literacy scores have not changed over twenty-two years. Demographic variables explain less than 10% of the variance in students’ scores of which the number of university science courses completed is the best predictor. There is a small correlation between students’ beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon and lower science literacy scores but students’ beliefs about science and technology also explain little variance in their overall scores. We have also compared responses of scientists and students on the same questions about science. We will discuss implications of evaluating students’ scientific knowledge in a time when students have access to more resources than ever before, an important goal as we continue to work towards increasing students’ understanding of scientific concepts. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  1. Exploring Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claire Olsen

    2005-03-14

    You will be working with web resources to explore modern Europe. At the end of these activities, you will have a better understanding of the countries that make up modern-day Europe. Identifying European Countries and Capitals We're going to be visiting Europe. We need to know something about each of the countries that make up this continent. Use the Interactive Map of Europe to find the name of the countries and their capitals. Fill in the worksheet "Countries of Europe". Write the ...

  2. SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF X-333 ON THE TOXICITY OF AFLATOXIN AND PESTICIDES IN THE LAYING HEN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF X-333 ON THE TOXICITY OF AFLATOXIN AND PESTICIDES IN THE LAYING HEN V. de.,., Nouzilly, 3i'380 Monnaie In order to decrease the toxic effects of aflatoxin and pesticides in the laying

  3. The Expert and the Lay Public: Reflections on Influenza A (H1N1) and the Risk Society

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Trust between the lay public and scientific experts is a key element to ensuring the efficient implementation of emergency public health measures. In modern risk societies, the management and elimination of risk have become preeminent drivers of public policy. In this context, the protection of public trust is a complex task. Those actors involved in public health decision-making and implementation (e.g., mass vaccination for influenza A virus) are confronted with growing pressures and responsibility to act. However, they also need to accept the limits of their own expertise and recognize the ability of lay publics to understand and be responsible for public health. Such a shared responsibility for risk management, if grounded in participative public debates, can arguably strengthen public trust in public health authorities and interventions. PMID:22397338

  4. The effects of age and weather on egg laying in Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Danaidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myron P. Zalucki

    1981-01-01

    Summary  The effects of age and weather conditions on egg laying inD. plexippus were determined for caged females. Age (measured in physiological time), temperature and solar radiation influence egg laying\\u000a in this species of butterfly. An algorithm taking these factors into account in presented and accounts for 88% of the daily\\u000a variation in egg laying. CagedD. plexippus begin to lay eggs

  5. Prevalence of anti-tumor antibodies in laying hen model of human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Animesh; Edassery, Seby L; Bitterman, Pincas; Abramowicz, Jacques S.; Dirks, Angela L; Bahr, Janice M; Hales, Dale B.; Bradaric, Michael J.; Luborsky, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    Anti-tumor antibodies are associated with tumors in human cancers. There is relatively little information on the timing and progression of antibody response to tumors. The objective of the study was to determine if spontaneous ovarian cancer in the egg-laying hen is associated with anti-tumor antibodies. Antibodies were detected by immunoassay and immunoblotting using proteins from normal ovary and ovarian tumors. Candidate antigens were identified by mass spectrometry of immunoreactive spots cut from two-dimensional gels and Western Blot. Anti-tumor (serum reacting against tumor ovarian extract) and anti-ovarian (serum reacting against normal ovarian extract) antibodies were significantly associated with ovarian cancer (67%, P?0.001) compared to normal control hens. Hens with abnormal histology but no gross tumor had anti-tumor antibodies (63%, P?0.025) but not anti-ovarian antibodies. There were common as well as different immunoreactions against normal ovary, and homologous and heterologous tumor proteins in two-dimensional Western blots. The candidate antigens included those commonly associated with human cancers and other diseases such as vimentin, apolipoprotein A1, Annexinn II, enolase, DJ-1 etc. The results suggest that anti-tumor antibodies are associated with ovarian cancer in hens, similar to human ovarian cancer. The egg-laying hen may be a model for understanding the anti-tumor humoral immune response, particularly at early tumor stages that are not readily accessible in human ovarian cancer. PMID:19509543

  6. Laying order, hatching asynchrony and nestling body mass in Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethan D. Clotfelter; Linda A. Whittingham; Peter O. Dunn

    2000-01-01

    We studied the reproductive biology of a box-nesting population of Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor in southeastern Wisconsin, USA. We were interested particularly in the relationship between laying order and hatching order and the extent to which each was a predictor of nestling body mass. We found that laying order was a significant predictor of hatching order. Laying and hatching order

  7. FMRFamide neuropeptides and acetylcholine synergistically inhibit egg-laying by C. elegans

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, H. Robert

    FMRFamide neuropeptides and acetylcholine synergistically inhibit egg-laying by C. elegans Niels Ringstad & H Robert Horvitz Egg-laying behavior of the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite is regulated by G protein signaling pathways. Here we show that the egg laying­defective mutant egl-6(n592) carries

  8. Submarine optical fiber cable: development and laying results.

    PubMed

    Kojima, N; Yabuta, T; Negishi, Y; Iwabuchi, K; Kawata, O; Yamashita, K; Miyajima, Y; Yoshizawa, N

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the structural design, trial production, and laying results for submarine optical fiber cables that can be deployed in shallow seas between islands and/or channel crossings without repeaters. Structural design methods for the submarine optical fiber cable are proposed, which take into consideration suppressing cable elongation under tension and excess loss under hydraulic pressure. This paper describes good laying results for the cable using this structural design method. The average loss for single-mode fibers was 0.72 dB/km, and the average loss for multimode fibers was 0.81 dB/km for a 10.2-km long cable operated at 1.3-microm wavelength. PMID:20372546

  9. An analysis of lay medicine: fifteen years later

    PubMed Central

    Elliott-Binns, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Five hundred patients were asked what advice they had received before attending the doctor's surgery. The results were analysed and compared with an identical survey carried out in 1970. There have been few changes in the frequency and nature of lay advice over the last 15 years, with women still being the chief source of informal advice; the advice from men was generally to go to the doctor. Pharmacists play an increasing role and television is mentioned three times more often as a source of information in 1985 than 1970. Home doctor books are more up to date and are used more frequently. Self-care and lay advice remain important sources of medical care, suggesting that health education is a matter of priority. PMID:3668902

  10. Numerical analysis of pipeline dynamics in seabed laying

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonov, V.; Safronof, A. [CNIGRI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kamyshev, M.; Figarov, N. [VNIIST, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The paper analyses a mathematical model of the pipelaying from the stinger onto the seabed. The model is three-dimensional, nonlinear, it takes into account the interaction between the pipeline (PL) and the seabed, at the contact zone of PL and the stinger at discreet points. To solve equations, a numerical method is proposed which enables them to overcome some difficulties associated with the presence of substantial nonlinearities in the equations, the changes of PL section lengths in time which span in the sea and are lay on the seabed and the stinger, as well as with the indefinite selection of the stinger contact rollers. The paper finds some mechanisms in the contact rollers location along the stinger. Some examples are provided concerning the proper selection of the stinger and of PL parameters in laying PL at a depth of 320 m; it also gives an example of calculation of PL oscillations during the oscillating motions of the vessel.

  11. CONTROLLING EGG CONTAMINATION BY UNDERSTANDING SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS INFECTIONS IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, public health authorities have reported the transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers of internally contaminated eggs produced by infected hens. Egg contamination is both a cause of food-borne human illness and a principal diagnostic criterion for identifying in...

  12. From dose rate to websites: making measurements accessible, understandable and helpful to the lay public.

    PubMed

    Zähringer, M; Luff, R; Schiesewitz, M; Burbeck, S; Högg, R

    2014-08-01

    The key role of public information in emergency preparedness has more recently been corroborated by the experience of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP. Information should meet quality criteria such as openness, accessibility and authenticity. Existing information portals of radiation monitoring networks were frequently used even in Europe, although there was no imminent radiation risk. BfS responded by increasing the polling frequency, publishing current data not validated, refurbishing the website of the BfS 'odlinfo.bfs.de' and adding explanatory text. Public feedback served as a valuable input for improving the site's design. Additional services were implemented for developers of smart phone apps. Websites similar to 'ODLInfo' are available both on European and international levels. NGOs and grass root projects established platforms for uploading and visualising private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 March 2011. The BfS site is compared with other platforms. Government information has to compete with non-official sources. Options on information strategies are discussed. PMID:24993007

  13. Different soil media for free-range laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Sossidou; S. P. Rose; S. S. P. Silva; N. W. Hall; A. Tserveni-Goussi; V. Christodoulou

    2008-01-01

    1.?A replicated experiment compared bird use, soil structure, grass wear and free-moving nematode populations in 4 different soil media (recycled vegetable compost, 90% recycled vegetable compost and 10% sand, re-used topsoil and sterilised topsoil) all with established grass swards within the range area of a large free-range laying hen unit.2.?The birds initially spent a greater proportion of their time on

  14. Multifactorial investigation of various housing systems for laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shimmura; S. Hirahara; T. Azuma; T. Suzuki; Y. Eguchi; K. Uetake; T. Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    1.?The advantages and disadvantages of various housing systems for laying hens were compared as a pilot study for work in commercial conditions.2.?At 16 weeks of age, 284 hens were introduced into one of 6 housing systems: two types of conventional cages (small: SC; large: LC), furnished cages (small: SF; large: LF), and non-cage systems (single-tiered aviary: SA; free-range: FR).3.?We evaluated

  15. Calcium and phosphorus levels in the diet of laying birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Dudley; G. J. Pickering

    1966-01-01

    Two hatches of crossbred pullet chicks were brooded and reared to 18 weeks of age on diets which conformed to the recommendations of the National Research Council (N.R.C.) of America for calcium and phosphorus. The pullets of each hatch were then divided at random into six laying groups. Three groups were fed diets containing 2.25, 3.14 and 5.0 per cent

  16. Defining workplace bullying behaviour professional lay definitions of workplace bullying.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Paula; Huynh, Amy; Goodman-Delahunty, Jane

    2007-01-01

    As is commonly the case in new areas of research, workplace bullying researchers and practitioners have struggled to establish a single agreed-upon definition of this phenomenon. As a consequence, there are numerous definitions of workplace bullying currently in use around the world to investigate this serious workplace issue, to educate the workforce about this form of harassment and to assess claims involving allegations of workplace bullying. Additionally, little is known about how employees and people in general define workplace bullying behaviour, and whether current researcher, practitioner and legal definitions coincide with lay definitions of bullying. To compare researcher, practitioner and legal definitions of workplace bullying with lay definitions, the content of definitions composed by adults from diverse personal and professional backgrounds (N=1095) was analysed. Results confirmed that components commonly used by researchers and practitioners, including the occurrence of harmful and negative workplace behaviours, were frequently cited by participants as central defining components of bullying behaviour. In addition, lay definitions often included themes of fairness and respect. The emergence of these themes has important consequences for organisations responding to, and attempting to prevent the occurrence of workplace bullying behaviour in that organisations in which bullying is tolerated may violate both local laws as well as their ethical responsibility to provide employees with a safe, professional and respectful workplace. PMID:17692375

  17. Lunar Exploration Timeline: Learning Objectives

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    on each other to con- tribute to lunar exploration as a whole. Students will understand the history of the space exploration as a whole and learn about major events in the history of lunar exploration strategies for student research. Procedure: 1. Investigate what your class knows about space exploration

  18. Running head: STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 1 Students' Understanding of Mathematical Integration in Physics Problems

    E-print Network

    Zollman, Dean

    Running head: STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 1 Students' Understanding and N. Sanjay Rebello Kansas State University #12;STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL INTEGRATION 2 Abstract We report on a study to explore students' understanding of integration as an accumulation process

  19. Differential gene expression in pre-laying and laying period ovaries of Sichuan White geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Ding, N; Han, Q; Zhao, X Z; Li, Q; Li, J; Zhang, H F; Gao, G L; Luo, Y; Xie, Y H; Su, J; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    Geese are an economically important poultry species worldwide. Their superior meat production performance and meat qual-ity make them a popular food. However, they are not bred worldwide because their poor laying capacity increases farming costs. To gain a global view of the genes that are differentially expressed between pre-laying (P) and laying (L) periods and to develop a database for further studies, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of ovarian tissue collected from Anser cygnoides. In total, 30,151,422 raw reads, with an average length of 151 bp and a total length of 4,552,864,722 bp, were obtained. After primers and adaptors were removed, 19,167,132 clean reads, with an average length of 134.5 bp and a total length of 2,577,297,281 bp, were obtained, among which 1,268,906,694 bp and 1,308,390,587 bp were from L and P ovarian tissue, respectively. The 16,605 assembled sequences were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases and assigning gene ontology (GO) terms. Of these, 511 as-sembled sequences were considered differentially expressed based on the 2-fold method, among which 396 were assigned at least one GO term. Digital expression analysis using the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes annotation identified 121 genes that were differ-entially expressed in the P vs L periods. Five of these are of special interest for further investigation of their roles in determining high re-productive performance. This study provides valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering genes determining high egg-laying performance and for future functional genomics analysis of geese. PMID:26125885

  20. A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.

    PubMed

    Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A

    2013-02-01

    Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks. PMID:23300320

  1. Exploring Magnetic Field Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners explore the magnetic field of a bar magnet as an introduction to understanding Earth's magnetic field. First, learners explore and play with magnets and compasses. Then, learners trace the field lines of the magnet using the compass on a large piece of paper. This activity will also demonstrate why prominences are always "loops."

  2. Effect of daily feed intake in laying period on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition of genetically fat and lean lines of chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Li; L. M. Xu; A. S. Shan; J. W. Hu; Y. Y. Zhang; Y. H. Li

    2011-01-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feed intake on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition in a Fat line and a Lean line during the laying period (34 to 54 weeks of age).2. The experiment was a 2?×?2 factorial design with two dietary intake levels (nutrition recommendation and 75% of recommendation) and two

  3. The functional significance of parasitic egg laying and typical nesting in redhead ducks: an analysis of individual behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL D. SORENSON

    1991-01-01

    At the population level, redhead ducks, Aythya americana, lay as many as 75% of their eggs parasitically but at least some females lay and incubate eggs in their own nests ('typical nesting'). Parasitic egg laying by redheads was documented with remote, time-lapse photography of potential host nests, allowing histories of parasitic egg laying and typical nesting to be compiled for

  4. Exploring at the Nanoscale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-02-25

    This lesson focuses on how nanotechnology has impacted our society and how engineers have learned to explore the world at the nanoscale. Learners participate in hands-on activities to understand exactly how small the nanoscale is, explore how surface area changes at the nano scale, and work in teams to develop futuristic applications of nanotechnology. Specifically, teams of learners examine and measure blocks of tofu or gelatin to determine the surface area. Then they slice the blocks into smaller and smaller pieces, exposing more surfaces, and impacting the surface area. Learners also explore the size of small by comparing various items to understand the size of nano.

  5. Behavior of laying hens on alfalfa crumble molt diets.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, C S; Friend, T H; McReynolds, J L; Kim, W K; Dunkley, K D; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2008-05-01

    Several dietary alternatives to feed withdrawal have been proposed to induce a molt in laying hens. This study compared the behavior of laying hens on an alfalfa crumble diet (ALC) to hens that were either on a conventional layer diet (FF) or hens that had feed withdrawn (FW) during a 9-d trial. Each treatment consisted of 24 hens (3 hens per battery cage), and treatment began after a 2-week acclimation period. Video cameras connected to a digital multiplexer recorded the behavior of the hens. The percentages of observations performing nonnutritive pecking, feeder activity, drinking, walking, preening, head movement, and aggression were quantified for two 10-min periods at daily intervals. The FF hens spent significantly more (P < or = 0.05) time drinking than the other treatments, whereas FW hens displayed the most head movements. From d 1 through 7, FW hens walked less than ALC hens except on d 8 when FW hens walked more than ALC and FF hens. On d 4 and 6, the FW hens spent an increased amount of time preening compared with FF hens until the last few days of the molt period. For the most part, FW hens generally displayed more nonnutritive pecking than ALC and FF hens throughout the molt period. However, FW hen visits to the feeders declined as the trial proceeded, whereas ALC and FF hens generally spent more time at the feeder. In summary, the ALC diet showed potential as an alternative to FW for inducing a molt in laying hens based on reduced nonnutritive pecking behavior, head movements, and greater feeding activity. PMID:18420970

  6. Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  7. Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (natuzyme) in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Choi, Y I; Moon, E J; Oh, S T; Lee, H H; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2014-12-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers' diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  8. Do Laying Hens with Keel Bone Fractures Experience Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Mohammed A. F.; Nicol, Christine J.; Murrell, Joanna C.

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p?=?0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p?=?0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p?=?0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  9. Exploration Geochemistry

    E-print Network

    Michelson, David G.

    Exploration Geochemistry Initiative MDRU is an internationally recognized, collaborative research exploration problems and training the next generation of exploration geologists. e MDRU Exploration that will significantly increase the amount and quality of research and training in the discipline of mineral exploration

  10. Effects of dietary calcium sources on laying hen performance

    E-print Network

    Brister, Roy David

    1980-01-01

    for a longer period of time. In their in vitro study, there were no significant differences in the solubility rates between hen-sized oyster shell and hen-sized limestone. The in vitro solu- bility rate was slightly greater for pullet-sized than... for hen-sized particles for both limestone and oyster shell. Studies conducted on calcium sources for laying hens have produced a variety of results. Ground limestone and oyster shell have failed to show consistent significant differences in egg shell...

  11. The effects of taurine on the performance of laying hens 

    E-print Network

    Reger, Mark Myron

    1971-01-01

    Allen, R. D. , 1970. Effect of two commercial unidenti- fied. growth factors on growth rate and, feed conversion of the chick using practical diets. Poultry Sci. 49:615-620. Atkinson, R. L. , T. M. Ferguson and J. R. Couch, 1955. Further studies on unid... Subject: Poultry Science R o 0 a', l4 0 I?I THE EFFECTS OF TAURINE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS A Thes1s MARK MYRON REGER Approved. as to style and content by: a1rman of Comm1tte ad of Department Member Mem er Member Member December 19...

  12. Triazolam--an "abused drug" by the lay press?

    PubMed

    Schneider, P J; Perry, P J

    1990-04-01

    For the second time in the past ten years adverse reports in the lay press have questioned the safety of triazolam. Anecdotal reports of central nervous system adverse reactions can be separated into four general categories: (1) delirium in psychiatric patients; (2) delirium in geriatric patients; (3) withdrawal reactions; and (4) anterograde amnesia. Of the four, the amnesia reactions are regarded as serious enough by the Food and Drug Administration that it is requiring hypnotic drug manufacturers to revise the labeling of temazepam and flurazepam along with triazolam to emphasize the potential for this class of drugs to cause traveler's amnesia. PMID:2183493

  13. Phase feeding of protein and energy for laying hens 

    E-print Network

    Zotz, Joseph Ernest

    1967-01-01

    production over lower protein levels. The National Research Council (1960) recommenda- tions for chicken laying and breeding diets are for 15 percent protein and containing 920 Calories of productive energy (P, E. ) per pound, Hiddendorf et al. (1/5...')) concluded that as the protein content of s, corn-soybean ration was decreased from 15. 5 to 10. ') percent, egg production, feed effi- ciency and economy of production decreased, while Haugh units increased. Fewer eggs were laid by birds on a 15 percent...

