Science.gov

Sample records for exploring lay understandings

  1. Understanding cervical cancer: an exploration of lay perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about cervical cancer among the Acholi in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in Uganda; yet community understanding of the disease is limited. We explored community perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about the local names, causes, symptoms, course, treatment, and prognosis of cervical cancer in order to inform targeted interventions to promote early help-seeking. Methods Twenty four focus group discussions (FGD) with men and women aged 18 – 59 years and ten key informant interviews with persons aged???60 years were conducted at two sites in Gulu district between May and June 2012. A semi-structured interview guide informed by Kleinman’s illness explanatory model and literature on community awareness of cervical cancer was used to collect data. Data analysis was supported with use of ATLAS.ti 6.1 in coding, organizing and tracking data segments. We used content analysis technique in data analysis and organised data into a structured format under distinct themes and categories. Results Cervical cancer was known by the local name “two remo”, meaning “an illness that manifests with bleeding.” Respondents believed that early onset of sexual activity, multiple male sexual partners and multi-parity cause cervical cancer. Respondents in half of FGDs also reported that use of condoms and family planning pills and injections cause cervical cancer. Symptoms of cervical cancer reported included vaginal bleeding, watery vaginal discharge and lower abdominal and waist pain. Respondents in most of the FGDs and key informants perceived cervical cancer as a chronic illness and that it can be treated with both modern and traditional medicines. The majority thought that cervical cancer treatment was supportive; the illness is not curable. Conclusions While some lay beliefs about the causes of cervical cancer suggest some understanding of aetiology of the disease, other perceived causes particularly those related to use of family planning and condoms are potentially hurtful to public health. Awareness campaigns to promote early help-seeking for cervical cancer symptoms need to be culturally-sensitive and context-specific; and include messages on symptoms, risk factors, course, treatment and prognoses. PMID:25028122

  2. Assessing Lay Understanding of Common Presentations of Earthquake Hazard Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. J.; Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) includes, in its introduction to earthquake rupture forecast maps, the assertion that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities -- from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [3] However, psychology research identifies a large gap between lay and expert perception of risk for various hazards [2], and cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [1,4-6] that people neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probabilities, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [7]. The gap between lay and expert use of probability needs to be recognized more clearly by scientific organizations such as WGCEP. This study undertakes to determine how the lay public interprets earthquake hazard information, as presented in graphical map form by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), compiled by the WGCEP and other bodies including the USGS and CGS. It also explores alternate ways of presenting hazard data, to determine which presentation format most effectively translates information from scientists to public. Participants both from California and from elsewhere in the United States are included, to determine whether familiarity -- either with the experience of an earthquake, or with the geography of the forecast area -- affects people's ability to interpret an earthquake hazards map. We hope that the comparisons between the interpretations by scientific experts and by different groups of laypeople will both enhance theoretical understanding of factors that affect information transmission and assist bodies such as the WGCEP in their laudable attempts to help people prepare themselves and their communities for possible natural hazards. [1] Kahneman, D & Tversky, A (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica, XLVII: 263-291. [2] Fischhoff, B, Slovic, P, Lichtenstein, S, Read, S & Combs, B (1978). How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Pol Sci, 9, 127-152. [3] http://www.scec.org/ucerf/ [4] Hau, R, Pleskac, TJ, Kiefer, J & Hertwig, R (2008). The Description-Experience Gap in Risky Choice: The Role of Sample Size and Experienced Probabilities. J Behav Decis Making, 21: 493-518. [5] Lichtenstein, S, Slovic, P, Fischhoff, B, Layman, M & Combs, B (1978). Judged frequency of lethal events. J Exp Psy: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 551-578. [6] Hertwig, R, Barron, G, Weber, EU & Erev, I (2006). The role of information sampling in risky choice. In K Fiedler & P Juslin (Eds), Information sampling and adaptive cognition. Pp 75-91. New York: Cambridge University Press. [7] Budescu, DV, Broomell, S & Por HH (2009). Improving communication of uncertainty in the reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Psychol Sci, 20(3), 299-308.

  3. Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer healthLay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information information behavior extended beyond NCHI search. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory approach

  4. Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date-temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus.

    PubMed

    Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J

    2008-03-22

    Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (GxE) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date-temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for GxE. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs. PMID:18211880

  5. Lay understanding of forensic statistics: Evaluation of random match probabilities, likelihood ratios, and verbal equivalents.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William C; Newman, Eryn J

    2015-08-01

    Forensic scientists have come under increasing pressure to quantify the strength of their evidence, but it is not clear which of several possible formats for presenting quantitative conclusions will be easiest for lay people, such as jurors, to understand. This experiment examined the way that people recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (n = 541) responded to 2 types of forensic evidence--a DNA comparison and a shoeprint comparison--when an expert explained the strength of this evidence 3 different ways: using random match probabilities (RMPs), likelihood ratios (LRs), or verbal equivalents of likelihood ratios (VEs). We found that verdicts were sensitive to the strength of DNA evidence regardless of how the expert explained it, but verdicts were sensitive to the strength of shoeprint evidence only when the expert used RMPs. The weight given to DNA evidence was consistent with the predictions of a Bayesian network model that incorporated the perceived risk of a false match from 3 causes (coincidence, a laboratory error, and a frame-up), but shoeprint evidence was undervalued relative to the same Bayesian model. Fallacious interpretations of the expert's testimony (consistent with the source probability error and the defense attorney's fallacy) were common and were associated with the weight given to the evidence and verdicts. The findings indicate that perceptions of forensic science evidence are shaped by prior beliefs and expectations as well as expert testimony and consequently that the best way to characterize and explain forensic evidence may vary across forensic disciplines. PMID:25984887

  6. Exploration for Understanding in Cognitive Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluck, Kevin; Stanley, Clayton; Moore, L.; Reitter, David; Halbrügge, Marc

    2010-12-01

    The cognitive modeling and artificial general intelligence research communities may reap greater scientific return on research investments - may achieve an improved understanding of architectures and models - if there is more emphasis on systematic sensitivity and necessity analyses during model development, evaluation, and comparison. We demonstrate this methodological prescription with two of the models submitted for the Dynamic Stocks and Flows (DSF) Model Comparison Challenge, exploring the complex interactions among architectural mechanisms, knowledge-level strategy variants, and task conditions. To cope with the computational demands of these analyses we use a predictive analytics approach similar to regression trees, combined with parallelization on high performance computing clusters, to enable large scale, simultaneous search and exploration.

  7. Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and others online*EC

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Karen E.; Turner, Anne G.; Durrance, Joan C.; Turner, Tammara Combs

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer health information domain. Lay information mediaries (LIMs) seek information on behalf or because of others, without necessarily being asked to do so or engaging in follow up, and have represented more than 50% of health information seekers in prior studies. Methods: A web-based survey was posted on NC Health Info (NCHI) with 211 respondents, self-identified per the information need that brought them to NCHI as 20% LIMs (n?=?43), 58% direct users (n?=?122), and 22% health or information providers (n?=?46). Follow-up telephone interviews were performed with 10% (n?=?21). Interview analysis focused on lay participants (n?=?15 LIMs and direct users combined). Interviewees were reclassified post-survey as 12 LIMs and 3 direct users when studied information behavior extended beyond NCHI search. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory approach. Results: Surveyed LIMs were 77% female (n?=?33) and searched on behalf or because of family members (81%, n?=?35) and people they felt “extremely close” to (77%, n?=?33). LIMs reported various information seeking barriers “sometimes” to “often.” LIMs searched mostly without prompting (51%, n?=?22). Interview results triangulated survey findings regarding gender, tie strength, and prompting. Conclusions: LIMB may be related to gender and relationship tie strength and appears more internally than externally motivated. Further LIMB research is warranted. PMID:18974809

  8. Exploring Tertiary Students' Understanding of Covalent Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether exposure to increasingly sophisticated mental models at different points in a chemistry education class showed up in patterns of preference and use of models in interpreting physical properties and phenomena. (Contains 92 references.) (DDR)

  9. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joo Ok; Lee, Joohi; Moon, Sung Seek

    2009-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the effects of death education on children and their understanding of death. The participants of this study were eighty 5- and 6-year-olds who were enrolled in a suburban kindergarten in Korea. To examine the level of children's understanding of death, researchers interviewed each child in both the control and…

  10. Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Lori

    2004-01-01

    In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…

  11. How has neuroscience affected lay understandings of personhood? A review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The prominence of neuroscience in the public sphere has escalated in recent years, provoking questions about how the public engages with neuroscientific ideas. Commentaries on neuroscience’s role in society often present it as having revolutionary implications, fundamentally overturning established beliefs about personhood. The purpose of this article is to collate and review the extant empirical evidence on the influence of neuroscience on commonsense understandings of personhood. The article evaluates the scope of neuroscience’s presence in public consciousness and examines the empirical evidence for three frequently encountered claims about neuroscience’s societal influence: that neuroscience fosters a conception of the self that is based in biology, that neuroscience promotes conceptions of individual fate as predetermined, and that neuroscience attenuates the stigma attached to particular social categories. It concludes that many neuroscientific ideas have assimilated in ways that perpetuate rather than challenge existing modes of understanding self, others and society. PMID:23833053

  12. Exploring lay views on physical activity and their implications for public health policy. A case study from East Belfast.

    PubMed

    Prior, L; Scott, D; Hunter, R; Donnelly, M; Tully, M A; Cupples, M E; Kee, F

    2014-08-01

    It is now recognised that inactive lifestyles underpin much of the disease burden evident in the richer nations of the world. Indeed, the WHO has identified physical inactivity as a 'global public health problem' and has established minimum physical activity (PA) targets for people at different stages of the life-course. Yet, according to WHO, just under 1/3 of working age adults across the globe meet those targets and it is not at all clear how the disjunction between the recommendations of policy makers and the behaviour of ordinary people might be surmounted. Using an opportunity to examine the impact of an urban regeneration project on community residents in East Belfast (Northern Ireland) this paper examines the views of some 113 people on how to increase rates of PA in an area of multiple deprivation. The results of the analysis suggest that lay people rarely consider PA as a discrete issue, or one that centres on individuals and their motivation, but rather as one component in a complex web of concerns, processes and events that include such things as the actions of neighbours and relatives, material and political environments, vandalism, violence, and the weather. We explore and unravel the nature of those concerns using novel methods of content analysis that generate 'issue webs'. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which lay people conceptualize 'activity' and to the manner in which they point to ways of encouraging activity that are rooted in everyday life rather than in the corpocentric, agent-centred and often sport dominated strategies favoured by local policy makers. Our results support those who argue that interventions to increase rates of PA need to move beyond behavioural approaches that focus on individuals and consider the social, political and material contexts in which 'activity' occurs. PMID:24911510

  13. Using Electronic Interviews to Explore Student Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D. J.; Rivera, J. J.; Mateycik, Fran; Jennings, Sybillyn

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports on methods used to probe student understandings of optical fibers and total internal reflection (TIR). The study was conducted as part of the expansion and improvement of web-based materials for an innovative introductory physics course. Initially, we conducted face-to-face Piaget-style interviews with a convenience sample. Our next step was to interview students taking the course at Rensselaer. Physical limitations necessitated that this be done from a distance, so we conducted "e-interviews" using a Chat Room. In this paper we focus on the e-interview experience, discussing similarities to and differences from the traditional face-to-face approach. In the process, we address how each method informs us about students' activation of prior experiences in making sense of unfamiliar phenomena (e.g., "transfer of learning").

  14. Understanding Multitasking Through Parallelized Strategy Exploration and Individualized Cognitive Modeling

    E-print Network

    Hornof, Anthony

    Understanding Multitasking Through Parallelized Strategy Exploration and Individualized Cognitive, OR 97403 USA {zywind, hornof}@cs.uoregon.edu ABSTRACT Human multitasking often involves complex task strategies to reveal the true complexity of multitasking behavior. This study proposes a systematic approach

  15. Edinburgh Research Explorer Complementary approaches to understanding the plant circadian

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    by the legal requirements associated with these rights. Take down policy The University of Edinburgh has made of a key protein likely to affect fitness. We explore how robust this circadian clock is towards to a more complete understanding of the clock. 1 Introduction The daily cycles in sunlight, temperature

  16. Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2002-08-01

    This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

  17. Exploring and understanding academic leadership in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Oandasan, Ivy; White, David; Hammond Mobilio, Melanie; Gotlib Conn, Lesley; Feldman, Kymm; Kim, Florence; Rouleau, Katherine; Sorensen, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore how family physicians understand the concept of academic leadership. Design Case study. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants Thirty family physician academic leaders. Methods Focus groups and interviews were conducted with family physicians from a large multisite urban university who were identified by peers as academic leaders at various career stages. Transcripts from the focus groups and interviews were anonymized and themes were analyzed and negotiated among 3 researchers. Main findings Participants identified qualities of leadership among academic leaders that align with those identified in the current literature. Despite being identified by others as academic leaders, participants were reluctant to self-identify as such. Participants believed they had taken on early leadership roles by default rather than through planned career development. Conclusion This study affirms the need to define academic leadership explicitly, advance a culture that supports it, and nurture leaders at all levels with a variety of strategies. PMID:23486818

  18. Vocational Exploration through Service: The Effect of Service-Learning on Student Understanding of God's Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    College is a time of exploration for students. College students who are Christian may also engage in exploration of God's call on their lives, a discernment of their vocation. One pedagogical technique that can help us help students explore vocation is service-learning. To better understand their vocation, students need to understand themselves…

  19. Answering the Call: An Examination of the Development of Lay Leadership on Jesuit, Catholic University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Xavier Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The study was an exploration of how participants in lay formation mission and identity programs on three Jesuit higher education campuses understand their experiences of the programs; what competencies were developed as a result of participation; and how the programs helped participants understand the cultural context of Jesuit higher education.…

  20. Understanding Movement: A Sociocultural Approach to Exploring Moving Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Hakan; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to outline a sociocultural way of exploring human movement. Our ambition is to develop an analytical framework where moving humans are explored in terms of what it means to move as movements are performed by somebody, for a certain purpose, and in a certain situation. We find this approach in poststructural…

  1. Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, th Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and grou handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

  2. Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. L.; Cockrell, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, the Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and ground handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early as the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

  3. Exploring Preservice Teachers' Emerging Understandings of Disciplinary Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Avis M.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative inquiry examined 14 secondary preservice teachers' emerging understandings of disciplinary literacy. Data included preservice teachers' written reflections and annotated lesson plans, which were analyzed for understanding of discipline-specific habits of thinking, texts, reading and writing demands of academic texts,…

  4. Mixed-methods exploration of parents' health information understanding.

    PubMed

    Lehna, Carlee; McNeil, Jack

    2008-05-01

    Health literacy--the ability to read, understand, and use health information to make health care decisions--affects health care outcomes, hospitalization costs, and readmission. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study is to determine how two different parent groups (English speaking and Spanish speaking) understand medical care for their children and the procedural and research consent forms required by that care. Quantitative and qualitative data are gathered and compared concurrently. Differences between groups are found in age, grade completed, Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults scores, and ways of understanding health information. Identifying how parents understand health information is the first step in providing effective family-centered health care education. PMID:18387884

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Explore. Discover. Understand.

