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1

Lay understandings of the effects of poverty: a Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a large body of research dedicated to exploring public attributions for poverty, considerably less attention has been directed to public understandings about the effects of poverty. In this paper, we describe lay understandings of the effects of poverty and the factors that potentially influence these perceptions, using data from a telephone survey conducted in 2002 on a

Linda I. Reutter; Gerry Veenstra; Miriam J. Stewart; Dennis Raphael; Rhonda Love; Edward Makwarimba; Susan McMurray

2005-01-01

2

Lay Understandings of Race: Cultural and Genetic Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine lay understandings of race. Method: Fifteen focus groups were held in the southeastern United States from July to October of 2001. Results: The lay understanding of race is multifactorial, conceptualizing race as defined in part by genetics and in part by culture. Conclusions: The multifactorial understanding of race used by lay people is important to geneticists for

Tasha N. Dubriwny; Benjamin R. Bates; Jennifer L. Bevan

2004-01-01

3

Assessing Lay Understanding of Common Presentations of Earthquake Hazard Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) includes, in its introduction to earthquake rupture forecast maps, the assertion that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities -- from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [3] However, psychology research identifies a large gap between lay and expert perception of risk for various hazards [2], and cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [1,4-6] that people neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probabilities, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [7]. The gap between lay and expert use of probability needs to be recognized more clearly by scientific organizations such as WGCEP. This study undertakes to determine how the lay public interprets earthquake hazard information, as presented in graphical map form by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), compiled by the WGCEP and other bodies including the USGS and CGS. It also explores alternate ways of presenting hazard data, to determine which presentation format most effectively translates information from scientists to public. Participants both from California and from elsewhere in the United States are included, to determine whether familiarity -- either with the experience of an earthquake, or with the geography of the forecast area -- affects people's ability to interpret an earthquake hazards map. We hope that the comparisons between the interpretations by scientific experts and by different groups of laypeople will both enhance theoretical understanding of factors that affect information transmission and assist bodies such as the WGCEP in their laudable attempts to help people prepare themselves and their communities for possible natural hazards. [1] Kahneman, D & Tversky, A (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica, XLVII: 263-291. [2] Fischhoff, B, Slovic, P, Lichtenstein, S, Read, S & Combs, B (1978). How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Pol Sci, 9, 127-152. [3] http://www.scec.org/ucerf/ [4] Hau, R, Pleskac, TJ, Kiefer, J & Hertwig, R (2008). The Description-Experience Gap in Risky Choice: The Role of Sample Size and Experienced Probabilities. J Behav Decis Making, 21: 493-518. [5] Lichtenstein, S, Slovic, P, Fischhoff, B, Layman, M & Combs, B (1978). Judged frequency of lethal events. J Exp Psy: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 551-578. [6] Hertwig, R, Barron, G, Weber, EU & Erev, I (2006). The role of information sampling in risky choice. In K Fiedler & P Juslin (Eds), Information sampling and adaptive cognition. Pp 75-91. New York: Cambridge University Press. [7] Budescu, DV, Broomell, S & Por HH (2009). Improving communication of uncertainty in the reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Psychol Sci, 20(3), 299-308.

Thompson, K. J.; Krantz, D. H.

2010-12-01

4

Sense-making in the wake of September 11th: a network analysis of lay understandings.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to document and explore British university students' immediate understanding of the events of September 11th. A network analysis of lay causal perceptions procedure was employed to capture the social perceptions and sense-making of respondents at a time when they and the world struggled to impose meaning and coherence on the events. The study also examined the possible effects of 'belief in a just world' and 'right-wing authoritarianism' on the pattern of perceived causes. The results suggest that most participants perceive cultural and religious differences, the history of conflict in the Middle East, unfairness and prejudice as being the distal causes of the individual agent's emotions and actions. There is also some evidence that right-wing authoritarianism and belief in a just world have an interactive effect on the strength of the perceived link between some of these causes. PMID:15296536

Reser, Joseph P; Muncer, Steven

2004-08-01

5

Whose interests do lay people represent? Towards an understanding of the role of lay people as members of committees.  

PubMed

Increasingly, lay people are appointed as members to health service committees. The term 'lay' is used loosely and the reasons for involving lay people are seldom clearly defined. This paper argues that the different roles that lay people play need to be explicitly defined in order for their contributions to be realized. Although lay members of health service committees are generally assumed to be working for patients' interests, our observations lead us to think that some lay people tend to support professionals' or managers' interests rather than patients' interests as patients would define them. We suggest that lay people fall into three broad categories: supporters of dominant (professional) interests, supporters of challenging (managerial) interests and supporters of repressed (patient) interests. These alignments should be taken into account in appointments to health service bodies. Further research is needed on the alignments and roles of lay members. PMID:11286594

Hogg, C; Williamson, C

2001-03-01

6

Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and others online*EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer health information domain. Lay information mediaries (LIMs) seek information on behalf or because of others, without necessarily being asked to do so or engaging in follow up, and have represented more than 50% of

Jennie A. Abrahamson; Karen E. Fisher; Anne G. Turner; Joan C. Durrance; Tammara Combs Turner

2008-01-01

7

Poisoned blood, ghaa, and the infected body: lay understandings of arsenicosis in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This article draws on ethnographic data from rural Bangladesh to examine how community members affected by arsenicosis understand, explain, and experience this deadly illness. Biomedically, arsenicosis has been described as a disease caused by drinking arsenic-contaminated water, and it is manifested through physiological complications such as symmetric hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, cancer of the skin, kidney and lungs, and diseases of the blood vessels. This article goes beyond such biomedical discourse and illustrates how arsenicosis has been vernacularized as ghaa in practice. It focuses on lay world views, logic, local knowledge systems, and sociocultural factors that shape popular understandings of the disease. This article is thus a contribution to our understanding of how arsenicosis, apart from its biomedical and clinical manifestations, is understood and experienced by affected individuals living within the particular sociocultural and ecological constraints of rural Bangladesh. PMID:24635028

Islam, M Saiful

2014-01-01

8

Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date-temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus.  

PubMed

Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (GxE) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date-temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for GxE. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs. PMID:18211880

Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J

2008-03-22

9

Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date–temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus  

PubMed Central

Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype–environment interaction (G×E) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11?624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date–temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for G×E. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs. PMID:18211880

Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J

2008-01-01

10

Exploration for Understanding in Cognitive Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cognitive modeling and artificial general intelligence research communities may reap greater scientific return on research investments - may achieve an improved understanding of architectures and models - if there is more emphasis on systematic sensitivity and necessity analyses during model development, evaluation, and comparison. We demonstrate this methodological prescription with two of the models submitted for the Dynamic Stocks and Flows (DSF) Model Comparison Challenge, exploring the complex interactions among architectural mechanisms, knowledge-level strategy variants, and task conditions. To cope with the computational demands of these analyses we use a predictive analytics approach similar to regression trees, combined with parallelization on high performance computing clusters, to enable large scale, simultaneous search and exploration.

Gluck, Kevin; Stanley, Clayton; Moore, L.; Reitter, David; Halbrügge, Marc

2010-12-01

11

Toward a framework for understanding lay public's comprehension of disaster and bioterrorism information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, we have witnessed a significant increase in disaster preparedness and crisis communication efforts. This stands in sharp contrast with paucity of research that deals with the public’s comprehension of disaster information and related decision-making. The objective of this paper is to outline a theoretical and methodological framework for research on lay comprehension of crisis information. The

Alla Keselman; Laura Slaughter; Vimla L. Patel

2005-01-01

12

Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and  

E-print Network

.3163/1536-5050.96.4.006 Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information% direct users (n5122), and 22% health or information providers (n546). Follow-up telephone interviews were performed with 10% (n521). Interview analysis focused on lay participants (n515 LIMs and direct users

Washington at Seattle, University of

13

Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and others online*EC  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer health information domain. Lay information mediaries (LIMs) seek information on behalf or because of others, without necessarily being asked to do so or engaging in follow up, and have represented more than 50% of health information seekers in prior studies. Methods: A web-based survey was posted on NC Health Info (NCHI) with 211 respondents, self-identified per the information need that brought them to NCHI as 20% LIMs (n?=?43), 58% direct users (n?=?122), and 22% health or information providers (n?=?46). Follow-up telephone interviews were performed with 10% (n?=?21). Interview analysis focused on lay participants (n?=?15 LIMs and direct users combined). Interviewees were reclassified post-survey as 12 LIMs and 3 direct users when studied information behavior extended beyond NCHI search. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory approach. Results: Surveyed LIMs were 77% female (n?=?33) and searched on behalf or because of family members (81%, n?=?35) and people they felt “extremely close” to (77%, n?=?33). LIMs reported various information seeking barriers “sometimes” to “often.” LIMs searched mostly without prompting (51%, n?=?22). Interview results triangulated survey findings regarding gender, tie strength, and prompting. Conclusions: LIMB may be related to gender and relationship tie strength and appears more internally than externally motivated. Further LIMB research is warranted. PMID:18974809

Fisher, Karen E.; Turner, Anne G.; Durrance, Joan C.; Turner, Tammara Combs

2008-01-01

14

Exploring Tertiary Students' Understanding of Covalent Bonding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores whether exposure to increasingly sophisticated mental models at different points in a chemistry education class showed up in patterns of preference and use of models in interpreting physical properties and phenomena. (Contains 92 references.) (DDR)

Coll, Richard K.; Treagust, David F.

2002-01-01

15

The Lay Public's Understanding and Perception of Dementia in a Developed Asian Nation  

PubMed Central

Background Early detection of dementia aims to improve treatment outcomes. However, poor perception and understanding of dementia are significant barriers. We aim to investigate the public's perception of dementia and identify variables associated with the different profiles of public perception. Methods A custom-designed questionnaire was used to assess laypersons’ knowledge and perception of dementia during a health fair at a public hospital in Singapore, a developed Asian nation. Out of a sample of 370 subjects, 32 declined to participate (response rate = 91.4%). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify meaningful subgroups of subjects from significant associations with multiple indicators of dementia awareness. Multinomial logistic regression was performed exploring variables associated with each of the subgroups derived from LCA. Results The majority of the study participants were female (66.9%), 65 years or older (71.1%), and ethnic Chinese (88.1%). LCA classified the study participants into 3 subgroups: Class 1 (good knowledge, good attitude), Class 2 (good knowledge, poor attitude), and Class 3 (poor knowledge, poor attitude), in proportions of 14.28, 63.83, and 21.88%, respectively. Compared to other classes, participants with good knowledge and good attitude towards dementia (Class 1) were more likely to know someone with dementia and understand the effects of the disease, be married, live in private housing, receive higher monthly income, and not profess belief in Buddhism, Taoism, or Hinduism. Conclusion Our results show that the public in Singapore may not be ready for screening initiatives and early dementia diagnosis. Education efforts should be targeted at lower socioeconomic groups, singles, and those of certain oriental religions. PMID:23139688

Tan, Wai Jia; Hong, Song-Iee; Luo, Nan; Lo, Tong Jen; Yap, Philip

2012-01-01

16

Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…

Agan, Lori

2004-01-01

17

Using diagrammatic explorations to understand code  

E-print Network

Understanding code is a significant challenge for developers. This thesis examines the limitations of current tools that use diagrams to assist code comprehension and demonstrates the value of four design principles: * ...

Sinha, Vineet, 1978-

2008-01-01

18

Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled in an earth science course and undergraduate students who have not received formal astronomy instruction. This study uses semistructured interviews to investigate students' ideas about the relationship between the Sun and stars, the nature of stars (What is a star?), and the distances between stars. The results indicate that astronomy instruction at the high school level can be effective at developing students' knowledge about stars in a short period of time. Specifically, students' knowledge about stars is enhanced through their understanding of nuclear fusion as the process of energy production in stars. Students who are not enrolled in astronomy at the high school level tend to focus on secondary characteristics of stars, such as size and color.

Agan, Lori

19

Critical trust: understanding lay perceptions of health and safety risk regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binary opposition of trusting or not trusting is inadequate to understand the often ambiguous and contradictory ideas people possess about risk regulators, particularly when knowledge and experience of such institutions is limited. The paper reports qualitative and quantitative data from a major study of public perceptions (n?=?30 focus groups) of UK risk regulators. We compare the complex and widely

John Walls; Nick Pidgeon; Andrew Weyman; Tom Horlick-Jones

2004-01-01

20

Food safety in pregnancy: an exploration of lay and professional perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores pregnant women’s and midwives’ perspectives on food safety issues during pregnancy with an emphasis on foodborne listeriosis. Although not a prevalent illness, listeriosis has been identified as a significant public health problem during pregnancy because of its serious consequences for the baby and high fetal mortality rates. However, there is limited information available on the state of

Dolly Bondarianzadeh

2008-01-01

21

Exploring children's understanding of television advertising – beyond the advertiser's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this article is to explore children's understanding of television advertising intent. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A different perspective on advertising intent is offered in this paper, as evidenced in an interpretive study of Irish children, aged between seven and nine years. A qualitative approach was employed, involving a series of focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with

Margaret-Anne Lawlor; Andrea Prothero

2008-01-01

22

Children's Understandings of Rurality: Exploring the Interrelationship between Experience and Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores children's material and discursive experiences of rurality in New Zealand and how they contribute to children's understandings of rurality. Highlights common constructions of reality based on experiences of agriculture, nature, and recreation, as well as children's understandings of rurality from discourse with peers and adults. (Contains…

McCormack, Jaleh

2002-01-01

23

Exploring the lay\\/expert divide: the attribution of responsibilities for coal ash pollution in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invoking expert knowledge is a common strategy in attempts to settle environmental disputes. However, the validity of expertise is contingent upon the context in which an actor is recognised as an expert. In complex environmental conflicts the distinction between lay and expert knowledge is not always fixed a priori. However, as conflicts unfold, intervening parties tend to present their cases

Vanesa Castán Broto

2012-01-01

24

Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date–temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus  

Microsoft Academic Search

organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (G!E) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (nZ11 624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used

Jon E. Brommer; Kalev Rattiste; Alastair J. Wilson

2008-01-01

25

Understanding garnet variability: Application of geometallurgy to diamonds and exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peridotitic and eclogitic garnets are a fundamental component in understanding mantle petrology, diamond petrogenesis, and the ascent of mantle materials in kimberlites. They are also critical in exploration programs, as the presence of mantle garnets at the earth's surface provides an indication of dispersion from a deeply derived magmatic carrier. The composition of these garnets further is used as an indicator of diamond prospectivity, on the basis of comparison with garnet compositions known to be in some degree of equilibrium with diamonds. For mantle xenoliths and kimberlites, optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are the main tools used for understanding key mineralogical and textural variability relationships. Mineralogy and texture reflect diamond genesis, metasomatic alteration, fluid migration and manifestation, volcanological processes, peridotite disaggregation, and other manifestations of mantle processes that are observable, describable, and applicable in exploration and mining. Mineralogy and texture studies lead to further questions that are better addressed by higher resolution chemical analysis of isotopes and rare earth elements, or luminescence. Understanding mineralogical and textural variability is the primary geological input for geometallurgy (geomet), the field integrating the earth sciences with the extractive industries. The framework for geomet encompasses geology, mineralogy, deposit modeling and extraction methods for the optimum value return of resources, and it relies on the fact that the mineralogy and texture of rocks influence subsequent interpretation and downstream applications. Developments in this area have been made possible by the new generation of high-speed SEM-based quantitative mineralogical instruments, enabling the statistical assessment of thousands of grains or particles, or samples, and their application to models for exploration, ore deposits, or geomet. For diamonds, this means identification and quantification of large mineralogical and textural data sets, and gives the geologist more involvement in model development. In this study, peridotitic and eclogitic garnets were examined in situ and as xenocrysts to gain understanding of the mineralogical and textural variability of the grains using SEM-based quantitative mineralogy. For concentrate garnets, the new technology presented here is the development of mineral definitions that reflect SEM counts and correlate with EPMA data. Internal compositional variability is mapped across individual grains as compared to EPMA spot analysis; designations of G10-G9 compositions, for example, are more complex when viewed in terms of individual internal grain compositional variability. The new mineral lists based on percentages of Ca-Cr count rates are compared to unknown garnets from exploration samples, and digitally categorized into bins reflecting potential diamond prospectivity or secondary alteration, as desired. The high analysis rate (approx. 150 determinations/second) means the SEM-based technique can be faster and produce more statistical information for the geologist who is making the model assessment in the field. Combined with new nontoxic mineral separation methodology in the field and software on the geologist's laptop, a great deal of interpretation can be accommodated in the field, at a reduced cost for shipping large volumes of samples to a central laboratory. Geomet for diamonds provides the mechanism for thinking of the entirety of a project, and using the geological and mineralogical information to predict process implications.

Hoal, K. O.; Appleby, S. K.; Stammer, J. G.

2009-05-01

26

New exploration and understanding of traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), originating from oriental philosophy and culture, has been developing through a series of special research and experiments with meditation, accumulation of experiences, and a complete comprehension of ancient theories and methods. However, compared with Conventional Western Medicine (CWM), the theory of TCM is complicated and not easily accepted by Westerners. It is important to explore TCM by using modern scientific techniques and theories. Utilizing his frontier experience and up-to-date scientific knowledge, Dr. Qian Xuesen has been trying to incorporate some key principles with the comprehensive understanding of TCM and clarify difficult but important concepts and principles. Some examples are the existence of invisible matter; 'Qi' and 'Qi monism'; the Heart representing the 'whole will' of human beings; the water environment functioning as a fundamental condition of life; the human body being united with nature and universe as one; the spirit and physical body always being considered unified and connected with the five viscera, especially with the Heart; and the Chinese herbal formula working with different principles than CWM drugs. These works are important for understanding the essence of TCM, the promoting of the modernization of TCM theories by means of the latest of achievements in scientific developments, establishing the direction for future medicines with TCM characteristics, uniting Chinese and Western medicines, and exploiting a bright future for the health of mankind. PMID:19606504

Xutian, Stevenson; Zhang, Jun; Louise, Wozniak

2009-01-01

27

Exploring and understanding academic leadership in family medicine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore how family physicians understand the concept of academic leadership. Design Case study. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants Thirty family physician academic leaders. Methods Focus groups and interviews were conducted with family physicians from a large multisite urban university who were identified by peers as academic leaders at various career stages. Transcripts from the focus groups and interviews were anonymized and themes were analyzed and negotiated among 3 researchers. Main findings Participants identified qualities of leadership among academic leaders that align with those identified in the current literature. Despite being identified by others as academic leaders, participants were reluctant to self-identify as such. Participants believed they had taken on early leadership roles by default rather than through planned career development. Conclusion This study affirms the need to define academic leadership explicitly, advance a culture that supports it, and nurture leaders at all levels with a variety of strategies. PMID:23486818

Oandasan, Ivy; White, David; Hammond Mobilio, Melanie; Gotlib Conn, Lesley; Feldman, Kymm; Kim, Florence; Rouleau, Katherine; Sorensen, Leslie

2013-01-01

28

Understanding Movement: A Sociocultural Approach to Exploring Moving Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the article is to outline a sociocultural way of exploring human movement. Our ambition is to develop an analytical framework where moving humans are explored in terms of what it means to move as movements are performed by somebody, for a certain purpose, and in a certain situation. We find this approach in poststructural…

Larsson, Hakan; Quennerstedt, Mikael

2012-01-01

29

Exploring Preservice Teachers' Emerging Understandings of Disciplinary Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative inquiry examined 14 secondary preservice teachers' emerging understandings of disciplinary literacy. Data included preservice teachers' written reflections and annotated lesson plans, which were analyzed for understanding of discipline-specific habits of thinking, texts, reading and writing demands of academic texts,…

Masuda, Avis M.

2014-01-01

30

Vocational Exploration through Service: The Effect of Service-Learning on Student Understanding of God's Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College is a time of exploration for students. College students who are Christian may also engage in exploration of God's call on their lives, a discernment of their vocation. One pedagogical technique that can help us help students explore vocation is service-learning. To better understand their vocation, students need to understand themselves…

Feenstra, Jennifer S.

2011-01-01

31

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Understanding Carbon Storage in Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: Forest Inventory and Analysis data, TOOLS: isee Player, Spreadsheet application. SUMMARY: Compare field collected data with results produced by a forest biomass model to understand the process and challenges scientists face when doing terrestrial carbon cycle research.

32

Understanding China's Post80 employees' work attitudes: an explorative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among job and career satisfactions, work commitment, and turnover intentions for the Post-80 employees in China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 290 of China's Post-80 employees from 19 knowledge-intensive companies were surveyed. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Findings – The perceptions of selected Post-80 employees

Qinxuan Gu; Lihong Wang; Judy Y. Sun; Yanni Xu

2010-01-01

33

Understanding Interlinked Data Visualising, Exploring, and Analysing Ontologies  

E-print Network

Companies are faced with managing as well as integrating large collections of distributed data today. Here, the challenging task is not to store these volumes of structured and interlinked data but to understand an overview at any time. By means of our prototypical implementation and a real-world data set we show how

Biundo, Susanne

34

Exploring Turkish Upper Primary Level Pupils' Understanding of Digestion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The…

Cakici, Yilmaz

2005-01-01

35

A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

2014-01-01

36

Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, the Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and ground handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early as the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

Taylor, J. L.; Cockrell, C. E.

2009-01-01

37

Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, th Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and grou handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

Taylor, Jim

2009-01-01

38

Why Do People Delay Accessing Health Care for Knee Osteoarthritis? Exploring Beliefs of Health Professionals and Lay People  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: In knee osteoarthritis (OA), opportunity for non-surgical intervention is reduced by time lost between symptom onset and diagnosis. The study's purpose was to understand, from the perspective of various stakeholders, the reasons for delay and useful strategies to enhance early awareness of knee OA. Method: In this qualitative study, focus groups of health professionals (n=6) and community-dwelling individuals (n=7) discussed questions relating to knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about OA; experiences with people with OA; health care seeking behaviour; and access to services, and suggested strategies to enhance public awareness. Qualitative analyses identified dominant themes. Results: Reasons for delay from the laypersons' perspective included lack of knowledge about risk factors and prevention and a belief that knee pain is expected with age. Reasons related to the health care system included long wait times and frustration getting appointments. Health professionals were unclear on which discipline should discuss prevention and risk factors. Suggested strategies included advocating a healthy lifestyle, developing prevention programs, and using celebrities to inform the public. Conclusions: Participants identified multiple reasons for delays and strategies to counter them. Knowledge about gaps in the OA care process can facilitate physiotherapists' participation in developing strategies for early intervention. PMID:24381383

Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Ahmed, Sara

2013-01-01

39

Lay abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are the motor behind our daily social activities. Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties understanding others’ emotions. Yet, understanding of own emotions in children with ASD has been largely neglected. Acknowledging and understanding one’s own emotions, and the ability to regulate these emotions to an extent that they can be expressed adaptively,

Rieffe; Oosterveld; Meerum Terwogt; Mootz; Van Leeuwen; Stockmann; Petrides; Hudry; Michalaria; Swami; Sevdalis; Ollendick; Bray; Rogé; Mullet; Guo; Cubells; Ridley; Homewood; Angkustsiri; Krakowiak; Moghaddam; Wardinsky; Kalamkarian; Hertz-Picciotto

2011-01-01

40

Understanding Words, Understanding Numbers: An Exploration of the Mathematical Profiles of Poor Comprehenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poor comprehenders are children who show significant deficits in their reading comprehension performance, despite average, or above-average word reading ability. To date, there have been no in-depth studies of the mathematical performance profiles of such children. Aims: This study aimed to explore the mathematical profiles of poor…

Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

2010-01-01

41

An Exploration of Young Children's Understandings of Genetics Concepts from Ontological and Epistemological Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined 9- to 15-year-old children's understandings about basic genetics concepts and how they integrated those understandings with their broader theories of biology. A cross-sectional case study method was used to explore the students' (n = 90) understandings of basic inheritance and molecular genetics concepts such as gene and…

Venville, Grady; Gribble, Susan J.; Donovan, Jennifer

2005-01-01

42

TOWARDS A FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING COMPULSIVE BUYERS ONLINE: EXPLORING THE EFFECTS OF ONLINE SALES PROMOTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compulsive buying has been extensively explored in the offline environment. However, little attention has been given to understanding compulsive buyers and how they respond to external stimuli such as sales promotions in the online context. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the susceptibility of compulsive buyers to sales promotions, and how exposure to online sales promotions stimulates their online sales

Handan Vicdan

43

Impact of a Spreadsheet Exploration on Secondary School Students' Understanding of Statistical Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study investigated the impact of a spreadsheet (EXCEL) exploration on the understanding of statistical graphs among twenty Singapore secondary school students of average ability. Four EXCEL templates were constructed to allow students to explore four aspects of statistical graphs: zero in scale, effect of different scales, size…

Wu, Yingkang; Wong, Khoon Yoong

2007-01-01

44

Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey  

E-print Network

Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey S. B. Mc Abstract. We present a study of student understanding of energy in quantum mechanical tunneling and barrier refer to as the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS), is being developed to measure student

Colorado at Boulder, University of

45

Public health research and lay knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social science research into the social patterning of health and illness is extensive. One important aspects of this has been work on lay knowledge about health and illness. In this paper we develop three main arguments. First, we suggest that recent developments in social science understanding of the nature and significance of lay knowledge should be more widely recognized within

Jennie Popay; Gareth Williams

1996-01-01

46

Understanding the Chena Hot Springs, Alaska, geothermal system using temperature and pressure data from exploration boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chena Hot Springs is a small, moderate temperature, deep circulating geothermal system, apparently typical of those associated to hot springs of interior Alaska. Multi-stage drilling was used in some exploration boreholes and was found to be useful for understanding subsurface flow characteristics and developing a conceptual model of the system. The results illustrate how temperature profiles illuminate varying pressure versus

Kamil Erkan; Gwen Holdmann; Walter Benoit; David Blackwell

2008-01-01

47

Ancestral, Corporeal, Corporate: Traditional Yol?u Understandings of the Body Explored  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the various ways in which the Yol?u of northeast Arnhem Land in Australia's Northern Territory traditionally perceive of bodies, whether corporeal or corporate. It establishes how Yol?u understand the human body, its environments and its behaviours as phenomena that are modeled on archetypal ancestral designs for life, and shows how Yol?u nomenclature for human anatomy is used

Aaron Corn

2008-01-01

48

Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present a study of student understanding of energy in quantum mechanical tunneling and barrier penetration. This paper will focus on student responses to two questions that were part of a test given in class to two modern physics classes and in individual interviews with 17 students. The test, which we refer to as the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS), is being developed to measure student understanding of basic concepts in quantum mechanics. In this paper we explore and clarify the previously reported misconception that reflection from a barrier is due to particles having a range of energies rather than wave properties. We also confirm previous studies reporting the student misconception that energy is lost in tunneling, and report a misconception not previously reported, that potential energy diagrams shown in tunneling problems do not represent the potential energy of the particle itself. The present work is part of a much larger study of student understanding of quantum mechanics.

Mckagan, Sam B.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-07-13

49

Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metamorphic belts are complex regions where accretion or collision has added to, or thickened, continental crust. Gold-rich deposits can be formed at all stages of orogen evolution, so that evolving metamorphic belts contain diverse gold deposit types that may be juxtaposed or overprint each other. This partly explains the high level of controversy on the origin of some deposit types, particularly those formed or overprinted/remobilized during the major compressional orogeny that shaped the final geometry of the hosting metamorphic belts. These include gold-dominated orogenic and intrusion-related deposits, but also particularly controversial gold deposits with atypical metal associations. There are a number of outstanding problems for all types of gold deposits in metamorphc belts. These include the following: (1) definitive classifications, (2) unequivocal recognition of fluid and metal sources, (3) understanding of fluid migration and focusing at all scales, (4) resolution of the precise role of granitoid magmatism, (5) precise gold-depositional mechanisms, particularly those producing high gold grades, and (6) understanding of the release of CO2-rich fluids from subducting slabs and subcreted oceanic crust and granitoid magmas at different crustal levels. Research needs to be better coordinated and more integrated, such that detailed fluid-inclusion, trace-element, and isotopic studies of both gold deposits and potential source rocks, using cutting-edge technology, are embedded in a firm geological framework at terrane to deposit scales. Ultimately, four-dimensional models need to be developed, involving high-quality, three-dimensional geological data combined with integrated chemical and fluid-flow modeling, to understand the total history of the hydrothermal systems involved. Such research, particularly that which can predict superior targets visible in data sets available to exploration companies before discovery, has obvious spin-offs for global- to deposit-scale targeting of deposits with superior size and grade in the covered terranes that will be the exploration focus of the twenty-first century.

Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Robert, F.; Hart, C.J.R.

2003-01-01

50

Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

Goicolea, Isabel; Ohman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morras, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

2012-01-01

51

Assessing Age-Related Ossification of the Petro-Occipital Fissure: Laying the Foundation for Understanding the Clinicopathologies of the Cranial Base  

PubMed Central

The petro-occitpital fissure (POF) lies within a critical interface of cranial growth and development in the posterior cranial fossa. The relationships between skeletal and soft tissues make this region especially important for examining biomechanical and basic biologic forces that may mold the cranial base and contribute to significant clinicopathologies associated with the structures located near the POF. Therefore, this study investigates the POF in adults in both preserved human cadavers and dried crania in order to determine if developmental changes can be observed and, if so, their value in age assessment as a model system for describing normal morphogenesis of the POF. This study demonstrates that tissue within the POF undergoes characteristic changes in ossification with age, the onset of which is considerably later than that of other synchondroses of the cranial base. Statistically, there is a moderate to strong correlation between age and stage of ossification within the POF. Further, male crania were observed to reach greater degrees of ossification at a younger age than female crania and that individual asymmetry in ossification of the tissue within the POF was not uncommon. An understanding of the basic temporal biological processes of the POF may yield insight into the development of clinicopathologies in this region of the cranial base. PMID:15584035

BALBONI, ARMAND L.; ESTENSON, THOMAS L.; REIDENBERG, JOY S.; BERGEMANN, ANDREW D.; LAITMAN, JEFFREY T.

2005-01-01

52

Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which has been only scarcely explored in the science education literature. A four-tier diagnostic instrument was used. The instrument comprises 25 questions, and each question has an answer tier, a confidence rating for this tier, a reason tier and a confidence rating for this tier. Versions of the instrument were refined iteratively during the preliminary and pilot phases of the study. This study reports on the results obtained from the main phase of the study, using a sample of 140 students. Overall, the diagnostic test was difficult for the students. The students had a mean score of 38 %, based on correct responses for both answer and reason tiers for the questions. It was accompanied by a mean confidence of only 3.49 out of 6 (that is, 58.2 %) for the whole test. The results indicate that transition metals chemistry is a difficult topic for the students. Twenty-four alternative conceptions have been identified in this study, including some indication of their strengths. Some implications of the study are discussed.

Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

2014-05-01

53

An Exploration of Teachers' Efforts to Understand Identity Work and its Relevance to Science Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US educators express concern that students are turning away from the study of science and have little interest in pursuing science careers. Nationally, science achievement scores for 8th graders are unchanged since 1996, but 12th graders' scores have significantly decreased. A shortcoming of education reform efforts is lack of attention to students' developmental needs. Science study should enable students to learn about themselves—to develop and refine their skills, define their values, explore personal interests, and understand the importance of science to themselves and others. Effective secondary science instruction requires attention to students' identity development—the key developmental task of adolescence. Secondary science teachers participated in an 8-week course focused on understanding adolescent identity development and methods for addressing identity. Transcripts of the teachers' online discussions of salient issues were analyzed to determine their perceptions regarding classroom identity work. Teachers identified several assets and obstacles to identity work that were organized into two broad categories: teacher knowledge, training opportunities, and administrative support, or lack of these; and, presence of inflexible curricula, standardized testing regimes, and increased teacher accountability. Implications for student growth and science teacher professional development are discussed.

Smith, M. Cecil; Darfler, Anne

2012-06-01

54

Greek primary school teachers' understanding of current environmental issues: An exploration of their environmental knowledge and images of nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena. Using the media as major environmental information sources, in which environmental issues are constructed as environmental risks, teachers are being environmentally educated in lay and not in scientific terms. Moreover, the image of nature emerging from their ideas about the three environmental issues is that of the romantic archetype, which prevails in postindustrial societies. Such a view, though, gives a conceptualization of nature as balance, under which the greenhouse effect and acid rain are seen as exclusively human-induced disturbances.

Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

2007-03-01

55

The GPS Analysis Package for Exploration and Understanding of Geodetic Sensor Web Time Series Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the GPS Analysis Package (GAP), a Matlab toolbox for GPS data exploration and understanding. The toolbox is designed to support scientists and engineers studying the motion of the solid Earth both in an academic environment and in the course of NASA missions such as UAVSAR and future InSAR satellite missions. It includes an ensemble of low-level routines to perform basic signal processing operations, such as removal of secular motion, de-noising, and removal of seasonal signals. It also includes a suite of more sophisticated statistical pattern recognition techniques, including hidden Markov models and Bayes nets, to detect changes, identify transient signals, understand regional motion, and uncover relationships between geographically removed nodes in the GPS network. Finally, it provides an assortment of methods for estimating missing observations in the network. We provide usage examples of the package applied to particular scenarios, including the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and ongoing slow slip events in the Cascadia region. We also demonstrate the utility of the package within a web portal and web services environment by showcasing its use in the QuakeSim web portal. The QuakeSim portal allows easy access to GPS data sources provided by multiple institutions as well as a map and plotting interface to quickly assess analysis results. Finally, we show the extensibility of the package to other problem domains and sensor network data sources, demonstrating the analysis tools as applied to seismic network data, autonomous robotic navigation, and fault detection in engineering data streams from the International Space Station.

Granat, R. A.; Moghaddam, B.; Donnellan, A.

2012-12-01

56

Mapping the biosphere: exploring species to understand the origin, organization and sustainability of biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time is ripe for a comprehensive mission to explore and document Earth's species. This calls for a campaign to educate and inspire the next generation of professional and citizen species explorers, investments in cyber-infrastructure and collections to meet the unique needs of the producers and consumers of taxonomic information, and the formation and coordination of a multi-institutional, international, transdisciplinary

Q. D. Wheeler; S. Knapp; D. W. Stevenson; J. Stevenson; S. D. Blum; B. M. Boom; G. G. Borisy; J. L. Buizer; M. R. De Carvalho; A. Cibrian; M. J. Donoghue; V. Doyle; E. M. Gerson; C. H. Graham; P. Graves; S. J. Graves; R. P. Guralnick; A. L. Hamilton; J. Hanken; W. Law; D. L. Lipscomb; T. E. Lovejoy; H. Miller; J. S. Miller; S. Naeem; M. J. Novacek; L. M. Page; N. I. Platnick; H. Porter-Morgan; P. H. Raven; M. A. Solis; A. G. Valdecasas; S. Van Der Leeuw; A. Vasco; N. Vermeulen; J. Vogel; R. L. Walls; E. O. Wilson; J. B. Woolley

2012-01-01

57

Exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

Wilburn, D. R.; Porter, K. E.