  14. Participants' experiences of care during a randomized controlled trial comparing a lay-facilitated angina management programme with usual care: a qualitative study using focus groups

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Pauline; Cox, Helen; Furze, Gill; Lewin, Robert JP; Morton, Veronica; Norris, Heather; Patel, Nicky; Elton, Peter; Carty, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of a qualitative study conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing a lay-facilitated angina management programme with usual care. Its aim was to explore participants' beliefs, experiences, and attitudes to the care they had received during the trial, particularly those who had received the angina management intervention. Background Angina affects over 50 million people worldwide. Over half of these people have symptoms that restrict their daily life and would benefit from knowing how to manage their condition. Design A nested qualitative study within a randomized controlled trial of lay-facilitated angina management. Method We conducted four participant focus groups during 2008; three were with people randomized to the intervention and one with those randomized to control. We recruited a total of 14 participants to the focus groups, 10 intervention, and 4 control. Findings Although recruitment to the focus groups was relatively low by comparison to conventional standards, each generated lively discussions and a rich data set. Data analysis demonstrated both similarities and differences between control and intervention groups. Similarities included low levels of prior knowledge about angina, whereas differences included a perception among intervention participants that lifestyle changes were more easily facilitated with the help and support of a lay-worker. Conclusion Lay facilitation with the Angina Plan is perceived by the participants to be beneficial in supporting self-management. However, clinical expertise is still required to meet the more complex information and care needs of people with stable angina. PMID:22738415

  15. The Lay Health Educator Program: Evaluating the Impact of this Community Health Initiative on the Medical Education of Resident Physicians.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Rios, Rebeca; Daniel Hale, W; Colburn, Jessica L; Christmas, Colleen

    2015-06-01

    Resident physicians receive little training designed to help them develop an understanding of the health literacy and health concerns of laypersons. The purpose of this study was to assess whether residents improve their understanding of health concerns of community members after participating in the Lay Health Educator Program, a health education program provided through a medical-religious community partnership. The impact was evaluated via pre-post surveys and open-ended responses. There was a statistically significant change in the residents' (n = 15) understanding of what the public values as important with respect to specific healthcare topics. Findings suggest participation in a brief, formal community engagement activity improved medical residents' confidence with community health education. PMID:25761451

  16. Understanding language

    E-print Network

    Pettit, Dean R. (Dean Reid), 1967-

    2003-01-01

    My dissertation concerns the nature of linguistic understanding. A standard view about linguistic understanding is that it is a propositional knowledge state. The following is an instance of this view: given a speaker S ...

  17. Perspectives on Latino Lay Health Promoter Programs: Maryland, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Jaschek, Graciela; Martinez, Iveris L.; Brown, Pamela B.; Mora, Sonia E.; Newton, Nancy; Luciani, Ileana

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined common barriers and best practices in the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of Latino lay health promoter programs. Methods. Ten lay health promoter program coordinators serving Maryland Latinos were recruited in 2009 through snowball sampling for in-depth semistructured interviews with a bilingual and bicultural researcher. Program coordinators were asked about recruitment, selection, training, and supervision; key program elements; and evaluation. Analyses were conducted to identify common themes. Results. Respondents had worked up to 13 years in programs focused on such areas as awareness of healthy lifestyles and reducing risk of illness. Coordinators looked for Latino leaders with team-building skills and a desire to help the community. Six programs compensated promoters with stipends; 4 paid an hourly wage. Promoters were usually trained in monthly meetings that actively engaged them. Most programs conducted site visits, practice sessions, and performance evaluations. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that successful health promoter programs require needs assessments, formation of a target population advisory board, identification of appropriate promoters, and a significant amount of training. These findings can be used to guide future programs in the identification, recruitment, and training of health promoters as well as in program monitoring. PMID:22021305

  18. Relationship between laying sequence and mercury concentration in tree swallow eggs.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Abdel Latif, Marwa K; Cristol, Daniel A

    2010-05-01

    When female birds lay eggs, some of their body burden of mercury is eliminated into each egg, potentially leading to declining mercury across the clutch. However, there was no decline in mercury with laying sequence in clutches of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at a mercury-contaminated site, presumably due to daily replenishment of mercury in females during laying. Sampling just one egg from the nest provided an accurate measure of clutch mercury contamination. PMID:20821552

  19. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  20. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2006 draws upon available information from literature, industry and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analysis of the mineral industry based upon these data.

  1. A Need to Update the Exploration Strategy for Europa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Greenberg; B. R. Tufts; G. V. Hoppa; P. Geissler

    2001-01-01

    The current exploration strategy for Europa, for which the Europa orbiter is the next step, was predicated on a prevailing belief that Europa's ocean, if any, lies isolated from the surface beneath approximately 10 km or more of ice. First, the orbiter would determine whether there indeed is a liquid water ocean. Then a lander would assess surface conditions, laying

  2. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Vasil, R.L.; Nolting, A.

    2011-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2010 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry.

  3. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2008 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry, and presents analyses of exploration activities by the mineral industry based upon these data.

  4. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Bourget, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2009 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on industry exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities by the mineral industry based upon these data.

  5. Cave spiders choose optimal environmental factors with respect to the generated entropy when laying their cocoon.

    PubMed

    Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Lepore, Emiliano; Ventola, Luigi; Asinari, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a suitable area to spiders where to lay eggs is promoted in terms of Darwinian fitness. Despite its importance, the underlying factors behind this key decision are generally poorly understood. Here, we designed a multidisciplinary study based both on in-field data and laboratory experiments focusing on the European cave spider Meta menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) and aiming at understanding the selective forces driving the female in the choice of the depositional area. Our in-field data analysis demonstrated a major role of air velocity and distance from the cave entrance within a particular cave in driving the female choice. This has been interpreted using a model based on the Entropy Generation Minimization - EGM - method, without invoking best fit parameters and thanks to independent lab experiments, thus demonstrating that the female chooses the depositional area according to minimal level of thermo-fluid-dynamic irreversibility. This methodology may pave the way to a novel approach in understanding evolutionary strategies for other living organisms. PMID:25556697

  6. Laying characteristics of one- and two-year old pheasants (Phasianus colchicus, L.).

    PubMed

    Krystianiak, Stanis?awa; Kontecka, Helena; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Rosi?ski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The aim ofthe study was to assess laying traits, the weight of eggs and characters ofthe laying rhythm of pheasants in the first and second years of reproduction. Pheasants (10 cockerels and 50 hens) were kept in aviaries. Daily, individual control of laying was performed beginning with the day of the first laying and ending with the last egg. The following parameters were evaluated: age at first laying, length of the laying period, number of laid eggs and the average weight of the egg in the 8th week of laying. The laying rhythm was also assessed and comprised: the number of egg clutches, the number of eggs in a clutch, the number of eggs in the longest clutch, the number of intervals, the length of intervals and the longest interval between clutches. During the first period of reproduction, in comparison with the second, pheasants laid slightly more eggs of similar average weight. The first laying period was longer than the second and was characterised by a greater number of egg clutches and greater number of intervals between clutches. The greatest number of eggs was laid in 10-egg and longer clutches, although the l-egg clutches were the most numerous. A positive correlation was found between the number of eggs and the number of clutches, the greatest number of eggs in a clutch and the number of intervals between clutches. The similar values of the reproductive characters of one- and two-year old pheasants point to the possibility of longer utilization of these birds than only for one laying period. On the other hand, the considerable variability between the experimental hens with regard to the number and the length of egg clutches, as well as the intervals between them, indicate the possibility to carry out selection taking into account traits characterising the laying rhythm. PMID:17687936

  7. Egg-laying butterflies distinguish predaceous ants by sight.

    PubMed

    Sendoya, Sebastián F; Freitas, André V L; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2009-07-01

    Information about predation risks is critical for herbivorous insects, and natural selection favors their ability to detect predators before oviposition and to select enemy-free foliage when offspring mortality risk is high. Food plants are selected by ovipositing butterflies, and offspring survival frequently varies among plants because of variation in the presence of predators. Eunica bechina butterflies oviposit on Caryocar brasiliense, an ant-defended plant. Experiments with dried Camponotus and Cephalotes ants pinned to leaves revealed that butterflies use ant size and form as visual cues to avoid ovipositing on plant parts occupied by ants more likely to kill larval offspring. Presence of sap-sucking bugs did not affect butterfly oviposition. This is the first demonstration that visual recognition of predators can mediate egg-laying decisions by an insect herbivore and that an insect will discriminate among different species of potential predators. This unusual behavioral capability permits specialization on a risky, ant-defended food plant. PMID:19456265

  8. The provision of TB and HIV/AIDS treatment support by lay health workers in South Africa: a time-and-motion study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lay or community health workers (LHWs) are an important human resource in primary health care, and contribute to improving access to care. However, optimal use of LHWs within the health system is often hampered by a poor understanding of how this cadre organizes its work. This study aimed to better understand how LHWs organize and structure their time in providing treatment and adherence support to people on TB treatment and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. Methods Fourteen LHWs participated across three low-income peri-urban communities in Cape Town. Each LHW was observed by a researcher for one day, and data collected on each activity and the time spent on it. Data were summarized in the following categories: travel to the patient’s home, waiting time and patient contact time. Results Ninety-seven attempted visits to patients were observed, and patients were located in 69 of these. On average, LHWs conducted six visits per day, each lasting an average of nine minutes. Forty-six percent of the observed time was spent with patients, with the balance spent on ‘non-contact’ activities, including walking to and waiting for patients. The average walking time between patients was 8 minutes (range: 3 to 15 minutes). Activities during visits comprised medical care (that is ensuring that medication was being taken correctly and that patients were not experiencing side-effects) and social support. Other tasks included conducting home assessments to determine risks to treatment adherence, and tracing patients who had defaulted from treatment. Conclusions Because of their tasks and working environment, LHWs providing support to people on TB treatment and ART in South Africa spend a substantial proportion of their time on ‘non-contact’ activities. Programme managers need to take this into account when developing job descriptions and determining patient case-loads for this cadre. More research is also needed to explore whether these findings apply to other tasks and settings. Strategies should be explored to mitigate the challenges that LHWs experience in locating and supporting patients, including the use of new technologies, such as mobile phones. PMID:24708871

  9. Evaluation of Yeast Cell Wall on Early Production Laying Hen Performance 

    E-print Network

    Hashim, Mohammed Malik Hashim 1981-

    2012-11-08

    he influence of two levels of yeast cell wall on phase one laying hen performance was investigated in this study. A total of 75 Lohmann W-36 replacement pullets, 17-weeks-old, were distributed among 75 laying hen cages (1 bird per pen). A total of 3...

  10. Socially induced Synchronization of every-other-day egg laying in a Seabird colony

    E-print Network

    Cushing, Jim. M.

    every-other-day clutch-initiation and egg-laying synchrony in a breeding colony of Glaucous-winged Gulls October 2009, accepted 7 March 2010. Key words: egg laying, Glaucous-winged Gull, Larus glaucescens Place, Washington 99324, USA Synchronization of oscillators can result from envi- ronmental fo

  11. Effects of Housing Systems on Biochemical Indicators of Blood Plasma in Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pavlík; M. Pokludová; D. Zapletal; P. Jelínek

    2007-01-01

    Pavlík A., M. Pokludová, D. Zapletal, P. Jelínek: Effects of Housing Systems on Biochemical Indicators of Blood Plasma in Laying Hens. Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 339-347. The aim of this study was to compare biochemical indicators of blood plasma of laying hens housed in three different housing systems (conventional cage system, enriched cage system and deep litter system). In

  12. Use of High Levels of Full-Fat Soybeans in Laying Hen Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Senkoylu; H. E. Samli; H. Akyurek; A. Agma; S. Yasar

    SUMMARY To examine the effects of various inclusion levels of full-fat soybeans (FFSB) on laying hen performance and eggshell quality during peak production, 288 Bovans White strain laying hens, 33 to 42 wk of age, were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments. The diets were prepared with the inclusion of 0, 10, 16, and 22% FFSB. Egg production was not

  13. Effects of providing dietary wood (oak) charcoal to broiler chicks and laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Rüstü Kutlu; Ilknur Ünsal; Murat Görgülü

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to determine whether dietary wood (oak) charcoal applied during entire or phase feeding period would affect growth performance, abdominal fat weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass composition and nutrient excretion of broilers and to determine whether dietary wood charcoal supplementation would affect laying performance and egg quality of laying hens. In the first experiment, different

  14. Evaluation of guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Cheng

    2005-11-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens. In the 1st experiment, late phase laying hens were fed diets with 0, 5, 10% guar meal (GM) for 56 days or 15% GM for 28 days then switched...

  15. An evaluation of a refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in Chongwe District, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Msisuka; Ikuma Nozaki; Kazuhiro Kakimoto; Motoko Seko; Mercy M S Ulaya

    2011-01-01

    To address a severe shortage of human resources for health, the Zambian Ministry of Health has begun to make use of lay counsellors for HIV counselling and testing. However, their skills and knowledge rarely have been reviewed or refreshed. We conducted a two-day refresher workshop for lay counsellors to review their performance and refresh their skills and knowledge. The objective

  16. Economic Effects of Proposed Restrictions on Egg-laying Hen Housing in California

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Economic Effects of Proposed Restrictions on Egg-laying Hen Housing in California July 2008 Restrictions on Egg-laying Hen Housing in California i Economic Effects of Proposed Restrictions on Egg Summary A ballot initiative in California that would place restrictions on the housing of commercial egg

  17. ESTIMATING HERITABILITIES OF WORKER CHARACTERS : A NEW APPROACH USING LAYING WORKERS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ESTIMATING HERITABILITIES OF WORKER CHARACTERS : A NEW APPROACH USING LAYING WORKERS OF THE CAPE Kirchhain 1 SUMMARY Heritabilities (h2) of worker characters in honeybees are estimated with laying workers in the honeybee. INTRODUCTION Heritabilities (h2) of characters of workers in honeybees (Apis mellifena L

  18. THE LAYING OF REPLACEMENT CLUTCHES BY FALCONIFORMS AND STRIGIFORMS IN NORTH AMERICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Morrison; Brian James Walton

    This paper discusses the laying of replacement clutches by North American raptors by reviewing existing literature and presenting data gathered from oological collections and from the double-clutching of wild and captive birds. We found that most species recycle; however, the frequency of recycling declined with an increasing stage of in- cubation. Clutch size did not decrease significantly between layings for

  19. Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and Markov models Hyoung-joo Lee1, and 2 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK Feather pecking in laying hens of production as well as welfare issues for the damaged birds. Damaging outbreaks of feather pecking

  20. Laying a Foundation in Health and Wellness. Training Guides for the Head Start Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman (James) Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    This training guide is designed to aid Head Start staff in exploring personal understandings of health and wellness and to further their contribution to the health of coworkers, children, and families. It explains the importance of health to Head Start's mission--to encourage social competence; promote the development of personal definitions of…

  1. Exploration Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  2. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2005 draws upon available information from literature, industry and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. It provides data on exploration budgets by global region and mineral commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analysis of the mineral industry based on these data.

  3. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Rapstine, T.D.; Lee, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2011 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. This summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents surveys returned by companies primarily focused on precious (gold, platinum-group metals and silver) and base (copper, lead, nickel and zinc) metals.

  4. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2007 draws upon available information from industry, literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analysis of the mineral industry based upon these data.

  5. Geologic Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alec Bodzin

    2002-04-01

    Geologic Explorations allows learners to explore a variety of unique geological formations of Utah using Quicktime Virtual Reality (QTVR) panoramas and digital still imagery. Spectacular panoramas and striking images capture Utah's unique geology and invite students to explore and learn interesting facts and concepts central to the study of geology.

  6. Understanding Understanding Source Code with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Kaestner, Christian

    Understanding Understanding Source Code with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Janet Siegmund languages, tools, or coding conventions to support developers in their everyday work. In this paper, we explore whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is well established in cognitive

  7. Understanding Interaction

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    the interactions · Unconstrained speech recognition · Non-verbal communication · Attention · Social cues · Understanding dialogues · Individual and group behaviour · Multimodal signals, multiparty communication #12;AMIUnderstanding Multiparty Interaction Challenges from Instrumented Meeting Rooms Steve Renals

  8. Understanding Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Flu Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... By Bonny McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone ...

  9. Understanding Nano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanotechnology can be a complicated topic. The Understanding Nano website is dedicated to providing clear and concise explanations of nanotechnology applications along with information on companies working in each area.

  10. Understanding Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Register for ENews Home > Lung Disease > Sarcoidosis Understanding Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a disease caused by inflammation. Scientists ... pain, or shortness of breath. How Serious Is Sarcoidosis? Nobody can predict how sarcoidosis will affect one ...

  11. Comparative Understanding of Planetary Atmospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Huestis; S. K. Atreya; S. J. Bolton; S. W. Bougher; A. Coustenis; S. G. Edgington; A. J. Friedson; C. A. Griffith; S. L. Guberman; H. B. Hammel; J. I. Lunine; M. Mendillo; J. Moses; I. Mueller-Wodarg; G. S. Orton; K. A. Rages; T. G. Slanger; D. V. Titov; R. Yelle

    2001-01-01

    Observing, characterizing, and understanding planetary atmospheres are key components of solar system exploration. A planet's atmosphere is the interface between the surface and external energy and mass sources. Understanding how atmospheres are formed, evolve, and respond to perturbations is essential for addressing the long-range science objectives of identifying the conditions that are favorable for producing and supporting biological activity, managing

  12. Developing lay health worker policy in South Africa: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past half decade South Africa has been developing, implementing and redeveloping its Lay Health Worker (LHW) policies. Research during this period has highlighted challenges with LHW programme implementation. These challenges have included an increased burden of care for female LHWs. The aim of this study was to explore contemporary LHW policy development processes and the extent to which issues of gender are taken up within this process. Methods The study adopted a qualitative approach to exploring policy development from the perspective of policy actors. Eleven policy actors (policy makers and policy commentators) were interviewed individually. Data from the interviews were analysed thematically. Results Considerations of LHW working conditions drove policy redevelopment. From the interviews it seems that gender as an issue never reached the policy making agenda. Although there was strong recognition that the working conditions of LHWs needed to be improved, poor working conditions were not necessarily seen as a gender concern. Our data suggests that in the process of defining the problem which the redeveloped policy had to address, gender was not included. There was no group or body who brought the issue of gender to the attention of policy developers. As such the issue of gender never entered the policy debates. These debates focused on whether it was appropriate to have LHWs, what LHW programme model should be adopted and whether or not LHWs should be incorporated into the formal health system. Conclusion LHW policy redevelopment focused on resolving issues of LHW working conditions through an active process involving many actors and strong debates. Within this process the issue of gender had no champion and never reached the LHW policy agenda. Future research may consider how to incorporate the voices of ordinary women into the policy making process. PMID:22410185

  13. VANLO - Interactive visual exploration of aligned biological networks

    PubMed Central

    Brasch, Steffen; Linsen, Lars; Fuellen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is fundamental to many biological processes. In the course of evolution, biological networks such as protein-protein interaction networks have developed. Biological networks of different species can be aligned by finding instances (e.g. proteins) with the same common ancestor in the evolutionary process, so-called orthologs. For a better understanding of the evolution of biological networks, such aligned networks have to be explored. Visualization can play a key role in making the various relationships transparent. Results We present a novel visualization system for aligned biological networks in 3D space that naturally embeds existing 2D layouts. In addition to displaying the intra-network connectivities, we also provide insight into how the individual networks relate to each other by placing aligned entities on top of each other in separate layers. We optimize the layout of the entire alignment graph in a global fashion that takes into account inter- as well as intra-network relationships. The layout algorithm includes a step of merging aligned networks into one graph, laying out the graph with respect to application-specific requirements, splitting the merged graph again into individual networks, and displaying the network alignment in layers. In addition to representing the data in a static way, we also provide different interaction techniques to explore the data with respect to application-specific tasks. Conclusion Our system provides an intuitive global understanding of aligned PPI networks and it allows the investigation of key biological questions. We evaluate our system by applying it to real-world examples documenting how our system can be used to investigate the data with respect to these key questions. Our tool VANLO (Visualization of Aligned Networks with Layout Optimization) can be accessed at . PMID:19821976

  14. Understanding metamodeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kühne

    2005-01-01

    Metamodeling not only directly underpins the specification of modeling languages such as the UML, but is also the foundation for making the OMG's MDA vision come true. This tutorial starts by motivating metamodeling as an advanced way of creating software and then goes on to explore its fundamental principles. In particular, important new metamodeling concepts such as the distinction between

  15. Exploring Green Jobs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Connecticut Energy Education

    In this lesson, students complete a Myers-Briggs Type Inventory of their personality type as an introductory step to understanding what green jobs might suit their personal styles. From the information on this online tool, they look at different Green Jobs to explore possible careers.

