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1

Understanding Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity, which is structured as a series of mini-research projects, helps students understand how technological advances have aided the exploration of Antarctica. The printable handout includes a set of 10 research topics in three categories, explorers, Antarctica today, and technological advances for you to assign to small student teams.

2

Lay understandings of the effects of poverty: a Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a large body of research dedicated to exploring public attributions for poverty, considerably less attention has been directed to public understandings about the effects of poverty. In this paper, we describe lay understandings of the effects of poverty and the factors that potentially influence these perceptions, using data from a telephone survey conducted in 2002 on a

Linda I. Reutter; Gerry Veenstra; Miriam J. Stewart; Dennis Raphael; Rhonda Love; Edward Makwarimba; Susan McMurray

2005-01-01

3

The lay person's understanding of sexual harassment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on how lay people interpret behavior as sexual harassment is reviewed. An attributional model of this interpretation process is proposed. An experiment testing some of the basic postulates of the attribution model is reported. The results of the experiment generally supported the attribution model.

John B. Pryor

1985-01-01

4

Lay understanding of genetics: a test of a hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been growing calls for more education in genetics for the public and in schools. However, studies of the public, school children, and those who have received genetic counselling show that understanding of scientific genetics is very limited. A hypothesis to explain this limited understanding is proposed and tested. It is argued that there is a widespread lay knowledge

M Richards; M Ponder

1996-01-01

5

Lay understandings of the effects of poverty: a Canadian perspective.  

PubMed

Although there is a large body of research dedicated to exploring public attributions for poverty, considerably less attention has been directed to public understandings about the effects of poverty. In this paper, we describe lay understandings of the effects of poverty and the factors that potentially influence these perceptions, using data from a telephone survey conducted in 2002 on a random sample (n=1671) of adults from eight neighbourhoods in two large Canadian cities (Edmonton and Toronto). These data were supplemented with interview data obtained from 153 people living in these same neighbourhoods. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to determine the effects of basic demographic variables, exposure to poverty and attribution for poverty on three dependent variables relating to the effects of poverty: participation in community life, the relationship between poverty and health and challenges facing low-income people. Ninety-one per cent of survey respondents agreed that poverty is linked to health, while 68% agreed that low-income people are less likely to participate in community life. Affordable housing was deemed especially difficult to obtain by 96%, but other resources (obtaining healthy food, giving children a good start in life, and engaging in healthy behaviours) were also viewed as challenging by at least 70% of respondents. The regression models revealed that when controlling for demographics, exposure to poverty explained some of the variance in recognising the effects of poverty. Media exposure positively influenced recognition of the poverty-health link, and attending formal talks was strongly related to understanding challenges of poverty. Attributions for poverty accounted for slightly more of the variance in the dependent variables. Specifically, structural and sociocultural attributions predicted greater recognition of the effects of poverty, in particular the challenges of poverty, while individualistic attributions predicted less recognition. Older and female respondents were more likely to acknowledge the effects of poverty. Income was positively associated with recognition of the poverty-health link, negatively associated with understanding the challenges of low-income people, and unrelated to perceptions of the negative effect of poverty on participation in community life. PMID:16218981

Reutter, Linda I; Veenstra, Gerry; Stewart, Miriam J; Raphael, Dennis; Love, Rhonda; Makwarimba, Edward; McMurray, Susan

2005-11-01

6

Community Participation in Spatial Planning: Exploring Relationships between Professional and Lay Stakeholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature that explores relationships between lay and professional stakeholders in community participation generally suggests that professionals perceive five main difficulties in working with lay people: it is unnecessary within democracies; lay people lack expertise; they are not representative; there is commonly a lack of trust, and decision-making is made more complex. In respect of spatial planning in South West

Nigel Curry

2012-01-01

7

Sense-making in the wake of September 11th: a network analysis of lay understandings.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to document and explore British university students' immediate understanding of the events of September 11th. A network analysis of lay causal perceptions procedure was employed to capture the social perceptions and sense-making of respondents at a time when they and the world struggled to impose meaning and coherence on the events. The study also examined the possible effects of 'belief in a just world' and 'right-wing authoritarianism' on the pattern of perceived causes. The results suggest that most participants perceive cultural and religious differences, the history of conflict in the Middle East, unfairness and prejudice as being the distal causes of the individual agent's emotions and actions. There is also some evidence that right-wing authoritarianism and belief in a just world have an interactive effect on the strength of the perceived link between some of these causes. PMID:15296536

Reser, Joseph P; Muncer, Steven

2004-08-01

8

‘Not living life in too much of an excess’: lay men understanding health and well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

While research on lay perspectives of health now has a wellestablished history, specific empirical data on male lay perspectives of health and well-being are largely absent. Drawing on focus group data and in-depth interviews with 20 lay men (including sub-samples of gay men and disabled men), and seven health professionals, this article explores how the men conceptualized ‘health’ and the

Steve Robertson

2006-01-01

9

Lay persons’ understanding of the risk of Down's Syndrome in genetic counselling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic counselling traditionally expresses risk in proportions (e.g. 1 in 112) rather than as rates (e.g., 8.9 per 1000). The justification for this practice is unclear. To assess the understanding of lay persons of the risk of Down's Syndrome, whether expressed as rates or as proportions, we analysed 589 self-administered questionnaires. Overall, respondents understood rates significantly better than proportions (76.2%

Hubertus A. A. M. van Vliet; David A. Grimes; Benjamin Popkin; Ursula Smith

2001-01-01

10

Putting Antarctica on the Map: Understanding Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will consider the compass, dog sled, telephone, computer, Global Positioning System (GPS) and try to decide which of these technological advances has made the biggest contribution to Antarctic exploration. The activity, which is structured as a series of mini-research projects, helps students understand how technological advances have aided the exploration of Antarctica. The printable five-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to introduce the topic of Antarctic exploration, a set of research topics that can be assigned to small student teams, and detailed directions for the activity. Worksheets are also provided to help students compile their research findings.

11

Patient empowerment by increasing the understanding of medical language for lay users.  

PubMed

Background: Patient empowerment is important in order to increase the quality of medical care and the life quality of the patients. An important obstacle for empowering patients is the language barrier the lay patient encounter when accessing medical information. Objectives: To design and develop a service that will help increase the understanding of medical language for lay persons. Methods: The service identifies and explains medical terminology from a given text by annotating the terms in the original text with the definition. It is based on an original terminology interpretation engine that uses a fuzzy matching dictionary. The service was implemented in two projects: a) into the server of a tele-care system (TELEASIS) with the purpose of adapting medical text assigned by medical personnel for the assisted patients. b) Into a dedicated web site that can adapt the medical language from raw text or from existing web pages. Result: The output of the service was evaluated by a group of persons, and the results indicate that such a system can increase the understanding of medical texts. Several design decisions were driven from the evaluation, and are being considered for future development. Other tests measuring accuracy and time performance for the fuzzy terminology recognition have been performed. Test results revealed good performance for accuracy and excellent results regarding time performance. Conclusion: The current version of the service increases the accessibility of medical language by explaining terminology with a good accuracy, while allowing the user to easily identify errors, in order to reduce the risk of incorrect terminology recognition. PMID:24072079

Topac, V; Stoicu-Tivadar, V

2013-09-27

12

Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date-temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus.  

PubMed

Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (GxE) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date-temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for GxE. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs. PMID:18211880

Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J

2008-03-22

13

Public understanding of imported food risk issues and messages in South Korea: Expert and lay views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the public's understanding of imported food risks, barriers to effective imported food risk communication, methods to improve imported food risk communication, and views of organizations that deliver imported food risk messages from the perspective of imported food inspectors in the Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA) and college students in South Korea. Method: This study utilized two

Yeonhwa Ha

2010-01-01

14

Toward a framework for understanding lay public's comprehension of disaster and bioterrorism information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, we have witnessed a significant increase in disaster preparedness and crisis communication efforts. This stands in sharp contrast with paucity of research that deals with the public’s comprehension of disaster information and related decision-making. The objective of this paper is to outline a theoretical and methodological framework for research on lay comprehension of crisis information. The

Alla Keselman; Laura Slaughter; Vimla L. Patel

2005-01-01

15

Lay understandings of defence mechanisms: The role of personality traits and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looks at lay people's knowledge and use of the defence mechanisms. It focused on 21 of the better known “Freudian” defence mechanisms. A total of 208 participants (73 males and 135 females) completed a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and reported personal use of 21 defence mechanisms and a short personality test. Participants were required to state (1) whether

Adrian Furnham

2012-01-01

16

Understanding lay and religious presidents: Implications for preparation to sustain Catholicity in Catholic higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for Catholic higher education to thrive and maintain its Catholic identity, lay and religious leaders of these institutions need to excel with the knowledge and skills needed to preside over the organizational complexities while weaving the Catholic spiritual component within the culture of the institution. Despite the increasingly complex demands placed on the president of Catholic higher education

Cathleen Marie Raynis Meeker

2008-01-01

17

Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…

Agan, Lori

2004-01-01

18

Exploring Children's Understanding of Death Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is an investigation of the effects of death education on children and their understanding of death. The participants of this study were eighty 5- and 6-year-olds who were enrolled in a suburban kindergarten in Korea. To examine the level of children's understanding of death, researchers interviewed each child in both the control and…

Lee, Joo Ok; Lee, Joohi; Moon, Sung Seek

2009-01-01

19

Preliminary Findings Exploring the Social Determinants of Black Males’ Lay Health Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unequal discussion of Black males’ health is a pressing social problem. This study addressed Black males’ lay perspectives regarding their health, illness, and mortality, with attention to the determinants of men’s health, prevention, lifestyle, and opportunities for health promotion using an exploratory\\/qualitative research methodology. Participants were 68 Black males aged 15 to 68 years, with an average age of

David L. Mount; Darin M. Johnson; Maria Isabel Rego; Kandyce Schofield; Alethea Amponsah; Louis F. Graham

2012-01-01

20

Lay and expert perceptions of zoonotic risks: understanding conflicting perspectives in the light of moral theory.  

PubMed

As in many other areas, there is a divide between lay and expert perceptions of risk within the food sector, and this can lead to disagreement over priorities in food risk management. The risk perception literature tends to stress that the parties involved in this disagreement have different concepts of risk and hence are bound more or less to talk at cross-purposes. This paper suggests an alternative analysis: In the light of moral theory, the conflicting perspectives can be understood as a genuine moral conflict. When this conflict is conceptualised, a rational dialogue becomes possible. The paper reports a series of qualitative interviews with lay people and experts on zoonotic food risks. The interviews are used to reconstruct the values underlying some of the dominant perspectives. The conflict between these stylised perspectives is then analysed with the help of moral theory. Finally, some consequences for risk communication are made clear. PMID:15808359

Jensen, K K; Lassen, J; Robinson, P; Sandře, P

2005-04-01

21

Laying medicine open: understanding major turning points in the history of medical ethics.  

PubMed

At different times during its history medicine has been laid open to accountability for its scientific and moral quality. This phenonmenon of laying medicine open has sometimes resulted in major turning points in the history of medical ethics. In this paper, I examine two examples of when the laying open of medicine has generated such turning points: eighteenth-century British medicine and late twentieth-century American medicine. In the eighteenth century, the Scottish physician-philosopher, John Gregory (1724-1773), concerned with the unscientific, entrepreneurial, self-interested nature of then current medical practice, laid medicine open to accountability using the tools of ethics and philosophy of medicine. In the process, Gregory wrote the first professional ethics of medicine in the English-language literature, based on the physician's fiduciary responsibility to the patient. In the late twentieth century, the managed practice of medicine has laid medicine open to accountability for its scientific quality and economic cost. This current laying open of medicine creates the challenge of developing medical ethics and bioethics for population-based medical science and practice. PMID:11657315

McCullough, Laurence B

1999-03-01

22

Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and others online*EC  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer health information domain. Lay information mediaries (LIMs) seek information on behalf or because of others, without necessarily being asked to do so or engaging in follow up, and have represented more than 50% of health information seekers in prior studies. Methods: A web-based survey was posted on NC Health Info (NCHI) with 211 respondents, self-identified per the information need that brought them to NCHI as 20% LIMs (n?=?43), 58% direct users (n?=?122), and 22% health or information providers (n?=?46). Follow-up telephone interviews were performed with 10% (n?=?21). Interview analysis focused on lay participants (n?=?15 LIMs and direct users combined). Interviewees were reclassified post-survey as 12 LIMs and 3 direct users when studied information behavior extended beyond NCHI search. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory approach. Results: Surveyed LIMs were 77% female (n?=?33) and searched on behalf or because of family members (81%, n?=?35) and people they felt “extremely close” to (77%, n?=?33). LIMs reported various information seeking barriers “sometimes” to “often.” LIMs searched mostly without prompting (51%, n?=?22). Interview results triangulated survey findings regarding gender, tie strength, and prompting. Conclusions: LIMB may be related to gender and relationship tie strength and appears more internally than externally motivated. Further LIMB research is warranted.

Fisher, Karen E.; Turner, Anne G.; Durrance, Joan C.; Turner, Tammara Combs

2008-01-01

23

Using Electronic Interviews to Explore Student Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on methods used to probe student understandings of optical fibers and total internal reflection (TIR). The study was conducted as part of the expansion and improvement of web-based materials for an innovative introductory physics course. Initially, we conducted face-to-face Piaget-style interviews with a convenience sample. Our next step was to interview students taking the course at Rensselaer. Physical limitations necessitated that this be done from a distance, so we conducted ``e-interviews'' using a Chat Room. In this paper we focus on the e-interview experience, discussing similarities to and differences from the traditional face-to-face approach. In the process, we address how each method informs us about students' activation of prior experiences in making sense of unfamiliar phenomena (e.g., ``transfer of learning'').

Wagner, D. J.; Rivera, J. J.; Mateycik, Fran; Jennings, Sybillyn

2005-09-01

24

The Lay Public's Understanding and Perception of Dementia in a Developed Asian Nation  

PubMed Central

Background Early detection of dementia aims to improve treatment outcomes. However, poor perception and understanding of dementia are significant barriers. We aim to investigate the public's perception of dementia and identify variables associated with the different profiles of public perception. Methods A custom-designed questionnaire was used to assess laypersons’ knowledge and perception of dementia during a health fair at a public hospital in Singapore, a developed Asian nation. Out of a sample of 370 subjects, 32 declined to participate (response rate = 91.4%). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify meaningful subgroups of subjects from significant associations with multiple indicators of dementia awareness. Multinomial logistic regression was performed exploring variables associated with each of the subgroups derived from LCA. Results The majority of the study participants were female (66.9%), 65 years or older (71.1%), and ethnic Chinese (88.1%). LCA classified the study participants into 3 subgroups: Class 1 (good knowledge, good attitude), Class 2 (good knowledge, poor attitude), and Class 3 (poor knowledge, poor attitude), in proportions of 14.28, 63.83, and 21.88%, respectively. Compared to other classes, participants with good knowledge and good attitude towards dementia (Class 1) were more likely to know someone with dementia and understand the effects of the disease, be married, live in private housing, receive higher monthly income, and not profess belief in Buddhism, Taoism, or Hinduism. Conclusion Our results show that the public in Singapore may not be ready for screening initiatives and early dementia diagnosis. Education efforts should be targeted at lower socioeconomic groups, singles, and those of certain oriental religions.

Tan, Wai Jia; Hong, Song-Iee; Luo, Nan; Lo, Tong Jen; Yap, Philip

2012-01-01

25

Exploration of the impact of messages about genes and race on lay attitudes.  

PubMed

The effect of messages about genetics on lay audiences was assessed through an experimental study that exposed participants (n = 96) to a Public Service Announcement about race, genes, and heart disease. Participants who received a message that specified either 'Whites' or 'Blacks' as the subject of the message demonstrated elevated levels of racism, genetic basis for racism, and one dimension of genetic discrimination as compared to those receiving a version of the message with no race specification or in a no-message control condition. The presentation of such messages to the public is not recommended until additional research clarifies this finding and perhaps describes mitigating vocabularies or approaches. PMID:15479185

Condit, C M; Parrott, R L; Bates, B R; Bevan, J; Achter, P J

2004-11-01

26

Understanding-misunderstanding: a philosophical and theoretical exploration.  

PubMed

Understanding-misunderstanding is an intrinsic part of being human. It is understanding that might be said to underscore all communication. This article is an in-depth exploration of the philosophical views regarding human understanding from some of the greatest philosophers in history, and a glimpse into the disciplines of sociology, psychology, and nursing in their views on human understanding or related concepts. Human understanding-misunderstanding is supported in the literature as a paradox--one that continues to be mysterious and illimitable. In fact, it is the belief of this author, in every human encounter, one cannot not understand-misunderstand. PMID:20871003

Condon, Barbara Backer

2010-10-01

27

Exploring Students' Conceptions of Density: Assessing Nonmajors' Understanding of Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Employing action research in a large-enrollment university-level physical science class, the author assessed students' understanding of density with short answer pop quizzes. The result was that the more opportunities the students had to test, explore, and discuss the concept of density, the greater understanding they demonstrated of the subject.

Roach, Linda E.

2006-10-09

28

Food safety in pregnancy: an exploration of lay and professional perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores pregnant women’s and midwives’ perspectives on food safety issues during pregnancy with an emphasis on foodborne listeriosis. Although not a prevalent illness, listeriosis has been identified as a significant public health problem during pregnancy because of its serious consequences for the baby and high fetal mortality rates. However, there is limited information available on the state of

Dolly Bondarianzadeh

2008-01-01

29

How has neuroscience affected lay understandings of personhood? A review of the evidence.  

PubMed

The prominence of neuroscience in the public sphere has escalated in recent years, provoking questions about how the public engages with neuroscientific ideas. Commentaries on neuroscience's role in society often present it as having revolutionary implications, fundamentally overturning established beliefs about personhood. The purpose of this article is to collate and review the extant empirical evidence on the influence of neuroscience on commonsense understandings of personhood. The article evaluates the scope of neuroscience's presence in public consciousness and examines the empirical evidence for three frequently encountered claims about neuroscience's societal influence: that neuroscience fosters a conception of the self that is based in biology, that neuroscience promotes conceptions of individual fate as predetermined, and that neuroscience attenuates the stigma attached to particular social categories. It concludes that many neuroscientific ideas have assimilated in ways that perpetuate rather than challenge existing modes of understanding self, others and society. PMID:23833053

O'Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene

2013-02-18

30

Exploring children's understanding of television advertising – beyond the advertiser's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this article is to explore children's understanding of television advertising intent. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A different perspective on advertising intent is offered in this paper, as evidenced in an interpretive study of Irish children, aged between seven and nine years. A qualitative approach was employed, involving a series of focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with

Margaret-Anne Lawlor; Andrea Prothero

2008-01-01

31

Exploring and understanding academic leadership in family medicine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore how family physicians understand the concept of academic leadership. Design Case study. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants Thirty family physician academic leaders. Methods Focus groups and interviews were conducted with family physicians from a large multisite urban university who were identified by peers as academic leaders at various career stages. Transcripts from the focus groups and interviews were anonymized and themes were analyzed and negotiated among 3 researchers. Main findings Participants identified qualities of leadership among academic leaders that align with those identified in the current literature. Despite being identified by others as academic leaders, participants were reluctant to self-identify as such. Participants believed they had taken on early leadership roles by default rather than through planned career development. Conclusion This study affirms the need to define academic leadership explicitly, advance a culture that supports it, and nurture leaders at all levels with a variety of strategies.

Oandasan, Ivy; White, David; Hammond Mobilio, Melanie; Gotlib Conn, Lesley; Feldman, Kymm; Kim, Florence; Rouleau, Katherine; Sorensen, Leslie

2013-01-01

32

Understanding ENSO dynamics through the exploration of past climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palaeoclimate record shows that significant changes in ENSO characteristics took place during the Holocene. Exploring these changes, using both data and models, provides a means of understanding ENSO dynamics. Previous modelling studies have suggested a mechanism whereby changes in the Earth's orbital geometry explain the strengthening of ENSO over the Holocene. Decreasing summer insolation over the Asian landmass resulted in a weakening of the Asian monsoon system. This led to a weakening of the easterly trade winds in the western Pacific, creating conditions more favourable for El Nińo development. To explore this hypothesised forcing mechanism, we use a climate system model to conduct a suite of simulations of the climate of the past 8,000 years. In the early Holocene, we find that the Asian summer monsoon system is intensified, resulting in an amplification of the easterly trade winds in the western Pacific. The stronger trade winds represent a barrier to the eastward propagation of westerly wind bursts, therefore inhibiting the onset of El Nińo events. The fundamental behaviour of ENSO remains unchanged, with the major change over the Holocene being the influence of the background state of the Pacific on the susceptibility of the ocean to the initiation of El Nińo events.

Phipps, Steven J.; Brown, Jaclyn N.

2010-03-01

33

Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2002-08-01

34

FIRE, An Opportunity to Explore and Understand Burning Plasma Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next frontier in magnetic fusion should address both burning plasma physics and advanced toroidal physics in plasmas with strong self-heating. The coupling of transport, MHD stability and plasma boundary physics with strong self-heating leads to a self-organized plasma state that presents a grand challenge for magnetic fusion science. A national design study of a next step option is underway to develop and assess near term opportunities for addressing the issues identified above. The emphasis is on exploring and understanding the behavior of plasmas dominated by self-heating (Palpha/Pext ? 2) that are sustained for a duration comparable to characteristic plasma time scales (>= 10?_E, ~ ?_SKIN . The study has focused on the technical evaluation of a compact, high-field, cryogenic-copper-magnet, highly-shaped tokamak with the parameters: Ro = 2.14m, a= 0.595m, double-null-divertor with helium pumping, Bt(Ro) = 10 T, and Ip = 7.7 MA and flat top time ? 20 s ( 20 ?E and ? 1.5 ?_SKIN). The results of the study (http://fire.pppl.gov) including advanced tokamak modes and areas needing additional work will be discussed. Work supported by DOE Contract # DE-AC02-76CH0 3073.

Meade, Dale

2001-10-01

35

Understanding the Basics of Gas Exploration and Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from Eric K. Albert explains the basics of gas exploration and production, as well as some of the career opportunities created by the industry. Most of the presentation focuses on natural gas development, exploration and production. He also discusses where the jobs are in the natural gas industry.The presentation may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

Albert, Eric K.

2012-11-28

36

Understanding social computing participation with visual exploration tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of socio-technical systems, social media and social networking websites has raised the importance of understanding the determinants of their success. The pressure to understand success is increased by the shift from playful discretionary applications to mission critical applications in government, business, and civic settings. These include homeland defense, energy sustainability, environmental conservation, disaster response, and community safety.

Ben Shneiderman

2009-01-01

37

Vocational Exploration through Service: The Effect of Service-Learning on Student Understanding of God's Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|College is a time of exploration for students. College students who are Christian may also engage in exploration of God's call on their lives, a discernment of their vocation. One pedagogical technique that can help us help students explore vocation is service-learning. To better understand their vocation, students need to understand themselves…

Feenstra, Jennifer S.

2011-01-01

38

Understanding China's Post80 employees' work attitudes: an explorative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among job and career satisfactions, work commitment, and turnover intentions for the Post-80 employees in China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 290 of China's Post-80 employees from 19 knowledge-intensive companies were surveyed. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Findings – The perceptions of selected Post-80 employees

Qinxuan Gu; Lihong Wang; Judy Y. Sun; Yanni Xu

2010-01-01

39

Primary Students' Understanding of Tessellation: An Initial Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tessellation is included in many mathematics curricula as one way of developing spatial ideas. If students do not understand tessellation in the intended ways, however, the development of other spatial ideas, such as properties of shapes and symmetry, may be compromised. Van Hiele levels were used as a basis for analysing the descriptions of…

Callingham, Rosemary

2004-01-01

40

Exploring Turkish Upper Primary Level Pupils' Understanding of Digestion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The…

Cakici, Yilmaz

2005-01-01

41

Exploring primary pupils’ experiences and understandings of ‘e-safety’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the experiences and understandings of primary (K6) school pupils with regards to managing issues of risk\\u000a and safety during their everyday use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The paper is based on survey and\\u000a interview data with pupils aged 7 to 11 years old in five English primary schools (n?=?612). Analysis of these data shows that whilst

Sue Cranmer; Neil Selwyn; John Potter

2009-01-01

42

Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters  

PubMed Central

We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific principles: conservation of matter, conservation of energy, and the hierarchical nature of biological systems. Data on students' responses to the cluster items and uses of some of the questions in multiple-choice, multiple-true/false, and essay formats are compared. A cross-over study indicates that the multiple-true/false format shows promise as a machine-gradable format that identifies students who have a mixture of accurate and inaccurate ideas. In addition, interviews with students about their choices on three multiple-choice questions reveal the fragility of students' understanding. Collectively, the data show that many undergraduates lack both a basic understanding of the role of photosynthesis in plant metabolism and the ability to reason with scientific principles when learning new content. Implications for instruction are discussed.

Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2012-01-01

43

Exploring Turkish upper primary level pupils' understanding of digestion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The most significant finding was the children's conception of the digestive process as 'melting of foods' rather than 'breaking foods down'. Some other children considered digestion to be a filtering process that is performed by the stomach in order to separate the useful and waste parts of food. These views 'melting of foods' and 'filtering of foods' have not been mentioned in the literature previously. The study revealed that social influences and everyday language had an important impact on children's learning of the digestive process.

Cakici, Yilmaz

2005-01-01

44

The integrated project AquaTerra of the EU sixth framework lays foundations for better understanding of river-sediment-soil-groundwater systems.  

PubMed

The integrated project "AquaTerra" with the full title "integrated modeling of the river-sediment-soil-groundwater system; advanced tools for the management of catchment areas and river basins in the context of global change" is among the first environmental projects within the sixth Framework Program of the European Union. Commencing in June 2004, it brought together a multidisciplinary team of 45 partner organizations from 12 EU countries, Romania, Switzerland, Serbia and Montenegro. AquaTerra is an ambitious project with the primary objective of laying the foundations for a better understanding of the behavior of environmental pollutants and their fluxes in the soil-sediment-water system with respect to climate and land use changes. The project performs research as well as modeling on river-sediment-soil-groundwater systems through quantification of deposition, sorption and turnover rates and the development of numerical models to reveal fluxes and trends in soil and sediment functioning. Scales ranging from the laboratory to river basins are addressed with the potential to provide improved river basin management, enhanced soil and groundwater monitoring as well as the early identification and forecasting of impacts on water quantity and quality. Study areas are the catchments of the Ebro, Meuse, Elbe and Danube Rivers and the Brévilles Spring. Here we outline the general structure of the project and the activities conducted within eleven existing sub-projects of AquaTerra. PMID:17166649

Gerzabek, M H; Barceló, D; Bellin, A; Rijnaarts, H H M; Slob, A; Darmendrail, D; Fowler, H J; Négrel, Ph; Frank, E; Grathwohl, P; Kuntz, D; Barth, J A C

2006-12-12

45

TOWARDS A FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING COMPULSIVE BUYERS ONLINE: EXPLORING THE EFFECTS OF ONLINE SALES PROMOTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compulsive buying has been extensively explored in the offline environment. However, little attention has been given to understanding compulsive buyers and how they respond to external stimuli such as sales promotions in the online context. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the susceptibility of compulsive buyers to sales promotions, and how exposure to online sales promotions stimulates their online sales

Handan Vicdan

46

Lay abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are the motor behind our daily social activities. Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties understanding others’ emotions. Yet, understanding of own emotions in children with ASD has been largely neglected. Acknowledging and understanding one’s own emotions, and the ability to regulate these emotions to an extent that they can be expressed adaptively,

Rieffe; Oosterveld; Meerum Terwogt; Mootz; Van Leeuwen; Stockmann; Petrides; Hudry; Michalaria; Swami; Sevdalis; Ollendick; Bray; Rogé; Mullet; Guo; Cubells; Ridley; Homewood; Angkustsiri; Krakowiak; Moghaddam; Wardinsky; Kalamkarian; Hertz-Picciotto

2011-01-01

47

Understanding Ozone: Exploring the Good and Bad Facets of a Famous Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents activities that help students distinguish between the beneficial layer of stratospheric ozone and the dangerous ground-level or tropospheric ozone, understand the chemical processes of ozone breakdown in the stratosphere, find the sources of ground-level ozone, and explore the differences in the patterns of ozone concentration over the…

Hanif, Muhammad

1995-01-01

48

GRAPHING CALCULATORS AND PRECALCULUS: AN EXPLORATION OF SOME ASPECTS OF STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of the work done in an exploration with students of a pre- calculus course concerning the influence exerted by the graphics calculator on their understanding of the function concept, attending to the operational-structural duality of the conceptions related to it (Sfard, 1991) and to the use of notation systems (Kaput, 1992). A quasi-experimental study showed

Vilma-María Mesa; Pedro Gómez

49

Public health research and lay knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social science research into the social patterning of health and illness is extensive. One important aspects of this has been work on lay knowledge about health and illness. In this paper we develop three main arguments. First, we suggest that recent developments in social science understanding of the nature and significance of lay knowledge should be more widely recognized within

Jennie Popay; Gareth Williams

1996-01-01

50

Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance on the applied assessment framework. For this purpose, (a) various types of objective assessment questions were developed and evaluated for assessing meaningful understanding, (b) a specific type of systemic assessment questions (SAQs) was developed and evaluated for assessing systems thinking skills, and (c) the association between students' responses on the applied assessment schemes was explored. The results indicated that properly designed objective questions can effectively capture aspects of students' meaningful understanding. It was also found that the SAQs can elicit systems thinking skills in the context of a formalistic systems thinking theoretical approach. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between students' responses on the two assessment strategies. This research provides evidence that students' systems thinking level within a science domain is significantly related to their meaningful understanding of relative science concepts.

Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

2013-09-01

51

Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present a study of student understanding of energy in quantum mechanical tunneling and barrier penetration. This paper will focus on student responses to two questions that were part of a test given in class to two modern physics classes and in individual interviews with 17 students. The test, which we refer to as the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS), is being developed to measure student understanding of basic concepts in quantum mechanics. In this paper we explore and clarify the previously reported misconception that reflection from a barrier is due to particles having a range of energies rather than wave properties. We also confirm previous studies reporting the student misconception that energy is lost in tunneling, and report a misconception not previously reported, that potential energy diagrams shown in tunneling problems do not represent the potential energy of the particle itself. The present work is part of a much larger study of student understanding of quantum mechanics.

Mckagan, Sam B.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-07-13

52

Identity, Attachment and Belonging for Young Adults in Australia: Exploring Implicit and Explicit Understandings of Self and Nation (R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research project provided a forum in which young adults explored aspects of identity, attachment and sense of belonging. The aim was to explore diverse and common themes in understanding oneself in geographic context, elicited by implicit and explicit methods. These were facilitated drama sessions and written responses to a self concept inventory. The participants in the exploration of what

Marjorie O'Loughlin; Bronwyn Birdsall; Anna Piccolo; Lesley A. Russell; Laurel J. Bornholt

53

Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy.

Goicolea, Isabel; Ohman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morras, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

2012-01-01

54

Benefits arising from lay involvement in community-based public health initiatives: The experience from community nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To explore the experiences of lay food and health workers (LFHW) and professionals involved in delivering local food and health initiatives, to improve understanding of the perceived benefits associated with their involvement and wider opportunities for promoting health. Study design: An interpretive qualitative inquiry. Setting: Community-based NHS LFHW programmes in 16 locations serving less-affluent neighbourhoods across England, UK. Subjects:

Lynne Kennedy

2010-01-01

55

Greek primary school teachers' understanding of current environmental issues: An exploration of their environmental knowledge and images of nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena. Using the media as major environmental information sources, in which environmental issues are constructed as environmental risks, teachers are being environmentally educated in lay and not in scientific terms. Moreover, the image of nature emerging from their ideas about the three environmental issues is that of the romantic archetype, which prevails in postindustrial societies. Such a view, though, gives a conceptualization of nature as balance, under which the greenhouse effect and acid rain are seen as exclusively human-induced disturbances.

Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

2007-03-01

56

Understanding Electric Interactions in Suspensions in Gradient AC Electric Fields II:. Simulations and Application Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used numerical simulations of a continuous model and the molecular dynamics model to understand the particle instability, formation of island-like structures and existence of one critical particle concentration of 1% (v/v) for formation of island-like structures in the suspension in a gradient AC electric field reported in Paper I. The simulations of the continuous model show that the critical concentration of 1% (v/v) is the concentration of which the particles of a suspension are just fully filling the lower field region finally. According to the MD simulations, the particles instability does exist in the corn oil in a gradient AC electric field, anisotropic polarization interactions among the particles are responsible for the particle instability and have memory, and the memory is still kept even when the particles are transported by a dielectrophoresis force. The island-like structures can be regarded as signature of the memory. We explored possibilities to apply our findings in biomedical fields.

Tada, Shigeru; Shen, Yan; Jacqmin, David; Fu, Bingmei; Qiu, Zhiyong

57

Assessing Age-Related Ossification of the Petro-Occipital Fissure: Laying the Foundation for Understanding the Clinicopathologies of the Cranial Base  

PubMed Central

The petro-occitpital fissure (POF) lies within a critical interface of cranial growth and development in the posterior cranial fossa. The relationships between skeletal and soft tissues make this region especially important for examining biomechanical and basic biologic forces that may mold the cranial base and contribute to significant clinicopathologies associated with the structures located near the POF. Therefore, this study investigates the POF in adults in both preserved human cadavers and dried crania in order to determine if developmental changes can be observed and, if so, their value in age assessment as a model system for describing normal morphogenesis of the POF. This study demonstrates that tissue within the POF undergoes characteristic changes in ossification with age, the onset of which is considerably later than that of other synchondroses of the cranial base. Statistically, there is a moderate to strong correlation between age and stage of ossification within the POF. Further, male crania were observed to reach greater degrees of ossification at a younger age than female crania and that individual asymmetry in ossification of the tissue within the POF was not uncommon. An understanding of the basic temporal biological processes of the POF may yield insight into the development of clinicopathologies in this region of the cranial base.

BALBONI, ARMAND L.; ESTENSON, THOMAS L.; REIDENBERG, JOY S.; BERGEMANN, ANDREW D.; LAITMAN, JEFFREY T.

2005-01-01

58

Understanding optimal nutrition among women of childbearing age in the United States and Puerto Rico: employing formative research to lay the foundation for national birth defects prevention campaigns.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year and affected 404 pregnancies in Puerto Rico from 1996 to 2002. Consuming the B vitamin folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs 50%-70%, and recent efforts to reduce NTD rates have focused on increasing the number of childbearing-aged women who take a vitamin containing folic acid every day. As the first stage of formative research in campaign planning, two exploratory, qualitative studies were conducted in order to (a) understand the complexity of vitamin use among women in the United States and Puerto Rico and (b) serve as a foundation on which to develop national communication and education interventions. Also, this information shed light on theories that might be used to guide campaign development. Results indicated that campaign messages designed to increase folic acid use through multivitamin supplementation in the United States must address women's barriers to vitamin use (e.g., cost, time), increase women's perceived need for multivitamins (e.g., identify immediate, tangible results from taking a daily multivitamin), and address the relationship between daily food choices and the need for supplementation. Future campaign messages in Puerto Rico must focus on many of these same issues, in addition to increasing women's knowledge about when folic acid should be taken in relation to pregnancy and addressing women's perceptions that vitamins cause weight gain (an undesirable outcome for most participants). The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed in terms of their contribution to the development of a creative new approach to increase multivitamin consumption among women of childbearing age in the United States and Puerto Rico. PMID:18030639

Lindsey, Lisa L Massi; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Valencia, Diana; Correa-Sierra, Elia; Kopfman, Jenifer E

2007-12-01

59

Toward understanding life under subzero conditions: the significance of exploring psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins.  