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    of robotics, focusing in specific areas that would benefit NASA's Vision for Space Exploration and science in the Mechanical Systems Division, and a member of the Robotics Formuation Team that developed the plan tools and end-effectors, highly adaptive thermal control, vision systems, contact dynamic analysis

  6. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  7. Exploring Turkish Upper Primary Level Pupils' Understanding of Digestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakici, Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The…

  8. Understanding ENSO dynamics through the exploration of past climates

    E-print Network

    Phipps, Steven J.

    . Brown2 1 Climate Change Research Centre, UNSW, Sydney, Australia 2 Centre for Australian Weather climates GREENHOUSE 2009, Perth, Australia, 23-26 March 2009 #12;Current understanding · Previous modelling the Earth's orbital parameters are varied ­ Atmospheric CO2 concentration = 280ppm ­ Solar constant = 1365

  9. Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzu-Bin; Li, Jen-Yi; Deng, Feng; Lee, Ling

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of new media technologies, the role of media in a society has been changed that leads researchers to re-construct the meaning of literacy from classic literacy to new media literacy. There have been continuing efforts to understand new media and promote the importance of becoming new media literate among researchers, educators,…

  10. Exploring Student Beliefs and Understanding in Elementary Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Baxter, Juliet A.

    2012-01-01

    This study had the goal of investigating the association among elementary students' (N = 276) science and math beliefs and the relationship between those beliefs and teachers' ratings of mathematical and science understanding. Results of structural path analysis indicate that in science, intellectual risk-taking (IRT; the willingness to share…

  11. Exploring Turkish upper primary level pupils' understanding of digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakici, Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The most significant finding was the children's conception of the digestive process as 'melting of foods' rather than 'breaking foods down'. Some other children considered digestion to be a filtering process that is performed by the stomach in order to separate the useful and waste parts of food. These views 'melting of foods' and 'filtering of foods' have not been mentioned in the literature previously. The study revealed that social influences and everyday language had an important impact on children's learning of the digestive process.

  12. Understanding Words, Understanding Numbers: An Exploration of the Mathematical Profiles of Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor comprehenders are children who show significant deficits in their reading comprehension performance, despite average, or above-average word reading ability. To date, there have been no in-depth studies of the mathematical performance profiles of such children. Aims: This study aimed to explore the mathematical profiles of poor…

  13. Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey S. B. Mc Abstract. We present a study of student understanding of energy in quantum mechanical tunneling and barrier refer to as the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS), is being developed to measure student

  14. Exploring Students' Understanding of Ordinary Differential Equations Using Computer Algebraic System (CAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maat, Siti Mistima; Zakaria, Effandi

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are one of the important topics in engineering mathematics that lead to the understanding of technical concepts among students. This study was conducted to explore the students' understanding of ODEs when they solve ODE questions using a traditional method as well as a computer algebraic system, particularly…

  15. Understanding Ozone: Exploring the Good and Bad Facets of a Famous Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1995-01-01

    Presents activities that help students distinguish between the beneficial layer of stratospheric ozone and the dangerous ground-level or tropospheric ozone, understand the chemical processes of ozone breakdown in the stratosphere, find the sources of ground-level ozone, and explore the differences in the patterns of ozone concentration over the…

  16. Exploring Positioning as an Analytical Tool for Understanding Becoming Mathematics Teachers' Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject…

  17. Exploring positioning as an analytical tool for understanding becoming mathematics teachers' identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject positioning? We elaborate on the elusive and interrelated concepts of identity, positioning and power, seen as dynamic and changeable. As these concepts represent three interconnected parts of research analysis in an on-going larger project data from different sources will be used in this illustration. In this paper, we clarify the theoretical stance, ground the concepts historically and strive to connect them to research analysis. In this way, we show that power relations and subject positioning in social settings are critical aspects and need to be taken seriously into account if we aim at understanding becoming teachers' identities.

  18. Lay or Lie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Barbara R.

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: LEVEL: High school and college. AUTHOR'S COMMENT: Many would like to abandon the distinction between "lay" and "lie," but I still receive enough questions about it to continue teaching it. Finding that students did not believe me when I taught them to substitute "recline" for "lie," because "The rug…

  19. To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Nigel; Richardson, Janet

    2012-07-10

    lawrence n. & richardson j. (2012) Journal of Nursing Management To explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons, within an acute NHS Trust Aim? The aim of this study was to explore and understand the leadership experiences of modern matrons. Background? Modern matrons were re-introduced to the National Health Service in 2002, and effective leadership has been identified as being essential for the role to be successful. However, there is minimal evidence of how modern matrons experience effective leadership. Methods? The study used a descriptive generic qualitative methodology; one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine matrons. This was subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results? Three themes were found to influence modern matron's leadership experiences: leadership behaviours, negative influences and leadership investment. They did not follow one leadership style but adapted this to their situation. Various factors appeared to restrict their leadership effectiveness. Conclusions? The findings suggest that exposure to a range of leadership styles should be included in preparation and CPD for the modern matron role and a more consistent job description and job purpose should be developed. Implications for nursing management? Leadership styles such as transformational leadership alone do not meet the complex demands of nursing leaders, and therefore there is a requirement for greater flexibility in leadership development for all health care professionals. PMID:23410106

  20. Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Robert, F.; Hart, C.J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Metamorphic belts are complex regions where accretion or collision has added to, or thickened, continental crust. Gold-rich deposits can be formed at all stages of orogen evolution, so that evolving metamorphic belts contain diverse gold deposit types that may be juxtaposed or overprint each other. This partly explains the high level of controversy on the origin of some deposit types, particularly those formed or overprinted/remobilized during the major compressional orogeny that shaped the final geometry of the hosting metamorphic belts. These include gold-dominated orogenic and intrusion-related deposits, but also particularly controversial gold deposits with atypical metal associations. There are a number of outstanding problems for all types of gold deposits in metamorphc belts. These include the following: (1) definitive classifications, (2) unequivocal recognition of fluid and metal sources, (3) understanding of fluid migration and focusing at all scales, (4) resolution of the precise role of granitoid magmatism, (5) precise gold-depositional mechanisms, particularly those producing high gold grades, and (6) understanding of the release of CO2-rich fluids from subducting slabs and subcreted oceanic crust and granitoid magmas at different crustal levels. Research needs to be better coordinated and more integrated, such that detailed fluid-inclusion, trace-element, and isotopic studies of both gold deposits and potential source rocks, using cutting-edge technology, are embedded in a firm geological framework at terrane to deposit scales. Ultimately, four-dimensional models need to be developed, involving high-quality, three-dimensional geological data combined with integrated chemical and fluid-flow modeling, to understand the total history of the hydrothermal systems involved. Such research, particularly that which can predict superior targets visible in data sets available to exploration companies before discovery, has obvious spin-offs for global- to deposit-scale targeting of deposits with superior size and grade in the covered terranes that will be the exploration focus of the twenty-first century.

  1. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

  2. An Exploration of Teachers' Efforts to Understand Identity Work and its Relevance to Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. Cecil; Darfler, Anne

    2012-06-01

    US educators express concern that students are turning away from the study of science and have little interest in pursuing science careers. Nationally, science achievement scores for 8th graders are unchanged since 1996, but 12th graders' scores have significantly decreased. A shortcoming of education reform efforts is lack of attention to students' developmental needs. Science study should enable students to learn about themselves—to develop and refine their skills, define their values, explore personal interests, and understand the importance of science to themselves and others. Effective secondary science instruction requires attention to students' identity development—the key developmental task of adolescence. Secondary science teachers participated in an 8-week course focused on understanding adolescent identity development and methods for addressing identity. Transcripts of the teachers' online discussions of salient issues were analyzed to determine their perceptions regarding classroom identity work. Teachers identified several assets and obstacles to identity work that were organized into two broad categories: teacher knowledge, training opportunities, and administrative support, or lack of these; and, presence of inflexible curricula, standardized testing regimes, and increased teacher accountability. Implications for student growth and science teacher professional development are discussed.

  3. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  4. An exploration of middle school science teachers' understandings and teaching practice of science as inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Margaret Ann

    A number of reports have raised a concern that the U.S. is not meeting the demands of 21st century skill preparation of students, teachers, and practitioners in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). In 2005 and 2006 five reports were released indicating a need for improvement in science and mathematics education in the U.S. The reports were: Keeping America Competitive: Five Strategies To Improve Mathematics and Science Education (Coble & Allen, 2005); National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative: Meeting America's Economic and Security Challenges in the 21st Century (The Association of American Universities, 2006); Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (National Academies Press, 2007); Tapping America's Potential: The Education for Innovation Initiative (Business Roundtable Taskforce , 2005); and Waiting for Sputnik: Basic Research and Strategic Competition (Lewis, 2005). Consensus of data in these reports indicates that the U.S., as compared to other industrialized nations, does not fare very well in science achievement and STEM degree attainment. For example, on the 2003 Program for International Assessment (PISA), 15-year-old students in the U.S. ranked 28th in math and 24th in science literacy (Kuenzi, Matthews, & Mangon, 2006). Furthermore, the U.S. ranked 20th among all nations in the proportion of 24-year-olds who earned degrees in natural sciences or engineering (Kuenzi, 2008). As a result, if the U.S. is to remain scientifically and technologically competitive in the world, it is necessary to increase our efforts to incorporate scientific practices associated with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into the science classroom. Middle school is a critical point in students' science education and it is in middle school that they begin to dislike science. Research indicates that when students learn science through inquiry their interest in and understanding of science increases (Akkus, Gunel & Hand, 2007; Gibson, 2002; Liu, Lee & Linn, 2010). As a result, it is important to explore middle school science teachers' definition of science as inquiry because of its importance in how their understandings are reflected in their practice. Researchers must witness, first- hand, what is taking place in middle school science classrooms with respect to the teaching of scientific inquiry before recommendations for improvements can be made. We must also allow opportunities for middle school science teachers to broach, examine, explore, interpret and report implementation strategies when practicing the elements of scientific inquiry as a science content area. It then stands to reason that more research needs to be done to: (1) assess teachers' knowledge related to reform-based teaching, (2) investigate teachers' views about the goals and purposes of inquiry, and (3) investigate the processes by which teachers carry out SI and motivation for undertaking such a complex and difficult to manage form of instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine middle school science teachers' understandings and skills related to scientific inquiry; how those understandings and skills were translated into classroom practice, and the role the school district played in the development of such understandings and skills.

  5. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ?5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with interventions to address gender inequity, support marital relationships, and improve access to perinatal healthcare. PMID:24581309

  6. The GPS Analysis Package for Exploration and Understanding of Geodetic Sensor Web Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granat, R. A.; Moghaddam, B.; Donnellan, A.

    2012-12-01

    We introduce the GPS Analysis Package (GAP), a Matlab toolbox for GPS data exploration and understanding. The toolbox is designed to support scientists and engineers studying the motion of the solid Earth both in an academic environment and in the course of NASA missions such as UAVSAR and future InSAR satellite missions. It includes an ensemble of low-level routines to perform basic signal processing operations, such as removal of secular motion, de-noising, and removal of seasonal signals. It also includes a suite of more sophisticated statistical pattern recognition techniques, including hidden Markov models and Bayes nets, to detect changes, identify transient signals, understand regional motion, and uncover relationships between geographically removed nodes in the GPS network. Finally, it provides an assortment of methods for estimating missing observations in the network. We provide usage examples of the package applied to particular scenarios, including the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and ongoing slow slip events in the Cascadia region. We also demonstrate the utility of the package within a web portal and web services environment by showcasing its use in the QuakeSim web portal. The QuakeSim portal allows easy access to GPS data sources provided by multiple institutions as well as a map and plotting interface to quickly assess analysis results. Finally, we show the extensibility of the package to other problem domains and sensor network data sources, demonstrating the analysis tools as applied to seismic network data, autonomous robotic navigation, and fault detection in engineering data streams from the International Space Station.

  7. Toward understanding life under subzero conditions: the significance of exploring psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Emanuele

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the behavior of proteins under freezing conditions is vital for detecting and locating extraterrestrial life in cold environments, such as those found on Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. This review highlights the importance of studying psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins, a topic that has yet to be explored. A strategy for analyzing the psychrophilic RNA helicase protein CsdA (Psyc_1082) from Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures is proposed. The experimental model presented here was developed based on previous data from investigations of Escherichia coli, P. arcticus 273-4, and RNA helicases. P. arcticus 273-4 is considered a model for life in freezing environments. It is capable of growing in temperatures as cold as -10°C by using physiological strategies to survive not only in freezing temperatures but also under low-water-activity and limited-nutrient-availability conditions. The analyses of its genome, transcriptome, and proteome revealed specific adaptations that allow it to inhabit freezing environments by adopting a slow metabolic strategy rather than a cellular dormancy state. During growth at subzero temperatures, P. arcticus 273-4 genes related to energy metabolism and carbon substrate incorporation are downregulated, and genes for maintenance of membranes, cell walls, and nucleic acid motion are upregulated. At -6°C, P. arcticus 273-4 does not upregulate the expression of either RNA or protein chaperones; however, it upregulates the expression of its cold-shock induced DEAD-box RNA helicase protein A (CsdA - Psyc_1082). CsdA - Psyc_1082 was investigated as a key helper protein for sustaining life in subzero conditions. Proving CsdA - Psyc_1082 to be functional as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures may extend the known minimum growth temperature of a mesophilic cell and provide key information about the mechanisms that underlie cold-induced biological systems in icy worlds. PMID:23082745

  8. "They Just Seem to Live Their Lives in Their Own Little World": Lay Perceptions of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huws, J. C.; Jones, R. S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is believed to be higher than that of other conditions, such as Down syndrome or diabetes, yet few studies have explored the ideas lay people have about autism. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how 10 lay people with no knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism.…

  9. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  10. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  11. From Phenotype to Genotype: Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Genetic Inheritance in a Web-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michelle; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Manokore, Viola

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that students face challenges as they learn about genetic inheritance. The challenges could emanate from the fact that genetic inheritance involves unseen processes at different organizational levels. We explored students' understanding of heredity and related concepts such as cells and reproduction using a Web-based Science Inquiry…

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

  13. Using Rasch Modeling to Explore Students' Understanding of Elementary School Ideas about Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann Abell, Cari F.; DeBoer, George E.

    2015-01-01

    Energy plays a central role in our society, so it is essential that all citizens understand what energy is and how it moves and changes form. However, research has shown that students of all ages have difficulty understanding these abstract concepts. This paper presents a summary of elementary, middle, and high school students' understanding of…

  14. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  15. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  16. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  17. Teachers' and Parents' Conceptions of Children's Curiosity and Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chak, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Although curiosity is a characteristic often observed in young children, it has not received much academic interest in recent years. Among its many dimensions, the epistemic nature of curiosity, or the quest for knowledge, deserves attention. To explore the potential application of "epistemic curiosity", it is important to understand how lay

  18. "Love, Love, and More Love for Children": Exploring Preservice Teachers' Understandings of Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Lisa S.; Lake, Vickie E.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the understandings of the relationship between caring and teaching brought by elementary student teachers to their first field placements. Data from electronic dialog journals indicated that student teachers believed caring to be an important part of their teaching lives. They had three commonly held understandings of caring:…

  19. Exploring Elementary Students' Understanding of Energy and Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin

    2008-01-01

    As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curricula need to develop students' understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change. For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what their students' prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A…

  20. Story understanding in Genesis : exploring automatic plot construction through commonsense reasoning

    E-print Network

    Low, Harold William Capen, IV

    2011-01-01

    Whether through anecdotes, folklore, or formal history, humans learn the lessons and expectations of life from stories. If we are to build intelligent programs that learn as humans do, such programs must understand stories ...