  16. Exploring Racism through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

  17. Artificial night lighting affects dawn song, extra-pair siring success, and lay date in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kempenaers, Bart; Borgström, Pernilla; Loës, Peter; Schlicht, Emmi; Valcu, Mihai

    2010-10-12

    Associated with a continued global increase in urbanization, anthropogenic light pollution is an important problem. However, our understanding of the ecological consequences of light pollution is limited. We investigated effects of artificial night lighting on dawn song in five common forest-breeding songbirds. In four species, males near street lights started singing significantly earlier at dawn than males elsewhere in the forest, and this effect was stronger in naturally earlier-singing species. We compared reproductive behavior of blue tits breeding in edge territories with and without street lights to that of blue tits breeding in central territories over a 7 year period. Under the influence of street lights, females started egg laying on average 1.5 days earlier. Males occupying edge territories with street lights were twice as successful in obtaining extra-pair mates than their close neighbors or than males occupying central forest territories. Artificial night lighting affected both age classes but had a stronger effect on yearling males. Our findings indicate that light pollution has substantial effects on the timing of reproductive behavior and on individual mating patterns. It may have important evolutionary consequences by changing the information embedded in previously reliable quality-indicator traits. PMID:20850324

  18. [The frequency of detection of Mycoplasma meleagridis in breeding turkeys depending on the laying age].

    PubMed

    Rott, M; Pfützner, H; Gigas, H; Mach, B

    1989-01-01

    Coating of air sacs was recorded from day-old chicks from parents with Mycoplasma (M.) meleagridis infection, with positive findings being obtained from 9.52% of all animals early in the laying period and from 34.09% up to the 8th laying week. M. meleagridis was isolated from palatine and cloacal swabs taken of laying hens and insemination cocks, with positive findings being 50-60% prior to the laying period (28th week of age), 100% at start of laying, and 80% in the 14th laying week. M. meleagridis was identified in 50% of all embryonated eggs as of the 1st laying week and in 100% as of the 4th week. M. meleagridis was cultured from 30.67% of all sperm samples tested, between the 30th and 46th week of production. Differences were found to exist between individual cocks, with 4 cocks being without M. meleagridis at all. There was usually agreement between positive M. meleagridis findings from sperm and cloacal swabs. M. meleagridis was eliminated from cock sperm by spectinomycin (0.6 mg/ml diluting medium), but M. iowae was not. PMID:2619470

  19. Lay advice on alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about lay advice on prenatal alcohol and cigarette use and how this advice may complement or counteract advice from health professionals. In this study we examine the advice-giving role of female friends and relatives ("confidantes"). Survey data were collected from 105 low-income pregnant women about prenatal alcohol and cigarette use and confidante advice about these behaviors. Focus groups with 9 confidantes of pregnant smokers examined the advice they offered about substance use, their perceptions of these behaviors, and their roles as advice-givers. The rate of prenatal drinking was low among pregnant smokers, consistent with confidantes' high risk perceptions and zero tolerance for drinking, but low risk perceptions and high tolerance for smoking. Confidantes described barriers to providing advice about smoking cessation. Because confidantes perceived their role to be distinct from, and in some ways more influential than, that of doctors their advice should be considered in the development of prenatal substance use interventions. PMID:14742110

  20. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches.

    PubMed

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

  1. Embodied understanding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner. PMID:26175701

  2. Embodied understanding.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner. PMID:26175701

  3. Coastal Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alec Bodzin

    2004-08-22

    Coastal Explorations is a virtual photojournal that allows learners to explore a variety of coastal formations and unique features in many different locations along the California and New Jersey coasts. Learners investigate the differences and similarities between California and New Jersey coasts. Areas to explore include coastal processes and coastal issues such as erosion, how human activities modify shorelines, and development issues people living on the coast encounter.

  4. Egg yolk cholesterol as influenced by cereal grain and age of the laying hen 

    E-print Network

    Husseini, Munther Dawod

    1975-01-01

    middlings, appear to be effective in lowering cholestet'ol in the egg yolk, but not in the blood serum of the laying hens. The cost of producing lower cholesterol eggs by feeding a high fiber diet is greater than producing normal eggs with a standard... serum cholesterol in laying hens during twelve 28-day periods 16 The influence of type of diet on mean egg yolk and blood serum cholesterol in laying hens (periods pooled) 17 The effect of the type of diet on changes in egg yolk cholesterol during...

  5. A mixed-methods assessment of the experiences of lay mental health workers in postearthquake Haiti.

    PubMed

    James, Leah Emily; Noel, John Roger; Roche Jean Pierre, Yves Merry

    2014-03-01

    A mixed-methodological study conducted in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake assessed experiences of 8 lay mental health workers (earthquake survivors themselves) implementing a psychosocial intervention for residents of camps for displaced people in Port-au-Prince. Quantitative results revealed decreased posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, consistently high compassion satisfaction, low burnout, moderate secondary trauma, and high levels of posttraumatic growth measured over 18 months. Qualitative accounts from lay mental health workers revealed enhanced sense of self-worth, purpose, social connection, and satisfaction associated with helping others. Results support the viability of utilizing local lay disaster survivors as implementers of psychosocial intervention. PMID:24826931

  6. Task shifting in maternal and newborn care: a non-inferiority study examining delegation of antenatal counseling to lay nurse aides supported by job aids in Benin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Shifting the role of counseling to less skilled workers may improve efficiency and coverage of health services, but evidence is needed on the impact of substitution on quality of care. This research explored the influence of delegating maternal and newborn counseling responsibilities to clinic-based lay nurse aides on the quality of counseling provided as part of a task shifting initiative to expand their role. Methods Nurse-midwives and lay nurse aides in seven public maternities were trained to use job aids to improve counseling in maternal and newborn care. Quality of counseling and maternal knowledge were assessed using direct observation of antenatal consultations and patient exit interviews. Both provider types were interviewed to examine perceptions regarding the task shift. To compare provider performance levels, non-inferiority analyses were conducted where non-inferiority was demonstrated if the lower confidence limit of the performance difference did not exceed a margin of 10 percentage points. Results Mean percent of recommended messages provided by lay nurse aides was non-inferior to counseling by nurse-midwives in adjusted analyses for birth preparedness (? = -0.0, 95% CI: -9.0, 9.1), danger sign recognition (? = 4.7, 95% CI: -5.1, 14.6), and clean delivery (? = 1.4, 95% CI: -9.4, 12.3). Lay nurse aides demonstrated superior performance for communication on general prenatal care (? = 15.7, 95% CI: 7.0, 24.4), although non-inferiority was not achieved for newborn care counseling (? = -7.3, 95% CI: -23.1, 8.4). The proportion of women with correct knowledge was significantly higher among those counseled by lay nurse aides as compared to nurse-midwives in general prenatal care (? = 23.8, 95% CI: 15.7, 32.0), birth preparedness (? = 12.7, 95% CI: 5.2, 20.1), and danger sign recognition (? = 8.6, 95% CI: 3.3, 13.9). Both cadres had positive opinions regarding task shifting, although several preferred 'task sharing' over full delegation. Conclusions Lay nurse aides can provide effective antenatal counseling in maternal and newborn care in facility-based settings, provided they receive adequate training and support. Efforts are needed to improve management of human resources to ensure that effective mechanisms for regulating and financing task shifting are sustained. PMID:21211045

  7. Understanding Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of California Museum of Paleontology

    This page, from University of California Museum of Paleontology, features free, image-rich teaching resources that communicate what science is and how it works, with a focus on the process of science and its dynamic nature. The project is geared toward K-16 teacher preparation as well as broader public understanding of the nature of science.

  8. Understanding Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, David

    1967-01-01

    To help students understand prejudice, teachers in Verona, New York, planned a unit which incorporated the use of fiction, television, and film. Students were asked to select and read books in the general area of prejudice. A sample reading list of works under the headings of Negro, Jew, Italian, and Irish was provided. After writing extensive…

  9. Underground Exploration

    E-print Network

    Underground Exploration and Testing A Report to Congress and the Secretary of Energy Nuclear Waste and Testing #12;Underground exploration and testing are major components of the DOE's site- characterization Technical Review Board October 1993 Yucca Mountain at #12;Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Dr. John E

  10. Exploration Geochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closs, L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    Contributions in mineral-deposit model formulation, geochemical exploration in glaciated and arid environments, analytical and sampling problems, and bibliographic research were made in symposia held and proceedings volumes published during 1982. Highlights of these symposia and proceedings and comments on trends in exploration geochemistry are…

  11. Disposition kinetics of albendazole and metabolites in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bistoletti, M; Alvarez, L; Lanusse, C; Moreno, L

    2013-04-01

    An increasing prevalence of roundworm parasites in poultry, particularly in litter-based housing systems, has been reported. However, few anthelmintic drugs are commercially available for use in avian production systems. The anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) in poultry has been demonstrated well. The goal of this work was to characterize the ABZ and metabolites plasma disposition kinetics after treatment with different administration routes in laying hens. Twenty-four laying hens Plymouth Rock Barrada were distributed into three groups and treated with ABZ as follows: intravenously at 10 mg/kg (ABZ i.v.); orally at the same dose (ABZ oral); and in medicated feed at 10 mg/kg·day for 7 days (ABZ feed). Blood samples were taken up to 48 h posttreatment (ABZ i.v. and ABZ oral) and up to 10 days poststart feed medication (ABZ feed). The collected plasma samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. ABZ and its albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and ABZSO2 metabolites were recovered in plasma after ABZ i.v. administration. ABZ parent compound showed an initial concentration of 16.4 ± 2.0 ?g/mL, being rapidly metabolized into the ABZSO and ABZSO2 metabolites. The ABZSO maximum concentration (Cmax ) (3.10 ± 0.78 ?g/mL) was higher than that of ABZSO2 Cmax (0.34 ± 0.05 ?g/mL). The area under the concentration vs time curve (AUC) for ABZSO (21.9 ± 3.6 ?g·h/mL) was higher than that observed for ABZSO2 and ABZ (7.80 ± 1.02 and 12.0 ± 1.6 ?g·h/mL, respectively). The ABZ body clearance (Cl) was 0.88 ± 0.11 L·h/kg with an elimination half-life (T1/2el ) of 3.47 ± 0.73 h. The T1/2el for ABZSO and ABZSO2 were 6.36 ± 1.50 and 5.40 ± 1.90 h, respectively. After ABZ oral administration, low ABZ plasma concentrations were measured between 0.5 and 3 h posttreatment. ABZ was rapidly metabolized to ABZSO (Cmax , 1.71 ± 0.62 ?g/mL) and ABZSO2 (Cmax , 0.43 ± 0.04 ?g/mL). The metabolite systemic exposure (AUC) values were 18.6 ± 2.0 and 10.6 ± 0.9 ?g·h/mL for ABZSO and ABZSO2 , respectively. The half-life values after ABZ oral were similar (5.91 ± 0.60 and 5.57 ± 1.19 h for ABZSO and ABZSO2 , respectively) to those obtained after ABZ i.v. administration. ABZ was not recovered from the bloodstream after ABZ feed administration. AUC values of ABZSO and ABZSO2 were 61.9 and 92.4 ?g·h/mL, respectively. The work reported here provides useful information on the pharmacokinetic behavior of ABZ after both i.v. and oral administrations in hens, which is a useful first step to evaluate its potential as an anthelmintic tool for use in poultry. PMID:22533477

  12. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  13. 25 CFR 11.205 - Are there standards for the appearance of attorneys and lay counselors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Are there standards for the appearance of attorneys and lay counselors? (a) No defendant in a criminal proceeding shall be denied the right to counsel. (b) The chief magistrate shall prescribe in writing standards governing the...

  14. Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

    2012-10-01

    There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning. PMID:22911059

  15. Understanding Boston

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How does one begin to understand the workings of a major metropolis? It can be a tough job even for a seasoned expert in urbanology or governance. The Boston Foundation has offered up this area of its website to bring together resources that address the thorniest issues facing the Hub, including public schools, public health, transportation, and housing costs. First up is the Research, Reports, and Forums area, which includes working papers on public health throughout the region, links to the Greater Boston Indicator database, and information about changing models of urban governance throughout the region. The site also includes a group of areas dedicated to Understanding Boston that include Civic Engagement, Community Safety, and Cultural Vitality. Within each of these areas, visitors can look over working papers, read about upcoming events and conferences, and learn about the Foundation's long range plans.

  16. Understanding Drought

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2009-02-11

    Understanding Drought--This webcast provides an introduction to drought. It presents the measures and scales of drought and how drought is monitored. It also covers how drought is predicted, the impacts of drought, and provides information about drought-related resources. This content serves as a foundation to learning more about climate variability and operational climate services and prepares users for the national implementation of NIDIS. This module was last updated on Sept 28, 2009.

  17. Understanding Cladistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this classroom activity, middle school students explore cladistics by creating a cladogram. The activity opens with background information for teachers about cladistics. After discussing the relationship of some familiar mammals, students learn about how scientists use cladistics to determine evolutionary relationships among animals. Working in pairs, students complete a worksheet that directs them to examine coins and create a cladogram based on their shared characteristics. Then, small groups of students examine dinosaur illustrations, identify their shared features, and those features to classify the dinosaurs.

  18. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  19. Effects of selected enzyme inhibitors on blood and eggshell parameters in the laying hen 

    E-print Network

    Long, Jody Renee

    1987-01-01

    EFFECTS OF SELECTED ENZYME INHIBITORS ON BLOOD AND EGGSHELL PARAMETERS IN THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by JODY RENEE LONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fullfilment of the requirement for the degree... of Committee) @q ~ y. g~p( A. Naqi (Member) C. R. cger (Head of De rtment) C. R. cger (Hember) December 1987 ABSTRACT Effects of Selected Enzyme Inhibitors on Blood and Eggshell Parameters in the Laying Hen. (December, 1987) Jody R. Long, B. S...

  20. Effects of Dietary Yucca schidigera Powder on Performance and Egg Cholesterol Content of Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Rüstü Kutlu; Murat Görgülü; Ilknur Ünsal

    2001-01-01

    Kutlu, H.R., Görgülü, M. and Ünsal, I. 2001 Effects of dietary Yucca schidigera powder on performance and egg cholesterol content of laying hens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 49–56.The present study was carried out to determine whether dietary Yucca schidigera powder would affect egg yolk cholesterol content and laying performance of chickens. Sixty, 28-week-old White Hyline layers were divided into

  1. The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Hur, I C; Jeong, J Y; Choi, Y J; Choi, B D; Kim, B G; Hur, S J

    2011-08-01

    Imitation crab stick (ICS) samples were divided into 5 treatments, a control composed of commercial ICS containing no breast meat from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which 5, 10, 15, and 20% batter from breast meat of whole spent laying hens was substituted for Alaska pollack surimi, respectively. Imitation crab stick samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher moisture levels than the control sample. However, the myoglobin and metmyoglobin levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among ICS samples. During storage, whiteness was greater in the control sample than in the ICS samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter. The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in response to substituting surimi with spent laying hen breast meat batter. The moisture content and pH were increased as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. The lipid oxidation value (TBA-reactive substances) and protein degradation value (volatile basic nitrogen) tended to increase during storage as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. None of the sensory evaluation items differed among ICS samples during storage, although the color of the final products, mechanical color (by colorimeter), and textural properties did differ among samples. These results indicate that substituting laying hen breast meat batter for Alaska pollack surimi is a very useful method for the production of ICS because it enables the use of a simple production process that does not require steps, such as washing or pH adjustment, for myofibrillar protein recovery. PMID:21753218

  2. The growth of Tilapia aurea in ponds receiving laying hen wastes

    E-print Network

    Burns, Robert Paul

    1978-01-01

    (Pagan, 1969) . Pagan (1969) noted that spawned eggs fall through floating cages, unfertilized; he reported that cage culture was efficient in producing more fish per unit volume than ponds, though little use has been made of cage culture by tilapia... of unfertilized pond waters. The remaining three ponds depicted in Figure 9 (p. 49) (fertilized by 50, 100, and 200 laying hens, respectively), presented a step-wise increase in phosphate level with increased laying hen wastes. Alkalinity and Hardness...

  3. Opening Pathways to Cancer Screening for Vietnamese-American Women: Lay Health Workers Hold a Key

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Adair Bird; Stephen J. McPhee; Ngoc-The Ha; Bich Le; Thomas Davis; Christopher N. H. Jenkins

    1998-01-01

    Purpose.We describe a controlled trial of a community outreach intervention to promote recognition, receipt, and screening-interval maintenance of clinical breast examinations (CBE), mammograms, and Pap smears among Vietnamese-American women.Methods.Over a 3-year period, indigenous lay health workers conducted small-group sessions of Vietnamese women in a low-income district of San Francisco, California. Women in Sacramento, California, served as controls. Lay workers conducted

  4. THE AUTOMATION OF THE LAY-UP AND CONSOLIDATION OF PEEK*GRAPHITE FIBER COMPOSITES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Colton; John Baxter; Jack Behlendorf; Tabassum Halim; Bryan Harris; Gary Kiesler; Kuou-Tung Lu; Susan Sammons; George W. Woodruff

    1987-01-01

    The processing of PEEK\\/graphite fiber composites is characterized by an inordinate amount of hand labor. This greatly increases the cost, time, and inaccuracy involved in production. Automation of the lay-up and consolidation steps are a prerequisite for the widespread application and acceptance of these, as well as all, high performance materials. Automated techniques for the lay-up and consolidation of PEEK\\/graphite

  5. Exploring Linear Functions: Representational Relationships

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This "series of explorations based on two linked representations of linear functions" allows students to manipulate the values of m and b in linear function f(x) = mx + b and get a visual understanding of the results. This particular site guides student through this exploration by asking them to perform five different manipulations and describe the changes that occur.