PubMed

Understanding the behavior of proteins under freezing conditions is vital for detecting and locating extraterrestrial life in cold environments, such as those found on Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. This review highlights the importance of studying psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins, a topic that has yet to be explored. A strategy for analyzing the psychrophilic RNA helicase protein CsdA (Psyc_1082) from Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures is proposed. The experimental model presented here was developed based on previous data from investigations of Escherichia coli, P. arcticus 273-4, and RNA helicases. P. arcticus 273-4 is considered a model for life in freezing environments. It is capable of growing in temperatures as cold as -10°C by using physiological strategies to survive not only in freezing temperatures but also under low-water-activity and limited-nutrient-availability conditions. The analyses of its genome, transcriptome, and proteome revealed specific adaptations that allow it to inhabit freezing environments by adopting a slow metabolic strategy rather than a cellular dormancy state. During growth at subzero temperatures, P. arcticus 273-4 genes related to energy metabolism and carbon substrate incorporation are downregulated, and genes for maintenance of membranes, cell walls, and nucleic acid motion are upregulated. At -6°C, P. arcticus 273-4 does not upregulate the expression of either RNA or protein chaperones; however, it upregulates the expression of its cold-shock induced DEAD-box RNA helicase protein A (CsdA - Psyc_1082). CsdA - Psyc_1082 was investigated as a key helper protein for sustaining life in subzero conditions. Proving CsdA - Psyc_1082 to be functional as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures may extend the known minimum growth temperature of a mesophilic cell and provide key information about the mechanisms that underlie cold-induced biological systems in icy worlds. PMID:23082745

Kuhn, Emanuele

2012-10-19

60

The visuo-haptic and haptic exploration of letters increases the kindergarten-children’s understanding of the alphabetic principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of incorporating a visuo-haptic and haptic (tactual-kinaesthetic) exploration of letters in a training designed to develop phonemic awareness, knowledge of letters and letter\\/sound correspondences, on 5-year-old children’s understanding and use of the alphabetic principle. Three interventions, which differed in the work on letters identity, were assessed. The letters were explored visually and haptically in “HVAM”

Florence Bara; Edouard Gentaz; Pascale Colé; Liliane Sprenger-Charolles

2004-01-01

61

Exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

Wilburn, D. R.; Porter, K. E.

1999-01-01

62

The Visuo-Haptic and Haptic Exploration of Letters Increases the Kindergarten-Children's Understanding of the Alphabetic Principle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effect of incorporating a visuo-haptic and haptic (tactual-kinaesthetic) exploration of letters in a training designed to develop phonemic awareness, knowledge of letters and letter/sound correspondences, on 5-year-old children's understanding and use of the alphabetic principle. Three interventions, which differed in the…

Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

2004-01-01

63

Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic\\/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward

Kimberly Bender; Nalini Negi; Dawnovise N. Fowler

2010-01-01

64

Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

2010-01-01

65

Understanding Children's Curiosity and Exploration through the Lenses of Lewin's Field Theory: On Developing an Appraisal Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curiosity as a motivational force is often linked with knowledge acquisition. Adults are important mediators to motivate children's curiosity and exploration, and their foremost task is to understand the child. This article proposes to use Kurt Lewin's field theory as a framework to appraise children's momentary state of curiosity and exploratory behavior. Taking a dynamic view of child-environment interaction, this

Amy Chak

2002-01-01

66

From Phenotype to Genotype: Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Genetic Inheritance in a Web-Based Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research shows that students face challenges as they learn about genetic inheritance. The challenges could emanate from the fact that genetic inheritance involves unseen processes at different organizational levels. We explored students' understanding of heredity and related concepts such as cells and reproduction using a Web-based Science…

Williams, Michelle; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Manokore, Viola

2012-01-01

67

Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of…

Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

2010-01-01

68

Exploring the Development of Conceptual Understanding through Structured Problem-Solving in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study on the effect of a structured problem-solving strategy on problem-solving skills and conceptual understanding of physics was undertaken with 189 students in 16 disadvantaged South African schools. This paper focuses on the development of conceptual understanding. New instruments, namely a solutions map and a conceptual index, are…

Gaigher, E.; Rogan, J. M.; Braun, M. W. H.

2007-01-01

69

"Everything Is in Parables": An Exploration of Students' Difficulties in Understanding Christian Beliefs Concerning Jesus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports the findings of interviews conducted with students (aged 11-13) in four English secondary schools, examining reasons why young people find it difficult to understand Christian beliefs regarding Jesus' miracles, resurrection, and status as the Son of God. For the students in this sample, understanding and belief are closely…

Freathy, Rob; Aylward, Karen

2010-01-01

70

Persuasion Knowledge: Lay People's and Researchers' Beliefs about the Psychology of Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

What do lay people believe about the psychology of advertising and persuasion? How similar are the beliefs of lay people to those of consumer researchers? In this study we explore the content of people's conceptions of how television advertising influences its audience. The findings suggest that lay people and researchers share many basic beliefs about the psychology of persuasion but

Marian Friestad; Peter Wright

1995-01-01

71

Understanding alternative food networks: exploring the role of short food supply chains in rural development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the development and incidence of alternative food networks within a European-wide context. By developing a consistent definition of short food supply chains, we address both the morphology and the dynamics of these, and then examine empirical evidence concerning their incidence and rural development impact across seven EU member states. These developments need to be seen

Henk Renting; Terry K Marsden; Jo Banks

2003-01-01

72

Exploring teachers' informal formative assessment practices and students' understanding in the context of scientific inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual structures, and social processes). We describe the informal assessment practices as ESRU cycles - the

Maria Araceli Ruiz-Primo; Erin Marie Furtak

2007-01-01

73

Understanding divergent evolution of Earth-like planets: The case for a Venus exploration program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planet Venus is our most Earth-like neighbor in size, mass, and solar distance. In spite of these similarities, the Venus surface and atmosphere are characterized by some of the most enigmatic features seen anywhere in the solar system. Here, we propose a Venus exploration program designed to explain the origin and divergent evolution of the interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres

D. Crisp

2002-01-01

74

Exploring understandings of inclusion in schools in Zambia and Tanzania using reflective writing and photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small?scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South?based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are discussed in the article. The main aim of the

Susie Miles

2011-01-01

75

Exploring Teachers' Informal Formative Assessment Practices and Students' Understanding in the Context of Scientific Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual…

Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Furtak, Erin Marie

2007-01-01

76

Exploring students' understanding of reference frames and time in Galilean and special relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at exploring prospective physics teachers' reasoning associated with the concepts of reference frame, time and event which form the framework of the classical kinematics and that of the relativistic kinematics. About 100 prospective physics teachers were surveyed by means of a questionnaire involving classical kinematics situations and relativistic ones. The analysis of the answers shows a deep

C. de Hosson; I. Kermen; E. Parizot

2010-01-01

77

Understanding Law and Race as Mutually Constitutive: An Invitation to Explore an Emerging Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that law and race coconstruct each other. The idea that race is socially constructed has become widely accepted, and studies increasingly have explored law's role in shaping racial categories, racial conflict, racial ideology, and the racial order. Fewer studies have utilized a well-developed concept of race to examine how it has affected legislation, legal processes, legal ideology,

Laura E. Gómez

78

Understanding Law and Race as Mutually Constitutive: An Invitation to Explore an Emerging Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that law and race coconstruct each other. The idea that race is socially constructed has become widely accepted, and studies increasingly have explored law's role in shaping racial categories, racial conflict, racial ideology, and the racial order. Fewer studies have utilized a well-developed concept of race to examine how it has affected legislation, legal processes, legal ideology,

Laura E. Gómez

2010-01-01

79

Understanding "Together and Apart": A Case Study of Edward's Explorations at Nursery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edward was one of 58 children studied by workers and parents as part of a study on Well-being and Resilience at the Pen Green Nursery. Within the larger study, eight children were studied in greater depth in order to explore connections between cognitive and emotional development. Schematic theory and attachment theory were used as frameworks for…

Arnold, Cath

2009-01-01

80

Understanding the school outcomes of juvenile offenders: an exploration of neighborhood influences and motivational resources.  

PubMed

As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non-delinquent peers. To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14-17) living in two urban communities. A multilevel path analysis confirmed that youth in relatively more affluent communities report greater access to opportunities in the areas of education and employment, and that these opportunities are associated with higher expectations to succeed and better grades. Findings highlight the importance of taking an ecological approach for understanding processes that shape school effort and achievement. Implications are discussed in the context of promoting academic success among juvenile offenders, specifically, and for understanding pathways to healthy adjustment, more generally. PMID:21210199

Chung, He Len; Mulvey, Edward P; Steinberg, Laurence

2011-01-06

81

Exploring Novel Tools for Assessing High School Students' Meaningful Understanding of Organic Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Systemic assessment questions (SAQs) are novel assessment tools used in the context of the Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning (SATL) model. The purpose of this model is to enhance students' meaningful understanding of scientific concepts by use of constructivist concept mapping procedures, which emphasize the development of systems…

Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Vasiliou, Petroula; Tzougraki, Chryssa

2011-01-01

82

IN-SITU EXPLORATION OF THE VENUS ATMOSPHERE: KEY TO UNDERSTANDING OUR SISTER WORLD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-situ sampling of the Venus atmosphere is crucial for understanding the planet's complex history. A detailed inventory of diagnostic atmospheric constituents oxygen - such as the noble gases and their isotopes, and the isotopes of water, nitrogen, and oxygen - can provide fundamental new insights into the origins and early evolution of Venus and nearby planets, including the Earth. Direct

Christopher T. Russell; Gerard Schubert; Kevin Zahnle; David Crisp; Sanjay S. Limaye; Thomas W. Momary

83

Gateways to understanding: a model for exploring and discerning meaning from experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research methodologies comprise distinct traditions, each of which is based on its own assumptions and discrete methods for collecting, analyzing and reporting data. This paper examines a distinctive approach to qualitative research that was employed in a recent study to open a gateway to understanding the impact of the shootings at Columbine High School. Using the Columbine study as

Carolyn Lunsford Mears

2008-01-01

84

Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

2011-01-01

85

Exploring the Relationship between Physics-Related Epistemological Beliefs and Physics Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies are reported that investigated the relationship between secondary school students' physics-related epistemological beliefs and physics conceptual understanding. Study 1 involved the development of a Greek Epistemological Beliefs Evaluation Instrument for Physics (GEBEP) which was administered to 394 students (10th graders). Study 2…

Stathopoulou, Christina; Vosniadou, Stella

2007-01-01

86

Exploring the Relationship between Physics-Related Epistemological Beliefs and Physics Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three studies are reported that investigated the relationship between secondary school students' physics-related epistemological beliefs and physics conceptual understanding. Study 1 involved the development of a Greek Epistemological Beliefs Evaluation Instrument for Physics (GEBEP) which was administered to 394 students (10th graders). Study 2…

Stathopoulou, Christina; Vosniadou, Stella

2007-01-01

87

Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

2013-01-01

88

'Love, love, and more love for childrena: exploring preservice teachers' understandings of caring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an ethic of care is seen as a central concern of teacher education, however little attention has been paid to the preconceived conceptions of caring held by preservice teachers. In this article we share the results of a recent study of a group of preservice elementary teachers in which we examined the understandings of the relationship of

Lisa S. Goldstein; Vickie E. Lake

89

Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc.…

Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Shea, Nicole

2011-01-01

90

Gateways to Understanding: A Model for Exploring and Discerning Meaning from Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Qualitative research methodologies comprise distinct traditions, each of which is based on its own assumptions and discrete methods for collecting, analyzing and reporting data. This paper examines a distinctive approach to qualitative research that was employed in a recent study to open a gateway to understanding the impact of the shootings at…

Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

2008-01-01

91

The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make…

Cormier, Sebastien; Steinberg, Richard

2010-01-01

92

Maltreated Children’s Social Understanding and Empathy: A Preliminary Exploration of Foster Carers’ Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that parental abuse and neglect can have adverse effects on children’s peer relationships and self-perceptions.\\u000a Emerging theoretical and empirical work suggests that children’s social understanding and empathy could play a key role as\\u000a mediators of these effects, but we have little knowledge about the viability of such a model in explaining the everyday experiences\\u000a of children in

Nikki Luke; Robin Banerjee

93

How lay is lay? Chinese students' perceptions of anorexia nervosa in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a locally devised self-report questionnaire that encompassed both professional and lay explanatory models, this study explored the perceptions of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a large sample of 842 Chinese undergraduates who had little biomedical exposure to this rare condition in Hong Kong. Anorexia nervosa, or yan shi zheng, was conceived as a chronic psychiatric condition of severe weight loss

Sing Lee

1997-01-01

94

"Hello, hello--it's English I speak!": a qualitative exploration of patients' understanding of the science of clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Informed consent may be seriously compromised if patients fail to understand the experimental nature of the trial in which they are participating. Using focus groups, the authors explored how prospective trial participants interpret and understand the science of clinical trials by using patient information sheets relative to their medical condition. An opportunity was provided to hear in the patients' own words how they interpret the information and why there is variable understanding. Respondents struggled to comprehend the meaning and purpose of concepts such as randomisation and double blinding, and found them threatening to their ideas of medical care. Suggestions are made about how to improve the national guidelines on written information for trial participants and pretesting of the information sheets is advocated.

Stead, M; Eadie, D; Gordon, D; Angus, K

2005-01-01

95

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the Tata Energy Research Institute, the EduGreen Explore Web site allows kids to learn about energy, water, climate change, solid waste, and more. Besides giving good descriptions on these various subjects, students will also gain a global perspective on these issues since the Institute, which is located in India, gives specific information for the country. The site also contains quizzes, maps, activities, and more worth checking out.

2002-01-01

96

Lay perspectives on lay health worker roles, boundaries and participation within three UK community-based health promotion projects.  

PubMed

This paper examines lay interpretations of lay health worker roles within three UK community-based health promotion projects. It argues that understanding lay health worker roles requires critical analysis of the complex interrelationships between professionals, lay workers and the communities receiving a programme. Findings are presented that are drawn from a qualitative study of lay engagement in public health programme delivery where a key objective was to examine the perspectives of community members with the experience of receiving services delivered by lay health workers. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 46 programme recipients from three case study projects; a breastfeeding peer support service, a walking for health scheme and a neighbourhood health project. The results show how participants interpreted the function and responsibilities of lay health workers and how those roles provided personalized support and facilitated engagement in group activities. Further insights into community participation processes are provided revealing the potential for active engagement in both formal and informal roles. The paper concludes that social relationships are core to understanding lay health worker programmes and therefore analysis needs to take account of the capacity for community members to move within a spectrum of participation defined by increasing responsibility for others. PMID:22327808

South, J; Kinsella, K; Meah, A

2012-02-10

97

Exploring the Construct of Pedagogical Discontentment: A Tool to Understand Science Teachers' Openness to Reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that many teachers are resistant to take up the messages of reform if these messages require them to substantially shift their teaching practices. What accounts for this resistance? One well established explanation is that teachers lacks the self-efficacy required to attempt something new in their teaching—they simply do not feel capable of effectively enacting the messages. However, there are a host of studies describing teachers with high self—efficacy who remain resistant to messages of change. The purpose of this article is to address the gap in the application of self-efficacy to understand the change or lack of change of science teachers' practice through the introduction of a related construct, pedagogical discontentment. This construct reflects a state of cognitive conflict that exists when an individual recognizes a mismatch between her/his science teaching pedagogical goals and classroom practices. One potential result of this mismatch is that a teacher problematizes her teaching practices, prompting an increased receptivity to reform messages. Building on existing literature, we present vignettes of four hypothetical teachers who exemplify variations of pedagogical discontentment. When combined with self-efficacy, pedagogical discontentment provides a useful lens to understand teachers' consideration and adoption of messages of reform.

Southerland, Sherry A.; Sowell, Scott; Blanchard, Margaret; Granger, E. M.

2011-05-01

98

Informing geospatial toolset design: understanding the process of cancer data exploration and analysis.  

PubMed

There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L; MacEachren, Alan M; Kluhsman, Brenda C; Lengerich, Eugene J

2007-10-23

99

The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make connections to the real world, think constructively, and learn the material successfully. However, what happens when making connections to the real world is more complicated. It is one thing to try to figure out how pushing a block with a constant force leads to constant speed, but it is very different to try to build toward an understanding of time dilation. Do the same instructional approaches work here? Also, is it possible that improved instructional approaches lead to improved student approaches when trying to make sense of difficult and very unfamiliar material? In this paper we describe a unique opportunity to perform a controlled experiment by interviewing identical twin brothers working together to resolve the twin paradox. These were intelligent and articulate science students with similar backgrounds but with diverging undergraduate experiences. One happened to take traditional physics classes and the other happened to take classes designed through Physics Education Research.

Cormier, Sebastien; Steinberg, Richard N.

2012-01-20

100

Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in karachi, pakistan: a qualitative exploration.  

PubMed

This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Mansoor, Ali Khan; Mohammad Amin, Chinoy

2013-01-01

101

Exploring teachers' informal formative assessment practices and students' understanding in the context of scientific inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual structures, and social processes). We describe the informal assessment practices as ESRU cycles - the teacher Elicits a question; the Student responds; the teacher Recognizes the student's response; and then Uses the information collected to support student learning. By tracking the strategies teachers used in terms of ESRU cycles, we were able to capture differences in assessment practices across the three teachers during the implementation of four investigations of a physical science unit on buoyancy. Furthermore, based on information collected in a three-question embedded assessment administered to assess students' learning, we linked students' level of performance to the teachers' informal assessment practices. We found that the teacher who more frequently used complete ESRU cycles had students with higher performance on the embedded assessment as compared with the other two teachers. We conclude that the ESRU model is a useful way of capturing differences in teachers' informal assessment practices. Furthermore, the study suggests that effective informal formative assessment practices may be associated with student learning in scientific inquiry classrooms.

Araceli Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Furtak, Erin Marie

2007-01-01

102

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

103

Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

PubMed Central

This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students’ commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors’ process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward increased self-awareness and future culturally responsive practice. Content analysis revealed 11 themes, including students’ enlightenment of their privilege, experiences of cultural loss, and acknowledgment of biases as integral parts of culturally responsive practice. Implications for social work education and research are addressed.

BENDER, KIMBERLY; NEGI, NALINI; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.

2012-01-01

104

Exploration of the relevance of anxiety sensitivity among adults living with HIV/AIDS for understanding anxiety vulnerability.  

PubMed

This investigation explored facets of anxiety sensitivity (AS-social, physical and mental concerns) in regard to somatization, anxiety and depression symptoms among people with HIV/AIDS. Significant relations were found for AS-physical concerns and somatization symptoms (beta = .52, p = .007) and AS-mental concerns and anxiety symptoms (beta = .29, p < .05), controlling for negative affectivity, gender and shared variance with other AS subscales. Together, AS subscales were significantly related to depression symptoms (DeltaR(2) = .11; p = .006), but no one subscale was independently related. Findings are discussed in terms of examining AS in better understanding the HIV/AIDS-anxiety relation. PMID:20064893

Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Solomon, Sondra E; Miller, Carol T

2010-01-01

105

Exploration of the Relevance of Anxiety Sensitivity among Adults Living with HIV/AIDS for Understanding Anxiety Vulnerability  

PubMed Central

This investigation explored facets of anxiety sensitivity (AS-social, physical, and mental concerns) in regard to somatization, anxiety, and depression symptoms among people with HIV/AIDS. Significant relations were found for AS-physical concerns and somatization symptoms (? = .52, p = .007) and AS-mental concerns and anxiety symptoms (? = .29, p < .05), controlling for negative affectivity, gender, and shared variance with other AS subscales. Together, AS subscales were significantly related to depression symptoms (?R2 = .11; p = .006), however, no one subscale was independently related. Findings are discussed in terms of examining AS in better understanding the HIV/AIDS-anxiety relation.

Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Solomon, Sondra E.; Miller, Carol T.

2012-01-01

106

"They Just Seem to Live Their Lives in Their Own Little World": Lay Perceptions of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is believed to be higher than that of other conditions, such as Down syndrome or diabetes, yet few studies have explored the ideas lay people have about autism. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how 10 lay people with no knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism.…

Huws, J. C.; Jones, R. S. P.

2010-01-01

107

‘They just seem to live their lives in their own little world’: lay perceptions of autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is believed to be higher than that of other conditions, such as Down syndrome or diabetes, yet few studies have explored the ideas lay people have about autism. Semi?structured interviews were used to explore how 10 lay people with no knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism. Interpretative phenomenological analysis and discourse analysis illuminated

J. C. Huws; R. S. P. Jones

2010-01-01

108

Leadership development policies and programs for preparing Catholic elementary school lay principals in three United States dioceses (1989--1994)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored leadership development initiatives practiced by three diocesan Catholic Education Offices in the United States for preparing lay principals for Catholic elementary schools. The rapid transition in the leadership of Catholic schools from religious to lay principals, and the inadequate development and formation of lay principals in the unique ethos, mission, and vision of the Catholic school systems,

James Shafi

1996-01-01

109

How lay is lay? Chinese students' perceptions of anorexia nervosa in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Using a locally devised self-report questionnaire that encompassed both professional and lay explanatory models, this study explored the perceptions of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a large sample of 842 Chinese undergraduates who had little biomedical exposure to this rare condition in Hong Kong. Anorexia nervosa, or yan shi zheng, was conceived as a chronic psychiatric condition of severe weight loss (34%) that arose from mixed psychosocial etiologies. Unlike the more exact professional categorizations but consonant with the lexical meanings of yan shi and Chinese anorectic patients' illness reality, appetitive complaints, sadness and fat phobia were believed to be the main expressions of AN. The illness was seen to affect young women of affluent societies, and to call for help from mental health professionals as well as family members. Although it was not stigmatizing, it would nearly never be admired. Factor analysis revealed a discernible resemblance between lay and professional epistemologies, particularly in the configuration of anorexic symptomatology into "specific" (fat phobic) and "general" types. This implies that in psychiatric disease categories with an uncertain etiology and a substantial cultural component, lay people may package and construct knowledge in a fashion similar to that of professionals. The findings of this study question biomedicine's positivistic claim to psychopathology, and suggest that lay and professional ethnopsychiatric theories and lived anorectic experience are interdependent facets of a socially constructed world. PMID:9015885

Lee, S

1997-02-01

110

Lay, bury method proves effective  

SciTech Connect

The best way to lay and bury a pipeline offshore is to perform both operations simultaneously. Historically these two operations have been separate but recently a simultaneous lay and bury technique has been developed that is technically feasible and cost effective. The technique employs a patented Sea Plow that cuts a trench in the ocean floor into which the pipeline is laid. The operation and performance of the Sea Plow are described.

Fulton, R.N.

1984-08-01

111

The First Weeks of School: Laying a Quality Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on the view that the first weeks of school lay the foundation for the remainder of the year, this book uses an ethnographic approach to present the story of one teacher and the classroom she constructed during the first weeks of school. The book's introduction explores beliefs about children and teaching and a view of theory and practice…

Perlmutter, Jane; Burrell, Louise

112

Doctors in the news media: lay and medical audiences' responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doctors and medical practice attract a high level of coverage in the popular media. This article explores how lay and medical audiences respond to the representation of doctors in one media genre: the news media. The analysis draws on empirical findings from a multi-phase study that included a systematic analysis of media coverage of the medical profession as well as

Deborah Lupton

1998-01-01

113

Lay beliefs about high blood pressure in a low- to middle-income urban African-American community: an opportunity for improving hypertension control  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeLay beliefs about illness are a potential barrier to improving the control of hypertension. We investigated the extent to which lay beliefs about hypertension diverge from current medical understanding.

Ruth P Wilson; Anne Freeman; Michael J Kazda; Thomas C Andrews; Leonard Berry; Patrice A. C Vaeth; Ronald G Victor

2002-01-01

114

Exploring Adolescents' Multimodal Responses to "The Kite Runner": Understanding How Students Use Digital Media for Academic Purposes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores how adolescent high school students in an AP English class used multiple forms of media (the internet, digital video, slide show software, video editing tools, literary texts, and writing) to respond to and analyze a contemporary novel, "The Kite Runner". Using a multimodal analysis framework, the author explores

Jocius, Robin

2013-01-01

115

An exploration of primary school teachers' understanding of art and the place of art in the primary school curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some research within developmental psychology shows a slow period of development in children's expressive drawings during the primary school years. Developmental researchers suggest that ‘educational factors’ could contribute to this dip in development but have not explored these factors. This study explores links between educational policy – in terms of the English National Curriculum – and the development of expression

Jenny Hallam; Mani Das Gupta; Helen Lee

2008-01-01

116

Exploring Adolescents' Multimodal Responses to "The Kite Runner": Understanding How Students Use Digital Media for Academic Purposes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study explores how adolescent high school students in an AP English class used multiple forms of media (the internet, digital video, slide show software, video editing tools, literary texts, and writing) to respond to and analyze a contemporary novel, "The Kite Runner". Using a multimodal analysis framework, the author explores

Jocius, Robin

2013-01-01

117

The application and relevance of expository preaching for the lay person  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Application and Relevance of Expository Preaching for the Lay Person is a Doctor of Ministry project dissertation designed to equip lay people to apply biblical principles communicated through expository messages. Application helps Christians to understand what to do or how to use what they have heard, thus bringing them to the point of change. Biblical knowledge is not enough.

David McCord

2000-01-01

118

The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

119

Considerations in Laying Off Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of job loss can be both psychologically and physically harmful. Research suggests that the anticipation of unemployment and the early period of termination are particularly stressful. Surprisingly little has been written about the planning of lay-offs and the procedures used to inform employees of their dismissal. This article describes some considerations addressed by one company when developing and

Laura J Solomon

1983-01-01

120

USING CONCEPT MAPS TO EXPLORE PRE-SERVICE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS' CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT SCIENTIFIC iNQUiRY AS A SUBJECT MATTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our experience with using concept maps to explore pre-service chemistry teachers' conceptual understandings and to monitor learning outcomes of a new science method course focused on content knowledge of scientific inquiry as a part of our research project. 27 pre-service chemistry teachers participated in the science method course lasted eleven weeks, three hours weekly. The participants performed

S. Nihal Yeilolu; Yüksel Altun

121

48 CFR 1371.117 - Lay days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lay days. 1371.117 Section 1371.117 Federal...REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.117 Lay days. Insert clause 1352.271-86, Lay Days, in all solicitations and contracts for...

2011-10-01

122

48 CFR 1371.117 - Lay days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lay days. 1371.117 Section 1371.117 Federal...REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.117 Lay days. Insert clause 1352.271-86, Lay Days, in all solicitations and contracts for...

2012-10-01

123

Exploring young children’s understanding of risks associated with Internet usage and their concepts of management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children’s learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five—eight-year-old children’s understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their understanding. Children in small groups answered questions relating to what they consider dangerous interactions or materials

Lesley-Anne Ey; C. Glenn Cupit

2011-01-01

124

The Narratology of Lay Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The five narratives identified by the DEEPEN-project are interpreted in terms of the ancient story of desire, evil, and the\\u000a sacred, and the modern narratives of alienation and exploitation. The first three narratives of lay ethics do not take stock\\u000a of what has radically changed in the modern world under the triple and joint evolution of science, religion, and philosophy.

Jean-Pierre Dupuy

2010-01-01

125

Exploring the gap between attitudes and behaviour : Understanding why consumers buy or do not buy organic food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to explore the values that underlie consumers purchasing decisions of organic food. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on data from focus groups and laddering interviews with a total of 181 regular and occasional consumers of organic food that were contrasted with survey results of other studies. Findings – The results show that

Susanne Padel; Carolyn Foster

2005-01-01

126

An Autoethnographic Approach to Understanding Asperger's Syndrome: A Personal Exploration of Self-Identity through Reflexive Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article makes use of autoethnography in which I, as researcher, explore my own awareness of Asperger's syndrome and how this, in turn, has helped me deal with many day to day situations I have encountered. The work illustrates how actively engaging with one's own life story narratives can help the Asperger's learner come to terms with his or…

Hughes, Paul

2012-01-01

127

Family Day Care Educators: An Exploration of Their Understanding and Experiences Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…

Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Davies, Belinda; Smyth, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Herrman, Helen; Sims, Margaret; Harrison, Linda; Cook, Kay; Marshall, Bernie; Williamson, Lara

2012-01-01

128

The Attitudes of Greek Physicians and Lay People on Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of lay people and physicians regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients in Greece. The sample consisted of 141 physicians and 173 lay people. A survey questionnaire was used concerning issues such as euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and so forth. Many physicians (42.6%) and lay people (25.4%, P

Efi Parpa; Kyriaki Mystakidou; Eleni Tsilika; Pavlos Sakkas; Elisabeth Patiraki; Kyriaki Pistevou-Gombaki; Antonis Galanos; Lambros Vlahos

2006-01-01

129

Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

2007-01-01

130

An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

Dawson, Vaille

2007-01-01

131

Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

2012-01-01

132

An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

Dawson, Vaille

2007-01-01

133

Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

2012-01-01

134

Exploring the Magnetic Sands of Time: Using Zircons and Other Sedimentary Detritus to Understand the Early Geodynamo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The onset and nature of the geomagnetic field is important for understanding the evolution of the core, atmosphere and, potentially, life. Ubiquitous metamorphism, however, imposes a series of restrictions on the materials that can be used to retrieve paleo-Archean and older magnetic records. These challenges are arguably best addressed through the study of single silicate crystals that host magnetic inclusions.

J. A. Tarduno; J. Nelson; R. D. Cottrell; M. K. Watkeys

2009-01-01

135

Understanding Screen-related Sedentary Behavior and Its Contributing Factors among School-aged Children: A Social-ecologic Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To explore the factors that contribute to children's screen-related sedentary (S-RS) behaviors.\\u000aSettings: Elementary schools.\\u000aSubjects: A random sample of children in grades five and six and their parents.\\u000aMeasures: The outcome measure was children's S-RS activity level measured by a self-administered questionnaire. A full spectrum of potential contributing factors for children's S-RS behaviors was obtained through surveys. Multilevel

Meizi He; Stewart Harris; Leonard Piché; Charlene Beynon

2009-01-01

136

An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

Dawson, Vaille

2007-03-01

137

How Iranian lay people in three ethnic groups conceptualize a case of a depressed woman: an explanatory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s). Although depression is a major public health problem, little is known about lay people's views of this subject in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore how depression in women is viewed among lay people in three major ethnic groups – Kurd, Turk, and Fars.Design. Participants were selected from public urban healthcare centers. Four focus group discussions

Masoumeh Dejman; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Shervin Assari; Maryam Rasoulian; Alireza Jazayery; Hossein Malekafzali; Monir Baradaran Eftekhari; Katayon Falahat; Solvig Ekblad

2010-01-01

138

Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: Exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance.  

PubMed

Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping. PMID:23677925

Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

2013-05-15

139

Oral cancer: reviewing the present understanding of its molecular mechanism and exploring the future directions for its effective management.  

PubMed

The present review aims to analyze the information available regarding the molecular mechanisms of Oral Carcinogenesis and explore the future directions where the field of Cancer Biology is venturing. Oncologists have excellently followed the proverb "Necessity is the mother of Invention". The desire to be more precise and comprehensive in their studies has led to the invention of some of the most innovative techniques like laser capture microdissection, comparative genomic hybridization, microarrays, and protein chips etc. Various Biotech companies and Cancer Institutes are on a hunt for anti-cancer drugs and molecular markers for cancers. These revolutionary approaches and the new breed of Oncologists have made the field very exciting and have generated the hope that finally the war against cancer would be won. In the end it is urged that the lead taken in other cancers like colon, breast, leukemia will be emulated in oral cancer. This is expected to provide a molecular blueprint for HNSCC, thus helping to identify suitable markers for the early detection of pre-neoplastic lesions, as well as novel targets for its pharmacological intervention. PMID:12618193

Nagpal, Jatin K; Das, Bibhu R

2003-04-01

140

Scientific and lay communities: earning epistemic trust through knowledge sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist philosophers of science have been prominent amongst social epistemologists who draw attention to communal aspects\\u000a of knowing. As part of this work, I focus on the need to examine the relations between scientific communities and lay communities,\\u000a particularly marginalized communities, for understanding the epistemic merit of scientific practices. I draw on Naomi Scheman’s\\u000a argument (2001) that science earns epistemic

Heidi E. Grasswick

2010-01-01

141

Aligning Lay and Specialized Passages in Comparable Medical Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. While the public has increasingly access to medical information, specialized medical language is often difficult for non-experts to understand ,and there is a need ,to bridge the gap between,specialized language and lay language. As a first step towards this end, we describe here a method to build a comparable corpus of expert and non-expert medical French documents,and to identify

Louise Deléger; Pierre Zweigenbaum

2008-01-01

142

Pragmatic abilities in children with congenital visual impairment: an exploration of non-literal language and advanced theory of mind understanding.  

PubMed

Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to explore whether children with a broader range of congenital visual impairments have a delay in more advanced theory of mind understanding, in particular second-order theory of mind (i.e. awareness that other people have beliefs about beliefs) and non-literal language (e.g. irony or figure of speech). Twenty-four children with congenital visual impairment and 24 typically developing sighted children aged between 6 and 13 were included. All children were presented with a series of stories involving understanding of theory of mind and non-literal language. When compared with sighted children of similar age and verbal intelligence, performance of children with congenital visual impairment on advanced theory of mind and non-literal stories was alike. The ability to understand the motivations behind non-literal language was associated with age, verbal intelligence and theory of mind skills, but was not associated with visual ability. PMID:22437442

Pijnacker, Judith; Vervloed, Mathijs P J; Steenbergen, Bert

2012-11-01

143

Paraphrase acquisition from comparable medical corpora of specialized and lay texts.  

PubMed

Nowadays a large amount of health information is available to the public, but medical language is often difficult for lay people to understand. Developing means to make medical information more comprehensible is therefore a real need. In this regard, a useful resource would be a corpus of specialized and lay paraphrases. To this end we built comparable corpora of specialized and lay texts on which we applied paraphrasing patterns based on anchors of deverbal noun and verb pairs. The results show that the paraphrases were of good quality (71.4% to 94.2% precision) and that this type of paraphrases was relevant in the context of studying the differences between specialized and lay language. This study also demonstrates that simple paraphrase acquisition methods can also work on texts with a rather small degree of similarity, once similar text segments are detected. PMID:18999095

Deléger, Louise; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

2008-11-06

144

Laying Errors Caused by Prism Mislevelment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a qualitative study of the aiming errors induced by misleveling a sighting prism. This effort has been pursued to assist in the designing of several new laying systems. The principal design consideration is the orientation between the ...