1999-01-01

58

From Phenotype to Genotype: Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Genetic Inheritance in a Web-Based Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that students face challenges as they learn about genetic inheritance. The challenges could emanate from the fact that genetic inheritance involves unseen processes at different organizational levels. We explored students' understanding of heredity and related concepts such as cells and reproduction using a Web-based Science Inquiry…

Williams, Michelle; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Manokore, Viola

2012-01-01

59

The Middle School Reading Coach: Exploring the Coaching Role and Understanding the Role of the Principal in Supporting Coaching Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was twofold. First, using a qualitative, single case study design, I explored the roles and responsibilities of a middle school reading coach to understand how the coach distributed her time to support content area teachers in improving literacy instruction within their content areas. In addition to…

Young, Mia L.

2012-01-01

60

How lay is lay? Chinese students' perceptions of anorexia nervosa in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a locally devised self-report questionnaire that encompassed both professional and lay explanatory models, this study explored the perceptions of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a large sample of 842 Chinese undergraduates who had little biomedical exposure to this rare condition in Hong Kong. Anorexia nervosa, or yan shi zheng, was conceived as a chronic psychiatric condition of severe weight loss

Sing Lee

1997-01-01

61

The process of design : a tool in the exploration and understanding of place  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the understanding and representation of an urban fabric. This document is not a historical essay nor a thematical critique of the design of an architectural form but an analysis and an attempt to ...

Colom Alejandro

1996-01-01

62

Story understanding in Genesis : exploring automatic plot construction through commonsense reasoning  

E-print Network

Whether through anecdotes, folklore, or formal history, humans learn the lessons and expectations of life from stories. If we are to build intelligent programs that learn as humans do, such programs must understand stories ...

Low, Harold William Capen, IV

2011-01-01

63

Exploring the Role of Context in Students' Understanding of Sampling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context provides meaning for data analysis and the evaluation of evidence but may be distracting to students. This research explores the role of context in students' reasoning about sampling: specifically, the relationship between the strength of students' opinions about a topic, which provides the context for a study, and their ability…

Wroughton, Jacqueline R.; McGowan, Herle M.; Weiss, Leigh V.; Cope, Tara M.

2013-01-01

64

Understanding Community-Specific Rape MythsExploring Student Athlete Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using multiple measurement methods offers an opportunity to gain culturally specific information about rape myths. This study focuses on the subculture of student athletes and uses a survey, focus groups, and individual interviews to explore the meaning and role of rape myths. Although the survey indicates a low acceptance of rape myths, this finding is contradicted by the results of

Sarah McMahon

2007-01-01

65

Explorers, Detectives, Matchmakers, and Lion Tamers: Understanding Jigsaw Puzzlers' Techniques and Motivations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do people enjoy jigsaw puzzles, which--challenging and time-consuming as they are--might be considered more like work than play? The author investigates the motivations, preferences, and satisfactions of individuals working on jigsaw puzzles, and she explores how these elements of play relate to the procedures and strategies puzzlers use to…

Garcia, Angela Cora

2013-01-01

66

Exploring Teachers' Informal Formative Assessment Practices and Students' Understanding in the Context of Scientific Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual…

Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Furtak, Erin Marie

2007-01-01

67

Understanding the school outcomes of juvenile offenders: an exploration of neighborhood influences and motivational resources.  

PubMed

As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non-delinquent peers. To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14-17) living in two urban communities. A multilevel path analysis confirmed that youth in relatively more affluent communities report greater access to opportunities in the areas of education and employment, and that these opportunities are associated with higher expectations to succeed and better grades. Findings highlight the importance of taking an ecological approach for understanding processes that shape school effort and achievement. Implications are discussed in the context of promoting academic success among juvenile offenders, specifically, and for understanding pathways to healthy adjustment, more generally. PMID:21210199

Chung, He Len; Mulvey, Edward P; Steinberg, Laurence

2011-08-01

68

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Using Satellite Images to Understand Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: NASA Satellite Images. TOOLS: ImageJ and Image Composite Explorer (ICE) of NASA Earth Observations (NEO). SUMMARY: Use ImageJ to create an animation showing the change in monthly concentration of aerosols over the course of a year and compare it to a similar animation showing change in carbon monoxide concentration. Then use NEO ICE to create histograms and scatter plots, investigating the relationship between aerosol concentration and carbon monoxide concentration.

69

Maltreated Children's Social Understanding and Empathy: A Preliminary Exploration of Foster Carers' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests that parental abuse and neglect can have adverse effects on children's peer relationships and self-perceptions. Emerging theoretical and empirical work suggests that children's social understanding and empathy could play a key role as mediators of these effects, but we have little knowledge about the viability of such a…

Luke, Nikki; Banerjee, Robin

2012-01-01

70

Gateways to Understanding: A Model for Exploring and Discerning Meaning from Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research methodologies comprise distinct traditions, each of which is based on its own assumptions and discrete methods for collecting, analyzing and reporting data. This paper examines a distinctive approach to qualitative research that was employed in a recent study to open a gateway to understanding the impact of the shootings at…

Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

2008-01-01

71

Gateways to understanding: a model for exploring and discerning meaning from experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research methodologies comprise distinct traditions, each of which is based on its own assumptions and discrete methods for collecting, analyzing and reporting data. This paper examines a distinctive approach to qualitative research that was employed in a recent study to open a gateway to understanding the impact of the shootings at Columbine High School. Using the Columbine study as

Carolyn Lunsford Mears

2008-01-01

72

Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc.…

Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Shea, Nicole

2011-01-01

73

'Love, love, and more love for childrena: exploring preservice teachers' understandings of caring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an ethic of care is seen as a central concern of teacher education, however little attention has been paid to the preconceived conceptions of caring held by preservice teachers. In this article we share the results of a recent study of a group of preservice elementary teachers in which we examined the understandings of the relationship of

Lisa S. Goldstein; Vickie E. Lake

74

Exploring the Relationship between Physics-Related Epistemological Beliefs and Physics Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies are reported that investigated the relationship between secondary school students' physics-related epistemological beliefs and physics conceptual understanding. Study 1 involved the development of a Greek Epistemological Beliefs Evaluation Instrument for Physics (GEBEP) which was administered to 394 students (10th graders). Study 2…

Stathopoulou, Christina; Vosniadou, Stella

2007-01-01

75

Exploring Students' Understanding of Electrochemical Cells Using an Enhanced Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The development of two-tier multiple-choice questions has permitted the diagnosis of students' understanding on various topics in the sciences as well as helped to ascertain the alternative conceptions they have. A limitation of two-tier diagnostic instruments that has been noted in the literature, but which has not been…

Loh, Adrian Sin Loy; Subramaniam, R.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

2014-01-01

76

The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make…

Cormier, Sebastien; Steinberg, Richard

2010-01-01

77

Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

2013-01-01

78

Research into Literacy and Technology in Primary Classrooms: An Exploration of Understandings Generated by Recent Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much has been written about the implications for "literacy" of practices surrounding digital technologies, there has been surprisingly little research investigating new literacies in primary classrooms. This review examines the kinds of understandings that have been generated through studies of primary literacy and technology reported during…

Burnett, Cathy

2009-01-01

79

Teaching Games and Sport for Understanding: Exploring and Reconsidering its Relevance in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 30 years ago the original teaching games for understanding (TGfU) proposition was published in a special edition of the Bulletin of Physical Education (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). In that time TGfU has attracted significant attention from a theoretical and pedagogical perspective as an improved approach to games and sport teaching in physical…

Stolz, Steven; Pill, Shane

2014-01-01

80

"Hello, hello--it's English I speak!": a qualitative exploration of patients' understanding of the science of clinical trials.  

PubMed

Informed consent may be seriously compromised if patients fail to understand the experimental nature of the trial in which they are participating. Using focus groups, the authors explored how prospective trial participants interpret and understand the science of clinical trials by using patient information sheets relative to their medical condition. An opportunity was provided to hear in the patients' own words how they interpret the information and why there is variable understanding. Respondents struggled to comprehend the meaning and purpose of concepts such as randomisation and double blinding, and found them threatening to their ideas of medical care. Suggestions are made about how to improve the national guidelines on written information for trial participants and pretesting of the information sheets is advocated. PMID:16269566

Stead, M; Eadie, D; Gordon, D; Angus, K

2005-11-01

81

Understanding the School Outcomes of Juvenile Offenders: An Exploration of Neighborhood Influences and Motivational Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non–delinquent peers.\\u000a To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine\\u000a academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14–17) living in two urban communities.\\u000a A multilevel path analysis confirmed that youth in

He Len Chung; Edward P. Mulvey; Laurence Steinberg

82

"They Just Seem to Live Their Lives in Their Own Little World": Lay Perceptions of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is believed to be higher than that of other conditions, such as Down syndrome or diabetes, yet few studies have explored the ideas lay people have about autism. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how 10 lay people with no knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism.…

Huws, J. C.; Jones, R. S. P.

2010-01-01

83

Teachers' and Parents' Conceptions of Children's Curiosity and Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although curiosity is a characteristic often observed in young children, it has not received much academic interest in recent years. Among its many dimensions, the epistemic nature of curiosity, or the quest for knowledge, deserves attention. To explore the potential application of "epistemic curiosity", it is important to understand how lay

Chak, Amy

2007-01-01

84

A framework for understanding risk perception, explored from the perspective of the water practitioner.  

PubMed

Sustainable urban water systems are likely to be hybrids of centralized and decentralized infrastructure, managed as an integrated system in water-sensitive cities. The technology for many of these systems is available. However, social and institutional barriers, which can be understood as deeply embedded risk perceptions, have impeded their implementation. Risk perceptions within the water sector are often unrecognized or unacknowledged, despite their role in risk management generally in informing value judgments and specifically in ranking risks to achieve management objectives. There has been very little examination of the role of these risk perceptions in advancing more sustainable water supply management through the adoption of alternative sources. To address this gap, this article presents a framework that can be used as a tool for understanding risk perceptions. The framework is built on the relational theory of risk and presents the range of human phenomena that might influence the perception of an "object at risk" in relation to a "risk object." It has been synthesized from a critical review of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies of perception broadly and risk perception specifically, and interpreted in relation to water practitioners. For a water practitioner, the risk object might be an alternative water system, a component, a process, or a technology, and the object at risk could be public or environmental health, profitability, or professional reputation. This framework has two important functions: to allow practitioners to understand their own and others' risk perceptions, which might differ, and to inform further empirical research. PMID:23915168

Dobbie, Meredith Frances; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

2014-02-01

85

Understanding the Tenets of Agile Software Engineering: Lecturing, Exploration and Critical Thinking  

E-print Network

The use of agile principles and practices in software development is becoming a powerful force in today's workplace. In our quest to develop better products, therefore, it is imperative that we strive to learn and understand the application of Agile methods, principles and techniques to the software development enterprise. Unfortunately, in many educational institutions courses and projects that emphasize Agile Software Development are minimal. At best, students have only limited exposure to the agile philosophy, principles and practices at the graduate and undergraduate levels of education. In an effort to address this concern, we offered a graduate-level course entitled "Agile Software Engineering" in the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech in Fall 2009. The primary objectives of the class were to introduce the values, principles and practices underlying the agile philosophy, and to do so in an atmosphere that encourages debate and critical thinking. The course was designed around three central ...

Soundararajan, Shvetha; Chigani, Amine

2010-01-01

86

Exploring the use of concept chains to structure teacher trainees' understanding of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key ideas in an increasingly complex and inclusive fashion such that a 'chain' is developed where the initial statements are simple and the final ones more complex. Evaluation of the strategy with trainees over a five-year period revealed promising potential for the strategy as a self-study tool, as well as an audit tool, enabling tutors to more easily identify misconceptions. There was some evidence that trainees found the strategy useful in preparing themselves to teach in the classroom, possibly by enabling meaningful learning to take place according to the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin theory.

Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

2004-12-01

87

Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts (n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

2014-03-01

88

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the Tata Energy Research Institute, the EduGreen Explore Web site allows kids to learn about energy, water, climate change, solid waste, and more. Besides giving good descriptions on these various subjects, students will also gain a global perspective on these issues since the Institute, which is located in India, gives specific information for the country. The site also contains quizzes, maps, activities, and more worth checking out.

2002-01-01

89

Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

PubMed Central

This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students’ commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors’ process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward increased self-awareness and future culturally responsive practice. Content analysis revealed 11 themes, including students’ enlightenment of their privilege, experiences of cultural loss, and acknowledgment of biases as integral parts of culturally responsive practice. Implications for social work education and research are addressed. PMID:23255873

BENDER, KIMBERLY; NEGI, NALINI; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.

2012-01-01

90

Understanding Science and Technology Interactions Through Ocean Science Exploration: A Summer Course for Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to replenish the national supply of science and mathematics educators, the National Science Foundation has supported the formation of the Center for Applications of Information Technology in the Teaching and Learning of Science (ITS) at Texas A&M University. The center staff and affiliated faculty work to change in fundamental ways the culture and relationships among scientists, educational researchers, and teachers. ITS is a partnership among the colleges of education, science, geosciences, agriculture and life science at Texas A&M University. Participants (teachers and graduate students) investigate how science is done and how science is taught and learned; how that learning is assessed, and how scholarly networks among all engaged in this work can be encouraged. While the center can offer graduate degrees most students apply as non-degree seekers. ITS participants are schooled on classroom technology applications, experience working on project teams, and access very current research work being conducted by scientists. ITS offers a certificate program consisting of two summer sessions over two years that results in 12 hours of graduate credit that can be applied to a degree. Interdisciplinary project teams spend three intense weeks connecting current research to classroom practices. During the past summer with the beginning of the two-year sequence, a course was implemented that introduced secondary teachers to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) contributions to major earth science themes, using core and logging data, engineering (technology) tools and processes. Information Technology classroom applications were enhanced through hands-on laboratory exercises, web resources and online databases. The course was structured around the following objectives. 1. Distinguish the purpose and goals of the Ocean Drilling Program from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program and describe the comparable science themes (ocean circulation, marine sedimentation, climate history, sea level change and geological time). This objective will be achieved by correctly answering 8 of 10 multiple choice items on course posttest on science themes of ODP/IODP. 2. Describe the technical tools and processes for determining sea level history by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on coring. 3. Describe the processes for describing a drill core and apply those processes to core samples from Leg 194 by developing a laboratory analysis report on core samples based on protocol for analyzing cores. 4. Explain the distinguishing features of scientific from industrial coring processes by developing a paper that contrasts scientific from industrial coring processes. 5. Describe the substructure of the ocean basin and the scientific tools (equipment and processes) used to explore this substructure by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on bore hole data interpretation. 6. Analyze and interpret data sets from a bore hole by developing a laboratory analysis report on bore-hole data. Student performance data for objectives indicate a 16% average positive change on the science themes addressed in instruction related to objective one occurred. Similarly, a 12% average positive change occurred on science education topics related to earth science among the students in this class. Ongoing contact between faculty members during the academic year is planned as these summer participants engage in implementing IT interventions and professional development experiences based on ocean science data experienced in the summer experience.

Baldauf, J.; Denton, J.

2003-12-01

91

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

92

Understanding unexpected courses of multiple sclerosis among patients using complementary and alternative medicine: A travel from recipient to explorer  

PubMed Central

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Some MS patients experience unexpected improvements of symptoms, which they relate to their use of CAM. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge and develop understandings of such self-defined unexpected improvement of MS symptoms. Two cases were constructed based on documents and 12 qualitative interviews. Our aim was not to make generalisations from the cases, but to transfer knowledge as working hypotheses. We identified four health-related change processes: the process of losing bodily competence; the process of developing responsibility; the process of taking control; and the process of choosing CAM. The patients explained unexpected improvements in their MS symptoms as results of their own efforts including their choice and use of CAM. In our theoretical interpretations, we found the patients’ redefinition of history, the concept of treatment and the importance of conventional health care to be essential, and leading to a change of patients’ position towards conventional health care from recipients to explorers. The explorers can be perceived as boundary walkers reflecting limitations within the conventional health care system and as initiators regarding what MS patients find useful in CAM. PMID:20616888

Salamonsen, Anita; Launsř, Laila; Kruse, Tove E.; Eriksen, Sissel H.

2010-01-01

93

"I feel like half my body is clogged up": Lay models of stroke in Central Aceh, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Stroke in low and middle income countries is an increasing cause of death and disability, with rates and the estimated burden considerably higher than that of high income countries. Lay explanatory models are believed to be one of the major influences on health seeking behaviour and essential to understand for appropriate education strategies. Despite stroke being a considerable health concern in Indonesia and particularly in Aceh, no studies to date have explored lay stroke models in that context. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study informed by both hermeneutic phenomenology and ethnography. Based in rural communities in Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah in Central Aceh, Indonesia, data were gathered through interviews, photographs and observations with 11 persons with stroke (aged 32-69 years) and 18 of their carers. Fieldwork was conducted over nine months between 2007 and 2008. The study examined lay concepts of stroke, described as a condition resulting from a local blockage in blood from multiple causes, many of which are not recognised within the biomedical frame. The blockage is understood to be reversible and therefore the condition curable. This understanding is embedded and sustained in the specific political, cultural, religious and social context. The results illustrate similarities and differences with other cross-cultural studies and suggest areas of future research and points of consideration for stroke education strategies. PMID:20869145

Norris, Meriel; Allotey, Pascale; Barrett, Geraldine

2010-11-01

94

Lay abstracts and summaries: writing advice for scientists.  

PubMed

Scientific journals, institutional review boards, and funding sources often require abstracts or research summaries written specifically for the lay public. Making research findings understandable to the public helps raise awareness and speed adoption of practices that may lead to improved health. We provide advice on writing lay abstracts and summaries which includes the following: (1) make reasonable assumptions about grade-level, vocabulary, prior experience, and interests of the audience; (2) practice a verbal explanation with someone from your audience; (3) start writing by using a simple headline followed by a brief and relevant synopsis in common language then expand; (4) read your draft aloud and revise; (5) check readability statistics and simplify as needed; and (6) have both lay audience and peer scientists read your summary to assure that it is accessible to the public while remaining true to the science. PMID:24132543

Dubé, Catherine E; Lapane, Kate L

2014-09-01

95

Lunar volatiles: a clue for understanding the evolution of the Moon and a resource to its exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The discovery of noticeable hydrogen concentration (believed to be in the form of water) in the polar regions was among the most exciting recent events in the exploration of the Moon. Concentration of water in polar regolith was estimated at a level of 4-6 wt.% [1,2]. Such high concentration of water in polar regolith on volatiles depleted Moon is probably a result of migration of water molecules from its hot equatorial latitudes to cold traps of the northern and southern polar regions. These depositions of volatiles on one hand contain important information on the evolution of the Moon and on the other hand their utilization can be a bases for the future human exploration. The question about diversity and source of the volatiles is still open. Sources of lunar volatiles: Three main possible sources of the Lunar polar volatiles are: Degassing of the interior. Endogenous source of volatiles is provided by degassing of heated interior of planetary bodies. In this case chemical composition of released gases reflects thermodynamic equilibrium of gases over typical magmas at temperatures around 1000°C. The composition of such gas mixtures is characterized by domination of H2O, CO2, and SO2 over other H, C, and S containing components. CO/CO2 ratio here is typically far below 0.1 level. Hydrocarbons are mainly aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, and cycloalkanes. Sulfur containing gases are mainly SO2, H2S, and Sx. Isotopic ratios of volatile elements should be the same as for the bulk Moon. Interaction of solar wind protons with surface rocks. Energetic solar wind protons with the absence of an atmospheric shield can react with oxygen of surface rocks and produce water molecules as end product. Such a mechanism provides a source of mainly water on the Moon with solar hydrogen isotopes and Moon rocks oxygen isotopes. Degassing of impacting meteorites and comets. Volatiles of impacting meteorites and comets are released into transient atmosphere. It was shown experimentally [3] that the forming gases are qualitatively similar for various rocky materials including meteorites of different classes. Such gas mixtures have the following characteristics: the CO/CO2 ratio is ł1, hydrocarbons are presented mainly by alkenes and PAHs, sulfur containing gases are presented by SO2, CS2, H2S, and COS in decreasing sequence, production of HCN, and noticeable release of water. Isotopic composition of volatile elements reflects the projectile to target proportion of their source. Gas-analytic package (GAP) of the Lunar-Resource mission: It is very important to investigate all the inventory of polar volatiles as well as isotopic composition of volatile elements to understand the real source of lunar volatiles and to evaluate their validity as a resource for the Moon exploration. The GAP is aimed on comprehensive investigation of the inventory of volatiles in the regolith of polar regions. It consists of three instruments: 1) Thermal Analyzer; 2) Gas Chromatograph with Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer for isotopic measurements of H, O, and C in evolved gases; and 3) Neutral Gas Mass-Spectrometer. References: [1] Mitrofanov, I. G. et al. 2010. Science 330: 483-486. [2] Colaprete, A. et al. 2010. Science 330: 463-468. [3] Gerasimov, M.V. 2002. Geological Society of America Special Paper 356: 705-716. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by P-22 Program of the RAS.

Gerasimov, Mikhail

96

The Narratology of Lay Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The five narratives identified by the DEEPEN-project are interpreted in terms of the ancient story of desire, evil, and the\\u000a sacred, and the modern narratives of alienation and exploitation. The first three narratives of lay ethics do not take stock\\u000a of what has radically changed in the modern world under the triple and joint evolution of science, religion, and philosophy.

Jean-Pierre Dupuy

2010-01-01

97

Exploring Adolescents' Multimodal Responses to "The Kite Runner": Understanding How Students Use Digital Media for Academic Purposes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores how adolescent high school students in an AP English class used multiple forms of media (the internet, digital video, slide show software, video editing tools, literary texts, and writing) to respond to and analyze a contemporary novel, "The Kite Runner". Using a multimodal analysis framework, the author explores

Jocius, Robin

2013-01-01

98

Evaluation of a Well-Established Task-Shifting Initiative: The Lay Counselor Cadre in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence supports the implementation of task shifting to address health worker shortages that are common in resource-limited settings. However, there is need to learn from established programs to identify ways to achieve the strongest, most sustainable impact. This study examined the Botswana lay counselor cadre, a task shifting initiative, to explore effectiveness and contribution to the health workforce. Methods This evaluation used multiple methods, including a desk review, a national lay counselor survey (n?=?385; response?=?94%), in-depth interviews (n?=?79), lay counselors focus group discussions (n?=?7), lay counselors observations (n?=?25), and client exit interviews (n?=?47). Results Interview and focus group data indicate that lay counselors contribute to essentially all HIV-related programs in Botswana and they conduct the majority of HIV tests and related counseling at public health facilities throughout the country. Interviews showed that the lay counselor cadre is making the workload of more skilled health workers more manageable and increasing HIV acceptance in communities. The average score on a work-related knowledge test was 74.5%. However for 3 questions, less than half answered correctly. During observations, lay counselors demonstrated average competence for most skills assessed and clients (97.9%) were satisfied with services received. From the survey, lay counselors generally reported being comfortable with their duties; however, some reported clinical duties that extended beyond their training and mandate. Multiple factors affecting the performance of the lay counselors were identified, including insufficient resources, such as private counseling space and HIV test kits; and technical, administrative, and supervisory support. Conclusion Lay counselors are fulfilling an important role in Botswana's healthcare system, serving as the entry point into HIV care, support, and treatment services. Recommendation For this and other similar task shifting initiatives, it is important that lay counselors' responsibilities are clear and that training and support are adequate to optimize their effectiveness. PMID:23585912

Ledikwe, Jenny H.; Kejelepula, Mable; Maupo, Kabelo; Sebetso, Siwulani; Thekiso, Mothwana; Smith, Monica; Mbayi, Bagele; Houghton, Nankie; Thankane, Kabo; O'Malley, Gabrielle; Semo, Bazghina-werq

2013-01-01

99

How Iranian lay people in three ethnic groups conceptualize a case of a depressed woman: an explanatory model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s). Although depression is a major public health problem, little is known about lay people's views of this subject in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore how depression in women is viewed among lay people in three major ethnic groups – Kurd, Turk, and Fars.Design. Participants were selected from public urban healthcare centers. Four focus group discussions

Masoumeh Dejman; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Shervin Assari; Maryam Rasoulian; Alireza Jazayery; Hossein Malekafzali; Monir Baradaran Eftekhari; Katayon Falahat; Solvig Ekblad

2010-01-01

100

Understanding Carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen En Espańol Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... selecting the most nutrient dense choices. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

101

Transforming Our Understanding of the X-ray Universe: The Imaging X-ray Polarimeter Explorer (IXPE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate X-ray polarimetry can provide unique information on high-energy-astrophysical processes and sources. As there have been no meaningful X-ray polarization measurements of cosmic sources since our pioneering work in the 1970's, the time is ripe to explore this new parameter space in X-ray astronomy. To accomplish this requires a well-calibrated and well understood system that-particularly for an Explorer mission-has technical, cost, and schedule credibility. The system that we shall present satisfies these conditions, being based upon completely calibrated imaging- and polarization-sensitive detectors and proven X-ray-telescope technology.

Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Matt, Giorgio; Marshall, Herman; ODell, Stephen L.; Pavlov, George; Ramsey, Brian; Romani, Roger

2014-01-01

102

Transforming Our Understanding of the X-ray Universe: The Imaging X-ray Polarimeter Explorer (IXPE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate X-ray polarimetry can provide unique information on high-energy-astrophysical processes and sources. As there have been no meaningful X-ray polarization measurements of cosmic sources since our pioneering work in the 1970’s, the time is ripe to explore this new parameter space in X-ray astronomy. To accomplish this requires a well-calibrated and well-understood system that—particularly for an Explorer mission—has technical, cost, and schedule credibility. The system that we shall present satisfies these conditions, being based upon completely calibrated imaging- and polarization-sensitive detectors and proven X-ray-telescope technology.

Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Matt, Giorgio; Marshall, Herman L.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Pavlov, George G.; Ramsey, Brian; Romani, Roger W.

2014-08-01

103

Exploring young children’s understanding of risks associated with Internet usage and their concepts of management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children’s learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five—eight-year-old children’s understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their understanding. Children in small groups answered questions relating to what they consider dangerous interactions or materials

Lesley-Anne Ey; C. Glenn Cupit

2011-01-01

104

An Autoethnographic Approach to Understanding Asperger's Syndrome: A Personal Exploration of Self-Identity through Reflexive Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes use of autoethnography in which I, as researcher, explore my own awareness of Asperger's syndrome and how this, in turn, has helped me deal with many day to day situations I have encountered. The work illustrates how actively engaging with one's own life story narratives can help the Asperger's learner come to terms with his or…

Hughes, Paul

2012-01-01

105

Understanding Children's Curiosity and Exploration through the Lenses of Lewin's Field Theory: On Developing an Appraisal Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses Lewin's field theory as a framework to appraise children's momentary state of curiosity and exploratory behavior. Discusses two levels of analysis: child-stimulus situation and child-stimulus-adult situation. Argues that a parent can be a barrier hindering a child's exploration, or a facilitator to remove barriers. (Author/SD)

Chak, Amy

2002-01-01

106

Exploring the gap between attitudes and behaviour : Understanding why consumers buy or do not buy organic food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to explore the values that underlie consumers purchasing decisions of organic food. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on data from focus groups and laddering interviews with a total of 181 regular and occasional consumers of organic food that were contrasted with survey results of other studies. Findings – The results show that

Susanne Padel; Carolyn Foster

2005-01-01

107

Impact through Images: Exploring Student Understanding of Environmental Science through Integrated Place-Based Lessons in the Elementary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early 1800s, the U.S. President Thomas Jefferson assembled a team of explorers led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to forge a waterway connecting the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. How has this environment changed in 200 years and how do elementary students make sense of those changes? This study looks at the impact of…

Muthersbaugh, Debbie; Kern, Anne L.; Charvoz, Rebecca

2014-01-01

108

Playing the field(s): an exploration of change, conformity and conflict in girls’ understandings of gendered physicality in physical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on data from a year?long ethnographic study of a group of 12? to 13?year?old girls that explored the processes through which they negotiated gendered physicality within the context of physical education. Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and social fields and McNay’s extension of his work underpin a discussion of three contexts where girls experience and process understandings of

Laura A. Hills

2006-01-01

109

An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

Dawson, Vaille

2007-01-01

110

Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

Asselin, Martha Jo

2012-01-01

111

Exploring the Usefulness of Two Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding How Organizational Factors Influence Innovation Implementation in Cancer Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors…

Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva

2013-01-01

112

Change? What Change?: An Exploration of the Use of Mixed-Methods Research to Understand Longitudinal Measurement Variance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary objective of panel studies is to analyze change. The same questionnaire is used to compare data recorded at various times. Panel designs assume that the meaning of the questions and the concept of interest are stable over time. Analyses of measurement invariance often show the contrary. A qualitative part supplementing a panel survey can help us understand this

Peter Lugtig; Hennie R. Boeije; Gerty J. L. M. Lensvelt-Mulders

2011-01-01

113

Laying the worlds deepest pipeline, lessons learned.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference paper addresses the success of the comparatively recent development of J-lay with respect to deep water pipelay. In laying the world deepest rigid pipeline in Brazil, there was utilized a tool which was built in 1979 when the flowline indus...

B. Hotchkiss

1994-01-01

114

The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, DongLiang

2010-01-01

115

The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, Dongliang

2009-12-01

116

Shell Formation and Bone Strength Laying Hens  

E-print Network

Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age, Daidzein and Exogenous Estrogen Cover aquarelle: E. Spörndly-Nees #12;Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age as well as an economical problem. Parallel with reduced shell quality the bone strength declines

117

DO NORTHERN HARRIERS LAY REPLACEMENT CLUTCHES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological difference between North American and European populations of Circus cyaneus is the apparent lack of replacement clutches laid by the North American form (the Northern Harrier) on the failure of the first clutch. I present several lines of evidence that Northern Harriers do lay replacements, but only if their clutches are disturbed during laying or shortly thereafter. Two

ROBERT EDWARD SIMMONS

118

Ocean Exploration: Exploring Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson serves as an introduction to the discoveries and benefits that have resulted from exploration of the Earth's deep oceans. Students will be able to describe at least three human benefits from and identify separate examples of deep ocean exploration. All of the lessons emphasize hands-on activities using online data resources, and each inquiry-based activity includes focus questions, learning objectives, teaching time, background information, evaluations and extensions, as well as resources and student handouts.

119

An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

Dawson, Vaille

2007-03-01

120

General Behaviors and Perching Behaviors of Laying Hens in Cages with Different Colored Perches  

PubMed Central

Color is one of the perch properties. This study was conducted to investigate the general behaviors and perching behaviors in laying hens under different group size (stocking density), and to understand the perch color (black, white or brown) preference of hens during the night. A total of 390 Hyline Brown laying hens was used, and randomly allocated to three treatments: individual group (G1), group of four hens (G4), and group of eight hens (G8), respectively. There were 30 replicates in each group. The hens in G1, G4 and G8 groups were put into the test cages in which three colored perches were simultaneously provided and allowed for four days of habituation in the new cages. Hens behaviors were recorded using cameras with infrared light sources for the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 14:00 to 16:00; 19:00 to 21:00; 23:30 to 0:30 on the fifth day after transferring the birds into the test cages. The behaviors of hens in every time period were collected and analyzed, and hens positions on the test perches during mid-night were recorded. The results showed that, group size (stocking density) had significant effect on most of the general behaviors of laying hens except exploring behavior. There were great differences in most of the general behaviors during different time periods. In the preference test of perch color during night, the hens showed no clear preference for white, black or brown perches. For perching behaviors, perching time and frequency of transferring from one perch to another was higher on black perches than on white or brown perches in individual groups. In G4 groups, the hens spent more time on white perches during daytime and more frequent transferring during night compared with black or brown perches. The frequency of jumping upon and down from white perches was higher in G8 groups. It can be concluded that although the group sizes in the cage significantly affected most of the general behaviors, we found that no preference of perch color was shown by the caged laying hens in the different group sizes tested in this study. PMID:25049618

Chen, D. H.; Bao, J.

2012-01-01

121

Eliciting lay beliefs across cultures: principles and methodology.  

PubMed Central

Lay beliefs about illness, its causes and its treatment, do not necessarily concur with medical knowledge, and can sometimes be highly idiosyncratic. These beliefs are likely to be influential in help-seeking, in patients' attitudes to professional help, and in the manner in which patients participate is the management of their illness. Clinicians thus need to understand such lay beliefs and attitudes in order to engage their patients in treatment and to provide optimal care. Lay beliefs are likely to be influenced by the individual's culture and hence also by ethnic group. In attempting to understand the patient's beliefs, the researcher or clinician runs the risk of ethnocentricity-viewing the patient's culture inappropriately from the clinician's own perspective. In some senses, this applies to every clinical encounter-patient and clinician always come from different cultures, in the broad sense. Sensitive clinicians develop expertise at bridging this cultural gap and seeing the patient's problems from the latter's viewpoint. However, more systematic investigation of beliefs and attitudes within a given culture can be pursued using the anthropological technique of ethnography. Ethnographic interviewing can yield qualitative data which can then be taken further in quantitative studies. To minimise the risks of ethnocentricity, it may be appropriate to analyse such data not using customary statistical methods but non-linear multivariate data analysis. PMID:8782802

Sensky, T.

1996-01-01

122

Exploring one aspect of pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants using the test of understanding graphs in kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) is a multiple-choice test developed by Beichner in 1994 to assess students’ understanding of kinematics graphs. Many of the items on the TUG-K have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ common difficulties with kinematics graphs. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common difficulties of introductory physics students and explicitly take them into account in their instructional design. We evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of first-year physics graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant training course related to topics covered in the TUG-K. In particular, for each item on the TUG-K, the graduate students were asked to identify which incorrect answer choice they thought would be most commonly selected by introductory physics students if they did not know the correct answer after instruction in relevant concepts. We used the graduate student data and the data from Beichner’s original paper for introductory physics students (which was collected from over 500 college and high school students) to assess this aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of the graduate students, i.e., knowledge of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs as they are revealed by the TUG-K. We find that, although the graduate students, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory student difficulties on the TUG-K, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory students have with graphs in kinematics. In addition, we find that the ability of graduate students to identify the difficulties of introductory students is context dependent and that discussions among the graduate students improved their understanding of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs. Moreover, we find that the ability of American graduate students in identifying common student difficulties is comparable with that of foreign graduate students.

Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

2013-12-01

123

A classification of errors in lay comprehension of medical documents  

PubMed Central

Emphasis on participatory medicine requires that patients and consumers participate in tasks traditionally reserved for healthcare providers. This includes reading and comprehending medical documents, often but not necessarily in the context of interacting with Personal Health Records (PHRs). Research suggests that while giving patients access to medical documents has many benefits (e.g., improved patient-provider communication), lay people often have difficulty understanding medical information. Informatics can address the problem by developing tools that support comprehension; this requires in-depth understanding of the nature and causes of errors that lay people make when comprehending clinical documents. The objective of this study was to develop a classification scheme of comprehension errors, based on lay individuals’ retellings of two documents containing clinical text: a description of a clinical trial and a typical office visit note. While not comprehensive, the scheme can serve as a foundation of further development of a taxonomy of patients’ comprehension errors. Eighty participants, all healthy volunteers, read and retold two medical documents. A data-driven content analysis procedure was used to extract and classify retelling errors. The resulting hierarchical classification scheme contains nine categories and twenty-three subcategories. The most common error made by the participants involved incorrectly recalling brand names of medications. Other common errors included misunderstanding clinical concepts, misreporting the objective of a clinical research study and physician’s findings during a patient’s visit, and confusing and misspelling clinical terms. A combination of informatics support and health education is likely to improve the accuracy of lay comprehension of medical documents. PMID:22925723

Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott

2012-01-01

124

Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese  

PubMed Central

Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction); the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1) and Stathmin-2 (STMN2) were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese. PMID:25049869

Luan, Xinhong; Cao, Zhongzan; Xu, Wen; Gao, Ming; Wang, Laiyou; Zhang, Shuwei

2013-01-01

125

Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and SRTM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on interpreting the evolutionary history of the Amazon Basin. We are grateful to Bruce Chapman, Naira Pinto, and the JPL UAVSAR team for supporting the planning and acquisition of the UAVSAR data, and to the NASA Biodiversity Program for providing funding to support the UAVSAR acquisitions. This work was carried out under a grant from the NASA Biodiversity Program and the NSF DIMENSIONS of Biodiversity Program.

McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

2013-12-01

126

Application of community phylogenetic approaches to understand gene expression: differential exploration of venom gene space in predatory marine gastropods  

PubMed Central

Background Predatory marine gastropods of the genus Conus exhibit substantial variation in venom composition both within and among species. Apart from mechanisms associated with extensive turnover of gene families and rapid evolution of genes that encode venom components (‘conotoxins’), the evolution of distinct conotoxin expression patterns is an additional source of variation that may drive interspecific differences in the utilization of species’ ‘venom gene space’. To determine the evolution of expression patterns of venom genes of Conus species, we evaluated the expression of A-superfamily conotoxin genes of a set of closely related Conus species by comparing recovered transcripts of A-superfamily genes that were previously identified from the genomes of these species. We modified community phylogenetics approaches to incorporate phylogenetic history and disparity of genes and their expression profiles to determine patterns of venom gene space utilization. Results Less than half of the A-superfamily gene repertoire of these species is expressed, and only a few orthologous genes are coexpressed among species. Species exhibit substantially distinct expression strategies, with some expressing sets of closely related loci (‘under-dispersed’ expression of available genes) while others express sets of more disparate genes (‘over-dispersed’ expression). In addition, expressed genes show higher dN/dS values than either unexpressed or ancestral genes; this implies that expression exposes genes to selection and facilitates rapid evolution of these genes. Few recent lineage-specific gene duplicates are expressed simultaneously, suggesting that expression divergence among redundant gene copies may be established shortly after gene duplication. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that venom gene space is explored differentially by Conus species, a process that effectively permits the independent and rapid evolution of venoms in these species. PMID:24903151

2014-01-01

127

What Makes the Difference? Teachers Explore What Must be Taught and What Must be Learned in Order to Understand the Particulate Character of Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of matter, especially its particulate nature, is acknowledged as being one of the key concept areas in learning science. Within the framework of learning studies and variation theory, and with results from science education research as a starting point, six lower secondary school science teachers tried to enhance students' learning by exploring what must be learnt in order to understand the concept in specific way. It was found that variation theory was a useful guiding principle when teachers are engaged in pedagogical design, analysis of lessons, and evaluation of students learning, as well as a valuable tool for adapting research results into practice.

Vikström, Anna

2014-09-01

128

What Makes the Difference? Teachers Explore What Must be Taught and What Must be Learned in Order to Understand the Particulate Character of Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of matter, especially its particulate nature, is acknowledged as being one of the key concept areas in learning science. Within the framework of learning studies and variation theory, and with results from science education research as a starting point, six lower secondary school science teachers tried to enhance students' learning by exploring what must be learnt in order to understand the concept in specific way. It was found that variation theory was a useful guiding principle when teachers are engaged in pedagogical design, analysis of lessons, and evaluation of students learning, as well as a valuable tool for adapting research results into practice.

Vikström, Anna

2014-10-01

129

Communication and Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article consists of two sections: in the first one, I discuss one of the most prevalent lay myths in the Western world with respect to communication and understanding, namely, the view that meaning resides in words and that it is transmitted from one language user to another in a conduit, as it were. In the second section, I refer to my own…

Janicki, Karol

2011-01-01

130

What Are Lay Theories of Social Class?  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants’ own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people’s beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

Varnum, Michael E. W.

2013-01-01

131

A Case Study: The Impact of an Immersion Experience on the Vocation of Lay Teacher-Leaders in American Jesuit High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this case study explores the impact of an immersion experience to a least developed country on the vocation of lay teacher leaders in American Jesuit High Schools. Nine lay teacher leaders engaged in a four stage process of immersion from November 2009 to August 2010. The study employed the conceptual framework of Edward…

Schreiber, Martin J.

2012-01-01

132

Popular Education and Republican Ideals: The Portuguese Lay Missions in Colonial Africa, 1917-1927  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to offer another reading of the Portuguese civilising process in Africa on the basis of an analysis of a set of alternative sources and to explore the role of other educational configurations, beyond those of the public school and the religious missionary school, such as the civilising missions. With the creation of the Lay

Madeira, Ana Isabel

2011-01-01

133

Understanding Instructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of instructions was explored within the context of cognitive load theory. Instructional material may be difficult to understand if it consists of many elements that must be held in working memory simultaneously. If the number of elements that must be processed exceeds working-memory capacity, then some elements must be combined into schemas before the material can be understood.

Nadine Marcus; Martin Cooper; John Sweller

1996-01-01

134

Seasonal and vertical patterns of egg-laying by the freshwater fish louse Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura).  

PubMed

Argulus foliaceus is a damaging fish ectoparasite for which new control measures are being developed based on egg-removal. In an attempt to develop further understanding of seasonal and vertical egg-laying patterns in this parasite, egg-laying activity was monitored over the period 14 April to 17 November 2003 in 2 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fisheries in Northern Ireland, UK. At Site 1, egg-laying was continuous from 21 April to 17 November, when water temperature was above 8 to 10 degrees C. At Site 2, egg-laying was continuous from 4 June to 29 October. In the early months of the season, egg-laying was recorded mainly within the top 1 m of the water column; however, a significant shift to deep water egg-laying was recorded between 7 July and 17 November at Site 1 and between 20 August and 29 October at Site 2. Egg clutches were preferentially laid at depths of up to 8.5 m during this time (Site 2), a feature of egg-laying hitherto unappreciated. Temperature and dissolved oxygen did not differ significantly among depths, but there was an increase in water clarity over time. However, the precise environmental triggers for deep water egg-laying are still unclear. These new insights into the reproductive behaviour of this species will be useful in developing control methods based on egg-removal. PMID:16532607

Harrison, A J; Gault, N F S; Dick, J T A

2006-01-30

135

((((((((((((((((((((((((((Understanding student) identity) from) a) socialization) perspective.) In) Hanson ) C.) Ed.) New) Directions) in) Student) Development ) In) search) of) self:) Exploring) undergraduate) identity) development.) San) Francisco:) Jossey-Bass.)  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for ((((((((((((((((((((((((((Understanding student) identity) from) a) socialization) perspective.) In) Hanson ) C.) Ed.) New) Directions) in) Student) Development ) In) search) of) self:) Exploring) undergraduate) identity) development.) San) Francisco:) Jossey-Bass.) ?

136

((((((((((((((((((((((((((Understanding student) identity) from) a) socialization) perspective.) In) Hanson ) C.) Ed.) New) Directions) in) Student) Development ) In) search) of) self:) Exploring) undergraduate) identity) development.) San) Francisco:) Josey-Bass.)  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for ((((((((((((((((((((((((((Understanding student) identity) from) a) socialization) perspective.) In) Hanson ) C.) Ed.) New) Directions) in) Student) Development ) In) search) of) self:) Exploring) undergraduate) identity) development.) San) Francisco:) Josey-Bass.) ?

137

Skill Standards for Open Cut Pipe Laying.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document identifies skill standards for utility construction in a format that uses scenarios to provide a picture of the construction process under consideration. The scenarios provide a general description of the pipe laying and utility construction process. An introduction describes use and benefits of skill standards. Section 2 presents…

Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

138

Social Skills: Laying the Foundation for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Well-informed teachers of young children recognize the importance of children's social development. The development of social skills lays a critical foundation for later academic achievement as well as work-related skills. Social development is such a key issue with young children that a number of methods to address social skills have been…

Lynch, Sharon A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

2010-01-01

139

Social Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social Explorer provides quick and easy access to current and historical census data and demographic information. The easy-to-use web interface lets users create maps and reports to illustrate, analyze, and understand demography and social change.

Explorer, Social

140

Ecosystem Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ecosystem Explorations curriculum includes eleven classroom lessons. The lessons are divided into two sections--Understanding Ecosystems and Human Connections to Ecosystems. The curriculum incorporates scientific inquiry skills, cooperative l

Gunckel, Kristen L.

1999-09-01

141

Mars--NASA Explores the Red Planet: Science Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website lays out NASA's four goals for the exploration of Mars. Each goal is described on a separate webpage--most with illustrations. The webpage for the fourth goal describes preparation for possible human exploration of Mars.

2012-08-27

142

Exploring Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module from the Mars Exploration Curriculum serves as an introduction to studying Mars in the classroom develops students' understanding of Mars, the solar system, and planetary exploration. The module introduces many of the intriguing riddles posed by Mars and provides teachers a variety of ways to integrate the study of Mars into their classrooms.

143

Genetics of Egg-Laying William R. Schafer  

E-print Network

studied behaviors is egg-laying, the process by which hermaphrodites deposit developing embryos-laying neuromusculature. Shown is a ventral view of the hermaphrodite vulva and cells associated with egg-laying. Inferred. elegans hermaphrodites are self-fertile, pro- ducingfirstsperm,whicharestoredinthespe- matheca

Schafer, William R.

144

From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities  

PubMed Central

Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and framing of the research questions, participants did not display a high level of knowledge about the nature and causes of place-based health inequalities. By extending the scope of lay theorizing to include a focus on solutions, this study offers additional insights for public health. Specifically it suggests that a popular constituency for action on the social determinants of health is unlikely to eventuate from the current popular understandings of possible policy levers. PMID:21281478

2011-01-01

145

Understanding the Molecular Determinants of Substrate and Inhibitor Specificities in the Carbapenemase KPC-2: Exploring the Roles of Arg220 and Glu276  

PubMed Central

?-Lactamases are important antibiotic resistance determinants expressed by bacteria. By studying the mechanistic properties of ?-lactamases, we can identify opportunities to circumvent resistance through the design of novel inhibitors. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis of class A ?-lactamases reveals that many enzymes possess a localized positively charged residue (e.g., R220, R244, or R276) that is critical for interactions with ?-lactams and ?-lactamase inhibitors. To better understand the contribution of these residues to the catalytic process, we explored the roles of R220 and E276 in KPC-2, a class A ?-lactamase that inactivates carbapenems and ?-lactamase inhibitors. Our study reveals that substitutions at R220 of KPC-2 selectively impact catalytic activity toward substrates (50% or greater reduction in kcat/Km). In addition, we find that residue 220 is central to the mechanism of ?-lactamase inhibition/inactivation. Among the variants tested at Ambler position 220, the R220K enzyme is relatively “inhibitor susceptible” (Ki of 14 ± 1 ?M for clavulanic acid versus Ki of 25 ± 2 ?M for KPC-2). Specifically, the R220K enzyme is impaired in its ability to hydrolyze clavulanic acid compared to KPC-2. In contrast, the R220M substitution enzyme demonstrates increased Km values for ?-lactamase inhibitors (>100 ?M for clavulanic acid versus 25 ± 3 ?M for the wild type [WT]), which results in inhibitor resistance. Unlike other class A ?-lactamases (i.e., SHV-1 and TEM-1), the amino acid present at residue 276 plays a structural rather than kinetic role with substrates or inhibitors. To rationalize these findings, we constructed molecular models of clavulanic acid docked into the active sites of KPC-2 and the “relatively” clavulanic acid-susceptible R220K variant. These models suggest that a major 3.5-Ĺ shift occurs of residue E276 in the R220K variant toward the active S70 site. We anticipate that this shift alters the shape of the active site and the positions of two key water molecules. Modeling also suggests that residue 276 may assist with the positioning of the substrate and inhibitor in the active site. These biochemical and molecular modeling insights bring us one step closer to understanding important structure-activity relationships that define the catalytic and inhibitor-resistant profile of KPC-2 and can assist the design of novel compounds. PMID:22687511

Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M.; Taracila, Magdalena A.; Smith, Kerri M.; Xu, Yan

2012-01-01

146

Influence of rearing and lay risk factors on propensity for feather damage in laying hens.  

PubMed

1. Feather pecking is one of the major problems facing the egg industry in non-cage systems and is set to become even more of an issue with the European Union ban on the keeping of laying hens in barren battery cages which comes into force in 2012 and the prospect of a ban on beak-trimming. Reducing feather pecking without resorting to beak treatment is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. We report here a longitudinal study that included over 335,500 birds from 22 free range and organic laying farms. Accelerated failure time models and proportional hazards models were used to examine the effects of a wide range of factors (management, environment and bird) on development of substantial feather damage in lay. Particular emphasis was placed on risk factors during rear and on practices that could feasibly be changed or implemented. 3. The age at which a flock exhibits substantial feather damage could be predicted both by factors in the environment and by early symptoms in the birds themselves. Factors that were associated with earlier onset of severe feather damage included the presence of chain feeders, raised levels of carbon dioxide and ammonia, higher sound and light levels, particularly in younger birds. Increased feather damage (even very slight) in birds at 17-20 weeks of age was also highly predictive of the time of onset of severe feather damage during lay. Increased feed intake also indicated that a flock was at risk of early severe feather damage. 4. Birds that stayed on the same farm for rearing and lay showed later onset of serious feather damage than those that experienced a change in farm from rearing to lay. However, an increased number of changes between rearing and lay (feeder type, drinker type, light intensity etc) was not associated with earlier onset of serious feather damage. Further research needs to be done on the role of the transition from rearing to lay as a risk factor for FP in lay. PMID:21161778

Drake, K A; Donnelly, C A; Dawkins, M Stamp

2010-12-01

147

Effects of photoperiod on broodiness, egg-laying and endocrine responses in native laying hens.  

PubMed

1. The effects of photoperiod on broodiness, egg-laying and endocrine responses in native laying hens were investigated. A total of 648, 18-week-old native laying hens (Beijing You Chicken, BYC) were randomly allocated to 6 groups with 3 replicates. The birds were exposed to 1 of 6 different photoperiods, including 16L:8D (06:00 to 22:00 h) for group 1; 12L:2D:4L:6D for group 2; 8L:4D:4L:8D for group 3; 16L:8D (03:00 to 19:00 h) for group 4; 14L:10D for group 5; and 18L:6D for group 6. 2. The broodiness rate and egg-laying rate for weeks 20-26, 27-33, 34-40, 41-47, 48-54 and 55-61 were calculated, and serum prolactin (PRL), luteinising hormone (LH), 17-beta-oestradiol (E2), melatonin (Mel) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured at the end of each stage. 3. Significant effects were observed on the rate of broodiness by the photoperiod and stage, but the interaction of photoperiod and stage was not significant. The rate of broodiness for group 3 (5.9%) was significantly higher than other groups, with group 2 being the lowest (2.8%). Broodiness rate was the highest for weeks 41-47 (9.9%). Significant effects were observed on average egg-laying rate by photoperiod and stage: the rate of egg-laying of groups 2 and 5 were significantly higher than groups 1, 4 and 6. 4. There were no significant effects of photoperiod on PRL, LH and Mel concentrations at 26, 33, 40 and 54 weeks of age (P > 0.05), but at 47 weeks of age, PRL and LH concentrations of group 1 were significantly lower than those in other groups. 5. The study suggests that the photoperiod of group 2 (12L:2D:4L:6D) is optimal for the birds' performance to give the lowest broodiness rate and the highest egg-laying rate during the whole laying period, and 41-47 weeks may be a key stage for the photomodulation of broodiness. PMID:24404878

Geng, A L; Xu, S F; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Chu, Q; Liu, H G

2014-01-01

148

Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent drilling and appraisal on the Southern Utsira High, Norwegian North Sea, has proved several large oil/gas discoveries, including the giant Johan Sverdrup, Edvard Grieg, Draupne, Ragnarrock and Apollo oil fields, making this a prolific petroleum area. The Southern Utsira High contains a variety of hydrocarbon density fluids found at several stratigraphic levels illustrating the compartmentalized nature of accumulations and charge history. The Southern Utsira High has been in a position to receive an oil/gas charge for a considerable period of time, with the basin towards the west most likely generating petroleum from early Eocene (50M Mabp) to its maximum present day burial depth. However, reservoir temperatures on the Southern Utsira High are just above the threshold for biodegradation (80°C). The Southern Utsira High oils are non-biodegraded suggesting that the majority of the oil charged relatively late - ca.3 million years ago to present day. The effects of the glaciation on the filling history of the Southern Utsira High are currently being assessed. It is clear that several erosional surfaces in the Pliocene can be identified, as well as glacial channels and moraine deposits, indicating that significant deposition and erosion occurred in the last five million years. Importantly, the effects of glacial rebound mean that the Southern Utsira High more than likely underwent tilting and possible leakage, not just once, but several times in the last 1 million years. The effects of tilting/leakage of geological areas on oil migration have been recognized by several authors. However, the detailed integration of geological mapping and geochemical evidence has not previously been published. The implications of a detailed assessment of tilting of a ''high' through time are; 1) opening up areas where oil migration is thought to be high risk or impossible; 2) identify possible paleo-oil columns aiding the de-risking of discovery appraisal strategies. The evidence of tilting/leakage of oil accumulations through time can be recognized in several oil fields on the Utsira High. The giant Johan Sverdrup discovery oil columns contain paleo-OWC, residual oil zones/paleo-oil columns, and oil shows considerably deeper than the current OWC or residual oil columns. Lundin has performed detailed mapping of the seabed and water column in the Alvheim/Utsira High areas in order to identify areas of gas leakage and its geological manifestations on the seabed and ultimately resulting in the collection of high quality samples. Results shows that gas leakage is prominent over the Alvheim and Utsira High areas and the implications of this to oil exploration will be discussed. In summary, Lundin's approach to oil migration is to better understand the fluid/gas movement throughout the whole basin through time. The talk will focus on the role of glaciations on the timing of charge from the South Viking Graben, fill-spill directions on the Southern Utsira High, the effects of late tilting/leakage on the charge/re-distribution of oil, and seabed / water column characterization and sampling. All placed in the context of oil exploration.

Stoddart, Daniel

2014-05-01

149

Investigating Teachers' Exploration of a Professional Development Website: An Innovative Approach to Understanding the Factors that Motivate Teachers to Use Internet-Based Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined an innovative methodology, combining screen capture technology and a retrospective think aloud, for exploring the use of Internet-based resources by elementary teachers. Pre-service and in-service teachers explored "The Balanced Literacy Diet," a free, interactive, and evidenced-informed professional…

Beach, Pamela; Willows, Dale

2014-01-01

150

Nest attendance during egg laying in pheasants.  

PubMed

As precocial bird species hatch synchronously, incubation during the egg-laying stage should be disadvantageous because it makes the embryos develop asynchronously. We established the patterns of nest attendance during egg laying and the start of incubation in ring-necked pheasants, Phasianus colchicus, and tested three hypotheses regarding the advantage of early incubation. To determine nest attendance, we measured egg temperatures in real pheasant nests. Females spent more time on the nest as laying progressed, with an average of 6.4 h at a clutch size of 10. At the start of incubation, nest attendance increased to over 20 h/day. On the day before full incubation, time spent on the nest was positively correlated with the female's condition and negatively with the number of breeding attempts she had already made that season. The hypothesis that an early start of incubation improves egg viability was rejected, as the predicted relationship between the number of eggs laid after the start of incubation and the number laid before the start of incubation was not significant. We also rejected the possibility that early incubation reduces the risk of nest parasitism, as it was negatively related to the number of females radiotracked around the nest. Our data supported the hypothesis that early incubation reduces the risk of nest predation by shortening the period of exposure, as the number of eggs laid after incubation started was positively related to the number of breeding attempts made by the female, and thus to the perceived predation risk, but was negatively related to the time of season. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10413552

Persson; Göransson

1999-07-01

151

Exploring Ice in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module includes several lessons aimed at introducing ice science to students. In the first activity, students share personal ice experience stories through drawing, telling, and writing. This enables the teacher to diagnose personal conceptions about ice. Then students explore a big block of ice. They ask and record their questions and start an ice science notebook. Depending on the nature of the questions, the teacher selects appropriate follow-up activities. Other lessons include: Ice Melts,Ice Floats,Ice Flows, Ice is a Mineral, Life in Icy Places, and Ice in Space. Each lesson includes a kinesthetic activity where students mime and act out ice science concepts, creating a science performance laboratory. These experiences lay the foundation for deeper conceptual understanding in later school years. All lessons include extensive background information, a list of national standards addressed, suggested curriculum extensions, a list of resources and photo gallery.

2005-11-01

152

Impact of the lay-off length on +Gz tolerance.  

PubMed

There are many factors affecting pilots' +Gz-tolerance. Recently, attention of the aviation community has been focused on lay-off and it's impact on +Gz-tolerance. Pilots of the Polish Air Force (PAF) have dealt with that problem for several years now. The aim of the study was to provide insight on how lay-off periods with different duration impact +Gz-tolerance. Methods: 95 male jet pilots from the PAF participated in the study. Every one had at least two weeks lay-off period (non-medical reasons). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the length of lay-off period (2-4 weeks; 5-13 weeks; 14-26 weeks; 27-154 weeks), All pilots were subjected to a centrifuge exposure in GOR (0.1 G/s) or ROR (1.0 G/s) profiles, depending on the pre-lay-off exposure. Post-lay-off exposures were carried out directly after lay-off. 18 jet pilots without any lay-off constituted the control group. Results: The difference between pre- and post-lay-off G-tolerance limit (-0,93 +/- 0,53) was statistically significant (p<0.01) only for one group, where lay-off period ranged between two and four weeks. No statistically significant differences were found where influence of other factors like total and yearly flight hours, heart rate gain (AHR) or physical activity measured as maximal oxygen intake were considered. Conclusions: 2-4 weeks of lay-off period decreases +Gz tolerance is statistically significant manner. Subsequent increase of lay-off period does not result in mean tolerance changes for group, however in certain individuals critical decrement of +Gz tolerance occurs. Total and last year flying hours, physical fitness does not modify impact of lay-off period on +Gz tolerance. PMID:15002601

Mikuliszyn, Romuald; Kowalski, Wieslaw; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof

2002-07-01

153

Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity1 quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six hour-and-a-half weekly sessions. Students are mostly retired or semi-retired adults like me. Most are college educated, but with little or no formal physics education.

Egdall, Ira Mark

2014-10-01

154

An Exploration of the Concept Map as an Interview Tool To Facilitate the Externalization of Students' Understandings about Global Atmospheric Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effectiveness of two different types of interviews: one that embeds a concept map, and one that does not embed a concept map in order to elicit post-instructional understandings. Focuses on students' understandings of chlorofluorocarbons and their role in global atmospheric change. Contains 71 references. (DDR)

Rye, James A.; Rubba, Peter A.

1998-01-01

155

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-01-01

156

Egg laying strategies and effect of temperature on egg development of Argulus siamensis.  

PubMed

Argulus siamensis is the most damaging fish parasite prevalent in the freshwater aquaculture systems of India. In an attempt to further understand the behavior of this economically important parasite, the means of biological transmission, egg laying strategies and effect of temperature on development of eggs was studied. A. siamensis showed opportunistic egg laying behavior where in it used both living and non-living substrata for egg laying. It was marked that the parasites used the shells of freshwater snails of the family Viviparidae, the runners of the water weeds of genus Nymphoides and dead fish in the culture ponds for laying of eggs. This study confirmed that the maximum eggs were laid by the parasite in the habitat usage zone of the host fish. The optimum temperature for development of the eggs of A. siamensis into the infective naupliar stage and hatching was found to be 28 °C. These new insights into the behavior of A. siamensis would be helpful to devise biological control methods against the parasite. PMID:24431560

Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Hemaprasanth; Kar, Banya; Mohanty, Bikash Ranjan; Garnayak, Sushil Kumar; Jena, Joy Krushna

2013-10-01

157

Exploring multi/full polarised SAR imagery for understanding surface soil moisture and roughness by using semi-empirical and theoretical models and field experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to water stress and drought, which is expected to have severe direct impact on agricultural productivity. Improved knowledge of the spatial and temporal patterns of near surface soil moisture, as monitored by remote sensing, can be used to better mitigate and adapt to severe drought situations by means of adjusted irrigation strategies. The presented project is aiming to conjointly employ field monitoring and spaceborne SAR to support adaptive water resources management and best agricultural practice. To make substantial progress in decision-making for an optimised irrigation strategy, a regular, e.g. weekly, monitoring of near surface soil moisture in various agricultural land-uses is anticipated. This becomes possible with current co-polarised ENVISAT/ASAR Alternating Polarisation (AP) Mode imagery (C-band). However, since the backscattering signal is affected by several surface characteristics, a better measurement/estimation of surface roughness is crucial in retrieving near-surface soil moisture. The sensor PALSAR, on board ALOS, and the more recently launched satellite-Radarsat-2 provide new opportunities to retrieve information about surface roughness by means of full-polarised, high-resolution L-band and C-band radar data respectively. It is expected that these data sources can be utilised to better separate the dielectric from the surface roughness component in radar backscattering. For parameter retrieval and validation, intensive in-situ measurements are conducted in a fully equipped agricultural area in a Mediterranean environment in Sardinia, Italy, while ENVISAT/ASAR, ALOS/PALSAR and Radarsat-2 data are acquired. A close range digital photogrammetric technique is applied to monitor surface roughness. This paper is aiming at exploring the capability of ENVISAT/ASAR AP Mode imagery and Radarsat-2 data for near surface soil moisture inversion using ALOS/PALSAR and close-range digital photogrammetry for surface roughness retrieval. A semi-empirical model is tested and a theoretical model AIEM is utilised for further understanding. Results demonstrate that the semi-empirical soil moisture retrieval algorithm, which was developed in studies in humid climate conditions, must be carefully adapted to the drier Mediterranean environment. Modifying the approach by incorporating regional field data, led to a considerable improvement of the algorithms performance. In addition, it is found that the current representation of soil surface roughness in the AIEM is insufficient to account for the specific heterogeneities on the field scale. The findings in this study indicate the necessity for future research, which must be extended to a more integrated combination of current sensors, e.g. ENVISAT/ASAR, ALOS/PALSAR and Radarsat-2 imagery and advanced development of soil moisture retrieval model for multi/full polarised radar imagery.

Dong, Lu; Marzahn, Philip; Ludwig, Ralf

2010-05-01

158

Mixed Race: Understanding Difference in the Genome Era  

PubMed Central

This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of multiracial individuals’ understanding of identity, race and human genetic variation. The debate regarding the correlation between race, genetics and disease has expanded, but limited empirical data has been collected regarding the lay public’s perspective. Participants in this study explore their identity and its relationships to their health care interactions. Participants also share their views on race-based therapeutics, health disparities and the connections between race, ancestry and genetics. Their voices highlight the limitations of racial categories in describing differences within our increasingly diverse communities. The genomic era will be a pivotal period in challenging current understandings and uses of racial categories in health. PMID:19079741

Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Bonham, Vence L.

2008-01-01

159

Exploring DNA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to learn an explore DNA, genes and proteins. By moving through the different topics, you will hopefully gain greater understanding of how DNA, genes, and proteins are all related. DNA to Protein Module You will zoom into the human body to see and read more about DNA. The Journey Into DNA DNA Workshop Activity- You try it! More DNA and Protein Synthesis ...

Flitton, Mrs.

2008-08-13

160

Exploring Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

Kuhns, William

161

Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.

2012-01-01

162

An exploration of the concept map as an interview tool to facilitate the externalization of students' understandings about global atmospheric change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different types of interviews—one that did (POSTICM) and one that did not (POSTI) embed a concept-mapping process—to elicit students' postinstructional understandings about chlorofluorocarbons and their role in global atmospheric change (GAC). A chief criterion measure was accordance, the degree to which students held the ideal postinstructional understanding

James A. Rye; Peter A. Rubba

1998-01-01

163

Understanding local power and interactional processes in sustainable tourism: exploring village–tour operator relations on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the power relations in and between local villages and outside tourism operators on the Kokoda Track, Papua New Guinea (PNG). The analysis of power focuses on the contingencies of agency in the interactional order allowing greater participatory approaches to sustainable tourism. The notion of power applied in this case study is derived from Michel Foucault's concept of

Stephen Leslie Wearing; Michael Wearing; Matthew McDonald

2010-01-01

164

Working on Mars: Understanding How Scientists, Engineers and Rovers Interacted Across Space and Time during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation summarizes the scheduling and planning difficulties inherent in operating the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) during the overlapping terrestrial day and Martian sol. The presentation gives special empahsis to communication between the teams controlling the rovers from Earth, and keeping track of time on the two planets.

Wales, Roxana C.

2005-01-01

165

Pragmatic Abilities in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment: An Exploration of Non-Literal Language and Advanced Theory of Mind Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to explore whether children with a broader range of…

Pijnacker, Judith; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Steenbergen, Bert

2012-01-01

166

Remedy or cure? Lay beliefs about over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Over 500 million is spent in the United Kingdom every year on over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds. Evidence for their pharmacological efficacy is lacking. AIM: To examine lay beliefs about over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds. To explore whether the distinction between symptom relief and cure has the same relevance to lay people as it does to medical professionals. DESIGN OF STUDY: Small pilot study using qualitative techniques. SETTING: Variety sample of 11 patients attending the National Health Service walk-in centre, Birmingham, England. METHOD: In-depth semi-structured interviews, including pile-sorting and fictional case histories, were used to explore participants' beliefs about the effects of over-the-counter medicines on coughs and colds. RESULTS: Eight of the 11 participants believed that at least one over the-counter cough medicine (most frequently Benylin for Chesty Coughs) could shorten, or "cure", an illness. Five participants thought that the majority of the medicines that they recognised would speed recovery rather than just relieve symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There is a common confusion in the lay person's mind between the ability of a medicine to relieve symptoms, and its ability to cure a disease or to hasten recovery. This misunderstanding may affect the demand for primary care consultations. PMID:14965387

Johnson, Gina; Helman, Cecil

2004-01-01

167

Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of aspects of planetary exploration and protection that may be particularly sensitive or controversial and that could prove problematic from a risk-management standpoint, perhaps warranting a more stringent risk-management approach than would otherwise be the case based on technical considerations alone. The design of the study compares perceptions and attitudes about space exploration relevant to a Mars sample return mission between three respondent groups: (1) members of The Planetary Society, a group representing individuals with a strong interest in space-related issues, (2) a group of university-aged students, representing a population relatively sensitive to environmental hazards, and (3) a group of life scientists outside of the space research community. Members of The Planetary Society received the survey as part of a special issue of The Planetary Report on planetary protection, which contained a number of background articles on planetary protection and related topics. A synopsis of the issue was prepared as an introduction to the survey for the other two groups.

Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

2000-01-01

168

Lay perceptions of ethnic prejudice: causes, solutions, and individual differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed lay perceptions of the causes of and solutions to ethnic prejudice, and determined whether individual differences related to intergroup relations (social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism) and to cognitive style (personal need for structure, need for cognition) were predictive of these perceptions. Results revealed clear and coherent lay beliefs about the causes of and solutions to ethnic prejudice, and

Gordon Hodson; Victoria M. Esses

2005-01-01

169

Original article Analysis of laying traits in first cycle geese  

E-print Network

of eggs per goose in the first laying cycle were estimated in two systems: S1 consisted of geese used for fatty liver pro- duction (Grey Landes) and reared in mating pens with natural lighting; S2 consisted correlated with clutch length and negatively with pause duration. goose / laying / clutch / production system

Boyer, Edmond

170

EGG-LAYING DEFECTIVE MUTANTS OF THE NEMATODE CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated 145 fertile mutants of C. elegons that are defective in egg laying and have characterized 59 of them genetically, behaviorally and phar- macologically. These 59 mutants define 40 new genes called egl, for egg-laying abnormal. Most of the other mutants are defective in previously identified genes. The egl mutants differ with respect to the severity of their

CAROL TRENT; NANCY TSUNG; H. ROBERT HORVITZ

1983-01-01

171

DETERMINING CLUTCH SIZE AND LAYING DATES USING OVARIAN FOLLICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian follicles of Eastern and Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna and S. neglecta) and Hermit and Townsend's Warblers (Dendmica occidentalis and D. townsendi) grow and regress sufficiently rapidly for laying intervals to be distinguished. We describe how to deduce clutch size from counts of ovarian follicles and to estimate laying dates from curves describing the growth of preovulatory and regression of

ScoTt F. PEARSON

172

Correlates of Participation in a Family-Based HIV Prevention Program: Exploring African-American Women's Motivations and Understanding of the Program  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study examines the relationship between contextual factors and attendance in a family-based HIV prevention program for low-income, urban, African-American women and their children. Participants’ motivations to become involved, their concerns about discussing sex-related issues with their children, recruiters’ perceptions of respondents’ understanding of the program, and environmental stressors were examined. Participants’ level of motivation and recruiters’ success in improving respondents’ understanding of the program were significant correlates of attendance. Stressors experienced by the family and concerns around talking with children about sex were not significantly associated with participation. Recommendations to enhance involvement in family-based HIV prevention programs are made. PMID:20657725

Pinto, Rogerio M.; McKay, Mary M.; Wilson, Marla; Phillips, Daisy; Baptiste, Donna; Bell, Carl C.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Paikoff, Roberta L.