  6. Designing Tools for Ocean Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will investigate the types of tools and technology that are used in ocean exploration. As they proceed, they will understand the complexity of ocean exploration, learn about the technological applications and capabilities required for ocean exploration, and discover the importance of teamwork in scientific research projects. As part of the activity, they will plan and perform a simulated "dive" into a model ocean, using sampling tools they have made themselves.

  7. Identification of putative egg-laying hormone containing neuronal systems in gastropod molluscs.

    PubMed

    van Minnen, J; Schallig, H D; Ramkema, M D

    1992-04-01

    Of gastropod molluscs, only in the Aplysiidae and the Lymnaeidae have the genes encoding the respective egg-laying hormones been cloned and the neurons controlling egg laying and egg-laying behavior been identified. Immunocytochemistry, using antibodies raised against alpha-CDCP (one of the neuropeptides encoded on the egg-laying hormone gene of Lymnaea stagnalis), identified neurons in various species of gastropods. In the basommatophoran snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, large and small neurons were observed in areas of the central nervous system similar to where immunoreactive cells exist in L. stagnalis, i.e., in the cerebral and pleural ganglia. In the stylommatophoran snail (Helix aspersa) and the slug (Limax maximus), large immunopositive neurons occur in the visceral and right parietal ganglia. In L. maximus, small immunoreactive neurons were found in the cerebral ganglia while in H. aspersa similar cells were observed intermingled with the large cells in the visceral and right parietal ganglia. Similar to the situation in L. stagnalis, in the female part of the reproductive tract of B. glabrata, L. maximus, and A. californica, but not in H. aspersa, neurons and/or fiber tracts are present. The results indicate that egg-laying hormone precursor molecules of gastropod molluscs are phylogenetically closely related. The alpha-CDCP antiserum may allow the identification of hitherto unknown egg-laying regulating systems of gastropod molluscs. PMID:1505734

  8. A Single Pair of Neurons Modulates Egg-Laying Decisions in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chou, Yen-Yun; Yeh, Sheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Animals have to judge environmental cues and choose the most suitable option for them from many different options. Female fruit flies selecting an optimum site to deposit their eggs is a biologically important reproductive behavior. When given the direct choice between ovipositing their eggs in a sucrose-containing medium or a caffeine-containing medium, female flies prefer the latter. However, the neural circuits and molecules that regulate this decision-making processes during egg-laying site selection remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found that amnesiac (amn) mutant flies show significant defects in egg-laying decisions, and such defects can be reversed by expressing the wild-type amn transgene in two dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons in the brain. Silencing neuronal activity with an inward rectifier potassium channel (Kir2.1) in DPM neurons also impairs egg-laying decisions. Finally, the activity in mushroom body ?? neurons is required for the egg-laying behavior, suggesting a possible “DPM-?? neurons” brain circuit modulating egg-laying decisions. Our results highlight the brain circuits and molecular mechanisms of egg-laying decisions in Drosophila. PMID:25781933

  9. A single pair of neurons modulates egg-laying decisions in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chou, Yen-Yun; Yeh, Sheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Animals have to judge environmental cues and choose the most suitable option for them from many different options. Female fruit flies selecting an optimum site to deposit their eggs is a biologically important reproductive behavior. When given the direct choice between ovipositing their eggs in a sucrose-containing medium or a caffeine-containing medium, female flies prefer the latter. However, the neural circuits and molecules that regulate this decision-making processes during egg-laying site selection remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found that amnesiac (amn) mutant flies show significant defects in egg-laying decisions, and such defects can be reversed by expressing the wild-type amn transgene in two dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons in the brain. Silencing neuronal activity with an inward rectifier potassium channel (Kir2.1) in DPM neurons also impairs egg-laying decisions. Finally, the activity in mushroom body ?? neurons is required for the egg-laying behavior, suggesting a possible "DPM-?? neurons" brain circuit modulating egg-laying decisions. Our results highlight the brain circuits and molecular mechanisms of egg-laying decisions in Drosophila. PMID:25781933

  10. Exploring Structures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-01-01

    This event guide features three related explorations in which learners investigate the following science concepts: how you design and build a structure helps determine how strong it will be; different materials are useful for making different kinds of structures and different parts of structures; and, walls, roofs, and bridges need to be supported in special ways. Exploring Structures is one unit in the Peep Event Kit, which also offers explorations of shadows and ramps, respectively. The guide provides an agenda for a 1-hour science event, a customizable flyer and family handouts (English and Spanish). Learners can view a related Peep and the Big Wide World video story before or after the activity.

  11. Apoptosis induction and release of inflammatory cytokines in the oviduct of egg-laying hens experimentally infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Tang, Chao; Wang, Qiuzhen; Li, Ruiqiao; Chen, Zhanli; Han, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Xu, Xingang

    2015-06-12

    The H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause serious damage to the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens, leading to severe egg-drop and poor egg shell quality. However, previous studies in relation to the oviductal-dysfunction resulted from this agent have not clearly been elucidated. In this study, apoptosis and pathologic changes in the oviducts of egg-laying hens caused by H9N2 AIV were evaluated. To understand the immune response in the pathogenic processes, 30-week old specific pathogen free (SPF) egg-laying hens inoculated with H9N2 subtype of AIV through combined intra-ocular and intra-nasal routes. H9N2 AIV infection resulted in oviductal lesions, triggered apoptosis and expression of immune related genes accompanied with infiltration of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8?(+) cells. Significant tissue damage and apoptosis were observed in the five oviductal parts (infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina) at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). Furthermore, immune-related genes, including chicken TLR3 (7, 21), MDA5, IL-2, IFN-?, CXCLi1, CXCLi2, XCL1, XCR1 and CCR5 showed variation in the egg-laying hens infected with H9N2 AIV. Notably, mRNA expression of IFN-? was suppressed during the infection. These results show distinct expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines amongst segments of the oviduct. Differential gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes aggregation occurring in oviducts may initiate the infected tissue in response to virus replication which may eventually lead to excessive cellular apoptosis and tissue damage. PMID:25911114

  12. Cell Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-08-09

    Explore the parts of a virtual animal cell in this interactive activity adapted from the Exploratorium. Learn about various cell structures and the roles they play in cell division, cellular respiration, and protein synthesis.

  13. Understanding Evolution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The intent of this website is to give teachers a background understanding of evolution, opening the door by giving them strategies for teaching and responding to misconceptions and roadblocks. The heart of the site is Evolution 101, which can serve as a primer to evolutionary theory or an intensive course in the nitty gritty details of speciation, micro- and macroevolution, and ongoing research into how evolution happens. The site is replete with practical examples of how evolution impacts our daily lives, including lesson plans about bunny breeding, the problem of antibiotic resistance in disease organisms, and the conservation and breeding of endangered species.

  14. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165�������������������������������°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250���������������¢�������������������������������� of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the ���������������¢��������������������������������center���������������¢������������������������������� of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165�������������������������������°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  15. Majors Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Prentice Hall (Prentice Hall)

    2012-01-05

    Put on your safari hat, open your mind and get ready to enter the world of majors explorations. If you ever wondered about a field of study and whether it is right for you, you are about to find out. You will also learn where majors and fields lead for careers that may interest you. All you need for the journey is the mind of the explorer and a commitment to thoroughly investigating the options which await you.

  16. Exploring Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2009-03-02

    Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

  17. Exploring Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    With a temperature higher than the inside of your oven and atmospheric pressure equal to that a kilometer under the ocean, the surface of Venus is one of the most hostile environments in the solar system, and Venus exploration presents a challenge to technology. This lecture presents mission trade-offs and discusses a proposed mission concept for rover and aircraft based exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus. Several approaches to the technology, electronics, mechanical parts, and power systems, are discussed.

  18. Litter lipid content affects dustbathing behavior in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Kjaer, J B; Urselmans, S; Schrader, L

    2011-11-01

    Within the European Union, the provision of dustbathing material in layer housing systems will be compulsory beginning in 2012. In cage systems, food particles are mainly used as litter material and are provided on scratching mats by an automatic transporting system. However, because dustbathing is a means for hens to remove stale lipids from their plumage, lipid content of a substrate may be an important asset with regard to its adequacy. This study analyzes dustbathing behavior as affected by lipid content of feed used as litter material. A total of 72 laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor (G) and additionally contained 3 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding low-lipid (0.82%; L), normal-lipid (4.2%; N), and high-lipid (15.7%; H) food particles. The experiment began at 20 wk of life, and video recordings were done at wk 23, 26, and 29. Number of dustbaths, time spent dustbathing, average dustbath duration, foraging, and single behaviors within dustbaths were analyzed during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. Dustbaths occurred most frequently in the L compared with the N, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). Total time spent dustbathing was longest in the L treatment compared with the N and H treatments (P < 0.001). No difference in the average duration of single dustbaths was found between the L, N, and H treatments. However, when dustbath interruptions (less than 10 min) were excluded, the duration of single dustbaths was longer in the H compared with the L (P = 0.009) and N (P = 0.024) treatments. Foraging was most frequently observed in the N compared with the L, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). More body wing shakes occurred in the L compared with the N treatment, and the number of vertical wing shakes was higher in the N compared with the H treatment (all P ? 0.05). Our results showed that preference for a dustbathing substrate increased with decreasing lipid content, implying that food particles may not be a suitable dustbathing substrate. PMID:22010226

  19. Understanding dissatisfied users: developing a framework for comprehending criticisms of health care work.

    PubMed

    Coyle, J

    1999-09-01

    Recent government proposals have underlined the importance of ascertaining users' views of health care. Traditionally these have been obtained through satisfaction surveys. However, researchers argue that the focus of attention should now shift to exploring dissatisfaction because it highlights more clearly any problems in lay-practitioner relationships. Research has shown that dissatisfaction is a complex social construct which is underpinned by a range of values, beliefs, attitudes and experiences. The aim of this paper is to provide insights into the meaning of dissatisfaction by exploring how dissatisfied users attribute cause, responsibility and blame for their untoward experiences. Forty-one people were identified from a household survey of user views as experiencing problems with their health care. They were interviewed in depth, and a grounded theory approach was used to construct a framework inductively from their accounts. This identified a number of normative expectations through which health work was routinely criticized; these included respondents casting aspersions on the professional integrity of health care practitioners and preserving their own moral identity through demonstrating competence, knowledge, rationality, reasonableness and concern for others. Moreover, it is argued that these patterns help practitioners to understand how dissatisfied users' perceive subsequent health care encounters. PMID:10499230

  20. Understanding Tides

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tim Cook

    In this activity students investigate tidal phenomena by exploring water level observational (or predicted tidal) data from several locations around the world that provide examples of semi-diurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides. Students are asked to identify patterns of variability and differences among the sites on time scales of just a few days and over a period of a couple months. The activity is designed more to get students thinking about tides, asking questions about the causes of tidal variations, and thinking about ways to answer these questions, as opposed to providing an explanation of tidal processes. The activity leads to a body of observations that generate numerous questions about tides. The goal is to capture student's interest before spending subsequent class time developing a conceptual/theoretical model of how tides work.

  1. Getting Started in Mars Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an introduction in a series of activities on Mars that use images as integral parts of the lesson. Students are introduced to the images and begin a Mars journal. The purpose is to probe students' understanding of Mars to give the teacher a sense of the students' particular interests, misconceptions, and general understanding of Mars, the solar system, and space exploration.

  2. Understanding ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole. PMID:21829307

  3. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Oddvar; Jansson, Désirée S; Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Vĺgsholm, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P < 0.001). The study showed a significantly higher occurrence of bacterial and parasitic diseases and cannibalism in laying hens kept in litter-based housing systems and free-range systems than in hens kept in cages (P < 0.001). The occurrence of viral diseases was significantly higher in indoor litter-based housing systems than in cages (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results of the present study indicated that during 2001–2004 laying hens housed in litter-based housing systems, with or without access to outdoor areas, were at higher risk of infectious diseases and cannibalistic behaviour compared to laying hens in cages. Future research should focus on finding suitable prophylactic measures, including efficient biosecurity routines, to reduce the risk of infectious diseases and cannibalism in litter-based housing systems for laying hens. PMID:19146656

  4. Exploring Time Series Plots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    Students will explore time series plots and raw data to understand the role of sea surface temperature increases on arctic ice melt. This is part three of a four-part activity on polar science. The activity builds on the knowledge gained in Using Data and Images to Understand Albedo (part 2). Extension activities examining air and sea surface temperature in relation to changing Earth albedo are included. Information is provided on data access using the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Web site. This activity is one of several learning activities connected with the 2007 GLOBE Earth system poster.

  5. Postsynaptic ERG potassium channels limit muscle excitability to allow distinct egg-laying behavior states in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kevin M.; Koelle, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    C. elegans regulates egg laying by alternating between an inactive phase and a serotonin-triggered active phase. We found that the conserved ERG potassium channel UNC-103 enables this two-state behavior by limiting excitability of the egg-laying muscles. Using both high-speed video recording and calcium imaging of egg-laying muscles in behaving animals, we found that the muscles appear to be excited at a particular phase of each locomotor body bend. During the inactive phase, this rhythmic excitation infrequently evokes calcium transients or contraction of the egg-laying muscles. During the serotonin-triggered active phase, however, these muscles are more excitable and each body bend is accompanied by a calcium transient that drives twitching or full contraction of the egg-laying muscles. We found that ERG null mutants lay eggs too frequently, and that ERG function is necessary and sufficient in the egg-laying muscles to limit egg laying. ERG K+ channels localize to postsynaptic sites in the egg-laying muscle, and mutants lacking ERG have more frequent calcium transients and contractions of the egg-laying muscles even during the inactive phase. Thus ERG channels set postsynaptic excitability at a threshold so that further adjustments of excitability by serotonin generate two distinct behavioral states. PMID:23303953

  6. Understanding Leukemias

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Braun, Mark

    This tutorial is designed to aid medical students at all levels understand the laboratory diagnosis of leukemias. It includes introductory material on the basic laboratory tests specific to diagnoses, their general application and pitfalls in interpretation. The introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating the major categories of leukemia. This tutorial focuses on diagnosis and relative little on treatment is included. QuickTime movie player, Flash player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/ . Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun; braunm@indiana.edu.Annotated: falseDisease diagnosis: neoplastic

  7. Understanding Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Understanding Life is the educational website of The Physiological Society, providing "support for the teaching and learning of physiology." A good place to start is the What is Physiology? area, which offers an overview of this field of human inquiry. The Resources area is a well-designed archive of instructional materials that include "The story of a single heartbeat," "The Science of Life," and "Planning an experiment." It's worth noting that visitors can create their own accounts on the site so they can receive specialized newsletters, tailored website content, and become eligible to enter scientific competitions. Moving along, the Events area lists important goings-on that will be of interest to educators and those involved with science pedagogy. [KMG

  8. Teacher-as-researcher: Making a difference through laying a solid foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiesimama, Jane Tambuomi

    An educator's determination to make a difference in the lives of her students birthed this inquiry. It is a qualitative study with the use of descriptive statistics in summarizing the survey data. The inquiry is an interweaving of the narrative inquiry method and reflective practice. The study hinges on the works of two great scholars: John Dewey, a philosopher, and Joseph Schwab, a curriculum theorist and scientist. It is all about helping students lay a solid foundation in science so that they may have a thorough understanding of the subject matter and be able to compete with their counterparts nationally and globally. The construction of the solid foundation will include foundational terms in science and their meanings, and the utilization of the SQ4R (a modification of the original SQ3R) study strategies. Other construction materials, as reflected in the voices of the students were discovered, in the study and have added some insight and richness to the study. The intent of this study is to stimulate the interest of fellow educators to examine the ideas shared in this inquiry, and to see how they can find parallel ways to meet the needs of their students. The special needs of our students differ from one classroom to the next. Among the teachers one could also observe a variety of teaching strategies and styles. My hope is for educators who will come across this study, to adopt the findings of this inquiry and adapt them to suit their needs and the needs of their students. The revision process by fellow educators could give birth to a new idea which is what scientific inquiry is all about.