J. V. Johnston

1973-01-01

145

Understanding the needs of township men who have sex with men (MSM) health outreach workers: exploring the interplay between volunteer training, social capital and critical consciousness.  

PubMed

This article considers the complex ways volunteer outreach workers can frame their engagement with a community-based HIV prevention programme for South African township MSM. Drawing on research conducted during the Ukwazana programme in Cape Town it begins by exploring limitations towards MSM participation with programme facilitators (namely previous feelings of mistrust and community homophobia) and strategies developed to offset these concerns. It then considers how great care must also be taken to appreciate how volunteers from marginalised groups can frame training as a key condition for participation. To understand this it is therefore necessary for facilitators to acknowledge a number of additional concerns. These include community status, a lack of bonding social capital between volunteers and a highly developed from of critical consciousness by volunteers regarding HIV prevention possibilities. This article therefore suggests that effort to initially engage marginalised communities must also be met with effort to understand the complex ways volunteers relate to other MSM and to each other. PMID:22903420

Tucker, Andrew; de Swardt, Glenn; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James

2013-05-01

146

Influence of nest seclusion and nesting material on pre-laying behaviour of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provision of nest sites is beneficial for the welfare of laying hens in intensive production systems. The design of these nest sites has a direct effect on pre-laying behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of screening off the entrances of the nest boxes with non-transparent flaps and providing nesting or flooring material on pre-laying behaviour.

Ester Struelens; Annelies Van Nuffel; Frank A. M. Tuyttens; Lieve Audoorn; Erik Vranken; Johan Zoons; Daniël Berckmans; Frank Ödberg; Stefan Van Dongen; Bart Sonck

2008-01-01

147

A critical review of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens.  

PubMed

Salmonella Typhimurium has been reported to contaminate egg production across the world, but where Salmonella Enteritidis is endemic it is this latter serovar that dominates egg-borne salmonellosis. However, Salmonella Typhimurium is a major food-borne pathogen so it is important to understand how it can impact the microbiological safety of eggs and what serovar-specific control strategies may be appropriate in the future as control over Salmonella Enteritidis continues to improve. To that end, the present review examines the published literature on Salmonella Typhimurium in laying hens and eggs, with particular reference to comparative studies examining different serovars. Experimentally Salmonella Enteritidis is more often isolated from egg contents and seems to adhere better to reproductive tract mucosa, whilst Salmonella Typhimurium appears to provoke a more intense tissue pathology and immune response, and flock infections are more transient. However, it is observed in many cases that the present body of evidence does not identify clear differences between specific behaviours of the serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, whether in laying hens, in their eggs, or in the laying environment. It is concluded that further long-term experimental and natural infection studies are needed in order to generate a clearer picture. PMID:21879803

Wales, A D; Davies, R H

2011-08-31

148

48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lay days. 1252.217-75 Section 1252.217-75...Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-75 Lay days. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217...insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay day...

2012-10-01

149

48 CFR 3052.217-94 - Lay days (USCG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lay days (USCG). 3052.217-94 Section...Provisions and Clauses 3052.217-94 Lay days (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance...insert the following clause: Lay Days (DEC 2003) (a) Lay day...

2011-10-01

150

48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lay days. 1252.217-75 Section 1252.217-75...Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-75 Lay days. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217...insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay day...

2011-10-01

151

48 CFR 3052.217-94 - Lay days (USCG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lay days (USCG). 3052.217-94 Section...Provisions and Clauses 3052.217-94 Lay days (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance...insert the following clause: Lay Days (DEC 2003) (a) Lay day...

2012-10-01

152

Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA). This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so that the research outcomes benefit the Aboriginal community. There are a number of factors that influence whether the desired level of engagement can be achieved in practice. These include the level of resourcing for the project and the researchers' efforts to ensure dissemination and research translation; and the capacity of the Aboriginal community to engage with research given other demands upon their time.

2009-01-01

153

Egg Laying Decisions in Drosophila Are Consistent with Foraging Costs of Larval Progeny  

PubMed Central

Decision-making is defined as selection amongst options based on their utility, in a flexible and context-dependent manner. Oviposition site selection by the female fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been suggested to be a simple and genetically tractable model for understanding the biological mechanisms that implement decisions [1]. Paradoxically, female Drosophila have been found to avoid oviposition on sugar which contrasts with known Drosophila feeding preferences [1]. Here we demonstrate that female Drosophila prefer egg laying on sugar, but this preference is sensitive to the size of the egg laying substrate. With larger experimental substrates, females preferred to lay eggs directly on sugar containing media over other (plain, bitter or salty) media. This was in contrast to smaller substrates with closely spaced choices where females preferred non-sweetened media. We show that in small egg laying chambers newly hatched first instar larvae are able to migrate along a diffusion gradient to the sugar side. In contrast, in contexts where females preferred egg laying directly on sugar, larvae were unable to migrate to find the sucrose if released on the sugar free side of the chamber. Thus, where larval foraging costs are high, female Drosophila choose to lay their eggs directly upon the nutritious sugar substrate. Our results offer a powerful model for female decision-making.

Schwartz, Nicholas U.; Zhong, Lixian; Bellemer, Andrew; Tracey, W. Daniel

2012-01-01

154

Mars--NASA Explores the Red Planet: Science Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website lays out NASA's four goals for the exploration of Mars. Each goal is described on a separate webpage--most with illustrations. The webpage for the fourth goal describes preparation for possible human exploration of Mars.

2012-08-27

155

What are lay theories of social class?  

PubMed

Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

Varnum, Michael E W

2013-07-16

156

What Are Lay Theories of Social Class?  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants’ own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people’s beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.

Varnum, Michael E. W.

2013-01-01

157

Popular Education and Republican Ideals: The Portuguese Lay Missions in Colonial Africa, 1917-1927  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article aims to offer another reading of the Portuguese civilising process in Africa on the basis of an analysis of a set of alternative sources and to explore the role of other educational configurations, beyond those of the public school and the religious missionary school, such as the civilising missions. With the creation of the Lay

Madeira, Ana Isabel

2011-01-01

158

Lay Perceptions of Global RiskPublic Views of Global Warming in Cross-National Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports results from a 1992 Gallup survey conducted in six nations (Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Portugal and Russia) that explored public perceptions of global warming in some detail. Overall the results tend to support those of the small-scale but in-depth studies on which the present study built: Lay publics in these six nations see global warming as a

Riley E. Dunlap

1998-01-01

159

`Witnessing': The Use of First-Hand Knowledge in Legitimating Lay Opinions on Talk Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio phone-ins, or `talk radio' shows, represent a popular environment in which members of the public at large may discuss the news of the day from their own perspective. This article explores some discursive devices that are used in legitimating, or authenticating, lay speakers' opinions about news in this environment. A number of examples of calls to a talk radio

IAN HUTCHBY

2001-01-01

160

Seasonal and vertical patterns of egg-laying by the freshwater fish louse Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura).  

PubMed

Argulus foliaceus is a damaging fish ectoparasite for which new control measures are being developed based on egg-removal. In an attempt to develop further understanding of seasonal and vertical egg-laying patterns in this parasite, egg-laying activity was monitored over the period 14 April to 17 November 2003 in 2 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fisheries in Northern Ireland, UK. At Site 1, egg-laying was continuous from 21 April to 17 November, when water temperature was above 8 to 10 degrees C. At Site 2, egg-laying was continuous from 4 June to 29 October. In the early months of the season, egg-laying was recorded mainly within the top 1 m of the water column; however, a significant shift to deep water egg-laying was recorded between 7 July and 17 November at Site 1 and between 20 August and 29 October at Site 2. Egg clutches were preferentially laid at depths of up to 8.5 m during this time (Site 2), a feature of egg-laying hitherto unappreciated. Temperature and dissolved oxygen did not differ significantly among depths, but there was an increase in water clarity over time. However, the precise environmental triggers for deep water egg-laying are still unclear. These new insights into the reproductive behaviour of this species will be useful in developing control methods based on egg-removal. PMID:16532607

Harrison, A J; Gault, N F S; Dick, J T A

2006-01-30

161

Understanding the molecular determinants of substrate and inhibitor specificities in the Carbapenemase KPC-2: exploring the roles of Arg220 and Glu276.  

PubMed

?-Lactamases are important antibiotic resistance determinants expressed by bacteria. By studying the mechanistic properties of ?-lactamases, we can identify opportunities to circumvent resistance through the design of novel inhibitors. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis of class A ?-lactamases reveals that many enzymes possess a localized positively charged residue (e.g., R220, R244, or R276) that is critical for interactions with ?-lactams and ?-lactamase inhibitors. To better understand the contribution of these residues to the catalytic process, we explored the roles of R220 and E276 in KPC-2, a class A ?-lactamase that inactivates carbapenems and ?-lactamase inhibitors. Our study reveals that substitutions at R220 of KPC-2 selectively impact catalytic activity toward substrates (50% or greater reduction in k(cat)/K(m)). In addition, we find that residue 220 is central to the mechanism of ?-lactamase inhibition/inactivation. Among the variants tested at Ambler position 220, the R220K enzyme is relatively "inhibitor susceptible" (K(i) of 14 ± 1 ?M for clavulanic acid versus K(i) of 25 ± 2 ?M for KPC-2). Specifically, the R220K enzyme is impaired in its ability to hydrolyze clavulanic acid compared to KPC-2. In contrast, the R220M substitution enzyme demonstrates increased K(m) values for ?-lactamase inhibitors (>100 ?M for clavulanic acid versus 25 ± 3 ?M for the wild type [WT]), which results in inhibitor resistance. Unlike other class A ?-lactamases (i.e., SHV-1 and TEM-1), the amino acid present at residue 276 plays a structural rather than kinetic role with substrates or inhibitors. To rationalize these findings, we constructed molecular models of clavulanic acid docked into the active sites of KPC-2 and the "relatively" clavulanic acid-susceptible R220K variant. These models suggest that a major 3.5-Ĺ shift occurs of residue E276 in the R220K variant toward the active S70 site. We anticipate that this shift alters the shape of the active site and the positions of two key water molecules. Modeling also suggests that residue 276 may assist with the positioning of the substrate and inhibitor in the active site. These biochemical and molecular modeling insights bring us one step closer to understanding important structure-activity relationships that define the catalytic and inhibitor-resistant profile of KPC-2 and can assist the design of novel compounds. PMID:22687511

Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Taracila, Magdalena A; Smith, Kerri M; Xu, Yan; Bonomo, Robert A

2012-06-11

162

Sloan Digital Sky Survey Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE): Data from a Spectroscopic Survey of 240,000 Stars with g=14-20  

DOE Data Explorer

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The seventh data release (DR7) from the SDSS represents a completion of the overall, original project, though SDSS-III began in 2008 and will build upon the knowledge gained already.

SEGUE, which stands for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration, was one of those three surveys. The images and spectra obtained by SEGUE allowed astronomers to map the positions and velocities of hundreds of thousands of stars, from faint, relatively near-by (within about 100 pc or roughly 300 light-years) ancient stellar embers known as white dwarfs to bright stellar giants located in the outer reaches of the stellar halo, more than 100,000 light-years away. Encoded within the spectral data are the composition and temperature of these stars, vital clues for determining the age and origin of different populations of stars within the Galaxy. [from the SEGUE page at http://www.sdss.org/segue/] View illustrative spectra for various types of stars or go directly to the SDSS page for Data Release Seven at http://www.sdss.org/dr7/.

All three surveys summarized are:

  • Legacy: an imaging survey in five bands over a contiguous 7646 deg2 high-latitude elliptical region in the Northern Galactic Cap, plus an additional 750 deg2 in the Southern Galactic Cap, together with spectroscopy of complete samples of galaxies and quasars covering about 8200 square degrees. The total imaging area in the Legacy survey is 8423 square degrees.
  • SEGUE (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration): additional imaging of 3240 deg2 of sky at lower Galactic latitudes, together with spectroscopy of 240,000 stars towards 200 sightlines covering 1400 square degrees (spread throughout the Legacy and SEGUE imaging footprints), to study the structure of the Milky Way.
  • Supernova: the equivalent of about 80 repeated imaging scans of the Southern Equatorial Stripe (ra > 310 or ra < 59; -1.25 > dec < 1.25) obtained in variable weather conditions (some clouds) to search for supernovae in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 0.4.
The catalog derived from the images includes more than 350 million celestial objects, and spectra of 930,000 galaxies, 120,000 quasars, and 460,000 stars. The data are fully calibrated and reduced, carefully checked for quality, and publically accessible through efficient databases. The data have been publicly released in a series of annual data releases, culminating in the final data release, DR7.[Copied from http://www.sdss.org/dr7/start/aboutdr7.html

SDSS-II SEGUE Collaboration; Yanny, Brian; Rockosi, Constance; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Knapp, Gillian R.

163

Exploring the Universe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)|

Aviation/Space, 1982

1982-01-01

164

Student Understanding of Cross Product Direction and Use of Right-hand Rules: An Exploration of Representation and Context-dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in introductory physics struggle with vector algebra and with cross product direction in particular. Some have suggested that this may be due to misapplied right-hand rules, but there are few studies that have had the resolution to explore this. Additionally, previous research on student understanding has noted several kinds of representation-dependence of student performance with vector algebra in both physics and non-physics (or math) contexts (e.g. Hawkins et al., 2009; Van Deventer, 2008). Yet with few exceptions (e.g. Scaife and Heckler, 2010), these findings have not been applied to cross product direction questions or the use of right-hand rules. Also, the extensive work in spatial cognition is particularly applicable to cross product direction due to the spatial and kinesthetic nature of the right-hand rule. A synthesis of the literature from these various fields reveals four categories of problem features likely to impact the understanding of cross product direction: (1) the type of reasoning required, (2) the orientation of the vectors, (3) the need for parallel transport, and (4) the physics context and features (or lack thereof). These features formed the basis of the present effort to systematically explore the context-dependence and representation- dependence of student performance on cross product direction questions. This study used a mix of qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze twenty-seven individual think-aloud interviews. During these interviews, second semester introductory physics students answered 80-100 cross product direction questions in different contexts and with varying problem features. These features were then used as the predictors in regression analyses for correctness and response time. In addition, each problem was coded for the methods used and the errors made to gain a deeper understanding of student behavior and the impact of these features. The results revealed a wide variety of methods (including six different right-hand rules), many different types of errors, and significant context-dependence and representation-dependence for the features mentioned above. Problems that required reasoning backward to find A? (for C?=A? xB? ) presented the biggest challenge for students. Participants who recognized the non-commutativity of the cross product would often reverse the order ( B?xA? ) on these problems. Also, this error occurred less frequently when a Guess and Check method was used in addition to the right-hand rule. Three different aspects of orientation had a significant impact on performance: (1) the physical discomfort of using a right-hand rule, (2) the plane of the given vectors, and to a lesser extent, (3) the angle between the vectors. One participant was more likely to switch the order of the vectors for the physically awkward orientations than for the physically easy orientations; and there was evidence that some of the difficulty with vector orientations that were not in the xy-plane was due to misinterpretations of the into and out of the page symbols. The impact of both physical discomfort and the plane of the vectors was reduced when participants rotated the paper. Unlike other problem features, the issue of parallel transport did not appear to be nearly as prevalent for cross product direction as it is for vector addition and subtraction. In addition to these findings, this study confirmed earlier findings regarding physics difficulties with magnetic field and magnetic force, such as differences in performance based on the representation of magnetic field (Scaife and Heckler, 2010) and confusion between electric and magnetic fields (Maloney et al., 2001). It also provided evidence of physics difficulties with magnetic field and magnetic force that have been suspected but never explored, specifically the impact of the sign of the charge and the observation location. This study demonstrated that student difficulty with cross product direction is not as simple as misapplied right-hand rules, although this is an issue. Student behavior on cr

Kustusch, Mary Bridget

165

‘It's like an explosion in your life…': lay perspectives on stress and myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Psychological difficulties are common after myocardial infarction (MI). These difficulties are most often represented to patients through cardiac rehabilitation services and the literature offered to patients after MI as being related to stress and its management. However, no research has examined what MI patients understand by the term stress or how congruent lay views of stress are with

Alex M. clark

2003-01-01

166

Lay Theories About White Racists: What Constitutes Racism (and What Doesn't)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological theories of racial bias assume a pervasive motivation to avoid appearing racist, yet researchers know little regarding laypeople's theories about what constitutes racism. By investigating lay theories of White racism across both college and community samples, we seek to develop a more complete understanding of the nature of race-related norms, motivations, and processes of social perception in the contemporary

Samuel R. Sommers; Michael I. Norton

2006-01-01

167

The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

2005-01-01

168

Challenges to Lay Judges in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scepticism about the role of juries in the American judicial process has prompted consideration of alternative ways of involving lay persons in adjudication. One possibility is to incorporate into American courts a mixed tribunal of the type common to European judicial systems; in these tribunals, which have nearly displaced the traditional jury of the Anglo-Saxon tradition, there is a mixed

NANCY TRAVIS WOLFE

1984-01-01

169

Skill Standards for Open Cut Pipe Laying.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document identifies skill standards for utility construction in a format that uses scenarios to provide a picture of the construction process under consideration. The scenarios provide a general description of the pipe laying and utility construction process. An introduction describes use and benefits of skill standards. Section 2 presents…

Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

170

Multi-reel operational lines laying vessel  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed of converting a single pipeline laying vessel having a main storage reel and a privotal ramp pipe straightening and tensioning assembly to a multi-reel pipe laying vessel for the layout of an operational lines array within which a rigid walled pipeline is contained. The method is described comprising the steps of: removing the pivotal support ramp and pipe straightening and tensioning equipment from the deck of the vessel; installing at least one auxiliary operational lines storage reel on the vessel in the upspooling direction of the pipeline stored on the main reel; installing an operational lines laying device adjacent the stern of the vessel, the laying device including operational lines supporting means adapted for providing moving contact for each of a plurality of operational lines and the means interconnected and adapted for moving the operational lines at a common velocity for permitting layout from the vessel in a downward juxtaposed configuration; and providing the main reel and the auxiliary reels with motive power means having both spooling direction power and unspooling direction braking systems.

Recalde, C.E.

1988-01-26

171

Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing  

SciTech Connect

Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data.

Brown, P. (Brown University, Providence, RI (United States))

1992-09-01

172

Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing.  

PubMed

Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data. PMID:1401851

Brown, P

1992-09-01

173

Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture.  

PubMed

People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory. PMID:18808273

No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi

2008-10-01

174

Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

2011-01-01

175

Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

2011-01-01

176

Exploring Ice in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module includes several lessons aimed at introducing ice science to students. In the first activity, students share personal ice experience stories through drawing, telling, and writing. This enables the teacher to diagnose personal conceptions about ice. Then students explore a big block of ice. They ask and record their questions and start an ice science notebook. Depending on the nature of the questions, the teacher selects appropriate follow-up activities. Other lessons include: Ice Melts,Ice Floats,Ice Flows, Ice is a Mineral, Life in Icy Places, and Ice in Space. Each lesson includes a kinesthetic activity where students mime and act out ice science concepts, creating a science performance laboratory. These experiences lay the foundation for deeper conceptual understanding in later school years. All lessons include extensive background information, a list of national standards addressed, suggested curriculum extensions, a list of resources and photo gallery.

2005-11-01

177

From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities  

PubMed Central

Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and framing of the research questions, participants did not display a high level of knowledge about the nature and causes of place-based health inequalities. By extending the scope of lay theorizing to include a focus on solutions, this study offers additional insights for public health. Specifically it suggests that a popular constituency for action on the social determinants of health is unlikely to eventuate from the current popular understandings of possible policy levers.

2011-01-01

178

Lay theories of gender identity disorder.  

PubMed

This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered. PMID:24059967

Furnham, Adrian; Sen, Radhika

2013-10-01

179

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-09-01

180

Involving lay and professional stakeholders in the development of a research intervention for the DEPICTED Study  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper focuses on stakeholders’ active involvement at key stages of the research as members of a Stakeholder Action Group (SAG), particularly in the context of lay stakeholder involvement. Some challenges that can arise and wider issues (e.g. empowerment, the impact of user involvement) are identified and explored within the literature on service user involvement in health care research, reflecting on the implications for researchers. Background In the DEPICTED study, lay and professional stakeholders were actively involved in developing a complex research intervention. Lay stakeholders comprised teenage and adult patients with diabetes, parents and patient organization representatives. Professional stakeholders were from a range of disciplines. Methods Three 1-day research meetings were attended by 13–17 lay stakeholders and 10–11 professional stakeholders (plus researchers). The SAG was responsible for reviewing evidence, advising on developing ideas for the research intervention and guiding plans for evaluation of the intervention in a subsequent trial. Formal evaluations were completed by stakeholders following each SAG meeting. Results Throughout the first (developmental) stage of this two-stage study, lay and professional stakeholders participated or were actively involved in activities that provided data to inform the research intervention. Lay stakeholders identified the need for and contributed to the design of a patient-held tool, strongly influenced the detailed design and content of the research intervention and outcome questionnaire, thus making a major contribution to the trial design. Conclusion Stakeholders, including teenagers, can be actively involved in designing a research intervention and impact significantly on study outcomes.

Lowes, Lesley; Robling, Michael R; Bennert, Kristina; Crawley, Charlotte; Hambly, Helen; Hawthorne, Kamila; Gregory, John W

2011-01-01

181

Involving lay and professional stakeholders in the development of a research intervention for the DEPICTED study.  

PubMed

AIM This paper focuses on stakeholders' active involvement at key stages of the research as members of a Stakeholder Action Group (SAG), particularly in the context of lay stakeholder involvement. Some challenges that can arise and wider issues (e.g. empowerment, the impact of user involvement) are identified and explored within the literature on service user involvement in health care research, reflecting on the implications for researchers. BACKGROUND In the DEPICTED study, lay and professional stakeholders were actively involved in developing a complex research intervention. Lay stakeholders comprised teenage and adult patients with diabetes, parents and patient organization representatives. Professional stakeholders were from a range of disciplines. METHODS Three 1-day research meetings were attended by 13-17 lay stakeholders and 10-11 professional stakeholders (plus researchers). The SAG was responsible for reviewing evidence, advising on developing ideas for the research intervention and guiding plans for evaluation of the intervention in a subsequent trial. Formal evaluations were completed by stakeholders following each SAG meeting. RESULTS? Throughout the first (developmental) stage of this two-stage study, lay and professional stakeholders participated or were actively involved in activities that provided data to inform the research intervention. Lay stakeholders identified the need for and contributed to the design of a patient-held tool, strongly influenced the detailed design and content of the research intervention and outcome questionnaire, thus making a major contribution to the trial design. CONCLUSION Stakeholders, including teenagers, can be actively involved in designing a research intervention and impact significantly on study outcomes. PMID:20860779

Lowes, Lesley; Robling, Michael R; Bennert, Kristina; Crawley, Charlotte; Hambly, Helen; Hawthorne, Kamila; Gregory, John W

2010-09-23

182

Motion Picture Effects on Public Understanding, Recruitment and Retention in the Military: Exploring the Situational Factors of Involvement and Celebrity Influence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This qualitative study was conducted to determine if, through government assistance to producers of entertainment-oriented motion pictures with military themes the armed forces in general and the Army in particular are: (1) increasing public understanding...

D. G. Boltz

1991-01-01

183

Understanding Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chapter 3 provides readers with an explanation of the issues related to sexuality in schools. The first section defines sexual\\u000a orientation, behavior, and identity and several related terms that are important for education professionals to understand.\\u000a The second section explores contemporary youth sexualities and some of the various identities embraced by youth today. The\\u000a third section gives a brief history

Elizabeth J. Meyer

184

Pragmatic Abilities in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment: An Exploration of Non-Literal Language and Advanced Theory of Mind Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to explore whether children with a broader range…

Pijnacker, Judith; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Steenbergen, Bert

2012-01-01

185

Playing the Field(s): An Exploration of Change, Conformity and Conflict in Girls' Understandings of Gendered Physicality in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper draws on data from a year-long ethnographic study of a group of 12- to 13-year-old girls that explored the processes through which they negotiated gendered physicality within the context of physical education. Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and social fields and McNay's extension of his work underpin a discussion of three contexts…

Hills, Laura A.

2006-01-01

186

Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array…

Le, Tam; Gardner, Susan K.

2010-01-01

187

Lay Explanations and Self-Management of Diabetes in Kathmandu, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This research explores the lay explanations and self-management of diabetes among residents in greater Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods: Interviews were done with 300 respondents drawn from diabetes patient listings and members of a national diabetes club. Sociodemographic and health-related data were collected with two standardized instruments: the Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities. Hierarchical ordinary least

Cary S. Kart; Jennifer M. Kinney; Janardan Subedi; Kelina B. Basnyat; Mary F. Vadakkan

2007-01-01

188

Correlates of Participation in a Family-Based HIV Prevention Program: Exploring African-American Women's Motivations and Understanding of the Program  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study examines the relationship between contextual factors and attendance in a family-based HIV prevention program for low-income, urban, African-American women and their children. Participants’ motivations to become involved, their concerns about discussing sex-related issues with their children, recruiters’ perceptions of respondents’ understanding of the program, and environmental stressors were examined. Participants’ level of motivation and recruiters’ success in improving respondents’ understanding of the program were significant correlates of attendance. Stressors experienced by the family and concerns around talking with children about sex were not significantly associated with participation. Recommendations to enhance involvement in family-based HIV prevention programs are made.

Pinto, Rogerio M.; McKay, Mary M.; Wilson, Marla; Phillips, Daisy; Baptiste, Donna; Bell, Carl C.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Paikoff, Roberta L.

2010-01-01

189

Water Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Exploration uses a project-based learning approach, permitting students to conduct research and build an understanding about water science and critical water-related issues. All learning activities and resources are packaged into three modules, or Legacy Cycles, in a way that enhances student learning by making use of the Internet and computer technology to promote inquiry learning. The Earth Science Literacy Principles provide the organizing framework for the lessons and activities in each Water Exploration Legacy Cycle. The curriculum is applicable to high school science courses such as Earth and Space Science, Advanced Placement Environmental Science, Biology, Chemistry, and Aquatic Science.

Ellins, Kathy K.; Mccall, Linda R.; Mote, Alison; Ryan, Catherine; Negrito, Kathleen M.; Paloski, Brenda

2012-01-01

190

Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

2012-01-01

191

Understanding public responses to genetic engineering through exploring intentions to purchase a hypothetical functional food derived from genetically modified dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the likely market response to the products of genetic engineering is crucial to their success. Views of a random selection of the public were obtained for a hypothetical milk product derived from cows genetically modified to produce a compound giving consumers protection from gastroenteritis or food poisoning. Approximately 55% of the sample (n = 1684) would not have purchased

B. H. Small; T. G. Parminter; M. W. Fisher

2005-01-01

192

Exploring the Association Between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2–9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ, and parents completed measures of remaining variables. ASD diagnosis was associated with level of

Laura A. Niditch; R. Enrique Varela; Jodi L. Kamps; Trenesha Hill

2012-01-01

193

Why do lay people believe that satisfaction and performance are correlated? Possible sources of a commonsense theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades of research have shown that the correlation between job satisfaction and job performance is modest in magnitude, yet lay people are thought to believe strongly that satisfied or ‘happy’ employees are more productive at work. This paper first documents the strength and pervasiveness of belief in several versions of the happy–productive worker hypothesis (Study 1), then proposes and explores

Cynthia D. Fisher

2003-01-01

194

Psychosocial variables involved in the construction of lay thinking about the economy: Results of a cross-national survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the relations between psychosocial variables and lay economic thought. A number of studies have described cultural variations of individual differences variables, such as locus of control (LOC) and belief in a just world. The aim of this project is to test the strength of the relationships between these variables and economic beliefs and attitudes across a wide

Marina Bastounis; David Leiser; Christine Roland-Lévy

2004-01-01

195

The ancient art of laying rope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a geometrical property of helical structures and show how it accounts for the early art of rope-making. Helices have a maximum number of rotations that can be added to them — and it is shown that this is a geometrical feature, not a material property. This geometrical insight explains why nearly identically appearing ropes can be made from very different materials and it is also the reason behind the unyielding nature of ropes. Maximally rotated strands behave as zero-twist structures. Hence, under strain they neither rotate in one direction nor in the other. The necessity for the rope to be stretched while being laid, known from Egyptian tomb scenes, follows straightforwardly, as does the function of the top, an old tool for laying ropes.

Bohr, J.; Olsen, K.

2011-03-01

196

Talking about colds and flu: the lay diagnosis of two common illnesses among older British people.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a study of the ways in which 54 older people in South Wales (UK) talk about the symptoms and causes of cold and influenza (flu). The study was designed to understand why older people might reject or accept the offer of seasonal flu vaccine, and in the course of the interviews respondents were also asked to express their views about the nature and causes of the two key illnesses. The latter are among the most common infections in human beings. In terms of the biomedical paradigm the common cold is caused by numerous respiratory viruses, whilst flu is caused by the influenza virus. Medical diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds without laboratory confirmation. Symptoms of flu include sudden onset of fever and cough, and colds are characterized by sneezing, sore throat, and runny nose, but in practice the symptoms often overlap. In this study we examine the degree by which the views of lay people with respect to both diagnosis and epidemiology diverge with that which is evident in biomedical discourse. Our results indicate that whilst most of the identified symptoms are common to lay and professional people, the former integrate symptoms into a markedly different observational frame from the latter. And as far as causation is concerned it is clear that lay people emphasize the role of 'resistance' and 'immunity' at least as much as 'infection' in accounting for the onset of colds and flu. The data are analyzed using novel methods that focus on the co-occurrence of concepts and are displayed as semantic networks. As well as reporting on its findings the authors draw out some implications of the study for social scientific and policy discussions concerning lay diagnosis, lay expertise and the concept of an expert patient. PMID:21186076

Prior, Lindsay; Evans, Meirion R; Prout, Hayley

2010-11-24

197

Feather Pecking in Laying Hens: Environmental and Endogenous Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedlaăková M., Bilăík B., Ko‰Čál, Ş.: Feather Pecking in Laying Hens: Environmental and Endogenous Factors. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 521-531. Feather pecking, pecking directed to and damaging the feathers of other birds, is a behavioural disorder occurring in laying hens and other poultry species and breeds. Feather pecking is both a welfare and economic problem. Pulling out feathers causes

M. SEDLAâKOVÁ

2004-01-01

198

EGG-LAYING DEFECTIVE MUTANTS OF THE NEMATODE CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated 145 fertile mutants of C. elegons that are defective in egg laying and have characterized 59 of them genetically, behaviorally and phar- macologically. These 59 mutants define 40 new genes called egl, for egg-laying abnormal. Most of the other mutants are defective in previously identified genes. The egl mutants differ with respect to the severity of their

CAROL TRENT; NANCY TSUNG; H. ROBERT HORVITZ

1983-01-01

199

Lay Persons' Versus Psychologists' Judgments of Psychologically Aggressive Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature assessing knowledge of and attitudes toward social issues has demonstrated that mental health professionals and lay persons often differ greatly. To add to the normative information in the field of psychological abuse and to determine whether the differences previously found between mental health professionals and lay persons extend to this field, a sample from each group rated psychologically aggressive

Diane Follingstad; Cynthia M. Helff; Robin V. Binford; Margaret M. Runge; Jeffrey D. White

2004-01-01

200

Scapegoating, self-confidence and risk comparison: The functionality of risk neutralisation and lay epidemiology by injecting drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the competing rationalities of scientific and lay epidemiology and how the tension between the two impacts on the efficacy of health promotion messages for injecting drug users (IDUs). It proposes that behaviours, which may be difficult to understand when viewed at an individual level, are, in fact, rational within particular cultural contexts. The study used qualitative semi-structured

Peter G. Miller

2005-01-01

201

Analysis of the free range behaviour of laying hens and the genetic and phenotypic relationships with laying performance.  

PubMed

1. Over twelve 28-d laying periods (almost one year), 272 laying hens of the Lohmann Silver strain, individually tagged with transponders, were monitored on their ranging behaviour and laying performance in an aviary system with an adjacent winter garden. 2. From laying periods 1 to 12, the daily frequency of passages between the barn and the winter garden of individual hens, showed an antagonistic trend compared to the average duration of single visits. While the frequency of passages decreased until the end of the recording period to 8 passages per hen and day, the average duration of single visits increased to a maximum of 32 min per hen. 3. The heritability estimates for the traits, length of stay in the winter garden and frequency of passages were higher for the last 5 laying periods than at the beginning of the recording period. For the last 5 laying periods, the estimates for the duration of stay in the winter garden varied between h(2) = 0.21 and 0.32 and for the frequency of passages, between h(2) = 0.30 and 0.49. 4. Most of the estimated heritabilities for the rate of lay were on an expected medium level (h(2) = 0.09 to 0.45). Deviant h(2)-values to a few laying periods were based on low additive genetic variances or high environmental variance. 5. Genetic correlations between both free range traits and the laying performance were negative (r(g length of stay) = -0.34 and r(g passage frequency) = -0.08). 6. Generally, there seems to be a possibility to influence the ranging behaviour through selection. Further investigations with different genotypes and varying dates of exposure to the laying environment, should be carried out to clarify possible influences on other traits and the negative correlation with laying performance. PMID:18836899

Icken, W; Cavero, D; Schmutz, M; Thurner, S; Wendl, G; Preisinger, R

2008-09-01

202

Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lay health workers are key to achieving universal health-care coverage, therefore measuring worker attrition and identifying its determinants should be an integral part of any lay health worker programme. Both published and unpublished research on lay health workers has largely focused on the types of interventions they can deliver effectively. This is an imperative since the main objective of these programmes is to improve health outcomes. However, high attrition rates can undermine the effectiveness of these programmes. There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals’ policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention.

Cliff, Julie; Sanders, David

2011-01-01

203

Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored.  

PubMed

Lay health workers are key to achieving universal health-care coverage, therefore measuring worker attrition and identifying its determinants should be an integral part of any lay health worker programme. Both published and unpublished research on lay health workers has largely focused on the types of interventions they can deliver effectively. This is an imperative since the main objective of these programmes is to improve health outcomes. However, high attrition rates can undermine the effectiveness of these programmes. There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals' policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention. PMID:22271950

Nkonki, Lungiswa; Cliff, Julie; Sanders, David

2011-10-24

204

A Long-Term Study of Science Literacy and Attitudes Towards Science: Exploring Changes Among College Undergraduate and Public Understanding over Twenty-Two Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing science literacy has been an important goal of science educators and policy makers for many years. Various studies including international, school, and public comparisons have painted a bleak picture of science literacy in the United States. We are conducting a study focused on undergraduates’ science literacy using a database of over 10,000 student responses from a large research university collected over a twenty-two year period, between 1989 - 2011. Survey questions were derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators), some of which are still used in public assessments of science literacy. Analysis has shown that our university students outperform the public on almost all topics on the survey. Despite targeted university interventions and the rise of public access to knowledge, student science literacy scores have not changed over twenty-two years. Demographic variables explain less than 10% of the variance in students’ scores of which the number of university science courses completed is the best predictor. There is a small correlation between students’ beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon and lower science literacy scores but students’ beliefs about science and technology also explain little variance in their overall scores. We have also compared responses of scientists and students on the same questions about science. We will discuss implications of evaluating students’ scientific knowledge in a time when students have access to more resources than ever before, an important goal as we continue to work towards increasing students’ understanding of scientific concepts. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, C.; Antonellis, J.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2012-01-01

205

Predicting the Lay Preventive Strategies in Response to Avian Influenza from Perceptions of the Threat  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of patterns of behaviors that lay people would engage in to protect themselves from the risk of infection in the case of avian influenza outbreak, as well as the lay perceptions of the threat that underlie these risk reduction strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A population-based survey (N?=?1003) was conducted in 2008 to understand and describe how the French public might respond to a possible outbreak. Factor analyses highlighted three main categories of risk reduction strategies consisting of food quality assurance, food avoidance, and animal avoidance. In combination with the fear of contracting avian influenza, mental representations associated with the manifestation and/or transmission of the disease were found to significantly and systematically shape the behavioral responses to the perceived threat. Conclusions/Significance This survey provides insight into the nature and predictors of the protective patterns that might be expected from the general public during a novel domestic outbreak of avian influenza.