  1. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  2. Mapping the Biosphere: exploring species to understand the origin, organization, and sustainability of biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The time is ripe for a comprehensive mission to explore and document Earth’s species. We conclude that a goal to describe 10 million new species in less than 50 years is attainable based on the strength of 250 years of progress, worldwide collections, existing experts, technological innovation, and...

  3. Understanding "Together and Apart": A Case Study of Edward's Explorations at Nursery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Cath

    2009-01-01

    Edward was one of 58 children studied by workers and parents as part of a study on Well-being and Resilience at the Pen Green Nursery. Within the larger study, eight children were studied in greater depth in order to explore connections between cognitive and emotional development. Schematic theory and attachment theory were used as frameworks for…

  4. IN-SITU EXPLORATION OF THE VENUS ATMOSPHERE: KEY TO UNDERSTANDING OUR SISTER WORLD

    E-print Network

    Atreya, Sushil

    Discovery-class atmospheric-sampling probe and middle-atmosphere balloon missions to flagship- class, long-duration balloon and lander missions to the planet's lower atmosphere and surface. 1. INTRODUCTION The exploration will circle the planet daily in a polar elliptical orbit, regularly imaging and sounding the planet, from

  5. Explorers, Detectives, Matchmakers, and Lion Tamers: Understanding Jigsaw Puzzlers' Techniques and Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Angela Cora

    2013-01-01

    Why do people enjoy jigsaw puzzles, which--challenging and time-consuming as they are--might be considered more like work than play? The author investigates the motivations, preferences, and satisfactions of individuals working on jigsaw puzzles, and she explores how these elements of play relate to the procedures and strategies puzzlers use to…

  6. Understanding divergent evolution of Earth-like planets: the case for a Venus exploration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    2002-01-01

    Here, we propose a Venus exploration program designed to explain the origin and divergent evolution of the interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in our solar system, and provide greater insight into the conditions that may affect the habitability of terrestrial planets in other solar systems.

  7. Exploring Understandings of Inclusion in Schools in Zambia and Tanzania Using Reflective Writing and Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Susie

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small-scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South-based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are…

  8. Exploring the Role of Context in Students' Understanding of Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroughton, Jacqueline R.; McGowan, Herle M.; Weiss, Leigh V.; Cope, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Context provides meaning for data analysis and the evaluation of evidence but may be distracting to students. This research explores the role of context in students' reasoning about sampling: specifically, the relationship between the strength of students' opinions about a topic, which provides the context for a study, and their ability…

  9. Understanding Vygotsky's Motive and Goal: An Exploration of the Work of A. N. Leontiev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Contrasts work of Leontiev and Vygotsky. Suggests that Leontiev concentrated on social activity as a whole, whereas Vygotsky made semiotic mediation through culturally developed symbols a central aspect of his analysis. Maintains that they shared a philosophical base and that Leontiev used Vygotsky's ideas as a starting point to explore human…

  10. Sequential piggyback, dual lay used for Irish Sea pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Guinard, M.

    1995-09-04

    Piggyback and dual pipe lay were used sequentially for the first time in 1993 aboard the lay vessel DLB 1601 in the North Morecambe project, Block 110/2a of the Irish Sea. Development was by British Gas Exploration and Production Ltd. A 3-in. OD pipeline was laid piggybacked onto a 36-in. pipeline for the offshore pull operation and then separated in an unconventional transition operation for dual lay for the offshore section. Detailed engineering studies along with well developed installation procedures resulted in successful pipelaying. Increasing complexities of laying, trenching, and burying offshore pipelines suggest the techniques used in the North Morecambe project will find further applications. In fact, McDermott International Inc.-ETPM Services (U.K.) Ltd. (MET), which executed the North Morecambe project, developed the techniques further in 1994 for the Liverpool Bay development of Hamilton Oil Co. In that project, DLB 1601 laid in dual lay tow 3-in. pipelines in a bundle with a 20-in. pipeline. This first of two articles on the North Morecambe project discusses its background an engineering, primarily for the piggyback and dual lay phases. The conclusion covers the innovative transition operation and reports shore-testing results and observations.

  11. Teaching Games and Sport for Understanding: Exploring and Reconsidering its Relevance in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven; Pill, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Over 30 years ago the original teaching games for understanding (TGfU) proposition was published in a special edition of the Bulletin of Physical Education (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). In that time TGfU has attracted significant attention from a theoretical and pedagogical perspective as an improved approach to games and sport teaching in physical…

  12. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

  13. Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Shea, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc.…

  14. Maltreated Children's Social Understanding and Empathy: A Preliminary Exploration of Foster Carers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nikki; Banerjee, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that parental abuse and neglect can have adverse effects on children's peer relationships and self-perceptions. Emerging theoretical and empirical work suggests that children's social understanding and empathy could play a key role as mediators of these effects, but we have little knowledge about the viability of such a…

  15. Exploring Students' Understanding of Electrochemical Cells Using an Enhanced Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Adrian Sin Loy; Subramaniam, R.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of two-tier multiple-choice questions has permitted the diagnosis of students' understanding on various topics in the sciences as well as helped to ascertain the alternative conceptions they have. A limitation of two-tier diagnostic instruments that has been noted in the literature, but which has not been…

  16. The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Sebastien; Steinberg, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A great deal has long been known about student difficulties connecting real-world experiences with what they are learning in their physics classes, making learning basic ideas of classical physics challenging. Understanding these difficulties has led to the development of many instructional approaches that have been shown to help students make…

  17. Exploring Secondary Students' Understanding of Chemical Kinetics through Inquiry-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chairam, Sanoe; Klahan, Nutsuda; Coll, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    This research is trying to evaluate the feedback of Thai secondary school students to inquiry-based teaching and learning methods, exemplified by the study of chemical kinetics. This work used the multiple-choice questions, scientifically practical diagram and questionnaire to assess students' understanding of chemical kinetics. The findings…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Physics-Related Epistemological Beliefs and Physics Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulou, Christina; Vosniadou, Stella

    2007-01-01

    Three studies are reported that investigated the relationship between secondary school students' physics-related epistemological beliefs and physics conceptual understanding. Study 1 involved the development of a Greek Epistemological Beliefs Evaluation Instrument for Physics (GEBEP) which was administered to 394 students (10th graders). Study 2…

  19. Gateways to Understanding: A Model for Exploring and Discerning Meaning from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research methodologies comprise distinct traditions, each of which is based on its own assumptions and discrete methods for collecting, analyzing and reporting data. This paper examines a distinctive approach to qualitative research that was employed in a recent study to open a gateway to understanding the impact of the shootings at…

  20. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  1. Exploring the role of gaze behavior and object detection in scene understanding

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Kiwon; Peng, Yifan; Samaras, Dimitris; Zelinsky, Gregory J.; Berg, Tamara L.

    2013-01-01

    We posit that a person's gaze behavior while freely viewing a scene contains an abundance of information, not only about their intent and what they consider to be important in the scene, but also about the scene's content. Experiments are reported, using two popular image datasets from computer vision, that explore the relationship between the fixations that people make during scene viewing, how they describe the scene, and automatic detection predictions of object categories in the scene. From these exploratory analyses, we then combine human behavior with the outputs of current visual recognition methods to build prototype human-in-the-loop applications for gaze-enabled object detection and scene annotation. PMID:24367348

  2. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

    PubMed Central

    BENDER, KIMBERLY; NEGI, NALINI; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students’ commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors’ process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward increased self-awareness and future culturally responsive practice. Content analysis revealed 11 themes, including students’ enlightenment of their privilege, experiences of cultural loss, and acknowledgment of biases as integral parts of culturally responsive practice. Implications for social work education and research are addressed. PMID:23255873

  3. Understanding the Tenets of Agile Software Engineering: Lecturing, Exploration and Critical Thinking

    E-print Network

    Soundararajan, Shvetha; Chigani, Amine

    2010-01-01

    The use of agile principles and practices in software development is becoming a powerful force in today's workplace. In our quest to develop better products, therefore, it is imperative that we strive to learn and understand the application of Agile methods, principles and techniques to the software development enterprise. Unfortunately, in many educational institutions courses and projects that emphasize Agile Software Development are minimal. At best, students have only limited exposure to the agile philosophy, principles and practices at the graduate and undergraduate levels of education. In an effort to address this concern, we offered a graduate-level course entitled "Agile Software Engineering" in the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech in Fall 2009. The primary objectives of the class were to introduce the values, principles and practices underlying the agile philosophy, and to do so in an atmosphere that encourages debate and critical thinking. The course was designed around three central ...

  4. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of teacher confidence when teaching global change content will continue to drive UGC resource development as the site expands in the future.

  5. Understanding the Knowledge and Perceptions About Clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: A Qualitative Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Mansoor, Ali Khan; Mohammad Amin, Chinoy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital’s catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

  6. Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts ( n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

  7. Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Khan, Mansoor Ali; Chinoy, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful. PMID:24027475

  8. Understanding Pen and Touch Interaction for Data Exploration on Interactive Whiteboards.

    PubMed

    Walny, J; Lee, Bongshin; Johns, P; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Carpendale, S

    2012-12-01

    Current interfaces for common information visualizations such as bar graphs, line graphs, and scatterplots usually make use of the WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus and a Pointer) interface paradigm with its frequently discussed problems of multiple levels of indirection via cascading menus, dialog boxes, and control panels. Recent advances in interface capabilities such as the availability of pen and touch interaction challenge us to re-think this and investigate more direct access to both the visualizations and the data they portray. We conducted a Wizard of Oz study to explore applying pen and touch interaction to the creation of information visualization interfaces on interactive whiteboards without implementing a plethora of recognizers. Our wizard acted as a robust and flexible pen and touch recognizer, giving participants maximum freedom in how they interacted with the system. Based on our qualitative analysis of the interactions our participants used, we discuss our insights about pen and touch interactions in the context of learnability and the interplay between pen and touch gestures. We conclude with suggestions for designing pen and touch enabled interactive visualization interfaces. PMID:26357187

  9. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  10. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  11. Exploring the context of change: Understanding the kinetics of a studio physics implementation effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderle, Patrick J.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Grooms, Jonathon A.

    2013-06-01

    The SCALE-UP studio physics class involves the physical redesign of a classroom to encourage more collaborative interactions and student-centered teaching, an approach shown to increase student learning on several different measures. However, research into the contextual issues involved in implementing a studio course using the SCALE-UP model remains limited. The research presented here explores the impact of situational factors on the implementation and maintenance of a research-based instructional innovation in a large research university. The specific focus of this investigation was the development and implementation of a studio version of an introductory physics course sequence at a large research university in the southeast United States using the SCALE-UP model. Interview, observation, and artifact data (including documents and Email conversations), collected over a period of two years, were analyzed. Using the Teacher Centered Systemic Reform framework, the data were analyzed to develop themes describing forces that both encouraged and restricted the growth of this studio course. Influential forces operated at the classroom, department, university, and broad cultural levels. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the specific nature of innovations implemented and their alignment with desired learning goals and outcomes. The importance of faculty collegiality emerges as a critical departmental force, as does administrative intervention at the department and university level. Broader, societal conversations related to improving undergraduate science education also provided important contextual framing for the change effort studied. The findings highlight important factors to contemplate when undertaking similar change efforts and recommendations from this study are offered for consideration.

  12. Understanding Positive Play: An Exploration of Playing Experiences and Responsible Gambling Practices.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    This study is one of the first to explore in detail the behaviors, attitudes and motivations of players that show no signs of at-risk or problem gambling behavior (so-called 'positive players'). Via an online survey, 1484 positive players were compared with 209 problem players identified using the Lie/Bet screen. The study identified two distinct groups of positive players defined according to their motivations to play and their engagement with responsible gambling (RG) practices. Those positive players that played most frequently employed the most personal RG strategies. Reasons that positive players gave for gambling were focused on leisure (e.g., playing for fun, being entertained, and/or winning a prize). By contrast, problem gamblers were much more focused upon modifying mood states (e.g., excitement, relaxation, depression and playing when bored or upset). The present study also suggests that online gambling is not, by default, inherently riskier than gambling in more traditional ways, as online gambling was the most popular media by which positive players gambled. Furthermore, most positive players reported that it was easier to stick to their limits when playing the National Lottery online compared to traditional retail purchasing of tickets. Problem players were significantly more likely than positive players to gamble with family and friends, suggesting that, contrary to a popular RG message, social play may not be inherently safer than gambling alone. It is proposed that players (generally) may identify more with the term 'positive play' than the term 'RG' which is frequently interpreted as being aimed at people with gambling problems, rather than all players. PMID:25209455

  13. Exploring cell apoptosis and senescence to understand and treat cancer: an interview with Scott Lowe

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scott W. Lowe is currently principal investigator at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. After beginning his studies in chemical engineering, he decided to take another path and became fascinated by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, which ultimately led to an interest in human disease, particularly cancer. During his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Scott had the opportunity to benefit from the exceptional mentorship of Earl Ruley, David Housman and Tyler Jacks, and contributed to elucidating how the p53 (TP53) tumor suppressor gene limits oncogenic transformation and modulates the cytotoxic response to conventional chemotherapy. This important work earned him a fellowship from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which helped to launch his independent career. Scott is now a leading scientist in the cancer field and his work has helped to shed light on mechanisms of cell apoptosis and senescence to better understand and treat cancer. In this interview, he talks about this incredible scientific journey. PMID:26512122

  14. Understanding and Exploration of the Biomineralization Mechanisms for the Controllable Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junwu

    This thesis is mainly concerned with understanding the biomineralization mechanisms, and further extrapolating them for the controllable synthesis of transition metal compound nanomaterials on graphene sheets for energy storage applications in electrochemical capacitors and lithium ion batteries (LIB). Firstly, we have studied the mimetic biomineralization process of CaCO 3 on a stearic acid or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface by in-situ Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and ex-situ electron microscopy. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors are directly nucleated from solvated ions prior to the crystal nuclei on a Langmuir monolayer. On a DPPC monolayer, numerous fresh ACC nanoparticles heterogeneously and continuously nucleated at the air-water interface are transformed into the metastable vaterite nanocrystals. Driven by the trend to decrease surface energy, the vaterite nanocrystals self-aggregate and grow into the loose-packed hollow ellipsoidal vaterite polycrystals. These nanocrystals in vaterite polycrystals are then gradually orientated in the same direction to evolve into tight-packed ellipsoidal mesocrystals. As the crystallization time is further increased, the metastable vaterite mesocrystals are eventually transformed into the most thermodynamically stable calcite crystals. Secondly, organic and inorganic additives control over the shapes, sizes and phases of inorganic nanocrystals and arrange them into ordered structures from amorphous precursors in the organisms. This interesting phenomenon has galvanized many attempts to mimic the biomineralization process for synthesizing novel materials. We have studied the crystallization processes from small citrate molecules stabilized ACC precursors under cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar structures. Amorphous precursors, with a hydrated and disordered structure, are easily transformed and molded into CaCO 3 crystals with novel morphologies, such as, hollow radiating cluster-like particles, hollow sheaf-like crystals, and hollow rods, which are depended on CTAB micellar structures. Besides organic additives, inorganic dopants, such as, Mg2+ ion, are found to be another key factor to influence the polymorph and morphology. We combine two types of additives (Mg 2+ ion and a denatured collagen protein (gelatin)) to direct the mineralization of CaCO3. The polymorphs and morphologies critically depend on gelatin concentration at a given Mg2+ concentration. While, at a given gelatin concentration, the Mg molar percentages in the mother solution, although not a determining factor for the polymorphs, can affect the crystal micro- and nano-structures. The controlled crystallization can be rationalized by the interplay between Mg2+ and gelatin, which mutually enhances their uptake and regulate the concomitant mineralization. The biomineralization process can be divided into the nucleation of amorphous precursors and the subsequent amorphous to crystalline transformation. Thirdly, on the basis of understanding the biomineralization mechanisms discussed above, we extrapolate it to synthesize transition metal compound nanomaterials on graphene sheets for energy storage application. We have applied a bio-inspired approach to prepare CoxNi1-xO (0?x<1) nanorods on graphene sheets, breaking out the Co/Ni molar ratio limitation for the known stable mixed oxide spinel NiCo2O4. This success has allowed us to further screen the compositions for electrochemical capacitor. CoxNi1-xO/graphene composite electrodes achieve a peak specific capacitance as the Co/Ni molar ratio is closed to 1. This bio-inspired approach also is applied for anchoring Ni(OH)2 nanocrystals on graphene sheets. The size and morphology of the Ni(OH)2 nanocrystals can be controlled via altering the treated temperature during the Ostwald ripening process. The specific capacitance decreased with increasing Ni(OH) 2 nanocrystal size, whereas the cycling stability performance increased with increasing the stability of Ni(OH)2 in

  15. Understanding Science and Technology Interactions Through Ocean Science Exploration: A Summer Course for Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, J.; Denton, J.