  9. Educating Underserved Latino Communities about Family Health History Using Lay Health Advisors

    PubMed Central

    Kaphingst, K.A.; Lachance, C.R.; Gepp, A.; Hoyt D’Anna, L.; Rios-Ellis, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Family health history (FHH) is a tool used to inform individuals about inherited disease risk. Due to their disproportionate morbidity and mortality from some common chronic diseases, U.S. Latinos are an important audience for FHH information. This study examined the effects of a culturally-tailored intervention led by lay health advisors (LHAs) in delivering information about FHH on participants’ intentions, self-efficacy, and conceptual knowledge. Methods 474 Spanish-speaking Latino participants were enrolled in the study. Individuals in the intervention group participated in a single group educational session using discussion and interactive activities to build skills for discussing FHH with one's family members and doctor, while individuals in the comparison group had a brochure read aloud to them. Pre- and post-test questionnaires were verbally administered. Results Primary dependent variables were intentions and self-efficacy to discuss FHH with family members and doctors; these increased in both groups. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the intervention led to a significantly greater increase in self-efficacy to discuss FHH with family members (p = 0.03). LHA participants were also more than twice as likely (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3–5.0) to correctly understand the purpose of a FHH and found FHH information more useful (p < 0.0001). Conclusions A communication intervention delivered by LHAs shows promise as an effective means of educating underserved Spanish-speaking Latinos about the importance of FHH for disease prevention. Such community-based approaches can help to close knowledge and skills gaps about FHH and increase confidence in using this information to improve the health of those most at risk. PMID:20051669

  10. An evaluation of a refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in Chongwe District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Msisuka, Charles; Nozaki, Ikuma; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Seko, Motoko; Ulaya, Mercy M S

    2011-01-01

    To address a severe shortage of human resources for health, the Zambian Ministry of Health has begun to make use of lay counsellors for HIV counselling and testing. However, their skills and knowledge rarely have been reviewed or refreshed. We conducted a two-day refresher workshop for lay counsellors to review their performance and refresh their skills and knowledge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in the rural district of Chongwe in Zambia. The two-day refreshertraining workshop was held in November 2009. Twenty-five lay counsellors were selected by District Health Office and participated in the workshop. The workshop included: the opening, a pre-training exercise, lectures on quality assurance with regard to testing and safety precautions, lectures on counselling, filling the gap/Q&A session, and a post-training exercise. In both the pre- and post-training exercise, participants answered 25 true/false questions and tested 10 blood panel samples to demonstrate their knowledge and skill on HIV counselling and testing. The average overall knowledge test score increased from 79% to 95% (p<0.001). At the baseline, knowledge test scores in topic of standard precaution and post-exposure prophylaxis were relatively low (58%) but rose to 95% after the training (p<0.001). The per cent agreement of HIV testing by lay counsellors with reference laboratory was 99.2%. Participants' knowledge was improved during the workshop and skill at HIV testing was found to remain at a high level of accuracy. Relatively weak knowledge of standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis suggests that lay counsellors are at risk of nosocomial infections, particularly in the absence of refresher training interventions. We conclude that the refresher training was effective for improving the knowledge and skills of lay counsellors and provided an opportunity to monitor their performance. PMID:23236962

  11. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide in laying hens stimulates antimicrobial properties of egg white against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bedrani, Larbi; Helloin, Emmanuelle; Guyot, Nicolas; Nys, Yves

    2013-04-15

    The natural protective system of eggs relies on egg yolk immunoglobulins and on antimicrobial proteins/peptides mainly concentrated in the egg white. There is much evidence concerning the specific stimulation of immunoglobulins by antigens but to date, the influence of the hen milieu on the regulation of the egg innate molecular immunity has not been established. To explore the hypothesis of modulation in egg antimicrobial molecules, laying hens were immune-challenged with intravenous injections of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 24 h intervals. Eggs of the control and LPS groups were collected over a period of 21 days following the first LPS injection and the egg white activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were assessed. The increase in egg white anti-S. aureus activity reached 20.9% and 23.4% (p<0.05) respectively on days 5 and 6 after the first LPS injection. Anti-E. coli activity increased moderately only on days 9 and 15 after the LPS treatment. To explore the origin of these increased antimicrobial activities, we analyzed the lysozyme and proteases inhibiting (anti-trypsin and anti-chymotrypsin) activities and the pH variations of egg whites. We recorded no significant variations between the two experimental groups for these potential modulating factors. Finally, using RT-qPCR we studied the expression of several genes coding for antimicrobial proteins and peptides involved in the immune response in the infundibulum and the magnum, Out of the 11 genes, only TLR4 in the magnum and ovocalyxin-36 in infundibulum were over-expressed respectively 24h and 8 days after the first LPS injection. The other candidate genes showed similar or down regulated expression in the LPS group as compared to the control especially during the first 24h. Our results suggest that the hen enhances the albumen antimicrobial activity of its eggs when exposed to immune stimulations or infections. This could be an attempt to preventively reinforce the protection of the embryo with nonspecific antimicrobial agents in addition to the specific antibodies exported to the egg. The origin of this stimulation of egg molecular immunity remains to be characterized amongst the numerous novel egg proteins recently identified. PMID:23351641

  12. Understanding disgust.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Hanah A; Anderson, Adam K

    2012-03-01

    Disgust is characterized by a remarkably diverse set of stimulus triggers, ranging from extremely concrete (bad tastes and disease vectors) to extremely abstract (moral transgressions and those who commit them). This diversity may reflect an expansion of the role of disgust over evolutionary time, from an origin in defending the body against toxicity and disease, through defense against other threats to biological fitness (e.g., incest), to involvement in the selection of suitable interaction partners, by motivating the rejection of individuals who violate social and moral norms. The anterior insula, and to a lesser extent the basal ganglia, are implicated in toxicity- and disease-related forms of disgust, although we argue that insular activation is not exclusive to disgust. It remains unclear whether moral disgust is associated with insular activity. Disgust offers cognitive neuroscientists a unique opportunity to study how an evolutionarily ancient response rooted in the chemical senses has expanded into a uniquely human social cognitive domain; many interesting research avenues remain to be explored. PMID:22256964

  13. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

  14. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

  15. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

  16. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

  17. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

  18. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  19. Mars Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    Mars Exploration is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about Mariner missions, Viking missions, Mars Observer, Mars Surveyor Program, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Polar Lander and Climate Orbiter, Mars 2001, and Mars 2003. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  20. Biodiversity Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of Museums Online: South Africa, Biodiversity Explorer "is devoted to showing and explaining the diversity, biology, and interactions of life on earth, particularly the life we have here in southern Africa." Biodiversity Explorer provides an astounding number of information-rich Web pages covering regional plants, scorpions and spiders, insects, vertebrates, and marine life. Visitors will find detailed information (with references) and lots of photos within these pages, each with numerous hypertext links for exploring related topics. Visitors may browse the Web site by category or use the taxon index to locate species of interest. Don't know where to start? The Spotlight feature offers a few interesting examples, such as water bears that can remain dormant for over 100 years and how the San hunters use poisonous beetles for the tips of their arrows.

  1. Exploring Fractals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Dr. Mary Ann Connors, a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at University of Massachusetts Amherst has developed this website based on a curriculum project previously funded by the National Science Foundation. Exploring Fractals provides an introduction to fractals, explores concepts such as shape and dimension, provides some classroom investigations, demonstrates how to create simple fractals, and offers some additional information for teachers. Diagrams and pictures are used as part of the explanations. Other Internet resources for further investigation are also provided.

  2. Pizza Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Access Excellence presents Purdue University's Pizza Explorer, an engaging teaching tool for food science designed for middle and high school students. Students learn about food processing, chemistry, and nutritional composition of eight pizza ingredients. This multimedia, interactive program aims to demonstrate how science applies to everyday life. Students can choose between two interfaces (left brain or right brain) to suit their particular learning style. Other features include a pop-up glossary, quizzes, games, and additional information about each topping (Hot Topics). Pizza Explorer takes some time to download with a 56K connection, but you can play a game while you wait.

  3. Exploring Fractals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Mary Ann Connors, a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at University of Massachusetts Amherst has developed this website based on a curriculum project previously funded by the National Science Foundation. Exploring Fractals provides an introduction to fractals, explores concepts such as shape and dimension, provides some classroom investigations, demonstrates how to create simple fractals, and offers some additional information for teachers. Diagrams and pictures are used as part of the explanations. Other Internet resources for further investigation are also provided.

  4. Social Instability in Laying Quail: Consequences on Yolk Steroids and Offspring's Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Floriane; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie; Kotrschal, Kurt; Guémené, Daniel; Bertin, Aline; Möstl, Erich; Houdelier, Cécilia

    2010-01-01

    Individual phenotypic characteristics of many species are influenced by non-genetic maternal effects. Female birds can influence the development of their offspring before birth via the yolk steroid content of their eggs. We investigated this prenatal maternal effect by analysing the influence of laying females' social environment on their eggs' hormonal content and on their offspring's development. Social instability was applied to groups of laying Japanese quail females. We evaluated the impact of this procedure on laying females, on yolk steroid levels and on the general development of chicks. Agonistic interactions were more frequent between females kept in an unstable social environment (unstable females) than between females kept in a stable social environment (stable females). Testosterone concentrations were higher in unstable females' eggs than in those of stable females. Unstable females' chicks hatched later and developed more slowly during their first weeks of life than those of stable females. The emotional reactivity of unstable females' chicks was higher than that of stable females' chicks. In conclusion, our study showed that social instability applied to laying females affected, in a non-genetic way, their offspring's development, thus stressing the fact that females' living conditions during laying can have transgenerational effects. PMID:21124926

  5. Monticello Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As this page loads, visitors are treated to an architectural rendering of Thomas Jeffersonâ??s beloved Monticello. This is a lovely beginning to what is a thoroughly engaging and enriching online experience. From the homepage, visitors can explore the center of his Monticello plantation in glorious detail. What is perhaps most remarkable is that the mapping interface used to explore this area is rather user-friendly, along with containing a diverse set of data points that allow users to learn about the various elements of the built environment in the area. Not surprisingly, all of this is accompanied by brief essays on the general history and development of this famed complex. Next, visitors absolutely must take a look at the â??explore the houseâ?ť feature, where they can wander around a 3-D recreation of Jeffersonâ??s architectural masterpiece and learn about the objects and fascinating stories associated with this palatial home. As if that wasnâ??t enough, visitors can also take three different tours that explore the home, domestic life at Monticello, and the gardens and grounds, all led by experts who work on the premises. Short of visiting the home itself in Virginia (which isnâ??t a bad idea), this is certainly the next-best option.

  6. Perimeter Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-27

    In this activity, students find the perimeter of a given polygon. This activity allows students to practice finding perimeters and also try to find ways to calculate it without just counting. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  7. Clay Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners explore the possibilities of clay as a natural material. At three stations, learners create sculptures, use natural items such as small pebbles, twigs, and pinecones to embellish clay structures, and paint with clay. These activities help learners discover the sensory qualities of clay as a medium.

  8. Exploring Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among apparently…

  9. Shape Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This interactive Java applet allows users to explore perimeter and area and the relationship between them. The activity gives irregular shapes or rectangles on a grid, and then the user enters the perimeter and area of the figure. An optional scoring feature allows users to keep track of the number correct.

  10. Area Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1996-01-01

    This interactive Java applet allows users to explore relationships between shapes with a fixed perimeter and variable area. Random irregular shapes or rectangles with a fixed perimeter are displayed on a grid, and then the user enters the area of the figure. An optional scoring feature allows users to keep track of the number correct.

  11. Exploration on the mechanism of DNA adsorption on graphene and graphene oxide via molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Songwei; Chen, Liang; Wang, Yu; Chen, Junlang

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that the fundamental principle of biosensors for DNA detection based on graphene oxide (GO) is the preferential adsorption of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) over double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) on GO. However, the interactions between DNA and GO at the atomic level are poorly understood, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation can be used to further explore these interactions. In the current study, we performed MD simulations to investigate the dynamic process of both ssDNA and dsDNA adsorption onto GO and pristine graphene (PG). We found that ssDNA was firmly adsorbed and lay flat on the surface of PG and GO, whereas dsDNA was preferentially oriented upright on both surfaces, resulting in weaker adsorption energies. Exploration of the mechanism of DNA segments binding to PG and GO indicated that ?–? stacking interaction was the dominant force in the adsorption of DNA segments on PG, while both ?–? stacking and hydrogen bonding contributed to the binding affinity between DNA segments and GO. These findings are of significant importance to the understanding of the interactions between DNA and GO, and the optimization of DNA and GO-based biosensors.

  12. Environmental and genetic factors determine whether the mosquito Aedes aegypti lays eggs without a blood meal.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Cristina V; Smith, Sophia C L; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Short, Katherine; Juneja, Punita; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-04-01

    Some mosquito strains or species are able to lay eggs without taking a blood meal, a trait named autogeny. This may allow populations to persist through times or places where vertebrate hosts are scarce. Autogenous egg production is highly dependent on the environment in some species, but the ideal conditions for its expression in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are unknown. We found that 3.2% of females in a population of Ae. aegypti from Kenya were autogenous. Autogeny was strongly influenced by temperature, with many more eggs laid at 28°C compared with 22°C. Good nutrition in larval stages and feeding on higher concentrations of sugar solution during the adult stage both result in more autogenous eggs being produced. The trait also has a genetic basis, as not all Ae. aegypti genotypes can lay autogenously. We conclude that Ae. aegypti requires a favorable environment and a suitable genotype to be able to lay eggs without a blood meal. PMID:25646251

  13. The influence of the housing system on Salmonella infections in laying hens: a review.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorebeke, S; Van Immerseel, F; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Dewulf, J

    2011-08-01

    From 2012 onwards, housing of laying hens in conventional battery cages will be forbidden in the European Union and only enriched cages and non-cage housing systems such as aviaries, floor-raised, free-range and organic systems will be allowed. Although this ban aims at improving the welfare of laying hens, it has also initiated the question whether there are any adverse consequences of this decision, especially with respect to the spread and/or persistence of zoonotic agents in a flock. A zoonotic agent that is traditionally associated with the consumption of eggs and egg products is Salmonella enteritidis. This paper provides a summary of the current knowledge regarding the direct and indirect effects of different housing systems on the occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. PMID:20875073

  14. Understanding the Working College Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.

    2010-01-01

    Working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. But understanding how employment affects students' educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending…

  15. Children's Understanding of Drivers' Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, Hugh C.; Thomson, James A.; Tolmie, Andrew K.; Whelan, Kirstie M.; Morrison, Sheila; Sarvary, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    To become more skilled as pedestrians, children need to acquire a view of the traffic environment as one in which road users are active agents with different intentions and objectives. This paper describes a simulation study designed to explore children's understanding of drivers' intentions. It also investigated the effect of training children's…

  16. Differential abundance of egg white proteins in laying hens treated with corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimin; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2014-12-24

    Stressful environments can affect not only egg production and quality but also gene and protein abundance in the ovary and oviduct in laying hens. The oviductal magnum of laying hens is the organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of egg white proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone as a stress model on the abundance of proteins in the egg white and of mRNA and proteins in the magnum in laying hens. After a 14-day acclimation, 40 laying hens were divided into two groups which were provided for the next 14 days with either control (Control) or corticosterone (Stress) diet containing at 30 mg/kg. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased feed intake (P ? 0.05) and decreased egg production. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS using eggs obtained on days 0 and 5 revealed differential abundance of egg white proteins by Stress: transiently expressed in neural precursors (TENP), hemopexin (HPX), IgY-Fc?3-4, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP) were decreased while ovoinhibitor and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX) were increased on days 5 vs 0 (P ? 0.05). Expression of mRNAs and proteins was also significantly modulated in the magnum of hens in Stress on day 14 (P ? 0.05). In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence showing that dietary corticosterone modulates protein abundance in the egg white in laying hens, and it suggests that environmental stress can differentially modify expression of egg white proteins in laying hens. PMID:25436390

  17. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  18. Art Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    An early innovator in the digitization of artwork (its CD of art images "With Open Eyes" was published in 1995), the Art Institute of Chicago presents Art Explorer, an interactive website where visitors can search for art, save selections into scrapbooks with notes, and share the scrapbooks with friends and students. Art Explorer focuses on the Art Institute's Impressionist and Postimpressionist collections, and includes original artworks, as well as additional resources, including texts, video clips, artist biographies, activities, and games. For example, a search on the artist Georges Seurat retrieves eight artworks, and 42 resources, including a biographical text about Camille Pissaro, one of Seurat's contemporaries, a classroom exercise on color mixing based on Seurat's pointillist style, and a Postimpressionist bibliography, compiled by the Art Institute's Museum Education Department. The scrapbook at http://www.artic.edu/artexplorer/viewbook.php?vbook=rylnqtvhyaqm is based on this search.

  19. Universal Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Universal Explorer, a powerful replacement for the standard Windows Explorer, provides an easy-to-use interface for managing files (move/ copy/ paste/ delete) quickly and effectively. It includes utilities such as Archive Manager, Calendar, Calculator, Directory Compare, Split File, and many more. The advanced interface allows users to search and replace text across files and directories. Users can also view and edit almost any file -- text documents, HTML, a wide range of graphic files, programming source code, and more -- directly in UE without launching the file's native application. The Split Screen feature allows easy management of files when working with different drives or directories. A Free Adware version and a standard fifteen-day trial version are available for download at the site. Registration pricing information of the full version is available at the site.

  20. Triangle Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-24

    In this activity, students find the areas of random triangles on a coordinate plane. There are three levels of difficulty for this online activity. This activity allows students to practice finding the distance between two points on a graph as well as using the formula for the area of a triangle. This activity features supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  1. Science Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Each of the six online investigation brings the expertise and latest scientific discoveries of the Museum's world-class scientists to classrooms across the country. The investigations are:Animals, Adaptation, and the Galápagos Islands; Classify Insects; Journey Into Space; Investigate the Giant Squid; Soar with Bats; and Uncover Lizards and Snakes.

  2. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmu?, I; Yalç?n, S; Y?ld?r?m, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period. Moreover under COLDS condition, SOD production of LOW-Inc hens was higher than those of CONT- and HIGH-Inc hens indicating an induction in antioxidant enzyme activity. Nonetheless, prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos had no advantage on laying performance of hens under temperature stress conditions. PMID:25965022

  3. Exploring Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2010-01-29

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

  4. Watershed Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Costello, Vickie

    Students use skills gained from the Web-based GIS tutorial to explore the Willamette Watershed in Oregon. A correlation will be found between types of trees and the riparian zone along the McKenzie River. Population in the Willamette Valley and annual rainfall in the Coast Range and the Cascades will be evaluated. Due to the recent downward trend in rainfall, students will be expected to propose a new site for water collection, similar to Portlandâ??s Bull Run watershed. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

  5. Ecology Explorers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

  6. Lightning Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lightning Explorer provides a map of the U.S. showing recent lightning strikes. The Discover Lightning section includes a FAQ sheet, glossary, bibliography on real-time lightning detection networks, personal safety information, scientific papers, and a link to a photo gallery. The scientific papers cover lightning safety, the physics of lightning, the U.S. Lightning Detection Network and related applications, 3D total lightning, long-range and oceanic lightning detection, and meteorological applications. Products and services include real-time tracking, lightning notification, detection systems and a bulletin board.

  7. Exploring Estuaries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploring Estuaries introduces students of various ages to the ecology of estuaries, places where freshwater rivers and streams flow into the ocean, mixing with the seawater. It is part of a broader effort by the National Estuary Program to educate the general public about estuaries and to restore and protect these sensitive ecosystems. It offers interactive games and activities as well as virtual tours of Long Island Sound and the Barataria-Terrebonne Estuarine Complex near New Orleans. A glossary page defines technical terms used throughout the site. Resources also are provided for teachers and students interested in learning more about related organizations, publications, and websites.

  8. Budget Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Betty J. Blecha

    Students often come to a principles course in economics with knowledge that is not correct. This example asks students to guess the percent of federal expenditures for different spending categories. They are then shown the actual percentages. The student results can be the source of a class discussion on why many of their initial estimates were wrong (as they generally are). Students can also create their own budget by changing the amounts spent in each category. Budget Explorer, implemented over the internet, uses data from the Public Budget Database of the White House Office of Management and Budget.

  9. Are Lay People Good at Recognising the Symptoms of Schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Erritty, Philip; Wydell, Taeko N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to explore the general public’s perception of schizophrenia symptoms and the need to seek-help for symptoms. The recognition (or ‘labelling’) of schizophrenia symptoms, help-seeking behaviours and public awareness of schizophrenia have been suggested as potentially important factors relating to untreated psychosis. Method Participants were asked to rate to what extent they believe vignettes describing classic symptoms (positive and negative) of schizophrenia indicate mental illness. They were also asked if the individuals depicted in the vignettes required help or treatment and asked to suggest what kind of help or treatment. Results Only three positive symptoms (i.e., Hallucinatory behaviour, Unusual thought content and Suspiciousness) of schizophrenia were reasonably well perceived (above 70%) as indicating mental illness more than the other positive or negative symptoms. Even when the participants recognised that the symptoms indicated mental illness, not everyone recommended professional help. Conclusion There may be a need to improve public awareness of schizophrenia and psychosis symptoms, particularly regarding an awareness of the importance of early intervention for psychosis. PMID:23301001

  10. Egg size and laying order in relation to offspring sex in the extreme sexually size dimorphic brown songlark, Cinclorhamphus cruralis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. L. Magrath; Lyanne Brouwer; Jan Komdeur

    2003-01-01

    In some bird species, mothers can advantage the offspring of one sex either by elevating them in the laying order to promote earlier hatching or by allocating greater resources to eggs of the preferred sex. In size dimorphic species, the predictions as to which sex should benefit most from such pre-laying adjustments are ambiguous. The smaller sex would benefit from

  11. Blood Plasma Mineral Profile and Qualitative Indicators of the Eggshell in Laying Hens in Different Housing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Lichovníková; Pavel Jelínek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the blood plasma mineral profile (Ca, P, K, Mg, Zn, Cu and Se) and egg-shell quality (eggshell weight, eggshell breaking strength and thickness) of laying hens housed in three different housing systems (traditional cage system, enriched cage system and deep litter system). In each housing system, 12 ISA Brown laying hens were

  12. 20 CFR 332.6 - Standing by for and laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty. 332.6 Section 332.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.6 Standing by for and laying over between...