2010-01-01

173

Understanding curriculum in context: using currere to explore the perceptions, attitudes and practices of white teachers in classrooms with african american students  

E-print Network

As a careful look into the daily lived experiences of teachers in today’s schools, the overarching purpose of this study was to seek a clearer understanding of how race may be reflected in the construction of teachers’ perceptions and practices...

Milam, Jennifer Louise

2009-05-15

174

Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

2012-01-01

175

Understanding How Teacher and Student Talk with Each Other: An Exploration of How "Repair" Displays the Co-Management of Talk-in-Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essence of my argument is that Practitioner Research can be pursued not only by observing whole classes, but also by observing what happens when a teacher talks to a student outside of the classroom setting. What this setting offers to practitioner-researchers is a unique opportunity to understand what both the teacher and the student do to…

Nakamura, Ian

2008-01-01

176

What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.  

PubMed

Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214

Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

2014-01-01

177

UNDERSTANDING BELIEFS UNDERSTANDING BELIEFS  

E-print Network

UNDERSTANDING BELIEFS #12;UNDERSTANDING BELIEFS Nils J. Nilsson Stanford University nilsson@cs.stanford.edu http://ai.stanford.edu/nilsson August 21, 2013 #12;[Belief] ...that upon which a man is prepared to act. H. Auden2 So as not to distract the general reader unnecessarily, numbered notes containing

Pratt, Vaughan

178

Sketchpad Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app can be used to drag, manipulate and animate visual mathematics to develop and generalize student understanding of fundamental concepts across elementary mathematics. For elementary purposes click on the book in the bottom right of the screen and then select the Elementary Mathematics Guide. Within the Elementary Mathematics guide there are eight activities that can be completed using this application. Each activity includes an exploration with guiding questions.

2012-03-29

179

EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING..........................................................................................................1 Hand Lay-up in Turbine Blade Fabrication

180

Help-seeking preferences in the area of mild cognitive impairment: comparing family physicians and the lay public  

PubMed Central

Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild neurocognitive disorder is a well-established clinical entity included in current diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease and in major psychiatric classifications. In all, a loosely defined concern obtained from conceptually different sources (the individual, a knowledgeable informant, or a clinician) regarding a decline in cognition and change in functioning constitutes a sine qua non for initiating diagnostics and providing therapy and support. This concern in practice may translate into complex proactive help-seeking behavior. A better understanding of help-seeking preferences is required in order to promote early detection and management. Objectives To compare help-seeking preferences of family physicians and the lay public in the area of MCI. Methods A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 197 family physicians (self-administered) and 517 persons aged 45 and over from the lay public (face to face). Information regarding familiarity with MCI and help-seeking preferences was assessed. Results The vast majority in both samples reported that family physician, spouse, and children are the most highly recommended sources of help-seeking. In regard to professional sources of help-seeking, a higher percentage of the physicians than the lay public sample consistently recommended seeking help from nurses and social workers and psychiatrists, but a higher percentage of the lay public recommended turning to a neurologist for help. Discussion There were both similarities and differences between family physicians and the lay public in their preferences regarding help-seeking for a person with MCI. Most prominent is the physicians’ greater tendency to recommend professional sources of help-seeking. Conclusion Understanding of help-seeking preferences of both physicians and lay persons might help overcome barriers for establishing diagnosis, receiving care, and improving communication between doctors and patients. PMID:24748779

Werner, Perla; Heinik, Jeremia; Giveon, Shmuel; Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Kitai, Eliezer

2014-01-01

181

Still too little qualitative research to shed light on results from reviews of effectiveness trials: A case study of a Cochrane review on the use of lay health workers  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research is used increasingly alongside trials of complex interventions to explore processes, contextual factors, or intervention characteristics that may have influenced trial outcomes. Qualitative research conducted alongside trials can also be used to shed light on the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness by looking for factors that can help explain heterogeneous results across trials. In a Cochrane review on the effects of using lay health workers on maternal and child health and infectious disease control, we identified 82 trials. These trials showed promising benefits but results were heterogeneous. Objective To use qualitative studies conducted alongside these trials to explore factors and processes that might have influenced intervention outcomes. Methods We attempted to identify qualitative research carried out alongside the trials by contacting trial authors, checking papers for references to qualitative research, searching Pubmed for related studies, and carrying out citation searches. For those qualitative studies that we included, we extracted information regarding study objective, data collection and analysis methods, and key themes and categories. Results For 52 (63%) of the trials, we found no qualitative research that had been conducted alongside the trials. For 16 (20%) trials, some form of qualitative data collection had been done but was unavailable or had been done before the trial. For 14 (17%) trials, qualitative research had been done during or shortly after the trial, although descriptions of qualitative methods and results were often sparse. Most of these 14 studies aimed to elicit trial participants' perspectives and experiences of the intervention. A common theme was participants' appreciation of the lay health workers' shared circumstances, for instance with regard to social background or experience of the health condition. In six studies, researchers explored the experiences of the lay health workers themselves. Issues included the importance of regular supervision and health professionals' support or lack of support. Conclusions Qualitative studies carried out alongside trials of complex interventions could offer opportunities to authors of systematic reviews of effectiveness wishing to understand the heterogeneity of trial results. For interventions of lay health worker programmes at least, too few such studies exist at present for these opportunities to be realised. PMID:21619645

2011-01-01

182

Using Exoplanet Models to Explore NGSS and the Nature of Science and as a Tool for Understanding the Scientific Results from NIRCam/JWST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our Solar System is no longer unique. To date, about 1,800 planets are known to orbit over 1,100 other stars and nearly 50% are in multiple-planet systems. Planetary systems seem [to be] fairly common and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the Goldilocks Zone, suggesting there may be other habitable planets. To this end, characterizing the atmospheric chemistries of such planets is a major science goal of the NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.For NIRCam's E/PO program with the Girl Scouts of the USA, we have produced scale models and associated activities to compare the size, scale, and dynamics of the Solar System with several exoplanet systems. Our models illustrate the techniques used to investigate these systems: radial velocity, transits, direct observations, and gravitational microlensing. By comparing and contrasting these models, we place our Solar System in a more cosmic context and enable discussion of current questions within the scientific community: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Is our present definition of a planet a good definition in the context of other planetary systems? Are there other planets/moons that might harbor life as we know it?These models are appropriate for use in classrooms and conform to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include, for example, understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding the nature of scientific models.

Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Higgins, Michelle L.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

2014-11-01

183

48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...271-86 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-86 Lay days. As prescribed in 48 CFR...

2011-10-01

184

48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...271-86 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-86 Lay days. As prescribed in 48 CFR...

2013-10-01

185

48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...271-86 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-86 Lay days. As prescribed in 48 CFR...

2012-10-01

186

48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...271-86 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-86 Lay days. As prescribed in 48 CFR...

2010-10-01

187

Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

Grybeck, Donald J.

2006-01-01

188

Science and the Lay Perspective: Lay People's Involvement in Assessing Tissue Engineering.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering (TE) is a scientific field that will have an influence on our daily lives. It has the potential to revolutionize medical treatments, but it has also an impact on our human image and is associated with potential risks and ethical aspects. Among the publicly controversial issues are embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, cloning, uncertainties regarding risks and informed consent issues. To maintain public confidence in the science of TE, a good solution is public dialogues with patients and other interested lay people that gives the public the chance to independently evaluate TE issues and build their own opinion based on information from different perspectives. The article describes public participation projects in TE on stem cell research and gene therapy and presents the case study of the EU-Gene Activated Matrices for Bone and Cartilage Regeneration on Arthritis (GAMBA) panels, a dialogue with patient and citizen panels in three European countries. In the GAMBA panels, lay participants assessed the basic research project aimed at finding ways of healing osteoarthritis through a matrix composed of adult stem cells, gene vectors, nanoparticles, and biomaterials. The results of the dialogues in different countries, such as Denmark, Japan, Ireland, Switzerland, and Germany, are compared and the evaluation criteria for high quality dialogues are presented, including multiperspectivity, openness of results, a clear mandate, impartial facilitation of the panels, and transparency. PMID:24083801

Zoeller, Katharina

2014-10-01

189

Effects of dietary calcium sources on laying hen performance  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF DIETARY CALCIUM SOURCES ON LAYING HEN PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Roy David Brister, Junior Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Ad? University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1980 Maj or Subj ect: Poultry Science EFFECTS OF DIETARY CALCIUM SOURCES ON LAYING HEN PERFORMANCE A Thesis by Roy David Brister, , Junior Approved as to style and content by: '(Member ) (Member (Head of Dep tment) August 1980 ABSTRACT...

Brister, Roy David

2012-06-07

190

Salinomycin Concentration in Eggs and Tissues of Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Šinigoj- g a?nik K., Zorman Rojs o : Salinomycin Concentration in Eggs and Tissues of Laying Hens. a cta Vet. Brno 2008, 77: 423-429. The objective of our study was to monitor the presence of salinomycin in eggs and tissues of laying hens fed with rations containing 60 mg·kg -1 salinomycin sodium for five days. Residues of salinomycin were determined

K. Šinigoj-Ga?nik; O. Zorman Rojs

2008-01-01

191

Exploring the association between cardiovascular and other disease-related risk factors in the psoriasis population: the need for increased understanding across the medical community.  

PubMed

There is abundant and accumulating evidence on the classification of psoriasis as a systemic disease that exhibits a host of co-morbidities. As a consequence, the second Interdisciplinary Conference on Co-morbidities and Lifestyle Modification, convened by the International Psoriasis Council, has concluded that specialist physicians, primary care physicians and dermatologists are faced with an opportunity to impact, not just psoriasis disease understanding and management, but overall patient well-being. The conference panel was represented by the disciplines of dermatology, cardiology, rheumatology, epidemiology, endocrinology, hepatology and gastroenterology, and medical specialists with particular expertise in obesity, diabetes mellitus, inflammation and genetics. The multiple co-morbidities associated with psoriasis were reviewed with a view to identify possible mechanisms linking psoriatic disease with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Consensus was established on the association of psoriasis with other co-morbidities and disease states. Consequently, there is a significant opportunity for specialist and primary care physicians to collaborate with dermatologists in the management of the overall health of psoriasis patients. First, there is an important need for physicians to routinely screen psoriasis patients for the multiple susceptibility risk factors and co-morbidities associated with psoriasis. Second, the design and implementation of lifestyle modification plans including exercise, diet and the limitation of alcohol and tobacco intake, will not only benefit their general medical health but also their psoriasis. PMID:20384692

Menter, A; Griffiths, C E M; Tebbey, P W; Horn, E J; Sterry, W

2010-12-01

192

Chance, choice and control: lay debate on prenatal social sex selection.  

PubMed

Assisted reproductive technologies are typically positioned as increasing the range of choices open to the healthcare consumer, thereby enhancing 'reproductive freedom'. In this paper, we question the equivalence of reproductive choice and personal freedom in ethical theory, using results from a project investigating how lay people make ethical evaluations about the new genetic and reproductive technologies. We took the topic of social sex selection by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and used group discussions and interviews in the north-east of England to trace how lay people develop and express their ethical evaluations, and to identify the implicit or explicit normative framework that gave rise to their opinions on prenatal sex selection. There was a striking level of ambivalence towards choice in general and reproductive choice in particular. Participants offered few positive statements and numerous reasons why reproductive choice might be problematic. Our participants' argumentation shares with mainstream bioethical analysis the weighing of the possible harms of prenatal sex selection for social reasons against the harm of restricting reproductive freedom. However, unlike most secular-liberal bioethicists, many of our participants concluded that prenatal sex selection is undesirable because it is an expression of parental preference instead of a response to the future child's need. Our interpretation of their reasoning is that they work from an ideal of "good parents", one of the features of which is the relinquishing of control over their children, except to protect them from harm. This voluntary self-limitation does not indicate reduced autonomy, because parental autonomy can only operate within the limits set by this relational framework. We suggest that a model of relational autonomy captures our lay participants' framing of the problem better than a more traditional understanding of autonomy. Our study also shows that in appropriately structured discussion of bioethical issues, lay people can articulate reasons for their opinions that are grounded in sophisticated and morally relevant concepts. PMID:16459006

Scully, Jackie Leach; Banks, Sarah; Shakespeare, Tom W

2006-07-01

193

A Long-Term Study of Science Literacy and Attitudes Towards Science: Exploring Changes Among College Undergraduate and Public Understanding over Twenty-Two Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing science literacy has been an important goal of science educators and policy makers for many years. Various studies including international, school, and public comparisons have painted a bleak picture of science literacy in the United States. We are conducting a study focused on undergraduates’ science literacy using a database of over 10,000 student responses from a large research university collected over a twenty-two year period, between 1989 - 2011. Survey questions were derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators), some of which are still used in public assessments of science literacy. Analysis has shown that our university students outperform the public on almost all topics on the survey. Despite targeted university interventions and the rise of public access to knowledge, student science literacy scores have not changed over twenty-two years. Demographic variables explain less than 10% of the variance in students’ scores of which the number of university science courses completed is the best predictor. There is a small correlation between students’ beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon and lower science literacy scores but students’ beliefs about science and technology also explain little variance in their overall scores. We have also compared responses of scientists and students on the same questions about science. We will discuss implications of evaluating students’ scientific knowledge in a time when students have access to more resources than ever before, an important goal as we continue to work towards increasing students’ understanding of scientific concepts. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, C.; Antonellis, J.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2012-01-01

194

Mars exploration planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mars exploration planning is discussed which is based on three scientific objectives: to understand Mars' geologic and geophysical evolution; to understand the present state and past evolution of Martian climate, and to determine the state of present biological activity and past life. The plan assumes a 25-year planning horizon, from 1995-2020, and includes both broad-scale and local exploration capabilities.

Dean B. Eppler; Corinne Buoni; John Niehoff

1993-01-01

195

Seasonal dynamics of egg laying and egg-laying strategy of the ectoparasite Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura).  

PubMed

Substrate preferences, spatial aggregation patterns and seasonal dynamics in the egg laying of ectoparasitic Argulus coregoni were studied at a commercial fish farm in Finland. Pilot experiments showed that A. coregoni females selected specific types of substrates for egg laying. Significantly more A. coregoni eggs were laid on dark substrates than on light ones suggesting the use of visual cues. Therefore, egg-laying plates of dark colour were constructed for further experiments. Most A. coregoni eggs were deposited in locations in shadow and in the deepest water in a 2 m deep farming canal. Relatively more eggs were laid on bottom stones situated near each egg-laying trap than on artificial egg-laying plates indicating a preference for irregular stones in the deeper locations in the canal. The plates were located 20 cm above the bottom. However, a total of 5,863 A. coregoni egg clutches, corresponding approximately to 1.5 million unhatched metanauplii, were successfully destroyed with the plates indicating that egg-laying traps can be used as an ecological control method against argulids in certain situations. For traps to be effective, ponds should not contain stones or any other hard substrata attracting female lice. The egg laying of A. coregoni in this study started on 5 July in 2001 and extended over 3.5 months up to mid-October. The egg-laying pattern of A. coregoni population was unimodal, supporting the view that only a single A. coregoni generation occurred annually in Central Finland. PMID:15206468

Hakalahti, T; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T

2004-06-01

196

Connecting Robots and Humans in Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars exploration is a very special public interest. It's preeminence in the national space policy calling for "sustained robotic presence on the surface," international space policy (witness the now aborted international plan for sample return, and also aborted Russian "national Mars program") and the media attention to Mars exploration are two manifestations of that interest. Among a large segment of the public there is an implicit (mis)understanding that we are sending humans to Mars. Even among those who know that isn't already a national or international policy, many think it is the next human exploration goal. At the same time the resources for Mars exploration in the U.S. and other country's space programs are a very small part of space budgets. Very little is being applied to direct preparations for human flight. This was true before the 1999 mission losses in the United States, and it is more true today. The author's thesis is that the public interest and the space program response to Mars exploration are inconsistent. This inconsistency probably results from an explicit space policy contradiction: Mars exploration is popular because of the implicit pull of Mars as the target for human exploration, but no synergy is permitted between the human and robotic programs to carry out the program. It is not permitted because of narrow, political thinking. In this paper we try to lay out the case for overcoming that thinking, even while not committing to any premature political initiative. This paper sets out a rationale for Mars exploration and uses it to then define recommended elements of the programs: missions, science objectives, technology. That consideration is broader than the immediate issue of recovering from the failures of Mars Climate OrbIter, Mars Polar Lander and the Deep Space 2 microprobes in late 1999. But we cannot ignore those failures. They are causing a slow down Mars exploration. Not only were the three missions lost, with their planned science and technology investigations, but the 2001 Mars Surveyor lander; and an international cooperative effort for robotic Mars sample return were also lost.

Friedman, Louis

2000-07-01

197

Understanding ‘sensorimotor understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensorimotor theories understand perception to be a process of active, exploratory engagement with the environment, mediated\\u000a by the possession and exercise of a certain body of knowledge concerning sensorimotor dependencies. This paper aims to characterise\\u000a that exercise, and to show that it places constraints upon the content of sensorimotor knowledge itself. Sensorimotor mastery\\u000a is exercised when it is put to

Tom Roberts

2010-01-01

198

Lay theories of anorexia nervosa: a discourse analytic study.  

PubMed

Previous studies on lay theories of anorexia nervosa have examined the 'accuracy' of lay knowledge, and the identification of factors by family and friends that would encourage early interventions (Huon, Brown, & Morris, 1988, 7, 239-252; Murray, Touyz, & Beumont, 1990, 9, 87-93). In contrast to these approaches, we examine lay theories of anorexia nervosa using a critical psychology perspective. We argue that the use of a discourse analysis methodology enables the examination of the construction of lay theories through dominant concepts and ideas. Ten semi-structured interviews with five women and five men aged between 15 and 25 years were carried out. Participants were asked questions about three main aspects of anorexia nervosa: aetiology, treatment and relationship to gender. Each interview was analysed in terms of the structure, function and variability of discourse. Three discourses: sociocultural, individual and femininity, are discussed in relation to the interview questions. We conclude that, in this study, lay theories of anorexia nervosa were structured through key discourses that maintained a separation between sociocultural aspects of anorexia nervosa and individual psychology. This separation exists in dominant psychomedical conceptualizations of anorexia nervosa, reinforcing the concept that it is a form of psychopathology. PMID:22021434

Benveniste, J; Lecouteur, A; Hepworth, J

1999-01-01

199

Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes in Huoyan Goose Ovaries between the Laying Period and Ceased Period  

PubMed Central

The Huoyan goose is famous for its high egg-laying performance and is listed as a nationally protected domestic animal by the Chinese government. To elucidate the key regulatory genes involved in Huoyan goose egg laying, RNA from ovarian tissue during the ceased and laying periods was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. More than 12 million reads were produced in ceased and laying libraries that included 11,896,423 and 12,534,799 clean reads, respectively. More than 20% of the reads were matched to the reference genome, and 23% of the reads were matched to reference genes. Genes with a false discovery rate (FDR) ?0.001 and log2ratio ?1 or ??1 were characterized as differentially expressed, and 344 up-regulated and 344 down-regulated genes were classified into functional categories. Twelve genes that are mainly involved in pathways for reproduction regulation, such as steroid hormone biosynthesis, GnRH signaling pathways, oocyte meiosis, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, steroid biosynthesis, calcium signaling pathways, and G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway were selected for validation by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, the qRT-PCR results are consistent with the general expression patterns of those genes from the Illumina sequencing. These data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that might increase our understanding of the Huoyan goose's reproductive biology. PMID:25419838

Luan, Xinhong; Liu, Dawei; Cao, Zhongzan; Luo, Lina; Liu, Mei; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoying

2014-01-01

200

Understanding Personal Digital Collections: An Interdisciplinary Exploration  

E-print Network

humanistic inquiry led to a lab-based user experiment, and how combined insights from these studies have illuminated new research streams in both humanistic and design research modes. Author Keywords Design

Feinberg, Melanie

201

Bone breakage in laying hens as affected by dietary supplements  

E-print Network

BONE BREAKAGE IN LAYING HENS AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS A Thesis by DAVID JOE MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Al!M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1975... Major Subject: Poultry Science (Physiology) BONE BREAKAGE IN LAYING HENS AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS A Thesis by DAVID JOE MOORE Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Comm' ee ad o Department) Member Member '7 I ls&wr g ~, /0...

Moore, David Joe

2012-06-07

202

Florida farmworkers' perceptions and lay knowledge of occupational pesticides.  

PubMed

Despite federal regulations, farmworkers often lack access to basic information about pesticides applied at their worksites. Focus groups revealed that farmworkers have developed an extensive body of lay knowledge, based on personal perceptions, about pesticides and pesticide exposure including means of pesticide exposure, means of pesticide entry into the body, and the potential health effects of pesticide exposure. We describe how this lay knowledge, when combined with technical information that is required to be provided to workers by law, provides valuable data to consider before developing and implementing health interventions designed to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure. PMID:17616011

Flocks, Joan; Monaghan, Paul; Albrecht, Stan; Bahena, Alfredo

2007-06-01

203

Ocean Explorer: 2002 Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Ocean Explorer Web site (last mentioned in the March 8, 2002 -NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences_ ) has begun several of this seasons explorations. Six new voyages have been, or soon will be undertaken and the Web pages include daily updates, photos, and videos of the research efforts. Studies include biological monitoring of marine sanctuaries, hydrothermal vents, geological studies, and recovery of a sunken Civil War ship. An interesting site for those interested in the type of research conducted by NOAA, and those curious about careers in oceanography.

1969-12-31

204

Detection of jumping and landing force in laying hens using wireless wearable sensors.  

PubMed

Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird movement, an automated sensor technology could facilitate understanding regarding the interaction between noncage laying hens and their housing. A method for detecting jumps and flight trajectories could help explain how jumps from different heights affect hen landing impact. In this study, a wearable sensor-based jump detection mechanism for egg-laying hens was designed and implemented. Hens were fitted with a lightweight (10 g) wireless body-mounted sensor to remotely sample accelerometer data. Postprocessed data could detect occurrence of jumps from a perch to the ground, time of jump initiation, time of landing, and force of landing. Additionally, the developed technology could estimate the approximate height of the jump. Hens jumping from heights of 41 and 61 cm were found to land with an average force of 81.0 ± 2.7 N and 106.9 ± 2.6 N, respectively, assuming zero initial velocity (P < 0.001). This paper establishes the technological feasibility of using body-mounted sensor technology for jump detection by hens in different noncage housing configurations. PMID:25172929

Banerjee, D; Daigle, C L; Dong, B; Wurtz, K; Newberry, R C; Siegford, J M; Biswas, S

2014-11-01

205

Social injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the attitudes towards suicide of lay persons in Ghana  

PubMed Central

One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants’ view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study. PMID:22065981

Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2011-01-01

206

Standards in the Frito-Lay Corporate Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Frito-Lay Corporate Library, which serves as the Engineering Library for the corporation, contains an extensive collection of association and in-house produced standards. This paper discusses the general categories of standards collected, from what sources the standards are acquired, and what access points to the collection are provided.

Suzanne M. Ogden

1990-01-01

207

On the Laying of Pipelines in Deep Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rational procedure for the dimensioning of subsea pipelines is described. It consists of a computer program which determines pipe diameter and wall thickness for given quantities of flow rate, depth of water, bottom current velocity and towing capacity of the lay barge. Steel quality, out-of-roundnees of pipe and characteristics of the concrete coating are also taken into account. The

C. Kruppa; G. Clauss

1976-01-01

208

How should public health professionals engage with lay epidemiology?  

PubMed Central

Lay epidemiology” is a term used to describe the processes through which health risks are understood and interpreted by laypeople. It is seen as a barrier to public health when the public disbelieves or fails to act on public health messages. Two elements to lay epidemiology are proposed: (a) empirical beliefs about the nature of illness and (b) values about the place of health and risks to health in a good life. Both elements have to be dealt with by effective public health schemes or programmes, which would attempt to change the public's empirical beliefs and values. This is of concern, particularly in a context in which the lay voice is increasingly respected. Empirically, the scientific voice of standard epidemiology should be deferred to by the lay voice, provided a clear distinction exists between the measurement of risk, which is empirical, and its weighting, which is based on values. Turning to engagement with values, health is viewed to be an important value and is discussed and reflected on by most people. Public health professionals are therefore entitled and advised to participate in that process. This view is defended against some potential criticisms. PMID:16877625

Allmark, P; Tod, A

2006-01-01

209

211. EQUIPMENT LAYING FIRST LANE OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT NEAR THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

211. EQUIPMENT LAYING FIRST LANE OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT NEAR THE CAPITAL OVERLOOK, 1931. NOTE THE BEGINNING OF BITUMINOUS TYPE OF TEMPORARY PAVEMENT TO ALLOW FOR SETTLEMENT IN HYDRAULIC FILL AREAS. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

210

Student Accounts Loan Servicing Shannon Lay, Department Manager  

E-print Network

of Georgia, Student Accounts ­ Loan Servicing Department, 110 Business Services Building. PaymentsStudent Accounts ­ Loan Servicing Shannon Lay, Department Manager (706) 542-6834 phone (706) 542-3959 fax University of Georgia Single Semester Short Term Loan Program Single Semester Short term loans

Hall, Daniel

211

Testing Lay Intuitions of Justice: How and Why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When John Darley and I wrote Justice, Liability, and Blame: Community Views and the Criminal Law, our goal was not to provide the definitive account of lay intuitions of justice but rather to stimulate interest in what we saw as an important but long-term project that would require the work of many people. Having this American Association of Law Schools

Paul H. Robinson

2003-01-01

212

Ultrastructure of the ultimobranchial follicles of the laying chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimobranchial gland of the laying chicken consists of groups of C cells interspersed among a collection of intercommunicating follicles and ducts of variable size and shape. The epithelium lining this system ranges from squamous to columnar and includes stratified squamous and pseudostratified columnar elements. Four cell types are distinguished in this epithelium: F, mucous, C, and basal cells. F

An Soo Chan

1978-01-01

213

10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

2011-01-01

214

10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

2010-01-01

215

Social learning about egg-laying substrates in fruitflies  

E-print Network

Social learning about egg-laying substrates in fruitflies Sachin Sarin and Reuven Dukas* Animal West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada Social learning, defined as learning from other individuals, has had step in examining the evolution of and mechanisms underlying social learning in insects, we tested

Dukas, Reuven

216

Exploring Mayan Numerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an exploration activity involving Mayan numerals, which can be adapted by teachers at various levels to help students better understand the concept of place value and appreciate contributions to mathematics made by an indigenous Central American culture.

Farmer, Jeff D.; Powers, Robert A.

2005-01-01

217

Exploring racism.  

PubMed

Whilst the concept of 'race' has no basis in genetics or biology, the dynamics of racism pervade all aspects of modern life--including the consulting room. In this paper the relationship between a white therapist and a black patient is explored through an unbidden thought and a verbal slip that occurred in the course of the therapy. The amplification and examination of these unwanted 'slips' are used to shed light on the subtleties of the effects of difference in colour on the relationship. It is argued here that the interaction reflects and illuminates the asymmetrical relationship between 'black' and 'white' in modern-western society. This is then considered using the concepts of the cultural unconscious and social unconscious as ways of understanding the tenacity of racism in ourselves. PMID:12416293

Morgan, Helen

2002-10-01

218

From dose rate to websites: making measurements accessible, understandable and helpful to the lay public.  

PubMed

The key role of public information in emergency preparedness has more recently been corroborated by the experience of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP. Information should meet quality criteria such as openness, accessibility and authenticity. Existing information portals of radiation monitoring networks were frequently used even in Europe, although there was no imminent radiation risk. BfS responded by increasing the polling frequency, publishing current data not validated, refurbishing the website of the BfS 'odlinfo.bfs.de' and adding explanatory text. Public feedback served as a valuable input for improving the site's design. Additional services were implemented for developers of smart phone apps. Websites similar to 'ODLInfo' are available both on European and international levels. NGOs and grass root projects established platforms for uploading and visualising private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 March 2011. The BfS site is compared with other platforms. Government information has to compete with non-official sources. Options on information strategies are discussed. PMID:24993007

Zähringer, M; Luff, R; Schiesewitz, M; Burbeck, S; Högg, R

2014-08-01

219

Hormonal control of egg-laying in the marine pulmonate, Onchidium verruculatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extirpation of the pleurovisceral ganglia (PV) blocked egg-laying whereas reimplantation of PV or injection of a PV homogenate into PV-less animals restored the egg-laying capacity of the marine pulomonate, O. verruculatum. Injection of PV homogenate induced egg-laying in intact, mature individuals within 15–45 minutes. Boiling of the homogenate for 15 minutes did not abolish its egg-laying efficacy. However, after incubation

R. Nagabhushanam; U. D. Deshpande; M. M. Hanumante

1981-01-01

220

The expert and the lay public: reflections on influenza A (H1N1) and the risk society.  

PubMed

Trust between the lay public and scientific experts is a key element to ensuring the efficient implementation of emergency public health measures. In modern risk societies, the management and elimination of risk have become preeminent drivers of public policy. In this context, the protection of public trust is a complex task. Those actors involved in public health decision-making and implementation (e.g., mass vaccination for influenza A virus) are confronted with growing pressures and responsibility to act. However, they also need to accept the limits of their own expertise and recognize the ability of lay publics to understand and be responsible for public health. Such a shared responsibility for risk management, if grounded in participative public debates, can arguably strengthen public trust in public health authorities and interventions. PMID:22397338

Dupras, Charles; Williams-Jones, Bryn

2012-04-01

221

The relationship between lay and technical views of Escherichia coli O157 risk.  

PubMed

Here, we bring together and contrast lay (accessible primarily through social science methodologies) and technical (via risk assessment and epidemiological techniques) views of the risk associated with the Escherichia coli O157 pathogen using two case study areas in the Grampian region of Scotland, and North Wales. Epidemiological risk factors of contact with farm animals, visiting farms or farm fields and having a private water supply were associated with postcode districts of higher than average disease incidence in the human population. However, this was not the case for the epidemiological risk factor of consumption of beef burgers, which was independent of disease incidence in the postcode district of residence. The proportion of the population expressing a high knowledge of E. coli O157 was greatest in high-incidence disease districts compared with low-incidence areas (17% cf. 7%). This supports the hypothesis that in high-disease-incidence areas, residents are regularly exposed to information about the disease through local cases, the media, local social networks, etc. or perhaps that individuals are more likely to be motivated to find out about it. However, no statistically significant difference was found between high- and low-incidence postcode districts in terms of the proportion of the population expressing a high likelihood of personal risk of infection (10% cf. 14%), giving a counterintuitive difference between the technical (epidemiological and quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA)) and the lay assessment of E. coli O157 risk. This suggests that lay evaluations of E. coli O157 risk reflect intuitive and experience-based estimates of the risk rather than probabilistic estimates. A generally strong correspondence was found in terms of the rank order given to potential infection pathways, with environment and foodborne infection routes dominating when comparing public understanding with technical modelling results. Two general conclusions follow from the work. First, that integrative research incorporating both lay and technical views of risk is required in order that informed decisions can be made to handle or treat the risk by the groups concerned (e.g. the public, policy makers/risk managers, etc.). Second, when communicating risk, for example, through education programmes, it is important that this process is two-way with risk managers (e.g. including Food Standards Agency officials and communications team, public health infection control and environmental health officers) both sharing information with the public and stakeholder groups, as well as incorporating public knowledge, values and context (e.g. geographical location) into risk-management decisions. PMID:21624920

Strachan, N J C; Hunter, C J; Jones, C D R; Wilson, R S; Ethelberg, S; Cross, P; Williams, A P; MacRitchie, L; Rotariu, O; Chadwick, D

2011-07-12

222

The relationship between lay and technical views of Escherichia coli O157 risk  

PubMed Central

Here, we bring together and contrast lay (accessible primarily through social science methodologies) and technical (via risk assessment and epidemiological techniques) views of the risk associated with the Escherichia coli O157 pathogen using two case study areas in the Grampian region of Scotland, and North Wales. Epidemiological risk factors of contact with farm animals, visiting farms or farm fields and having a private water supply were associated with postcode districts of higher than average disease incidence in the human population. However, this was not the case for the epidemiological risk factor of consumption of beef burgers, which was independent of disease incidence in the postcode district of residence. The proportion of the population expressing a high knowledge of E. coli O157 was greatest in high-incidence disease districts compared with low-incidence areas (17% cf. 7%). This supports the hypothesis that in high-disease-incidence areas, residents are regularly exposed to information about the disease through local cases, the media, local social networks, etc. or perhaps that individuals are more likely to be motivated to find out about it. However, no statistically significant difference was found between high- and low-incidence postcode districts in terms of the proportion of the population expressing a high likelihood of personal risk of infection (10% cf. 14%), giving a counterintuitive difference between the technical (epidemiological and quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA)) and the lay assessment of E. coli O157 risk. This suggests that lay evaluations of E. coli O157 risk reflect intuitive and experience-based estimates of the risk rather than probabilistic estimates. A generally strong correspondence was found in terms of the rank order given to potential infection pathways, with environment and foodborne infection routes dominating when comparing public understanding with technical modelling results. Two general conclusions follow from the work. First, that integrative research incorporating both lay and technical views of risk is required in order that informed decisions can be made to handle or treat the risk by the groups concerned (e.g. the public, policy makers/risk managers, etc.). Second, when communicating risk, for example, through education programmes, it is important that this process is two-way with risk managers (e.g. including Food Standards Agency officials and communications team, public health infection control and environmental health officers) both sharing information with the public and stakeholder groups, as well as incorporating public knowledge, values and context (e.g. geographical location) into risk-management decisions. PMID:21624920

Strachan, N. J. C.; Hunter, C. J.; Jones, C. D. R.; Wilson, R. S.; Ethelberg, S.; Cross, P.; Williams, A. P.; MacRitchie, L.; Rotariu, O.; Chadwick, D.