Raude, Jocelyn; Setbon, Michel

2011-01-01

206

A process for evaluating exploration prospects  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., developed a process to allow management to compare a wide variety of global exploration opportunities on a uniform and consistent basis. Over the next five years, the process evolved into an effective method to plan exploration programs on a basis of value incorporating prospect ranking, budget allocation, and technology management. The final product is a continuous process and includes, within a single organizational unit, the integration of geologic risk assessment, probabilistic distribution of prospect hydrocarbon volumes, engineering development planning, and prospect economics. The process is based on the concepts of the play and hydrocarbon system. Other steps of the process (geologic risk assessment, volumetric estimation, engineering support, economic evaluation, and postdrill feedback) are considered extensions of fundamental knowledge and understanding of the underlying geological, engineering, and fiscal constraints imposed by these concepts. A foundation is set, describing the geologic framework and the prospect in terms of the play concept-source, reservoir, trap (including seal), and dynamics (timing/migration). The information and data from this description become the basis for 98 subsequent steps in the process. Risk assessment assigns a probability of success to each of these four elements of the lay concept, and multiplication of these probabilities yields the probability of geological success.

Otis, R.M.; Schneidermann, N. [Chevron Oversees Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1997-07-01

207

Odyssey: Principles for enduring space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the USA, Europe and other nations embark on a new voyage of exploration to the Moon, Mars and beyond, they should lay the foundations and establish precedents that invite a host of participants and followers. We argue that international cooperation, driven by foreign-policy and cost-sharing considerations, has taken a prominent role but must be pragmatically and flexibly balanced with

Randall R. Correll; Nicolas Peter

2005-01-01

208

Protection conferred by a live Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine against fowl typhoid in laying hens.  

PubMed

Fowl typhoid is under control in poultry farms of developed countries, but it still endemically subsists in commercial laying hen farms of some countries. It has been demonstrated that Salmonella live vaccines can elicit cross-immunity against members of the same Kauffmann-White scheme serogroup. In this work, we explored the protection conferred by TAD Salmonella vac E, a live Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis vaccine, against fowl typhoid. Three groups of laying hens were vaccinated with different vaccination schedules starting on the first day of life, and afterwards were infected with 2 x 10(5) CFU of a virulent Salmonella Gallinarum strain, either at wk 28 or wk 52. Mortality, fecal shedding, and organ invasion of Salmonella Gallinarum were assessed. In this work we demonstrated that this Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine is able to cross-immunize against Salmonella Gallinarum. At wk 28, hens vaccinated with three oral doses or with two oral doses combined with one subcutaneous dose were protected by the vaccine. At wk 52, when hens were infected 36 wk after the final immunization, the vaccine was not able to confer protection. Thus, revaccination every 3 mo would be highly recommended. In countries where Salmonella Gallinarum subsists together with Salmonella Enteritidis, control programs should include vaccination of laying hens using safe attenuated Salmonella strains. PMID:16863082

Chacana, P A; Terzolo, H R

2006-06-01

209

Lay theories of homosexuality: aetiology, behaviours and 'cures'.  

PubMed

This study set out to investigate the determinants, structure and relationship between lay people's beliefs about the aetiology (causes) of homosexuality, the attitudes to the behaviours of practising homosexuals and efficacy of 'cures' for homosexuality. Over two hundred and fifty subjects completed a three-part questionnaire, in which they specified their sexual orientation, personal contact patterns with homosexuals amongst other personal details. A factor analysis was performed on each of the three parts of the questionnaire and an interpretable factor structure emerged which suggested that lay people have an integrated 'theory' or schema concerning homosexuality. Lay theories concerning the aetiology, behaviours of, and 'cures' for homosexuality were moderately related to demographic variables such as sex, age and education, but strongly related to sexual orientation and contact with homosexuals. These results are discussed in terms of the literature on lay theories in general, and attitudes to homosexuals in particular. PMID:2372664

Furnham, A; Taylor, L

1990-06-01

210

Manual on the Laying and Clearing of Minefields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book describes the designs and operating principles of antitank and antipersonnel mines of the Soviet Army and the armies of the capitalist states. The fundamentals of laying, reconnaissance and clearing of minefields, as well as recommendations for ...

I. V. Volkov P. G. Radevich V. V. Zhuravlev

1965-01-01

211

EXTENSION OF SHEAR RUNOUT TABLE INTO SHIPPING BUILDING, WHICH LAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTENSION OF SHEAR RUNOUT TABLE INTO SHIPPING BUILDING, WHICH LAY PERPENDICULAR TO 8" MILL. VIEW LOOKING NORTH INCLUDES NEW BOLD PRODUCT SHEARS, STOPS LENGTH GAUGES, AND BUNDLING CRADLES. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

212

Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

Grybeck, Donald J.

2006-01-01

213

Laypersons' understanding of relative risk reductions: Randomised cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite increasing recognition of the importance of involving patients in decisions on preventive healthcare interventions, little is known about how well patients understand and utilise information provided on the relative benefits from these interventions. The aim of this study was to explore whether lay people can discriminate between preventive interventions when effectiveness is presented in terms of relative risk reduction (RRR), and whether such discrimination is influenced by presentation of baseline risk. Methods The study was a randomised cross-sectional interview survey of a representative sample (n = 1,519) of lay people with mean age 59 (range 40–98) years in Denmark. In addition to demographic information, respondents were asked to consider a hypothetical drug treatment to prevent heart attack. Its effectiveness was randomly presented as RRR of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 percent, and half of the respondents were presented with quantitative information on the baseline risk of heart attack. The respondents had also been asked whether they were diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or had experienced a heart attack. Results In total, 873 (58%) of the respondents consented to the hypothetical treatment. While 49% accepted the treatment when RRR = 10%, the acceptance rate was 58–60% for RRR>10. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates across respondents irrespective of whether they had been presented with quantitative information on baseline risk or not. Conclusion In this study, lay people's decisions about therapy were only slightly influenced by the magnitude of the effect when it was presented in terms of RRR. The results may indicate that lay people have difficulties in discriminating between levels of effectiveness when they are presented in terms of RRR.

Sorensen, Lene; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Nex?e, J?rgen; Nielsen, Jesper B

2008-01-01

214

Lay health workers and HIV programmes: implications for health systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the consequences of massive investment in antiretroviral access and other AIDS programmes has been the rapid emergence of large numbers of lay workers in the health systems of developing countries. In South Africa, government estimates are 65,000, mostly HIV\\/TB care-related lay workers contribute their labour in the public health sector, outnumbering the main front-line primary health care providers

H. Schneider; U. Lehmann

2010-01-01

215

Dietary methionine requirement of the Chinese egg-laying duck  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The dietary methionine requirement of egg-laying ducks was assessed by feeding diets supplemented with graded levels of DL-methionine (0, 4, 8, 12, 16?g\\/kg dietary protein) for 8 weeks. The basal diet contained 175?g protein and 2·6?g methionine per kg feed (or 14·9?g\\/kg protein) and an estimated ME of 11·5?MJ\\/kg.2. A total of 800 Shaoxin laying ducks (420 d old)

J. H. He; J. B. Li; F. X. Gao; Q. H. Liu; J. C. Shu; D. J. Liu

2003-01-01

216

A lay health advisor program to promote community capacity and change among change agents.  

PubMed

The Charlotte REACH 2010 project focuses on cardiovascular disease and diabetes among African Americans in a geographically defined community. The goal of the project is to create changes in individual behaviors, community capacity, change agents, and systemic policies and actions that will result in the reduction of health disparities related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The project consists of three main components: lay health advisors as change agents, targeted interventions (exercise, nutrition, smoking cessation, primary care), and environmental and systemic interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the lay health advisor intervention using qualitative methodologies that were developed to document changes in community capacity and change among change agents. Lay health advisors report that they have internalized their role as a community advocate and have made positive changes in their own personal health behavior. Their understanding of the underlying causes of poor health has expanded to include social and institutional factors and they have begun to shift their emphasis toward advocacy for social and institutional change. PMID:17105806

Plescia, Marcus; Groblewski, Martha; Chavis, LaTonya

2006-11-14

217

Chance, choice and control: lay debate on prenatal social sex selection.  

PubMed

Assisted reproductive technologies are typically positioned as increasing the range of choices open to the healthcare consumer, thereby enhancing 'reproductive freedom'. In this paper, we question the equivalence of reproductive choice and personal freedom in ethical theory, using results from a project investigating how lay people make ethical evaluations about the new genetic and reproductive technologies. We took the topic of social sex selection by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and used group discussions and interviews in the north-east of England to trace how lay people develop and express their ethical evaluations, and to identify the implicit or explicit normative framework that gave rise to their opinions on prenatal sex selection. There was a striking level of ambivalence towards choice in general and reproductive choice in particular. Participants offered few positive statements and numerous reasons why reproductive choice might be problematic. Our participants' argumentation shares with mainstream bioethical analysis the weighing of the possible harms of prenatal sex selection for social reasons against the harm of restricting reproductive freedom. However, unlike most secular-liberal bioethicists, many of our participants concluded that prenatal sex selection is undesirable because it is an expression of parental preference instead of a response to the future child's need. Our interpretation of their reasoning is that they work from an ideal of "good parents", one of the features of which is the relinquishing of control over their children, except to protect them from harm. This voluntary self-limitation does not indicate reduced autonomy, because parental autonomy can only operate within the limits set by this relational framework. We suggest that a model of relational autonomy captures our lay participants' framing of the problem better than a more traditional understanding of autonomy. Our study also shows that in appropriately structured discussion of bioethical issues, lay people can articulate reasons for their opinions that are grounded in sophisticated and morally relevant concepts. PMID:16459006

Scully, Jackie Leach; Banks, Sarah; Shakespeare, Tom W

2006-02-03

218

Incubating knowledge: A critical exploration with teachers studying live chickens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis documents a professional development workshop conducted with eight teachers who worked at Drumlin Farm, an outdoor education center, organic farm and wildlife sanctuary (Appendix C). The participants studied live chickens for eight consecutive workshop sessions. Seven years later the same group met for two follow-up sessions to discuss the effects of the workshop on their teaching practice. The workshop and follow-up sessions were conducted using a teaching-research method developed by Eleanor Duckworth called critical exploration (Duckworth, in press). In this thesis, findings from the eight-week workshop and the two followup sessions are documented in a narrative format showing how and what individuals and the group as a whole, came to understand from studying live chickens, as well as the process and application of the critical exploration method. Over the course of the workshop and the follow-up sessions, group explorations focused on the biological concept of broodiness (the desire to sit, tend, and hatch eggs) in domestic laying hens. In the process of developing and investigating their questions about broodiness, the participants developed and used a scientific process. Their experiences as learners in critical exploration with chickens as the subject matter, resulted in participants both thinking about, and modifying, their ideas about teaching and learning.

Rauchwerk, Susan I.

219

Children's and lay adults' views about thermal equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes an investigation into studentsâ and adultsâ understanding of a simple thermal system by conducting interviews that explored the constructs and explanatory ideas used by children and adults in interpreting the outcome of a heating experiment. Researchers found that many interviewees' reasoning about heat phenomena used an elementary 'on=hot/off=cold' principle. Some implications of these findings for the teaching of heat and temperature are discussed.

Arnold, Mike; Millar, Robin

2006-05-23

220

Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research has been carried out to understand how circadian clocks regulate various physiological processes in organisms.\\u000a The discovery of clock genes and the molecular clockwork has helped researchers to understand the possible role of these genes\\u000a in regulating various metabolic processes. In Drosophila melanogaster, many studies have shown that the basic architecture of circadian clocks is multi-oscillatory. In nature,

T. Manjunatha; Shantala Hari Dass; Vijay Kumar Sharma

2008-01-01

221

Seasonal dynamics of egg laying and egg-laying strategy of the ectoparasite Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura).  

PubMed

Substrate preferences, spatial aggregation patterns and seasonal dynamics in the egg laying of ectoparasitic Argulus coregoni were studied at a commercial fish farm in Finland. Pilot experiments showed that A. coregoni females selected specific types of substrates for egg laying. Significantly more A. coregoni eggs were laid on dark substrates than on light ones suggesting the use of visual cues. Therefore, egg-laying plates of dark colour were constructed for further experiments. Most A. coregoni eggs were deposited in locations in shadow and in the deepest water in a 2 m deep farming canal. Relatively more eggs were laid on bottom stones situated near each egg-laying trap than on artificial egg-laying plates indicating a preference for irregular stones in the deeper locations in the canal. The plates were located 20 cm above the bottom. However, a total of 5,863 A. coregoni egg clutches, corresponding approximately to 1.5 million unhatched metanauplii, were successfully destroyed with the plates indicating that egg-laying traps can be used as an ecological control method against argulids in certain situations. For traps to be effective, ponds should not contain stones or any other hard substrata attracting female lice. The egg laying of A. coregoni in this study started on 5 July in 2001 and extended over 3.5 months up to mid-October. The egg-laying pattern of A. coregoni population was unimodal, supporting the view that only a single A. coregoni generation occurred annually in Central Finland. PMID:15206468

Hakalahti, T; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T

2004-06-01

222

Beyond the knowledge deficit: recent research into lay and expert attitudes to food risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a ‘knowledge deficit’ among lay people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive

Janus Hansen; Lotte Holm; Lynn Frewer; Paul Robinson; Peter Sandře

2003-01-01

223

Exploring Mayan Numerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes an exploration activity involving Mayan numerals, which can be adapted by teachers at various levels to help students better understand the concept of place value and appreciate contributions to mathematics made by an indigenous Central American culture.|

Farmer, Jeff D.; Powers, Robert A.

2005-01-01

224

Patterns of Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this phenomenological study, seven veteran elementary school teachers explored how they were able to make accurate and timely decisions about their students' mathematical understanding. Patterns of recognizable phenomena were recognized that teachers implicitly perceived and interpreted as indicators of children's understanding. (SLD)

Reynolds, Sharon; Martin, Kathleen; Groulx, Judy

1996-01-01

225

Identifying reproductive events using archival tags: egg-laying behaviour of the small spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula.  

PubMed

The use of archival depth telemetry as a means of remotely assessing the reproductive rates of free-ranging fishes is explored. This is achieved by electronically tracking the vertical movements of individual female small spotted catsharks Scyliorhinus canicula in the natural environment, whilst simultaneously evaluating the temporal and vertical distributions of egg-laying in this species. Distinctive patterns of short-term (0·3-3·7 h), shallow-water activity are documented in the time-depth profiles of female S. canicula that occur at an appropriate depth (1·0-2·3 m) and periodicity (every 10-12 days) to represent egg-laying behaviour. Putative egg-laying behaviour was exhibited simultaneously by two individually tracked female S. canicula during late-spring and early-summer. The results highlight that, provided species behaviour is suitable and complementary methods such as previous data, laboratory experiments and field surveys can be used to validate the patterns observed, archival depth telemetry offers an unobtrusive means by which egg production and egg-laying behaviour of free-living fishes can be estimated. As precise information regarding life-history parameters is difficult to obtain for free-ranging fish species, this technique could be used to improve the parameterization of species demographic models that are relevant to the management of wild fish populations. PMID:23331140

Wearmouth, V J; Southall, E J; Morritt, D; Sims, D W

2012-11-05

226

Laying the groundwork for assisted rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation -- To provide to physical therapists a monitoring system with effective and accurate patient monitoring and evolution analysis. Research approach -- We analyzed therapy sessions with tetraplegic patients to better understand the rehabilitation process and highlight the major requirements for a technology-enhanced tool. We developed a prototype able to automate and improve the current monitoring and follow-up processes. Findings\\/Design

Rita Pereira; Tiago Guerreiro; Hugo Nicolau; Daniel Gonçalves; Joaquim Jorge

2010-01-01

227

Task shifting in maternal and newborn care: a non-inferiority study examining delegation of antenatal counseling to lay nurse aides supported by job aids in Benin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Shifting the role of counseling to less skilled workers may improve efficiency and coverage of health services, but evidence is needed on the impact of substitution on quality of care. This research explored the influence of delegating maternal and newborn counseling responsibilities to clinic-based lay nurse aides on the quality of counseling provided as part of a task shifting

Larissa Jennings; André Sourou Yebadokpo; Jean Affo; Marthe Agbogbe; Aguima Tankoano

2011-01-01

228

Evidence for systemic spread of the potentially zoonotic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli in experimentally challenged laying chickens.  

PubMed

Brachyspira pilosicoli is a potentially zoonotic anaerobic intestinal spirochaete that is one of several species causing avian intestinal spirochaetosis. The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible model of infection in point-of-lay chickens and compare the virulence of two strains of B. pilosicoli in a model using experimentally challenged laying chickens. Seventeen-week-old commercial laying chickens were experimentally challenged by oral gavage with either B. pilosicoli strain B2904 or CPSp1, following an oral dose of 10?% sodium bicarbonate to neutralize acidity in the crop. Approximately 80?% of the chickens became colonized and exhibited increased faecal moisture content, reduced weight gain and delayed onset of lay. Tissues sampled at post-mortem examination were analysed to produce a quantitative output on the number of spirochaetes present and hence, the extent of colonization. The liver and spleen were colonized, and novel histopathology was observed in these tissues. The infection model we report here has potential use in studies to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which Brachyspira elicit disease in poultry and in testing novel intervention strategies. PMID:23161770

Mappley, Luke J; Tchórzewska, Monika A; Nunez, Alejandro; Woodward, Martin J; La Ragione, Roberto M

2012-11-15

229

Buddhist thought and nursing: a hermeneutic exploration.  

PubMed

In this paper I lay out the ground for a creative dialogue between Buddhist thought and contemporary nursing. I start from the observation that in tracing an arc from the existential human experience of suffering to finding compassionate responses to suffering in everyday practice Buddhist thought already appears to present significant affinities with nursing as a practice discipline. I discuss some of the complexities of entering into a cross-cultural dialogue, which is already well under way in the working out of Western forms of Buddhism, and which is beginning to be reflected in nursing literature. I introduce philosophical hermeneutics as a useful framework for elaborating an open and constructive exchange. I then discuss key Mahayana Buddhist concepts of emptiness and two truths that lead to a dynamic and open way of understanding reality and responding in the world. I turn to examples of original texts to give a flavour of the varied and distinctive forms of literature in the Buddhist tradition. This is intended partly to keep the reader alert to cultural difference (from a Western standpoint, that is) while exploring the creative potential of Buddhist thought. Hermeneutics again provides a framework for interpretation. This paper establishes a philosophical ground for a critical and creative dialogue between Buddhist thought and nursing. PMID:22405016

McCaffrey, Graham; Raffin-Bouchal, Shelley; Moules, Nancy J

2012-04-01

230

Beyond the 'back yard': Lay knowledge about Aedes aegypti in northern Australia and its implications for policy and practice.  

PubMed

Controlling dengue fever in Australia and internationally, relies heavily upon the actions of residents as well as community education and awareness of the risks. Although it has been well established in medical anthropology that the success of health interventions is highly dependent upon a clear grasp of lay knowledge of disease, limited attention has been given to lay understandings of dengue fever and its vectors in the extant literature. We begin addressing this hiatus through an examination of north Queensland residents' knowledge of the breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Building on the insights of earlier social research, we use factor analysis to examine the results of a series of randomly selected telephone surveys and compare responses over time and between cities. Our analysis confirms that many people assume that Ae. aegypti is ubiquitous in the landscape, that it lives and breeds not only around the home, but also in a variety of geographical spaces located beyond the suburban 'backyard', and beyond the control of local residents. Lay understandings appear to be placing people at risk from dengue, influencing the mosquito management practices of local residents and acting as a source of resistance to public health messages that focus on individual responsibility. A way forward through the provision of new information that challenges key assumptions is provided in the discussion. We argue that rather than dismissing lay understandings as ignorance, strategies, practices and policy based on a detailed understanding of this knowledge will mean that practitioners are better able to address these assumptions and will likely be more effective at educating the public of the risks posed by dengue. PMID:20540930

McNaughton, Darlene; Clough, Alan; Johnson, Petrina; Ritchie, Scott; O'Neill, Scott

2010-06-09

231

Exploring Cultures through Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First and second graders can understand that the African continent is made up of many countries and cultures, especially when teachers have maps, picture books, photographs, and artifacts on hand for them to explore. It is important for young students to develop an understanding of maps and how to use them. This article offers suggestions for…

Grady, Bev

2005-01-01

232

School Science, Citizenship and the Public Understanding of Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Quantitative and qualitative studies of public understanding of science conducted in many countries provide important insights into the extent to which lay citizens understand important scientific concepts, and the ways in which they seek and use scientific knowledge. Identifies some dimensions of "citizen science" and examines their implications…

Jenkins, E. W.

1999-01-01

233

Social injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the attitudes towards suicide of lay persons in Ghana.  

PubMed

One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants' view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study. PMID:22065981

Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2011-11-04

234

Cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality: the effects of linings and litter provision in furnished cages for laying hens.  

PubMed

This study investigates the influence of litter provision and linings used for nests and pecking and scratching areas on cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality. Research was carried out in furnished cages, each housing 60 beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens. Four different treatments were compared in a factorial arrangement, including 2 different nest linings (artificial turf vs. plastic mesh), either used alone or combined with the use of litter (wheat bran) spread over the rubber mat in the pecking and scratching area (PSA). An additional treatment, using artificial turf mat in the PSA and nests (as commonly used in commercial flocks), was used to compare the effect of PSA lining in the other treatments. We observed laying location, the number of dirty and broken eggs, the microbiological contamination of eggshells according to laying location, and general cage hygiene. The use of nests for laying decreased when they were lined with plastic mesh. Eggs laid outside the nest were of lower quality than those laid inside it, and this was particularly true for eggs laid in the PSA. Although hygiene was low on artificial turf mats, eggs laid on PSA covered with a rubber mat were dirtier and had a higher count of mesophilic bacteria on the eggshell than those laid on PSA covered with an artificial turf mat. Rubber mats in PSA were rapidly destroyed and proved to be unsuitable. The provision of litter had no effect on cage hygiene but substantially increased wear on mats. This study shows nest lining and litter provision methods to be key factors that need to be taken into account to encourage the use of nest boxes for laying, and hence, to ensure good egg quality. Further research into new linings for PSA is needed for the future improvement of egg-laying conditions. PMID:22399718

Guinebretičre, M; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Michel, V

2012-04-01

235

Reproductive biology in egg-laying mammals.  

PubMed

The duck-billed platypus and short-beaked echidna are iconic species in Australia. Their morphology and physiology have puzzled scientists all over the world for more than 200 years. Recent genetic studies, particularly the platypus whole-genome sequencing project, have revealed the molecular basis of some of the extraordinary characteristics of monotremes. This and other works demonstrate the great value of research on our most distantly related mammalian relatives for comparative genomics and developmental biology. In this review we focus on the reproductive biology of monotremes and discuss works that unravel genes involved in lactation, testicular descent, gamete biology and fertilization, and early development. In addition we discuss works on the evolution of the complex sex chromosome system in platypus and echidna, which has also significant impact on our general understanding of mammalian sex chromosomes and sex determination. PMID:18769071

Grützner, F; Nixon, B; Jones, R C

2008-09-03

236

21. CONSTRUCTION CRANE LAYING SECTIONS OF TRACK RAIL FOR ORIGINAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. CONSTRUCTION CRANE LAYING SECTIONS OF TRACK RAIL FOR ORIGINAL 10,000-FOOT TRACK. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

237

Lay theory explanations of occupational stress: the Malaysian context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the causes and consequences of job stress in Malaysia and make a comparison between Western and Eastern perspectives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A grounded theory approach was used to develop a lay representation of Malay people's descriptions of their experiences at work, including job stress. Interviews were conducted with 48 employees in

Mohd Awang Idris; Maureen F. Dollard; Anthony H. Winefield

2010-01-01

238

Medullary bone of laying hens during calcium depletion and repletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone cell activity and the composition of the femur of laying hens were studied during 7 days of calcium depletion on a 0.13% calcium diet and 7 days of calcium repletion on a 3.2% calcium diet. Histologically, only cortical bone showed clear signs of bone resorption and osteoclastic activity during the depletion period. The number of osteoclasts in medullary bone

Alberta Zambonin Zallone; Werner J. Mueller

1969-01-01

239

10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

2013-01-01

240

Voluntary food and calcium intake by the laying hen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments, each of 40 d duration, are described in which a diet rich in calcium (3.5% Ca) or one deficient in calcium (1% Ca), but with oyster shell offered separately, were fed ad libitum to four laying hens. The voluntary consumption of food and oyster shell was automatically recorded every 2 h. The hourly consumption of the high Ga

P. Mongin; B. Sauveur

1974-01-01

241

Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay

Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

2012-01-01

242

Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

243

Ordinary logic in unordinary lay theories: a key to understanding proneness to medication nonadherence in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines attitudes of people with schizophrenia toward their medical treatment within the context of the general theories that they develop about their condition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia, and the findings were analyzed by the constant comparative method. Five theories, focusing on the basic concepts of body, machine, war, mission, and nature, were

Liora Navon; Nili Ozer

2003-01-01

244

Exploring Project  

NASA Website

[Students Grades 9-12] [Available: OH] Exploring increases student awareness of aeronautics, computer technology, balloon satellites and careers in each field. Exploring involves students in the designing, building and testing of projects.

245

Feather-pecking response of laying hens to feather and cellulose-based rations fed during rearing.  

PubMed

Recent studies in laying hens have shown that feather peckers eat more feathers than nonpeckers. We hypothesized that food pellets containing feathers would decrease the birds' appetite for feathers and thereby also decrease feather pecking. To separate the effect of feathers from that of insoluble fiber per se, additional control groups were fed pellets containing similar amounts of cellulose. Sixty (experiment 1) and 180 (experiment 2) 1-d-old Lohmann-Selected Leghorn birds were divided into 12 groups of 5 (experiment 1) and 15 (experiment 2) birds, respectively, and kept on slatted floors. During the rearing period, 4 groups each had ad libitum access to either a commercial pelleted diet, a pelleted diet containing 5% (experiment 1) or 10% (experiment 2) of chopped feathers, respectively, or a pelleted diet containing 5% (experiment 1) or 10% (experiment 2) of cellulose, respectively. In the consecutive laying period, all groups received a commercial pelleted diet. In experiment 1, feather pecking was recorded weekly from wk 5 to wk 16. In the laying period, observations were made in wk 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 30. In experiment 2, feather pecking was recorded weekly from wk 5 to 11, in wk 16 to wk 18, and in wk 20 and 21. At the end of the rearing period, plumage condition per individual hen was scored. Scores from 1 (denuded) to 4 (intact) were given for each of 6 body parts. The addition of 10% of feathers to the diet reduced the number of severe feather-pecking bouts (P < 0.0129) and improved plumage condition of the back area (P < 0.001) significantly compared with control diets. The relationship between feather pecking/eating and the gastrointestinal consequences thereof, which alter feather pecking-behavior, are unclear. Understanding this relationship might be crucial for understanding the causation of feather pecking in laying hens. PMID:22700494

Kriegseis, I; Bessei, W; Meyer, B; Zentek, J; Würbel, H; Harlander-Matauschek, A

2012-07-01

246

Odyssey's end: lay conceptions of nostalgia reflect its original Homeric meaning.  

PubMed

Nostalgia fulfills pivotal functions for individuals, but lacks an empirically derived and comprehensive definition. We examined lay conceptions of nostalgia using a prototype approach. In Study 1, participants generated open-ended features of nostalgia, which were coded into categories. In Study 2, participants rated the centrality of these categories, which were subsequently classified as central (e.g., memories, relationships, happiness) or peripheral (e.g., daydreaming, regret, loneliness). Central (as compared with peripheral) features were more often recalled and falsely recognized (Study 3), were classified more quickly (Study 4), were judged to reflect more nostalgia in a vignette (Study 5), better characterized participants' own nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences (Study 6), and prompted higher levels of actual nostalgia and its intrapersonal benefits when used to trigger a personal memory, regardless of age (Study 7). These findings highlight that lay people view nostalgia as a self-relevant and social blended emotional and cognitive state, featuring a mixture of happiness and loss. The findings also aid understanding of nostalgia's functions and identify new methods for future research. PMID:21859192

Hepper, Erica G; Ritchie, Timothy D; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

2011-08-22

247

46 CFR 30.10-37 - Keel laying date-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Keel laying date-TB/ALL. 30.10-37 Section 30.10-37 Shipping COAST...PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-37 Keel laying dateâTB/ALL. The term keel laying date means the date...

2012-10-01

248

The Involvement of Lay Advocates in Due Process Hearings. Quick Turn Around (QTA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted on the use of lay advocates to investigate state reaction to a recent court decision in Delaware on the use of lay advocates and the availability of representation for parents of students with disabilities in due process hearings. The Delaware Supreme Court found in 1999 that lay advocates representing parents at due process…

Ahearn, Eileen M.

249

Trail laying behaviour during food recruitment in the ant Lasius niger (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The trail-laying behaviour of foragers of the antLasius niger was observed in the laboratory on a 20 cm bridge between the nest and the food source. We measured both the frequency of trail laying, as defined by the proportion of trips during which trail laying occurred, and its intensity, as defined by the number of marks laid during one

R. Beckers; J. L. Deneubourg; S. Goss

1992-01-01

250

Research Notes Topical Application of Garlic Reduces Northern Fowl Mite Infestation in Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern fowl mites (NFM) are external parasites that can lower egg production and cause anemia and even death in laying hens. An experiment was con- ducted with New Hampshire Red and Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens. Hens were individually caged and provided a complete laying diet and water ad libitum. Hens were assigned to groups in a way that

G. P. Birrenkott; G. E. Brockenfelt; J. A. Greer; M. D. Owens

251

Barriers and facilitating factors among lay health workers and primary care providers to promote children's oral health in Chon Buri Province, Thailand.  

PubMed

This study explored the barriers and facilitating factors among lay health workers (LHWs) and primary care providers (PCPs) in implementing a multi-level program to promote children's oral health care in a rural Thai community. Twelve focus groups and 11 in-depth interviews were conducted with LHWs and PCPs who implemented the program from January 2008 to January 2009. The findings showed that the PCPs encountered the constraints of time and human resources, lack of ownership, and problem of coordination with the district hospital. The barriers among LHWs during home visits were related to their assumption of caregiver's knowledge, some conflicting beliefs, and limited counseling skills. The facilitating factors were the training program, caregivers' positive feedback, and available resources such as brochures and toothbrushes. The PCPs identified LHWs as the main facilitators of the program and indicated that policy should be developed for better integrating oral health services in local health Centers. This study provides a better understanding of the barriers and facilitating factors to promote children's oral health in rural Thai communities. While the barriers to integrating oral health activities to primary care are complex, the use of LHWs to promote the children's oral health was feasible and should be supported. PMID:23691643

Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Steckler, Allan; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

2013-03-01

252

Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

Miljeteig, Per

1999-01-01

253

Toward a deeper understanding of the role of interaction in information visualization.  

PubMed

Even though interaction is an important part of information visualization (Infovis), it has garnered a relatively low level of attention from the Infovis community. A few frameworks and taxonomies of Infovis interaction techniques exist, but they typically focus on low-level operations and do not address the variety of benefits interaction provides. After conducting an extensive review of Infovis systems and their interactive capabilities, we propose seven general categories of interaction techniques widely used in Infovis: 1) Select, 2) Explore, 3) Reconfigure, 4) Encode, 5) Abstract/Elaborate, 6) Filter, and 7) Connect. These categories are organized around a user's intent while interacting with a system rather than the low-level interaction techniques provided by a system. The categories can act as a framework to help discuss and evaluate interaction techniques and hopefully lay an initial foundation toward a deeper understanding and a science of interaction. PMID:17968068

Yi, Ji Soo; Kang, Youn Ah; Stasko, John; Jacko, Julie

254

Exploring the Dynamic Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers an overview and sample of the Exploring the Dynamic Earth module (the actual module must be purchased). In the module, students explore patterns of earthquakes, volcanoes, and topography to develop an understanding of plate tectonics. They use seafloor age data to calculate rates of plate motion in the past and make predictions of how plate configurations may change in the future. Using this knowledge they explore earthquake, tsunami, and volcanic hazards globally and in the United States. The module contains five activities as well as topographic profile movies. Geographic information system (GIS) software is used to analyze the data sets.

255

ExploreWorldOcean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ExploreWorldOcean supports Exploring the World Ocean, an introductory oceanography textbook written by Sean Chamberlin, PhD, at Fullerton College, and Tommy Dickey, PhD, at the University of California, Santa Barbara. ExploreWorldOcean is an educational web site that inspires people to learn more about the world ocean. Featuring hundreds of pages of content , it aims to provide a broad range of information on the ocean and oceanography suitable for beginning and advanced students of oceanography. Perhaps most importantly, the site strives to help people understand their relationship with the world ocean and how they may help it.

Chamberlin, W. S.; Exploreworldocean

256

From Fertilization to Egg Laying in C. elegans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video of the fertilization of the C. elegans oocyte, the fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei, and the egg laying. This video is featured on the HHMI DVD, The Meaning of Sex: Genes and Gender, available free from HHMI. Also, this video is one minute 12 seconds in length, and available in Quicktime (6 MB) and Windows Media (8 MB). All sex determination videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/gender/video.html.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI;)

2008-06-06

257

Comparison of lysine requirements amongst eight stocks of laying fowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment is described in which eight commercial stocks of laying hens were each fed from 25 to 70 weeks of age on six diets of differing lysine contents. The stocks had a range in mean body weight from 1.8 to 2.6 kg and a range in peak egg output from 43 to 51 g\\/bird d. Three groups of 21

P. J. Pilbrow; T. R. Morris

1974-01-01

258

Different soil media for free-range laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?A replicated experiment compared bird use, soil structure, grass wear and free-moving nematode populations in 4 different soil media (recycled vegetable compost, 90% recycled vegetable compost and 10% sand, re-used topsoil and sterilised topsoil) all with established grass swards within the range area of a large free-range laying hen unit.2.?The birds initially spent a greater proportion of their time on

E. N. Sossidou; S. P. Rose; S. S. P. Silva; N. W. Hall; A. Tserveni-Goussi; V. Christodoulou

2008-01-01

259

[Prevalence of Mycoplasmas in commercial layer flocks during laying period].  