  13. 20 CFR 332.6 - Standing by for and laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty. 332.6 Section 332.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.6 Standing by for and laying over between...

  14. 20 CFR 332.6 - Standing by for and laying over between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...between regularly assigned trips or tours of duty. 332.6 Section 332.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...WORK RESTRICTIONS AND STAND-BY OR LAY-OVER RULES § 332.6 Standing by for and laying over between...

  15. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are two linked disorders in humans. This study examined if excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. One hundred 63-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into two treatments, i.e., fed with a regular diet (control...

  16. THE NEURAL CONTROL OF EGG-LAYING BEHAVIOUR IN THE POND SNAIL LYMNAEA STAGNALIS: MOTOR CONTROL OF SHELL TURNING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. HERMANN; A. TER MAAT; R. F. JANSEN

    Summary Behavioural and neurophysiological techniques were used to study the neuronal control of shell turning during egg-laying in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Egg- laying consists of three phases: resting, turning and oviposition, and is triggered by an electrical discharge in a group of neuroendocrine cells, the caudodorsal cells. During the discharge, several peptides encoded on two CDCH genes are

  17. Lay Referral Patterns Involved in Cardiac Treatment Decision Making among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Amey, Cheryl H.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Muldoon, Susan B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined age and contextually related factors that are influential in lay referral patterns during cardiac treatment decision making. Design and Methods: A complementary design was used. The Myocardial Infarction (MI) Onset Study identified demographic correlates of who sought medical care for 1,388 MI (heart attack) survivors.…

  18. Body temperature as an indicator of egg-laying in the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart Nicol; Niels A. Andersen

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the usefulness of body temperature (Tb) as a guide to egg-laying in a monotreme mammal, the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus, and attempted to quantify changes in Tb and relate them to specific reproductive events. Six female echidnas were implanted with temperature loggers and then radio-tracked in the wild for up to 6 years. In reproductive years there was a

  19. Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

  20. Lay Theories of Bipolar Disorder: the Causes, Manifestations and Cures for Perceived Bipolar Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Furnham; Elizabeth Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate lay theories of the cause and treatment of bipolar disorder, and the recognition of its symptoms. This questionnaire-based study included vignette descriptions of mental disorders and 70 items relating to bipolar disorder. It was completed by 173 participants. Bipolar disorder was recognized less than depression but at the same rate as schizophrenia. Contrary to previous

  1. Innovation and "out of the box" thinking lay the foundation for the College of Engineering and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    into the existing college curricula. Through the college's new pre-professional engineering program, undergraduate. Office of Undergraduate Admissions Office of the Registrar Financial Aid Scholarships and clickInnovation and "out of the box" thinking lay the foundation for the College of Engineering

  2. The external costs of nuclear power: Ex ante damages and lay risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. Krupnick; Anil Markandya; Eric Nickell

    1993-01-01

    Interest has been growing in embedding the external costs of fuel cycles resulting in electricity generation into prices. In any attempt to internalize these costs for the nuclear cycle, the remost but real possibilities of accidents and the wide gap between lay perceptions and expert assessments of such risks must be taken into account. This paper discusses this including the

  3. Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...

  4. Coffee leaf volatiles and egg laying by the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sérgio Tinôco V. Magalhăes; Raul Narciso C. Guedes; Eraldo R. Lima; Antonio J. Demuner

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports of coffee genotypes resistant to one of its key pests in the Neotropical region, the leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae), sparked studies trying to recognize the underlying causes of resistance. An association between increased egg laying by the leaf miner and increased caffeine levels in coffee leaves was recently recognized. However, since caffeine is not volatile, its

  5. Radio-tracking of female Tree Swallows prior to egg-laying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham

    We radio-tracked eight female Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) prior to egg-laying in 2000 and 2001. Six females made movements .2 km to evening roosting sites. Females often roosted farther away than the nearest available roost site, they used different roosts on different nights, and during the day they foraged up to 10 km from their nest site. Thus, female swallows

  6. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...

  7. The lay public's expectations of prearrival instructions when dialing 9-1-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Billittier; E. Brooke Lerner; William Tucker; Jennifer Lee

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether the lay public expects public safety answering points (PSAPs) to provide prearrival instructions. Methods. Two thousand telephone numbers were randomly generated from all listed residential numbers in a county containing urban, suburban, and rural communities served by 26 enhanced 9-1-1 PSAPs. Only a minority of the PSAPs provided prearrival instructions. Research assistants made two attempts to

  8. Using Explicit Teaching to Improve How Bioscience Students Write to the Lay Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Hryciw, Deanne H.; Poronnik, Philip; Moni, Karen B.

    2007-01-01

    The media role model was recently developed to frame how science faculty members can teach their students to write more effectively to lay audiences (14). An Opinion Editorial (Op-Ed) was introduced as a novel assignment for final-year physiology and pharmacology undergraduates. This second phase of this study, reported here, demonstrated the…

  9. Improvement of Rural Children's Asthma Self-Management by Lay Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Sharon D.; Fouladi, Rachel T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present analysis is to examine changes in rural children's asthma self-management after they received lay health educator (LHE)-delivered classes. Methods: Elementary schools were randomly assigned to the treatment or attention-control condition and their participating students received either asthma education or…

  10. Research on positioning operation control method of J-lay vessel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Dongyan; Bian Xinqian; Chen Cuihe; Fu Mingyu; Xie Wenbo; Cai Lianbo

    2011-01-01

    Ship mathematical model and environmental disturbance model of a J-lay vessel are built, the model of pipe horizontal forces and moment acting on the ship is built by catenary theory. In order to avoid the ship's high frequency motion component disturbing the closed-loop control system, passive nonlinear observer is applied to estimate the vessel's low frequency variables during positioning process.

  11. Validation of a real-time cable deployment control system for slack cable laying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Andres; S. R. Jefferies; G. Gillenwaters

    1993-01-01

    The validation of a real-time control system for the deployment of submarine communication cables presented. The control system allows the user accurately control cable bottom slack and position the cable along a pre-planned route. The system was successfully used to lay an underwater acoustic tracking range for the US Navy. A total of eight, 40 mile long cables, each having

  12. From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Putland; Fran E Baum; Anna M Ziersch

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants,

  13. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the intr...

  14. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krimpen van M. M; T. Veldkamp; G. P. Binnendijk; Veer de R

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and

  15. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on behavior in laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marinus van Krimpen; Teun Veldkamp; Gisabeth Binnendijk; Remco de Veer

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal versus vegetable protein sources in the diet on the development of behavior in laying hens. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with four diets, each containing one of four processed animal proteins (PAPs). Two PAPs (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, whereas the

  16. Performance of Four Hybrids of Laying Hens in Modified and Conventional Cages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Abrahamsson; Ragnar Tauson; Michael C. Appleby

    1995-01-01

    In two trials, production, feed consumption, mortality, egg quality and birds' live weight of a total of 2877 caged laying hens of four hybrids, Dekalb XL, Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Shaver 288 in Trial 1 and ISA Brown and LSL in Trial 2, were studied during full production cycles. The cage designs were Get-away cages (GA) with 15 hens

  17. Selection for egg shell strength in laying hens using shell membrane characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Johansson; J. Örberg; M. Wilhelmson

    1996-01-01

    1. Divergent selection for attachment strength between the shell membrane and the calcium shell was performed in a White Leghorn strain. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate genetic parameters for shell membrane measurements and shell thickness. The aim was to investigate the possibility of improving shell strength in laying hens by selecting for increased attachment strength.2. A significant direct selection

  18. Replacement of Barley by Oats and Enzyme Supplementation in Diets for Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. J. Aimonen; E. Uusi-Rauva

    1991-01-01

    A total of 864 eggs were analysed for physical and chemical egg quality traits and fatty acid composition. The eggs were from a performance trial in which the replacement of increasing portions of barley in the diet by oats and the effect of multi-enzyme supplementation (Avitzyme, Cultor Ltd.) were studied during the first six laying months. Almost all physical and

  19. Medical and lay attitudes towards genetic screening and testing in Finland.

    PubMed

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Jallinoja, Piia; Aro, Arja R; Hemminki, Elina

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physicians', midwives' and lay people's attitudes towards genetic screening and testing to find out whether medical education and experience influence attitudes of genetic screening and testing. The study was based on comparison of answers to joint questions in three different cross-sectional postal surveys between October 1996 and April 1998 in Finland. Target groups were physicians (study base n=772, response rate 74%, including gynaecologists, paediatricians, general practitioners and clinical geneticists), midwives and public health nurses (collectively referred to as midwives in the following; n=800, response rate 79%), and lay people (n=2000, response rate 62%). Midwives were more worried about the consequences of genetic testing and stressed the autonomy of the customer more strongly than lay people did. Furthermore, professionals considered that lay peoples' expectations as regards to genetic testing are too high. Having more medical education was related to having less 'cannot say' and missing responses. Our results do not suggest that major conflicts about the direction of genetic testing and screening would arise in near future. However, different positions and interests should be considered. Reporting in public about new prospects and developments in medical genetics should pay more attention also to concerns for balancing promises and drawbacks. PMID:12891376

  20. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  1. On-line Process Management of Pavement Laying Using Wireless Communication Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarjanoja E-M

    The research goal has been synchronizing the process of asphalt production, asphalt transportation and pavement laying by connecting different machines together using wireless technologies. Sensors and GPS positioning units were installed to the machines for measuring process variables (e.g. mass temperature) and detecting events (e.g. loading, unloading). The first prototype system (autumn 2007) was based on embedded wireless measurement and

  2. Salmonella Enteritidis deposition in eggs after experimental infection of laying hens with different oral doses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to SE testing and control programs in commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk reduction requires a detailed and...

  3. Treatment Adherence in a Lay Health Adviser Intervention to Treat Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, N. E.; Ferketich, A. K.; Paskett, E. D.; Wewers, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lay health advisers (LHAs) are increasingly used to deliver tobacco dependence treatment, especially with low-socioeconomic status (SES) populations. More information is needed about treatment adherence to help interpret mixed evidence of LHA intervention effectiveness. This study examined adherence to behavioral counseling and nicotine patches in…

  4. Supervised Aggregation of Classifiers using Artificial Prediction Nathan Lay nlay@fsu.edu

    E-print Network

    Barbu, Adrian

    Supervised Aggregation of Classifiers using Artificial Prediction Markets Nathan Lay nlay for supervised classifier aggregation and probability estimation. We introduce the ar- tificial prediction market as a novel way to aggregate classifiers. We derive the market equations to enforce total budget conserva

  5. Effect of age at starting biomittent lighting on performance of laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Morris; M. Midgley; E. A. Butler

    1990-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted with brown?egg laying hybrid pullets to determine the optimum age at which to begin Biomittent lighting (a system providing 15 min light and 45 min darkness in each hour for 16 h).2. In the first experiment birds introduced to Biomittent lighting at 18, 24, 30 or 36 weeks of age all gave the same egg

  6. Measures against Ammonia Release in a Floor Housing System for Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gustafsson; E. von Wachenfelt

    2005-01-01

    How age of hens, storage time of manure, ventilation rate, ventilation technique and bedding materials affect concentration and release of ammonia in a floor housing system for laying hens have been carried out at the Department of Agricultural Biosystems and Technology (JBT) research station Alnarp Södergĺrd during two 433 and 464 days long production batches. A climate chamber was equipped

  7. The Gravity Data Ontology: Laying the Foundation for Workflow-Driven Ontologies

    E-print Network

    Ward, Karen

    The Gravity Data Ontology: Laying the Foundation for Workflow-Driven Ontologies Ann Q. Gates, G in the construction of a gravity data ontology and the categorization of concepts: "Data," "Method," and "Product the construction of a workflow-driven ontology that documents the methods and processes associated with gravity

  8. The Gravity Data Ontology: Laying the Foundation for Workflow-Driven Ontologies

    E-print Network

    Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

    The Gravity Data Ontology: Laying the Foundation for Workflow-Driven Ontologies Ann Q. Gates1 , G, and reported in this paper, has resulted in the construction of a gravity data ontology. The relationships describes the process used to construct an ontology for gravity data using the computation-driven ap- proach

  9. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christy A. Morrissey; John E. Elliott; Stephen J. Ormerod

    2010-01-01

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in ?13C (C. cinclus) or ?15N (C.

  10. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Elliott, John E; Ormerod, Stephen J

    2010-02-01

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta(13)C (C. cinclus) or delta(15)N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. PMID:19782447

  11. A Comparative Study of Empathy Training with Programmed Instruction for Lay Helpers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabb, William T.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effectiveness of programed instruction and large group instruction in teaching empathy to lay people (N=55). Results support the contention that empathy can be developed through programed tapes either alone or in large group programs. Modeling and practice are key factors in successful training. (Author/JAC)

  12. Comparisons of the skeletal systems of growing broiler and laying strain chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Wise

    1970-01-01

    Skeletal systems of growing broiler and laying strain chickens were compared in an attempt to establish whether the rapid growth rates of broilers lead to qualitative or quantitative skeletal deficiencies. Qualitative comparisons included studies of bone histology and of bone ash, density and compression strength. Quantitative comparisons related bone weight to body weight. Bone “ matured “ very rapidly, as

  13. An Inquiry into the Selection and Spiritual Formation of Catholic Public School Lay Principals in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domfeh-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of the Second Vatican Council on the role of the laity in the Church has re-awakened a renewed participation of the laity in the evangelizing mission of the Church. The lay faithful are now occupying a number of significant positions in the Church and are playing various leadership roles once exclusively played by the clergy and…

  14. Perching behaviour and perch height preference of laying hens in furnished cages varying in height

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Struelens; F. A. M. Tuyttens; L. Duchateau; T. Leroy; M. Cox; E. Vranken; J. Buyse; J. Zoons; D. Berckmans; F. Ödberg; B. Sonck

    2008-01-01

    1.?The objective was to investigate the effect of cage height on perch height preference and perching behaviour in laying hens. Twelve groups of two hens and 12 groups of 14 hens were tested in furnished cages equipped with two wooden perches. These stepwise perches were designed such that hens could choose between 7 different heights (6, 11, 16, 21, 26,

  15. Design of laying nests in furnished cages: influence of nesting material, nest box position and seclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Struelens; F. A. M. Tuyttens; A. Janssen; T. Leroy; L. Audoorn; E. Vranken; K. De Baere; F. Ödberg; D. Berckmans; J. Zoons; B. Sonck

    2005-01-01

    1. Preferences for three nesting materials and nest box positions were investigated simultaneously in two trials using a furnished cage: one with 18 individual laying hens and one with 18 groups of 5 hens. Following a habituation period in pre-test cages, every hen or group of hens was tested for 2?d: once without and once with plastic flaps at the

  16. Educating Underserved Latino Communities about Family Health History Using Lay Health Advisors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Kaphingst; C. R. Lachance; A. Gepp; L. Hoyt D’Anna; B. Rios-Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Background: Family health history (FHH) is a tool used to inform individuals about inherited disease risk. Due to their disproportionate morbidity and mortality from some common chronic diseases, U.S. Latinos are an important audience for FHH information. This study examined the effects of a culturally-tailored intervention led by lay health advisors (LHAs) in delivering information about FHH on participants’ intentions,

  17. Bisphosphonates: a potential role in the prevention of osteoporosis in laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Thorp

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis in layers is associated with the modelling and remodelling of medullary bone. Cancellous bone volume (CBV) decreases initially during medullary bone modelling and continues to decrease during subsequent remodelling. In an attempt to maintain peak structural bone mass, the bisphosphonate, alendronate, was administered to pullets before medullary bone modelling. At point of lay CBV was significantly greater (P<0·01) in

  18. The prevalence of feather pecking and development in commercial ocks of laying hens

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    The prevalence of feather pecking and development in commercial Żocks of laying hens B. Huber-3052 Zollikofen, Switzerland Accepted 3 May 2001 Abstract Feather pecking and cannibalism remain of feather pecking under commercial conditions. A recent epidemiological survey estimated it to be 37

  19. Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems B. Huber-Eicher* , F advantages over battery cages. However, pecking the feathers of conspeci®cs remains a serious problem with small groups, it has been shown that feather pecking and foraging behaviour are related and that both

  20. Lay discourses of the rural: Developments and implications for rural studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owain Jones

    1995-01-01

    Considerations of lay discourses of the rural - people's everyday interpretations of rural places and ideas of the rural - have become increasingly evident in some key articles addressing the theory and practice of academic rural studies. A major element of the retheorization of rural studies, which itself is set within the broader contexts of recent developments in social theory,

  1. Family Caregivers as Lay Trainers: Perceptions of Learning and the Relationship between Life Experience and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceiçăo, Simone C.O.; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Colby, Holly; Gordon, John

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an initiative to train lay people, predominantly parents of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN), to teach "Bridge to Independence"--a care coordination curriculum--to other family caregivers of CYSHCN. Using a model based on Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation, the goal…

  2. Assessing lay beliefs about generic medicines: Development of the generic medicines scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J. Figueiras; Nuno C. Alves; Dália Marcelino; Maria A. Cortes; John Weinman; Rob Horne

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a scale to assess lay beliefs about generic medicines, and to investigate whether these beliefs differ according to demographic factors in an opportunistic general public sample. In the pilot study, the participants were 92 men and 136 women, and in the main study there were 314 men and 505 women. At both

  3. Psychological Theory as Intergroup Perspective: A Comparative Analysis of “Scientific” and “Lay” Accounts of Crowd Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Reicher; Jonathan Potter

    1985-01-01

    The central argument of this paper is that the popular success of crowd psychology is in part due to its correspondence with the perspective of outgroup members. This is supported by a comparative analysis of traditional crowd psychology and lay accounts of crowd events drawn from street disturbances in St. Pauls, Bristol, in 1980. Five basic types of error are

  4. AIR QUALITY AND HEN HEALTH STATUS IN THREE TYPES OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HEN HOUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field observational study, three types of laying-hen houses, i.e., high-rise (HR), manure-belt (MB), and cage-free floor-raised (FR), were monitored for environmental temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric ammonia (NH3) during winter and summer conditions in Io...

  5. Accessing the Lay Drug Literature: A Comparison of Dialog, BRS, and Wilsonline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis F. Thompson; Dwight Vance; Joanne C. Callard; Clinton M. Thompson

    1988-01-01

    The use of online computer searching in drug information is now a standard of practice. The literature in this area, to date, has involved accessing medical and scientific literature exclusively. Drug information practitioners are often asked questions that have their origin in the lay or public literature. This literature can be difficult to locate and substantiate. It is often necessary,

  6. Effects of dietary fiber and low crude protein on ammonia emission from laying-hen manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission is a major concern for the poultry industry. The objectives of this research were to determine if inclusion of dietary fiber and a lowered dietary crude protein content would decrease ammonia emission from laying-hen manure. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 con...