2011-01-01

223

Laying order, hatching asynchrony and nestling body mass in Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reproductive biology of a box-nesting population of Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor in southeastern Wisconsin, USA. We were interested particularly in the relationship between laying order and hatching order and the extent to which each was a predictor of nestling body mass. We found that laying order was a significant predictor of hatching order. Laying and hatching order

Ethan D. Clotfelter; Linda A. Whittingham; Peter O. Dunn

2000-01-01

224

Exploring at the Nanoscale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on how nanotechnology has impacted our society and how engineers have learned to explore the world at the nanoscale. Learners participate in hands-on activities to understand exactly how small the nanoscale is, explore how surface area changes at the nano scale, and work in teams to develop futuristic applications of nanotechnology. Specifically, teams of learners examine and measure blocks of tofu or gelatin to determine the surface area. Then they slice the blocks into smaller and smaller pieces, exposing more surfaces, and impacting the surface area. Learners also explore the size of small by comparing various items to understand the size of nano.

Ieee

2013-02-25

225

Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions  

PubMed Central

Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented. PMID:21986244

Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

2014-01-01

226

Florida Farmworkers’ Perceptions and Lay Knowledge of Occupational Pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite federal regulations, farmworkers often lack access to basic information about pesticides applied at their worksites.\\u000a Focus groups revealed that farmworkers have developed an extensive body of lay knowledge, based on personal perceptions, about\\u000a pesticides and pesticide exposure including means of pesticide exposure, means of pesticide entry into the body, and the potential\\u000a health effects of pesticide exposure. We describe

Joan Flocks; Paul Monaghan; Stan Albrecht; Alfredo Bahena

2007-01-01

227

Comparative Influences of Various Protein Feeds on Laying Hens  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President - BULLETIN NO. 317 ZBRUARY, 1924 -- DIVISION OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY COMPARATIVE INFLUENCES OF VARIOUS PROTEIN FEEDS ON LAYING HENS B.... PETERSON. B. S., Assistant Chemist J. E. TEAGUE, B. S.. Assistant Chemist J. K. BLUM. B. S., Assistant Chemist HORTICULTURE: A. T. POTTS, M. S., Chief ANIMAL INDUSTRY: J. M. JONES, A. M.. Chief J. L. LUSH, Ph. D., Animal Husbandman, Breeding G. R...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison)

1924-01-01

228

Defining workplace bullying behaviour professional lay definitions of workplace bullying.  

PubMed

As is commonly the case in new areas of research, workplace bullying researchers and practitioners have struggled to establish a single agreed-upon definition of this phenomenon. As a consequence, there are numerous definitions of workplace bullying currently in use around the world to investigate this serious workplace issue, to educate the workforce about this form of harassment and to assess claims involving allegations of workplace bullying. Additionally, little is known about how employees and people in general define workplace bullying behaviour, and whether current researcher, practitioner and legal definitions coincide with lay definitions of bullying. To compare researcher, practitioner and legal definitions of workplace bullying with lay definitions, the content of definitions composed by adults from diverse personal and professional backgrounds (N=1095) was analysed. Results confirmed that components commonly used by researchers and practitioners, including the occurrence of harmful and negative workplace behaviours, were frequently cited by participants as central defining components of bullying behaviour. In addition, lay definitions often included themes of fairness and respect. The emergence of these themes has important consequences for organisations responding to, and attempting to prevent the occurrence of workplace bullying behaviour in that organisations in which bullying is tolerated may violate both local laws as well as their ethical responsibility to provide employees with a safe, professional and respectful workplace. PMID:17692375

Saunders, Paula; Huynh, Amy; Goodman-Delahunty, Jane

2007-01-01

229

Understanding language  

E-print Network

My dissertation concerns the nature of linguistic understanding. A standard view about linguistic understanding is that it is a propositional knowledge state. The following is an instance of this view: given a speaker S ...

Pettit, Dean R. (Dean Reid), 1967-

2003-01-01

230

Understanding Coronaviruses  

MedlinePLUS

... Field Search Button Advanced Search NIAID Home Health & Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Coronaviruses > Understanding Coronaviruses Understanding Overview Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis ...

231

Identification and Differential Expression of microRNAs in Ovaries of Laying and Broody Geese (Anser cygnoides) by Solexa Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Recent functional studies have demonstrated that the microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in ovarian gonadal development, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and ovulation in mammals. However, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in the ovarian function of fowl. The goose (Anas cygnoides) is a commercially important food that is cultivated widely in China but the goose industry has been hampered by high broodiness and poor egg laying performance, which are influenced by ovarian function. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the miRNA transcriptomes of ovaries from laying and broody geese were profiled using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics was used to determine differential expression of the miRNAs. As a result, 11,350,396 and 9,890,887 clean reads were obtained in laying and broodiness goose, respectively, and 1,328 conserved known miRNAs and 22 novel potential miRNA candidates were identified. A total of 353 conserved microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between laying and broody ovaries. Compared with miRNA expression in the laying ovary, 127 miRNAs were up-regulated and 126 miRNAs were down-regulated in the ovary of broody birds. A subset of the differentially expressed miRNAs (G-miR-320, G-miR-202, G-miR-146, and G-miR-143*) were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, 130,458 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative target genes. Gene ontology annotation and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in ovarian function, including hormone secretion, reproduction processes and so on. Conclusions The present study provides the first global miRNA transcriptome data in A. cygnoides and identifies novel and known miRNAs that are differentially expressed between the ovaries of laying and broody geese. These findings contribute to our understanding of the functional involvement of miRNAs in the broody period of goose. PMID:24505332

Xu, Qi; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yang; Tong, Yi-Yu; Rong, Guang-Hui; Huang, Zheng-Yang; Zhao, Rong-Xue; Zhao, Wen-Ming; Wu, Xin-sheng; Chang, Guo- Bin; Chen, Guo-Hong

2014-01-01

232

Genes affecting the activity of nicotinic receptors involved in Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying behavior.  

PubMed Central

Egg-laying behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans is regulated by multiple neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine and serotonin. Agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors such as nicotine and levamisole stimulate egg laying; however, the genetic and molecular basis for cholinergic neurotransmission in the egg-laying circuitry is not well understood. Here we describe the egg-laying phenotypes of eight levamisole resistance genes, which affect the activity of levamisole-sensitive nicotinic receptors in nematodes. Seven of these genes, including the nicotinic receptor subunit genes unc-29, unc-38, and lev-1, were essential for the stimulation of egg laying by levamisole, though they had only subtle effects on egg-laying behavior in the absence of drug. Thus, these genes appear to encode components of a nicotinic receptor that can promote egg laying but is not necessary for egg-laying muscle contraction. Since the levamisole-receptor mutants responded to other cholinergic drugs, other acetylcholine receptors are likely to function in parallel with the levamisole-sensitive receptors to mediate cholinergic neurotransmission in the egg-laying circuitry. In addition, since expression of functional unc-29 in muscle cells restored levamisole sensitivity under some but not all conditions, both neuronal and muscle cell UNC-29 receptors are likely to contribute to the regulation of egg-laying behavior. Mutations in one levamisole receptor gene, unc-38, also conferred both hypersensitivity and reduced peak response to serotonin; thus nicotinic receptors may play a role in regulating serotonin response pathways in the egg-laying neuromusculature. PMID:11290716

Kim, J; Poole, D S; Waggoner, L E; Kempf, A; Ramirez, D S; Treschow, P A; Schafer, W R

2001-01-01

233

Biomorphic Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

Thakoor, Sarita

1999-01-01

234

A study and meta-analysis of lay attributions of cures for overcoming specific psychological problems.  

PubMed

Lay beliefs about the importance of 24 different contributors to overcoming 4 disorders that constitute primarily cognitive deficits were studied. A meta-analysis of previous programmatic studies in the area was performed so that 22 different psychological problems could be compared. In the present study, 107 participants completed a questionnaire indicating how effective 24 factors were in overcoming 4 specific problems: dyslexia, fear of flying, amnesia, and learning difficulties. Factor analysis revealed almost identical clusters (inner control, social consequences, understanding, receiving help, and fate) for each problem. The perceived relevance of those factors differed significantly between problems. Some individual difference factors (sex and religion) were found to predict certain factor attributions for specific disorders. A meta-analysis of the 5 studies in this series yielded a 6-factor structure comparable to those of the individual studies and provided results indicating the benefits and limitations of this kind of investigation. The clinical relevance of studying attributions for cure is considered. PMID:9255959

Furnham, A; Hayward, R

1997-09-01

235

Productive performance of laying hens housed in minimal shade floor pens and laying cages under ambient conditions in hot arid regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to investigate and compare the performance of laying hens in open-sided minimal shade floor pens and laying cages under cyclic environmental conditions in Kuwait. The first study, which was carried out during 6 months of moderate weather, resulted in significantly better productive performance by the caged hens; however, results were reversed during the second 6 months

A. A. Al-Awadi; M. D. Husseini; M. F. Diab; A. Y. Al-Nasser

1995-01-01

236

Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

Miljeteig, Per

1999-01-01

237

The functional significance of parasitic egg laying and typical nesting in redhead ducks: an analysis of individual behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the population level, redhead ducks, Aythya americana, lay as many as 75% of their eggs parasitically but at least some females lay and incubate eggs in their own nests ('typical nesting'). Parasitic egg laying by redheads was documented with remote, time-lapse photography of potential host nests, allowing histories of parasitic egg laying and typical nesting to be compiled for

MICHAEL D. SORENSON

1991-01-01

238

Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in great tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while controlling for laying date and position in the laying sequence. We

C. M. Lessells; N. J. Dingemanse; C. Both

2002-01-01

239

Exploration Geophysics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

Savit, Carl H.

1978-01-01

240

Exploration review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2011 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. This summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents surveys returned by companies primarily focused on precious (gold, platinum-group metals and silver) and base (copper, lead, nickel and zinc) metals.

Wilburn, D. R.; Rapstine, T. D.; Lee, E. C.

2012-01-01

241

Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (natuzyme) in laying hens.  

PubMed

The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers' diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

Lee, K W; Choi, Y I; Moon, E J; Oh, S T; Lee, H H; Kang, C W; An, B K

2014-12-01

242

Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens  

PubMed Central

The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

2014-01-01

243

Assessing Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Try using an assessment cycle to effectively probe students' understanding of scientific concepts. The diagnostic, formative, summative, and confirmatory assessment can be embedded into any unit of study.

Sterling, Donna R.

2005-01-01

244

Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS): a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK). Method/Design The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service. The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care) from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation) until 6 weeks after birth. The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy) and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools. A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level) to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Qualitative research will explore the POWs' daily work in context. This will complement the findings of the RCT through a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data on the process of the intervention, and identify other contextual factors that affect the implementation of the intervention. Discussion The trial will provide high quality evidence as to whether or not lay support (POW) offered to women identified with social risk factors improves engagement with maternity services and reduces numbers of women with depression. MREC number 10/H1207/23 Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN35027323 PMID:22375895

2012-01-01

245

Mass depopulation of laying hens in whole barns with liquid carbon dioxide: evaluation of welfare impact.  

PubMed

Appropriate emergency disaster preparedness is a key priority for agricultural agencies to allow effective response to serious avian disease outbreaks. There is a need to develop rapid, humane, and safe depopulation techniques for poultry that are widely applicable across a range of farm settings. Whole barn depopulation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been investigated as a humane and efficient means of killing large numbers of birds in the event of a reportable disease outbreak. It has also been considered as a method for depopulating barns containing end-of-lay hens, particularly when there is limited local slaughter and rendering capacity. Determining the best method of humanely killing large flocks of birds remains problematic and is being investigated by a coordinated international effort. While whole barn depopulation using CO(2) inhalation has been explored, physiologic responses of chickens have not been characterized in field settings and assessment of animal welfare is hampered without this information. In this study, 12 cull laying hens were surgically instrumented with telemetry transmitters to record electroencephalographs, electrocardiographs, body temperature, and activity during 2 large-scale field CO(2) euthanasia trials of end-of-lay hens. The day following surgery, instrumented hens were placed in barns with other birds, barns were sealed, and animals were killed by CO(2) inhalation delivered via a specially designed liquid CO(2) manifold. Instrumented birds were monitored by infrared thermography, and ambient temperature, CO(2), and O(2) concentrations were recorded. Results from these studies indicate that instrumented hens lost consciousness within 2 min of CO(2) levels reaching 18 to 20%. Mild to moderate head shaking, gasping, and 1 to 2 clonic muscle contractions were noted in hens before unconsciousness; however, brain death followed rapidly (<5 min). Evaluation of welfare costs and benefits suggest clear advantages over catching and transporting cull hens for slaughter. The financial costs with this method are greater, however, than those estimated for traditional slaughter techniques. Results of these studies are being used to develop national protocols for whole barn depopulation of hens by CO(2) inhalation. PMID:22700499

Turner, P V; Kloeze, H; Dam, A; Ward, D; Leung, N; Brown, E E L; Whiteman, A; Chiappetta, M E; Hunter, D B

2012-07-01

246

The SEXTANT Software Exploration Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss a set of functional requirements for software exploration tools and provide initial evidence that various combinations of these features are needed to effectively assist developers in understanding software. We observe that current tools for software exploration only partly support these features. This has motivated the development of SEXTANT, a software exploration tool tightly integrated into

Thorsten Schäfer; Michael Eichberg; Michael Haupt; Mira Mezini

2006-01-01

247

Public culture and public understanding of genetics: a focus group study.  

PubMed

As the role of genetic science in everyday life has grown, policymakers have become concerned about Americans' understandings of this science. Much effort has been devoted to formal schooling, but less attention has been paid to the role of public culture in shaping public understanding of genetics. Research into public cultural messages about genetics has claimed that the public is likely to adopt problematic accounts, but few studies have explored the public's articulation of these messages. This study is based on 25 focus groups convened to explore the lay public's understanding of genetics. The study found that the public processed a greater variety of messages than assumed by previous researchers, including documentaries, non-science-fiction films, and popular television in addition to previous researchers' focus on science fiction and news media. The study also found that the public does not process the messages through the linear, transmission model assumed by previous research. The public processes messages about genetics complexly and critically. On the basis of these findings, the study suggests that researchers should include a greater variety of texts about genetics in their research and attend more fully to audience processing in addition to content analyses of these texts. PMID:15822248

Bates, Benjamin R

2005-01-01

248

Diversity and Explorations Program at Harvard Divinity School  

E-print Network

into careers as lay and ordained ministers in Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, Buddhist, Muslim, and other encourage ap- plications from African American, Latino and Latina, Asian American, and Native American education." --Brooke Davis, DivEx 2010, MTS '14, MPP '14 (Harvard Kennedy School) Diversity and Explorations

Chou, James

249

Project Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chicago-based Project Exploration "is the living classroom that involves students and the public in scientific discovery, by connecting kids and families to interactive exhibits, labs, unique science programs and real scientists." Project Exploration focuses on reaching city kids, but every kid (and teachers) should check out this wonderful Web site. Visitors will find tons of activities and features to explore, such as Project Exploration's paleontological expeditions (past and present) and the Mesozoic Garden -- created for the 2003 Chicago Flower and Garden Show. Teachers will also find lesson plans tucked here and there among Project Exploration's dizzying assortment of Web features.

Lyon, Gabrielle; Sereno, Paul

1999-01-01

250

No reductions and some improvements in South African lay HIV/AIDS counsellors' motivational interviewing competence one year after brief training.  

PubMed

In South Africa, lay HIV/AIDS counsellors are trained in both client-centred and more directive, health-advising techniques. Both approaches are limited in facilitating health behaviour when clients are ambivalent. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counselling approach that develops the client's intrinsic motivation to change. Evangeli et al. evaluated a 12-hour course of MI delivered to 17 lay HIV/AIDS counsellors in Western Cape Province, South Africa. There was a marked change from MI non-adherent practice to more MI adherent practice at the end of the training. Few counsellors, however, reached the level of beginning proficiency in MI. The current study was a one-year follow-up of MI competence in the same cohort of lay HIV counsellors. Ten counsellors participated. Results confirmed that changes in lay HIV counsellors' level of MI competence as a result of a brief MI course were maintained over a one-year period and in some cases were enhanced. MI competence was independent of self-report and demographic factors. As in Evangeli et al., the majority of counsellors did not attain beginning proficiency level. Reasons for the findings are explored, including consideration of baseline level of counselling, characteristics of the training and individual motivation. Ideas for future research are outlined. PMID:21347889

Evangeli, Michael; Longley, Michael; Swartz, Leslie

2011-03-01

251

Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

2012-01-01

252

Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

1989-01-01

253

Memorandum of Understanding For Using the Boise State Beowulf Cluster  

E-print Network

Memorandum of Understanding For Using the Boise State Beowulf Cluster 15th October , 2007 1. The Beowulf Cluster Lab was sponsored by a National Science Foundation Major Research Infrastructure grant that goal, this document lays out how external entities may use the Beowulf Cluster. All funds

Jain, Amit

254

The effect of dietary inositol and choline on the laying performance and liver lipids in the laying hen  

E-print Network

liver has cells which azs large, distended with fat aud with the nucleus of the cell forced to the side rather than being toward. the center as is found in normal cells, At the t1me the syndrome was first diagnosed and described. , experimerts... in progress showed symptoms of the condition when hens over one year old were fed. a h1gh fat diet, In other exper1ments, hens in the first lay1ng cycle also showed signs of the syndrome when fed a fat free diet, Attempts to transmit the syndrome from...

Grossie, Vernon Bruce

2012-06-07

255

Climate change and micro-geographic variation in laying date.  

PubMed

Climate change has been shown to affect the timing of reproduction, with earlier reproduction being associated with an increase in temperature. Changes in the timing of reproduction arise from changes in food availability as well as other factors, and differences in the timing of reproduction among sites may cause sites with early reproduction to contribute disproportionately to local recruitment. In this study, spatial variation in the laying date of barn swallows Hirundo rustica at 39 sites in a 45-km2 study area during the period 1971-2004 was used to investigate micro-geographic patterns in the timing of breeding. I found that individuals breeding at sites with early reproduction had a disproportionately large reproductive success. Early sites were characterized by early plant phenology, as determined by the date of leafing of the broad-leaved elm Ulmus glabra and date of flowering of the snowdrop Galanthus nivalis during a single year. Such early sites showed greater advancement in laying date between 1971 and 2004 than the average site. Early sites were also generally occupied during more years by a larger number of breeders than were late sites. Breeders at early sites produced more fledglings, and breeders at such sites were characterized by a smaller adult body size and larger secondary sexual characters than individuals at the average site. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that temporal changes in the timing of reproduction occur as a consequence of differential recruitment at phenologically early sites that produce disproportionately large numbers of offspring. PMID:18224340

Mřller, Anders Pape

2008-04-01

256

Laying, operating innovations pace move to deeper water  

SciTech Connect

Innovations driven by the offshore industry's move into deeper, colder water and its continuing demand for solid operating research were highlighted in technical papers presented at the 26th Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, May 2--5. For pipe line connecting and laying operations, there were discussions concerning: a diverless jumper connector system for two 12-in. lines to be carried out in 2,130 ft water depth; what's believed to be the first near vertical, deepwater, J-lay project, conducted in 2,860 ft of water; first year results from operation of a prototype subsea, ROV-controlled, lightweight pipe line trencher for flexible lines. In operating research, scientists reported on new laboratory test apparatus and results designed to investigate wax deposition and gel strength of waxy live crude oils. Operators, perhaps for the first time, have data on the impact of oil bubble point, flowrate and paraffin inhibitor on wax deposition and the impact of oil bubble point and pipe size on the gel strength of waxy crudes, including both stock tank oils and live oils.

Not Available

1994-08-01

257

Relationship between laying sequence and mercury concentration in tree swallow eggs.  

PubMed

When female birds lay eggs, some of their body burden of mercury is eliminated into each egg, potentially leading to declining mercury across the clutch. However, there was no decline in mercury with laying sequence in clutches of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at a mercury-contaminated site, presumably due to daily replenishment of mercury in females during laying. Sampling just one egg from the nest provided an accurate measure of clutch mercury contamination. PMID:20821552

Brasso, Rebecka L; Abdel Latif, Marwa K; Cristol, Daniel A

2010-05-01

258

Understanding Nano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nanotechnology can be a complicated topic. The Understanding Nano website is dedicated to providing clear and concise explanations of nanotechnology applications along with information on companies working in each area.

2013-07-05

259

Evaluation of guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens  

E-print Network

, inducing molt, and post-molt laying performance. Feeding a grape pomace diet to laying hens was considered to be a preferable molting method to conventional FW in view of animal rights issues (Keshavarz and Quimby, 2002). Biggs et al. (2003) found..., inducing molt, and post-molt laying performance. Feeding a grape pomace diet to laying hens was considered to be a preferable molting method to conventional FW in view of animal rights issues (Keshavarz and Quimby, 2002). Biggs et al. (2003) found...

Zhang, Cheng

2005-11-01

260

Coastal Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coastal Explorations is a virtual photojournal that allows learners to explore a variety of coastal formations and unique features in many different locations along the California and New Jersey coasts. Learners investigate the differences and similarities between California and New Jersey coasts. Areas to explore include coastal processes and coastal issues such as erosion, how human activities modify shorelines, and development issues people living on the coast encounter.

Bodzin, Alec; Lemon, Cheryl

2004-08-22

261

Exploring Earthspace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. The magnetopause is discussed at length, including the processes involved in the interaction and satellite explorations of the region in space. This is part of a large web site on Exploring the Earth's Magnetosphere. A Spanish translation is available.

Stern, David

2005-09-19

262

Exploring the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several scholars have explored the question of parity between federal and state courts in a variety of other contexts, the empirical question whether state courts are systematically biased against taxpayers seeking the protection of federal law has gone largely unexamined. This Essay offers a preliminary exploration of that issue. Specifically, it presents a study of all reported state court

Bradley W. Joondeph

2003-01-01

263

Exploring Green Jobs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students complete a Myers-Briggs Type Inventory of their personality type as an introductory step to understanding what green jobs might suit their personal styles. From the information on this online tool, they look at different Green Jobs to explore possible careers.

2007-01-01

264

Exploring Racism through Photography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

2010-01-01

265

Laying characteristics of one- and two-year old pheasants (Phasianus colchicus, L.).  

PubMed

The aim ofthe study was to assess laying traits, the weight of eggs and characters ofthe laying rhythm of pheasants in the first and second years of reproduction. Pheasants (10 cockerels and 50 hens) were kept in aviaries. Daily, individual control of laying was performed beginning with the day of the first laying and ending with the last egg. The following parameters were evaluated: age at first laying, length of the laying period, number of laid eggs and the average weight of the egg in the 8th week of laying. The laying rhythm was also assessed and comprised: the number of egg clutches, the number of eggs in a clutch, the number of eggs in the longest clutch, the number of intervals, the length of intervals and the longest interval between clutches. During the first period of reproduction, in comparison with the second, pheasants laid slightly more eggs of similar average weight. The first laying period was longer than the second and was characterised by a greater number of egg clutches and greater number of intervals between clutches. The greatest number of eggs was laid in 10-egg and longer clutches, although the l-egg clutches were the most numerous. A positive correlation was found between the number of eggs and the number of clutches, the greatest number of eggs in a clutch and the number of intervals between clutches. The similar values of the reproductive characters of one- and two-year old pheasants point to the possibility of longer utilization of these birds than only for one laying period. On the other hand, the considerable variability between the experimental hens with regard to the number and the length of egg clutches, as well as the intervals between them, indicate the possibility to carry out selection taking into account traits characterising the laying rhythm. PMID:17687936

Krystianiak, Stanis?awa; Kontecka, Helena; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Rosi?ski, Andrzej

2007-01-01

266

Understanding Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from University of California Museum of Paleontology, features free, image-rich teaching resources that communicate what science is and how it works, with a focus on the process of science and its dynamic nature. The project is geared toward K-16 teacher preparation as well as broader public understanding of the nature of science.

Paleontology, University O.

267

Understanding Autobiographical  

E-print Network

. Schacter William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Psychology, Harvard University, and author of The Seven Sins, and then breaks down in aging; its social and cultural aspects; and its relation to personality and the self shown its practical relevance by deepening our understanding of several clinical disorders ­ as well

268

Understanding Instructions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…

Milburn, Val

269

THE ROLE OF THE INTESTINE IN CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS IN THE LAYING HEN (1)  

E-print Network

THE ROLE OF THE INTESTINE IN CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS IN THE LAYING HEN (1) S. HURWITZ Division represent vectorial movements of calcium in and out of the pool. Calcium moves into the pool by intestinal is secreted during 19-20 hours. Since shell secretion occupies only part of the laying cycle, large metabolic

Boyer, Edmond

270

A descriptive study of lay presidents of American Catholic colleges and universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last thirty years more and more lay leaders have transitioned to prominent roles as presidents of American Catholic colleges and universities. This study provides a comprehensive demographic look at the lay women and men who lead over half of the nation's Catholic colleges and universities, as well as provides interesting and noteworthy findings on their perceptions regarding many

Richard Charles Petriccione

2009-01-01

271

Disorders of Cholecalciferol Metabolism in Old Egg-Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that the rate of cracked or soft-shelled eggs markedly increases in old laying hens. We investigated the effect of age on cholecalciferol me tabolism in different age groups of laying hens. The egg production rate in hens more than 500 days old was maintained within a range of about 70% of that in young hens (230-320

ETSUKO ABE; HIROSHI HORIKAWA; TADAHIRO MASUMURA; MICHIHIRO SUGAHARA; MINORU KUBOTA

272

Effects of Poultry by Product Meal on Laying Performance Egg Quality and Storage Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effects of poultry by-product meal (PBPM) with the diet on laying hen performance and egg quality, 30 Bovans White strain laying hens of 40 wk of age, housed in individual cages, were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments. The diets were formulated with the inclusions of PBPM at 0, 5 and 10% levels. For the effect of

2006-01-01

273

Complete Genome Sequence of Gallibacterium anatis Strain UMN179, Isolated from a Laying Hen with Peritonitis ?  

PubMed Central

Gallibacterium anatis is a member of the normal flora of avian hosts and an important causative agent of peritonitis and salpingitis in laying hens. Here we report the availability of the first completed G. anatis genome sequence of strain UMN179, isolated from an Iowa laying hen with peritonitis. PMID:21602325

Johnson, Timothy J.; Fernandez-Alarcon, Claudia; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Nolan, Lisa K.; Trampel, Darrell W.; Seemann, Torsten

2011-01-01

274

Genetic architecture underlying convergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in a seed-feeding beetle  

E-print Network

may require little genetic modification, and homoplasy could arise from similar or even identicalGenetic architecture underlying convergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in a seed genetic mechanisms. We examined the con- vergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in the seed

Fox, Charles W.

275

Children's Understanding of Ownership Transfers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of ownership entails the recognition that ownership can be transferred permanently and the ability to differentiate legitimate from illegitimate transfers. Two experiments explored the development of this understanding in 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year olds, using stories about gift-giving and stealing. The possibility that children use…

Blake, Peter R.; Harris, Paul L.

2009-01-01

276

Species Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among other things, the Internet is a great way to bring together geographically distant pieces of information and observations. The Species Explorer website does just that, by allowing visitors to contribute their observations of wildlife via their computer or mobile phone quickly and simply. The goals of Species Explorer are diverse and they include the idea that it is important "to encourage the level of 'citizen science' in the general public" and "to provide a platform for parent-child learning." After reading a bit of background about the project, visitors can continue to learn exactly what they will need to participate. After registering, visitors can also explore the existing observations via the Species Explorer Online application. It's a remarkable site and a remarkable idea, and one that will hopefully spur others to participate and maybe even to create new innovations in a similar vein.

Antinori, Maxim

277

Aerial Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

2005-01-01

278

Cell Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the parts of a virtual animal cell in this interactive activity adapted from the Exploratorium. Learn about various cell structures and the roles they play in cell division, cellular respiration, and protein synthesis.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

279

Underwater Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Web site comes the Underwater Exploration educational pages. The cool science link tells about decompression, underwater archaeology, student aquanaut research, and more. Other pages include diving, which has information on types of diving and diving hand signals, experiments, quizzes, an underwater exploration timeline, and a tools and gear link that describes such things as scuba gear and diving bells.

2001-01-01

280

Exploring Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a temperature higher than the inside of your oven and atmospheric pressure equal to that a kilometer under the ocean, the surface of Venus is one of the most hostile environments in the solar system, and Venus exploration presents a challenge to technology. This lecture presents mission trade-offs and discusses a proposed mission concept for rover and aircraft based exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus. Several approaches to the technology, electronics, mechanical parts, and power systems, are discussed.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

2008-01-01

281

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

282

Ricardian Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ricardian Explorer, implemented on the internet, simulates a Ricardian trade model with linear production technology and a CES utility function. The typical simulation has two countries and two goods. While Ricardian explorer was developed to supplement a course in international trade, it can also be used in intermediate microeconomics and microeconomic principles courses. The authors of the simulation are Alberto Isgut and Tanya Rosenblat of Wesleyan University.

Blecha, Betty J.

283

Understanding Flight  

SciTech Connect

Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

Anderson, David

2001-01-31

284

Understanding Cladistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students explore cladistics by creating a cladogram. The activity opens with background information for teachers about cladistics. After discussing the relationship of some familiar mammals, students learn about how scientists use cladistics to determine evolutionary relationships among animals. Working in pairs, students complete a worksheet that directs them to examine coins and create a cladogram based on their shared characteristics. Then, small groups of students examine dinosaur illustrations, identify their shared features, and those features to classify the dinosaurs.

285

Understanding Depression  

PubMed Central

To understand the effects of depression on a patient's life, the physician must be aware how depression manifests itself. Somatic tension, strategies to relieve discomfort and social withdrawal must be recognized as symptoms of depression. An awareness of life situations which can give rise to these symptoms, as well as the effect of the physician's own reactions to the patient's depression, are helpful. PMID:21289767

McNair, F. E.

1981-01-01

286

Understanding Drought  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Drought--This webcast provides an introduction to drought. It presents the measures and scales of drought and how drought is monitored. It also covers how drought is predicted, the impacts of drought, and provides information about drought-related resources. This content serves as a foundation to learning more about climate variability and operational climate services and prepares users for the national implementation of NIDIS. This module was last updated on Sept 28, 2009.

Comet

2009-02-11

287

Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

1985-01-01

288

An exploration of tourist shopping  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model to better understand tourists' shopping by investigating factors that influence this consumption activity based on existing literature. Specifically, this study explored the influences...

Oh, Yoon-Jung

2009-05-15

289

Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.  

PubMed

Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research into implications of gut bacteria, their metabolites and the polyamine system on brain and behavior in laying hens. PMID:23313560

Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

2013-02-17

290

Irrational categorization, natural intolerance and reasonable discrimination: Lay representations of prejudice and racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how the constructs of 'prejudice' and 'racism' were used and understood by respondents in an interview study concerning the settlement of Albanian refugees in Greece. Analysis indicated the existence of multiple, potentially contradictory, common sense understandings of prejudice and racism, analogous to some accounts of the prejudice construct in academic social psychology. However, notwithstanding the fact that

Lia Figgou; Susan Condor

2006-01-01

291

Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate of DDGS. Hens fed 25% DDGS had the highest N and P retention. PMID:21844261

Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J

2011-09-01

292

Lay conceptions of the ethical and scientific justifications for random allocation in clinical trials.  

PubMed

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) play a central role in modern medical advance, and they require participants who understand and accept the procedures involved. Published evidence suggests that RCT participants often fail to understand that treatments are allocated at random and that clinicians are in equipoise about which treatment is best. We examine background assumptions that members of the public might draw upon if invited to take part in a RCT. Four studies (N=82; 67; 67; 128), in the UK, identified whether members of the public (i). accept that an individual clinician might be genuinely unsure which of two treatments was better; (ii). judge that when there is uncertainty it is acceptable to suggest deciding at random; (iii). recognise scientific benefits of random allocation to treatment conditions in a trial. Around half the participants were loathe to accept that a clinician could be completely uncertain, and this was no different whether the context was one of individual treatment or research. Most participants found it unacceptable to suggest allocating treatment at random, though there was weak evidence that a research context may reduce the unacceptability. Participants did not judge that more certain knowledge would be gained about which treatment was best when treatments were allocated at random rather than by patient/doctor choice: scientific benefits of randomisation were apparently not recognised. Judgements were no different in non-medical contexts. Results suggest a large mismatch between the assumptions underlying the trial design, and the assumptions that lay participants can bring to bear when they try to make sense of descriptive information about randomisation and equipoise. Previous attempts to improve understanding by improving the clarity or salience of trial information, or of making explicit the research context, while helpful, may need to be supplemented with accessible explanations for random allocation. PMID:14672595

Robinson, Elizabeth J; Kerr, Cicely; Stevens, Andrew; Lilford, Richard; Braunholtz, David; Edwards, Sarah

2004-02-01

293

Understanding Planetesimals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetesimals represent turning points in planetary formation, when the materials required for building planets are first incorporated into bodies with radii from tens to hundreds of kilometers or larger, and are sometimes differentiated into metallic cores and silicate mantles. These early celestial bodies are the accretionary step between the dust of the planetary nebula and the cadre of rocky planets. Thus, planetesimals hold the keys to understanding how Earth was formed, when water was deposited on Earth, and why Earth and other rocky planets may differ in composition.

Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

2014-03-01

294

Exploring Shadows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guide features three related explorations to help learners ages 3-6 investigate shadows via the following science concepts: A shadow is made when an object blocks the light; you can change the size of a shadow by moving an object closer to or farther from the light; and, you can change the shape of a shadow by turning the object. Exploring Shadows is one unit in the Peep Event Kit, which also offers explorations of Structures and ramps, respectively. The guide provides an agenda for a 1-hour science event, a customizable flyer, family handout (English and Spanish) and activity handout (English and Spanish). Learners can view a related Peep and the Big Wide World video story before or after the activity.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-01-01

295

Exploring Ramps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide features three related ramp explorations in which learners investigate the following science concepts: when placed on a ramp, some objects roll, others slide, and others stay put; the shape of an object and its placement on a ramp affect how the object moves; and, the steepness of a ramp affects how far and fast an object will roll. Exploring Ramps is one unit in the Peep Event Kit, which also offers explorations of shadows and structures, respectively. The guide provides an agenda for a 1-hour science event, a customizable flyer and family handouts (English and Spanish). Learners can view a related Peep and the Big Wide World video story before or after the activity.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-01-01

296

Biodiversity Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Museums Online: South Africa, Biodiversity Explorer "is devoted to showing and explaining the diversity, biology, and interactions of life on earth, particularly the life we have here in southern Africa." Biodiversity Explorer provides an astounding number of information-rich Web pages covering regional plants, scorpions and spiders, insects, vertebrates, and marine life. Visitors will find detailed information (with references) and lots of photos within these pages, each with numerous hypertext links for exploring related topics. Visitors may browse the Web site by category or use the taxon index to locate species of interest. Don't know where to start? The Spotlight feature offers a few interesting examples, such as water bears that can remain dormant for over 100 years and how the San hunters use poisonous beetles for the tips of their arrows.