PubMed

Within this study's range, laying hens from different housing systems were investigated on prevalence of Mycoplasma sp. for the duration of one laying period, with an emphasis on the two clinically relevant species M. synoviae and M. gallisepticum. Tracheal swabs were analysed for mycoplasms by genus- and species-specific amplification after DNA extraction. Of 919 collected tracheal swabs, 84% were positive for the genus-specific test, while 75% turned out positive for M. synoviae. Mycoplasms were detected at some time during the laying period in all 19 flocks included in this investigation. Using a species-specific PCR, only one flock of a free-range system was free of M. synoviae. On the contrary, PCR analysis did not detect M. gallisepticum in any of the collected samples. Individual and flock examinations revealed no correlation between clinical symptoms and the presence of M. synoviae in hens and flocks, respectively. As the majority of the examined flocks were already positive for M. synoviae upon entry, the establishment of a control regime for Mycoplasma sp. would be advisable for parent stock and rearing facilities. PMID:19517932

Köhn, Stefanie; Spergser, Joachim; Ahlers, Christine; Voss, Matthias; Bartels, Thomas; Rosengarten, Renate; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

260

Lay reporting of elephantiasis of the leg in northern Ghana.  

PubMed

Within a large scale community trial in northern Ghana lay interviewers were trained to inquire about and identify elephantiasis of the leg by the use of local terms and simple examination of respondents. This was repeated a year later after moving the interviewers to different geographical areas. The proportions of extended family compounds reported to have at least one member with elephantiasis of the leg were 12.2% and 12.1 % respectively in the first and second surveys (kappa = 0.60). 'Blind' re-examination of a sub-sample by a physician showed a high level of agreement with the lay interviewer's findings in the first and second surveys (kappa = 0.67 and 0.82 respectively). This study has shown that lay people, even with minimal training, can obtain repeatable and valid estimates of the prevalence of elephantiasis of the leg, at least within an area where local terms for the condition are available. This method could potentially be used for other diseases with visible manifestations. PMID:8594671

Gyapong, J O; Dollimore, N; Binka, F N; Ross, D A

261

Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.  

PubMed

Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief. PMID:23489589

Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

2013-03-11

262

Potential zoonotic pathways of Salmonella enteritidis in laying farms.  

PubMed

Salmonella Enteritidis is a communicable zoonotic bacterium. The present investigation was done to evaluate the potential occurrence of Salmonella Enteritidis in laying hen farms and its contamination pathways. Samples were collected from 10 laying hen farms located in the Delta of Egypt. Cloacal swabs (n=300), eggshell swabs (n=400), and hand swabs from egg packagers (n=38) were collected. Pools of ovary and oviduct were obtained from 150 hens; all samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Results indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis may initially occupy in ovary, oviduct, and cloaca. The risk for eggshell contamination is highly impending from laying hen flocks infected with Salmonella Enteritidis with percentage of >30%. Farms having eggshell contamination percentage of >60% with Salmonella Enteritidis provided a high risk for packagers' hand contamination. Questionnaire of egg packagers specified that seven out of the eight smoker packagers suffered from repeated Salmonellosis. Thus, smoking during egg packing process could be considered as an exposure factor to contract the infection via hand-cigarette-mouth route. PMID:20020813

El-Tras, Wael F; Tayel, Ahmed A; Samir, Ahmed

2009-12-18

263

Effects of carbon percentage, Stelmor cooling rate and laying head temperature on tensile strength gain in low carbon steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low carbon steel wire rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subjected to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing process resulting in a variation in wire tensile strength. This research analyzes the effects of carbon percentage, StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature on the tensile strength gain in wire drawn low carbon steels using design of experiments. The probable reasons for variations in tensile strength gain are analyzed by observing the microstructural changes during experiments. Microstructural analysis was done extensively using optical microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and it was found that the tensile strength gain variation is mainly caused by the increase in the dislocation density in wire rod and wire due to high cooling rate and high laying head temperature, within the range considered. This research concludes that a low carbon wire rod can be produced with minimum tensile strength gain, lower dislocation density and finer ferrite grain size by maintaining a low cooling rate in the StelmorRTM cooling zone and low laying head temperature, which is the temperature at which the wire rod coils are laid on the Stelmor RTM deck. It is also concluded from the results of the present study that: (1) The lowest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 (0.07 wt.% Carbon) with low cooling rate of 14°F/s and low laying head temperature of 1500°F. (2) The highest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 with high cooling rate of 26°F/s and high laying head temperature of 1650°F. (3) The effect of StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature and their interaction are found to be the significant factors causing the variation in wire tensile strength gain. The StelmorRTM cooling rate has the most significant effect on tensile strength gain among the three factors. (4) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength gain is very minimal. (5) With an increase in the StelmorRTM cooling rate from 14°F/s to 26°F/s, there is a substantial increase in the dislocation densities in the wire rods and wires, which is the primary cause of the increase in the tensile strength gain. (6) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength gain is very minimal. North Star Steel Texas would benefit substantially from this research by being able to produce better quality wire rods, through better understanding of the factors affecting the tensile strength gain variation. This is expected to lead to a reduction in customer complaints on failure of wire products.

Gade, Surya Prakash

264

Understanding Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Waves is a graduate-level professional development course designed to enhance your understanding and teaching of physical science. In two sessions, you will investigate physical science topics using hands-on activities and online resources including video segments, interactive activities, readings, and other multimedia materials. These resources are drawn from Teachers' Domain, WGBH's digital library service.

2010-01-01

265

Exploring Process Groups for Reliability, Availability and Serviceability of Terascale Computing Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents various aspects of reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) systems as they relate to group communication service, including reliable and total order multicast/broadcast, virtual synchrony, and failure detection. While the issue of availability, particularly high availability using replication-based architectures has recently received upsurge research interests, much still have to be done in understanding the basic underlying concepts for achieving RAS systems, especially in high-end and high performance computing (HPC) communities. Various attributes of group communication service and the prototype of symmetric active replication following ideas utilized in the Newtop protocol will be discussed. We explore the application of group communication service for RAS HPC, laying the groundwork for its integrated model.

Okunbor, Daniel Irowa [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Scott, Steven L [ORNL

2006-06-01

266

Genes affecting the activity of nicotinic receptors involved in Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying behavior.  

PubMed Central

Egg-laying behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans is regulated by multiple neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine and serotonin. Agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors such as nicotine and levamisole stimulate egg laying; however, the genetic and molecular basis for cholinergic neurotransmission in the egg-laying circuitry is not well understood. Here we describe the egg-laying phenotypes of eight levamisole resistance genes, which affect the activity of levamisole-sensitive nicotinic receptors in nematodes. Seven of these genes, including the nicotinic receptor subunit genes unc-29, unc-38, and lev-1, were essential for the stimulation of egg laying by levamisole, though they had only subtle effects on egg-laying behavior in the absence of drug. Thus, these genes appear to encode components of a nicotinic receptor that can promote egg laying but is not necessary for egg-laying muscle contraction. Since the levamisole-receptor mutants responded to other cholinergic drugs, other acetylcholine receptors are likely to function in parallel with the levamisole-sensitive receptors to mediate cholinergic neurotransmission in the egg-laying circuitry. In addition, since expression of functional unc-29 in muscle cells restored levamisole sensitivity under some but not all conditions, both neuronal and muscle cell UNC-29 receptors are likely to contribute to the regulation of egg-laying behavior. Mutations in one levamisole receptor gene, unc-38, also conferred both hypersensitivity and reduced peak response to serotonin; thus nicotinic receptors may play a role in regulating serotonin response pathways in the egg-laying neuromusculature.

Kim, J; Poole, D S; Waggoner, L E; Kempf, A; Ramirez, D S; Treschow, P A; Schafer, W R

2001-01-01

267

Polluted environment and cold weather induce laying gaps in great tit and pied flycatcher.  

PubMed

We studied the occurrence of laying gaps in free-living populations of the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, and the great tit, Parus major, in a pollution gradient of a copper smelter in south-west Finland. Laying gaps were 2.8 times more common in F. hypoleuca than in P. major. The probability of laying gaps was highest in the heavily polluted zone and lowest in the unpolluted zone for both bird species. Cold weather at the time of laying increased the number of laying gaps in both species, but in P. major this effect was most pronounced in the heavily polluted environment. In the most heavily polluted environment the laying gaps were more likely to occur near the beginning of the laying sequence in both species. The laying gap probability increased with increasing laying date in P. major but not in F. hypoleuca. We suggest that the increased number of laying gaps in the polluted environment results from limited Ca availability and the interference of heavy metals with Ca metabolism in laying females. PMID:19784674

Eeva, Tapio; Lehikoinen, Esa

2009-09-26

268

Immunolocalization of MHC-II+ cells in the ovary of immature, young laying and old laying hens Gallus domesticus.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to localize major histocompatibility complex class II positive (MHC-II+) cells in the hen ovary, and to determine the effects of ageing and sex steroids on their frequency. Cryostat sections of ovarian tissues of immature, young laying and old laying hens and those of immature hens treated with or without diethylstilboestrol or progesterone were prepared. Sections were immunostained for MHC class II antigens using mouse anti-chicken MHC class II monoclonal antibody and observed under a light microscope. Positive cells were counted using a computer-assisted image analyser. MHC-II+ cells were localized in the ovarian stroma and theca layer of primary follicles in all birds examined. The frequency of MHC-II+ cells in the stroma and theca of primary follicles (approximately 400-600 microns in diameter) was significantly greater in young laying hens than it was in immature and old laying hens (P < 0.01). In the stroma and the theca of primary follicles of diethylstilboestrol-treated birds, the frequency of MHC-II+ cells was significantly greater than it was in the stroma and theca of control and progesterone-treated birds (P < 0.01). Progesterone had no significant effect when compared with controls. These results indicate that both the ovarian stroma and theca of follicles in the hen ovary contain MHC-II+ cells, the frequency of MHC-II+ cells increases in association with sexual maturation and decreases thereafter during ageing, and oestrogen may be one of the factors enhancing the induction of MHC-II+ cells in the ovary. PMID:10615265

Barua, A; Yoshimura, Y

1999-07-01

269

Exploration Geochemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contributions in mineral-deposit model formulation, geochemical exploration in glaciated and arid environments, analytical and sampling problems, and bibliographic research were made in symposia held and proceedings volumes published during 1982. Highlights of these symposia and proceedings and comments on trends in exploration geochemistry are…

Closs, L. Graham

1983-01-01

270

A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.  

PubMed

Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks. PMID:23300320

Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A

2013-02-01

271

Calcium transport in strongly calcifying laying birds: mechanisms and regulation.  

PubMed

Birds that lay long clutches (series of eggs laid sequentially before a "pause day"), among them the high-producing, strongly-calcifying Gallus gallus domesticus (domestic hen) and Coturnix coturnix japonica (Japanese quail), transfer about 10% of their total body calcium daily. They appear, therefore, to be the most efficient calcium-transporters among vertebrates. Such intensive transport imposes severe demands on ionic calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, and activates at least two extremely effective mechanisms for Ca2+ transfer from food and bone to the eggshell. This review focuses on the development, action and regulation of the mechanisms associated with paracellular and transcellular Ca2+ transport in the intestine and the eggshell gland (ESG); it also considers some of the proteins (calbindin, Ca2+ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchange, epithelial calcium channels (TRPVs), osteopontin and carbonic anhydrase (CA) associated with this phenomenon. Calbindins are discussed in some detail, as they appear to be a major component of the transcellular transport system, and as only they have been studied extensively in birds. The review aims to gather old and new knowledge, which could form a conceptual basis, albeit not a completely accepted one, for our understanding of the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. In the intestine, the transcellular pathway appears to compensate for low Ca2+ intake, but in birds fed adequate calcium the major drive for calcium absorption remains the electrochemical potential difference (ECPD) that facilitates paracellular transport. However, the mechanisms involved in Ca2+ transport into the ESG lumen are not yet established. In the ESG, the presence of Ca2+-ATPase and calbindin--two components of the transcellular transport pathway--and the apparently uphill transport of Ca2+ support the idea that Ca2+ is transported via the transcellular pathway. However, the positive (plasma with respect to mucosa) electrical potential difference (EPD) in the ESG, among other findings, indicates that there may be major alternative or complementary paracellular passive transport pathways. The available evidence hints that the flow from the gut to the ESG, which occurs during a relatively short period (11 to 14 h out the 24- to 25.5-h egg cycle), is primarily driven by carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in the ESG, which results in high HCO3(-) content that, in turn, "sucks out" Ca2+ from the intestinal lumen via the blood and ESG cells, and deposits it in the shell crystals. The increased CA activity appears to be dependent on energy input, whereas it seems most likely that the Ca2+ movement is secondary, that it utilizes passive paracellular routes that fluctuate in accordance with the appearance of the energy-dependent CA activity, and that the level of Ca2+ movement mimics that of the CA activity. The on-off signals for the overall phenomenon have not yet been identified. They appear to be associated with the circadian cycle of gonadal hormones, coupled with the egg cycle: it is most likely that progesterone acts as the "off" signal, and that the "on" signal is provided by the combined effect of an as-yet undefined endocrine factor associated with ovulation and with the mechanical strain that results from "egg white" formation and "plumping". This strain may initially trigger the formation of the mammillae and the seeding of shell calcium crystals in the isthmus, and thereafter initiate the formation of the shell in the ESG. PMID:19118637

Bar, Arie

2008-12-06

272

Exploring Racism through Photography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

2010-01-01

273

Solar system exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the

Geoffrey A. Briggs; William L. Quaide

1986-01-01

274

Exploring Global Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The eight units in this volume are designed for use by an art teacher/specialist. Thematic ideas are presented, while skills, techniques, and materials are not dictated. The lessons encourage students to compare and contrast cultures, understand their own cultural experiences, and explore differences and commonalities among cultures. The…

Needler, Toby; Goodman, Bonnie

275

Generating guidelines for choosing appropriate metaphors in GUIs through the analysis of cross-cultural understanding of metaphorical icons: an explorative study with French and Turkish users on an e-learning site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the influence of culture on understanding metaphors in GUIs and aims to generate guidelines for choosing appropriate metaphors for users from different cultures. Considering the dual-coded structure of compound metaphorical icons – composed of two major units: image and label – this study evaluates the main hypothesis that understanding of graphical and textual elements of the metaphors

Kerem Rizvano?lu

2010-01-01

276

Understanding Chemotherapy  

MedlinePLUS

... with your doctor or nurse. I am getting chemo to: _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Check with your doctor or nurse before ... or nurse. This is how I will get chemo: _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Understanding Chemotherapy When will I get chemotherapy? You ...

277

Understanding Flu  

MedlinePLUS

... Bonny McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone seems ... make sure you understand all the talk about bird (avian) flu and pandemics. The flu season in ...

278

Enhancing Conceptual Understanding in Calculus Using Class Pad 300  

Microsoft Academic Search

World over, Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) have greatly influenced mathematics teaching and learning. The last two decades have witnessed extensive research in this area and Mathematics educators have been investigating various ways of integrating CAS with classroom teaching to develop a balanced curriculum, which lays less emphasis on paper- pencil techniques and focuses more on understanding concepts. Computer Algebra Systems

Jonaki B Ghosh

279

Mixed Race: Understanding Difference in the Genome Era  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of multiracial individuals' understanding of identity, race and human genetic variation. The debate regarding the correlation between race, genetics and disease has expanded, but limited empirical data has been collected regarding the lay public's perspective. Participants in this study…

Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Bonham, Vence L.

2007-01-01

280

Toward an Understanding of Loneliness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests a cognitive-emotional approach to understanding loneliness, explores some empirical work on the subject, and offers social workers and counselors some possible intervention strategies. Researchers must examine the relationship between loneliness, depression, and negative attitudes. (Author/JAC)|

Booth, Richard

1983-01-01

281

Toward an Understanding of Loneliness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a cognitive-emotional approach to understanding loneliness, explores some empirical work on the subject, and offers social workers and counselors some possible intervention strategies. Researchers must examine the relationship between loneliness, depression, and negative attitudes. (Author/JAC)

Booth, Richard

1983-01-01

282

Exploring Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This event guide features three related explorations in which learners investigate the following science concepts: how you design and build a structure helps determine how strong it will be; different materials are useful for making different kinds of structures and different parts of structures; and, walls, roofs, and bridges need to be supported in special ways. Exploring Structures is one unit in the Peep Event Kit, which also offers explorations of shadows and ramps, respectively. The guide provides an agenda for a 1-hour science event, a customizable flyer and family handouts (English and Spanish). Learners can view a related Peep and the Big Wide World video story before or after the activity.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-01-01

283

Species Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among other things, the Internet is a great way to bring together geographically distant pieces of information and observations. The Species Explorer website does just that, by allowing visitors to contribute their observations of wildlife via their computer or mobile phone quickly and simply. The goals of Species Explorer are diverse and they include the idea that it is important "to encourage the level of 'citizen science' in the general public" and "to provide a platform for parent-child learning." After reading a bit of background about the project, visitors can continue to learn exactly what they will need to participate. After registering, visitors can also explore the existing observations via the Species Explorer Online application. It's a remarkable site and a remarkable idea, and one that will hopefully spur others to participate and maybe even to create new innovations in a similar vein.

Antinori, Maxim

284

ALARP Explored.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explores the ALARP Principle. It explains its tenets, presents its history, examines its practical application, and discusses the concepts which underpin it and to which it is related. Whereas the paper's narrative is continuous, each chapter c...

F. Redmill

2010-01-01

285

An Overview of the Exploration History of Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty-four years ago, a Nature paper announced the results of study of the Voyager images of the Jovian moon Europa, in which linear fracture-like markings were projected to be evidence of liquid water and active resurfacing [Nature 301, 225 - 226 (20 January 1983)]. This paper was a post-Voyager study that pre-dated the Galileo findings by two decades. Years of modeling had gone into the effort to understand the potential thermal history of the icy moons of Jupiter. Much of the theoretical work concluded that the bodies would have been frozen solid for billions of years, but there was enough work to suggest further in situ investigation was warranted. Behind the scenes was a concerted effort to make the Galilean satellites the focus of unmanned exploration for NASA's planetary science program. The historic significance of this journey of exploration, the manner in which it unfolded, is of relevance to a whole new generation of investigators. In this talk we will present highlights of the entire period of discovery, from the commensurate orbital motions first observed by Galileo himself [1609], that would prove critical to understanding the evolution of Europa; the theoretical work on motions of the celestial bodies by Laplace [1805] that laid the ground work for understanding the resonances; Jeans [1925] speculations about the existence of the atmospheres of the Galilean satellites in his Theory of Gases; to the ground-breaking discovery by Kuiper of the spectral signature of ice on Europa ; the work by Urey [1952] making the cosmochemical arguments about the significance of water ice in the outer solar system; efforts to understand, from photometry and spectrometry, whether surface impurities were endogenic or exogenic in origin; and the work of Johnson and colleagues laying the groundwork for the understanding of the significance of sputtering in the solar system [Johnson, et al., 1982]. We will present highlights of the exploration of the Jupiter system with spacecraft in the 1970's and '80's; and close with the discoveries of the Galileo mission as they unfolded.

Alexander, C. J.; Consolmagno, G.; Greeley, R.; Morrison, D.

2007-12-01

286

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

287

Mass depopulation of laying hens in whole barns with liquid carbon dioxide: evaluation of welfare impact.  

PubMed

Appropriate emergency disaster preparedness is a key priority for agricultural agencies to allow effective response to serious avian disease outbreaks. There is a need to develop rapid, humane, and safe depopulation techniques for poultry that are widely applicable across a range of farm settings. Whole barn depopulation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been investigated as a humane and efficient means of killing large numbers of birds in the event of a reportable disease outbreak. It has also been considered as a method for depopulating barns containing end-of-lay hens, particularly when there is limited local slaughter and rendering capacity. Determining the best method of humanely killing large flocks of birds remains problematic and is being investigated by a coordinated international effort. While whole barn depopulation using CO(2) inhalation has been explored, physiologic responses of chickens have not been characterized in field settings and assessment of animal welfare is hampered without this information. In this study, 12 cull laying hens were surgically instrumented with telemetry transmitters to record electroencephalographs, electrocardiographs, body temperature, and activity during 2 large-scale field CO(2) euthanasia trials of end-of-lay hens. The day following surgery, instrumented hens were placed in barns with other birds, barns were sealed, and animals were killed by CO(2) inhalation delivered via a specially designed liquid CO(2) manifold. Instrumented birds were monitored by infrared thermography, and ambient temperature, CO(2), and O(2) concentrations were recorded. Results from these studies indicate that instrumented hens lost consciousness within 2 min of CO(2) levels reaching 18 to 20%. Mild to moderate head shaking, gasping, and 1 to 2 clonic muscle contractions were noted in hens before unconsciousness; however, brain death followed rapidly (<5 min). Evaluation of welfare costs and benefits suggest clear advantages over catching and transporting cull hens for slaughter. The financial costs with this method are greater, however, than those estimated for traditional slaughter techniques. Results of these studies are being used to develop national protocols for whole barn depopulation of hens by CO(2) inhalation. PMID:22700499

Turner, P V; Kloeze, H; Dam, A; Ward, D; Leung, N; Brown, E E L; Whiteman, A; Chiappetta, M E; Hunter, D B

2012-07-01

288

Antimicrobial resistance in Swiss laying hens, prevalence and risk factors.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern to public health, and food-producing animals are known to be a potential source for transmission of resistant bacteria to humans. As legislation of the European Union requires to ban conventional cages for the housing of laying hens on the one hand, and a high food safety standard for eggs on the other hand, further investigations about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in alternative housing types are required. In this study, we determined antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria from 396 cloacal swabs from 99 Swiss laying hen farms among four alternative housing types during a cross-sectional study. On each farm, four hens were sampled and exposure to potential risk factors was identified with a questionnaire. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined using broth microdilution in Escherichia coli (n=371) for 18 antimicrobials and in Enterococcus faecalis (n=138) and Enterococcus faecium (n=153) for 16 antimicrobials. All antimicrobial classes recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for E. coli and enterococci were included in the resistance profile. Sixty per cent of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to all of the considered antimicrobials and 30% were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In E. faecalis, 33% of the strains were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials and 40% were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, whereas in E. faecium these figures were 14% and 39% respectively. Risk factor analyses were carried out for bacteria species and antimicrobials with a prevalence of resistance between 15% and 85%. In these analyses, none of the considered housing and management factors showed a consistent association with the prevalence of resistance for more than two combinations of bacteria and antimicrobial. Therefore we conclude that the impact of the considered housing and management practices on the egg producing farms on resistance in laying hens is low. PMID:21040507

Harisberger, M; Gobeli, S; Hoop, R; Dewulf, J; Perreten, V; Regula, G

2010-10-12

289

Participants' experiences of care during a randomized controlled trial comparing a lay-facilitated angina management programme with usual care: a qualitative study using focus groups  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a qualitative study conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing a lay-facilitated angina management programme with usual care. Its aim was to explore participants' beliefs, experiences, and attitudes to the care they had received during the trial, particularly those who had received the angina management intervention. Background Angina affects over 50 million people worldwide. Over half of these people have symptoms that restrict their daily life and would benefit from knowing how to manage their condition. Design A nested qualitative study within a randomized controlled trial of lay-facilitated angina management. Method We conducted four participant focus groups during 2008; three were with people randomized to the intervention and one with those randomized to control. We recruited a total of 14 participants to the focus groups, 10 intervention, and 4 control. Findings Although recruitment to the focus groups was relatively low by comparison to conventional standards, each generated lively discussions and a rich data set. Data analysis demonstrated both similarities and differences between control and intervention groups. Similarities included low levels of prior knowledge about angina, whereas differences included a perception among intervention participants that lifestyle changes were more easily facilitated with the help and support of a lay-worker. Conclusion Lay facilitation with the Angina Plan is perceived by the participants to be beneficial in supporting self-management. However, clinical expertise is still required to meet the more complex information and care needs of people with stable angina.

Nelson, Pauline; Cox, Helen; Furze, Gill; Lewin, Robert JP; Morton, Veronica; Norris, Heather; Patel, Nicky; Elton, Peter; Carty, Richard

2013-01-01

290

Understanding Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from University of California Museum of Paleontology, features free, image-rich teaching resources that communicate what science is and how it works, with a focus on the process of science and its dynamic nature. The project is geared toward K-16 teacher preparation as well as broader public understanding of the nature of science.

Paleontology, University O.

291

Understanding Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because suicide has become a significant public health concern in the United States (and internationally), occupational therapists who work with psychiatric populations-particularly adolescent and geriatric populations-should enhance their understanding of suicidal behavior, their ability to assess suicidal ideology in patients, and their awareness of effective prevention and treatment methods. This paper reviews the demography, risk factors, and biological underpinnings of

Sharon A. Gutman

2005-01-01

292

Understanding Prejudice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To help students understand prejudice, teachers in Verona, New York, planned a unit which incorporated the use of fiction, television, and film. Students were asked to select and read books in the general area of prejudice. A sample reading list of works under the headings of Negro, Jew, Italian, and Irish was provided. After writing extensive…

Babcock, David

1967-01-01

293

Understanding Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much is known about autism, misconceptions persist. A case report is presented and used as a framework for dispelling some common myths about the condition. A simple, practical model for understanding autism is proposed and recommendations are provided for the practitioner managing a child with autistic-like features.

Jon Matthew Farber; Arnold J. Capute

1984-01-01

294

Understanding Tides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book presents an elementary explanation of tides and tidal datums. It is written to explain the natural phenomenon of tides in terms and concepts readily understandable by students as well as those in all walks of life merely wishing to be enriched b...

S. Dopp-Hicks

2006-01-01

295

Understanding Federalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urges returning to the original federalist debates to understand contemporary federalism. Reviews "The Federalist Papers," how federalism has evolved, and the centralization of the national government through acts of Congress and Supreme Court decisions. Recommends teaching about federalism as part of teaching about U.S. government today. (NL)|

Hickok, Eugene W., Jr.

1990-01-01

296

Understanding Prejudice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help students understand prejudice, teachers in Verona, New York, planned a unit which incorporated the use of fiction, television, and film. Students were asked to select and read books in the general area of prejudice. A sample reading list of works under the headings of Negro, Jew, Italian, and Irish was provided. After writing extensive…

Babcock, David

1967-01-01

297

Understanding Instructions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing…

Milburn, Val

298

Understanding the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of personality type has contributed a lot to our understanding and prediction of human behaviour, especially in organizational contexts. A great deal of interest is especially focused on what types of people are most effective in different management environments. This study aimed to identify differences in psychological types of management students and business executives using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Desai Tejas A; Kirti Sharda

299

What do lay people want to know about the disposal of nuclear waste? A mental model approach to the design and development of an online risk communication.  

PubMed

Public participation requires the involvement of lay people in the decision-making processes of issues that concern them. It is currently practiced in a variety of domains, such as transport and environmental planning. Communicating risks can be a complex task, as there may be significant differences between the risk perceptions of experts and those of lay people. Among the plethora of problems that require public involvement is the site selection of a nuclear waste disposal site in the United Kingdom, which is discussed in this article. Previous ineffective attempts to locate a site provide evidence that the problem has a strong social dimension, and studies ascribe public opposition to a loss of public trust in governmental agencies and decisionmakers, and to a lack of public understanding of nuclear waste issues. Although the mental models approach has been successfully used in the effective communication of such risks as climate change, no attempt has been made to follow a prescriptive mental model approach to develop risk communication messages that inform lay people about nuclear waste disposal. After interviewing 20 lay people and 5 experts, we construct and compare their corresponding mental models to reveal any gaps and misconceptions. The mental models approach is further applied here to identify lay people's requirements regarding what they want to know about nuclear waste, and how this information should be presented so that it is easily understood. This article further describes how the mental models approach was used in the subsequent development of an online information system for the site selection of a nuclear waste repository in the United Kingdom, which is considered essential for the improvement of public understanding and the reestablishment of trust. PMID:22324812

Skarlatidou, A; Cheng, T; Haklay, M

2012-02-10

300

Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

Welty, J. L.; Belthoff, J. R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

2012-01-01

301

The wealthy get healthy, the poor get poorly? Lay perceptions of health inequalities.  

PubMed

Research repeatedly identifies an association between health and socio-economic status-richer people are healthier than poorer people. Richard Wilkinson has posited that socio-psychological mechanisms may be part of the explanation for the fact that socio-economic inequalities run right across the social spectrum in wealthy societies. He argues that polarised income distributions within countries have a negative impact on stress, self-esteem and social relations which, in turn, impact on physical well-being. How people experience and perceive inequalities is central to his thesis. However, relatively little empirical work has explored such lay perceptions. We attempt to address this gap by exploring how people see inequality, how they theorise its impact on health, and the extent to which they make personal and social comparisons, by drawing on 14 focus group discussions in Scotland and the north of England. Contrary to other research which suggests that people from more deprived backgrounds are more reluctant to acknowledge the effects of socio-economic deprivation, our findings demonstrate that, in some contexts at least, people from less favourable circumstances converse in a way to suggest that inequalities deeply affect their health and well-being. We discuss these findings in the light of the methodological challenges presented for pursuing such research. PMID:16300870

Davidson, Rosemary; Kitzinger, Jenny; Hunt, Kate

2005-11-21

302

Biodiversity Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Museums Online: South Africa, Biodiversity Explorer "is devoted to showing and explaining the diversity, biology, and interactions of life on earth, particularly the life we have here in southern Africa." Biodiversity Explorer provides an astounding number of information-rich Web pages covering regional plants, scorpions and spiders, insects, vertebrates, and marine life. Visitors will find detailed information (with references) and lots of photos within these pages, each with numerous hypertext links for exploring related topics. Visitors may browse the Web site by category or use the taxon index to locate species of interest. Don't know where to start? The Spotlight feature offers a few interesting examples, such as water bears that can remain dormant for over 100 years and how the San hunters use poisonous beetles for the tips of their arrows.

2007-07-02

303

Exploring Shadows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guide features three related explorations to help learners ages 3-6 investigate shadows via the following science concepts: A shadow is made when an object blocks the light; you can change the size of a shadow by moving an object closer to or farther from the light; and, you can change the shape of a shadow by turning the object. Exploring Shadows is one unit in the Peep Event Kit, which also offers explorations of Structures and ramps, respectively. The guide provides an agenda for a 1-hour science event, a customizable flyer, family handout (English and Spanish) and activity handout (English and Spanish). Learners can view a related Peep and the Big Wide World video story before or after the activity.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-01-01

304

Exploring Ramps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide features three related ramp explorations in which learners investigate the following science concepts: when placed on a ramp, some objects roll, others slide, and others stay put; the shape of an object and its placement on a ramp affect how the object moves; and, the steepness of a ramp affects how far and fast an object will roll. Exploring Ramps is one unit in the Peep Event Kit, which also offers explorations of shadows and structures, respectively. The guide provides an agenda for a 1-hour science event, a customizable flyer and family handouts (English and Spanish). Learners can view a related Peep and the Big Wide World video story before or after the activity.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-01-01

305

Mars Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mars Exploration is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about Mariner missions, Viking missions, Mars Observer, Mars Surveyor Program, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Polar Lander and Climate Orbiter, Mars 2001, and Mars 2003. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

306

A Cooperative Program Understanding Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large size and high-percentage of domain-specific code in most legacy systems makes it unlikely that auto- mated understanding tools will be able to completely un- derstand them. Yet automated tools can clearly recognize portions of the design. That suggests exploring environ- ments in which programmer and system work together to understand legacy software. This paper describes such an environment

Alex Quilici; David N. Chin

1994-01-01

307

Children's Understanding of Ownership Transfers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An understanding of ownership entails the recognition that ownership can be transferred permanently and the ability to differentiate legitimate from illegitimate transfers. Two experiments explored the development of this understanding in 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year olds, using stories about gift-giving and stealing. The possibility that children use…

Blake, Peter R.; Harris, Paul L.

2009-01-01

308

[Food value of spiruline algae for the laying hen].  

PubMed

The three diets (composition in table I) were isonitrogenous (16,4 p. 100 crude protein), similar in their content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, but with different levels of spiruline algae : 0 (control); 7.5 or 15 p. 100. Each diet was used for the feeding of 48 hybrid pullets of medium size during a 24-week test period (32 to 56 weeks). Egg production (table II) was slightly better (47.1 g/hen/day) with 7.5 p. 100 of spirulines, compared to the control (45.3 g/hen/day), the difference being significant (P less than 0.01). With 15 p. 100 of spirulines egg production was similar to that observed in the control, but the average egg weight was reduced (58.5 vs 60.5 g) as a result of a lower albumen content. The colour of the egg yolk (table IV) was very light in the controls, but was a deep orange (above the maximum in the Roch scale) with 7.5 or 15 p. 100 of spirulines in the laying hen diet. The diet consumption, feed conversion and live weight variations (table III) show that the energy level is no higher in laying hens (about 2 500 kcal M.E./kg spirulines) than in the broiler. PMID:825006

Blum, J C; Guillaumin, S; Calet, C

1975-01-01

309

Dietary methionine requirement of the Chinese egg-laying duck.  

PubMed

1. The dietary methionine requirement of egg-laying ducks was assessed by feeding diets supplemented with graded levels of DL-methionine (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 g/kg dietary protein) for 8 weeks. The basal diet contained 175 g protein and 2.6 g methionine per kg feed (or 14.9 g/kg protein) and an estimated ME of 11.5 MJ/kg. 2. A total of 800 Shaoxin laying ducks (420 d old) were randomly divided into 5 groups of 160 each and fed in 4 separate pens. 3. Dietary supplementation of methionine significantly increased egg production and feed conversion efficiency. 4. Dietary methionine requirement for optimum egg production was estimated to be 25.7 g/kg of dietary protein or 4.5 g/kg of the diet or 380 mg/bird-d. 5. Methionine supplementation increased the methionine level in plasma, and the free glutamic acid and aspartic acid concentrations in plasma were quadratically related to dietary methionine levels. Increasing dietary methionine had little effect on egg quality characteristics. PMID:14965096

He, J H; Li, J B; Gao, F X; Liu, Q H; Shu, J C; Liu, D J

2003-12-01

310

The quality of medical care delivered by lay practitioners in a feminist clinic.  

PubMed Central

The completion of essential components of patient encounters by lay paramedics in a feminist clinic was compared to that of nurse practitioners in a student health gynecology clinic using explicit criteria for the gynecological annual examination and the examination for vulvo-vaginitis. According to evidence charted in medical records, the lay paramedics conducted patient encounters as well as the nurse practitioners, with the exception that the lay paramedics consulted more frequently.

Elhai, L S

1981-01-01

311

Relationship between laying sequence and mercury concentration in tree swallow eggs.  