    2003-12-01

    In order to replenish the national supply of science and mathematics educators, the National Science Foundation has supported the formation of the Center for Applications of Information Technology in the Teaching and Learning of Science (ITS) at Texas A&M University. The center staff and affiliated faculty work to change in fundamental ways the culture and relationships among scientists, educational researchers, and teachers. ITS is a partnership among the colleges of education, science, geosciences, agriculture and life science at Texas A&M University. Participants (teachers and graduate students) investigate how science is done and how science is taught and learned; how that learning is assessed, and how scholarly networks among all engaged in this work can be encouraged. While the center can offer graduate degrees most students apply as non-degree seekers. ITS participants are schooled on classroom technology applications, experience working on project teams, and access very current research work being conducted by scientists. ITS offers a certificate program consisting of two summer sessions over two years that results in 12 hours of graduate credit that can be applied to a degree. Interdisciplinary project teams spend three intense weeks connecting current research to classroom practices. During the past summer with the beginning of the two-year sequence, a course was implemented that introduced secondary teachers to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) contributions to major earth science themes, using core and logging data, engineering (technology) tools and processes. Information Technology classroom applications were enhanced through hands-on laboratory exercises, web resources and online databases. The course was structured around the following objectives. 1. Distinguish the purpose and goals of the Ocean Drilling Program from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program and describe the comparable science themes (ocean circulation, marine sedimentation, climate history, sea level change and geological time). This objective will be achieved by correctly answering 8 of 10 multiple choice items on course posttest on science themes of ODP/IODP. 2. Describe the technical tools and processes for determining sea level history by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on coring. 3. Describe the processes for describing a drill core and apply those processes to core samples from Leg 194 by developing a laboratory analysis report on core samples based on protocol for analyzing cores. 4. Explain the distinguishing features of scientific from industrial coring processes by developing a paper that contrasts scientific from industrial coring processes. 5. Describe the substructure of the ocean basin and the scientific tools (equipment and processes) used to explore this substructure by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on bore hole data interpretation. 6. Analyze and interpret data sets from a bore hole by developing a laboratory analysis report on bore-hole data. Student performance data for objectives indicate a 16% average positive change on the science themes addressed in instruction related to objective one occurred. Similarly, a 12% average positive change occurred on science education topics related to earth science among the students in this class. Ongoing contact between faculty members during the academic year is planned as these summer participants engage in implementing IT interventions and professional development experiences based on ocean science data experienced in the summer experience.

  16. The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, DongLiang

    2010-01-01

    The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

  17. The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, Dongliang

    2009-12-01

    The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

  18. Lunar volatiles: a clue for understanding the evolution of the Moon and a resource to its exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, Mikhail

    Introduction: The discovery of noticeable hydrogen concentration (believed to be in the form of water) in the polar regions was among the most exciting recent events in the exploration of the Moon. Concentration of water in polar regolith was estimated at a level of 4-6 wt.% [1,2]. Such high concentration of water in polar regolith on volatiles depleted Moon is probably a result of migration of water molecules from its hot equatorial latitudes to cold traps of the northern and southern polar regions. These depositions of volatiles on one hand contain important information on the evolution of the Moon and on the other hand their utilization can be a bases for the future human exploration. The question about diversity and source of the volatiles is still open. Sources of lunar volatiles: Three main possible sources of the Lunar polar volatiles are: Degassing of the interior. Endogenous source of volatiles is provided by degassing of heated interior of planetary bodies. In this case chemical composition of released gases reflects thermodynamic equilibrium of gases over typical magmas at temperatures around 1000°C. The composition of such gas mixtures is characterized by domination of H2O, CO2, and SO2 over other H, C, and S containing components. CO/CO2 ratio here is typically far below 0.1 level. Hydrocarbons are mainly aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, and cycloalkanes. Sulfur containing gases are mainly SO2, H2S, and Sx. Isotopic ratios of volatile elements should be the same as for the bulk Moon. Interaction of solar wind protons with surface rocks. Energetic solar wind protons with the absence of an atmospheric shield can react with oxygen of surface rocks and produce water molecules as end product. Such a mechanism provides a source of mainly water on the Moon with solar hydrogen isotopes and Moon rocks oxygen isotopes. Degassing of impacting meteorites and comets. Volatiles of impacting meteorites and comets are released into transient atmosphere. It was shown experimentally [3] that the forming gases are qualitatively similar for various rocky materials including meteorites of different classes. Such gas mixtures have the following characteristics: the CO/CO2 ratio is ł1, hydrocarbons are presented mainly by alkenes and PAHs, sulfur containing gases are presented by SO2, CS2, H2S, and COS in decreasing sequence, production of HCN, and noticeable release of water. Isotopic composition of volatile elements reflects the projectile to target proportion of their source. Gas-analytic package (GAP) of the Lunar-Resource mission: It is very important to investigate all the inventory of polar volatiles as well as isotopic composition of volatile elements to understand the real source of lunar volatiles and to evaluate their validity as a resource for the Moon exploration. The GAP is aimed on comprehensive investigation of the inventory of volatiles in the regolith of polar regions. It consists of three instruments: 1) Thermal Analyzer; 2) Gas Chromatograph with Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer for isotopic measurements of H, O, and C in evolved gases; and 3) Neutral Gas Mass-Spectrometer. References: [1] Mitrofanov, I. G. et al. 2010. Science 330: 483-486. [2] Colaprete, A. et al. 2010. Science 330: 463-468. [3] Gerasimov, M.V. 2002. Geological Society of America Special Paper 356: 705-716. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by P-22 Program of the RAS.

  19. Constructing Understanding in Primary Science: An Exploration of Process and Outcomes in the Topic Areas of Light and the Earth in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen; Grant, G.; Topping, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the process and outcomes of constructivist methods of enhancing science understanding in the topic areas of light and the earth in space. The sample was drawn from a group of 41 nine-year-old children, delivered in four two-hour weekly sessions. Each session involved different combinations of interactive discussion and…

  20. An Exploration of Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Art and the Place of Art in the Primary School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Jenny; Gupta, Mani Das; Lee, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Some research within developmental psychology shows a slow period of development in children's expressive drawings during the primary school years. Developmental researchers suggest that "educational factors" could contribute to this dip in development but have not explored these factors. This study explores links between educational policy--in…

  1. Exploring Adolescents' Multimodal Responses to "The Kite Runner": Understanding How Students Use Digital Media for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocius, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how adolescent high school students in an AP English class used multiple forms of media (the internet, digital video, slide show software, video editing tools, literary texts, and writing) to respond to and analyze a contemporary novel, "The Kite Runner". Using a multimodal analysis framework, the author explores

  2. A classification of errors in lay comprehension of medical documents

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis on participatory medicine requires that patients and consumers participate in tasks traditionally reserved for healthcare providers. This includes reading and comprehending medical documents, often but not necessarily in the context of interacting with Personal Health Records (PHRs). Research suggests that while giving patients access to medical documents has many benefits (e.g., improved patient-provider communication), lay people often have difficulty understanding medical information. Informatics can address the problem by developing tools that support comprehension; this requires in-depth understanding of the nature and causes of errors that lay people make when comprehending clinical documents. The objective of this study was to develop a classification scheme of comprehension errors, based on lay individuals’ retellings of two documents containing clinical text: a description of a clinical trial and a typical office visit note. While not comprehensive, the scheme can serve as a foundation of further development of a taxonomy of patients’ comprehension errors. Eighty participants, all healthy volunteers, read and retold two medical documents. A data-driven content analysis procedure was used to extract and classify retelling errors. The resulting hierarchical classification scheme contains nine categories and twenty-three subcategories. The most common error made by the participants involved incorrectly recalling brand names of medications. Other common errors included misunderstanding clinical concepts, misreporting the objective of a clinical research study and physician’s findings during a patient’s visit, and confusing and misspelling clinical terms. A combination of informatics support and health education is likely to improve the accuracy of lay comprehension of medical documents. PMID:22925723

  3. The dementia diagnosis: a literature review of information, understanding, and attributions.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura; Combes, Helen; Stokes, Graham

    2015-09-01

    This review examines how people understand and make sense of a dementia diagnosis. The review explores how lay frameworks and information presented at diagnosis may inform a caregiver's understanding of dementia in a family member. Existing qualitative research exploring how caregivers understand and make sense of dementia is reviewed. A literature search was conducted, and the results indicated that family carers often receive little or unclear information about dementia, with diagnostic information often delivered in euphemistic terms. Lack of clarity regarding diagnosis and prognosis creates uncertainty for caregivers and impacts future care planning. Caregiver's understandings of the condition vary, with some symptoms often not attributed to the condition. The literature highlights significant gaps and misconceptions in public knowledge regarding dementia, which raises questions about how family caregivers understand the condition. Further research is required to explore how information is presented to family carers at the time of diagnosis and how this is used to understand the condition. PMID:25515569

  4. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the Use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which…

  5. Paraphrase Acquisition from Comparable Medical Corpora of Specialized and Lay Texts

    PubMed Central

    Deléger, Louise; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays a large amount of health information is available to the public, but medical language is often difficult for lay people to understand. Developing means to make medical information more comprehensible is therefore a real need. In this regard, a useful resource would be a corpus of specialized and lay paraphrases. To this end, we built comparable corpora of specialized and lay texts on which we applied paraphrasing patterns based on anchors of deverbal noun and verb pairs. The results show that the paraphrases were of good quality (71.4% to 94.2% precision) and that this type of paraphrasing was relevant in the context of studying the differences between specialized and lay language. This study also demonstrates that simple paraphrase acquisition methods can also work on texts with a rather small degree of similarity, once similar text segments are detected. PMID:18999095

  6. Paraphrase acquisition from comparable medical corpora of specialized and lay texts.

    PubMed

    Deléger, Louise; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays a large amount of health information is available to the public, but medical language is often difficult for lay people to understand. Developing means to make medical information more comprehensible is therefore a real need. In this regard, a useful resource would be a corpus of specialized and lay paraphrases. To this end we built comparable corpora of specialized and lay texts on which we applied paraphrasing patterns based on anchors of deverbal noun and verb pairs. The results show that the paraphrases were of good quality (71.4% to 94.2% precision) and that this type of paraphrases was relevant in the context of studying the differences between specialized and lay language. This study also demonstrates that simple paraphrase acquisition methods can also work on texts with a rather small degree of similarity, once similar text segments are detected. PMID:18999095

  7. Transforming Our Understanding of the X-ray Universe: The Imaging X-ray Polarimeter Explorer (IXPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Matt, Giorgio; Marshall, Herman; ODell, Stephen L.; Pavlov, George; Ramsey, Brian; Romani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Accurate X-ray polarimetry can provide unique information on high-energy-astrophysical processes and sources. As there have been no meaningful X-ray polarization measurements of cosmic sources since our pioneering work in the 1970's, the time is ripe to explore this new parameter space in X-ray astronomy. To accomplish this requires a well-calibrated and well understood system that-particularly for an Explorer mission-has technical, cost, and schedule credibility. The system that we shall present satisfies these conditions, being based upon completely calibrated imaging- and polarization-sensitive detectors and proven X-ray-telescope technology.

  8. Family Day Care Educators: An Exploration of Their Understanding and Experiences Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Davies, Belinda; Smyth, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Herrman, Helen; Sims, Margaret; Harrison, Linda; Cook, Kay; Marshall, Bernie; Williamson, Lara

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…

  9. Impact through Images: Exploring Student Understanding of Environmental Science through Integrated Place-Based Lessons in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie; Kern, Anne L.; Charvoz, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1800s, the U.S. President Thomas Jefferson assembled a team of explorers led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to forge a waterway connecting the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. How has this environment changed in 200 years and how do elementary students make sense of those changes? This study looks at the impact of…

  10. Participant-Observation and Pile Sorting: Methods for Eliciting Local Understandings and Valuations of Plants as a First Step towards Informed Community Participation in Environment and Health Initiatives in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollin, Lisa X.; McMillen, Heather; Wilcox, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Semistructured interviews were conducted to explore local, lay perceptions and valuations of native and nonnative flora in order to better understand and anticipate community perceptions of, and potential participation in revegetation or eradication conservation efforts in multiethnic communities of Oahu, Hawai'i. The authors detail the…

  11. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  12. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  13. Exploring the Usefulness of Two Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding How Organizational Factors Influence Innovation Implementation in Cancer Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors…

  14. Analysing Vee Diagram Reflections to Explore Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding the Nature of Science in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savran-Gencer, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Vee diagrams have been a metacognitive tool to help in learning the nature and structure of knowledge by reflecting on the scientific process and making knowledge much more explicit to learners during the practical work. This study aimed to assess pre-service science teachers' understanding some aspects of NOS by analyzing their reflections…

  15. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  16. Understanding Executive Performance: A Life-Story Perspective. An Exploration of the Foundations of Leadership in Terms of Personal Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palus, Charles J.; And Others

    The major contention of this paper is that the best way to understand an individual's identity is through the story (or stories) that person makes of his or her life. The research looks at the ways in which the performance of business executives is rooted in both: (1) an executive's unique identity as an individual; and (2) a component of…

  17. Exploring Second Graders' Understanding of the Text-Illustration Relationship in Picture Storybooks and Informational Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carol

    2010-01-01

    Our society is increasingly bombarded with visual imagery; therefore, it is important for educators to be knowledgeable about the elements of art and to use our knowledge to help students deepen their reading understanding. Arizpe & Styles (2003) noted that students must be prepared to work with imagery in the future at high levels of competency,…

  18. An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-01-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

  19. What Are Lay Theories of Social Class?

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Michael E. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants’ own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people’s beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