2007-07-02

297

Mars Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mars Exploration is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about Mariner missions, Viking missions, Mars Observer, Mars Surveyor Program, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Polar Lander and Climate Orbiter, Mars 2001, and Mars 2003. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

298

Understanding ayurveda.  

PubMed

Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole. PMID:21829307

Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

2010-01-01

299

Pizza Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access Excellence presents Purdue University's Pizza Explorer, an engaging teaching tool for food science designed for middle and high school students. Students learn about food processing, chemistry, and nutritional composition of eight pizza ingredients. This multimedia, interactive program aims to demonstrate how science applies to everyday life. Students can choose between two interfaces (left brain or right brain) to suit their particular learning style. Other features include a pop-up glossary, quizzes, games, and additional information about each topping (Hot Topics). Pizza Explorer takes some time to download with a 56K connection, but you can play a game while you wait.

2002-01-01

300

Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches.  

PubMed

Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

2014-01-01

301

Egg mercury levels decline with the laying sequence in charadriiformes  

SciTech Connect

Whereas pollutants do not differ in concentration among eggs of one clutch in some bird species, in gulls, terns and grebes several organochlorines show intraclutch variation: Concentrations increase with the laying sequence. Heavy metals, however, are not so intensively studied with respect to intraclutch variation. In contrast to lead and cadmium, mercury is accumulated in great quantities in eggs. Variation in mercury levels between the eggs of one clutch were low compared to interclutch variability in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Peregrine (Falco peregrinus). In gulls, however, intraclutch variation was significant and characterized by higher mercury levels in the first than in subsequently laid eggs, which is the opposite to the trend in organochlorine levels. In this paper, the author reports on investigations of intraclutch variation in mercury levels in three Charadriiform-species, Herring Gull, Common Tern and Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus). The results confirm those previously reported in gulls and point to the importance of the egg in reducing the females' mercury burden. 23 refs, 2 tabs.

Becker, P.H. (Institut fuer Vogelforschung, Wilhelmshaven (Germany))

1992-05-01

302

Lay-religious partnership needed in higher education.  

PubMed

Because of the religious values of their founders, Catholic colleges and universities are characterized by a dimension of service in addition to the goals of teaching and research. Through service to immigrants, minorities, older students, and the poor, they give evidence of their Catholic character. The responsibility for continuing the Catholic mission of higher educations rests with each institution's board of trustees and must involve a genuine partnership between lay and religious Catholics. The shift in governance, or "laicization," that has occurred in the last 20 years does not signify that a role for the original sponsoring body no longer exists. Rather, as Rev. David Hassel, SJ, recommends, a religious community must exercise "significant influence" and promote its corporate leadership in ways that do not intrude into governing authority. The fact that many institutions already have as presidents laypersons or religious from another community suggests that Catholic identity can be retained in the absence of the sponsoring group. Openness to such leadership and to new structures is essential to continuing the work of those who founded Catholic higher education. PMID:10277624

Gallin, A

1986-09-01

303

The behaviour of laying workers and the morphology and viability of their eggs in Melipona bicolor bicolor  

E-print Network

stingless bees, Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponinae) workers lay two morphologically the perspective of worker egg laying in other stingless bees. Key words. Egg morphology, egg viability, laying worker behaviour, Melipona bicolor bicolor, reproductive eggs, stingless bees, trophic eggs. Introduction

SĂŁo Paulo, Universidade de

304

Understanding the Cost of Higher Education  

E-print Network

&-lay=ART&-format=read_full.htm&-error=error.htm&ID_ pub=PUB-iHwFIYmZyB40ghD3Gv&t_Pub_PgNum=15&-SortField=t_ Pub_PgNum&-Find Terms of Use: http://www2.ku.edu/~scholar/docs/license.shtml “Understanding the Cost of Public Higher Education” with Peter Mc... with unique funding sources. The revenue sources that are largely tied to funding educational programs are tuition and state appropriations, which are summed together into a construct called “educational revenue.” Educational revenue grew 20% over...

McPherson, Peter; Shulenburger, David E.

2010-01-01

305

Exploring Time Series Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will explore time series plots and raw data to understand the role of sea surface temperature increases on arctic ice melt. This is part three of a four-part activity on polar science. The activity builds on the knowledge gained in Using Data and Images to Understand Albedo (part 2). Extension activities examining air and sea surface temperature in relation to changing Earth albedo are included. Information is provided on data access using the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Web site. This activity is one of several learning activities connected with the 2007 GLOBE Earth system poster.

306

Understanding Leukemias  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid medical students at all levels understand the laboratory diagnosis of leukemias. It includes introductory material on the basic laboratory tests specific to diagnoses, their general application and pitfalls in interpretation. The introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating the major categories of leukemia. This tutorial focuses on diagnosis and relative little on treatment is included. QuickTime movie player, Flash player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/ . Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun; braunm@indiana.edu.Annotated: falseDisease diagnosis: neoplastic

Braun, Mark

2009-11-09

307

Exploring Transformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore transformations of an absolute value function. Step by step instructions guide students in using graphing calculators to examine the effect that stretching and translating has on the coordinates of the graph. Teacher notes and a worksheet are also included to aid in teaching this lesson.

2011-11-25

308

Exploring Probability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive mathematics resource allows the user to explore the outcomes resulting from tossing a coin, rolling a die, and using a spinner to perform single and double event probabilities. The resource includes print activities, solutions, learning strategies, and a board game.

2003-01-01

309

Area Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet allows users to explore relationships between shapes with a fixed perimeter and variable area. Random irregular shapes or rectangles with a fixed perimeter are displayed on a grid, and then the user enters the area of the figure. An optional scoring feature allows users to keep track of the number correct.

1996-01-01

310

Clay Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the possibilities of clay as a natural material. At three stations, learners create sculptures, use natural items such as small pebbles, twigs, and pinecones to embellish clay structures, and paint with clay. These activities help learners discover the sensory qualities of clay as a medium.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

311

A mixed-methods assessment of the experiences of lay mental health workers in postearthquake Haiti.  

PubMed

A mixed-methodological study conducted in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake assessed experiences of 8 lay mental health workers (earthquake survivors themselves) implementing a psychosocial intervention for residents of camps for displaced people in Port-au-Prince. Quantitative results revealed decreased posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, consistently high compassion satisfaction, low burnout, moderate secondary trauma, and high levels of posttraumatic growth measured over 18 months. Qualitative accounts from lay mental health workers revealed enhanced sense of self-worth, purpose, social connection, and satisfaction associated with helping others. Results support the viability of utilizing local lay disaster survivors as implementers of psychosocial intervention. PMID:24826931

James, Leah Emily; Noel, John Roger; Roche Jean Pierre, Yves Merry

2014-03-01

312

Thermo-mechanical stresses in the lumps of laying of thermal neutron pulsed graphite reactor  

SciTech Connect

The research thermal neutron pulsed graphite reactor (PGR) is intended to get powerful neutron and gamma radiation streams. The reactor is the homogeneous carbon-uranium reactor with a graphite reflector. The reactor laying consists of a number of columns and it`s sizes are 2400* 2400*4500mm. The shape of the active zone is almost cubic, it`s sizes are 1400*1400*1330mm. There is a vertical experimental channel in the reactor laying for irradiation of test samples. The operation of the reactor is briefly described. Evaluations about the workability of the reactor laying lumps in the neutron flashout regime are made.

Boyko, V.I.; Guralev, S.S.; Koshelev, F.P. [and others

1993-12-31

313

Future Exploration of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus has been the target of exploration for half a century, before the successful Mariner 2 fly-by in December 1962. The decade after that was marked by growing sophistication in the instruments and spacecraft. During the second decade of Venus exploration (1972 - 1981) the instruments and spacecraft had advanced to make the first detailed survey of the planet and image the surface. During the third decade Venus was explored with more advanced instruments such as synthetic aperture radar and by balloons - the only balloons in another atmosphere ever flown till present. Then came a long pause until 2005 when ESA launched Venus Express, which is still orbiting the planet and returning data. The nearly two-dozen missions flown to Venus have painted a puzzling picture of Venus - we still do not have answers to some key questions. The foremost is why did Venus evolve so differently from Earth? International space agencies and scientists have been considering various approaches to exploring Venus through small and large missions. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (NASA) has developed a Venus Exploration Roadmap and a comprehensive list of goals, objectives and investigations (www.lpi.usra.edu/vexag), but an international coordinated, comprehensive plan to explore Venus is needed. To fill this void, the COSPAR International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) has been active in fostering dialog and discussions among the space faring agencies. One small step in the future exploration of Venus is the formation of a joint Science Definition Team (SDT) (NASA and Roscosmos/IKI) for Russia’s Venera-D mission in early 2014. The team is expected to submit a report to respective agencies in early 2015. Towards identifying key surface regions and atmospheric regions of Venus, a workshop is being held in May 2014 by VEXAG to seek community input. It is likely that calls for proposals for missions will also be announced under the M class by ESA and under the Discovery Program by NASA during 2014. Given that the science questions about Venus are many - ranging from the surface and interior and extending into the atmosphere to 120 km and beyond, it is likely that there will be opportunities for other efforts to contribute to the comprehensive exploration of Venus. If undertaken in a coordinated and collaborative manner, we may make substantial progress in understanding Venus, why and/or how it evolved differently from Earth. This knowledge will help us understand Earth-like rocky planets around other stars that are being discovered at a rapid pace now.

Limaye, Sanjay

314

Understanding disgust.  

PubMed

Disgust is characterized by a remarkably diverse set of stimulus triggers, ranging from extremely concrete (bad tastes and disease vectors) to extremely abstract (moral transgressions and those who commit them). This diversity may reflect an expansion of the role of disgust over evolutionary time, from an origin in defending the body against toxicity and disease, through defense against other threats to biological fitness (e.g., incest), to involvement in the selection of suitable interaction partners, by motivating the rejection of individuals who violate social and moral norms. The anterior insula, and to a lesser extent the basal ganglia, are implicated in toxicity- and disease-related forms of disgust, although we argue that insular activation is not exclusive to disgust. It remains unclear whether moral disgust is associated with insular activity. Disgust offers cognitive neuroscientists a unique opportunity to study how an evolutionarily ancient response rooted in the chemical senses has expanded into a uniquely human social cognitive domain; many interesting research avenues remain to be explored. PMID:22256964

Chapman, Hanah A; Anderson, Adam K

2012-03-01

315

Getting Started in Mars Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an introduction in a series of activities on Mars that use images as integral parts of the lesson. Students are introduced to the images and begin a Mars journal. The purpose is to probe students' understanding of Mars to give the teacher a sense of the students' particular interests, misconceptions, and general understanding of Mars, the solar system, and space exploration.

316

Task shifting in maternal and newborn care: a non-inferiority study examining delegation of antenatal counseling to lay nurse aides supported by job aids in Benin  

PubMed Central

Background Shifting the role of counseling to less skilled workers may improve efficiency and coverage of health services, but evidence is needed on the impact of substitution on quality of care. This research explored the influence of delegating maternal and newborn counseling responsibilities to clinic-based lay nurse aides on the quality of counseling provided as part of a task shifting initiative to expand their role. Methods Nurse-midwives and lay nurse aides in seven public maternities were trained to use job aids to improve counseling in maternal and newborn care. Quality of counseling and maternal knowledge were assessed using direct observation of antenatal consultations and patient exit interviews. Both provider types were interviewed to examine perceptions regarding the task shift. To compare provider performance levels, non-inferiority analyses were conducted where non-inferiority was demonstrated if the lower confidence limit of the performance difference did not exceed a margin of 10 percentage points. Results Mean percent of recommended messages provided by lay nurse aides was non-inferior to counseling by nurse-midwives in adjusted analyses for birth preparedness (? = -0.0, 95% CI: -9.0, 9.1), danger sign recognition (? = 4.7, 95% CI: -5.1, 14.6), and clean delivery (? = 1.4, 95% CI: -9.4, 12.3). Lay nurse aides demonstrated superior performance for communication on general prenatal care (? = 15.7, 95% CI: 7.0, 24.4), although non-inferiority was not achieved for newborn care counseling (? = -7.3, 95% CI: -23.1, 8.4). The proportion of women with correct knowledge was significantly higher among those counseled by lay nurse aides as compared to nurse-midwives in general prenatal care (? = 23.8, 95% CI: 15.7, 32.0), birth preparedness (? = 12.7, 95% CI: 5.2, 20.1), and danger sign recognition (? = 8.6, 95% CI: 3.3, 13.9). Both cadres had positive opinions regarding task shifting, although several preferred 'task sharing' over full delegation. Conclusions Lay nurse aides can provide effective antenatal counseling in maternal and newborn care in facility-based settings, provided they receive adequate training and support. Efforts are needed to improve management of human resources to ensure that effective mechanisms for regulating and financing task shifting are sustained. PMID:21211045

2011-01-01

317

Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana  

SciTech Connect

The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165�������������������������������°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250���������������¢�������������������������������� of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the ���������������¢��������������������������������center���������������¢������������������������������� of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165�������������������������������°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

2012-09-26

318

Understanding Genetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While most people may retain a smattering of information and basic concepts about the field of genetics, some may also wish to refresh their knowledge base, and the Understanding Genetics website is a fine way to get back up to speed. Created and maintained by the good people at the Tech Museum of Innovation in San Jose, the homepage is well thought out, and provides a nice entry point to many of the features available here. Visitors can peruse the questions posed to geneticists in the "Ask a Geneticist" feature, browse a selection of recent news stories regarding genetics, and take a survey on the ethical questions posed by the issues of stem cell research and genetically modified foods. The feature story is a fine resource as well, as it provides basic, non-jargon-laden answers to such question as "What is a gene?" and "How do genes work?". The site also contains a number of activities that can be done at home, including a fun exercise that teaches users how to extract DNA from strawberries.

319

Toxicokinetic study of dioxins and furans in laying chickens.  

PubMed

Since foodstuffs from animal origin and particularly poultry products have been pointed out several times as reservoir of dioxins and related compounds, notably in Belgium few years ago, food chain safety issues appeared. Although food chain contamination incidents occurred many times through contaminated feedstuffs consumption in commercial chicken farms, very few studies have been carried out on transfer of dioxins and related compounds from commercial feed to hens. The present work continues a preliminary study on dioxin transfer in laying chickens carried out in our lab and available on-line on November 2004 in Environment International. In this work, absorption of dioxins were not preferential for 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, increase with increasing number of chlorines, and was not linearly dependent of the octanol/water partition. Only 2,3,7,8-congeners were found in all organs studied, and these latter showed the same congener profile and similar lipid-normalized concentration, except for the liver. Abdominal fat and liver seemed to be the major storage sites and the liver preferentially retained highly chlorinated congeners. Unfortunately in this previous trial, laying process stopped very early for unknown reason leading to a considerable lost of information. In the present toxicokinetic study, more complete gastrointestinal absorption, excretion in eggs and bioaccumulation of dioxins in different tissues were investigated in chickens fed for 14 weeks with a 9 ng TEQ/kg contaminated feed. Stable levels were reached after 7 weeks in excreta and 9 weeks in eggs. During the whole trial, gastrointestinal absorption ranged between 41% and 91% depending on the congener. At steady state conditions, excretion of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF exceeded 100% demonstrating excretion from tissues of these congeners which were also the most abundant in feed. 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF seemed to be metabolized more efficiently. Lipid adjusted concentrations and pattern were unexpectedly similar in the abdominal fat and the liver. On the contrary, eggs and breast muscles showed different pattern with higher level for high chlorinated congeners. When extrapolating our results, we found that a feed containing 0.750 ng TEQ/kg of dioxins (European norm for feedstuff) would cause a level lower than the maximum threshold level of 3 pg TEQ/g fat for chicken eggs fixed by European Communities. Nevertheless, a concentration lower than 0.6 ng TEQ/kg in feed would be needed to produce breast muscles less contaminated than 2 pg TEQ/g fat authorized in European. PMID:16325909

Pirard, Catherine; De Pauw, Edwin

2006-05-01

320

Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

Davis, Jeffrey R.

2006-01-01

321

History Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many ways to explore the various facets of history, and some of the world's leading museums have come up with a host of online multimedia tools to bring people into this subject that is sometimes erroneously perceived to be dry and uninteresting. The inventive people at the National Museum of American History have recently developed the History Explorer which allows those surfing the Web to browse through an interactive timeline of American history. The interface is composed of items from the Museum's various online collections, exhibitions and programs, such as Plymouth Rock and a world map from 1511. Visitors can zoom in and out through the timeline and its objects and also elect to toggle on or off various themes, such as "Arts and Culture", "Peopling America", and "Politics and Reform". Overall, this is a very well-thought-out tool for learning about American history and one that will engage a wide range of persons.

322

Perimeter Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom resource is designed to help science teachers introduce and guide students through topics in modern physics. The lessons, known as Perimeter Explorations, are viewable online and are the product of collaborations between Perimeter Institute's international researchers, outreach staff, and experienced educators. The current topics include "The Mystery of Dark Matter" and "The Challenges of Quantum Reality". The teaching kit includes a 25 minute video, teacher notes, student worksheets, and supplemental materials. Much of the content is available for free download.

2009-01-14

323

Triangle Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students find the areas of random triangles on a coordinate plane. There are three levels of difficulty for this online activity. This activity allows students to practice finding the distance between two points on a graph as well as using the formula for the area of a triangle. This activity features supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

324

Incorporation of Micro Processor Controllers in the Frito-Lay Energy Program  

E-print Network

The evaluation and implementation of microprocessor energy management control systems in the Frito-Lay Energy Management Program is discussed. Following thorough testing of a mini-computer based system in one manufacturing facility, energy...

Kympton, H. W.; Bowman, B. M.; Chambers, D. H.

1982-01-01

325

Serotonin Modulates Locomotory Behavior and Coordinates Egg-Laying and Movement in  

E-print Network

of movement fluctuate in a stochastic pat- tern in wild-type worms. During periods of active egg- laying and cellular level is extremely diffi- cult due to the extreme organizational complexity of vertebrate brains

Schafer, William R.

326

Mars exploration.  

PubMed

An international flotilla of spacecraft are to be sent to Mars over the next decade in an effort to understand the planet's geology and climate history, and to determine whether some form of life ever started there. At least two spacecraft will be sent at each launch opportunity, and at times up to four spacecraft may be operating simultaneously at the planet. PMID:11449287

Carr, M H; Garvin, J

2001-07-12

327

Statistical Understanding Made Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching statistics can be tough for even experienced instructors, so it is nice to learn about the Statistical Understanding Made Simple (SUMS) website. Created by researchers at the University of Glasgow, the site helps users build "interactive, fun and highly effective tutorials designed to help students understand basic statistics." Visitors who wish to have the resource generator create tutorials will need to register on the site and provide a small data set. Of course, visitors can also check out the "Ready Made Tutorials" area, where they will discover projects that examine the relationship between height and weight and the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on depression. Additionally, the site also contains several games which students can use to explore the effects of standard deviation and histograms.

328

Understanding the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Discovery Channel website explores the features of our universe. There are three sections covering various aspects of the universe, as well as a section for teachers with tips for using the website in the classroom. The Stargazers section discusses the top ten astronomers who have contributed to our current understanding of the universe: Kepler, Galileo, Brahe, Copernicus, Hubble, Einstein, Newton, Lemaitre, Penzias and Wilson. The Galaxy Tour section provides a field trip beginning in our own galaxy, the Milky Way, then moving to the magellanic clouds, the Andromeda galaxy, the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, unusual galaxies, and information from the Hubble Space Telescope. The It's Awesome section contains further information for understanding the vastness of the universe, light years and time, and includes a cosmic calendar and a mind game. Resources and links are provided for further information.

329

Effects of selected enzyme inhibitors on blood and eggshell parameters in the laying hen  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF SELECTED ENZYME INHIBITORS ON BLOOD AND EGGSHELL PARAMETERS IN THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by JODY RENEE LONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fullfilment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Poultry Science EFFECTS OF SELECTED ENZYME INHIBITORS ON BLOOD AND EGGSHELL PARANETERS IN THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by JODY RENEE LONG Approved as to style and content by: T. . Odom (Chairman...

Long, Jody Renee

2012-06-07

330

The acceptability among French lay persons of ending the lives of damaged newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Lay persons’ judgements of the acceptability of the not uncommon practice of ending the life of a damaged neonate have not been studied.Methods:A convenience sample of 1635 lay people in France rated how acceptable it would be for a physician to end a neonate’s life—by withholding care, withdrawing care, or active euthanasia—in 54 scenarios in which the neonate was diagnosed

N Teisseyre; I Duarte dos Reis; P C Sorum; E Mullet

2009-01-01

331

Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal\\/kg of gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Processing Inc., Sergeant Bluff, IA). A total of forty-eight 40-wk-old laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) were

P. J. Lammers; B. J. Kerr; M. S. Honeyman; K. Stalder; W. A. Dozier III; T. E. Weber; M. T. Kidd; K. Bregendahl

2008-01-01

332

Protection of laying hens against infectious bronchitis with inactivated emulsion vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially-reared laying chickens were challenged at 31 weeks of age with a virulent infectious bronchitis (IB) virus. They showed a sharp drop in egg production, despite having been vaccinated at four and eight weeks old with live attenuated IB vaccines to a recommended schedule. In contrast, similar birds that had been further immunised at point-of-lay with inactivated oil emulsion IB

PG Box; AV Beresford; B Roberts

1980-01-01

333

Opening Pathways to Cancer Screening for Vietnamese-American Women: Lay Health Workers Hold a Key  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose.We describe a controlled trial of a community outreach intervention to promote recognition, receipt, and screening-interval maintenance of clinical breast examinations (CBE), mammograms, and Pap smears among Vietnamese-American women.Methods.Over a 3-year period, indigenous lay health workers conducted small-group sessions of Vietnamese women in a low-income district of San Francisco, California. Women in Sacramento, California, served as controls. Lay workers conducted

Joyce Adair Bird; Stephen J. McPhee; Ngoc-The Ha; Bich Le; Thomas Davis; Christopher N. H. Jenkins

1998-01-01

334

Egg Shell Quality and Cholecalciferol Metabolism in Aged Laying Hens1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium-binding protein D28K (calbindin) synthesis, vitamin D metabolism and shell quality were investigated in young and aged laying hens fed diets con taining either cholecalciferol (CC) or its 1-hydroxylated de rivatives. Duodenal calbindin concentration was similar in the young and in the aged laying hens. Exogenous 1-hy droxylated CC derivatives increased duodenal calbindin concentration, regardless of age. Shell weight and

ARIE BAR; JACOB ROSENBERG

335

Understanding Scale: Powers of Ten  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classic film "Powers of Ten" is often employed to catalyze the building of more accurate conceptions of scale, yet its effectiveness is largely unknown. This study examines the impact of the film on students' concepts of size and scale. Twenty-two middle school students and six science teachers participated. Students completed pre- and post-intervention interviews and a Scale Card Sorting (SCS) task; all students observed the film "Powers of Ten." Experienced teachers' views on the efficacy of the film were assessed through a short written survey. Results showed that viewing the film had a positive influence on students' understandings of powers of ten and scale. Students reported that they had more difficulty with sizes outside of the human scale and found small scales more difficult to conceptualize than large scales. Students' concepts of relative size as well as their ability to accurately match metric sizes in scientific notation to metric scale increased from pre- to post-viewing of the film. Experienced teachers reported that the film was a highly effective tool. Teachers reported that the design of the film that allowed students to move slowly from the human scale to the large and small scales and then quickly back again was effective in laying the foundation for understanding the different scales.

Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy; Minogue, James; Broadwell, Bethany; Wiebe, Eric; Carter, Glenda

2007-04-01

336

Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.  

PubMed

There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning. PMID:22911059

Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

2012-10-01

337

Identification of putative egg-laying hormone containing neuronal systems in gastropod molluscs.  

PubMed

Of gastropod molluscs, only in the Aplysiidae and the Lymnaeidae have the genes encoding the respective egg-laying hormones been cloned and the neurons controlling egg laying and egg-laying behavior been identified. Immunocytochemistry, using antibodies raised against alpha-CDCP (one of the neuropeptides encoded on the egg-laying hormone gene of Lymnaea stagnalis), identified neurons in various species of gastropods. In the basommatophoran snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, large and small neurons were observed in areas of the central nervous system similar to where immunoreactive cells exist in L. stagnalis, i.e., in the cerebral and pleural ganglia. In the stylommatophoran snail (Helix aspersa) and the slug (Limax maximus), large immunopositive neurons occur in the visceral and right parietal ganglia. In L. maximus, small immunoreactive neurons were found in the cerebral ganglia while in H. aspersa similar cells were observed intermingled with the large cells in the visceral and right parietal ganglia. Similar to the situation in L. stagnalis, in the female part of the reproductive tract of B. glabrata, L. maximus, and A. californica, but not in H. aspersa, neurons and/or fiber tracts are present. The results indicate that egg-laying hormone precursor molecules of gastropod molluscs are phylogenetically closely related. The alpha-CDCP antiserum may allow the identification of hitherto unknown egg-laying regulating systems of gastropod molluscs. PMID:1505734

van Minnen, J; Schallig, H D; Ramkema, M D

1992-04-01

338

Influence of front curtain design on nest choice by laying hens.  

PubMed

1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of front curtains, one-piece (OP) or sliced in stripes (SL), on the hens' nest preference and laying behaviour in an aviary system. We predicted that hens prefer SL-nests as they could perform nest inspections and enter and leave the nest along its whole width leading to fewer conflicts and more settled laying behaviour. 2. Eight pens containing 20 White Leghorn laying hens were equipped with two roll-away nests, one with OP and one with SL curtains. Laying behaviour was recorded for two days at peak lay in weeks 25 and 26. 3. More nest visits and more nest entries and exits along the whole width of the nest were counted in SL-nests. More sitting events without egg laying were performed in the OP-nests. No differences were found in the number of hens visiting the nests, egg number or aggressive behaviour. 4. Hens appeared to value the seclusion and protection provided by a closed front curtain. However, sliced curtains provided more opportunities to perform nest inspections. PMID:23281747

Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

2012-01-01

339

Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages  

PubMed Central

The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

Hrab?áková, Petra; Voslá?ová, Eva; Bedá?ová, Iveta; Pišt?ková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimír

2014-01-01

340

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This K-12 education program gives students (especially in the Phoenix, AZ area) opportunities to take part in real scientific research led by Central Arizona - Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) scientists. Using this site, students learn data collection techniques used by scientists, called protocols. They collect initial data, using the protocols they have learned, and apply it in looking for patterns at their own research site (schoolyard or backyard). Their data can also be shared with other researchers and school kids to see what patterns in nature exist across the Phoenix metropolitan area. Their own hypotheses and experiments will lead to a better understanding of why those patterns exist and will help them to understand what real scientists are doing in their laboratories. Topics covered include arthropods, beetles, seeds, birds and vegetation.

341

Exploring Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Estuaries introduces students of various ages to the ecology of estuaries, places where freshwater rivers and streams flow into the ocean, mixing with the seawater. It is part of a broader effort by the National Estuary Program to educate the general public about estuaries and to restore and protect these sensitive ecosystems. It offers interactive games and activities as well as virtual tours of Long Island Sound and the Barataria-Terrebonne Estuarine Complex near New Orleans. A glossary page defines technical terms used throughout the site. Resources also are provided for teachers and students interested in learning more about related organizations, publications, and websites.

342

Lightning Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lightning Explorer provides a map of the U.S. showing recent lightning strikes. The Discover Lightning section includes a FAQ sheet, glossary, bibliography on real-time lightning detection networks, personal safety information, scientific papers, and a link to a photo gallery. The scientific papers cover lightning safety, the physics of lightning, the U.S. Lightning Detection Network and related applications, 3D total lightning, long-range and oceanic lightning detection, and meteorological applications. Products and services include real-time tracking, lightning notification, detection systems and a bulletin board.

343

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

344

Exploring Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

Emily, Miss

2010-01-29

345

Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality  

PubMed Central

The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ? 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

2013-01-01

346

Postsynaptic ERG potassium channels limit muscle excitability to allow distinct egg-laying behavior states in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

C. elegans regulates egg laying by alternating between an inactive phase and a serotonin-triggered active phase. We found that the conserved ERG potassium channel UNC-103 enables this two-state behavior by limiting excitability of the egg-laying muscles. Using both high-speed video recording and calcium imaging of egg-laying muscles in behaving animals, we found that the muscles appear to be excited at a particular phase of each locomotor body bend. During the inactive phase, this rhythmic excitation infrequently evokes calcium transients or contraction of the egg-laying muscles. During the serotonin-triggered active phase, however, these muscles are more excitable and each body bend is accompanied by a calcium transient that drives twitching or full contraction of the egg-laying muscles. We found that ERG null mutants lay eggs too frequently, and that ERG function is necessary and sufficient in the egg-laying muscles to limit egg laying. ERG K+ channels localize to postsynaptic sites in the egg-laying muscle, and mutants lacking ERG have more frequent calcium transients and contractions of the egg-laying muscles even during the inactive phase. Thus ERG channels set postsynaptic excitability at a threshold so that further adjustments of excitability by serotonin generate two distinct behavioral states. PMID:23303953

Collins, Kevin M.; Koelle, Michael R.

2013-01-01

347

Explore Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will have far too much fun at this site to realize how much they are learning. University of Michigan physics instructor Raman Pfaff designed Explore Science, a site that features 34 Macromedia Shockwave interactive learning modules in the areas of mechanics, electricity & magnetism, life science, waves, optics, and astronomy. The captivating life science section challenges users to "reverse the field," and attempt to type a simple phrase on the shocked keyboard when the mouse behaves in an unexpected fashion. A two dimensional collision demonstration allows users to change such parameters as mass, initial velocity and table angle. The modules themselves are very entertaining, and Mr. Pfaff adds a deft and light instructional touch.

348

Explore: Exploratorium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A visit to the Exploratorium in San Francisco can be the highlight of a Bay Area excursion. As a science museum, the Exploratorium provides both questions and answers for the generally curious. The museumâÂÂs Explore website provides access to many of their digital features, such as the Microscope Imaging Station, Science in the City, and Return to Mars. It's easy to see how young people can use these interactive and engaging features to supplement more traditional classroom activities. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can browse through ten topics, such as Culture, Human Body, Mind, and Seeing. It's also fun to look through the Staff Picks section, which rotate based on personal preference. You'll want to spend some time picking out favorite activities to share with friends and fellow science enthusiasts.

349

Exploring Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many students who wish to embark into the world of statistics, the whole process can be a bit daunting. Fortunately, the Exploring Data website makes such a proposition a bit easier for both students and teachers. The site is easy to navigate, and the homepage contains an index of topics and materials ranging from linear regression to sampling. Each of these sections includes activities, worksheets, and datasets that can be used in a variety of ways. More advanced students will appreciate the fact that the site also contains material that goes beyond some of the basic concepts within the field, and educators will also want to recommend this site to students who might need a bit of a refresher on certain key areas.

Boggs, Rex

2007-03-09

350

Exploring Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers several ways to explore the importance of estuaries. Virtual tours of the Barataria-Terrebone Estuarine Complex and the Long Island Sound offer photos and text of each area explain their importance to humans, wildlife, and larger ecosystems. Additional resources for kids and adults are linked. A glossary page offers a list of vocabulary associated with estuaries. The site also offers a games and activities section for kids that has coloring sheets for young children, and inquiry-based interactive games for older kids. The games include a "Who Am I" animal identification game, and a game called "Solve a Mystery" where players must follow and investigation into what's wrong with an estuary, and make a decision on the cause of the problem. There are several possible mysteries to solve, each with a different solution.

351

Evaluation of Hand Lay-Up and Resin Transfer Molding in Composite Wind Turbine Blade Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The majority of the wind turbine blade industry currently uses low cost hand lay-up manufacturing techniques to process composite blades. While there are benefits to the hand lay-up process, drawbacks inherent to this process along with advantages of other techniques suggest that better manufacturing alternatives may be available. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was identified as a processing alternative and shows promise in addressing the shortcomings of hand lay-up. This report details a comparison of the RTM process to hand lay-up of composite wind turbine blade structures. Several lay-up schedules and critical turbine blade structures were chosen for comparison of their properties resulting from RTM and hand lay-up processing. The geometries investigated were flat plate, thin and thick flanged T-stiffener, I-beam, and root connection joint. It was found that the manufacturing process played an important role in laminate thickness, fiber volume, and weight for the geometries investigated. RTM was found to reduce thickness and weight and increase fiber volumes for all substructures. RTM resulted in tighter material transition radii and eliminated the need for most secondary bonding operations. These results would significantly reduce the weight of wind turbine blades. Hand lay-up was consistently slower in fabrication times for the structures investigated. A comparison of mechanical properties showed no significant differences after employing fiber volume normalization techniques to account for geometry differences resulting from varying fiber volumes. The current root specimen design does not show significant mechanical property differences according to process and exceeds all static and fatigue requirements.

CAIRNS,DOUGLAS S.; SHRAMSTAD,JON D.

2000-06-01

352

Understanding Core-Collapse Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of core-collapse supernovae continues to improve as better microphysics is included in increasingly realistic neutrino-radiationhydrodynamic simulations. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors between 12 and 25 solar mass, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progresses on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

Hix, W. R.; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, M.; Messer, O. E. B.; Mezzacappa, A.; Lee, C.-T.; Bruenn, S. W.; Blondin, J. M.; Marronetti, P.