PubMed

When female birds lay eggs, some of their body burden of mercury is eliminated into each egg, potentially leading to declining mercury across the clutch. However, there was no decline in mercury with laying sequence in clutches of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at a mercury-contaminated site, presumably due to daily replenishment of mercury in females during laying. Sampling just one egg from the nest provided an accurate measure of clutch mercury contamination. PMID:20821552

Brasso, Rebecka L; Abdel Latif, Marwa K; Cristol, Daniel A

2010-05-01

312

Polluted environment and cold weather induce laying gaps in great tit and pied flycatcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the occurrence of laying gaps in free-living populations of the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, and the great tit, Parus major, in a pollution gradient of a copper smelter in south-west Finland. Laying gaps were 2.8 times more common in F. hypoleuca than in P. major. The probability of laying gaps was highest in the heavily polluted zone and lowest

Tapio Eeva; Esa Lehikoinen

2010-01-01

313

Exploring Caves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Learning Web unit from the US Geological Survey offers an engaging, interdisciplinary exploration of caves for grades K-3. Although Exploring Caves is listed as a life science unit, it encompasses a wide range of fields: earth science, hydrology, mapping, biology, and anthropology. The unit is linked by an original read-aloud story about the adventures of two kids who get lost in a cave and are helped out by a talking bat (why not?). Each chapter comes with a set of lessons and activities "designed to stimulate thinking and new ways of looking at the world."

2002-01-01

314

Exploring Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Mary Ann Connors, a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at University of Massachusetts Amherst has developed this website based on a curriculum project previously funded by the National Science Foundation. Exploring Fractals provides an introduction to fractals, explores concepts such as shape and dimension, provides some classroom investigations, demonstrates how to create simple fractals, and offers some additional information for teachers. Diagrams and pictures are used as part of the explanations. Other Internet resources for further investigation are also provided.

2007-12-12

315

Exploring Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Mary Ann Connors, a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at University of Massachusetts Amherst has developed this website based on a curriculum project previously funded by the National Science Foundation. Exploring Fractals provides an introduction to fractals, explores concepts such as shape and dimension, provides some classroom investigations, demonstrates how to create simple fractals, and offers some additional information for teachers. Diagrams and pictures are used as part of the explanations. Other Internet resources for further investigation are also provided.

2006-01-19

316

Geologic Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest offerings from the North Carolina State University's Web site Science Junction (last mentioned in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report) is the Geologic Explorations page. By clicking on the respective coordinates of each location, users can explore twelve areas in the western United States with 360-degree panoramic QuickTime movies and digital photography. Set up as a type of lesson for students, the main page suggests paying close attention to the unique geologic features and gives a few questions to answer about each area. The site is very easy to use and provides some breathtaking vistas of some of the most beautiful areas of the US.

Bodzin, Alec M.

2001-01-01

317

Exploration_Columbus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project students will investigate via primary documents letters while examining Columbus's correspondences.They will also form historical empathy to understand the background of some of Columbus' questionable actions. Was Columbus justified in taking forceful action to claim the new world? Students will first look at a background information of pre-"New world" Exploration_Columbus Letter (image) Students will examine the letter of Columbus (image) Exploration_Columbus Letter (image) Students will record their observations of what they see and explain what is going on. Students will use ...

Crosland, Mr.

2009-10-22

318

Understanding resilience  

PubMed Central

Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J.; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathe, Aleksander A.

2013-01-01

319

NASA Solar System Exploration Website  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Solar System Exploration website, http:\\/\\/solarsystem.nasa.gov, sponsored by the Science Director for Solar System Exploration, Office of Space Science, NASA, is a gateway to information about our solar system and NASA's missions and research to understand it. The site has been designed for easy navigation and is becoming known as a resource for educators, students, media, and publishers. Major

A. M. Sohus

2000-01-01

320

Understanding Cladistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students explore cladistics by creating a cladogram. The activity opens with background information for teachers about cladistics. After discussing the relationship of some familiar mammals, students learn about how scientists use cladistics to determine evolutionary relationships among animals. Working in pairs, students complete a worksheet that directs them to examine coins and create a cladogram based on their shared characteristics. Then, small groups of students examine dinosaur illustrations, identify their shared features, and those features to classify the dinosaurs.

321

Understanding parisians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban physical environment results not only from functional requirements of urban life, but also from the very cultural\\u000a background and social relationships. After examining the relationships between the architecture and the cultural contexts\\u000a in Paris, the author presents and argues a belief that the architectural characteristics in Paris can be better explained\\u000a by understanding the Parisian ways of urban

Hua Chen

2000-01-01

322

Understanding Torque  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, presented by the University of Guelph, is a tutorial on understanding torque associated with mechanical equipment. It includes example problems, definitions and self-tests. The site combines images, diagrams and text to present its concepts. Overall, the website is easy to use and provides solid information about the topic. It is a great resource for students and instructors in a technical classroom.

2008-10-28

323

Designing Tools for Ocean Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will investigate the types of tools and technology that are used in ocean exploration. As they proceed, they will understand the complexity of ocean exploration, learn about the technological applications and capabilities required for ocean exploration, and discover the importance of teamwork in scientific research projects. As part of the activity, they will plan and perform a simulated "dive" into a model ocean, using sampling tools they have made themselves.

324

Clay Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the possibilities of clay as a natural material. At three stations, learners create sculptures, use natural items such as small pebbles, twigs, and pinecones to embellish clay structures, and paint with clay. These activities help learners discover the sensory qualities of clay as a medium.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

325

Exploring Size.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among apparently…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

1995-01-01

326

Exploring Transformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore transformations of an absolute value function. Step by step instructions guide students in using graphing calculators to examine the effect that stretching and translating has on the coordinates of the graph. Teacher notes and a worksheet are also included to aid in teaching this lesson.

2011-11-25

327

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determining how our solar system formed and understanding whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) exploring the diverse changes that planets have und...

D. Black G. Varsi J. Veverka L. Soderblom S. Squyres

1994-01-01

328

Safety evaluation of daidzein in laying hens: part I. Effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, and organs development.  

PubMed

Daidzein, an estrogen-like product, becomes increasingly popular as a dietary supplement, particularly for postpeak-estrus animals seeking a safe natural alternative to play a role of estrogen. However, there is little available safety data of it for raisers and consumers. A subchronic laying hen safety study was conducted to examine if the high-dose daidzein could affect the safety of hens selves, including laying performance, clinical blood parameters and organs development. Seven hundred and sixty-eight 56-week-old Hyline Brown were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 8 replicates of 24 birds each and 3weeks later fed diets supplemented with 0, 10, 50 and 100mg of daidzein/kg for 12weeks. The mortality was significantly decreased (P<0.05). No treatment related adverse clinical signs were observed. Mean egg production, egg mass and feed conversion of whole experiment period was significantly influenced by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05), showing significant quadratic response to increasing dietary daidzein supplement (P=0.029, P=0.003 and P=0.019, respectively). There was no statistically significant changes in haematology (P>0.05). In clinical chemistry parameters, total protein, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus were significantly affected by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05). The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is considered to be 50mg/kg. PMID:23391597

Shi, S R; Gu, H; Chang, L L; Wang, Z Y; Tong, H B; Zou, J M

2013-02-04

329

Air samplings in a Campylobacter jejuni positive laying hen flock.  

PubMed

The air in laying hen houses contains high concentrations of airborne bacteria. The numbers of these bacteria can be influenced by the efficiency of the chosen sampling method. In the presented study, AGI-30 Impingers and the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler were compared in terms of their efficiency in sampling aerobic mesophilic bacteria in a laying hen house. Measurements were conducted in a laying hen flock with high prevalences of C. jejuni in order to investigate if culturable cells of this organism can also be detected by the applied methods. Airborne dust was also analyzed for the presence of C. jejuni specific DNA to assess the possible occurrence of non-culturable C. jejuni in the hen house air. The numbers of mesophilic airborne bacteria ranged from 8 × 10(4) - 2 × 10(6) CFU/m(-3) when sampled using AGI-30 Impingers, and from 2 × 10(5) - 4 × 10(6) CFU/m -3 when sampled using a Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler. The concentrations detected simultaneously by both devices correlated well (rPearson = 0.755), but the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler showed a significantly higher sampling efficiency (p<0.001). Although, the within flock prevalence of C. jejuni was high during the experiments (between 70-93%), neither of the air sampling methods could detect culturable C. jejuni from the air. However, C. jejuni specific DNA was detected in 15 out of 18 airborne dust samples by mapA PCR. Based on the results, it can be concluded that airborne culturable C. jejuni were not detectable, even with an efficient air sampler, because of their low concentration. Therefore, the risk of airborne infection to poultry workers on inhaling airborne C. jejuni seems negligible. Also, the transmission of culturable C. jejuni to neighboring farms by the airborne route is unlikely. Otherwise, the detection of airborne C. jejuni specific DNA suggests that non-culturable cells could appear in the hen house air, and in future it should be verified whether sampling stress of the air sampling methods could induce the non-culturable state. PMID:23540207

Ahmed, Marwa Fawzy El Metwaly; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Joerg

2013-01-01

330

Exploring Hurricane Storm Surge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hurricanes cause damage in three ways: wind, rain, and storm surge. This project explores the causes and effects of storm surge in hurricanes. While wind and rain are two of the most obvious effects of hurricanes, storm surge can be one of the most destructive. This project involves using the resources from the NSDL to understand why storm surge occurs, where it occurs, and what governs how bad it can be. Start by reading ...

Dean

2006-05-15

331

Understanding Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students investigate tidal phenomena by exploring water level observational (or predicted tidal) data from several locations around the world that provide examples of semi-diurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides. Students are asked to identify patterns of variability and differences among the sites on time scales of just a few days and over a period of a couple months. The activity is designed more to get students thinking about tides, asking questions about the causes of tidal variations, and thinking about ways to answer these questions, as opposed to providing an explanation of tidal processes. The activity leads to a body of observations that generate numerous questions about tides. The goal is to capture student's interest before spending subsequent class time developing a conceptual/theoretical model of how tides work.

Cook, Tim

332

Social Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the name "Social Explorer" may conjure up images for some of a new and powerful social networking site, this site is actually a splendid way to learn more about your friends and neighbors. Created by a team of demographers and GIS experts at Queens College in New York, the Social Explorer website offers access to dozens of different interactive data maps including time series maps that chart the ethnic transitions that have occurred throughout New York and Los Angeles over the past decades. Before delving into the maps any further, first-time visitors may want to go to the "Getting Started" section, where they can read a brief introductory essay about these data maps and their basic objectives. Finally, visitors can also use the site to generate their own specialized maps and reports.

333

History Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many ways to explore the various facets of history, and some of the world's leading museums have come up with a host of online multimedia tools to bring people into this subject that is sometimes erroneously perceived to be dry and uninteresting. The inventive people at the National Museum of American History have recently developed the History Explorer which allows those surfing the Web to browse through an interactive timeline of American history. The interface is composed of items from the Museum's various online collections, exhibitions and programs, such as Plymouth Rock and a world map from 1511. Visitors can zoom in and out through the timeline and its objects and also elect to toggle on or off various themes, such as "Arts and Culture", "Peopling America", and "Politics and Reform". Overall, this is a very well-thought-out tool for learning about American history and one that will engage a wide range of persons.

334

Perimeter explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to engage the student in an exploration of the perimeter of shapes formed by adjacent squares on a grid. After the student selects an area, the Java applet generates a closed figure with that area. The student enters the perimeter of the figure, and the answer is checked automatically. The applet limits figures to rectangles and generates two column comparisons of areas and perimeters for multiple figures. From the activity page, What, How, and Why buttons open pages explaining the activity's purpose, function, and how the mathematics fits into the curriculum. Supplemental resources include lesson plans, background information about units and unit conversion, handouts, and exploration questions for analyzing the different shapes that are possible for a constant area. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Foundation, Shodor E.

2004-01-01

335

Exploration Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using recycled materials, learners will design a transportation vehicle to carry an egg in an egg toss (a rudimentary model of a shock absorbent transport vessel). Learners will consider how their design would protect very delicate and sophisticated equipment over long distances, and how this applies to rockets designed to carry exploration satellites or modules into space. This activity can be found on pages 54-57 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

336

Exploring Deserts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Deserts explains the process of desertification, provides links to information on types of deserts, and features information on the Sahara, Mojave, Arabian and Kalahari deserts. There are general facts on the fauna and flora in deserts such as the Desert Tortoise, Desert Kingsnake, and Golden Eagle, and descriptions of their problems of survival due to dangers such as sand dunes, sand and dust storms, and torrential rain and floods. Information is also provided on development of the deserts.

337

Science Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic, is designed to promote science literacy among students in grades 3 through 10. Each of the six online investigation brings the expertise and latest scientific discoveries of the Museum's world-class scientists to classrooms across the country. The investigations are:Animals, Adaptation, and the Galápagos Islands; Classify Insects; Journey Into Space; Investigate the Giant Squid; Soar with Bats; and Uncover Lizards and Snakes.

338

Understanding resilience.  

PubMed

Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences. PMID:23422934

Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S; Mathé, Aleksander A

2013-02-15

339

Understanding ayurveda.  

PubMed

Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole. PMID:21829307

Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

2010-01-01

340

Understanding Ayurveda  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

2010-01-01

341

Monticello Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As this page loads, visitors are treated to an architectural rendering of Thomas JeffersonÂs beloved Monticello. This is a lovely beginning to what is a thoroughly engaging and enriching online experience. From the homepage, visitors can explore the center of his Monticello plantation in glorious detail. What is perhaps most remarkable is that the mapping interface used to explore this area is rather user-friendly, along with containing a diverse set of data points that allow users to learn about the various elements of the built environment in the area. Not surprisingly, all of this is accompanied by brief essays on the general history and development of this famed complex. Next, visitors absolutely must take a look at the Âexplore the house feature, where they can wander around a 3-D recreation of JeffersonÂs architectural masterpiece and learn about the objects and fascinating stories associated with this palatial home. As if that wasnÂt enough, visitors can also take three different tours that explore the home, domestic life at Monticello, and the gardens and grounds, all led by experts who work on the premises. Short of visiting the home itself in Virginia (which isnÂt a bad idea), this is certainly the next-best option.

342

[Lay expertise in patient organizations: an instrument for health democracy].  

PubMed

In the health sector, lay expertise refers to two distinct but related phenomena: experiential expertise, i.e. expertise based on the experience of a specific condition, and medical-scientific expertise. A significant part of the activities of patient organizations are devoted to developing both forms of expertise: on the one hand, they collect, shape, analyze their members' testimonies, conduct surveys and produce statistics; on the other hand, they provide a scientific watch, synthesize the academic literature, publish documents for the public or organize conferences. This two-fold expertise is mobilized in actions directed both at empowering of the individual patient as well as at shaping health policies: therefore it contributes to health democracy, understood in the double sense used in the March 4th 2002 Act, i.e. as participation of individuals to decisions regarding their own health and as participation of patients' and users' representatives to the governance of health. PMID:22730612

Madeleine, Akrich; Rabeharisoa, Vololona

343

Proteolytic processing of the Aplysia egg-laying hormone prohormone  

PubMed Central

By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS, individual peptidergic neurons from Aplysia are assayed. A semiquantitative method is developed for comparing single-cell profiles by using spectral normalization, and peptides are localized to specific cells by mass spectrometric cell mapping. In addition to all previously identified products of the egg-laying hormone (ELH) gene, other peptides are formed from proteolytic hydrolysis of Leu-Leu residues within ELH and acidic peptide (AP). AP exhibits further processing to yield AP1–20 and AP9–27. These peptides appear to be colocalized in vesicles with ELH, transported to specific neuronal targets, and released in a Ca2+-dependent manner. A differential peptide distribution is observed at a specific target cell, and a low-frequency variation of AP, [Thr21]AP, is detected in a single animal.

Garden, Rebecca W.; Shippy, Scott A.; Li, Lingjun; Moroz, Tatiana P.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

1998-01-01

344

Mars exploration.  

PubMed

An international flotilla of spacecraft are to be sent to Mars over the next decade in an effort to understand the planet's geology and climate history, and to determine whether some form of life ever started there. At least two spacecraft will be sent at each launch opportunity, and at times up to four spacecraft may be operating simultaneously at the planet. PMID:11449287

Carr, M H; Garvin, J

2001-07-12

345

[Energy metabolism in laying hens of different body weight genotypes].  

PubMed

Energy metabolism and some performance parameters were investigated in laying hens of 3 different body weight-genotypes: 6 x 7 (normal-sized, crossbred from normal-sized male and female lines, group 1), 47 x 38 (dwarf-sized, breeding from a dwarf-sized male line and a normal-sized female line, group 2) and 44 x 47 (dwarf-sized, breeding from dwarf-sized male and female lines, group 3). Energy balance was measured by indirect calorimetry through C- and N-balances in 12 animals of each group during 10 consecutive days at production peak, within the period between the 27th and the 37th week of age. Hens were caged individually at 23 degrees C environmental temperature and fed ad libitum on a laying mash. The mean body weight in the dwarf-sized groups 2 and 3 was 32% lower than in the normal-sized group 1 during the energy balance period. The daily gross energy intake in group 2 and 3 was decreased by 33 and 34%, respectively. There were no significant differences in digestibility and metabolizability of gross energy between the groups. The energy requirements for maintenance [kJ ME/kg0.75.d] derived from the energy balances were lower by 4% (P > 0.05) and 14% (P < 0.05) in the dwarf-sized groups 2 and 3 as compared with the normal-sized group 1, when equal coefficients of partial efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for energy retention in body and eggs are assumed for the 3 body-mass genotypes. There were no relevant differences in body composition at the end of the energy balance periods as well as in egg composition between the 3 experimental groups. PMID:9850795

Klein, M; Neubert, M; Strobel, E; Hoffmann, L

1998-01-01

346

Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana  

SciTech Connect

The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165�������������������������������°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250���������������¢�������������������������������� of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the ���������������¢��������������������������������center���������������¢������������������������������� of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165�������������������������������°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

2012-09-26

347

Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and radar experiments, a very sensitive magnetometer and gradiometer, a subsatellite, and a state-of-the-art optical communication system. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter concept is technologically challenging but feasible, and will gather unique, integrated, interdisciplinary data sets that are of high scientific interest and will provide an unprecedented new context for all other international lunar missions. In fact, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter will further establish Germany as a leader among space-faring nations and will demonstrate expertise and technological know-how, which is "Made in Germany". With its high visibility, LEO will foster the growing acceptance of space exploration in Germany and will capture the imagination of the general public.

Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

2007-08-01

348

Understanding osteoporosis.  

PubMed Central

Considerable progress has been achieved recently in our understanding of the normal process by which bone mass is regulated. Age-related trabecular bone loss is characterized not simply by a global loss of bone but also by cortical porosity and loss of trabecular connections. Because bone strength depends on architectural as well as material properties, bone quantity alone cannot define fracture risk with precision. Traditional therapies for osteoporosis increase bone mass, and estrogen therapy, in particular, profoundly decreases fracture risk. The pharmacologic restoration of bone quantity and quality, however, remains elusive. Modern biotechnology offers the hope that progress may come about through the development of growth factors and other osteotropic compounds for clinical use. Images

Marcus, R.

1991-01-01

349

Understanding Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Life is the educational website of The Physiological Society, providing "support for the teaching and learning of physiology." A good place to start is the What is Physiology? area, which offers an overview of this field of human inquiry. The Resources area is a well-designed archive of instructional materials that include "The story of a single heartbeat," "The Science of Life," and "Planning an experiment." It's worth noting that visitors can create their own accounts on the site so they can receive specialized newsletters, tailored website content, and become eligible to enter scientific competitions. Moving along, the Events area lists important goings-on that will be of interest to educators and those involved with science pedagogy. [KMG

350

Understanding Condensation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Monica Hartman, Assistant Director for Science in St. Clair County, Michigan, conducted this research while she was the learning specialist in a small suburban district just outside a large Midwestern city. While teaching full time in this district she was also completing her doctoral program in education at the University of Michigan. In this chapter, she tells the story of a "science talk" about condensation among fifth graders. She acted as a source and facilitator of change as she and the fifth-grade teacher worked collaboratively to help students share responsibility for their own learning. She describes their continual assessment of student understanding that occurred as their students struggled to explain observations and as they, the teachers, carefully resisted the temptation to end the struggle by saying "that's right!"

Hartman, Monica

2007-12-01

351

Aiding understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research projects carried out by individual researchers or research teams which communicate the challenge and excitement of their work to a wider public are eligible for entry into the 1999 `Partnerships for Public Understanding' awards scheme. This is organized by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and follows on the success of a pilot scheme launched in 1998 which made 25 grants across the UK. Grant holders are invited to apply for awards to support them in high quality communication projects for the general public, with individual awards normally in the range of ÂŁ10-20k, but higher awards may be made for exceptional projects. This year a special `Year 2000' PPU sum will be available for a proposal which will contribute significantly to public awareness of the likely impact on society of an aspect of science or engineering research during the first half of the new millennium. The awards have been introduced to support the EPSRC's aim of contributing to public awareness of leading edge research; highly innovative projects will be welcomed, as well as the by now more common activities such as interactive exhibits, public lectures, demonstrations and open days. Applicants should be current holders of EPSRC research grants or fellowships, or those who have held these since 1 April 1994. Proposals will be assessed by EPSRC with advice from communications and education specialists, and the closing date for entries is 1 September 1999. Successful bids will be announced towards the end of the year. Further information on the awards can be obtained from Geoffrey Moore at EPSRC (tel: 01793 444241, e-mail: geoffrey.moore@epsrc.ac.uk), whilst details of the call for proposals can be found on the website at www.epsrc.ac.uk (see pages `Support for public understanding').

1999-07-01

352

Providing laying hens with perches: fulfilling behavioural needs but causing injury?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The EU laying hen directive, which bans standard battery cages from 2012, has implications for animal welfare, particularly since housing laying hens in extensive systems, while increasing natural behaviour and improving bone strength, is associated with a greater level of bone fractures, predominantly of the keel bone, compared to birds housed in cages.2.?The aetiology and welfare consequences of keel and

V. Sandilands; C. Moinard; N. H. C. Sparks

2009-01-01

353

Strength of preference for dustbathing and foraging substrates in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment investigated the substrate preferences of laying hens, with particular respect to dustbathing and foraging behaviour, in order to guide decisions concerning which resources should be provided in laying hen housing systems to best enable the expression of these behaviours. The consumer demand approach was used to study the strength of preference. Individually-tested hens had to push a

Ingrid C. de Jong; Maaike Wolthuis-Fillerup; Cornelis G. van Reenen

354

Strength of preference for dustbathing and foraging substrates in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment investigated the substrate preferences of laying hens, with particular respect to dustbathing and foraging behaviour, in order to guide decisions concerning which resources should be provided in laying hen housing systems to best enable the expression of these behaviours. The consumer demand approach was used to study the strength of preference. Individually-tested hens had to push a

Ingrid C. de Jong; Maaike Wolthuis-Fillerup; Cornelis G. van Reenen

2007-01-01

355

Developing Capacities of Youth as Lay Health Advisors: A Case Study with High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth lay health advising, a form of support or helping, is an important potential resource for preventive intervention. This article describes a case study of a youth lay health advising program designed to provide high school students with support and guidance to handle challenges and concerns related to their health and quality of life. First, the planning, program development, and

Jannette Berkley-Patton; Stephen B. Fawcett; Adrienne Paine-Andrews; Lori Johns

1997-01-01

356

Salmonella contamination of laying-hen flocks in two regions of Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary epidemiological study of Salmonella contamination in laying-hen flocks was carried out in the regions of Annaba and Eltarf, Algeria, from March to October 2008 and March to November 2009. Our objectives were (i) to estimate the prevalence of infection by Salmonella spp. in seven pooled samples during the hens' laying period (ii) to identify the serotypes and antimicrobial

Nardjess Bouzidi; Leila Aoun; Mourad Zeghdoudi; Mourad Bensouilah; Rachid Elgroud; Ibtissem Oucief; Sophie A. Granier; Anne Brisabois; Loďc Desquilbet; Yves Millemann

357

Lay Persons’ Versus Psychologists’ Judgments of Psychologically Aggressive Actions by a Husband and Wife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature assessing knowledge of and attitudes toward social issues has demonstrated that mental health professionals and lay persons often differ greatly. To add to the normative information in the field of psychological abuse and to determine whether the differences previously found between mental health professionals and lay persons extend to this field, a sample from each group rated psychologically aggressive

Diane R. Follingstad; Cynthia M. Helff; Robin V. Binford; Margaret M. Runge; Jeffrey D. White

2004-01-01

358

End-of-Cycle Bone Quality in White and Brown-Egg Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broken and weak bones of laying hens are major welfare concerns in the table egg industry. Bone qualityattheendoflayofbrown-(Shaver579)andwhite- (Shaver 2000) egg strains were compared. Prior to the start of the experiment, the hens had been housed in laying hen cages (2\\/cage). At 423 d of age (60 wk + 3 d), 24 hens of each strain were selected and individually

C. M. Riczu; J. L. Saunders-Blades; K. Yngvesson; F. E. Robinson; D. R. Korver

359

Evaluation of Hand Lay-Up and Resin Transfer Molding in Composite Wind Turbine Blade Manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the wind turbine blade industry currently uses low cost hand lay-up manufacturing techniques to process composite blades. While there are benefits to the hand lay-up process, drawbacks inherent to this process along with advantages of other techniques suggest that better manufacturing alternatives may be available. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was identified as a processing alternative and shows

DOUGLAS S. CAIRNS; JON D. SHRAMSTAD

2000-01-01

360

THE LAYING OF REPLACEMENT CLUTCHES BY FALCONIFORMS AND STRIGIFORMS IN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the laying of replacement clutches by North American raptors by reviewing existing literature and presenting data gathered from oological collections and from the double-clutching of wild and captive birds. We found that most species recycle; however, the frequency of recycling declined with an increasing stage of in- cubation. Clutch size did not decrease significantly between layings for

Michael L. Morrison; Brian James Walton

361

Decision Plan for West Valley High-Level Waste Tank-Lay Up.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents completion of Milestone A.3-1, 'Issue Decision Plan for WVDP Tank Lay-Up,' in Technical Task Plan RL30WT21A, 'Post-Retrieval and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up.' This task is a collaborative effort among Pacific Northwest National Labor...

2001-01-01

362

Effects of repeated oral corticosterone administration on performance and stress parameters of laying hens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of repeated stress during rearing on performance and physiology of laying hens was studied using a corticosterone (Cort) model. 240 Hisex laying hens were reared in environmentally controlled battery cages. At 7, 11, and 15 wk of age they were exposed for 1 wk to the following treatments...

363

Climate change, migratory connctivity and changes in laying date and clutch size of the pied flycatcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined long-term (1943 ? 2003) variability in laying dates and clutch sizes in a Finnish population of the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca Pallas, and analysed whether potential changes were explained by changes in climatic factors at the wintering area in Africa, at migration route or at breeding grounds. Among-year variation in both mean and skewness of laying dates increased,

Toni Laaksonen; Markus Ahola; Tapio Eeva; Risto A. Väisänen; Esa Lehikoinen

2006-01-01

364

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This K-12 education program gives students (especially in the Phoenix, AZ area) opportunities to take part in real scientific research led by Central Arizona - Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) scientists. Using this site, students learn data collection techniques used by scientists, called protocols. They collect initial data, using the protocols they have learned, and apply it in looking for patterns at their own research site (schoolyard or backyard). Their data can also be shared with other researchers and school kids to see what patterns in nature exist across the Phoenix metropolitan area. Their own hypotheses and experiments will lead to a better understanding of why those patterns exist and will help them to understand what real scientists are doing in their laboratories. Topics covered include arthropods, beetles, seeds, birds and vegetation.

365

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

366

Exploring Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA has blasted into the new year by not only landing a robotic vehicle (the Rover Spirit) on the surface of Mars, but also by transmitting the best photographs ever captured of the red planet. With that, Spirit is now preparing to meander about the surface of Mars and collect specimens of rock and soil -- the return of which is anxiously awaited by scientists worldwide. Spirit landed and made its first transmissions to earth earlier this week. And, as was planned by NASA researchers, Sprit had landed almost directly in what looks to be an impact crater, now nicknamed Sleepy Hollow. Researchers are excited to explore that area and the many other craters and rock debris located there. While the planet appears to be quite desolate, Spirit will soon be joined by its twin, Opportunity. Opportunity is expected to land next week on another part of the planet before beginning its own exploration.The first site takes visitors to NASA's official Mars exploration site. Located here is all sorts of information on the mission's purpose, a timeline of events, updated photographs sent by Spirit, press releases, and resources for teachers and students. The two news sites offer reviews of the mission. The first is a detailed site from NPR.org and provides visitors with several stories that have been dedicated to the mission. The second of these is a review of the photos of Mars sent from Spirit. The fourth site is dedicated to the geology of Mars. This site, from Albert T. Hsui at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, is a great reference for delving into the details of Mars geology (as was known pre-January 2004). The next site is from the Denver Museum of Nature and Science and provides a great description of the search for water (or the past presence of it) on Mars. Discoveryschool.com offers the next site which provides a great collection of teaching resources for educators wishing to bring Mars into the their classrooms. The final site, from BBCi, totes itself as containing "everything you need to know about Mars exploration." And, it lives up to its claim pretty well. This site offers a different perspective from the NASA mission by offering a look into the European Space Agency's Express Mission and the subsequent landing of the ESA version of the Spirit and Opportunity, the Beagle II.

367

Exploring Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Estuaries introduces students of various ages to the ecology of estuaries, places where freshwater rivers and streams flow into the ocean, mixing with the seawater. It is part of a broader effort by the National Estuary Program to educate the general public about estuaries and to restore and protect these sensitive ecosystems. It offers interactive games and activities as well as virtual tours of Long Island Sound and the Barataria-Terrebonne Estuarine Complex near New Orleans. A glossary page defines technical terms used throughout the site. Resources also are provided for teachers and students interested in learning more about related organizations, publications, and websites.

368

Exploring Krypto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The rules of Krypto are amazingly simpleâcombine five numbers using the standard arithmetic operations to create a target number. Finding a solution to one of the more than 3 million possible combinations can be quite a challenge, but learners love it. This game helps to develop number sense, computational skill, and an understanding of the order of operations. Play this game online or use a deck of Krypto cards.

Zordak, Samuel E.

2012-01-01

369

Irrational categorization, natural intolerance and reasonable discrimination: Lay representations of prejudice and racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how the constructs of 'prejudice' and 'racism' were used and understood by respondents in an interview study concerning the settlement of Albanian refugees in Greece. Analysis indicated the existence of multiple, potentially contradictory, common sense understandings of prejudice and racism, analogous to some accounts of the prejudice construct in academic social psychology. However, notwithstanding the fact that

Lia Figgou; Susan Condor

2006-01-01

370

Understanding the Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about understanding the sky including detailed information about the motion of planets, the motion of the Moon, Earth's motion, and seasons. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

371

Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.  

PubMed

Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research into implications of gut bacteria, their metabolites and the polyamine system on brain and behavior in laying hens. PMID:23313560

Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

2013-01-08

372

Understanding GLOBE Student Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Database houses millions of student observations from schools worldwide. The purpose of these activities is first, to help guide the teacher through these millions of data, and second, to inspire teachers and students to both collect GLOBE data as well as to use these data in their own research. The activities have been designed to help students and teachers discover that data exploration can be exciting and interesting. Each activity contains step-by-step procedures as well as notes on what students should see in and understand about the data.

2005-01-01

373

Exploring Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this activity, Students will learn several important characteristics about friction. Students will also learn why athletes who curl in the Winter Olympics try to understand and control friction.

2010-01-01

374

The effect of vitamin E on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on laying performance, egg quality, egg fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and several biochemical parameters of laying hens fed corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) during the laying period (40 to 63 wk of age). A total of 360 Hy-Line Variety Brown hens were randomly assigned to 6 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 10 hens each. Hens were allocated to diets 1 through 6 in a 3 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments included 3 levels of DDGS (0, 10, and 20%) and 2 levels of vitamin E (0 and 200 mg/kg). The results indicated that yolk color and eggshell thickness increased with increasing DDGS (P < 0.05). However, increasing DDGS to 20% in laying hen diets significantly reduced feed conversion (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 200 mg/kg of vitamin E significantly improved egg production and yolk percentage (P < 0.05). Increasing the dietary levels of vitamin E caused a decrease in cholesterol and an increase in the ?-tocopherol concentration of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with DDGS decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk (P < 0.05). Supplementation with high levels of vitamin E decreased malondialdehyde and increased glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase concentrations of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that DDGS was successfully fed to laying hens at levels up to 10% without adverse effects on laying performance. Additionally, vitamin E supplementation improved egg production and egg quality and provided health benefits to laying hens. PMID:24135600

Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Licong; Shan, Anshan

2013-11-01

375

Statistical Understanding Made Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching statistics can be tough for even experienced instructors, so it is nice to learn about the Statistical Understanding Made Simple (SUMS) website. Created by researchers at the University of Glasgow, the site helps users build "interactive, fun and highly effective tutorials designed to help students understand basic statistics." Visitors who wish to have the resource generator create tutorials will need to register on the site and provide a small data set. Of course, visitors can also check out the "Ready Made Tutorials" area, where they will discover projects that examine the relationship between height and weight and the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on depression. Additionally, the site also contains several games which students can use to explore the effects of standard deviation and histograms.

376

Understanding the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Discovery Channel website explores the features of our universe. There are three sections covering various aspects of the universe, as well as a section for teachers with tips for using the website in the classroom. The Stargazers section discusses the top ten astronomers who have contributed to our current understanding of the universe: Kepler, Galileo, Brahe, Copernicus, Hubble, Einstein, Newton, Lemaitre, Penzias and Wilson. The Galaxy Tour section provides a field trip beginning in our own galaxy, the Milky Way, then moving to the magellanic clouds, the Andromeda galaxy, the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, unusual galaxies, and information from the Hubble Space Telescope. The It's Awesome section contains further information for understanding the vastness of the universe, light years and time, and includes a cosmic calendar and a mind game. Resources and links are provided for further information.

377

Exploring Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers several ways to explore the importance of estuaries. Virtual tours of the Barataria-Terrebone Estuarine Complex and the Long Island Sound offer photos and text of each area explain their importance to humans, wildlife, and larger ecosystems. Additional resources for kids and adults are linked. A glossary page offers a list of vocabulary associated with estuaries. The site also offers a games and activities section for kids that has coloring sheets for young children, and inquiry-based interactive games for older kids. The games include a "Who Am I" animal identification game, and a game called "Solve a Mystery" where players must follow and investigation into what's wrong with an estuary, and make a decision on the cause of the problem. There are several possible mysteries to solve, each with a different solution.

378

Triangle explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables students to investigate the area of triangles placed in the first quadrant of a Cartesian coordinate graph. The student selects a level of difficulty, which determines the type of triangle and its orientation on the graph. In addition to it automatically checking student answers, the applet can keep score of correct answers and offers hints by adding to the graph a rectangle that is related to the triangle. From the activity page, What, How, and Why buttons open pages that explain the activity's purpose, function, and how the mathematics fits into the curriculum. Supplemental resources include lesson plans and handouts, as well as exploration questions about finding the area for different types of triangles and the relationship between the area of a triangle and its related rectangle. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Foundation, Shodor E.