  20. A Case Study: The Impact of an Immersion Experience on the Vocation of Lay Teacher-Leaders in American Jesuit High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study explores the impact of an immersion experience to a least developed country on the vocation of lay teacher leaders in American Jesuit High Schools. Nine lay teacher leaders engaged in a four stage process of immersion from November 2009 to August 2010. The study employed the conceptual framework of Edward…

  1. Popular Education and Republican Ideals: The Portuguese Lay Missions in Colonial Africa, 1917-1927

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Ana Isabel

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to offer another reading of the Portuguese civilising process in Africa on the basis of an analysis of a set of alternative sources and to explore the role of other educational configurations, beyond those of the public school and the religious missionary school, such as the civilising missions. With the creation of the Lay

  2. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  3. Combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics to explore novel microbial interactions: towards a systems-level understanding of human microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bikel, Shirley; Valdez-Lara, Alejandra; Cornejo-Granados, Fernanda; Rico, Karina; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Soberón, Xavier; Del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    The advances in experimental methods and the development of high performance bioinformatic tools have substantially improved our understanding of microbial communities associated with human niches. Many studies have documented that changes in microbial abundance and composition of the human microbiome is associated with human health and diseased state. The majority of research on human microbiome is typically focused in the analysis of one level of biological information, i.e., metagenomics or metatranscriptomics. In this review, we describe some of the different experimental and bioinformatic strategies applied to analyze the 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun sequencing data of the human microbiome. We also discuss how some of the recent insights in the combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics can provide more detailed description on the interactions between microorganisms and viruses in oral and gut microbiomes. Recent studies on viromics have begun to gain importance due to the potential involvement of viruses in microbial dysbiosis. In addition, metatranscriptomic combined with metagenomic analysis have shown that a substantial fraction of microbial transcripts can be differentially regulated relative to their microbial genomic abundances. Thus, understanding the molecular interactions in the microbiome using the combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics is one of the main challenges towards a system level understanding of human microbiome. PMID:26137199

  4. The Potential of the Imitation Game Method in Exploring Healthcare Professionals' Understanding of the Lived Experiences and Practical Challenges of Chronically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Wehrens, Rik

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the potential and relevance of an innovative sociological research method known as the Imitation Game for research in health care. Whilst this method and its potential have until recently only been explored within sociology, there are many interesting and promising facets that may render this approach fruitful within the health care field, most notably to questions about the experiential knowledge or 'expertise' of chronically ill patients (and the extent to which different health care professionals are able to understand this experiential knowledge). The Imitation Game can be especially useful because it provides a way to map this experiential knowledge more systematically, without falling in the dual trap of either over-relying on in-depth, but highly specific phenomenological 'insider'-approaches that are hard to generalize, or, alternatively, problematically reducing the rich life-worlds of patients to a set of indicators in a questionnaire. The main focus of this paper is theoretical and conceptual: explaining the Imitation Game method, discussing its usefulness in the health care domain, and exploring the ways in which the approach can be utilized for chronic illness care. The paper presents both a conceptual and empirical exploration of how the Imitation Game method and its underlying theoretical concepts of 'contributory expertise' and 'interactional expertise' can be transferred from the sociological realm to the field of health care, what kinds of insights can be gained from the method, which methodological issues it may raise, and what potentially fruitful research routes can be explored. I argue that the Imitation Game can be thought of as a 'social learning experiment' that simultaneously enables the participants to learn from each other's perspectives, allows researchers to explore exciting new possibilities, and also offers the tools to intervene in the practice that is being studied. PMID:24770958

  5. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and SRTM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on interpreting the evolutionary history of the Amazon Basin. We are grateful to Bruce Chapman, Naira Pinto, and the JPL UAVSAR team for supporting the planning and acquisition of the UAVSAR data, and to the NASA Biodiversity Program for providing funding to support the UAVSAR acquisitions. This work was carried out under a grant from the NASA Biodiversity Program and the NSF DIMENSIONS of Biodiversity Program.

  6. Intuition versus cognition: a qualitative exploration of how women understand and manage their increased breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Louise; Butow, Phyllis N; Charles, Margaret; Price, Melanie A

    2015-10-01

    Risk comprehension in individuals at increased familial risk of cancer is suboptimal and little is known about how risk is understood and managed by at-risk individuals who do not undergo genetic testing. We qualitatively studied these issues in 36 unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families, including both women who had and had not undergone genetic testing. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and data analysis was guided by Grounded Theory. Risk comprehension and risk management were largely influenced by the individual's experience of coming from a high-risk family, with both tested and untested women relying heavily on their intuition. Although women's cognitive understanding of their risk appeared generally accurate, this objective risk information was considered of secondary value. The findings could be used to guide the development and delivery of information about risk and risk management to genetically tested and untested individuals at increased risk of hereditary cancer. PMID:25820809

  7. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  8. Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egdall, Ira Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six…

  9. Laying, repairing deepwater gulf lines challenges operators

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R. )

    1989-12-01

    This article discusses technical challenges for pipelines in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico as operators move into deeper waters. New methods of pipeline installation are described. A study of laying deepwater pipelines is discussed, case studies are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of repairing deepwater pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico are assessed.

  10. Social Skills: Laying the Foundation for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2010-01-01

    Well-informed teachers of young children recognize the importance of children's social development. The development of social skills lays a critical foundation for later academic achievement as well as work-related skills. Social development is such a key issue with young children that a number of methods to address social skills have been…

  11. Skill Standards for Open Cut Pipe Laying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for utility construction in a format that uses scenarios to provide a picture of the construction process under consideration. The scenarios provide a general description of the pipe laying and utility construction process. An introduction describes use and benefits of skill standards. Section 2 presents…

  12. Laying date, incubation and egg breakage as determinants of bacterial load on bird eggshells: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Soler, Juan José; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Tomás, Gustavo

    2015-09-01

    Exploring factors guiding interactions of bacterial communities with animals has become of primary importance for ecologists and evolutionary biologists during the last years because of their likely central role in the evolution of animal life history traits. We explored the association between laying date and eggshell bacterial load (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococci, and Enterococci) in natural and artificial magpie (Pica pica) nests containing fresh commercial quail (Coturnix coturnix) eggs. We manipulated hygiene conditions by spilling egg contents on magpie and artificial nests and explored experimental effects during the breeding season. Egg breakage is a common outcome of brood parasitism by great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) on the nests of magpie, one of its main hosts. We found that the treatment increased eggshell bacterial load in artificial nests, but not in magpie nests with incubating females, which suggests that parental activity prevents the proliferation of bacteria on the eggshells in relation to egg breakage. Moreover, laying date was positively related to eggshell bacterial load in active magpie nests, but negatively in artificial nests. The results suggest that variation in parental characteristics of magpies rather than climatic variation during the breeding season explained the detected positive association. Because the eggshell bacterial load is a proxy of hatching success, the detected positive association between eggshell bacterial loads and laying date in natural, but not in artificial nests, suggests that the generalized negative association between laying date and avian breeding success can be, at least partially, explained by differential bacterial effects. PMID:25912895

  13. Influence of Lay Conceptions of Health and Illness on Health Care Decision-Making: Implications for the Development of Technological Support

    E-print Network

    Cimino, James J.

    Influence of Lay Conceptions of Health and Illness on Health Care Decision- Making: Implications if based on an understanding of lay people's reasoning about health, illness, AMI, and technology. In order and illness, how these conceptualizations are translated into action, and knowledge sources about health

  14. International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 Automatic Guidance of Track Laying Machines with

    E-print Network

    the understanding of the operational solutions it is referred to the documents of the track machine industry, e1st International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 Automatic Guidance of Track Laying Machines with Respect to Coordinate Systems Th. ENGEL*, JJ. STUBY, Ch. GLAUSER, P. GÜLDENAPFEL

  15. Detecting Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens and Eggs after Experimental Infection at Different Oral Dose Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attribution of human illness to eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis has led to substantial commitments of resources (by both government and industry) to risk reduction and testing programs in egg-laying flocks. Cost-effective application of testing requires a thorough understanding of ...

  16. Faulkner's As I Lay Dying: issues of method in applied analysis.

    PubMed

    Baudry, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper seeks to illustrate several possible approaches in the application of psychoanalysis to Faulkner's novel, As I Lay Dying. In applied analysis, the specific form and content of the work in question must be considered in order to determine which aspect of psychoanalysis will be most relevant in creating a meaningful context and in increasing our understanding. PMID:1546112

  17. The fluidity of disclosure: a longitudinal exploration of women's experience and understanding of HIV disclosure in the context of pregnancy and early motherhood.

    PubMed

    Moses, Susan; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    HIV disclosure is emphasised as an important component of efforts to prevent HIV transmission, including those to prevent transmission from mother to child. Studies which approach disclosure as a dichotomous variable that is either present or absent have generated a significant body of research describing disclosure patterns, antecedents, barriers and consequences. This study joins a growing body of research which explores disclosure as a complex, selective and gradual process occurring within the context of relationships. Using a qualitative, longitudinal ethnographic approach, the study explores HIV-positive women's subjective experience of disclosure and how they make meaning and understand disclosure processes during pregnancy and early motherhood. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of field notes from participant observation and in-depth interview transcripts suggests that women may experience disclosure as a more fluid construct than previously assumed. In contrast to the traditional dichotomous and linear approach to understanding disclosure, the meaning ascribed to disclosure "events" and behaviours was changeable and even reversible over time. These shifts occurred alongside changes in women's internal, interpersonal and material worlds and served important psychological and social functions. The findings have important implications for HIV counsellors working to encourage disclosure in the context of prevention interventions. PMID:23110311

  18. Investigation of surface roughness and lay on metal flow in hot forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, David J.

    A study was conducted to explore the possibility of using machining marks (i.e. surface roughness and lay) as a parameter for die design. The study was performed using 6061-T6 aluminum 1.25" diameter rounds and 0.25" square bar stock to investigate the effects of temperature, surface roughness, and lay on metal flow and friction factor. Metal flow was assessed using component true strains and spread ratio. Compression testing was performed using an instrumented die set that was mounted on a 10 ton hydraulic pres. Cigar tests were performed where the axis of the specimen were oriented at angles of 0 o, 45o and 90o with respect to the surface lay on the compression platens. Ring tests were completed to quantify friction factor at different die temperatures and surface roughness values. Results indicate that die temperature has a strong effect on bulge radius and friction factor. Lay and surface roughness were found to exhibit an effect on metal flow but surface lay of the dies was not discernible on friction factor. The study was repeated under limited conditions using graphite lubricant in order to discover if the trend was repeatable using conditions observed in industry. This was found to be the case.

  19. Genetics of Egg-Laying William R. Schafer

    E-print Network

    Schafer, William R.

    Genetics of Egg-Laying in Worms William R. Schafer Department of Biology, University of California studied behaviors is egg-laying, the process by which hermaphrodites deposit developing embryos into the environment. Egg-laying involves a simple motor program involving a small net- work of motorneurons

  20. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  1. Gene expression profiles in the pituitary glands of Sichuan White geese during prelaying and laying periods.

    PubMed

    Gao, G L; Zhao, X Z; Li, Q; Su, J; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underlying egg-laying in Sichuan white geese, the profiles of genes in the pituitary gland were investigated during the prelaying and laying periods. Total RNA was extracted from the pituitary glands of geese during prelaying or laying periods and cDNA was generated. After sequencing and annotation, 54 upregulated and 84 downregulated genes were obtained from gene libraries. These genes were related primarily to biosynthetic processes, cellular nitrogen metabolic processes, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification processes, signal transduction, and small molecule metabolic processes. Eleven genes were selected for further analyses using quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were generally consistent with the profiling results. Among these genes, levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, vasoactive intestinal peptide and its receptor, follistatin, estrogen receptor beta, and the progesterone receptor were differentially overexpressed during the prelaying period compared with the laying period. These results provide a solid foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism of egg-laying performance in Sichuan white geese. PMID:26505414

  2. Lay Theories of Gender Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered. PMID:24059967

  3. Latino men's qualitative perspectives on a lay health advisor intervention to promote their sexual health.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Downs, Mario; Alonzo, Jorge; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Rhodes, Scott D

    2015-05-01

    Lay health advisor (LHA) approaches are a promising strategy to reduce health disparities among communities considered 'hard to reach' by researchers and practitioners. LHAs have addressed a variety of health issues, but limited studies have included men as LHAs. The purpose of this study was to better understand the roles of male LHAs and their male-helping relationships. We used an inductive approach to explore Latino men's perspectives on serving as LHAs for other Latino men and Latino men's views on receiving sexual health information from a male LHA. We collected qualitative data in 2009 and 2010 as part of an LHA intervention designed to reduce the risk of HIV infection among immigrant Latinos through the social networks of soccer teams. We analysed and interpreted data from 30 in-depth interviews with Latino men who served as LHAs and their social networks in North Carolina, USA. Participants shared perceptions on social network importance for immigrant Latinos, facilitators and challenges of helping other men, recommendations for intervention modification and suggestions for future work involving the Latino community. Findings revealed that Latino men are receptive to fulfilling the roles of health advisors and opinion leaders, and can effectively serve as LHAs. Social network members valued the social support they received. Working through sports teams and identifying existing leaders to be LHAs may be a culturally congruent approach to meeting Latino community needs. More research is needed on the potential of male LHAs to address other health issues. PMID:25475213

  4. Pathogenic bacteria and timing of laying

    PubMed Central

    Mřller, Anders Pape; Soler, Juan J; Nielsen, Jan Třttrup; Galván, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria constitute a serious threat to viability of many organisms. Because growth of most bacteria is favored by humid and warm environmental conditions, earlier reproducers in seasonal environments should suffer less from the negative consequences of pathogenic bacteria. These relationships, and the effects on reproductive success, should be particularly prominent in predators because they are frequently exposed to pathogenic microorganisms from sick prey. Here, we presented and tested this hypothesis by sampling bacteria on adult and nestling goshawks Accipiter gentilis. We predicted that early breeders and their offspring should have fewer bacteria than those reproducing later during the breeding season. Adult goshawks with a high abundance of Staphylococcus on their beak and claws were easier to capture and their laying date was delayed. Moreover, goshawks that laid their eggs later had offspring with more Staphylococcus on their beaks and claws. The strength of the association between laying date and bacterial density of nestlings was stronger during the warm spring of 2013, when nestlings suffered from a higher abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Hatching failure and fledging failure were more common in nests with a higher abundance of Staphylococcus independently of the number of years occupied, laying date, and age of the female nest owner. These findings imply that timing of reproduction may be under the influence of pathogenic bacteria. Because early breeding goshawks produce more recruits than later breeders, our results suggest a role for pathogenic bacteria in the optimal timing of reproduction. PMID:25937910

  5. From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and framing of the research questions, participants did not display a high level of knowledge about the nature and causes of place-based health inequalities. By extending the scope of lay theorizing to include a focus on solutions, this study offers additional insights for public health. Specifically it suggests that a popular constituency for action on the social determinants of health is unlikely to eventuate from the current popular understandings of possible policy levers. PMID:21281478

  6. Lay perceptions of breast cancer in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Naanyu, Violet; Asirwa, Chite Fredrick; Wachira, Juddy; Busakhala, Naftali; Kisuya, Job; Otieno, Grieven; Keter, Alfred; Mwangi, Anne; Omenge, Orango Elkanah; Inui, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore lay perceptions of causes, severity, presenting symptoms and treatment of breast cancer. METHODS: In October-November 2012, we recruited men and women (18 years and older) from households and health facilities in three different parts of Western Kenya, chosen for variations in their documented burdens of breast cancer. A standardized and validated tool, the breast cancer awareness measure (BCAM), was administered in face-to-face interviews. Survey domains covered included socio-demographics, opinions about causes, symptoms, severity, and treatment of breast cancer. Descriptive analyses were done on quantitative data while open-ended answers were coded, and emerging themes were integrated into larger categories in a qualitative analysis. The open-ended questions had been added to the standard BCAM for the purposes of learning as much as the investigators could about underlying lay beliefs and perceptions. RESULTS: Most respondents were female, middle-aged (mean age 36.9 years), married, and poorly educated. Misconceptions and lack of knowledge about causes of breast cancer were reported. The following (in order of higher to lower prevalence) were cited as potential causes of the condition: Genetic factors or heredity (n = 193, 12.3%); types of food consumed (n = 187, 11.9%); witchcraft and curses (n = 108, 6.9%); some family planning methods (n = 56, 3.6%); and use of alcohol and tobacco (n = 46, 2.9%). When asked what they thought of breast cancer’s severity, the most popular response was “it is a killer disease” (n = 266, 19.7%) a lethal condition about which little or nothing can be done. While opinions about presenting symptoms and signs of breast cancer were able to be elicited, such as an increase in breast size and painful breasts, early-stage symptoms and signs were not widely recognized. Some respondents (14%) were ignorant of available treatment altogether while others felt breast cancer treatment is both dangerous and expensive. A minority reported alternative medicine as providing relief to patients. CONCLUSION: The impoverished knowledge in these surveys suggests that lay education as well as better screening and treatment should be part of breast cancer control in Kenya. PMID:26468451

  7. Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egdall, Ira Mark

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity1 quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six hour-and-a-half weekly sessions. Students are mostly retired or semi-retired adults like me. Most are college educated, but with little or no formal physics education.