2010-03-01

353

Children's Understanding of Parental Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes domestic violence from the perspective of 56 preschool and school-age children during their temporary residence at a shelter for battered women. Data were extracted from transcripts of individual counseling sessions that explored the childrens' feelings about the abuse and the abuser, their strategies for coping with aggression and conflict in their families, and their understanding and feelings

Sidney R. Ornduff; Kathleen Monahan

1999-01-01

354

Museum Docents' Understanding of Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore docents' perceptions of their interpretive role in art museums and determine how those perceptions shape docents' practice. The objective was to better understand how docents conceive of their role and what shapes the interpretation they give on tours to the public. The conceptual…

Neill, Amanda C.

2010-01-01

355

On the anatomy of understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search for the nature of understanding of basic science in a clinical context, eight medical students were interviewed, with a focus on their view of the discipline of anatomy, in their fourth year of study. Interviews were semi?structured and took place just after the students had finished their surgery rotations. Phenomenographic analysis was used to explore how the students

Niklas Wilhelmsson; Lars Owe Dahlgren; Hĺkan Hult; Anna Josephson

2011-01-01

356

New opportunities for International Ocean Exploration Collaborations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2001 National Research Council report, Exploration of the Seas, advocates global ocean exploration to characterize and understand the Earth's least understood frontier. Not coincidentally, one of the priority goals of the NOAA Ocean Exploration (OE) program is to engage in projects and expeditions focused, especially, in remote regions of the world ocean and to do so in partnership with

S. R. Hammond

2005-01-01

357

Teacher-as-researcher: Making a difference through laying a solid foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An educator's determination to make a difference in the lives of her students birthed this inquiry. It is a qualitative study with the use of descriptive statistics in summarizing the survey data. The inquiry is an interweaving of the narrative inquiry method and reflective practice. The study hinges on the works of two great scholars: John Dewey, a philosopher, and Joseph Schwab, a curriculum theorist and scientist. It is all about helping students lay a solid foundation in science so that they may have a thorough understanding of the subject matter and be able to compete with their counterparts nationally and globally. The construction of the solid foundation will include foundational terms in science and their meanings, and the utilization of the SQ4R (a modification of the original SQ3R) study strategies. Other construction materials, as reflected in the voices of the students were discovered, in the study and have added some insight and richness to the study. The intent of this study is to stimulate the interest of fellow educators to examine the ideas shared in this inquiry, and to see how they can find parallel ways to meet the needs of their students. The special needs of our students differ from one classroom to the next. Among the teachers one could also observe a variety of teaching strategies and styles. My hope is for educators who will come across this study, to adopt the findings of this inquiry and adapt them to suit their needs and the needs of their students. The revision process by fellow educators could give birth to a new idea which is what scientific inquiry is all about.

Afiesimama, Jane Tambuomi

358

Media Advisory: NCI and NHGRI Launch Comprehensive Effort to Explore Cancer Genomics  

Cancer.gov

On December 13, 2005, NCI and the National Human Genome Research Institute will host a press conference to launch a human cancer genome pilot project. The project will lay the foundation for exploring genomic changes involved in cancer, with the ultimate goal of developing new means of preventing, detecting and treating cancer.

359

Le Lay Y.-F.1 et Pigay H.1  

E-print Network

appear in the appraisal of riverscape quality, particularly in the perception of large wood (LW perception of riverscapes with and without wood. Communication orale pour l'International Sociology, 2001). In order to understand the reasons for some spatial variations in LW public perception amongst

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

LAY CONCEPTS OF TOURISM IN BOSOMTWE BASIN, GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the subjective definitions of tourism and its perceived impacts by the residents around a natural lake, Lake Bosomtwe Basin, in Ghana. Data were based on a survey of residents on their understanding of the term tourism in January, 2006. Although, residents demonstrated possessing an ample knowledge of tourism, a marked difference was found in their knowledge about

Francis Eric Amuquandoh

2010-01-01

361

Exploring Magic Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nanotechnology is an area of science and engineering that occurs at the atomic and molecular level. This is certainly a difficult concept to grasp. This website, presented by The National Infrastructure Network, highlights many critical concepts to understanding this smaller scale. By using a product called "Magic Sand," the activity "will explore how the properties of a substance at the molecular level affects the way that it reacts and behaves." Additionally, students will explore nanotechnology as an emerging and interdisciplinary field. The experiment will show students how developments in the field can improve devices, materials, and structures we use on a daily basis. A student and teacher guide is provided with the lab. Overall, this is a great exercise for any science classroom interested in the workings of nanotechnology.

2009-01-16

362

Exploring Lenses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to encourage students to learn about lenses by examining them firsthand and observing their similarities and differences. They will examine various lenses and write a description of what each one looks like, what objects look like when viewed through them, and other information that they decide is necessary to enhance their understanding of how lenses change the way we look at objects. They will then brainstorm with classmates about uses for the various lenses with a focus on how a scientist might use them and what instruments might use them. As an extension, students can compile a list of scientific instruments and tools that use lenses and then list the types of lenses used in each and compare them to the lenses they have examined.

363

[Exploring Aeronautics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This summer I have been working with the N.A.S.A. Project at Cuyahoga Community College (Tri-C) under the title of Exploring Aeronautics Project Leader. The class that I have worked with is comprised of students that will enter the eighth grade in the fall of 2004. The program primarily focuses upon math proficiency and individualized class projects. My duties have encompassed both realms. During the first 2-3 weeks of my internship, I worked at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) researching, organizing, and compiling information for weekly Scholastic Challenges and the Super Scholastic Challenge. I was able to complete an overview of Scholastic Challenge and staff responsibilities regarding the competition; a proposal for an interactive learning system, Quizdom; a schedule for challenge equipment, as well as a schedule listing submission deadlines for the staff. Also included in my tasks, during these first 2-3 weeks, were assisting Tammy Allen and Candice Thomas with the student application review and interview processes for student applicants. For the student and parent orientation, I was assigned publications and other varying tasks to complete before the start of the program. Upon the commencement of the program, I changed location from NASA GRC to Tri-C Metro Campus, where student classes for the Cleveland site are held. During the duration of the program, I work with the instructor for the Exploring Aeronautics class, kkkk, assisting in classroom management, daily attendance, curriculum, project building, and other tasks as needed. These tasks include the conducting of the weekly competition, known as Scholastic Challenge. As a Project Leader, I am also responsible for one subject area of the Scholastic Challenge aspect of the N.A.S.A. Project curriculum. Each week I have to prepare a mission that the participants will take home the following Monday and at least 10 questions that will be included in the pool of questions used for the Scholastic Challenge competition on Thursdays. For at least one of these competitions, I must compile all mission and question information submitted by the staff, distribute missions to the students, and enter questions into Jeopardy formatted PowerPoint presentation. Unique to the N.A.S.A. Project are its Saturday sessions and opportunities for field trips. As a Project Leader, I am required to attend all field trips and Saturday sessions held for participants and their parent(s)/guardian(s). The Saturday sessions do not require my assistance because they are facilitated by a contracting company, Imhotep. This leaves my duties to observation unless instructed otherwise.

Robinson, Brandi

2004-01-01

364

Laying the foundation for understanding muon implantation in DNA: ab initio DFT calculations of the nucleic acid base muonium adducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muon spin relaxation studies with DNA and related materials have shown distinct differences in the behaviour of double stranded DNA compared to single stranded DNA and the free bases. Studies are now in progress to completely characterise the muonium adducts of all the bases of relevance to DNA and RNA. In order to assist in the assignments and to gain

V. S. Oganesyan; P. L. Hubbard; J. N. Butt; U. A. Jayasooriya

2003-01-01

365

Exploring the Explorers Using Internet Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of explorers and exploration is commonly taught in the upper elementary grades. Depending on state and local social studies content standards, teachers will develop a curriculum unit on Explorers of Our State for fourth grade students, a unit on Explorers of the United States for fifth graders, and one on World Explorers for sixth…

Torrez, Cheryl Franklin; Bush, Gina

2009-01-01

366

Explore UK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Explore UK website is an initiative by the University of Kentucky Special Collections and it is a true delight for anyone with an interest in this storied institution and Kentucky history more generally. First-time visitors will notice a scrolling section of images that introduce the photographs and other documents that are part of this growing collection. The sections here include Images, Athletics Archive, Board of Trustees, and Yearbooks. The Images archive includes over 30,000 images that cover everything from student life to campus buildings. There are a few thematic collections here that should not be missed. First among them is the John Tuska collection, which contains over 1,100 images of pieces created by the celebrated potter/sculptor and University of Kentucky professor. The Buildings area is quite nice as well, as it contains over 1,700 images that document both the architectural ornamentation of various buildings around campus and the overall feel of the campus layout.

2012-04-06

367

Exploring Chocolate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chocolate is "More than a food but less than a drug." From the San Francisco-based site Exploratorium (described in the February 21, 1997 Scout Report) comes a yummy compendium exploring chocolate from bean to bar and beyond. Divided into topical sections, the site examines everything from the processing of the cacao beans into chocolate to the chemical makeup and possible health benefits from indulging. Video and audio clips highlight the text, including video shot in the Amazon showing the process of cutting open and tasting cacao fruit and audio interviews with a chocolate researcher. There is also a tour of a chocolate factory, a great bibliography, and a quick lesson in tempering chocolate to make candies. So if you're looking to improve your temper during the hectic holiday season, indulge yourself for a few minutes at this site. But be warned, by the end of your visit, you'll probably find yourself yearning for something more than a virtual indulgence.

Snyder, Amy.; Spadaccini, Jim.

368

Social Instability in Laying Quail: Consequences on Yolk Steroids and Offspring's Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Individual phenotypic characteristics of many species are influenced by non-genetic maternal effects. Female birds can influence the development of their offspring before birth via the yolk steroid content of their eggs. We investigated this prenatal maternal effect by analysing the influence of laying females' social environment on their eggs' hormonal content and on their offspring's development. Social instability was applied to groups of laying Japanese quail females. We evaluated the impact of this procedure on laying females, on yolk steroid levels and on the general development of chicks. Agonistic interactions were more frequent between females kept in an unstable social environment (unstable females) than between females kept in a stable social environment (stable females). Testosterone concentrations were higher in unstable females' eggs than in those of stable females. Unstable females' chicks hatched later and developed more slowly during their first weeks of life than those of stable females. The emotional reactivity of unstable females' chicks was higher than that of stable females' chicks. In conclusion, our study showed that social instability applied to laying females affected, in a non-genetic way, their offspring's development, thus stressing the fact that females' living conditions during laying can have transgenerational effects. PMID:21124926

Guibert, Floriane; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie; Kotrschal, Kurt; Guémené, Daniel; Bertin, Aline; Möstl, Erich; Houdelier, Cécilia

2010-01-01

369

GH gene polymorphisms and expression associated with egg laying in muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata).  

PubMed

Accumulated evidence suggests that the growth hormone (GH) gene plays a physiological role in the control of reproductive function. Here, we examined the correlation between egg-laying traits and GH gene polymorphisms and expression patterns in the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata). PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism was used to identify polymorphisms in intron 3 of GH. One single nucleotide polymorphism (g.3270 A > G) was detected by sequencing, and the frequencies of the A and G alleles in the population were 0.65 and 0.35, respectively. A comparison test showed that the AA genotype group had more consecutive laying days and more eggs at 300 days than the GG genotype group (P < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference for the age at first laying (P > 0.05). Such a significant correlation between GH polymorphisms and egg-laying performance suggested that GH could be a candidate locus affecting the laying trait in muscovy duck. Furthermore, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR demonstrated that GH is expressed in all selected tissues, but is highly expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and heart. This unique expression pattern suggested that GH may exert its local physiological function through the autocrine or paracrine pathway during gonad development and growth in the muscovy duck. The data presented in this paper revealed GH polymorphisms and expression patterns in the muscovy duck and indicated a potential regulatory effect of GH on reproduction. PMID:24628564

Wu, X; Yan, M J; Lian, S Y; Liu, X T; Li, A

2014-02-01

370

Self-certification in lay midwives' organizations: a vehicle for professional autonomy.  

PubMed

The recent resurgence of lay midwifery in the United States has been intimately connected with the establishment of grassroots organizations which address women's health issues and make the reappearance of the lay midwife a different kind of phenomenon than was the case earlier in this century. This paper describes the organizational structure of 32 lay midwives' organizations and compares them to a model of alternative women's health groups as well as more traditional health professional organizations. Are lay midwives' groups the beginnings of new professional organizations which eventually will become part of the dominant system or do they model themselves more closely after alternative women's health groups? Voluntary self-certification in five lay midwives' groups is described in detail as a means of determining how a group handles the question of integration with or separation from the existing medical care system. Certification plays a critical role in promoting acceptance and credibility of midwifery practice and is seen increasingly as a mechanism to preempt regulation by another body. PMID:2367878

Butter, I H; Kay, B J

1990-01-01

371

Exploring Magnetic Fields  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the presence of magnetic fields around magnets, the sun and the earth. They will explore magnetic field lines, understand that magnetic lines of force show the strength and direction of magnetic fields, determine how field lines interact between attracting and repelling magnetic poles, and discover that the earth and sun have magnetic properties. They will also discover that magnetic force is invisible and that a "field of force" is a region or space in which one object can attract or repel another.

372

Growing Understanding of Undergraduate Mathematics: A Good Frame Produces Better Tomatoes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I lay a new theoretical framework across my own lecturing in order to understand what is happening. On the one hand, this is a test of the framework. On the other, I gain insights into both better practices and better course design. The framework constructs undergraduate teaching as the interaction between the discipline and the university…

Barton, Bill

2011-01-01

373

The Role of Cognition in Changing Behavior: Understanding Safe Sex Practices and HIV Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science involves a combination of curiosity and skepticism and a search for understanding. In this way, lay people, like professionals or scientists, are involved in scientific thinking. However, the scientific method is one of questioning, making observations, testing observations, and drawing conclusions from results in a more formal way in which scientific evidence is used. We use these scientific methods

Vimla L. Patel; Nicole A. Yoskowitz

374

A phenomenographic study of the ways of understanding conditional and repetition structures in computer programming languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computers have become an integral part of how engineers complete their work, allowing them to collect and analyze data, model potential solutions and aiding in production through automation and robotics. In addition, computers are essential elements of the products themselves, from tennis shoes to construction materials. An understanding of how computers function, both at the hardware and software level, is essential for the next generation of engineers. Despite the need for engineers to develop a strong background in computing, little opportunity is given for engineering students to develop these skills. Learning to program is widely seen as a difficult task, requiring students to develop not only an understanding of specific concepts, but also a way of thinking. In addition, students are forced to learn a new tool, in the form of the programming environment employed, along with these concepts and thought processes. Because of this, many students will not develop a sufficient proficiency in programming, even after progressing through the traditional introductory programming sequence. This is a significant problem, especially in the engineering disciplines, where very few students receive more than one or two semesters' worth of instruction in an already crowded engineering curriculum. To address these issues, new pedagogical techniques must be investigated in an effort to enhance the ability of engineering students to develop strong computing skills. However, these efforts are hindered by the lack of published assessment instruments available for probing an individual's understanding of programming concepts across programming languages. Traditionally, programming knowledge has been assessed by producing written code in a specific language. This can be an effective method, but does not lend itself well to comparing the pedagogical impact of different programming environments, languages or paradigms. This dissertation presents a phenomenographic research study exploring the different ways of understanding held by individuals of two programming concepts: conditional structures and repetition structures. This work lays the foundation for the development of language independent assessment instruments, which can ultimately be used to assess the pedagogical implications of various programming environments.

Bucks, Gregory Warren

375

Lay press material on preterm birth: no real progress in education on potentially problematic outcomes.  

PubMed

Premature birth has many implications for the newborn, parents, other family members, and the healthcare system. Ten years ago, a literature search was executed through US newspapers, magazines, and news wires over a 6-month period to determine the scope of lay media coverage concerning premature birth outcomes. The results indicated that lay media resources provided limited information on the topic. In May 2013, the original search was replicated in an effort to determine whether the current scope of coverage had expanded since the original search was conducted. This article discusses the results of the May 2013 literature search of lay media resources for information on premature birth and its potential outcomes. PMID:24675630

Melberg, Dawn M

2014-04-01

376

Evaluation of West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the task summarized in this paper was to demonstrate a methodology for evaluating alternative strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Lay-up is defined as the period between operational use of tanks for waste storage and final closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to separate the environmental impact statement (EIS) for completion of closure of the WVDP into two separate EISs. The first EIS will cover only waste management and decontamination. DOE expects to complete this EIS in about 18 months. The second EIS will cover final decommissioning and closure and may take up to five years to complete. This approach has been proposed to expedite continued management of the waste and decontamination activities in advance of the final EIS and its associated Record of Decision on final site closure. Final closure of the WVDP site may take 10 to 15 years; therefore, the tanks need to be placed in a safe, stable condition with minimum surveillance during an extended lay-up period. The methodology developed for ranking the potential strategies for lay-up of the WVDP tanks can be used to provide a basis for a decision on the preferred path forward. The methodology is also applicable to determining preferred lay-up approaches at other DOE sites. Some of the alternative strategies identified for the WVDP should also be considered for implementation at the other DOE sites. Each site has unique characteristics that would require unique considerations for lay-up.

McClure, L. W.; Henderson, J. C.; Elmore, M. R.

2002-02-25

377

Comparison of amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients in broilers, laying hens and caecectomised roosters.  

PubMed

1. This study determined the effect of bird type (broilers, laying hens, or caecectomised roosters) on amino acid digestibility of feedstuffs from 5 plant sources and one animal source. 2. The standardised amino acid digestibility (SAAD) were obtained by correcting apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD) values for basal ileal endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow obtained by feeding a N-free diet (NFD) to broilers and laying hens or from fasted EAA flow from caecectomised roosters. 3. The apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibilities did not differ between broilers and roosters for three of the 6 feed ingredients. 4. Broilers had higher apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibility than laying hens and roosters when fed on the maize diet (canola meal, maize, and soybean meal). 5. The apparent TAA digestibilities were similar across bird types for the dark distillers' dried grain with solubles, but the apparent lysine digestibility was much lower in the caecectomised roosters (15%) than the broilers (49%) and laying hens (43%). 6. The standardised TAA digestibility values in roosters were higher than in broilers for three of the 6 feed ingredients (canola meal, soybean meal, or meat and bone meal). 7. There were no differences between broilers and roosters, however, in the standardised TAA digestibility values for maize, dark and light DDGS. 8. The standardised TAA digestibility values for laying hens were lower for maize, higher for meat and bone meal, but no different for the remaining ingredients when compared with broilers. 9. The results from this study showed that both the apparent and standardised amino acid digestibility values in caecectomised roosters, laying hens, and broilers ingredients are similar for some, but not all, feed ingredients. 10. Nutritionists should, therefore, be cautious about using digestibility coefficients obtained by different methodologies as values may differ. PMID:19637035

Adedokun, S A; Utterback, P; Parsons, C M; Adeola, O; Lilburn, M S; Applegate, T J

2009-05-01

378

Understanding Venus to understand the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite having almost the same size and bulk composition as the Earth, Venus possesses an extreme climate with a surface pressure of 90 bars and temperatures of 740 K. At visible wavelengths the Venus disk appears covered by thick clouds.The core atmospheric processes of Venus and the Earth are similar, despite the different, extraordinary paths they took since their simultaneous formation in the solar system's habitable zone. There are several indications that the composition of the Venus atmosphere has undergone large changes, such as an early runaway climate, and it is likely that the planet has lost a large amount of water through dissociation in the upper atmosphere due to ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent escape of hydrogen. SO2 is thought to originate from volcanism. H2O and SO2 react to form H2SO4 which condenses to form clouds. In past centuries, astronomers and explorers including Captain James Cook observed transits to measure the scale of the solar system. On 5-6 June 2012 we observed the last transit of Venus in this century. Close to the ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by a thin arc of light, called the aureole. We have shown that the deviation due to refraction and the luminosity of the aureole are related to the local density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer. As different portions of the arc can yield different values of these parameters, the rare transit event thus provides a unique insight of the Venus mesosphere. The polar region, significantly brighter in initial phases due to larger scale height of the polar mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by about 15deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Detailed comparative climatology of Venus, an Earth-size planet and understanding why it evolved so differently in its history is crucial to assert the long term evolution of our own planet. Exploring Venus' atmosphere also helps characterize the variety of Earth-size planets near their habitable zone to be discovered around other stars.he atmospheric arc, or aureole, seen from the DST/Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at ~8.5 minutes prior to first contact (NSO/Arcetri)

Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.

2012-12-01

379

Exploring Light: Absorb, Reflect, Transmit or Refract?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a hands-on way, students explore light's properties of absorption, reflection, transmission and refraction through various experimental stations within the classroom. To understand absorption, reflection and transmission, they shine flashlights on a number of preselected objects. To understand refraction, students create indoor rainbows. An understanding of the fundamental properties of light is essential to designing an invisible laser security system.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

380

Leptin receptor signaling inhibits ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens  

PubMed Central

Background Nutrition intake during growth strongly influences ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens, yet the underlying endocrine regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The relevant research progress is hindered by difficulties in detection of leptin gene and its expression in the chicken. However, a functional leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in the chicken which has been implicated to play a regulatory role in ovarian follicle development and egg laying. The present study targeted LEPR by immunizing against its extracellular domain (ECD), and examined the resultant ovarian follicle development and egg-laying rate in chicken hens. Methods Hens that have been immunized four times with chicken LEPR ECD were assessed for their egg laying rate and feed intake, numbers of ovarian follicles, gene expression profiles, serum lipid parameters, as well as STAT3 signaling pathway. Results Administrations of cLEPR ECD antigen resulted in marked reductions in laying rate that over time eventually recovered to the levels exhibited by the Control hens. Together with the decrease in egg laying rate, cLEPR-immunized hens also exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Parallelled by reductions in feed intake, mRNA gene expression levels of AgRP, orexin, and NPY were down regulated, but of POMC, MC4R and lepR up-regulated in Immunized hen hypothalamus. cLEPR-immunization also promoted expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase3 in theca and fas in granulosa layer, but severely depressed IGF-I expression in both theca and granulosa layers. Conclusions Immunization against cLEPR ECD in egg-laying hens generated antibodies that mimic leptin bioactivity by enhancing leptin receptor transduction. This up-regulated apoptotic gene expression in ovarian follicles, negatively regulated the expression of genes that promote follicular development and hormone secretion, leading to follicle atresia and interruption of egg laying. The inhibition of progesterone secretion due to failure of follicle development also lowered feed intake. These results also demonstrate that immunization against cLEPR ECD may be utilized as a tool for studying bio-functions of cLEPR. PMID:24650216

2014-01-01

381

Feasibility of controlling egg size by phase feeding sulphur amino acids during the laying cycle  

E-print Network

that high levels oF protein (23. 1 g/day) or methionine (788 mg/day) altered egg size during the early stage of production. Several investigators have reported significant geno- type-by-dietary regime interactions among laying stocks. Shar pe et a 1... that high levels oF protein (23. 1 g/day) or methionine (788 mg/day) altered egg size during the early stage of production. Several investigators have reported significant geno- type-by-dietary regime interactions among laying stocks. Shar pe et a 1...

De la Torre Linares, Jose Ramon

2012-06-07

382

Egg yolk cholesterol as influenced by cereal grain and age of the laying hen  

E-print Network

EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL AS INFLUENCED BY CEREAL GRAIN AND AGE OF THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by MUNTHER DAWOD HUSSEINI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1975 Major Subject: Poultry Science EGG YOLK CHOLESTEROL AS INFLUENCED BY CEREAL GRAIN AND AGE OF THE LAYING HEN A Thesis by MUNTHER DAWOD HUSSEINI Approved as to style and content by: (C airm n of Comm tee) ead f Departm t) (Memb...

Husseini, Munther Dawod

2012-06-07

383

Exploring Metric Symmetry  

SciTech Connect

Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.

2006-07-31

384

Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo…

Adler, Isidore

1984-01-01

385

Exploring children's 3DTV experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D is expected to transition from cinema to personal consumer electronics. Given that children are heavy users of consumer electronics and represent a driving force when it comes to the adoption of new technologies, it is important to investigate and understand children's experiences with new technologies. Within this paper, we explore children's 3DTV experience with respect to attributed viewing qualities,

Marianna Obrist; Daniela Wurhofer; Magdalena Gärtner; Florian Förster; Manfred Tscheligi

2012-01-01

386

The exploration and research of e-government profession teaching reform in higher vocational college  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of e-government, there is a serious lack of compound talents who both understand information technology and the government management, how to meet the market demands, how to lay a solid foundation for their future work is become a serious problem. In order to solve these problems, this paper first puts forward the necessity and urgency of teaching

Xinli Hu; Fuqin Wen

2010-01-01

387

Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

2012-01-01

388

Cerritos College Learning Communities: Exploring and Understanding Diverse Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1995 Cerritos College (California) introduced a learning community model that combines curriculum development, classroom technology, and cultural awareness sensitivity in order to strengthen student academic success. This model is different from interdisciplinary projects and blended curriculum in that the design not only focused only on…

Smartt-Gaither, JoAnn M.

389

Exploring Matter with TOYS: Using and Understanding the Senses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project Teaching Science with TOYS promotes toys as an ideal mechanism for science instruction, because they are an everyday part of the students' world and carry a user-friendly message. TOYS Teacher Resource Modules are collections of "TOYS" activities grouped around a topic or theme with supporting science content and pedagogical materials.…

1997

390

Understanding Bereavement in a Christian University: A Qualitative Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological study, based on ecological systems theory, examined the college student bereavement experience in a Christian university. Undergraduate students (N = 127) from a small Christian university provided answers to open-ended questions about their experiences regarding college following a death loss. Results indicate that students…

Walker, Andrea C.; Gewecke, Rachelle; Cupit, Illene N.; Fox, Jeffrey T.

2014-01-01

391

European Geospatial Image Understanding Tools for Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results of 4 EU funded and 2 UK funded projects in preparation for the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars missions in 2016 and 2018. Our aim is to minimise the time for interactive data handling and maximize the time for virtual 3D geology.

Muller, J.-P.; Tao, Y.; Sidiropoulos, P.; Yershov, V.; Morley, J. G.; Sprinks, J.; Paar, G.; Huber, B.; Bauer, A.; Willner, K.; Traxler, C.

2014-07-01

392

Exploration of Student Understanding and Motivation in Nanoscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated 7-12 th grade students' interest and motivation in nanoscience concepts and phenomena. Certain types of topics may be used to motivate students to learn nanoscience concepts, therefore we investigated how students' interests vary among school context, grade level, gender, ethnicity and academic ability. A survey of 416 students in urban, suburban and rural communities measured interest in the

Kelly Hutchinson; Namsoo Shin; Shawn Y. Stevens; Molly Yunker; César Delgado

393

Understanding Tablet Use: A Multi-Method Exploration Hendrik Muller  

E-print Network

provides an in-depth pic- ture of frequent tablet activities (e.g., checking emails, play- ing games, social networking), locations of use (e.g., couch, bed, table), and contextual factors (e.g., watching TV, they watch videos, and they play games on their tablets. Existing insights into tablet ownership and use

Tomkins, Andrew

394

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Explore. Discover. Understand.  

E-print Network

Readied Physicist Studies Innovative Use of Prometheus Spacecraft 4 5 7 Goddard to Restore Robotics Capability2 3 Technologist Proposes High-Tech Skin for Robots Technologists are building the first "Tetrahedron" walker, which can stretch or contract to conform to different terrain, going where no wheeled

Christian, Eric

395

Respect for lay perceptions of risk in the hormesis case.  

PubMed

In this essay for this issue, David Ropeik empahasizes that it is important to respect the risk perceptions of laypeople. The present commentary examines Ropeik's suggestion in more detail. First, it clarifies that the notion of 'respect' for lat risk perceptions is ambiguous. For example, one could adopt a fairly technocratic perspective (in which policy decisions are based almost exclusively on the risk perceptions of technical experts) while still claiming to respect laypeople. The second section of the commentary rejects such an appraoch; it provides a four-part argument in favor of giving significant weight to the risk perceptions of the public when making policy decisions. It concludes by arguing that these suggestions could be implemented in the hormesis case by adopting the sorts of analytic-deliberative approaches advocated by the National Research Council report Understanding Risk. PMID:19411556

Elliott, Kc

2009-01-01

396

World exploration highlights  

SciTech Connect

High petroleum prices have stimulated worldwide exploration. Better understanding of the basic principles of the origin and primary migration of hydrocarbons and of basin tectonic processes have aided in selecting areas that warrant intensive exploration. There is renewed interest in oil prospects of overthrust belts, and attention has been drawn to the high potential of buried Late Tertiary reefs in tropical regions. Advances in seismic data gathering and processing have greatly increased the usefulness of geophysical surveys, once essentially limited to the search for closed structures. Since 1979, oil production has been found in previously unproductive basins, such as the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, and even in newly discovered basins, including southwestern Sudan and the Gulf of Beibu (Tonkin) off southern China. The most significant oil discovery in recent years is the Hibernia field off Newfoundland. Large gas fields have been found in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, off Cameroun in West Africa, onshore and offshore in Spain and in Sharjah on the Arabian Peninsula. Numerous other fields have been found throughout the world, but data are insufficient for estimating the size of many of these discoveries, even though some will certainly prove to be in the giant class. Data on the Soviet Union are insufficient for commenting on recent exploration results. Companies have been granted large new contract areas for petroleum exploration in many countries, some of them in basins already surveyed in reconnaissance, others untouched by modern geophysical methods. Availability of new land rights ensures that the present drive for new oil and gas resources will continue in future years, probably with a similar degree of success. 1 figure.

King, R.E.

1981-10-01

397

Effects of supplemental levels of hesperetin and naringenin on egg quality, serum traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hesperetin and naringenin phytochemicals are naturally occurring flavanoids in citrus fruits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing different levels of extracted hesperetin and naringenin on egg quality, serum traits and antioxidant activity in laying hens. Two experiments were conducted, each for 10 weeks, in a completely randomized experiment design. Each had 100 Leghorn laying

S. Ting; H. S. Yeh; T. F. Lien

2011-01-01

398

Reduced parental effort in relation to laying date in house sparrows ( Passer domesticus): a study under controlled conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that breeding success in birds declines with an advance in the laying date. In this paper, breeding success diminished with laying date in a house sparrow (Passer domesticus) population breeding in captivity. The principal cause of the cline in breeding success with date was a decrease in the female feeding rate. The parental effort in females decreased

Gregorio Moreno-Rueda

2004-01-01

399

Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations Between Feather Pecking and Open-Field Response in Laying Hens at Two Different Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this research was to study the relationship between feather pecking and open-field activity in laying hens at two different ages. A population of 550 birds of a laying hen cross was subjected to an open-field test at 5 and 29 weeks of age and to a social feather pecking test at 6 and 30 weeks of age.

T. B. Rodenburg; A. J. Buitenhuis; B. Ask; K. A. Uitdehaag; P. Koene; J. J. van der Poel; J. A. M. van Arendonk; H. Bovenhuis

2004-01-01

400

A Lay-Statistician Explanation of Minority Discrimination: A Research Note Brent Simpson (University of South Carolina)*  

E-print Network

, this persistent discrimination is somewhat surprising, given growing evidence that gender- and racial attitudesA Lay-Statistician Explanation of Minority Discrimination: A Research Note Brent Simpson, Columbia SC 29208. Email: bts@sc.edu. #12;A Lay-Statistician Explanation of Minority Discrimination

401

Performance and Egg Characteristics of Laying Hens Fed Diets Incorporated with Poultry By-Product and Feather Meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The effects of poultry by-product meal (PBPM) and feather meal (FM) incorporated separately and in combination in the diet on laying hen performance and egg characteristics during postpeak production were determined. Bovans White strain laying hens, 42 wk of age, were fed diets with 0% PBPM and FM, 5% FM, 5% PBPM, or 4% FM + 4% PBPM. Egg

N. Senkoylu; H. E. Samli; H. Akyurek; A. Agma; S. Yasar

402

Development from below: an exploratory study of the concept and process of development from lay people's point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis introduces a new perspective on development in Lebanon, that of lay people in rural communities. Lay views have been missing from development literature and practice around the world. Development projects which emphasise economic development and infrastructure are often described by development professionals in terms of their achievements and tangible benefits. However, concerned researchers are dissatisfied with the outcomes

Jihad Makhoul

1999-01-01

403

WWLL global lightning detection system: Regional validation study in Erin H. Lay,1,2  

E-print Network

WWLL global lightning detection system: Regional validation study in Brazil Erin H. Lay,1,2 Robert] An experimental lightning detection network, the World Wide Lightning Location network (WWLL), is being developed. This paper provides a ``worst case'' analysis of WWLL location accuracy in Brazil where the VLF lightning

Thomas, Jeremy N.

404

Children's perceptions of health and illness: images and lay concepts in preadolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a growing body of research into child- ren's concepts of illness, many basic questions still remain. This study aims to describe 8- to 11-year olds' lay beliefs of health, illness, health promotion and disease prevention. Children responded to open-ended questions about health and illness by drawing and writing their responses. Two primary schools of two small towns of Bekes

Bettina F. Piko; Judit Bak

2006-01-01

405

SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF X-333 ON THE TOXICITY OF AFLATOXIN AND PESTICIDES IN THE LAYING HEN  

E-print Network

hen, a food addi- tive has been tested on 84 hens raised in individual cages and distributed into4 An experiment was carried out on 120 pullets to determine the effects of a lysine deficiency during the growing laying diet (C). Lysine deficiency during the growing period (LN and LC) reduced live weight, feed intake

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Lay Referral Patterns Involved in Cardiac Treatment Decision Making among Middle-Aged and Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined age and contextually related factors that are influential in lay referral patterns during cardiac treatment decision making. Design and Methods: A complementary design was used. The Myocardial Infarction (MI) Onset Study identified demographic correlates of who sought medical care for 1,388 MI (heart attack) survivors.…

Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Amey, Cheryl H.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Muldoon, Susan B.