  7. Climate change, migratory connectivity and changes in laying date and clutch size of the pied flycatcher

    E-print Network

    Laaksonen, Toni

    Climate change, migratory connectivity and changes in laying date and clutch size of the pied., Ahola, M., Eeva, T., Va¨isa¨nen, R. A. and Lehikoinen, E. 2006. Climate change, migratory connectivity Ficedula hypoleuca Pallas, and analysed whether potential changes were explained by changes in climatic

  8. Exploring Light: Absorb, Reflect, Transmit or Refract?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

    In a hands-on way, students explore light's properties of absorption, reflection, transmission and refraction through various experimental stations within the classroom. To understand absorption, reflection and transmission, they shine flashlights on a number of preselected objects. To understand refraction, students create indoor rainbows. An understanding of the fundamental properties of light is essential to designing an invisible laser security system.

  9. Asteroid and comet exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.; Alfven, H.; Fitzgerald, R.

    1973-01-01

    Exploration of Venus, Mars, and the Moon have had two major scientific objectives. One was to clarify the processes which control planetary evolution. The fulfillment of this purpose, although far from complete, was eminently successful in generating entirely new perspectives on the growth and differentiation of earth. The second objective, particularly prominent in the planning of the lunar exploration, was to augment the understanding of the virtually unknown preplanetary history of the solar system. This would include the fundamental questions of the origin, emplacement, and state of matter gathered around the sun and some planets. Preplanetary history also inquires into the problems of fractionation, condensation, and non-gravitation aggregation of circumsolar and circumplanetary matter.

  10. Heritabilities and genetic correlations of laying performance in Muscovy ducks selected in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Liu, S C; Tai, C

    2004-04-01

    1. Genetic parameters in the base population of a closed experimental strain of Muscovy ducks, selected for body weight at 10 weeks of age, were estimated from data in 8 successive generations, for the following traits: age at first egg (AGE1EGG), total number of eggs laid at 40 and 52 weeks of age (NEGG40 and NEGG52), number of eggs laid during 15 and 22 weeks in the first laying cycle (NEGG15W and NEGG22W), and their Box-Cox transformed data. 2. The method of multi-trait restricted maximum likelihood with an animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters. Only the results obtained with non-transformed data are shown. 3. Heritability estimates for laying performance showed moderate values, increasing little with age: 0.20+/-0.03 (AGE1EGG), 0.23+/-0.03 (NEGG40), 0.27+/-0.03 (NEGG52), 0.20+/-0.03 (NEGG15W), and 0.22+/-0.03 (NEGG22W). 4. Genetic correlations between laying traits were high. Genetic correlation between AGE1EGG and egg number was negative, it was positive between total numbers of eggs at 40 and 52 weeks and egg numbers in the first laying cycle. 5. Body weight at 10 weeks of age exhibited positive genetic correlations (0.46+/-0.06) with age at first egg and negative with egg production traits (-0.28+/-0.06 to -0.41+/-0.06). 6. The cumulated predicted genetic gains, after 7 generations of selection, expressed per genetic standard deviation unit (sigma(g)) were 0.06 sigma(g), 0.07 sigma(g), 0.17 sigma(g), 0.23 sigma(g), and 0.25 sigma(g) for AGE1EGG, NEGG40, NEGG52, NEGG15W, and NEGG22W, respectively. 7. Selecting Muscovy ducks to improve laying in Taiwanese climatic conditions would be possible using the number of eggs laid up to 52 weeks of age as the selection criterion. Because unintended selection effects for laying traits were present, the selection experiment for body weight at 10 weeks of age was not antagonistic with laying traits. PMID:15222414

  11. "It is like that, we didn't understand each other": exploring the influence of patient-provider interactions on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV service use in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Birdthistle, Isolde; Mshana, Gerry; Michael, Denna; Urassa, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between patients and service providers frequently influence uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa, but this process has not been examined in depth. This study explores how patient-provider relations influence PMTCT service use in four government facilities in Kisesa, Tanzania. Qualitative data were collected in 2012 through participatory group activities with community members (3 male, 3 female groups), in-depth interviews with 21 women who delivered recently (16 HIV-positive), 9 health providers, and observations in antenatal clinics. Data were transcribed, translated into English and analysed with NVIVO9 using an adapted theoretical model of patient-centred care. Three themes emerged: decision-making processes, trust, and features of care. There were few examples of shared decision-making, with a power imbalance in favour of providers, although they offered substantial psycho-social support. Unclear communication by providers, and patients not asking questions, resulted in missed services. Omission of pre-HIV test counselling was often noted, influencing women's ability to opt-out of HIV testing. Trust in providers was limited by confidentiality concerns, and some HIV-positive women were anxious about referrals to other facilities after establishing trust in their original provider. Good care was recounted by some women, but many (HIV-positive and negative) described disrespectful staff including discrimination of HIV-positive patients and scolding, particularly during delivery; exacerbated by lack of materials (gloves, sheets) and associated costs, which frustrated staff. Experienced or anticipated negative staff behaviour influenced adherence to subsequent PMTCT components. Findings revealed a pivotal role for patient-provider relations in PMTCT service use. Disrespectful treatment and lack of informed consent for HIV testing require urgent attention by PMTCT programme managers. Strategies should address staff behaviour, emphasizing ethical standards and communication, and empower patients to seek information about available services. Optimising provider-patient relations can improve uptake of maternal health services more broadly, and ART adherence. PMID:25180575

  12. “It Is Like That, We Didn't Understand Each Other”: Exploring the Influence of Patient-Provider Interactions on Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Service Use in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Birdthistle, Isolde; Mshana, Gerry; Michael, Denna; Urassa, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between patients and service providers frequently influence uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa, but this process has not been examined in depth. This study explores how patient-provider relations influence PMTCT service use in four government facilities in Kisesa, Tanzania. Qualitative data were collected in 2012 through participatory group activities with community members (3 male, 3 female groups), in-depth interviews with 21 women who delivered recently (16 HIV-positive), 9 health providers, and observations in antenatal clinics. Data were transcribed, translated into English and analysed with NVIVO9 using an adapted theoretical model of patient-centred care. Three themes emerged: decision-making processes, trust, and features of care. There were few examples of shared decision-making, with a power imbalance in favour of providers, although they offered substantial psycho-social support. Unclear communication by providers, and patients not asking questions, resulted in missed services. Omission of pre-HIV test counselling was often noted, influencing women's ability to opt-out of HIV testing. Trust in providers was limited by confidentiality concerns, and some HIV-positive women were anxious about referrals to other facilities after establishing trust in their original provider. Good care was recounted by some women, but many (HIV-positive and negative) described disrespectful staff including discrimination of HIV-positive patients and scolding, particularly during delivery; exacerbated by lack of materials (gloves, sheets) and associated costs, which frustrated staff. Experienced or anticipated negative staff behaviour influenced adherence to subsequent PMTCT components. Findings revealed a pivotal role for patient-provider relations in PMTCT service use. Disrespectful treatment and lack of informed consent for HIV testing require urgent attention by PMTCT programme managers. Strategies should address staff behaviour, emphasizing ethical standards and communication, and empower patients to seek information about available services. Optimising provider-patient relations can improve uptake of maternal health services more broadly, and ART adherence. PMID:25180575

  13. Towards understanding methyllysine readout?

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, Catherine A.; Khorasanizadeh, Sepideh; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.

    2015-01-01

    Lysine methylation is the most versatile covalent posttranslational modification (PTM) found in histones and non-histone proteins. Over the past decade a number of methyllysine-specific readers have been discovered and their interactions with histone tails have been structurally and biochemically characterized. More recently innovative experimental approaches have emerged that allow for studying reader interactions in the context of the full nucleosome and nucleosomal arrays. New studies reveal various reader-nucleosome contacts outside the methylated histone tail, thus offering a better model for the association of histone readers to chromatin and broadening our understanding of the functional implications of these interactions. In this review we give a brief overview of the known mechanisms of histone lysine methylation readout, summarize progress recently made in exploring interactions with methylated nucleosomes, and discuss the latest advances in the development of small molecule inhibitors of the methyllysine-specific readers. PMID:24727128

  14. Soft perches in an aviary system reduce incidence of keel bone damage in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, Ariane; Fröhlich, Ernst K F; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra; Schrader, Lars; Toscano, Michael J; Würbel, Hanno; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White) and brown laying hens (ISA Brown) kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems. PMID:25811980

  15. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before 16 weeks of age. The measures outlined in this review may be useful for improving the welfare of pullets and adult laying hens. PMID:26009752

  16. Exploring Magnetic Fields

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students investigate the presence of magnetic fields around magnets, the sun and the earth. They will explore magnetic field lines, understand that magnetic lines of force show the strength and direction of magnetic fields, determine how field lines interact between attracting and repelling magnetic poles, and discover that the earth and sun have magnetic properties. They will also discover that magnetic force is invisible and that a "field of force" is a region or space in which one object can attract or repel another.

  17. Exploring Krypto

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Samuel E. Zordak

    2008-01-01

    This lesson plan provides the teacher with an activity for introducing the game Krypto, which helps to develop number sense, computational skill, and an understanding of the order of operations. Players are given five number cards. They combine them, using the standard arithmetic operations, to create a target number. As students investigate the game, they develop strategies for finding solutions efficiently. The plan includes learning objectives, materials needed, questions to ask students, assessment options, extensions, teacher self-reflection questions, and a link to the online version, Primary Krypto, (catalogued separately).

  18. Exploring Friction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this activity, Students will learn several important characteristics about friction. Students will also learn why athletes who curl in the Winter Olympics try to understand and control friction.

  19. Explore Shale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Explore Shale, a website created by Penn State Public Broadcasting, explains the process of extracting natural gas from the Marcellus shale. The website explains the process in a visual, interactive format: users can click around the site to answer common questions about this process, such as "Who regulates water usage?" and "How much water is used to frack a well?" Users can also navigate the site via directional arrows which will take them down into the drilling site, and explain the process along the way. This site is a particularly good visual explanation of how the process of fracking works. A text-only version is available as well as an "About" section, including a glossary.

  20. Explore Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students will have far too much fun at this site to realize how much they are learning. University of Michigan physics instructor Raman Pfaff designed Explore Science, a site that features 34 Macromedia Shockwave interactive learning modules in the areas of mechanics, electricity & magnetism, life science, waves, optics, and astronomy. The captivating life science section challenges users to "reverse the field," and attempt to type a simple phrase on the shocked keyboard when the mouse behaves in an unexpected fashion. A two dimensional collision demonstration allows users to change such parameters as mass, initial velocity and table angle. The modules themselves are very entertaining, and Mr. Pfaff adds a deft and light instructional touch.

  1. Triangle explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shodor Education Foundation

    2004-01-01

    This Java applet enables students to investigate the area of triangles placed in the first quadrant of a Cartesian coordinate graph. The student selects a level of difficulty, which determines the type of triangle and its orientation on the graph. In addition to it automatically checking student answers, the applet can keep score of correct answers and offers hints by adding to the graph a rectangle that is related to the triangle. From the activity page, What, How, and Why buttons open pages that explain the activity's purpose, function, and how the mathematics fits into the curriculum. Supplemental resources include lesson plans and handouts, as well as exploration questions about finding the area for different types of triangles and the relationship between the area of a triangle and its related rectangle. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  2. Nutrition Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.

  3. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY WORKSHEET MAJOR & CAREER EXPLORATION

    E-print Network

    Milchberg, Howard

    EXPLORATION ACTIVITY WORKSHEET MAJOR & CAREER EXPLORATION Purpose: The exploration activity is designed for students to "explore" opportunities at UM as they relate to student success, majors, careers of activity or process you should explore to bring you closer to your academic goals. Name

  4. Who rules rare disease associations? A framework to understand their action.

    PubMed

    Huyard, Caroline

    2009-11-01

    The inner structure of so-called 'patients' organisations' has been accorded relatively little attention with respect to their increasing role in the medical world. This comparative study in France of eight such organisations, matching six rare disorders, explores the issue of power and decision making through the description of the entities that make up the organisation (and especially which stakeholders are represented), their mutual relationships, the temporal scope of collective action, and the concrete achievements of the organisation. Two main types of organisation are distinguished: 'pluralistic' organisations (that bring together a broad array of different stakeholders who are willing to work together) and 'monistic' organisations (where a single category of stakeholders firmly takes the lead). Their operations are very different and result from the association's composition. A key finding is that both the usual opposition between lay and expert and the reference to the diseases' characteristics prove to be irrelevant to understanding these organisations. Rather, the composition of the leading group is crucial. PMID:19619152

  5. Understanding Venus to understand the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.

    2012-12-01

    Despite having almost the same size and bulk composition as the Earth, Venus possesses an extreme climate with a surface pressure of 90 bars and temperatures of 740 K. At visible wavelengths the Venus disk appears covered by thick clouds.The core atmospheric processes of Venus and the Earth are similar, despite the different, extraordinary paths they took since their simultaneous formation in the solar system's habitable zone. There are several indications that the composition of the Venus atmosphere has undergone large changes, such as an early runaway climate, and it is likely that the planet has lost a large amount of water through dissociation in the upper atmosphere due to ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent escape of hydrogen. SO2 is thought to originate from volcanism. H2O and SO2 react to form H2SO4 which condenses to form clouds. In past centuries, astronomers and explorers including Captain James Cook observed transits to measure the scale of the solar system. On 5-6 June 2012 we observed the last transit of Venus in this century. Close to the ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by a thin arc of light, called the aureole. We have shown that the deviation due to refraction and the luminosity of the aureole are related to the local density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer. As different portions of the arc can yield different values of these parameters, the rare transit event thus provides a unique insight of the Venus mesosphere. The polar region, significantly brighter in initial phases due to larger scale height of the polar mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by about 15deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Detailed comparative climatology of Venus, an Earth-size planet and understanding why it evolved so differently in its history is crucial to assert the long term evolution of our own planet. Exploring Venus' atmosphere also helps characterize the variety of Earth-size planets near their habitable zone to be discovered around other stars.he atmospheric arc, or aureole, seen from the DST/Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at ~8.5 minutes prior to first contact (NSO/Arcetri)

  6. Design of nest access grids and perches in front of the nests: Influence on the behavior of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

    2013-04-01

    In aviary systems for laying hens, it is important to provide suitable nest access platforms in front of the nests, allowing hens to reach and explore each of the nests easily. This access platform is needed to achieve good nest acceptance by the hens and thereby prevent mislaid eggs. In the present experiment, the behavior of hens using 2 different nest access platforms, a plastic grid and 2 wooden perches, was examined. Furthermore, the nests were placed on both sides of the aviary rack (corridor side and outdoor side), either integrated into the aviary rack itself (integrated nest; IN) or placed on the walls of the pens (wall nest; WN), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design Four thousand five hundred white laying hens were housed in 20 test pens. The eggs in the nests and mislaid eggs were collected daily, and the behavior of hens on the nest accesses was filmed during wk 25 and 26, using focal observation and scan sampling methods. More balancing, body contact, and agonistic interactions were expected for nests with perches, whereas more walking and nest inspections were expected for nests with grids. There were more mislaid eggs and balancing found in pens equipped with nests with wooden perches. More agonistic interactions and balancing, less standing, and a longer duration of nest inspection were found with the WN compared with the IN. Interactions between platform design and position of the nests were found for duration of nest visits, body contact, and walking, with the highest amount for WN equipped with plastic grids. Nests on the corridor side were favored by the hens. Nest-related behaviors, such as nest inspection, standing, and walking, decreased over time as did the number of hens on the nest accesses, whereas sitting increased. These results indicate that the hens had more difficulties in gripping the perches as designed. The lower number of hens on the nest access platforms in front of IN may be due to a better distribution around nests and tier changes within the aviary rack. Based on these results, grids rather than perches provide for improved nesting behavior. PMID:23472011

  7. [Exploring Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Brandi

    2004-01-01

    This summer I have been working with the N.A.S.A. Project at Cuyahoga Community College (Tri-C) under the title of Exploring Aeronautics Project Leader. The class that I have worked with is comprised of students that will enter the eighth grade in the fall of 2004. The program primarily focuses upon math proficiency and individualized class projects. My duties have encompassed both realms. During the first 2-3 weeks of my internship, I worked at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) researching, organizing, and compiling information for weekly Scholastic Challenges and the Super Scholastic Challenge. I was able to complete an overview of Scholastic Challenge and staff responsibilities regarding the competition; a proposal for an interactive learning system, Quizdom; a schedule for challenge equipment, as well as a schedule listing submission deadlines for the staff. Also included in my tasks, during these first 2-3 weeks, were assisting Tammy Allen and Candice Thomas with the student application review and interview processes for student applicants. For the student and parent orientation, I was assigned publications and other varying tasks to complete before the start of the program. Upon the commencement of the program, I changed location from NASA GRC to Tri-C Metro Campus, where student classes for the Cleveland site are held. During the duration of the program, I work with the instructor for the Exploring Aeronautics class, kkkk, assisting in classroom management, daily attendance, curriculum, project building, and other tasks as needed. These tasks include the conducting of the weekly competition, known as Scholastic Challenge. As a Project Leader, I am also responsible for one subject area of the Scholastic Challenge aspect of the N.A.S.A. Project curriculum. Each week I have to prepare a mission that the participants will take home the following Monday and at least 10 questions that will be included in the pool of questions used for the Scholastic Challenge competition on Thursdays. For at least one of these competitions, I must compile all mission and question information submitted by the staff, distribute missions to the students, and enter questions into Jeopardy formatted PowerPoint presentation. Unique to the N.A.S.A. Project are its Saturday sessions and opportunities for field trips. As a Project Leader, I am required to attend all field trips and Saturday sessions held for participants and their parent(s)/guardian(s). The Saturday sessions do not require my assistance because they are facilitated by a contracting company, Imhotep. This leaves my duties to observation unless instructed otherwise.

  8. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students…

  9. Exploring the Ocean with Robots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSEE Networked Ocean World (COSEE NOW)

    2012-12-18

    In this activity, learners are introduced to robotic submarines called gliders. Learners make “gliders” from plastic syringes and compare these to Cartesian bottles and plastic bubbles. Learners can explore the characteristics of buoyancy by adjusting amounts of air and salt water. Learners also investigate the types of information that robots can gather and learn how scientists use this information to understand the ocean.

  10. Exploring The Field Chaperone Guide

    E-print Network

    Patterson, Bruce D.

    understand that they can draw animals over the background images. Trip Tip: The animals in the Think question these animals eat? Draw the food in the boxes below. At The Field Museum you will observe animalsExploring The Field Chaperone Guide WHAT DO ANIMALS EAT? Grade Level Ideal for Kindergarten

  11. Faceted Navigation for Software Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Niu; Anas Mahmoud; Xiaoyong Yang

    2011-01-01

    Much of developers' time is spent in exploring and understanding an unfamiliar software space. In this paper, we present a novel approach that characterizes the code fragments along several orthogonal dimensions in order for developers to navigate complex software spaces in a flexible manner. Central to our approach are hierarchical faceted categories (HFC), which have become especially successful in supporting

  12. Project Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  13. Exploring Chocolate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Snyder, Amy.