  8. Is reporting on interventions a weak link in understanding how and why they work? A preliminary exploration using community heart health exemplars

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Barbara L; MacDonald, JoAnne; Mansi, Omaima; Kothari, Anita; Kurtz, Donna; vonTettenborn, Linda I; Edwards, Nancy C

    2008-01-01

    Background The persistent gap between research and practice compromises the impact of multi-level and multi-strategy community health interventions. Part of the problem is a limited understanding of how and why interventions produce change in population health outcomes. Systematic investigation of these intervention processes across studies requires sufficient reporting about interventions. Guided by a set of best processes related to the design, implementation, and evaluation of community health interventions, this article presents preliminary findings of intervention reporting in the published literature using community heart health exemplars as case examples. Methods The process to assess intervention reporting involved three steps: selection of a sample of community health intervention studies and their publications; development of a data extraction tool; and data extraction from the publications. Publications from three well-resourced community heart health exemplars were included in the study: the North Karelia Project, the Minnesota Heart Health Program, and Heartbeat Wales. Results Results are organized according to six themes that reflect best intervention processes: integrating theory, creating synergy, achieving adequate implementation, creating enabling structures and conditions, modifying interventions during implementation, and facilitating sustainability. In the publications for the three heart health programs, reporting on the intervention processes was variable across studies and across processes. Conclusion Study findings suggest that limited reporting on intervention processes is a weak link in research on multiple intervention programs in community health. While it would be premature to generalize these results to other programs, important next steps will be to develop a standard tool to guide systematic reporting of multiple intervention programs, and to explore reasons for limited reporting on intervention processes. It is our contention that a shift to more inclusive reporting of intervention processes would help lead to a better understanding of successful or unsuccessful features of multi-strategy and multi-level interventions, and thereby improve the potential for effective practice and outcomes. PMID:18492247

  9. Lay perceptions of health and health needs.

    PubMed

    Grant, Ruth

    2005-04-01

    The accurate identification of need is imperative to maximise population health gains and target health inequalities. Social capital, expressed in social, psychological, economic and contextual factors, acts as a buffer in communities. The aim of this study was to determine the unexpressed health needs of a population. A needs analysis was undertaken, using Community Participatory Appraisal methodology, to determine the lay perspective in a rural village. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 11 adults were conducted followed by a focus group of seven adults. A questionnaire was developed and posted to 350 adults randomly selected within stratified categories from the general practice surgery list. The predominant feature of the interviews and focus group was that the divided nature of the village impinged on social cohesion and the health of the population. Of the questionnaire results 63% reported good health. Other findings were the lower educational achievement and life expectations in the social housing area, and the level of psychological distress among males, particularly in the 18 to 25 age group. Information on health needs can be determined from the lay perspective. To target a population for public health initiatives, it is important to gather data pertinent to the specific community. The study demonstrated that knowledge is held by individuals that can be used to inform direction of travel and more accurate service provision. This paper is the first of two; the first reports the research and the second describes the implementation of some of the results of the study. PMID:15875601

  10. Search for QTL affecting the shape of the egg laying curve of the Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    Minvielle, Francis; Kayang, Boniface B; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Miwa, Mitsuru; Vignal, Alain; Gourichon, David; Neau, André; Monvoisin, Jean-Louis; Ito, Shin' ichi

    2006-01-01

    Background Egg production is of critical importance in birds not only for their reproduction but also for human consumption as the egg is a highly nutritive and balanced food. Consequently, laying in poultry has been improved through selection to increase the total number of eggs laid per hen. This number is the cumulative result of the oviposition, a cyclic and repeated process which leads to a pattern over time (the egg laying curve) which can be modelled and described individually. Unlike the total egg number which compounds all variations, the shape of the curve gives information on the different phases of egg laying, and its genetic analysis using molecular markers might contribute to understand better the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to perform the first QTL search for traits involved in shaping the egg laying curve, in an F2 experiment with 359 female Japanese quail. Results Eight QTL were found on five autosomes, and six of them could be directly associated with egg production traits, although none was significant at the genome-wide level. One of them (on CJA13) had an effect on the first part of the laying curve, before the production peak. Another one (on CJA06) was related to the central part of the curve when laying is maintained at a high level, and the four others (on CJA05, CJA10 and CJA14) acted on the last part of the curve where persistency is determinant. The QTL for the central part of the curve was mapped at the same position on CJA06 than a genome-wide significant QTL for total egg number detected previously in the same F2. Conclusion Despite its limited scope (number of microsatellites, size of the phenotypic data set), this work has shown that it was possible to use the individual egg laying data collected daily to find new QTL which affect the shape of the egg laying curve. Beyond the present results, this new approach could also be applied to longitudinal traits in other species, like growth and lactation in ruminants, for which good marker coverage of the genome and theoretical models with a biological significance are available. PMID:16677378

  11. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in front rollaway nests. Dust baths were used more for pecking and scratching than for dust bathing. Comfort behaviour was more frequent in furnished cages than conventional, although still not frequent. Locomotion was strongly affected by number of birds per cage or by space per bird, being reduced by crowding. Most birds perched at night except in one treatment providing only 10.7 cm perch per bird. 7. Behaviour was more unrestricted and varied, and physical condition was better, in furnished than in conventional cages. However, egg production will cost more in furnished cages, partly because more eggs are downgraded. Dust baths must be fitted with gates that the birds cannot open from outside, but gates for nest boxes were found unnecessary. If a low perch is fitted it must be far enough from the back of the cage for birds to walk there. 8. Where there was less space per bird (more birds per cage) than the requirements in the 1999 European Commission Directive on laying hens, there were: fewer eggs per hen, but still above the breeders' target; lower food consumption; more feather and foot damage, but less than in conventional cages; higher mortality in one trial out of three; less freedom of movement. However, the results were still very good even with 8 birds per cage, and support the principle that furnished cages provide an acceptable way of protecting the welfare of laying hens. PMID:12365505

  12. "Physiology in the News": Using Press Releases to Enhance Lay Communication and Introduce Current Physiology Research to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kevin L.; Poteracki, James M.; Steury, Michael D.; Wehrwein, Erica A.

    2015-01-01

    Michigan State University's senior-level undergraduate physiology capstone laboratory uses a simple exercise termed "Physiology in the News," to help students explore the current research within the field of physiology while also learning to communicate science in lay terms. "Physiology in the News" is an activity that charges…

  13. Social identities and risk: expert and lay imaginations on pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Blok, Anders; Jensen, Mette; Kaltoft, Pernille

    2008-04-01

    Expert-based environmental and health risk regulation is widely believed to suffer from a lack of public understanding and legitimacy. On controversial issues such as genetically modified organisms and food-related chemicals, a "lay-expert discrepancy" in the assessment of risks is clearly visible. In this article, we analyze the relationship between scientific experts and ordinary lay citizens in the context of risks from pesticide usage in Denmark. Drawing on concepts from the "sociology of scientific knowledge" (SSK), we contend that differences in risk perception must be understood at the level of social identities. On the basis of qualitative interviews with citizens and experts, respectively, we focus on the multiple ways in which identities come to be employed in actors' risk accounts. Empirically, we identify salient characteristics of "typical" imagined experts and lay-people, while arguing that these conceptions vary identifiably in-between four groups of citizens and experts. On the basis of our findings, some implications for bridging the lay-expert discrepancy on risk issues are sketched out. PMID:19391377

  14. Exploring the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)

  15. Exponential rate of convergence to equilibrium for a model describing fiber lay-down processes

    E-print Network

    Schmeiser, Christian

    Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK. E-mail: Clement.Mouhot@ens.fr, dFakult¨at f The understanding of the shapes generated by the lay-down of flexible fibers onto a conveyor belt is of great-down process, i.e. for the generation of a fiber web on a conveyor belt has been presented. Taking into account

  16. The ancient art of laying rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, J.; Olsen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a geometrical property of helical structures and show how it accounts for the early art of rope-making. Helices have a maximum number of rotations that can be added to them — and it is shown that this is a geometrical feature, not a material property. This geometrical insight explains why nearly identically appearing ropes can be made from very different materials and it is also the reason behind the unyielding nature of ropes. Maximally rotated strands behave as zero-twist structures. Hence, under strain they neither rotate in one direction nor in the other. The necessity for the rope to be stretched while being laid, known from Egyptian tomb scenes, follows straightforwardly, as does the function of the top, an old tool for laying ropes.

  17. Remedy or cure? Lay beliefs about over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Gina; Helman, Cecil

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over 500 million is spent in the United Kingdom every year on over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds. Evidence for their pharmacological efficacy is lacking. AIM: To examine lay beliefs about over-the-counter medicines for coughs and colds. To explore whether the distinction between symptom relief and cure has the same relevance to lay people as it does to medical professionals. DESIGN OF STUDY: Small pilot study using qualitative techniques. SETTING: Variety sample of 11 patients attending the National Health Service walk-in centre, Birmingham, England. METHOD: In-depth semi-structured interviews, including pile-sorting and fictional case histories, were used to explore participants' beliefs about the effects of over-the-counter medicines on coughs and colds. RESULTS: Eight of the 11 participants believed that at least one over the-counter cough medicine (most frequently Benylin for Chesty Coughs) could shorten, or "cure", an illness. Five participants thought that the majority of the medicines that they recognised would speed recovery rather than just relieve symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There is a common confusion in the lay person's mind between the ability of a medicine to relieve symptoms, and its ability to cure a disease or to hasten recovery. This misunderstanding may affect the demand for primary care consultations. PMID:14965387

  18. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of aspects of planetary exploration and protection that may be particularly sensitive or controversial and that could prove problematic from a risk-management standpoint, perhaps warranting a more stringent risk-management approach than would otherwise be the case based on technical considerations alone. The design of the study compares perceptions and attitudes about space exploration relevant to a Mars sample return mission between three respondent groups: (1) members of The Planetary Society, a group representing individuals with a strong interest in space-related issues, (2) a group of university-aged students, representing a population relatively sensitive to environmental hazards, and (3) a group of life scientists outside of the space research community. Members of The Planetary Society received the survey as part of a special issue of The Planetary Report on planetary protection, which contained a number of background articles on planetary protection and related topics. A synopsis of the issue was prepared as an introduction to the survey for the other two groups.

  19. Understanding reasons for asthma outpatient (non)?attendance and exploring the role of telephone and e?consulting in facilitating access to care: exploratory qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van Baar, J D; Joosten, H; Car, J; Freeman, G K; Partridge, M R; van Weel, C; Sheikh, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To understand factors influencing patients' decisions to attend for outpatient follow up consultations for asthma and to explore patients' attitudes to telephone and email consultations in facilitating access to asthma care. Design Exploratory qualitative study using in depth interviews. Setting Hospital outpatient clinic in West London. Participants Nineteen patients with moderate to severe asthma (12 “attenders” and 7 “non?attenders”). Results Patients' main reasons for attending were the wish to improve control over asthma symptoms and a concern not to jeopardise the valued relationship with their doctor. Memory lapses, poor health, and disillusionment with the structure of outpatient care were important factors implicated in non?attendance. The patients were generally sceptical about the suggestion that greater opportunity for telephone consulting might improve access to care. They expressed concerns about the difficulties in effectively communicating through non?face to face media and were worried that clinicians would not be in a position to perform an adequate physical examination over the telephone. Email and text messaging were viewed as potentially useful for sending appointment reminders and sharing clinical information but were not considered to be acceptable alternatives to the face to face clinic encounter. Conclusions Memory lapses, impaired mobility due to poor health, and frustration with outpatient clinic organisation resulting in long waiting times and discontinuity of care are factors that deter patients from attending for hospital asthma assessments. The idea of telephone review assessments was viewed with scepticism by most study subjects. Particular attention should be given to explaining to patients the benefits of telephone consultations, and to seeking their views as to whether they would like to try them out before replacing face to face consultations with them. Email and text messaging may have a role in issuing reminders about imminent appointments. PMID:16751469

  20. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  1. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  2. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  3. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  4. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  5. 6. Egg-laying in Butterflies Frances S. Chew

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    6. Egg-laying in Butterflies Frances S. Chew Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford butterfly lays an egg, thereby abandoning her offspring, her behaviour is the result of physiological in butterflies with the goal of integrating into an evolutionary framework those factors that influence egg

  6. Student Understanding of Cross Product Direction and Use of Right-hand Rules: An Exploration of Representation and Context-dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget

    2011-12-01

    Students in introductory physics struggle with vector algebra and with cross product direction in particular. Some have suggested that this may be due to misapplied right-hand rules, but there are few studies that have had the resolution to explore this. Additionally, previous research on student understanding has noted several kinds of representation-dependence of student performance with vector algebra in both physics and non-physics (or math) contexts (e.g. Hawkins et al., 2009; Van Deventer, 2008). Yet with few exceptions (e.g. Scaife and Heckler, 2010), these findings have not been applied to cross product direction questions or the use of right-hand rules. Also, the extensive work in spatial cognition is particularly applicable to cross product direction due to the spatial and kinesthetic nature of the right-hand rule. A synthesis of the literature from these various fields reveals four categories of problem features likely to impact the understanding of cross product direction: (1) the type of reasoning required, (2) the orientation of the vectors, (3) the need for parallel transport, and (4) the physics context and features (or lack thereof). These features formed the basis of the present effort to systematically explore the context-dependence and representation- dependence of student performance on cross product direction questions. This study used a mix of qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze twenty-seven individual think-aloud interviews. During these interviews, second semester introductory physics students answered 80-100 cross product direction questions in different contexts and with varying problem features. These features were then used as the predictors in regression analyses for correctness and response time. In addition, each problem was coded for the methods used and the errors made to gain a deeper understanding of student behavior and the impact of these features. The results revealed a wide variety of methods (including six different right-hand rules), many different types of errors, and significant context-dependence and representation-dependence for the features mentioned above. Problems that required reasoning backward to find A? (for C?=A? xB? ) presented the biggest challenge for students. Participants who recognized the non-commutativity of the cross product would often reverse the order ( B?xA? ) on these problems. Also, this error occurred less frequently when a Guess and Check method was used in addition to the right-hand rule. Three different aspects of orientation had a significant impact on performance: (1) the physical discomfort of using a right-hand rule, (2) the plane of the given vectors, and to a lesser extent, (3) the angle between the vectors. One participant was more likely to switch the order of the vectors for the physically awkward orientations than for the physically easy orientations; and there was evidence that some of the difficulty with vector orientations that were not in the xy-plane was due to misinterpretations of the into and out of the page symbols. The impact of both physical discomfort and the plane of the vectors was reduced when participants rotated the paper. Unlike other problem features, the issue of parallel transport did not appear to be nearly as prevalent for cross product direction as it is for vector addition and subtraction. In addition to these findings, this study confirmed earlier findings regarding physics difficulties with magnetic field and magnetic force, such as differences in performance based on the representation of magnetic field (Scaife and Heckler, 2010) and confusion between electric and magnetic fields (Maloney et al., 2001). It also provided evidence of physics difficulties with magnetic field and magnetic force that have been suspected but never explored, specifically the impact of the sign of the charge and the observation location. This study demonstrated that student difficulty with cross product direction is not as simple as misapplied right-hand rules, although this is an issue. Student behavior on cr

  7. A new pipelaying experience -- Piggyback to dual lay

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Guinard, M.