2003-01-01

407

Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

2009-01-01

408

Radio-tracking of female Tree Swallows prior to egg-laying  

Microsoft Academic Search

We radio-tracked eight female Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) prior to egg-laying in 2000 and 2001. Six females made movements .2 km to evening roosting sites. Females often roosted farther away than the nearest available roost site, they used different roosts on different nights, and during the day they foraged up to 10 km from their nest site. Thus, female swallows

Peter O. Dunn; Linda A. Whittingham

409

Animal welfare aspects of outdoor runs for laying hens: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses animal welfare effects of providing an outdoor run to laying hens. Compared with barn systems, the provision of an outdoor run leads to higher space allowances, a higher number and diversity of behavioural and physiological stimuli, and freedom to change between different environments with for instance different climatic conditions. Evidence is presented that these factors may have

U. Knierim

2006-01-01

410

Experimental evidence that egg color indicates female condition at laying in a songbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

The signaling hypothesis of eggshell coloration in birds is based on the assumption that females of species with blue-green eggs signal their phenotypic quality to their mates through deposition of the antioxidant biliverdin as pigment. Egg pigmentation may be an expression of the condition of females at laying or of genetic linkages between egg color and female performance variables. We

Juan Moreno; Elisa Lobato; Judith Morales; Santiago Merino; Gustavo Tomás; Josué Martínez-de la Puente; Juan J. Sanz; Rafael Mateo; Juan J. Soler

2006-01-01

411

A Prolog Program for Decomposing Clothing Orders into Lays David A. Rosenblueth  

E-print Network

production, cutting stock, branch­and­bound, Prolog. Introduction There is a process in the clothing industry 100 70 1 We have based our problem description on that of [2]. #12; The stock material is rolls. When cutting a lay into its components, duplicates of the same components are produced. The height

Rosenblueth, David A.

412

Oxytetracycline residue levels in chicken eggs after oral administration of medicated drinking water to laying chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty laying birds were divided into four groups (n = 5) and given drinking water containing 0, 400, 600, and 800 mg\\/1 of oxytetracycline respectively for 7 days. Eggs were collected continuously for 17 days after drug administration and stored at +4°C. The oxytetracycline residues in yolk and albumen were analysed using a microbiological method with Bacillus cereus var. mycoides

B. Omija; E. S. Mitema; T. E. Maitho

1994-01-01

413

Validation of a real-time cable deployment control system for slack cable laying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validation of a real-time control system for the deployment of submarine communication cables presented. The control system allows the user accurately control cable bottom slack and position the cable along a pre-planned route. The system was successfully used to lay an underwater acoustic tracking range for the US Navy. A total of eight, 40 mile long cables, each having

J. M. Andres; S. R. Jefferies; G. Gillenwaters

1993-01-01

414

Use of guar by-products in high-production laying hen diets.  

PubMed

A 5x5 Latin square experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding low concentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was divided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per unit. Hens were fed either a nonguar control diet, or 1 of 4 diets containing either 2.5 or 5% guar germ, or 2.5 or 5% guar meal over a 20-wk trial period (five 4-wk periods). No significant differences were observed when feeding either 2.5 or 5% guar germ or meal (P>0.05) on hen-day egg production or feed consumption. Significant differences in egg weight, total egg mass per hen, and feed conversion ratio were detected in hens fed 2.5% guar meal, whereas they remained unchanged for diets containing either level of guar germ or 5% guar meal. Feeding either level of guar germ or guar meal did not affect shell quality (shell thickness, egg breaking force, and specific gravity), Haugh units, or egg yolk color (L*, a*, b*). The results showed that both guar germ and guar meal can be fed to high-production laying hens at up to 5% without adverse effects on laying hen performance. PMID:17495081

Gutierrez, O; Zhang, C; Cartwright, A L; Carey, J B; Bailey, C A

2007-06-01

415

How do lay people come to trust the Automatic External Defibrillator?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defibrillators are now widely installed in a variety of public places for the immediate treatment of people who have collapsed with a suspected cardiac arrest. These initiatives are predicated on the defibrillator being used by ‘lay’ volunteers. This presents a problem of trust, as the volunteer rescuers need to trust an unfamiliar technology to diagnose and treat an immediately life-threatening

Stephen Timmons; Russell Harrison-Paul; Brian Crosbie

2008-01-01

416

Socially induced Synchronization of every-other-day egg laying in a Seabird colony  

E-print Network

y puesta de huevos en dĂ­as alternos en una colonia reproductiva de la gaviota Larus glaucescens y (Larus glaucescens) and show that the level of synchrony declined with decreasing colony density. We also October 2009, accepted 7 March 2010. Key words: egg laying, Glaucous-winged Gull, Larus glaucescens

Cushing, Jim. M.

417

Using Explicit Teaching to Improve How Bioscience Students Write to the Lay Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The media role model was recently developed to frame how science faculty members can teach their students to write more effectively to lay audiences (14). An Opinion Editorial (Op-Ed) was introduced as a novel assignment for final-year physiology and pharmacology undergraduates. This second phase of this study, reported here, demonstrated the…

Moni, Roger W.; Hryciw, Deanne H.; Poronnik, Philip; Moni, Karen B.

2007-01-01

418

Caenorhabditis Elegans Mutants Defective in the Functioning of the Motor Neurons Responsible for Egg Laying  

PubMed Central

We have isolated and characterized 45 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants presumed to be defective in the functioning of the hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs). Like hermaphrodites that lack the HSN motor neurons, these mutants are egg-laying defective and do not lay eggs in response to exogenous imipramine but do lay eggs in response to exogenous serotonin. Twenty of the 45 mutations define 10 new egl genes; the other 25 mutations are alleles of five previously defined genes, four of which are known to affect the HSNs. Seven mutations in three genes cause the HSNs to die in hermaphrodites, as they normally do in males. These genes appear to be involved in the determination of the sexual phenotype of the HSNs, and one of them (egl-41) is a newly identified gene that may function generally in sex determination. Five of the 15 genes are defined only by mutations that have dominant effects on egg laying. One gene egl(n1108), is defined by a temperature-sensitive allele that has a temperature-sensitive period after HSN development is complete, suggesting that egl(n1108) may be involved in HSN synaptic transmission. Four of the genes are defined by single alleles, which suggests that other such genes remain to be discovered. Mutations in no more than 4 of the 15 genes specifically affect the HSNs, indicating that there are few genes with functions needed only in this single type of nerve cell. PMID:2721931

Desai, C.; Horvitz, H. R.

1989-01-01

419

ETR, TRA642. BEFORE BASEMENT FLOOR IS PLACED, WORKERS LAY CONDUIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR, TRA-642. BEFORE BASEMENT FLOOR IS PLACED, WORKERS LAY CONDUIT RUNS THAT WILL LIE BELOW IT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-541. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 2/15/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

420

The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in Laying Hens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A study was conducted to determine the extent of genetically modified (GM) protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in tissues and eggs of laying hens. Because a breakdown of the modified portion of protein was expected due to the digestive process of the hen, an immunoassay test was run. By using a double antibody sandwich format specific for the CP4

J. Ash; C. Novak; S. E. Scheideler

421

International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 Automatic Guidance of Track Laying Machines with  

E-print Network

1st International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 Automatic Guidance of Track Laying Machines with Respect to Coordinate Systems Th. ENGEL*, JJ. STUBY, Ch. GLAUSER, P. GĂ?LDENAPFEL machine guidance, this text focuses on presenting and solving three challenges without which coordinate

422

Improvement of Rural Children's Asthma Self-Management by Lay Health Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of the present analysis is to examine changes in rural children's asthma self-management after they received lay health educator (LHE)-delivered classes. Methods: Elementary schools were randomly assigned to the treatment or attention-control condition and their participating students received either asthma education or…

Horner, Sharon D.; Fouladi, Rachel T.

2008-01-01

423

Lay Theories of Bipolar Disorder: the Causes, Manifestations and Cures for Perceived Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate lay theories of the cause and treatment of bipolar disorder, and the recognition of its symptoms. This questionnaire-based study included vignette descriptions of mental disorders and 70 items relating to bipolar disorder. It was completed by 173 participants. Bipolar disorder was recognized less than depression but at the same rate as schizophrenia. Contrary to previous

Adrian Furnham; Elizabeth Anthony

2010-01-01

424

Assessment of everyday beliefs about health: the lay concepts of health inventory, college student version.  

PubMed

This research investigated lay conceptualisations about health using a progressive mixed-method approach, culminating in a new self-report measure of lay concepts of health. In Study 1, 223 community and college-aged adults provided everyday descriptors of healthy people. These open-ended qualitative responses were narrowed to 259 distinct descriptors, and subsequently rated on their importance to health by a second lay sample (Study 2). The health descriptors rated as most important were then subjected to exploratory factor analysis in Study 3, resulting in five distinguishable factors. Proposed scale items were then administered again (to college students, in Study 4), and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. The CFA supported a four-factor model, comprised of Social-Emotional Health, Positive Health Practices, Absence of Stress and Anxiety, and Adequate Rest, presented as the college student version of the Lay Concepts of Health Inventory. The measure, as well as limitations and recommendations for future research, are presented. PMID:23346999

Downey, Christina A; Chang, Edward C

2013-01-01

425

Looking beyond risk: A study of lay epidemiology of childhood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Davison, Frankel, and Davey Smith (1989) conceptualised lay epidemiology as the process of interpreting health risks through considering non-traditional sources of information drawn from personal networks and from the public arena. We analysed 100 unsolicited letters received by professional epidemiologists studying the causes of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The correspondents sourced their ideas from an interaction between personal, social, media,

Ginny Russell; Susan Kelly

2011-01-01

426

ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. PLAN AND SECTIONS. GRATECOVERED TRENCHES LAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. PLAN AND SECTIONS. GRATE-COVERED TRENCHES LAY ALONG FLOOR FROM EAST TO WEST AND AROUND MAIN COMPRESSORS. LOCKER ROOM AT NORTHEAST CORNER. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-643-A-3, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0643-00-486-101269, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

427

Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in ?13C (C. cinclus) or ?15N (C.

Christy A. Morrissey; John E. Elliott; Stephen J. Ormerod

2010-01-01

428

Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs.  

PubMed

We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta(13)C (C. cinclus) or delta(15)N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. PMID:19782447

Morrissey, Christy A; Elliott, John E; Ormerod, Stephen J

2010-02-01

429

Behaviour of female Eurasian Kestrels during laying: are there time constraints on incubation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate time, energy, and temperature constraints on hatching asynchrony in Eurasian Kestrels (Falco tinnuncuLus), we observed females during the laying period and quantified the time spent hunting to see whether this might limir time spent incubating. We predicted that females would hunt more in years when the density of voles was low in spring. Although females spent more time

Erkki Korpimiiki; Karen L. Wiebet; K. Ingemar Jiinsson; Jiirgen Wiehn; Harri Hakkaraincn

2000-01-01

430

Medicinal Plant Knowledge Among Lay People in Five Eastern Tibet Villages  

E-print Network

Medicinal Plant Knowledge Among Lay People in Five Eastern Tibet Villages Anja Byg & Jan Salick of China, were interviewed about their knowledge of a number of medicinal plants and their uses remedies. Many people collected medicinal plants for their own use as well as for sale, but also obtained

Law, Wayne

431

Lay People's Views of School Food Policy Options: Associations with Confidence, Personal Values and Demographics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A random population survey administered by mail to examine lay people's views of children's food policies and their associations with demographics, personal values and confidence in authorities was conducted among adults in Victoria, Australia. Three hundred and seventy-seven people responded (response rate 57.6%). The questionnaire contained 35…

Worsley, Anthony

2006-01-01

432

Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

2007-01-01

433

Diel variation in egg-laying by the freshwater fish louse Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura).  

PubMed

Removal of deposited eggs could be a useful control strategy for the damaging fish ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus, but focused control requires knowledge of egg-laying patterns. Here, we investigated diel changes in the egg-laying behaviour of a natural population of A. foliaceus. Data were collected from 17-28 May 2004. Days were divided into 3 time periods: 06:00-14:00, 14:00-22:00 and 22:00-06:00 h. Significantly more egg clutches were laid from 06:00-14:00 h than during the other 2 time periods, which were not significantly different from each other. Significantly more egg clutches per hour were laid during hours of daylight as compared to hours of darkness. Significantly more egg clutches were laid in the top 1 m of the water column than at the bottom, and this was consistent throughout all 3 time periods. It is suggested that the increase in egg-laying activity during daylight hours may be due to a higher motivation to search for hosts during the night and an increased ability to locate silhouetted egg-laying sites during the day. These data can provide information useful for egg removal and control strategies. PMID:18286814

Harrison, A J; Gault, N F S; Dick, J T A

2007-12-13

434

Medical and lay attitudes towards genetic screening and testing in Finland.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare physicians', midwives' and lay people's attitudes towards genetic screening and testing to find out whether medical education and experience influence attitudes of genetic screening and testing. The study was based on comparison of answers to joint questions in three different cross-sectional postal surveys between October 1996 and April 1998 in Finland. Target groups were physicians (study base n=772, response rate 74%, including gynaecologists, paediatricians, general practitioners and clinical geneticists), midwives and public health nurses (collectively referred to as midwives in the following; n=800, response rate 79%), and lay people (n=2000, response rate 62%). Midwives were more worried about the consequences of genetic testing and stressed the autonomy of the customer more strongly than lay people did. Furthermore, professionals considered that lay peoples' expectations as regards to genetic testing are too high. Having more medical education was related to having less 'cannot say' and missing responses. Our results do not suggest that major conflicts about the direction of genetic testing and screening would arise in near future. However, different positions and interests should be considered. Reporting in public about new prospects and developments in medical genetics should pay more attention also to concerns for balancing promises and drawbacks. PMID:12891376

Toiviainen, Hanna; Jallinoja, Piia; Aro, Arja R; Hemminki, Elina

2003-08-01

435

Lay Presidents in Jesuit Higher Education: Examining a Culture of Companionship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2006 there has been a notable increase in the number of American Jesuit colleges and universities selecting non-Jesuit leaders to serve in the position of president. These "lay" presidents (i.e., not ordained priests) now comprise approximately one-third of all chief executives in Jesuit institutions, giving rise to questions about…

Russell, Stephanie Rossiter

2012-01-01

436

Under what conditions is euthanasia acceptable to lay people and health professionals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euthanasia is legal only in the Netherlands and Belgium, but it is on occasion performed by physicians elsewhere. We recruited in France two convenience samples of 221 lay people and of 189 professionals (36 physicians, 92 nurses, 48 nurse's aides, and 13 psychologists) and asked them how acceptable it would be for a patient's physician to perform euthanasia in each

Nathalie Teisseyre; Etienne Mullet; Paul Clay Sorum

2005-01-01

437

Rainfall preceding egg-laying — a factor of breeding success in Common Terns (Sterna hirundo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporary reduction of clutch size, egg size and breeding success of the Common Tern during the breeding period of 1983 at the Lower Saxonian Wadden Sea (West Germany) was correlated with heavy rainfalls on the days preceding egg-laying (Figs. 2–4). Possible effective mechanisms and the result that the reduction of clutch size was not observed for colonies at the

Peter H. Becker; Peter Finck; Andreas Anlauf

1985-01-01

438

Climate change, migratory connectivity and changes in laying date and clutch size of the pied flycatcher  

E-print Network

Climate change, migratory connectivity and changes in laying date and clutch size of the pied., Ahola, M., Eeva, T., Va¨isa¨nen, R. A. and Lehikoinen, E. 2006. Climate change, migratory connectivity Ficedula hypoleuca Pallas, and analysed whether potential changes were explained by changes in climatic

Laaksonen, Toni

439

Innovation and "out of the box" thinking lay the foundation for the College of Engineering and  

E-print Network

Innovation and "out of the box" thinking lay the foundation for the College of Engineering (ASCE) · American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) · Association for Computing Machinery (ACM and Management (M.S.) · Marine Engineering Management (GC) · Mechanical Engineering (B.S., M.S., Ph.D.) · Ocean

Fernandez, Eduardo

440

Ca RETENTION IN YOUNG PULLETS AND LAYING HENS FED A Ca47 LABELLED DIET  

E-print Network

Ca RETENTION IN YOUNG PULLETS AND LAYING HENS FED A Ca47 LABELLED DIET OF DIFFERENT Ca LEVELS K of this paper to review all the well known publications dealing with retention and egg-shell incorporation animals per group were collected individually and more frequently in order to determine the Ca* retention

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

441

Trench Protection and Principles of Pipe Laying. Instructor Manual. Trainee Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains the instructor and trainee manuals for a course dealing with trench protection and principles of pipe laying. Part 1 is the instructor guide for an 80-hour course--12 classroom hours and 68 hours of hands-on exercises. Contents are as follows: a course outline; course schedule; equipment list; material and equipment checklist;…

Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

442

TUIMS: Laying the Foundations for a Tangible User Interface Management System Nancy Leland  

E-print Network

Department of Computer Science Tufts University nleland@cs.tufts.edu Orit Shaer Department of Computer Science Tufts University oshaer@cs.tufts.edu Robert J.K. Jacob Department of Computer Science Tufts University jacob@cs.tufts.edu ABSTRACT This paper lays the foundations for the development of a Tangible User

Jacob, Robert J.K.

443

Heritabilities and genetic correlations of laying performance in Muscovy ducks selected in Taiwan.  

PubMed

1. Genetic parameters in the base population of a closed experimental strain of Muscovy ducks, selected for body weight at 10 weeks of age, were estimated from data in 8 successive generations, for the following traits: age at first egg (AGE1EGG), total number of eggs laid at 40 and 52 weeks of age (NEGG40 and NEGG52), number of eggs laid during 15 and 22 weeks in the first laying cycle (NEGG15W and NEGG22W), and their Box-Cox transformed data. 2. The method of multi-trait restricted maximum likelihood with an animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters. Only the results obtained with non-transformed data are shown. 3. Heritability estimates for laying performance showed moderate values, increasing little with age: 0.20+/-0.03 (AGE1EGG), 0.23+/-0.03 (NEGG40), 0.27+/-0.03 (NEGG52), 0.20+/-0.03 (NEGG15W), and 0.22+/-0.03 (NEGG22W). 4. Genetic correlations between laying traits were high. Genetic correlation between AGE1EGG and egg number was negative, it was positive between total numbers of eggs at 40 and 52 weeks and egg numbers in the first laying cycle. 5. Body weight at 10 weeks of age exhibited positive genetic correlations (0.46+/-0.06) with age at first egg and negative with egg production traits (-0.28+/-0.06 to -0.41+/-0.06). 6. The cumulated predicted genetic gains, after 7 generations of selection, expressed per genetic standard deviation unit (sigma(g)) were 0.06 sigma(g), 0.07 sigma(g), 0.17 sigma(g), 0.23 sigma(g), and 0.25 sigma(g) for AGE1EGG, NEGG40, NEGG52, NEGG15W, and NEGG22W, respectively. 7. Selecting Muscovy ducks to improve laying in Taiwanese climatic conditions would be possible using the number of eggs laid up to 52 weeks of age as the selection criterion. Because unintended selection effects for laying traits were present, the selection experiment for body weight at 10 weeks of age was not antagonistic with laying traits. PMID:15222414

Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Liu, S C; Tai, C

2004-04-01

444

Understanding Our Planet Through Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Region's Mineral Resource Surveys Understanding Our Planet Through Chemistry Web site shows how chemists and geologists use analytical chemistry to determine the age of the Earth. The various topics covered include: elements, isotopes, and radioactivity; global change in the geologic past; cleaning up coal burning; and mapping stream sediments for resource exploration, among others. The articles are written by various USGS personnel and include interesting photographs, illustrations, and other relevant learning materials.

Taggart, Joseph E., Jr.

2007-07-03

445

Challenges of Human Behavior Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis\\u000a of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern\\u000a Recognition explores a number of different aspects and open questions in this field, and demonstrates the multi-disciplinary\\u000a nature of this research area. In this brief summary,

Albert Ali Salah; Theo Gevers; Nicu Sebe; Alessandro Vinciarelli

2010-01-01

446

Restricted within-habitat movement and time-constrained egg laying of female Maculinea rebeli butterflies.  

PubMed

The movement of butterflies within habitat patches is usually assumed to be random, although few studies have shown this unambiguously. In the case of the highly specialized genus Maculinea, two contradictory hypotheses exist to explain the movement and distribution of imagos within patches: (1) due to the high spatial variance of survival rates among caterpillars, the "risk-spreading" hypothesis predicts that females will tend to make linear flight paths in order to maximize their net displacement and scatter the eggs as widely as possible; and (2) recent mark-release-recapture (MRR) data suggest that within-habitat displacement of some Maculinea species is constrained and that adults may establish home ranges. We tested both hypothesis by analysing the movement pattern of individuals. We also investigated whether egg laying is time constrained, which would enhance the trade-off between flying and egg laying. Thirty females of Maculinea rebeli (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were tracked within a single population in Central Hungary. Their egg-laying behaviour and individual patterns of movement were recorded, and the latter were compared with random walk model predictions. The population was also sampled by MRR to estimate survival rates, and four non-mated, freshly eclosed females were dissected to assess their potential egg load. Net squared displacement of females was significantly lower than predicted by the random walk model and declined continuously after the 15th move. The ratio of net displacement and cumulative move length decreased with the number of moves, supporting the hypothesis that Maculinea butterflies establish home ranges. We found that low survival and a low rate of egg laying prevented females from laying their potential number of eggs within their lifespan. Time limitation increased the cost of movement, providing another possible explanation for the restricted movement of females. PMID:18305965

Korösi, Adám; Orvössy, Noémi; Batáry, Péter; Kövér, Szilvia; Peregovits, László

2008-05-01

447

Ecological Understanding 1: Ways of Experiencing Photosynthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates 10 student teachers' understanding of the different ways in which the function of the ecosystem could be experienced. Explores the functional aspects of the ecosystem using a system approach. Concludes that the idea of transformation is crucial to more complex ways of understanding photosynthesis. (Contains 62 references.) (Author/YDS)

Carlsson, Britta

2002-01-01

448

Insights into Our Understandings of Large Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores prospective teachers' understandings of one million to gain insights into the development of adult understanding of large numbers. Themes in the prospective teachers' work included number associated with a quantity of objects, number as an abstraction, and additive and multiplicative approaches. The authors suggest that the…

Kastberg, Signe E.; Walker, Vicki

2008-01-01

449

Exploring the Early Americas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we understand the initial period of contact between Europeans and Native Americans? An effective way of doing so is through the study of artifacts, including handicrafts, maps, printed documents, and other materials. This online collection from the Library of Congress features selections from over 3,000 rare items that are part of the institution's Jay I. Kislak Collection, and has been since December 2007. After reading the "About" area, visitors can click on the "Themes" area to find sections including Pre-Contact America and Explorations and Encounters. Each area contains remarkable items such as a dramatic map of 16th-century Istanbul, a depiction of the death of Moctezuma, and excerpts from Columbus's account of his 1492 voyage across the Atlantic. Furthermore, the Interactives area contains seven different media-rich experiences, including Reading Pre-Columbian Artifacts and The Buccaneers of America.

2007-12-12

450

Design of nest access grids and perches in front of the nests: Influence on the behavior of laying hens.  

PubMed

In aviary systems for laying hens, it is important to provide suitable nest access platforms in front of the nests, allowing hens to reach and explore each of the nests easily. This access platform is needed to achieve good nest acceptance by the hens and thereby prevent mislaid eggs. In the present experiment, the behavior of hens using 2 different nest access platforms, a plastic grid and 2 wooden perches, was examined. Furthermore, the nests were placed on both sides of the aviary rack (corridor side and outdoor side), either integrated into the aviary rack itself (integrated nest; IN) or placed on the walls of the pens (wall nest; WN), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design Four thousand five hundred white laying hens were housed in 20 test pens. The eggs in the nests and mislaid eggs were collected daily, and the behavior of hens on the nest accesses was filmed during wk 25 and 26, using focal observation and scan sampling methods. More balancing, body contact, and agonistic interactions were expected for nests with perches, whereas more walking and nest inspections were expected for nests with grids. There were more mislaid eggs and balancing found in pens equipped with nests with wooden perches. More agonistic interactions and balancing, less standing, and a longer duration of nest inspection were found with the WN compared with the IN. Interactions between platform design and position of the nests were found for duration of nest visits, body contact, and walking, with the highest amount for WN equipped with plastic grids. Nests on the corridor side were favored by the hens. Nest-related behaviors, such as nest inspection, standing, and walking, decreased over time as did the number of hens on the nest accesses, whereas sitting increased. These results indicate that the hens had more difficulties in gripping the perches as designed. The lower number of hens on the nest access platforms in front of IN may be due to a better distribution around nests and tier changes within the aviary rack. Based on these results, grids rather than perches provide for improved nesting behavior. PMID:23472011

Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

2013-04-01

451

Explorations in Chaos Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaos Theory is an interesting and important branch of physics. Many physical systems, such as weather or fluid flow, exhibit chaotic behavior. Experiments in simple mechanical or electrical systems, as well as simple simulations can be used as methods of studying chaos. Using a mechanical method, we connected a speaker and to a frequency modulator to bounce a table tennis ball. We recorded the ball's motion at different frequencies using a video camera. Using Tracker software we observed it's position versus it's velocity in order to analyze its chaotic behavior. For a simple simulation, we used the visual-based programming in LabView to examine chaotic behavior produced by some non-linear differential equations. Results from both the mechanical system and the simulations will be discussed. For future work, we plan to continue to explore some chaotic simulations and perform a sequence of experiments with an electrical system. Exploring these nonlinear chaotic systems can help us to better understand and model many phenomena found in nature.

Maldonado, Armando; Bixler, David

2012-03-01

452

The Role of Lay Health Workers in Pediatric Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Children with chronic diseases represent a high-cost and resource-intensive population of children. With continued gaps in chronic disease management and persistent fragmentation in the health care system, stakeholders are seeking new strategies to address the needs of these children. Objective To systematically assess the effectiveness of lay health worker interventions in improving health care utilization, symptom management, and family psychosocial outcomes for children with chronic conditions. Data Source PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science (January 1961- February 2013). Study Eligibility Criteria, Participants, and Interventions We developed a strategy to search citations to identify relevant articles. Search terms included randomized controlled trial (RCT), lay worker, parent mentor, peer mentor, peer educator, community health workers, community health aids, patient advocate, patient facilitator, patient liaison, promotoras (es), care ambassadors, patient navigator, and non-professional. Additional studies were identified by searching the reference lists of retrieved articles and contacting clinical experts. RCTs of lay health worker interventions for children with chronic conditions were included. Studies were restricted to those concentrated on children 0–18 years of age with chronic illnesses. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Abstracts were independently screened by 2 reviewers. Articles with relevant abstracts underwent full text review and were evaluated for inclusion criteria. A structured tool was used to abstract data from selected articles. Due to heterogeneous interventions and outcomes, we did not conduct a meta-analysis. Results The search yielded 736 unique articles, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. All interventions focused on specific conditions: asthma, type I diabetes, obesity, and failure to thrive. Interventions were heterogeneous in frequency, mode, and duration of interactions between lay health workers and subjects. Several interventions were multi-faceted, including both one-on-one and group interactions. Improved outcomes most commonly reported were reduced urgent care use, decreases in symptoms, fewer missed work and school days, and increased parental quality of life. One study demonstrated that lay health worker interventions were cost-effective. Conclusions Lay health workers interventions in children with chronic conditions may lead to modest improvements in urgent care use, symptoms, and parental psychosocial outcomes. Such interventions may also be cost-effective. Future research should focus on interventions targeted toward other chronic conditions such as sickle cell disease or cystic fibrosis and medically complex children whose conditions are non-categorical. PMID:24011745

Raphael, Jean L.; Rueda, Anna; Lion, K. Casey; Giordano, Thomas P.

2013-01-01

453

Age of Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research an explorer that interests you Use the links provided to find information about an explorer of your choice. Answer the questions provided on the your worksheet. What is the name of your explorer? Where did he travel? Show routes on the map. Who did he sail for? When did he explore? Why did he explore? What was he looking for? What ...

Cade

2010-10-04

454

ESA's Living Planet Programme: The Earth Explorers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Space Agency's (ESA's) Living Planet Programme marks the beginning of a new chapter in European led Earth Observation, based on focussed science user-driven missions. The Earth Explorer missions seek to advance the understanding of complex Earth system processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Each of the Explorer missions is adapted to address a specific scientific

J. Achache

2003-01-01

455

Laying-sequence-specific variation in yolk oestrogen levels, and relationship to plasma oestrogen in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between plasma and yolk oestrogens in laying female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) by manipulating plasma oestradiol (E2) levels, via injection of oestradiol-17?, in a sequence-specific manner to maintain chronically high plasma levels for later-developing eggs (contrasting with the endogenous pattern of decreasing plasma E2 concentrations during laying). We report systematic variation in yolk oestrogen concentrations, in relation to laying sequence, similar to that widely reported for androgenic steroids. In sham-manipulated females, yolk E2 concentrations decreased with laying sequence. However, in E2-treated females plasma E2 levels were higher during the period of rapid yolk development of later-laid eggs, compared with control females. As a consequence, we reversed the laying-sequence-specific pattern of yolk E2: in E2-treated females, yolk E2 concentrations increased with laying-sequence. In general therefore, yolk E2 levels were a direct reflection of plasma E2 levels. However, in control females there was some inter-individual variability in the endogenous pattern of plasma E2 levels through the laying cycle which could generate variation in sequence-specific patterns of yolk hormone levels even if these primarily reflect circulating steroid levels. PMID:15695208

Williams, Tony D.; Ames, Caroline E.; Kiparissis, Yiannis; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.

2005-01-01

456

New opportunities revealed by biotechnological explorations of extremophiles  

E-print Network

New opportunities revealed by biotechnological explorations of extremophiles Mircea Podar1 and Anna understanding of biochemistry, biology and evolution. As more new extremophiles are brought into laboratory new opportunities for the biotechnological exploration of extremophiles. Addresses 1 Metagenomica, San

Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

457

46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL. 32.55-50 Section 32.55-50 Shipping COAST...tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975—T/ALL. Each tankship that has a keel laying date on...

2013-10-01

458

46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL. 32.55-50 Section 32.55-50 Shipping COAST...tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975—T/ALL. Each tankship that has a keel laying date on...

2010-10-01

459

46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL. 32.55-50 Section 32.55-50 Shipping COAST...tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975—T/ALL. Each tankship that has a keel laying date on...

2012-10-01

460

Beyond a Shadow of a Doubt? Experts, Lay Knowledge, and the Role of Radiography in the Diagnosis of Silicosis in Britain, c. 1919-1945  

PubMed Central

Summary The history of silicosis provides an important chapter in the history of occupational and environmental health. Recent historical scholarship has drawn attention to the importance of patient attitudes, popular protests, and compensation claims in the formation of a "lay epidemiology" of such a disease, frequently challenging the scientific orthodoxies devised by large corporations and medical specialists. Surprisingly little research has been undertaken on the United Kingdom, which provided much of the early expertise and medical research in respiratory diseases among industrial workers. This article examines the introduction of a particular technique, x-radiography, and its use by radiologists and others in debates on the causes and consequences of silica inhalation by the laboring population in Britain during the early decades of the twentieth century. In contrast to some recent interpretations, and also to the narrative of progress that practitioner historians have developed since the 1940s, this article suggests that the use of this technology was contested for much of this period and the interpretation of X-rays remained disputed and uncertain into the 1950s. The article also questions recent accounts of lay epidemiology as an adequate model for understanding the progress of such innovations in medical history. PMID:21037398

Melling, Joseph

2010-01-01

461

SFMOMA: Explore Modern Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art website has a wonderful feature that aims to help visitors of the online exhibits (or the physical museum) understand what was going on in the mind of the artist, the curator, or art historian when they created, chose or studied a work of art. The "Explore Modern Art" link provides a multimedia resource which helps visitors better understand this often misunderstood mode of artistic endeavor. Visitors can go to the archive of multimedia presentations released by SFMOMA, which covers more than 50 artists, such as Sol LeWitt and Betye Saar. To hear the musings of curators on exhibits at SFMOMA, visitors should click on the "Audio" link under "Multimedia." If you are not familiar with the artwork featured in the audio, most of the audio features provide a link to a biography of the artist featured, as well as to a few of their works. Visitors shouldn't miss watching the time-lapse video of "SFMOMA installs Ann Hamilton's indigo blue", which can be found in the "Video" link on the left said of the page.

462

Characterization of Egg Laying Hen and Broiler Fecal Microbiota in Poultry Farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products. PMID:25329397

Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

2014-01-01

463

Venus Exploration opportunities within NASA's Solar System Exploration roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science goals to understand the origin, history and environment of Venus have been driving international space exploration missions for over 40 years. Past missions include the Magellan and Pioneer-Venus missions by the US; the Venera program by the USSR; and the Vega missions through international cooperation. Furthermore, the US National Research Council (NRC), in the 2003 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Decadal Survey, identified Venus as a high priority target, thus demonstrating a continuing interest in Earth's sister planet. In response to the NRC recommendation, the 2005 NASA SSE Roadmap included a number of potential Venus missions arching through all mission classes from small Discovery, to medium New Frontiers and to large Flagship class missions. While missions in all of these classes could be designed as orbiters with remote sensing capabilities, the desire for scientific advancements beyond our current knowledge - including what we expect to learn from the ongoing ESA Venus Express mission - point to in-situ exploration of Venus.

Balint, Tibor; Thompson, Thomas; Cutts, James; Robinson, James

2006-01-01

464

Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, estradiol, and progesterone in laying and nonlaying canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria).  

PubMed

Temporal changes in the levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, estradiol, and progesterone associated with the reproductive patterns of 53 wild captive canvasback ducks were measured. The reproductive endocrinology of both laying and nonlaying females was compared in this 3-year study. Females that remained sexually inactive had ovaries with small, undeveloped follicles. Nonlaying ducks also had lower serum levels of LH (P less than 0.01), prolactin (P less than 0.05), estradiol, and progesterone than those of laying ducks in mid-April (during prelay), mid-May (on the fourth day of egg production), and mid-June (during postlay and incubation). Prolactin levels of both layers and nonlayers increased over this time interval (P less than 0.01) but levels of nonlayers were significantly lower than those of layers for the three blood-sampling dates. The low prolactin levels demonstrate that reproductive failure was not a result of inhibition by high serum prolactin levels. Intravenous injections of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in female canvasbacks resulted in significantly elevated (P less than 0.01) serum LH on the prelay blood sampling date. Lack of reproduction in nonbreeding canvasbacks was thus associated with low circulating serum LH levels but with LHRH-sensitive pituitary pools. These data suggest that lack of reproduction was a result of the failure of the hypothalamus to release releasing factors. The serum hormones of laying canvasbacks varied temporally with stages of the nesting cycle. LH levels increased prior to egg laying and fluctuated during the laying period. LH levels decreased at the onset of incubation but increased after loss of clutch, with renesting activity. Serum prolactin levels of layers were low prior to egg laying and increased gradually through laying of the first clutch, the renesting period, and laying of the second clutch. The highest prolactin levels occurred in ducks