    Chocolate is "More than a food but less than a drug." From the San Francisco-based site Exploratorium (described in the February 21, 1997 Scout Report) comes a yummy compendium exploring chocolate from bean to bar and beyond. Divided into topical sections, the site examines everything from the processing of the cacao beans into chocolate to the chemical makeup and possible health benefits from indulging. Video and audio clips highlight the text, including video shot in the Amazon showing the process of cutting open and tasting cacao fruit and audio interviews with a chocolate researcher. There is also a tour of a chocolate factory, a great bibliography, and a quick lesson in tempering chocolate to make candies. So if you're looking to improve your temper during the hectic holiday season, indulge yourself for a few minutes at this site. But be warned, by the end of your visit, you'll probably find yourself yearning for something more than a virtual indulgence.

  14. Identification of Laying-Related SNP Markers in Geese Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, ShiGang; Chu, WeiWei; Zhang, LiFan; Han, HouMing; Zhao, RongXue; Wu, Wei; Zhu, JiangNing; Dodson, Michael V.; Wei, Wei; Liu, HongLin; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Laying performance is an important economical trait of goose production. As laying performance is of low heritability, it is of significance to develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy for this trait. Definition of sequence variation related to the target trait is a prerequisite of quantitating MAS, but little is presently known about the goose genome, which greatly hinders the identification of genetic markers for the laying traits of geese. Recently developed restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is a possible approach for discerning large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reducing the complexity of a genome without having reference genomic information available. In the present study, we developed a pooled RAD sequencing strategy for detecting geese laying-related SNP. Two DNA pools were constructed, each consisting of equal amounts of genomic DNA from 10 individuals with either high estimated breeding value (HEBV) or low estimated breeding value (LEBV). A total of 139,013 SNP were obtained from 42,291,356 sequences, of which 18,771,943 were for LEBV and 23,519,413 were for HEBV cohorts. Fifty-five SNP which had different allelic frequencies in the two DNA pools were further validated by individual-based AS-PCR genotyping in the LEBV and HEBV cohorts. Ten out of 55 SNP exhibited distinct allele distributions in these two cohorts. These 10 SNP were further genotyped in a goose population of 492 geese to verify the association with egg numbers. The result showed that 8 of 10 SNP were associated with egg numbers. Additionally, liner regression analysis revealed that SNP Record-111407, 106975 and 112359 were involved in a multiplegene network affecting laying performance. We used IPCR to extend the unknown regions flanking the candidate RAD tags. The obtained sequences were subjected to BLAST to retrieve the orthologous genes in either ducks or chickens. Five novel genes were cloned for geese which harbored the candidate laying-related SNP, including membrane associated guanylate kinase (MAGI-1), KIAA1462, Rho GTPase activating protein 21 (ARHGAP21), acyl-CoA synthetase family member 2 (ACSF2), astrotactin 2 (ASTN2). Collectively, our data suggests that 8 SNP and 5 genes might be promising candidate markers or targets for marker-assisted selection of egg numbers in geese. PMID:26181055

  15. Laying-sequence-specific variation in yolk oestrogen levels, and relationship to plasma oestrogen in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tony D.; Ames, Caroline E.; Kiparissis, Yiannis; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between plasma and yolk oestrogens in laying female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by manipulating plasma oestradiol (E2) levels, via injection of oestradiol-17?, in a sequence-specific manner to maintain chronically high plasma levels for later-developing eggs (contrasting with the endogenous pattern of decreasing plasma E2 concentrations during laying). We report systematic variation in yolk oestrogen concentrations, in relation to laying sequence, similar to that widely reported for androgenic steroids. In sham-manipulated females, yolk E2 concentrations decreased with laying sequence. However, in E2-treated females plasma E2 levels were higher during the period of rapid yolk development of later-laid eggs, compared with control females. As a consequence, we reversed the laying-sequence-specific pattern of yolk E2: in E2-treated females, yolk E2 concentrations increased with laying-sequence. In general therefore, yolk E2 levels were a direct reflection of plasma E2 levels. However, in control females there was some inter-individual variability in the endogenous pattern of plasma E2 levels through the laying cycle which could generate variation in sequence-specific patterns of yolk hormone levels even if these primarily reflect circulating steroid levels. PMID:15695208

  16. RELATIONSHIP OF DIET, FEED CONSUMPTION, AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT TO SUSCEPTILITY OF LAYING HENS TO SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS DURING FORCED MOLT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of feed deprivation to induce molting and stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles in laying hens is a common practice in commercial egg production. Unfortunately, this method causes an increased risk of Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Methods to stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles without increas...

  17. Photonics Explorer Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    The Photonics Explorer is an intra-curricular educational kit developed in a European project with a pan-European collaboration of over 35 teachers and science education professors. Unlike conventional educational outreach kits, the Photonics Explorer is specifically designed to integrate seamlessly in school curricula and enhance and complement the teaching and learning of science and optics in the classroom. The kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental components, provided within a supporting didactic framework and is designed for lower and upper secondary students (12-18 years). The kit is provided completely free of charge to teachers in conjunction with teacher training courses. The workshop will provide an overview of the Photonics Explorer intra-curricular kit and give teachers the opportunity to work hands-on with the material and didactic content of two modules, `Light Signals' (lower secondary) and `Diffraction and Interference'(upper secondary). We also aim to receive feedback regarding the content, components and didactic framework from teachers from non- European countries, to understand the relevance of the kit for their teaching and the ability for such a kit to integrate into non-EU curricula.

  18. Exploring Medical Expressions Used by Consumers and the Media: An Emerging View of Consumer Health Vocabularies

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Tony; Soergel, Dagobert

    2003-01-01

    Healthcare consumers often have difficulty expressing and understanding medical concepts. The goal of this study is to identify and characterize medical expressions or “terms” (linguistic forms and associated concepts) used by consumers and health mediators. In particular, these terms were characterized according to the degree to which they mapped to professional medical vocabularies. Lay participants identified approximately 100,000 term tokens from online discussion forum postings and print media articles. Of the over 81,000 extracted term tokens reviewed, more than 75% were mapped as synonyms or quasi-synonyms to the Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) Metathesaurus®. While 80% conceptual overlap was found between closely mapped lay (consumer and mediator) and technical (professional) medical terms, about half of these overlapping concepts contained lay forms different from technical forms. This study raises questions about the nature of consumer health vocabularies that we believe have theoretical and practical implications for bridging the medical vocabulary gap between consumers and professionals. PMID:14728258

  19. Influence of protein and energy levels in the growing diets and bird densities on the performance of commercial laying hens

    E-print Network

    Birchum, Robert Bradley

    1969-01-01

    of 12, 14, 16 or 18$. Each dietary protein level was fed at two levels of productive energy, 947 and 1003 Calories per pound of feed, until 20 weeks of age. At 25 weeks snd 1 day of age the pullets were randomly placed in laying cages and fed a 16K... protein diet. Seventy-two birds from each treatment group were used in the laying phase. These birds were housed one, two and three birds per cage for twelve 28-day periods. Body weights were significantly lowered during both the grow- ing and laying...

  20. Lay Management of Chronic Disease: A Qualitative Study of Living with Hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Webster, Noah J.; Blixen, Carol E.; McCormick, Richard A.; Perzynski, Adam T.; Kanuch, Stephanie W.; Dawson, Neal V.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine management strategies and goals reported by people diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C. Methods We analyzed data from semi-structured interviews (N=42) and from electronic sources [illness narratives (N=79) and Internet threaded discussions (N=264)]. Line-by-line coding, comparisons, and team discussions generated catalogs of lay management strategies and goals. We analyzed code-based files to identify informants’ selection of specific strategies for each goal. Results We classified lay management strategies into 3 categories: Medical Self-care, Behavior Change, and Coping. These strategies were used selectively in addressing multiple goals, categorized as Fighting the Virus, Strengthening the Body, and Managing Consequences. Conclusions Results underscore the diversity of strategies for living with a disease characterized by uncertain prognosis and variable expression of symptoms. PMID:19182983

  1. A company I can trust? Organizational lay theories moderate stereotype threat for women.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Katherine T U; Murphy, Mary C

    2015-02-01

    Women remain under-represented in the leadership of corporate America. According to stereotype threat theory, this under-representation may persist because women are concerned about being stereotyped in business settings. Three studies investigated whether an entity (fixed), compared with an incremental (malleable), organizational lay theory is threatening for women evaluating a consulting company. Men and women viewed a company mission statement or website containing an entity or incremental theory. Results revealed that women--more so than men--trusted the entity company less than the incremental company. Furthermore, only women's mistrust of the entity company was driven by their expectations about being stereotyped by its management. Notably, when combined with high or low representations of female employees, only organizational lay theories predicted trust. Finally, people's--particularly women's--mistrust of the entity company led them to disengage more before interacting with a representative. Implications for women's experiences and outcomes in workplace settings are discussed. PMID:25534242

  2. Embryo Development inside Female Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale) Prior to Egg Laying

    PubMed Central

    Charney, Noah D.; Castorino, John J.; Dobro, Megan J.; Steely, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The length of embryo retention prior to oviposition is a critical evolutionary trait. In all oviparous salamanders, which include the vast majority of species in the order, fertilization is thought to occur at the time of egg laying. Embryos then enter the first cleavage stage several hours after being deposited. This pattern holds for previously studied individuals in the Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale complex. Here, we document an instance in which a female Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale was carrying embryos internally that had already reached stage 10 of development. Development likely began several days prior to the start of migration to the breeding pond. This is the first such record for any egg-laying salamander, and suggests a degree of plasticity in the timing of fertilization and development not previously recognized. Further work is needed to ascertain the prevalence, mechanics, and evolutionary significance of this phenomenon. PMID:24651275

  3. Reproductive conflict in honey bees: a stalemate of worker egg-laying and policing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kirk Visscher

    1996-01-01

    Using electrophoretic markers, eggs laid by workers were identified in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies with a queen. Based on extrapolation, these represented about 7% of the unfertilized (male) eggs laid in the colonies.\\u000a A very small proportion of workers (of the order of 0.01%) lay these eggs. Worker-laid eggs are rapidly removed, so that very\\u000a few sons of workers

  4. Heat stress effects on capillary blood flow and its redistribution in the laying hen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Wolfenson; Yael F. Frei; N. Snapir; A. Berman

    1981-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on capillary blood flow (CBF) distribution was examined in laying hens, using 15 micron microspheres, by determining CBF before and after elevating body temperature by 1–2°C. No change was evident in unfeathered metatarsal skin, although its temperature increased by 7°C. Breast skin CBF change was 3.5 times larger than that of back skin. Comb CBF

  5. Comparative analysis of pre?laying behaviour in battery cages and in three alternative systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Meijsser; B. O. Hughes

    1989-01-01

    1. Pre?laying behaviour was compared in battery cages (C) and in three alternative husbandry systems: perchery (P), deep?litter (DL) and covered strawyard (S).2. Twenty ISA Brown hens were observed in each system for 60 min before oviposition and 5 min afterwards.3. There were significant between?system differences in a number of behavioural elements associated with the nest. Most varied along the

  6. Effect of feeding high calcium levels and soft phosphate in the diet of laying hens 

    E-print Network

    Durham, James Ivey

    1961-01-01

    EFFECT OF FEEDING HIGH CALCIUM LEVELS AND SOFT PHOSPHATE IN THE DIET OF LAYING HENS A Thesis by James Ivey Durham Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... Bone and the csi rum and Inorganic: Phosphate Cont ent. af. Blood Serum. . . . . . . . , . . . , Table 12 Analysis of Variance of Ashr Calcium and Pircsp, Content ar Eggshells snd the phosphorus Conte. u . I' Earrr Ash. 35 Table 13 Simple...

  7. Synchrony in egg-laying and reproductive success of neighboring common murres, Uria aalge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward C. Murphy; James H. Schauer

    1996-01-01

    Common murres (Uria aalge) are highly colonial; pairs often breed at the highest possible densities, in bodily contact with neighbors. At Bluff, a colony\\u000a in western Alaska, we tested for synchrony in egg laying at various spatial scales and found little evidence for higher synchrony,\\u000a either within study plots of 15–195 pairs, or within subplots containing several pairs, than among

  8. Historical changes in laying date, clutch size, and nest success of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Stotts, V.D.; Stotts, D.B.; Hines, J.E.; Funderburk, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The breeding population of American black ducks (Anas rubripes ) on Chesapeake Bay has declined over the past 30 years. We tested whether there have been changes in laying date, clutch size, and nest success of breeding black ducks on islands in Chesapeake Bay between the 1950's and 1980's. None of these variables differed significantly between decades, suggesting that other factors must be responsible for the decline in locally breeding black ducks.

  9. Research Note Phytase Effects on Amino Acid Digestibility in Molted Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Snow; M. W. Douglas; C. M. Parsons

    Two hundred sixteen previously molted Dekalb Delta Leghorn laying hens (78 wk of age) were utilized to determine the effect of phytase on the ileal digestibility of amino acids. The hens were randomly arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial to evaluate three diet types that were corn-soybean meal (C-SBM), C-SBM-meat and bone meal (C-SBM-MBM), and C-SBM-wheat middlings (C-SBM-WM) and

  10. The determination of the methionine requirement of laying pullets by a diet dilution technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fisher; T. R. Morris

    1970-01-01

    A method for the determination of amino acid requirements of laying hens is described. This involves the dilution of a high protein “ summit” diet with an isocaloric nitrogen?free mixture. By ensuring that the amino acid to be assayed is first?limiting in the summit diet, the response to dilution can be interpreted as a response to a single amino acid.The

  11. Perch Arrangements in Small-Group Furnished Cages for Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wall; R. Tauson

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2 trials, including 2,768 birds in total, 3 different perch arrangements were evaluated in furnished 8-hen cages for laying hens. The hybrids used were Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown in trial 1 and Hy-Line White and Hy-Line Brown in trial 2. The furnished cages were identical in all other respects than the arrangement of perches. A perch

  12. Effects of cage shape, colony size, floor area and cannibalism preventatives on laying performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Robinson

    1979-01-01

    1. Wire cages of variable width and depth, with a floor slope of 1 : 12, were used in two experiments to study the effects of cage depth, feeding space (= cage width), floor area, colony size and two methods of controlling cannibalism in White Leghorn x Australorp laying hens.2. The least floor area (0.035 m\\/bird) depressed production in two?bird

  13. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid on the performance of laying hens under warm environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ishak T. Kechik; A. H. Sykes

    1974-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on the performance of laying hens maintained under high environmental temperatures (32.2 °C and 33.3 °C, respectively), and a third trial was carried out under ambient conditions (12.8 °C to 17.3 °C).Weekly changes in egg yield, shell deformation, percentage of cracked eggs and body weight showed an

  14. Effects of Cholecalciferol and Phytase on Phytate Phosphorus Utilization in Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. MUSAPUOR; J. POURREZA; A. SAMIE; H. MORADI

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different levels of phytase, vitamin D3, calcium and available phosphorus on phytate phosphorus utilization in laying hens. Dietary phytase caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, tibia ash weight, tibia ash percentage, tibia phosphorus plasma phosphorus and phosphorus digestibility. However, dietary phytase caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease

  15. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2014-12-01

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the introduction, transmission, and persistence of foodborne pathogens in poultry. The animal welfare implications of different types of housing for laying hens have been widely discussed in recent years, but the food safety consequences of these production systems remain incompletely understood. The present study assessed the effects of 2 different housing systems (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas) on the horizontal transmission of experimentally introduced Salmonella Enteritidis infection within groups of laying hens. In each of 2 trials, 136 hens were distributed among cages of both housing systems and approximately one-third of the hens in each cage were orally inoculated with doses of 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis (phage type 13a in one trial and phage type 4 in the other). At regular intervals through 23 d postinoculation, cloacal swabs were collected from all hens (inoculated and uninoculated) and cultured for Salmonella Enteritidis. Horizontal contact transmission of infection was observed for both Salmonella Enteritidis strains, reaching peak prevalence values of 27.1% of uninoculated hens in conventional cages and 22.7% in enriched cages. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the overall frequencies of horizontal Salmonella Enteritidis transmission were evident between the 2 types of housing. These results suggest that opportunities for Salmonella Enteritidis infection to spread horizontally throughout laying flocks may be similar in conventional and enriched cage-based production systems. PMID:25306464

  16. H3: laying out large directed graphs in 3D hyperbolic space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara Munzner

    1997-01-01

    We present the H3 layout technique for drawing large directed graphs as node-link diagrams in 3D hyperbolic space. We can lay out much larger structures than can be handled using traditional techniques for drawing general graphs because we assume a hierar- chical nature of the data. We impose a hierarchy on the graph by us- ing domain-specific knowledge to find

  17. Results From a Lay Health Advisor Intervention to Prevent Lead Poisoning Among Rural Native American Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Crozier Kegler; Lorraine Halinka Malcoe

    Objectives. We tested the effectiveness of a community-based lay health ad- visor intervention for primary prevention of lead poisoning among Native Amer- ican children who lived in a former mining area. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional population-based blood lead assess- ments of Native American and White children aged 1 to 6 years and in-person caregiver interviews before (n = 331) and

  18. Effect of cross-wise perch designs on perch use in laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Struelens; E. Van Poucke; L. Duchateau; F. Ödberg; B. Sonck; F. A. M. Tuyttens

    2008-01-01

    1.?The use of cross-wise perches by laying hens was investigated in 8 groups of 6 hens. During a period of 5 weeks each group was exposed to 4 different perch arrangements: a single straight perch of 60 cm (P60), a 30-cm perch crossing the middle of another 30-cm perch (P30?+?30), crossing a 45-cm (P45?+?30) or crossing a 60-cm perch (P60?+?30).2.?Perch

  19. The growth of Tilapia aurea in ponds receiving laying hen wastes 

    E-print Network

    Burns, Robert Paul

    1978-01-01

    of laying hen wastes. Water quality was regularly monitored during the course of the study. Dissolved oxygen levels ranged from 4. 3 to over 15 mg/l. Until the second week of October, water temperatures remained within the range conducive to rapid... Analysis 27 Organic Fertilization. Water Chemistry Dissolved oxygen. 27 29 29 Temperature. 32 pH 35 Ammonia. 38 PAGE Clarity and plankton speciation. Nitrites and nitrates 43 Phosphates. Alkalinity and hardness. 47 47 CONCLUSION. 5l...

  20. Effects of Dietary Vanadium on Performance and Immune Responses of Commercial Egg-Type Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Davis; R. D. Miles; G. D. Butcher; C. W. Comer

    2002-01-01

    Davis, E.G., Miles, R.D., Butcher, G.D. and Comer C.W. 2002. Effects of dietary vanadium on performance and immune responses of commercial egg-type laying hens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 22: 113–124.The influence of dietary supplementation of vanadium (V) on feed consumption, feed conversion, egg production, egg interior quality, egg weight, egg shell weight, cell-mediated and humoral immune responses was investigated in