    1995-12-31

    On the British Gas North Morecambe Development Project in 1993, the derrick-lay barge DLB 1601 used a dual lay operation. A 3 inch {O} pipeline was laid piggybacked onto a 36 inch {O} pipeline for the shore pull operation and then separated to follow a dual lay for the offshore section. Transformation for piggyback laying mode to the dual lay mode was performed making use of a newly developed transition operation. This paper reports the challenges which had to be met to ensure a successful outcome. Results of various engineering studies are first presented. The set-up and observations of the (onshore) prototype testing are then described. Lastly, the special measures taken for the transition operation and certain field observations during the installation phase are briefly discussed. It is believed that the information presented in this paper will be of use to other similar projects in the future.

  8. The Edinburgh modified cage for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Appleby, M C; Hughes, B O

    1995-12-01

    1. Behaviour, production and welfare of ISA Brown medium hybrids were assessed in 2 trials (each from 20 to 44 weeks of age) of a novel design of cage for laying hens: the Edinburgh Modified Cage (EMC). 2. The EMC was 600 mm wide, 450 mm deep and 450 mm high at the rear; it had a softwood perch and at one side a 250 mm wide nest box (containing litter or artificial turf) with a dust bath directly above. It housed 4 birds and provided 675 cm2/bird in the main cage with an additional 281 cm2/bird in the nest box. The nest box and dust bath had automatically controlled doors which were closed at night. There were 18 EMC; in the first trial these were compared with 6 control cages with perch but without next box or dust bath. 3. Hens spent 32 to 37% of day time on the perch, 5 to 7% in the dust bath and 5 to 6% in the nest. At night 92 to 98% roosted on the perch. 4. Initially only 55 to 70% of eggs were laid in the nest box partly because some eggs were laid before dawn. Once the door was retimed to open 3h before lights-on the proportion rose to 91 to 96%. Very few eggs were laid in the dust bath. Pre-laying behaviour lasted longer in treatments with nest boxes (55 to 76min) than in control cages (48min); disturbance was slight in all treatments, but lowest in control cages. 5. Dust baths were well used, with on average 61% of hens dust bathing during a 3-h afternoon observation period compared with only 17% in control cages. Two birds could use the dust bath simultaneously. 6. It was concluded that although a number of minor design features still required attention the EMC has potential to reduce the disadvantages of conventional cages for welfare while retaining their advantages and has possible commercial application. PMID:8746972

  9. Digital gene-expression of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wenna; Du, Hongqi; Zhou, Lu; Shi, Pengfei; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death worldwide, so people are advised to limit their intake of dietary cholesterol [1]. Egg consumption has been seriously reduced because of the high levels of cholesterol [2]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cholesterol metabolism effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE) in liver and ovary tissues using digital gene-expression (DGE) profiling analysis. The liver and ovary tissues were isolated from laying hens fed with ASE for RNA sequencing. Here, we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis pipeline in our study to identify digital gene expression of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens and analysis pipeline published by Singh and colleagues in the PLOS ONE [3]. The data generated in our work provide meaningful information for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of ASE. PMID:26484156

  10. Investigating Teachers' Exploration of a Professional Development Website: An Innovative Approach to Understanding the Factors that Motivate Teachers to Use Internet-Based Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Pamela; Willows, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined an innovative methodology, combining screen capture technology and a retrospective think aloud, for exploring the use of Internet-based resources by elementary teachers. Pre-service and in-service teachers explored "The Balanced Literacy Diet," a free, interactive, and evidenced-informed professional…

  11. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. More new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with broken keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  12. Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cracked shells, due to age related reduction of shell quality, are a costly problem for the industry. Parallel to reduced shell quality the skeleton becomes brittle resulting in bone fractures. Calcium, a main prerequisite for both eggshell and bone, is regulated by estrogen in a complex manner. The effects of estrogen, given in a low continuous dose, were studied regarding factors involved in age related changes in shell quality and bone strength of laying hens. A pellet containing 0.385 mg estradiol 3-benzoate (21-day-release) or placebo was inserted subcutaneously in 20 birds each of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) at 70 weeks of age. Eggs were collected before and during the experiment for shell quality measurements. Blood samples for analysis of total calcium were taken three days after the insertion and at sacrifice (72 weeks). Right femur was used for bone strength measurements and tissue samples from duodenum and shell gland were processed for morphology, immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors (ER?, ER?), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Results Estrogen treatment increased shell thickness of both hybrids. In addition, shell weight and shell deformation improved in eggs from the brown hybrids. The more pronounced effect on eggs from the brown hybrid may be due to a change in sensitivity to estrogen, especially in surface epithelial cells of the shell gland, shown as an altered ratio between ER? and ER?. A regulatory effect of estrogen on CA activity, but not PMCA, was seen in both duodenum and shell gland, and a possible connection to shell quality is discussed. Bone strength was unaffected by treatment, but femur was stronger in LSL birds suggesting that the hybrids differ in calcium allocation between shell and bone at the end of the laying period. Plasma calcium concentrations and egg production were unaffected. Conclusions A low continuous dose of estrogen improves shell strength but not bone strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period. PMID:24884886

  13. Divided by a lack of common language? - a qualitative study exploring the use of language by health professionals treating back pain

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Karen L; Reid, Margaret; Lowe, Catherine J Minns

    2009-01-01

    Background The importance of using a common language when communicating to others about back pain is acknowledged in the literature. There are broadly three areas where difficulties in communication about back pain arise. Firstly, patients seeking information from health care professionals can experience difficulties understanding them and the medical literature; secondly, misunderstandings among health professionals concerning terminology can arise. Thirdly, the lack of standardised definitions for back pain terms can make comparison of research studies problematic. This study aims to explore the meanings and issues surrounding the use of existing medical terms for back pain from the perspective of health care professionals, lay people who have consulted health care practitioners for back pain and lay people who have not seen a health care professional regarding back pain. Methods A series of focus groups were used to explore participants' understanding. A purposive sampling approach was used to achieve a sample which included general practitioners, chiropractors, osteopaths, physiotherapists, and lay people. Focus groups were facilitated by an independent professional qualitative researcher. They were audio taped and full transcripts of each focus group underwent line by line analysis, identifying concepts and coded. Constant comparison was used to allow each item to be checked or compared against the rest of the data Results Lay participants understood the majority of the terms explored in the group differently to the health professionals. The terms, as understood by the lay participants, can be split into three broad categories. Firstly, terms which were not understood or were misconstrued and which had inadvertent negative connotations or implications. Secondly, terms which were not understood or were misconstrued, but without this leading to negative emotional responses. Thirdly, terms which were understood by lay participants as the health professionals stated they intended them to be understood. Conclusion Few of the existing medical terms were understood and accepted by lay participants in the way discussed and expected by health professionals. Misunderstandings, unintended meanings and negative emotional responses to terms were common within the study focus groups. PMID:19804629

  14. Exploring Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    "Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

  15. An Exploration of the Concept Map as an Interview Tool To Facilitate the Externalization of Students' Understandings about Global Atmospheric Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.; Rubba, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of two different types of interviews: one that embeds a concept map, and one that does not embed a concept map in order to elicit post-instructional understandings. Focuses on students' understandings of chlorofluorocarbons and their role in global atmospheric change. Contains 71 references. (DDR)

  16. Science and the lay perspective: lay people's involvement in assessing tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, Katharina

    2014-10-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a scientific field that will have an influence on our daily lives. It has the potential to revolutionize medical treatments, but it has also an impact on our human image and is associated with potential risks and ethical aspects. Among the publicly controversial issues are embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, cloning, uncertainties regarding risks and informed consent issues. To maintain public confidence in the science of TE, a good solution is public dialogues with patients and other interested lay people that gives the public the chance to independently evaluate TE issues and build their own opinion based on information from different perspectives. The article describes public participation projects in TE on stem cell research and gene therapy and presents the case study of the EU-Gene Activated Matrices for Bone and Cartilage Regeneration on Arthritis (GAMBA) panels, a dialogue with patient and citizen panels in three European countries. In the GAMBA panels, lay participants assessed the basic research project aimed at finding ways of healing osteoarthritis through a matrix composed of adult stem cells, gene vectors, nanoparticles, and biomaterials. The results of the dialogues in different countries, such as Denmark, Japan, Ireland, Switzerland, and Germany, are compared and the evaluation criteria for high quality dialogues are presented, including multiperspectivity, openness of results, a clear mandate, impartial facilitation of the panels, and transparency. PMID:24083801

  17. Stock trading and daily life : lay stock investors in Taiwan 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yu-Hsiang

    2014-07-01

    Drawing on recent discussions of relational embeddedness and socio-technical agencement, this thesis analyses the relationship between stock trading and lay investors’ daily lives, including their social relations, ...

  18. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  19. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Pushing the boundaries of lawful assisted dying in The Netherlands? Existential suffering and lay assistance.

    PubMed

    Ost, Suzanne; Mullock, Alexandra

    2011-03-01

    Two matters that have a significant presence in the contemporary Dutch assisted dying debate, are the nature of the suffering required for an assisted death to be lawful, and the issue of who can lawfully assist. This article explores whether the lawful medical assisted dying model is too restrictive in failing to recognise existential suffering, considering selected case studies involving such suffering and lay assisted death. It addresses the question whether The Netherlands would take a trip down a slippery slope if the lawful model of assisted death were extended to cases where individuals are 'tired of life'. PMID:21644436

  1. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems and resulting impact on egg quality measures. PMID:25630672

  2. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Fröhlich, Ernst K F

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  3. Transcriptome profiling of the hypothalamus during prelaying and laying periods in Sichuan white geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangliang; Li, Qin; Zhao, Xianzhi; Ding, Ning; Han, Qing; Su, Jian; Wang, Qigui

    2015-08-01

    The Sichuan White goose is a Chinese breed well known for the quality of its meat. However, reproductive performance in this goose is not ideal, and little information is available regarding the abundance of transcripts. To better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underpinning prelaying and laying periods in the Sichuan white goose, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to analyze the transcriptome in the hypothalamus. After sequencing and annotation, 26,921 unigenes were obtained, with 48 transcripts up-regulated in the prelaying period and 180 transcripts up-regulated during the laying period. These transcripts were primarily related to diseases, cancers, signaling molecules and interactions, the nervous system and the immune system. Eight transcripts were selected for further analyses with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were mostly consistent with those from the high-throughput RNA sequencing. Among these transcripts, serine/threonine-protein kinase (AMPK), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were differentially expressed during the prelaying and laying periods. The results of this study provide a useful resource for future studies examining the hypothalamus in geese. PMID:25601520

  4. Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

  5. Working on Mars: Understanding How Scientists, Engineers and Rovers Interacted Across Space and Time during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, Roxana C.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation summarizes the scheduling and planning difficulties inherent in operating the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) during the overlapping terrestrial day and Martian sol. The presentation gives special empahsis to communication between the teams controlling the rovers from Earth, and keeping track of time on the two planets.

  6. Pragmatic Abilities in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment: An Exploration of Non-Literal Language and Advanced Theory of Mind Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijnacker, Judith; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to explore whether children with a broader range of…

  7. Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Tam; Gardner, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array…

  8. Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

  9. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings

  10. New Views of the Moon II 2008-2018; An initiative to integrate new lunar information into our fundamental understanding of the Moon and the next stages of international lunar exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C.; Neal, C. R.; Jolliff, B. L.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Mackwell, S.; Lawrence, S.

    2015-10-01

    In 1998, the Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM)sponsored a longterm initiative to improve our understanding of the Moon and its history by integrating all available types of data: in situ investigations, analyses of lunar samples, telescopic observations, and spacecraft datasets. This initiative, New Views of the Moon (NVM-I),was supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate andthe Lunar and Planetary Institute and guided principally by Brad Jolliff, Charles Shearer,Mark Wieczorek,and Clive Neal. The goals of the original NVM-Iinitiative were (1) tosummarize new insights that have been gained about the Moon as a result of recent global data sets(Clementine, Lunar Prospector), and their integration with sample and other data;(2) to define current understanding of the Moon's geologic history, resources, and potential for scientific exploration; and (3) to communicate implications ofknowledge gained from research and exploration of the Moon for planetary science and exploration beyond the Moon. The NVM- Iinitiative ultimately involved contributions and data synthesis from over 100 individual scientists and engineers at numerous workshops and special sessions at worldwide scientific meetings.NVM-I culminated in a book "New Views of the Moon" published in 2006 as volume 60 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry published by the Mineralogical Society of America. In 2012, the book was translated into Chinese.NVM-I went to press prior to analysis of the data from missions flown since 2000, and before the major discoveries from sample analyses made this century

  11. State laws and the practice of lay midwifery.

    PubMed Central

    Butter, I H; Kay, B J

    1988-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to assess the current status and characteristics of state legislation regulating the practice of lay midwives. As of July 1987, 10 states have prohibitory laws, five states have grandmother clauses authorizing practicing midwives under repealed statutes, five states have enabling laws which are not used, and 10 states explicitly permit lay midwives to practice. In the 21 remaining states, the legal status of midwives is unclear. Much of the enabling legislation restricts midwifery practice often resulting in situations similar to those in states with prohibitory laws. Given the growth of an extensive grassroots movement of lay midwives committed to quality of care, this outcome suggests that 21 states with no legislation may provide better opportunities for midwifery practice than states with enabling laws. PMID:3407812

  12. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes in Huoyan Goose Ovaries between the Laying Period and Ceased Period

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xinhong; Liu, Dawei; Cao, Zhongzan; Luo, Lina; Liu, Mei; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    The Huoyan goose is famous for its high egg-laying performance and is listed as a nationally protected domestic animal by the Chinese government. To elucidate the key regulatory genes involved in Huoyan goose egg laying, RNA from ovarian tissue during the ceased and laying periods was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. More than 12 million reads were produced in ceased and laying libraries that included 11,896,423 and 12,534,799 clean reads, respectively. More than 20% of the reads were matched to the reference genome, and 23% of the reads were matched to reference genes. Genes with a false discovery rate (FDR) ?0.001 and log2ratio ?1 or ??1 were characterized as differentially expressed, and 344 up-regulated and 344 down-regulated genes were classified into functional categories. Twelve genes that are mainly involved in pathways for reproduction regulation, such as steroid hormone biosynthesis, GnRH signaling pathways, oocyte meiosis, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, steroid biosynthesis, calcium signaling pathways, and G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway were selected for validation by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, the qRT-PCR results are consistent with the general expression patterns of those genes from the Illumina sequencing. These data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that might increase our understanding of the Huoyan goose's reproductive biology. PMID:25419838

  13. A process for evaluating exploration prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, R.M.; Schneidermann, N.