2004-01-01

379

Shape explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet is designed to allow students to practice visualizing and calculating area and perimeter for figures formed by adjacent squares on a grid. After the student selects a size using a slide bar, the Java applet generates a random closed figure. The student enters values for the figure's area and perimeter, which are checked automatically. The applet limits figures to rectangles and generates two column comparisons of areas and perimeters for multiple figures. From the activity page, What, How, and Why buttons open pages that explain the activity's purpose, function, and how the mathematics fits into the curriculum. The applet also references related NCTM standards for grades 6-8. Supplemental resources include lesson plans, background information about units and unit conversion, handouts, and exploration questions about comparing grid line intersections on the interior and exterior of figures. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Foundation, Shodor E.

2004-01-01

380

Developing lay health worker policy in South Africa: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past half decade South Africa has been developing, implementing and redeveloping its Lay Health Worker (LHW) policies. Research during this period has highlighted challenges with LHW programme implementation. These challenges have included an increased burden of care for female LHWs. The aim of this study was to explore contemporary LHW policy development processes and the extent to which issues of gender are taken up within this process. Methods The study adopted a qualitative approach to exploring policy development from the perspective of policy actors. Eleven policy actors (policy makers and policy commentators) were interviewed individually. Data from the interviews were analysed thematically. Results Considerations of LHW working conditions drove policy redevelopment. From the interviews it seems that gender as an issue never reached the policy making agenda. Although there was strong recognition that the working conditions of LHWs needed to be improved, poor working conditions were not necessarily seen as a gender concern. Our data suggests that in the process of defining the problem which the redeveloped policy had to address, gender was not included. There was no group or body who brought the issue of gender to the attention of policy developers. As such the issue of gender never entered the policy debates. These debates focused on whether it was appropriate to have LHWs, what LHW programme model should be adopted and whether or not LHWs should be incorporated into the formal health system. Conclusion LHW policy redevelopment focused on resolving issues of LHW working conditions through an active process involving many actors and strong debates. Within this process the issue of gender had no champion and never reached the LHW policy agenda. Future research may consider how to incorporate the voices of ordinary women into the policy making process.

2012-01-01

381

Understanding Scale: Powers of Ten  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classic film "Powers of Ten" is often employed to catalyze the building of more accurate conceptions of scale, yet its effectiveness is largely unknown. This study examines the impact of the film on students' concepts of size and scale. Twenty-two middle school students and six science teachers participated. Students completed pre- and post-intervention interviews and a Scale Card Sorting (SCS) task; all students observed the film "Powers of Ten." Experienced teachers' views on the efficacy of the film were assessed through a short written survey. Results showed that viewing the film had a positive influence on students' understandings of powers of ten and scale. Students reported that they had more difficulty with sizes outside of the human scale and found small scales more difficult to conceptualize than large scales. Students' concepts of relative size as well as their ability to accurately match metric sizes in scientific notation to metric scale increased from pre- to post-viewing of the film. Experienced teachers reported that the film was a highly effective tool. Teachers reported that the design of the film that allowed students to move slowly from the human scale to the large and small scales and then quickly back again was effective in laying the foundation for understanding the different scales.

Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy; Minogue, James; Broadwell, Bethany; Wiebe, Eric; Carter, Glenda

2007-04-01

382

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might

S. Squyres; G. Varsi; J. Veverka; L. Soderblom; D. Black; A. Stern; D. Stetson; R. A. Brown; J. Niehoff; G. Squibb

1994-01-01

383

Nurse led versus lay educators support for those with asthma in primary care: a costing study  

PubMed Central

Background Regular review and support for asthma self-management is promoted in guidelines. A randomised controlled trial suggested that unscheduled health care usage was similar when patients were offered self management support by a lay-trainer or practice nurses. Methods Following the RCT, a costing study was undertaken using the trial data to account for the cost of delivery of the service under both strategies and the resulting impact on unscheduled healthcare (measure of effectiveness) in this trial. Results One year data (n = 418) showed that 29% (61/205) of the nurse group required unscheduled healthcare (177 events) compared with 30.5% (65/213) for lay-trainers (178 events). The training costs for the lay-trainers were greater than nurses (Ł36 versus Ł18 respectively per patient, p<0.001), however, the consultation cost for lay-trainers were lower than nurses (Ł6 per patient versus Ł24, p<0.001). If the cost of unscheduled healthcare are accounted for then the costs of nurses is Ł161, and Ł135 for lay-trainers (mean difference Ł25, [95% CI = ?Ł97, Ł149, p = 0.681]). The total costs (delivery and unscheduled healthcare) were Ł202 per patient for nurses versus Ł178 for lay-trainers, (mean difference Ł24, [95%CI = ?Ł100, Ł147, p = 0.707]). Conclusions There were no significant differences in the cost of training and healthcare delivery between nurse and lay trainers, and no significant difference in the cost of unscheduled health care use.

2012-01-01

384

Differentially expressed genes for aggressive pecking behaviour in laying hens  

PubMed Central

Background Aggressive behaviour is an important aspect in the daily lives of animals living in groups. Aggressive animals have advantages, such as better access to food or territories, and they produce more offspring than low ranking animals. The social hierarchy in chickens is measured using the 'pecking order' concept, which counts the number of aggressive pecks given and received. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the 'pecking order'. Results A total of 60 hens from a high feather pecking selection line were divided into three groups: only receivers (R), only peckers (P) and mixed peckers and receivers (P&R). In comparing the R and P groups, we observed that there were 40 differentially expressed genes [false discovery rate (FDR) P < 0.10]. It was not fully clear how the 40 genes regulated aggressive behaviour; however, gene set analysis detected a number of GO identifiers, which were potentially involved in aggressive behavioural processes. These genes code for synaptosomes (GO:0019797), and proteins involved in the regulation of the excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential (GO:0060079), the regulation of the membrane potential (GO:0042391), and glutamate receptor binding (GO:0035254). Conclusion In conclusion, our study provides new insights into which genes are involved in aggressive behaviours in chickens. Pecking and receiving hens exhibited different gene expression profiles in their brains. Following confirmation, the identification of differentially expressed genes may elucidate how the pecking order forms in laying hens at a molecular level.

2009-01-01

385

Dietary menhaden oil contributes to hepatic lipidosis in laying hens.  

PubMed

Clinical and epidemiological investigations have indicated that there may be substantial human cardiovascular benefits associated with increased consumption of n-3 fatty acids commonly found in fish oils. Recent studies have indicated that egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content is significantly increased when hens are fed diets enriched with selected fish oils such as menhaden oil (MO). In the present study, reproductively active females but not males exhibited increased hepatic lipidosis following 6 mo of feeding 3% MO. Hens fed 3% animal-vegetable oil (AV) did not exhibit hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were reduced (P < or = .05) in hens fed MO. Subsequently, yolk and total egg weights of hens fed MO were decreased as compared with those of hens fed AV. A significant interaction of dietary MO and exogenous 17 beta-estradiol was noted among chick liver and gallbladder weights. These data suggest that dietary MO and estradiol may interact in a manner that enhances the lipogenic activity of the liver, thereby inducing hepatic lipidosis in laying hens. PMID:8047508

Van Elswyk, M E; Hargis, B M; Williams, J D; Hargis, P S

1994-05-01

386

Hormonal regulation of medullary bone metabolism in the laying hen  

SciTech Connect

A new organ culture system for the study of bone formation has been developed using medullary bone, a non-structural, metabolically active form of bone which is found in the marrow cavities of egg-laying birds. In the presence of fetal calf serum, bone explants were viable in culture by morphological criteria, and retained large numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and non-collagen protein (NCP) was determined using purified bacterial collagenase. Collagen accounted for over 10% of the total protein labeled. The calcium-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into CDP. The effective dose range of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 0.1 nM to 100 nM, while that of PTH was 1.0 nM to 100 nM. The effect of both hormones was specific for collagen, since /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into NCP was unaffected. Hydroxyproline analysis of bone explants and culture medium revealed that both hormones decreased the total hydroxyroline content of the cultures, suggesting that the inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into DCP is due to inhibition of collagen synthesis.

Harrison, J.R.

1987-01-01

387

Cooler butterflies lay larger eggs: developmental plasticity versus acclimation.  

PubMed

We use a full factorial design to investigate the effects of maternal and paternal developmental temperature, as well as female oviposition temperature, on egg size in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Butterflies were raised at two different temperatures and mated in four possible sex-by-parental-temperature crosses. The mated females were randomly divided between high and low oviposition temperatures. On the first day after assigning the females to different temperatures, only female developmental temperature affected egg size. Females reared at the lower temperature laid larger eggs than those reared at a higher temperature. When eggs were measured again after an acclimation period of 10 days, egg size was principally determined by the prevailing temperature during oviposition, with females ovipositing at a lower temperature laying larger eggs. In contrast to widely used assumptions, the effects of developmental temperature were largely reversible. Male developmental temperature did not affect egg size in either of the measurements. Overall, developmental plasticity and acclimation in the adult stage resulted in very similar patterns of egg size plasticity. Consequently, we argue that the most important question when testing the significance of acclamatory changes is not at which stage a given plasticity is induced, but rather whether plastic responses to environmental change are adaptive or merely physiological constraints. PMID:14561294

Fischer, Klaus; Eenhoorn, Evelien; Bot, Adriane N M; Brakefield, Paul M; Zwaan, Bas J

2003-10-01

388

Cooler butterflies lay larger eggs: developmental plasticity versus acclimation.  

PubMed Central

We use a full factorial design to investigate the effects of maternal and paternal developmental temperature, as well as female oviposition temperature, on egg size in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Butterflies were raised at two different temperatures and mated in four possible sex-by-parental-temperature crosses. The mated females were randomly divided between high and low oviposition temperatures. On the first day after assigning the females to different temperatures, only female developmental temperature affected egg size. Females reared at the lower temperature laid larger eggs than those reared at a higher temperature. When eggs were measured again after an acclimation period of 10 days, egg size was principally determined by the prevailing temperature during oviposition, with females ovipositing at a lower temperature laying larger eggs. In contrast to widely used assumptions, the effects of developmental temperature were largely reversible. Male developmental temperature did not affect egg size in either of the measurements. Overall, developmental plasticity and acclimation in the adult stage resulted in very similar patterns of egg size plasticity. Consequently, we argue that the most important question when testing the significance of acclamatory changes is not at which stage a given plasticity is induced, but rather whether plastic responses to environmental change are adaptive or merely physiological constraints.

Fischer, Klaus; Eenhoorn, Evelien; Bot, Adriane N M; Brakefield, Paul M; Zwaan, Bas J

2003-01-01

389

Explore UK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Explore UK website is an initiative by the University of Kentucky Special Collections and it is a true delight for anyone with an interest in this storied institution and Kentucky history more generally. First-time visitors will notice a scrolling section of images that introduce the photographs and other documents that are part of this growing collection. The sections here include Images, Athletics Archive, Board of Trustees, and Yearbooks. The Images archive includes over 30,000 images that cover everything from student life to campus buildings. There are a few thematic collections here that should not be missed. First among them is the John Tuska collection, which contains over 1,100 images of pieces created by the celebrated potter/sculptor and University of Kentucky professor. The Buildings area is quite nice as well, as it contains over 1,700 images that document both the architectural ornamentation of various buildings around campus and the overall feel of the campus layout.

2012-04-06

390

Task shifting in maternal and newborn care: a non-inferiority study examining delegation of antenatal counseling to lay nurse aides supported by job aids in Benin  

PubMed Central

Background Shifting the role of counseling to less skilled workers may improve efficiency and coverage of health services, but evidence is needed on the impact of substitution on quality of care. This research explored the influence of delegating maternal and newborn counseling responsibilities to clinic-based lay nurse aides on the quality of counseling provided as part of a task shifting initiative to expand their role. Methods Nurse-midwives and lay nurse aides in seven public maternities were trained to use job aids to improve counseling in maternal and newborn care. Quality of counseling and maternal knowledge were assessed using direct observation of antenatal consultations and patient exit interviews. Both provider types were interviewed to examine perceptions regarding the task shift. To compare provider performance levels, non-inferiority analyses were conducted where non-inferiority was demonstrated if the lower confidence limit of the performance difference did not exceed a margin of 10 percentage points. Results Mean percent of recommended messages provided by lay nurse aides was non-inferior to counseling by nurse-midwives in adjusted analyses for birth preparedness (? = -0.0, 95% CI: -9.0, 9.1), danger sign recognition (? = 4.7, 95% CI: -5.1, 14.6), and clean delivery (? = 1.4, 95% CI: -9.4, 12.3). Lay nurse aides demonstrated superior performance for communication on general prenatal care (? = 15.7, 95% CI: 7.0, 24.4), although non-inferiority was not achieved for newborn care counseling (? = -7.3, 95% CI: -23.1, 8.4). The proportion of women with correct knowledge was significantly higher among those counseled by lay nurse aides as compared to nurse-midwives in general prenatal care (? = 23.8, 95% CI: 15.7, 32.0), birth preparedness (? = 12.7, 95% CI: 5.2, 20.1), and danger sign recognition (? = 8.6, 95% CI: 3.3, 13.9). Both cadres had positive opinions regarding task shifting, although several preferred 'task sharing' over full delegation. Conclusions Lay nurse aides can provide effective antenatal counseling in maternal and newborn care in facility-based settings, provided they receive adequate training and support. Efforts are needed to improve management of human resources to ensure that effective mechanisms for regulating and financing task shifting are sustained.

2011-01-01

391

Thermo-mechanical stresses in the lumps of laying of thermal neutron pulsed graphite reactor  

SciTech Connect

The research thermal neutron pulsed graphite reactor (PGR) is intended to get powerful neutron and gamma radiation streams. The reactor is the homogeneous carbon-uranium reactor with a graphite reflector. The reactor laying consists of a number of columns and it`s sizes are 2400* 2400*4500mm. The shape of the active zone is almost cubic, it`s sizes are 1400*1400*1330mm. There is a vertical experimental channel in the reactor laying for irradiation of test samples. The operation of the reactor is briefly described. Evaluations about the workability of the reactor laying lumps in the neutron flashout regime are made.

Boyko, V.I.; Guralev, S.S.; Koshelev, F.P. [and others

1993-12-31

392

Understanding Learners' Understandings. Elementary Subjects Center Series No. 97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This descriptive study explored understandings of five learners in a third-grade mathematics class during a year in which their teacher attempted to change her teaching method. The study also examined the teacher's self-images of teaching while using the new discourse-based approach. Data was obtained from: (1) interviews with the teacher…

Knapp, Nancy F.; Peterson, Penelope L.

393

Understanding Diversity in a Pluralistic World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines society's ability to understand and value individuals from diverse cultures. From the different cultural and ethnic groups, to varying religious orientations, to understanding sexual-preference and gender and sex-role issues, the article examines barriers to the acceptance of other cultures and explores ways to gain a deeper understanding

Neukrug, Edward S.

1994-01-01

394

Solar system exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the solar system. It is noted that most of the planetary data collected by space probes are always eventually applied to improving the understanding of the earth, moon, Venus and Mars, the planets of greatest interest to humans. Significant data gathered by the Mariner, Viking, Apollo, Pioneer, and Voyager spacecraft are summarized, along with the required mission support capabilities and mission profiles. Proposed and planned future missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, the asteroids and for a comet rendzvous are described.

Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Quaide, William L.

395

Transcriptome Profiling of the Goose (Anser cygnoides) Ovaries Identify Laying and Broodiness Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background The geese have strong broodiness and poor egg performance. These characteristics are the key issues that hinder the goose industry development. Yet little is known about the mechanisms responsible for follicle development due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to produce a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and to better understand the biological mechanisms of goose follicle development. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis using short-read sequencing technology (Illumina). We obtained 67,315,996 short reads of 100 bp, which were assembled into 130,514 unique sequences by Trinity strategy (mean size?=?753bp). Based on BLAST results with known proteins, these analyses identified 52,642 sequences with a cut-off E-value above 10?5. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology and clusters of orthologous group terms. In addition, we investigated the transcription changes during the goose laying/broodiness period using a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 4.2 million tags per sample and identified a large number of genes associated with follicle development and reproductive biology including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme gene and dopamine beta-hydroxylas gene. We confirm the altered expression levels of the two genes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Conclusions/Significance The obtained goose transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that could promote better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying follicle development and productivity.

Chen, Yang; Tong, YiYu; Rong, GuangHui; Huang, ZhengYang; Zhang, Yang; Chang, GuoBing; Wu, XinSheng; Chen, GuoHong

2013-01-01

396

Children's Understanding of Drivers' Intentions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To become more skilled as pedestrians, children need to acquire a view of the traffic environment as one in which road users are active agents with different intentions and objectives. This paper describes a simulation study designed to explore children's understanding of drivers' intentions. It also investigated the effect of training children's…

Foot, Hugh C.; Thomson, James A.; Tolmie, Andrew K.; Whelan, Kirstie M.; Morrison, Sheila; Sarvary, Penelope

2006-01-01

397

Understanding Teachers' Conceptualisations of Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses case study methodology to investigate the subject conceptualisation of two geography teachers at a mixed-ability comprehensive school in the UK. The research used concept-mapping and semi-structured interviews to explore the teachers' understanding of their subjects, within the case study framework. Teachers were asked to describe…

Walshe, Nicola

2007-01-01

398

Understanding the Working College Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. But understanding how employment affects students' educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending…

Perna, Laura W.

2010-01-01

399

Children's Understanding of Parental Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes domestic violence from the perspective of 56 preschool and school-age children during their temporary residence at a shelter for battered women. Data were extracted from transcripts of individual counseling sessions that explored the childrens' feelings about the abuse and the abuser, their strategies for coping with aggression and conflict in their families, and their understanding and feelings

Sidney R. Ornduff; Kathleen Monahan

1999-01-01

400

The Foundations of Psychological Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I review some recent submissions to "Developmental Science" that advance our understanding of psychological development. More and more submissions to the journal explore the origins of knowledge and, for psychological knowledge, such origins are multiple. Here I consider the contribution of mechanisms such as contingency detection,…

Goswami, Usha

2006-01-01

401

Understanding the Working College Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. But understanding how employment affects students' educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending…

Perna, Laura W.

2010-01-01

402

Disposition kinetics of albendazole and metabolites in laying hens.  

PubMed

An increasing prevalence of roundworm parasites in poultry, particularly in litter-based housing systems, has been reported. However, few anthelmintic drugs are commercially available for use in avian production systems. The anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) in poultry has been demonstrated well. The goal of this work was to characterize the ABZ and metabolites plasma disposition kinetics after treatment with different administration routes in laying hens. Twenty-four laying hens Plymouth Rock Barrada were distributed into three groups and treated with ABZ as follows: intravenously at 10 mg/kg (ABZ i.v.); orally at the same dose (ABZ oral); and in medicated feed at 10 mg/kg·day for 7 days (ABZ feed). Blood samples were taken up to 48 h posttreatment (ABZ i.v. and ABZ oral) and up to 10 days poststart feed medication (ABZ feed). The collected plasma samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. ABZ and its albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and ABZSO2 metabolites were recovered in plasma after ABZ i.v. administration. ABZ parent compound showed an initial concentration of 16.4 ± 2.0 ?g/mL, being rapidly metabolized into the ABZSO and ABZSO2 metabolites. The ABZSO maximum concentration (Cmax ) (3.10 ± 0.78 ?g/mL) was higher than that of ABZSO2 Cmax (0.34 ± 0.05 ?g/mL). The area under the concentration vs time curve (AUC) for ABZSO (21.9 ± 3.6 ?g·h/mL) was higher than that observed for ABZSO2 and ABZ (7.80 ± 1.02 and 12.0 ± 1.6 ?g·h/mL, respectively). The ABZ body clearance (Cl) was 0.88 ± 0.11 L·h/kg with an elimination half-life (T1/2el ) of 3.47 ± 0.73 h. The T1/2el for ABZSO and ABZSO2 were 6.36 ± 1.50 and 5.40 ± 1.90 h, respectively. After ABZ oral administration, low ABZ plasma concentrations were measured between 0.5 and 3 h posttreatment. ABZ was rapidly metabolized to ABZSO (Cmax , 1.71 ± 0.62 ?g/mL) and ABZSO2 (Cmax , 0.43 ± 0.04 ?g/mL). The metabolite systemic exposure (AUC) values were 18.6 ± 2.0 and 10.6 ± 0.9 ?g·h/mL for ABZSO and ABZSO2 , respectively. The half-life values after ABZ oral were similar (5.91 ± 0.60 and 5.57 ± 1.19 h for ABZSO and ABZSO2 , respectively) to those obtained after ABZ i.v. administration. ABZ was not recovered from the bloodstream after ABZ feed administration. AUC values of ABZSO and ABZSO2 were 61.9 and 92.4 ?g·h/mL, respectively. The work reported here provides useful information on the pharmacokinetic behavior of ABZ after both i.v. and oral administrations in hens, which is a useful first step to evaluate its potential as an anthelmintic tool for use in poultry. PMID:22533477

Bistoletti, M; Alvarez, L; Lanusse, C; Moreno, L

2012-04-26

403

Toxicokinetic study of dioxins and furans in laying chickens.  

PubMed

Since foodstuffs from animal origin and particularly poultry products have been pointed out several times as reservoir of dioxins and related compounds, notably in Belgium few years ago, food chain safety issues appeared. Although food chain contamination incidents occurred many times through contaminated feedstuffs consumption in commercial chicken farms, very few studies have been carried out on transfer of dioxins and related compounds from commercial feed to hens. The present work continues a preliminary study on dioxin transfer in laying chickens carried out in our lab and available on-line on November 2004 in Environment International. In this work, absorption of dioxins were not preferential for 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, increase with increasing number of chlorines, and was not linearly dependent of the octanol/water partition. Only 2,3,7,8-congeners were found in all organs studied, and these latter showed the same congener profile and similar lipid-normalized concentration, except for the liver. Abdominal fat and liver seemed to be the major storage sites and the liver preferentially retained highly chlorinated congeners. Unfortunately in this previous trial, laying process stopped very early for unknown reason leading to a considerable lost of information. In the present toxicokinetic study, more complete gastrointestinal absorption, excretion in eggs and bioaccumulation of dioxins in different tissues were investigated in chickens fed for 14 weeks with a 9 ng TEQ/kg contaminated feed. Stable levels were reached after 7 weeks in excreta and 9 weeks in eggs. During the whole trial, gastrointestinal absorption ranged between 41% and 91% depending on the congener. At steady state conditions, excretion of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF exceeded 100% demonstrating excretion from tissues of these congeners which were also the most abundant in feed. 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF seemed to be metabolized more efficiently. Lipid adjusted concentrations and pattern were unexpectedly similar in the abdominal fat and the liver. On the contrary, eggs and breast muscles showed different pattern with higher level for high chlorinated congeners. When extrapolating our results, we found that a feed containing 0.750 ng TEQ/kg of dioxins (European norm for feedstuff) would cause a level lower than the maximum threshold level of 3 pg TEQ/g fat for chicken eggs fixed by European Communities. Nevertheless, a concentration lower than 0.6 ng TEQ/kg in feed would be needed to produce breast muscles less contaminated than 2 pg TEQ/g fat authorized in European. PMID:16325909

Pirard, Catherine; De Pauw, Edwin

2005-12-02

404

Lay Group CounselingThe Program in the California Department of Corrections  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1955 the California Department of Corrections established an experimental program of inmate counseling by correctional officers and other largely lay personnel. Since then the program has grown rapidly.

Alfred H. Katz

1963-01-01

405

Lay Epistemo-Logic--Process and Contents: Another Look at Attribition Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theory of the lay epistemic process is outlined. An integrative framework is provided that allows consideration of diverse attributional models in common theoretical terms and derivation of the necessary applicability conditions of different such models. (Author/RL)

Kruglanski, Arie W.

1980-01-01

406

NASA Solar System Exploration Website  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Solar System Exploration website, http://solarsystem.nasa.gov, sponsored by the Science Director for Solar System Exploration, Office of Space Science, NASA, is a gateway to information about our solar system and NASA's missions and research to understand it. The site has been designed for easy navigation and is becoming known as a resource for educators, students, media, and publishers. Major subsections include latest news, newest images, a link to NASA research opportunities in space science, technology, missions, information on solar system bodies, the people who are involved in solar system exploration, and the history of solar system exploration in the space age. There is also a link to the NASA Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach Forum. Members of the planetary science community are invited to contribute suggestions, comments, and content to the website, including links to their own institutions and research.

Sohus, A. M.

2000-10-01

407

Use of lay educators to overcome barriers to research with Black older adults: a case study using Alzheimer's Disease Center.  

PubMed

There are many well-documented barriers to recruitment of Black participants in clinical research. This is of concern in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research because of the escalating rate of AD in this group, the increasing proportion of minority groups, and their low rate of research participation. Our Alzheimer's Disease Center (ADC) Black Advisory Board recommended we try a lay educator (LE) approach to bridge the gap between the community and university-based research center. As a result, our LE program contributed to a significant increase in the number of AD presentations given to the Black community. Although the number of Black participants enrolled in our ADC program increased from 12% to 25%, the process was challenging. However, the LE program led to significant progress in our efforts to meet our enrollment expectations, fostered links between the university and the Black community, and furthered our understanding of the barriers created by our recruiting practices. PMID:20077978

Souder, Elaine; Terry, Tanya Laws

2009-10-27

408

Strategic layout planning and simulation for lean manufacturing: a LayOPT tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

LayOPT\\/sup TM\\/ is an innovative facilities layout analysis and optimization software package which can be used by layout planners and engineers in the optimal solution of single and multiple floor facility layout problems. LayOPT is ideal for the re-design of the overall layout for an existing facility or the development of a block layout for a new building. It can

Eric S. Grajo

1996-01-01

409

Strategic layout planning and simulation for lean manufacturing a LayOPT tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

LayOPT is an innovative facilities layout analysis and optimization software package which can be used by layout planners and engineers in the optimal solution of single and multiple floor facility layout problems. LayOPT is ideal for the re-design of the overall layout for an existing facility or the development of a block layout for a new building. It can be

Eric S. Grajo

1995-01-01

410

Effects of Dietary Yucca schidigera Powder on Performance and Egg Cholesterol Content of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kutlu, H.R., Görgülü, M. and Ünsal, I. 2001 Effects of dietary Yucca schidigera powder on performance and egg cholesterol content of laying hens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 49–56.The present study was carried out to determine whether dietary Yucca schidigera powder would affect egg yolk cholesterol content and laying performance of chickens. Sixty, 28-week-old White Hyline layers were divided into

Hasan Rüstü Kutlu; Murat Görgülü; Ilknur Ünsal

2001-01-01

411

Dual Excitatory and Inhibitory Serotonergic Inputs Modulate Egg Laying in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT) regulates key processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Previously, four 5-HT receptors that contributed to the 5-HT modulation of egg laying were identified in Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, to assess potential receptor interactions, we generated animals containing combinations of null alleles for each receptor, especially animals expressing only individual 5-HT receptors. 5-HT-stimulated egg laying and egg retention correlated well with different combinations of predicted excitatory and inhibitory serotonergic inputs. For example, 5-HT did not stimulate egg laying in ser-1, ser-7, or ser-7 ser-1 null animals, and ser-7 ser-1 animals retained more eggs than wild-type animals. In contrast, 5-HT-stimulated egg laying in ser-4;mod-1 animals was greater than in wild-type animals, and ser-4;mod-1 animals retained fewer eggs than wild-type animals. Surprisingly, ser-4;mod-1;ser-7 ser-1 animals retained the same number of eggs as wild-type animals and exhibited significant 5-HT-stimulated egg laying that was dependent on a previously uncharacterized receptor, SER-5. 5-HT-stimulated egg laying was absent in ser-5;ser-4;mod-1;ser-7 ser-1 animals, and these animals retained more eggs than either wild-type or ser-4;mod-1;ser-7 ser-1 animals. The 5-HT sensitivity of egg laying could be restored by ser-5 muscle expression. Together, these results highlight the dual excitatory/inhibitory serotonergic inputs that combine to modulate egg laying.

Hapiak, Vera M.; Hobson, Robert J.; Hughes, Lindsay; Smith, Katherine; Harris, Gareth; Condon, Christina; Komuniecki, Patricia; Komuniecki, Richard W.

2009-01-01

412

Leech egg-laying-like hormone: structure, neuronal distribution and phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells immunoreactive to antisera specifically directed against Lymnaea stagnalis caudo dorsal cells egg-laying hormone (CDCH) or against ?- and ?-peptides (CDCP), encoded on the egg-laying hormone precursor, were detected in central nervous system (CNS) of the rhynchobdellid leech Theromyzon tessulatum. A co-localization of the CDC-like hormone and CDC-like peptides was found in T. tessulatum as in L. stagnalis CNS. ?45

Michel Salzet; Martine Verger-Bocquet; Franck Vandenbulcke; Jan Van Minnen

1997-01-01

413

THE AUTOMATION OF THE LAY-UP AND CONSOLIDATION OF PEEK*GRAPHITE FIBER COMPOSITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing of PEEK\\/graphite fiber composites is characterized by an inordinate amount of hand labor. This greatly increases the cost, time, and inaccuracy involved in production. Automation of the lay-up and consolidation steps are a prerequisite for the widespread application and acceptance of these, as well as all, high performance materials. Automated techniques for the lay-up and consolidation of PEEK\\/graphite

Jonathan S. Colton; John Baxter; Jack Behlendorf; Tabassum Halim; Bryan Harris; Gary Kiesler; Kuou-Tung Lu; Susan Sammons; George W. Woodruff

1987-01-01

414

Climate change, migratory connectivity and changes in laying date and clutch size of the pied flycatcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined long-term (1943–2003) variability in laying dates and clutch sizes in a Finnish population of the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca Pallas, and analysed whether potential changes were explained by changes in climatic factors at the wintering area in Africa, at migration route or at breeding grounds. Among-year variation in both mean and skewness of laying dates increased, which for

T. Laaksonen; M. Ahola; T. Eeva; R. A. Väisänen; E. Lehikoinen

2006-01-01

415

The acceptability among French lay persons of ending the lives of damaged newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Lay persons’ judgements of the acceptability of the not uncommon practice of ending the life of a damaged neonate have not been studied.Methods:A convenience sample of 1635 lay people in France rated how acceptable it would be for a physician to end a neonate’s life—by withholding care, withdrawing care, or active euthanasia—in 54 scenarios in which the neonate was diagnosed

N Teisseyre; I Duarte dos Reis; P C Sorum; E Mullet

2009-01-01

416

Dietary coenzyme Q10 suppressed hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity in laying hens.  

PubMed

The effects of dietary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens were investigated. Dietary CoQ10 significantly reduced egg yolk cholesterol content and suppressed hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity. It is therefore likely that CoQ10 acts as an HMGR inhibitor in the livers of laying hens, which in turn results in a reduction in egg-yolk cholesterol. PMID:23832331

Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Motoki, Tohru; Park, Yuriko; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

2013-07-07

417

Lay versus expert interviewers for the diagnosis of migraine in a large sample of elderly people  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the agreement between lay interviewers and experts in the diagnosis of migraine by questionnaire. Subjects: A population based sample of 1188 individuals aged 64 to 73 years. Methods: Participants who declared that they had recurrent headaches (n = 238) answered a structured questionnaire by lay interviewers with special training in migraine. A migraine expert subsequently interviewed all the headache sufferers using the same questionnaire. Migraine was defined according to the International Headache Society criteria. Results: In comparison with the expert, the diagnosis derived by the lay interviewers had high values for specificity (97%) and positive predictive value (86%), and a low sensitivity (50%) and negative predictive value (57%). Agreement between the expert and the lay interviewers was low, with a ? value of 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.26 to 0.47). The most serious discrepancies concerned the duration of attacks, the worsening of headaches by physical activity, the presence of nausea or vomiting, and the unilaterality of headaches. As a result, the lifetime prevalence of migraine headaches was greatly underestimated by lay interviewers (6.5%) in comparison with the expert (11.1%). Conclusions: A low level of agreement between lay interviewers and a headache expert in the diagnosis of migraine headaches by structured questionnaire may result in a substantial underestimation of migraine prevalence.

Tzourio, C; Gagniere, B; El Amrani, M; Bousser, M; Alperovitch, A

2003-01-01

418

Perception of Saudi dentists and lay people to altered smile esthetics  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate and compare the perceptions of Saudi dentists and lay people to altered smile features. Methods Thirty-six digital smile photographs with altered features were used. Altered features included the following: crown length, width, gingival level of the lateral incisors, gingival display, midline diastema, and upper midline shift. The photographs were presented to a sample of 30 dentists and 30 lay people with equal gender distribution. Each participant rated each picture with a visual analogue scale, which ranged from 0 (very unattractive) to 100 (very attractive). Results Dentists were more critical than lay people when evaluating symmetrical crown length discrepancies. Compared to lay people, Saudi dentists gave lower ratings to a crown length discrepancy of >2 mm (P < 0.001), crown width discrepancy of ?2 mm (P < 0.05), change in gingiva to lip distance of ?2 mm (P < 0.01), and midline deviation of >1 mm (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between dentists and lay people towards alterations in the gingival level of the lateral incisors or towards a space between the central incisors. No significant sex difference was seen across the groups. Conclusion In this sample, Saudi dentists gave significantly lower attractiveness scores to crown length and crown width discrepancies, midline deviations, and changes in gingiva to lip distance compared to Saudi lay people.

Talic, Nabeel; AlOmar, Samar; AlMaidhan, Asma

2012-01-01

419

Exploring Metric Symmetry  

SciTech Connect

Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.

2006-07-31

420

Exploring the Ocean with Robots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to robotic submarines called gliders. Learners make âglidersâ from plastic syringes and compare these to Cartesian bottles and plastic bubbles. Learners can explore the characteristics of buoyancy by adjusting amounts of air and salt water. Learners also investigate the types of information that robots can gather and learn how scientists use this information to understand the ocean.

COSEE Networked Ocean World (COSEE NOW)

2012-12-18

421

Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the…

Adler, Isidore

1984-01-01

422

Exploring the role of goal theory in understanding training motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model to test conceptions from goal theory within an existing framework of training motivation was developed and tested with employees participating in training in a non-profit organization. It was hypothesized that goal orientation ('distal factors’) along with self-efficacy, expectancy and valence (‘proximal factors’) would predict goal intentions as well as training outcomes such as affective responses to training, perceptions

Rebecca Smith; Rohan Jayasuriya; Peter Caputi; David Hammer

2008-01-01

423

Exploring Matter with TOYS: Using and Understanding the Senses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project Teaching Science with TOYS promotes toys as an ideal mechanism for science instruction, because they are an everyday part of the students' world and carry a user-friendly message. TOYS Teacher Resource Modules are collections of "TOYS" activities grouped around a topic or theme with supporting science content and pedagogical materials.…

1997

424

Self-gift giving: Understanding consumers and exploring brand messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses self-gift giving both from a consumer perspective and from the point of view of brands' promotional messages. Self-gifts may be regarded as personal acquisitions which are distinguished from other purchases by a particular motivation and context – quite literally, gifts to oneself. Our knowledge of this phenomenon from the consumer side remains limited, despite evidence of its

Maria Teresa Heath; Caroline Tynan; Christine T. Ennew

2011-01-01

425

How Young Children Understand Electric Circuits: Prediction, explanation and exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports findings from a study of young children’s views about electric circuits. Twenty?eight children aged 5 and 6 years were interviewed. They were shown examples of circuits and asked to predict whether they would work and explain why. They were then invited to try out some of the circuit examples or make circuits of their own choosing. Children

Esme Bridget Glauert

2009-01-01

426

Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2012-01-01

427

Bone mineral density QTL at sexual maturity and end of lay.  

PubMed

1. An F? cross of a broiler male line and a White Leghorn layer line was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for bone density at the onset of lay and at the end of the laying period. A total of 686 measures of humeral bone density were available for analysis. 2. There was no evidence for epistasis. 3. Genome-wide significant QTL for bone density at the onset of lay were identified on chromosomes 1 (311?cM) and 8 (2?cM) and on chromosomes 1 (311?cM), 3 (57?cM) and 8 (2?cM) with a covariate for the number of yellow follicles (a proxy for the concentration of circulating oestrogen). 4. Evidence for only 4 chromosome-wide suggestive QTL were detected at the end of lay (72 weeks). 5. Analysis of the combined data confirmed two genome-wide suggestive QTL on chromosome 1 (137 and 266?cM) and on chromosomes 8 (2?cM) and 9 (10?cM) in analyses with or without the covariate. 6. Positive QTL alleles came from the broiler line with the exception of 2 suggestive QTL at the onset of lay on chromosomes 3 and 5 in an analysis with the covariate. 7. In general, QTL acted additively, except that dominant effects were identified for three suggestive QTL at the onset of lay on chromosomes 3 (57 and 187?cM) and 5 (9?cM). 8. The significant QTL in this study were at similar locations to QTL identified in a range of crosses in other publications, suggesting that they are prime candidates for the search for genes and mutations that could be used as selection criteria to improve bone strength and decrease fractures in commercial laying hens. PMID:23398420

Podisi, B K; Knott, S A; Dunn, I C; Burt, D W; Hocking, P M

2012-01-01

428

Evaluation of Hand Lay-Up and Resin Transfer Molding in Composite Wind Turbine Blade Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The majority of the wind turbine blade industry currently uses low cost hand lay-up manufacturing techniques to process composite blades. While there are benefits to the hand lay-up process, drawbacks inherent to this process along with advantages of other techniques suggest that better manufacturing alternatives may be available. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was identified as a processing alternative and shows promise in addressing the shortcomings of hand lay-up. This report details a comparison of the RTM process to hand lay-up of composite wind turbine blade structures. Several lay-up schedules and critical turbine blade structures were chosen for comparison of their properties resulting from RTM and hand lay-up processing. The geometries investigated were flat plate, thin and thick flanged T-stiffener, I-beam, and root connection joint. It was found that the manufacturing process played an important role in laminate thickness, fiber volume, and weight for the geometries investigated. RTM was found to reduce thickness and weight and increase fiber volumes for all substructures. RTM resulted in tighter material transition radii and eliminated the need for most secondary bonding operations. These results would significantly reduce the weight of wind turbine blades. Hand lay-up was consistently slower in fabrication times for the structures investigated. A comparison of mechanical properties showed no significant differences after employing fiber volume normalization techniques to account for geometry differences resulting from varying fiber volumes. The current root specimen design does not show significant mechanical property differences according to process and exceeds all static and fatigue requirements.

CAIRNS,DOUGLAS S.; SHRAMSTAD,JON D.

2000-06-01

429

Leadership Development for Cross-Cultural Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 10-day seminar of 30 graduate and undergraduate students from 16 countries explored methods for building cross-cultural understanding and developing personal leadership skills through using the Kolb learning cycle to learn about other cultures. (DB)

Sisk, Dorothy A.

1988-01-01

430

Educating Underserved Latino Communities about Family Health History Using Lay Health Advisors  

PubMed Central

Background Family health history (FHH) is a tool used to inform individuals about inherited disease risk. Due to their disproportionate morbidity and mortality from some common chronic diseases, U.S. Latinos are an important audience for FHH information. This study examined the effects of a culturally-tailored intervention led by lay health advisors (LHAs) in delivering information about FHH on participants’ intentions, self-efficacy, and conceptual knowledge. Methods 474 Spanish-speaking Latino participants were enrolled in the study. Individuals in the intervention group participated in a single group educational session using discussion and interactive activities to build skills for discussing FHH with one's family members and doctor, while individuals in the comparison group had a brochure read aloud to them. Pre- and post-test questionnaires were verbally administered. Results Primary dependent variables were intentions and self-efficacy to discuss FHH with family members and doctors; these increased in both groups. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the intervention led to a significantly greater increase in self-efficacy to discuss FHH with family members (p = 0.03). LHA participants were also more than twice as likely (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3–5.0) to correctly understand the purpose of a FHH and found FHH information more useful (p < 0.0001). Conclusions A communication intervention delivered by LHAs shows promise as an effective means of educating underserved Spanish-speaking Latinos about the importance of FHH for disease prevention. Such community-based approaches can help to close knowledge and skills gaps about FHH and increase confidence in using this information to improve the health of those most at risk.

Kaphingst, K.A.; Lachance, C.R.; Gepp, A.; Hoyt D'Anna, L.; Rios-Ellis, B.

2011-01-01

431

Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide in laying hens stimulates antimicrobial properties of egg white against Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

The natural protective system of eggs relies on egg yolk immunoglobulins and on antimicrobial proteins/peptides mainly concentrated in the egg white. There is much evidence concerning the specific stimulation of immunoglobulins by antigens but to date, the influence of the hen milieu on the regulation of the egg innate molecular immunity has not been established. To explore the hypothesis of modulation in egg antimicrobial molecules, laying hens were immune-challenged with intravenous injections of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 24 h intervals. Eggs of the control and LPS groups were collected over a period of 21 days following the first LPS injection and the egg white activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were assessed. The increase in egg white anti-S. aureus activity reached 20.9% and 23.4% (p<0.05) respectively on days 5 and 6 after the first LPS injection. Anti-E. coli activity increased moderately only on days 9 and 15 after the LPS treatment. To explore the origin of these increased antimicrobial activities, we analyzed the lysozyme and proteases inhibiting (anti-trypsin and anti-chymotrypsin) activities and the pH variations of egg whites. We recorded no significant variations between the two experimental groups for these potential modulating factors. Finally, using RT-qPCR we studied the expression of several genes coding for antimicrobial proteins and peptides involved in the immune response in the infundibulum and the magnum, Out of the 11 genes, only TLR4 in the magnum and ovocalyxin-36 in infundibulum were over-expressed respectively 24h and 8 days after the first LPS injection. The other candidate genes showed similar or down regulated expression in the LPS group as compared to the control especially during the first 24h. Our results suggest that the hen enhances the albumen antimicrobial activity of its eggs when exposed to immune stimulations or infections. This could be an attempt to preventively reinforce the protection of the embryo with nonspecific antimicrobial agents in addition to the specific antibodies exported to the egg. The origin of this stimulation of egg molecular immunity remains to be characterized amongst the numerous novel egg proteins recently identified. PMID:23351641

Bedrani, Larbi; Helloin, Emmanuelle; Guyot, Nicolas; Nys, Yves

2013-01-04

432

Fritz Schott's Contributions to the Understanding of the Ocean Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean circulation and its central significance for global climate lay at the heart of Fritz's research. In the context of hard-won data from his more than 30 research cruises to key regions of the Atlantic and Indian oceans, he made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the wind-driven and thermohaline ocean circulation. His insights and explorations of circulation and dynamics of the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans have led the field and provided a large part of the basis for planning large, international experiments. Fritz's work is also distinguished by his making exceptional use of modeling results, increasingly as the models have improved. His research has provided a much clearer correspondence between the observed ocean-structure and dynamical theory-noting both theoretical successes and limitations. Besides his general interest in the physical oceanography of the World Oceans, most of his research was devoted to the dynamics of tropical oceans with its intense and highly variable current systems. Concerning the Indian Ocean, Fritz's investigated the response of the Somali Current system to the variable monsoon winds in the early 1980's, obtaining high-quality, hydrographic surveys and the first long term direct measurement of ocean currents from moored arrays. His analyses and interpretations provided a synthesis of the complex circulations there. In the tropical Atlantic Ocean Fritz research focused on the western boundary circulation with important contributions to the understanding of the North Brazil Current retroflection, and the variability of the shallow and deep western boundary currents. Trying to solve the fundamental question ‘what is the role of the tropical ocean for climate variability', Fritz initiated large multinational research programs under the umbrella of the World Climate Research Projects WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) and CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability). Fritz was the initiator and driving force behind the Collaborative Research Project "Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation" which was funded from 1996-2006 by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Within this project, he and his colleagues made major contributions to our understanding of the sinking of cold, dense waters in the northern North Atlantic, a process critical for the deep ocean circulation as well as the role played by the Gulf Stream and Deep Western Boundary current system for climate. The starting point of this project was again the observation of the ocean. Vertical velocity and hydrographic measurements during active convection carried out in the Greenland Sea, the Labrador Sea and the Gulf of Lions represents the observational basis of the fundamental work regarding the open-ocean convection.

Visbeck, M.

2009-04-01

433

Transverse type automatic transmission with intermediate power transfer through lay shaft  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described for an automotive vehicle, which consists of: a. a fluid torque converter, comprising a converter rotational power input member and a converter rotational power output member, the converter rotational power output member, the converter rotational power output member and the converter rotational power output member both being rotatable about a first axial line; b. a first gear transmission mechanism, comprising a first transmission rotational power input member, and a first transmission rotational power output member, and being adapted to be selectively controlled to produce any one of speed ratios between the first transmission rotational power input member and the first transmission rotational power output member; c. a through lay shaft which extends along and is rotatable about a second axial line parallel to the first axial line and displaced laterally therefrom; d. a second gear transmission mechanism supported by the through lay shaft to be rotatable about a second axial line; e. a rotational power transfer mechanism for transferring rotational power between the first transmission rotational power output member and the through lay shaft, including a first rotational member rotatable about the first axial line and rotationally coupled with the first transmission rotational power output member and a second rotational member rotatable about the second axial line and supported and rotationally coupled with the through lay shaft; and f. a power output gear wheel rotatable about the second axial line and rotatably supported by the through lay shaft and rotationally coupled with the second transmission rotational power output member.

Kubo, S.; Morisawa, K.; Miura, M.

1986-06-17

434

Social Instability in Laying Quail: Consequences on Yolk Steroids and Offspring's Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Individual phenotypic characteristics of many species are influenced by non-genetic maternal effects. Female birds can influence the development of their offspring before birth via the yolk steroid content of their eggs. We investigated this prenatal maternal effect by analysing the influence of laying females' social environment on their eggs' hormonal content and on their offspring's development. Social instability was applied to groups of laying Japanese quail females. We evaluated the impact of this procedure on laying females, on yolk steroid levels and on the general development of chicks. Agonistic interactions were more frequent between females kept in an unstable social environment (unstable females) than between females kept in a stable social environment (stable females). Testosterone concentrations were higher in unstable females' eggs than in those of stable females. Unstable females' chicks hatched later and developed more slowly during their first weeks of life than those of stable females. The emotional reactivity of unstable females' chicks was higher than that of stable females' chicks. In conclusion, our study showed that social instability applied to laying females affected, in a non-genetic way, their offspring's development, thus stressing the fact that females' living conditions during laying can have transgenerational effects.

Guibert, Floriane; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie; Kotrschal, Kurt; Guemene, Daniel; Bertin, Aline; Mostl, Erich; Houdelier, Cecilia

2010-01-01

435

Opening Up for Participation in Agro-Biodiversity Conservation: The Expert-Lay Interplay in a Brazilian Social Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In science and environmental studies, there is a general concern for the democratization of the expert-lay interplay. However,\\u000a the democratization of expertise does not necessarily lead to more sustainable decisions. If citizens do not take the sustainable\\u000a choice, what should experts and decision makers do? Should the expert-lay interplay be dissolved? In thinking about how to\\u000a shape the expert-lay interplay

Ana Delgado

2008-01-01

436

Exploring the Early Americas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we understand the initial period of contact between Europeans and Native Americans? An effective way of doing so is through the study of artifacts, including handicrafts, maps, printed documents, and other materials. This online collection from the Library of Congress features selections from over 3,000 rare items that are part of the institution's Jay I. Kislak Collection, and has been since December 2007. After reading the "About" area, visitors can click on the "Themes" area to find sections including Pre-Contact America and Explorations and Encounters. Each area contains remarkable items such as a dramatic map of 16th-century Istanbul, a depiction of the death of Moctezuma, and excerpts from Columbus's account of his 1492 voyage across the Atlantic. Furthermore, the Interactives area contains seven different media-rich experiences, including Reading Pre-Columbian Artifacts and The Buccaneers of America.

2007-12-12

437

Astrobiology and Venus Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus has not traditionally been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. We propose that Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. 1) Putting Earth life in context: Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. For example, active volcanism is most likely responsible for maintaining the global cloud cover (Bullock and Grinspoon, 2001). Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. 2) The possibility of extant life: Venus almost surely once had warm oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial life. Life, once established in the early oceans of Venus, may have migrated to the clouds which, on present day Venus, may represent a habitable niche. Though highly acidic, this aqueous environment enjoys moderate temperatures, surroundings far from chemical equilibrium, and potentially useful radiation fluxes. Observations of unusual chemistry in the clouds, and particle populations that are not well characterized, suggest that this environment must be explored much more fully before biology can be ruled out. A sulfur-based metabolism for cloud-based life on Venus has recently been proposed (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2004). While speculative, these arguments, along with the discovery of terrestrial extremophile organisms that might survive in the Venusian clouds, establish the credibility of astrobiological exploration of Venus. Arguments for the possible existence of life on Mars or Europa are, by convention and repetition, seen as more mainstream than arguments for life elsewhere, but their logical status is no different from the plausibility arguments for life on Venus. 3) Rare planetary properties of astrobiological interest: All of our ideas about extraterrestrial biochemistry are, of necessity, extrapolations from the single example of life which we have been able to study. Our planetary exploration, with an increasing focus on Astrobiology, is designed to 'follow the water'. This is a reasonable strategy but it is based, at best, on an educated guess about life's universals. If we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Bullock, M.A. and D.H. Grinspoon (2001) Icarus, 150, 19-37 Schulze-Makuch, D.H. Grinspoon., O. Abbas, L.N. Irwin and M. Bullock. (2004) . Astrobiology, 4, 11-18.

Grinspoon, D. H.; Bullock, M. A.

2005-12-01

438

Astrobiology and Venus exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For hundreds of years prior to the space age, Venus was considered among the most likely homes for extraterrestrial life. Since planetary exploration began, Venus has not been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. However, Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. At present Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. Active volcanism most likely affects the climate and chemical equilibrium state of the atmosphere and surface, and maintains the global cloud cover. Further, if we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Venus almost surely once had warm, habitable oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial life. Life, once established in the early oceans of Venus, may have migrated to the clouds which, on present day Venus, may represent a habitable niche. Though highly acidic, this aqueous environment enjoys moderate temperatures, surroundings far from chemical equilibrium, and potentially useful radiation fluxes. Observations of unusual chemistry in the clouds, and particle populations that are not well characterized, suggest that this environment must be explored much more fully before biology can be ruled out. A sulfur-based metabolism for cloud-based life on Venus has recently been proposed (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2004). While speculative, these arguments, along with the discovery of terrestrial extremophile organisms that point toward the plausibility of survival in the Venusian clouds, establish the credibility of astrobiological exploration of Venus. Arguments for the possible existence of life on Mars or Europa are, by convention and repetition, seen as more mainstream than arguments for life elsewhere, but their logical status is similar to plausibility arguments for life on Venus. With the launch of COROT in 2006 and Kepler in 2008 the demographics of Earth-sized planets in our galaxy should finally become known. Future plans for a Terrestrial Planet Finder or Darwin-type space-based spectrograph should provide the capability of studying the atmospheric composition and other properties of terrestrial planets. One of the prime rationales for building such instruments is the possibility of identifying habitable planets or providing more generalized observational constraints on the habitable zones of stellar systems. Given the prevalence of CO2 dominated atmospheres in our own solar system, it is quite likely that a large fraction of these will be Venus-like in composition and evolutionary history. We will be observing these planets at random times in their evolution. In analogy with our own solar system, it is just as likely that we will find representatives of early Venus and early Earth type planets from the first 2 billion years of their evolution as i

Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

439

STR-33, a Novel G Protein-coupled Receptor That Regulates Locomotion and Egg Laying in Caenorhabditis elegans*  

PubMed Central

Despite their predicted functional importance, most G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans have remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we focused on one GPCR, STR-33, encoded by the str-33 gene, which was discovered through a ligand-based screening procedure. To characterize STR-33 function, we performed UV-trimethylpsolaren mutagenesis and isolated an str-33-null mutant. The resulting mutant showed hypersinusoidal movement and a hyperactive egg-laying phenotype. Two types of egg laying-related mutations have been characterized: egg laying-deficient (Egl-d) and hyperactive egg laying (Egl-c). The defect responsible for the egg laying-deficient Egl-d phenotype is related to G?q signaling, whereas that responsible for the opposite, hyperactive egg-laying Egl-c phenotype is related to G?o signaling. We found that the hyperactive egg-laying defect of the str-33(ykp001) mutant is dependent on the G protein GOA-1/G?o. Endogenous acetylcholine suppressed egg laying in C. elegans via a G?o-signaling pathway by inhibiting serotonin biosynthesis or release from the hermaphrodite-specific neuron. Consistent with this, in vivo expression of the serotonin biosynthetic enzyme, TPH-1, was up-regulated in the str-33(ykp001) mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that the GPCR, STR-33, may be one of the neurotransmitter receptors that regulates locomotion and egg laying in C. elegans.

Lee, Jeong-Eui; Jeong, Pan-Young; Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Kim, Heekyeong; Lee, Taehoon; Koo, Hyeon-Sook; Paik, Young-Ki

2011-01-01

440

Exploring for Martian Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the coming decade, robotic field science will play a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of the history of Mars. In particular, capable rovers are needed to survey a broad array of Martian rock types for in situ mineralogy and chemistry as a basis for interpreting globally-distributed remote sensing data obtained from orbit. The interplay between orbital and landed science will be fundamental in selecting sites for future missions aimed at exploring the ancient rock record for evidence of A) past life or prebiotic chemistry, B) the volatile and climate history of Mars, and C) materials for in situ resource utilization. The recent suggestion of evidence for life in the Martian meteorite, ALH84001 (McKay, D.S., E.K. Gibson, K.L. Thomas-Keprta, H. Vali, C.S. Romanek, S.J. Clemett, X.D.F. Chillier, C.R. Maechling, R.N. Zare. 1996. Search for past life on Mars: Possible relic biogenic activity in Martian meteorite ALH84001. Science) 273, 924-930has placed Exobiology in a more central position in the Mars exploration (The Search for Evidence of Life on Mars. Unpublished report, Mars Expeditions Strategy Group, 1996.)

Farmer, Jack D.

1997-04-01

441

Understanding UML - Pains and Rewards  

Microsoft Academic Search

UML is there — it’s accepted, it’s booming, and even more: it’s a standard. From telecom to train systems to avionics: using\\u000a UML to capture the system is “in”. But do we really understand what we model?\\u000a \\u000a This talk takes for granted, that models are alive, are executable, are used to explore the design space, are used to communicate\\u000a design

Werner Damm

2001-01-01

442

Risk factors for Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen farms in Japan.  

PubMed

Human salmonellosis cases, particularly those caused by Salmonella Enteritidis, have been closely linked to egg consumption. This epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the baseline Salmonella prevalence and identify the risk factors for Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen farms in Japan. Caecal excrement samples and dust samples were obtained from 400 flocks in 338 laying-hen farms. Salmonella was identified in 20.7% of the farms and 19.5% of the flocks. The prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in flocks reared in windowless houses than in those reared in open houses. In addition, the risk of Salmonella presence was significantly higher when the windowless house farms implemented induced moulting or in-line egg processing. Efforts to reduce human salmonellosis in Japan should continue to focus on the establishment of control measures in laying-hen farms, especially those with windowless houses implementing induced moulting and equipped with in-line egg processing. PMID:21849097

Sasaki, Y; Murakami, M; Maruyama, N; Tsujiyama, Y; Kusukawa, M; Asai, T; Yamada, Y

2011-08-18

443

[Lay-Rescuer Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) - Controversies in Emergency Medicine: Lay-Rescuer CPR with or without Mouth-to-Mouth Ventilation].  

PubMed

An analysis of literature results reveals differences concerning the need for rescue breathing in lay-rescuer cardiopulmonary-resuscitation (CPR). Observational studies on large registries have shown improved survival rates with standard CPR (chest compressions and rescue breathing) compared to continuous chest compressions (CCC). This applies especially for cardiac arrests of non-cardiac origin or prolonged EMS-arrival times. In contrast a public program for lay-rescuers focusing on CCC lead to improved success rates of bystander-CPR, followed by improved survival rates. The 2010 ERC guidelines have resolved this controversy by integrating both aspects. CCC is recommended for everyone. Trained bystanders should use standard-CPR as method of choice. For dispatcher-assisted CPR the results are clear. Giving instructions for mouth-to-mouth ventilation is too complicated and time consuming, thus impairing survival rates. Therefore CCC is recommended for dispatcher-assisted CPR. PMID:24048666

Wolcke, Benno

2013-09-18

444

Age of Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research an explorer that interests you Use the links provided to find information about an explorer of your choice. Answer the questions provided on the your worksheet. What is the name of your explorer? Where did he travel? Show routes on the map. Who did he sail for? When did he explore? Why did he explore? What was he looking for? What ...

Cade

2010-10-04

445

Ecological Understanding 1: Ways of Experiencing Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates 10 student teachers' understanding of the different ways in which the function of the ecosystem could be experienced. Explores the functional aspects of the ecosystem using a system approach. Concludes that the idea of transformation is crucial to more complex ways of understanding photosynthesis. (Contains 62 references.)…

Carlsson, Britta

2002-01-01

446

Insights into Our Understandings of Large Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores prospective teachers' understandings of one million to gain insights into the development of adult understanding of large numbers. Themes in the prospective teachers' work included number associated with a quantity of objects, number as an abstraction, and additive and multiplicative approaches. The authors suggest that the…

Kastberg, Signe E.; Walker, Vicki

2008-01-01

447

Tacit and accessible understanding of language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical nature of our understanding of language is explored. I first show that there are several important and different distinctions between tacit and accessible awareness. I then present empirical evidence concerning our understand- ing of language. The data suggests that our awareness of sentence-meanings is some- times merely tacit according to one of these distinctions, but is accessible according

Kent Johnson

2007-01-01

448

David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David…

Gerson, Hope

2008-01-01

449

Effect of concentration of mixed-function oxidase on concentration of estrogen, rate of egg lay, eggshell thickness, and plasma calcium in laying hens.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of induction or depression of mixed-function oxidases (MFO) by xenobiotics on the peripheral concentration of estrogens, plasma Ca, rate of egg lay, and eggshell thickness in laying hens. In Exp. 1, 100 mg of phenobarbital (PB) administered orally each day for 3 or 7 d reduced concentrations of estrone and estradiol (E2) in serum. In Exp. 2, 25, 50, or 100 mg of PB was administered orally to laying hens for 3 or 7 d. Treatment with 100 mg of PB for 3 d or with 25, 50, or 100 mg for 7 d significantly increased liver:body weight ratios. Microsomal protein increased after 7 d of 50 or 100 mg of PB administration. Feeding PB decreased concentration of E2 and total plasma Ca in a dose- and period-dependent manner. Concentration of E2 was reduced to 10% of control, whereas hepatic cytochrome P-450 increased significantly with dose. The correlation between concentration of E2 and P-450 was negative and significant. Total Ca in the plasma was highly, positively correlated with concentration of E2. Eggshells were thinner from hens treated with 100 mg of PB for both 3 or 7 d than those from control hens. Rate of egg lay was reduced by 100 mg of PB for 7 d. In Exp. 3, .5 mL of CCl4 given orally for 1 d decreased P-450 and increased E2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8226371

Chen, S W; Francis, B M; Dziuk, P J

1993-10-01

450

Evaluation of West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the task summarized in this paper was to demonstrate a methodology for evaluating alternative strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Lay-up is defined as the period between operational use of tanks for waste storage and final closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to separate the environmental impact statement (EIS) for completion of closure of the WVDP into two separate EISs. The first EIS will cover only waste management and decontamination. DOE expects to complete this EIS in about 18 months. The second EIS will cover final decommissioning and closure and may take up to five years to complete. This approach has been proposed to expedite continued management of the waste and decontamination activities in advance of the final EIS and its associated Record of Decision on final site closure. Final closure of the WVDP site may take 10 to 15 years; therefore, the tanks need to be placed in a safe, stable condition with minimum surveillance during an extended lay-up period. The methodology developed for ranking the potential strategies for lay-up of the WVDP tanks can be used to provide a basis for a decision on the preferred path forward. The methodology is also applicable to determining preferred lay-up approaches at other DOE sites. Some of the alternative strategies identified for the WVDP should also be considered for implementation at the other DOE sites. Each site has unique characteristics that would require unique considerations for lay-up.

McClure, L. W.; Henderson, J. C.; Elmore, M. R.

2002-02-25

451

Who rules rare disease associations? A framework to understand their action.  

PubMed

The inner structure of so-called 'patients' organisations' has been accorded relatively little attention with respect to their increasing role in the medical world. This comparative study in France of eight such organisations, matching six rare disorders, explores the issue of power and decision making through the description of the entities that make up the organisation (and especially which stakeholders are represented), their mutual relationships, the temporal scope of collective action, and the concrete achievements of the organisation. Two main types of organisation are distinguished: 'pluralistic' organisations (that bring together a broad array of different stakeholders who are willing to work together) and 'monistic' organisations (where a single category of stakeholders firmly takes the lead). Their operations are very different and result from the association's composition. A key finding is that both the usual opposition between lay and expert and the reference to the diseases' characteristics prove to be irrelevant to understanding these organisations. Rather, the composition of the leading group is crucial. PMID:19619152

Huyard, Caroline

2009-07-09

452

Evaluating the impact of excess dietary tryptophan on laying performance and immune function of laying hens reared under hot and humid summer conditions.  

PubMed

1. Tryptophan (Trp), besides its role as an essential amino acid in protein synthesis, may also have other important effects on laying hens under summer conditions. 2. Babcock Brown layers (n?=?768), 40 weeks of age, were allocated to 4 treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 32 hens. Each group received the same basal diet, formulated with maize and soybean meal, for 8 weeks. Hens were fed on the basal diet with 0·0, 0·2, 0·4, and 0·8?g/kg L-Trp to achieve dietary concentrations of 1·7, 1·9?g/kg, 2·1?g/kg or 2·5?g/kg of Trp, respectively. 3. Supplementing L-Trp had no affect on laying performance. Adding 0·2 or 0·4?g/kg L-Trp improved egg shell strength compared with those fed on the control diet. Serum albumin concentration increased at 0·4?g/kg compared with those receiving 0·0 or 0·8?g/kg Trp. The addition of Trp at 0·4?g/kg increased serum IgM concentration quadratically. Serum superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) increased linearly and quadratically at 0·4?g/kg. 4. In conclusion, we suggest that 0·2 to 0·4?g/kg Trp may have beneficial effects on laying hens under conditions of high temperature and humidity. PMID:23130584

Dong, X Y; Azzam, M M M; Rao, W; Yu, D Y; Zou, X T

2012-01-01

453

Activity changes in jaw motor neurons induced by egg-laying hormone contribute to the feeding suppression during egg-laying behavior in Aplysia kurodai.  

PubMed

Egg-laying behavior in Aplysia is accompanied by behavioral changes such as feeding suppression. We investigated the effects of the egg-laying hormone (ELH) on food intake, the activity patterns of jaw muscles, and the activity of buccal neurons (multi-action neuron [MA1] and jaw-closing motor neuron [JC2]), which are elements of the feeding neural circuits controlling jaw movements in Aplysia kurodai. Injection of ELH into the body cavity inhibited the intake of seaweed. After ELH application, the rhythmic activity of jaw muscles that was induced by preferred taste stimulation elicited fewer ingestion-like responses and increased the number of rejection-like responses. ELH applied to the buccal ganglia increased the firing activity of JC2 during spontaneous rhythmic responses and during the rhythmic feeding-like responses that were evoked by electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerves. In the 2 types of rhythmic responses, the Dn (normalized value of the delay time of JC2 firing onset) decreased after ELH application as compared with the control. Furthermore, ELH decreased the size of MA1-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents in JC2. These results suggest that ELH changes the buccal motor program from ingestion to rejection on the basis of our previous results, and may contribute to a decrease in food intake during egg laying. PMID:23501243

Narusuye, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Aya; Nagahama, Tatsumi

2013-03-15

454

Mission Trades to Explore Saturn with Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the formation of our solar system, the National Research Council in its 2003 Decadal Survey (NRC DS) for Solar System Exploration (SSE), and NASA in its 2006 SSE Roadmap identified mission concepts for the in situ exploration of the giant planets, namely potential probe missions to Jupiter and Saturn. In response, NASA's upcoming 2008 New Frontiers Announcement of

Tibor Balint; James Cutts; Elizabeth Kolawa

2008-01-01

455

Early petroleum exploration, Rocky Mountain region, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, geology exposed on the flanks of Rocky Mountain uplifts has given unique opportunities to integrate surface and subsurface data to understand the petroleum geology of the intermontane basins. Exploration evolved from drilling near seeps to mapping of surface anticlines, to use of geophysics and subsurface data acquired by drilling. Oil seeps were first recorded by explorers in Wyoming in

1991-01-01

456

Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Point Lay Quadrangle, Alaska. Volume I. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results obtained from an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over the Point Lay map area of Alaska are presented. Based on the criteria outlined in the general section on interpretation, a total of six uranium anomalies have been indicated on the interpretation map. All six are only weakly to moderately anomalous in either uranium or the uranium ratios. None of these are thought to be of any economic significance. No follow-up work is recommended for the Point Lay Quadrangle.

Not Available

1981-02-01

457

From "Birth of a Nation" to "Pearl Harbor": The Influence of a Movie's Perspective on Students' Historical Understandings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What and how do students learn from motion pictures, and how does this knowledge interact with the history they learn in school? This is a complex problem-space and one that has seen little empirical research. To lay the groundwork for exploring these questions, a pilot study utilized a qualitative methodology in which high school students viewed…

Paxton, Richard J.; Meyerson, Peter

458

Exploring medical expressions used by consumers and the media: an emerging view of consumer health vocabularies.  

PubMed

Healthcare consumers often have difficulty expressing and understanding medical concepts. The goal of this study is to identify and characterize medical expressions or "terms" (linguistic forms and associated concepts) used by consumers and health mediators. In particular, these terms were characterized according to the degree to which they mapped to professional medical vocabularies. Lay participants identified approximately 100,000 term tokens from online discussion forum postings and print media articles. Of the over 81,000 extracted term tokens reviewed, more than 75% were mapped as synonyms or quasi-synonyms to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. While 80% conceptual overlap was found between closely mapped lay (consumer and mediator) and technical (professional) medical terms, about half of these overlapping concepts contained lay forms different from technical forms. This study raises questions about the nature of consumer health vocabularies that we believe have theoretical and practical implications for bridging the medical vocabulary gap between consumers and professionals. PMID:14728258

Tse, Tony; Soergel, Dagobert

2003-01-01

459

Exploration EVA System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In January 2004, the President announced a new Vision for Space Exploration. NASA's Office of Exploration Systems has identified Extravehicular Activity (EVA) as a critical capability for supporting the Vision for Space Exploration. EVA is required for al...

L. Kearney

2004-01-01

460

On psychological understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the psychology of understanding delusions. Two types of delusions have been proposed: positive wish-fulfilling delusions of grandeur; and negative delusions of persecution and depreciation. The 2 kinds of understanding are: (1) retrospective understanding consisting in an essentially reductive method, and (2) prospective understanding consisting of a constructive method. Constructive understanding is explained as subjective, not scientific, and as decomposing

C. G. Jung

1915-01-01

461

Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG) was established by NASA in July 2005 to identify scientific priorities and strategy for exploration of Venus. This community-based forum is designed to provide scientific input and technology development plans for planning and prioritizing the exploration of Venus over the next several decades. VEXAG is currently composed of two co- chairs and several groups. The focus groups actively solicit input from the scientific community and meet during VEXAG meetings, held at least once a year. VEXAG reports its findings and provides input to NASA, but does not make recommendations. VEXAG holds meetings open to the global scientific community with interest in understanding Venus and receives input from the scientists and engineers around the world on the current open issues regarding understanding Venus as a planet. VEXAG regularly evaluates Venus exploration goals, scientific objectives, investigations and critical measurement requirements, including especially recommendations in the National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey and the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap. VEXAG is coordinating the preparation of several White papers on different topics, including science, technology, and the recent flagship study, relevant to Venus exploration for the current Decadal Survey can be found on the VEXAG website (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/vexag). VEXAG provides a forum for learning about international efforts in exploring Venus and facilitates collaboration in combined observation programs from space and earth based observatories. At present, Venus Express mission launched by European Space Agency in November 2005 is the only active mission collecting data from orbit around Venus since April 2006. It will soon be joined in December 2010 by Japan's Venus Climate Orbiter which is under development for a launch in May 2010. Other missions to Venus are being considered by NASA (Venus Flagship mission), Russia (Venera D) and in the European community (European Venus Explorer). In addition, it is anticipated that several mission concepts will be proposed to NASA's Discovery (Announcement of Opportunity anticipated winter 2010). The three New Frontiers proposals selected by NASA in December 2009 include a proposal for a mission to Venus - Surface and Atmosphere and Geochemical Explorer. The Venus community recognizes that science return can be maximized by coordinating observations as much as feasible. VEXAG is one forum where the discussions can take place and the community is invited to actively participate in the VEXAG meetings and activities. The next VEXAG meeting and a workshop on the Venus atmosphere and its interaction with the surface will be held in Madison, Wisconsin, during 30 August - 2 September 2010. VEXAG's past activities, current efforts and future plans will be presented. The scientific community interested in Venus is invited to participate in VEXAG and support the exploration of Venus by the interested space agencies.

Limaye, Sanjay; Smrekar, Sue

2010-05-01

462

Exploring Issues in Culture and Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key element of Organizational Culture is members understanding of the nature of competence and the ways in which different constructions of competence are created by members and are negotiated. Within organizations and as a component of culture, understandings of competence have political, moral, and ethical dimensions. In this paper, there is an exploration of the complex relationships between competence

John McAuley

1994-01-01

463

Potential of alfalfa as an alternative molt induction diet for laying hens: egg quality and consumer acceptability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary molt induction to initiate additional egg laying cycles in commercial laying hen flocks is a wide spread practice in the United States. Feed deprivation is the most commonly used method but this practice has generated several concerns which has lead to research for viable alternative approaches. From a management standpoint a single ingredient molting diet consisting of high fiber-low

K. L. Landers; Z. R. Howard; C. L. Woodward; S. G. Birkhold; S. C. Ricke

2005-01-01