    1997-07-01

    In 1989, Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., developed a process to allow management to compare a wide variety of global exploration opportunities on a uniform and consistent basis. Over the next five years, the process evolved into an effective method to plan exploration programs on a basis of value incorporating prospect ranking, budget allocation, and technology management. The final product is a continuous process and includes, within a single organizational unit, the integration of geologic risk assessment, probabilistic distribution of prospect hydrocarbon volumes, engineering development planning, and prospect economics. The process is based on the concepts of the play and hydrocarbon system. Other steps of the process (geologic risk assessment, volumetric estimation, engineering support, economic evaluation, and postdrill feedback) are considered extensions of fundamental knowledge and understanding of the underlying geological, engineering, and fiscal constraints imposed by these concepts. A foundation is set, describing the geologic framework and the prospect in terms of the play concept-source, reservoir, trap (including seal), and dynamics (timing/migration). The information and data from this description become the basis for 98 subsequent steps in the process. Risk assessment assigns a probability of success to each of these four elements of the lay concept, and multiplication of these probabilities yields the probability of geological success.

  14. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

  15. Detection of jumping and landing force in laying hens using wireless wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, D; Daigle, C L; Dong, B; Wurtz, K; Newberry, R C; Siegford, J M; Biswas, S

    2014-11-01

    Increased mobility of hens in noncaged housing presents possibilities for bone breakage due to crash landings from jumps or flights between perches or housing infrastructure. Because bone breakage is a welfare and economic concern, understanding how movement from different heights affects hen landing impact is important. By tracking 3-dimensional bird movement, an automated sensor technology could facilitate understanding regarding the interaction between noncage laying hens and their housing. A method for detecting jumps and flight trajectories could help explain how jumps from different heights affect hen landing impact. In this study, a wearable sensor-based jump detection mechanism for egg-laying hens was designed and implemented. Hens were fitted with a lightweight (10 g) wireless body-mounted sensor to remotely sample accelerometer data. Postprocessed data could detect occurrence of jumps from a perch to the ground, time of jump initiation, time of landing, and force of landing. Additionally, the developed technology could estimate the approximate height of the jump. Hens jumping from heights of 41 and 61 cm were found to land with an average force of 81.0 ± 2.7 N and 106.9 ± 2.6 N, respectively, assuming zero initial velocity (P < 0.001). This paper establishes the technological feasibility of using body-mounted sensor technology for jump detection by hens in different noncage housing configurations. PMID:25172929

  16. Social injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the attitudes towards suicide of lay persons in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2011-01-01

    One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants’ view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study. PMID:22065981

  17. Mars exploration planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Buoni, Corinne; Niehoff, John

    1993-01-01

    Mars exploration planning is discussed which is based on three scientific objectives: to understand Mars' geologic and geophysical evolution; to understand the present state and past evolution of Martian climate, and to determine the state of present biological activity and past life. The plan assumes a 25-year planning horizon, from 1995-2020, and includes both broad-scale and local exploration capabilities.

  18. Reproductive biology in egg-laying mammals.

    PubMed

    Grützner, F; Nixon, B; Jones, R C

    2008-01-01

    The duck-billed platypus and short-beaked echidna are iconic species in Australia. Their morphology and physiology have puzzled scientists all over the world for more than 200 years. Recent genetic studies, particularly the platypus whole-genome sequencing project, have revealed the molecular basis of some of the extraordinary characteristics of monotremes. This and other works demonstrate the great value of research on our most distantly related mammalian relatives for comparative genomics and developmental biology. In this review we focus on the reproductive biology of monotremes and discuss works that unravel genes involved in lactation, testicular descent, gamete biology and fertilization, and early development. In addition we discuss works on the evolution of the complex sex chromosome system in platypus and echidna, which has also significant impact on our general understanding of mammalian sex chromosomes and sex determination. PMID:18769071

  19. Using Exoplanet Models to Explore NGSS and the Nature of Science and as a Tool for Understanding the Scientific Results from NIRCam/JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Higgins, Michelle L.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    2014-11-01

    Our Solar System is no longer unique. To date, about 1,800 planets are known to orbit over 1,100 other stars and nearly 50% are in multiple-planet systems. Planetary systems seem [to be] fairly common and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the Goldilocks Zone, suggesting there may be other habitable planets. To this end, characterizing the atmospheric chemistries of such planets is a major science goal of the NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.For NIRCam's E/PO program with the Girl Scouts of the USA, we have produced scale models and associated activities to compare the size, scale, and dynamics of the Solar System with several exoplanet systems. Our models illustrate the techniques used to investigate these systems: radial velocity, transits, direct observations, and gravitational microlensing. By comparing and contrasting these models, we place our Solar System in a more cosmic context and enable discussion of current questions within the scientific community: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Is our present definition of a planet a good definition in the context of other planetary systems? Are there other planets/moons that might harbor life as we know it?These models are appropriate for use in classrooms and conform to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include, for example, understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding the nature of scientific models.

  20. 7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core of the 105-B pile. This view is towards the rear of the pile. The gun barrels can be seen protruding into the pile. D-3047 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  1. 21. CONSTRUCTION CRANE LAYING SECTIONS OF TRACK RAIL FOR ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. CONSTRUCTION CRANE LAYING SECTIONS OF TRACK RAIL FOR ORIGINAL 10,000-FOOT TRACK. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Virginia Tech: College of Science Lay Nam Chang

    E-print Network

    Zallen, Richard

    Virginia Tech: College of Science Lay Nam Chang Dean Teresa Price Grants Specialist and Executive Research Seong K. Mun Naya Sou Program Manager Virginia Tech Center for Autism Research Angela Scarpa Virginia Tech Center for Drug Discovery David Kingston Missy Smith Administrative Fiscal Technician Carrie

  3. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  4. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  5. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2012-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay

  6. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

  7. 211. EQUIPMENT LAYING FIRST LANE OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT NEAR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    211. EQUIPMENT LAYING FIRST LANE OF CONCRETE PAVEMENT NEAR THE CAPITAL OVERLOOK, 1931. NOTE THE BEGINNING OF BITUMINOUS TYPE OF TEMPORARY PAVEMENT TO ALLOW FOR SETTLEMENT IN HYDRAULIC FILL AREAS. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  8. Laying a Solid Foundation: Strategies for Effective Program Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, Geri

    2009-01-01

    The replication of proven social programs is a cost-effective and efficient way to achieve large-scale, positive social change. Yet there has been little guidance available about how to approach program replication and limited development of systems--at local, state or federal levels--to support replication efforts. "Laying a Solid Foundation:…

  9. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

  10. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

  11. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

  12. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power...

  13. Report of the First Texas National Egg-Laying Contest 

    E-print Network

    Kazmeier, F. W.

    1919-01-01

    ~LW~~~~-~~~-~~~ TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANlCAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL. President BULLETIN NO. 246 JUNE, 1919 DIVISION OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. Report of the First Texas National Egg- Laying Contest B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR... .................................................. 10 Rations .................................................... 11 ............................................ Show room scores I1 ............................................. Unidentified eggs 12 Litter...

  14. Effects of flaxseed lignans on laying hen reproductive parameters 

    E-print Network

    Kennedy, Abigail Koehler

    1997-01-01

    Flaxseed, rich in the essential omega-3 fatty acid (FA) linolenic acid (LNA; C18:3n-3), can be included in laying hen rations for the production of omega-3 FAenriched shell eggs. In addition to being a rich source of LNA, flaxseed is also the most...

  15. Social learning about egg-laying substrates in fruitflies

    E-print Network

    Dukas, Reuven

    Social learning about egg-laying substrates in fruitflies Sachin Sarin and Reuven Dukas* Animal West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada Social learning, defined as learning from other individuals, has had step in examining the evolution of and mechanisms underlying social learning in insects, we tested

  16. A fundamental understanding of catechol and water adsorption on a hydrophilic silica surface: exploring the underwater adhesion mechanism of mussels on an atomic scale.

    PubMed

    Mian, Shabeer Ahmad; Yang, Li-Ming; Saha, Leton Chandra; Ahmed, E; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ganz, Eric

    2014-06-17

    Mussels have a remarkable ability to bond to solid surfaces under water. From a microscopic perspective, the first step of this process is the adsorption of dopa molecules to the solid surface. In fact, it is the catechol part of the dopa molecule that is interacting with the surface. These molecules are able to make reversible bonds to a wide range of materials, even underwater. Previous experimental and theoretical efforts have produced only a limited understanding of the mechanism and quantitative details of the competitive adsorption of catechol and water on hydrophilic silica surfaces. In this work, we uncover the nature of this competitive absorption by atomic scale modeling of water and catechol adsorbed at the geminal (001) silica surface using density functional theory calculations. We find that catechol molecules displace preadsorbed water molecules and bond directly on the silica surface. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we observe this process in detail. We also calculate the interaction force as a function of distance, and observe a maximum of 0.5 nN of attraction. The catechol has a binding energy of 23 kcal/mol onto the silica surface with adsorbed water molecules. PMID:24835420

  17. Understanding in contemporary epistemology 

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Emma Catherine

    2012-06-27

    My main aim is to contribute to the exploration of the nature of the epistemic state of understanding. It seems that the most productive way in which this might be done is by (i) investigating what sort of conditions ...

  18. Informed consent: towards improved lay-friendliness of patient information sheets.

    PubMed

    Pilegaard, Morten; Ravn, Hanne Berg

    2013-01-01

    Regional research ethics committee (REC) members have voiced a need for the linguistic improvement of informed consent documents to ensure duly informed consent and to ease committee deliberation. We have little knowledge of what elements of language use hamper comprehension, or of the extent of medical researchers' appreciation of this problem and their willingness to accept intervention. This qualitative, explorative study proposes an intervention design and tests its feasibility and acceptability. Semi-structured interviews with potential REC applicants informed a linguistic intervention benchmarked against existing guidelines, mandated locally and nationally, and then evaluated quantitatively in a semi-controlled set-up and qualitatively via questionnaires. Potential applicants professed the psychological acceptability of linguistic intervention. The intervention comprised a downloadable Microsoft Word template outlining information structure, a detailed guideline offering advice for each move and self-selected linguistic screening. It was used by 14 applicants and had a measurable effect on REC deliberation time and approval rates. The intervention instruments overall made it easier for applicants to produce informed consent documents meeting prescribed ethical standards concerning lay-friendliness. In conclusion, it was found that linguistic intervention is relevant, feasible and psychologically acceptable to REC applicants; it aids their text production process and seems to enhance the lay-friendliness of these texts. PMID:25233558

  19. Understanding Standards and Assessment Policy in Science Education: Relating and Exploring Variations in Policy Implementation by Districts and Teachers in Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kevin John Boyett

    Current literature shows that many science teachers view policies of standards-based and test-based accountability as conflicting with research-based instruction in science education. With societal goals of improving scientific literacy and using science to spur economic growth, improving science education policy becomes especially important. To understand perceived influences of science education policy, this study looked at three questions: 1) How do teachers perceive state science standards and assessment and their influence on curriculum and instruction? 2) How do these policy perspectives vary by district and teacher level demographic and contextual differences? 3) How do district leaders' interpretations of and efforts within these policy realms relate to teachers' perceptions of the policies? To answer these questions, this study used a stratified sample of 53 districts across Wisconsin, with 343 middle school science teachers responding to an online survey; science instructional leaders from each district were also interviewed. Survey results were analyzed using multiple regression modeling, with models generally predicting 8-14% of variance in teacher perceptions. Open-ended survey and interview responses were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results suggested that many teachers saw state testing as limiting use of hands-on pedagogy, while standards were seen more positively. Teachers generally held similar views of the degree of influence of standards and testing regardless of their experience, background in science, credentials, or grade level taught. District SES, size and past WKCE scores had some limited correlations to teachers' views of policy, but teachers' perceptions of district policies and leadership consistently had the largest correlation to their views. District leadership views of these state policies correlated with teachers' views. Implications and future research directions are provided. Keywords: science education, policy, accountability, standards, assessment, district leadership

  20. The Expert and the Lay Public: Reflections on Influenza A (H1N1) and the Risk Society

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Trust between the lay public and scientific experts is a key element to ensuring the efficient implementation of emergency public health measures. In modern risk societies, the management and elimination of risk have become preeminent drivers of public policy. In this context, the protection of public trust is a complex task. Those actors involved in public health decision-making and implementation (e.g., mass vaccination for influenza A virus) are confronted with growing pressures and responsibility to act. However, they also need to accept the limits of their own expertise and recognize the ability of lay publics to understand and be responsible for public health. Such a shared responsibility for risk management, if grounded in participative public debates, can arguably strengthen public trust in public health authorities and interventions. PMID:22397338

  1. The relationship between lay and technical views of Escherichia coli O157 risk

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, N. J. C.; Hunter, C. J.; Jones, C. D. R.; Wilson, R. S.; Ethelberg, S.; Cross, P.; Williams, A. P.; MacRitchie, L.; Rotariu, O.; Chadwick, D.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we bring together and contrast lay (accessible primarily through social science methodologies) and technical (via risk assessment and epidemiological techniques) views of the risk associated with the Escherichia coli O157 pathogen using two case study areas in the Grampian region of Scotland, and North Wales. Epidemiological risk factors of contact with farm animals, visiting farms or farm fields and having a private water supply were associated with postcode districts of higher than average disease incidence in the human population. However, this was not the case for the epidemiological risk factor of consumption of beef burgers, which was independent of disease incidence in the postcode district of residence. The proportion of the population expressing a high knowledge of E. coli O157 was greatest in high-incidence disease districts compared with low-incidence areas (17% cf. 7%). This supports the hypothesis that in high-disease-incidence areas, residents are regularly exposed to information about the disease through local cases, the media, local social networks, etc. or perhaps that individuals are more likely to be motivated to find out about it. However, no statistically significant difference was found between high- and low-incidence postcode districts in terms of the proportion of the population expressing a high likelihood of personal risk of infection (10% cf. 14%), giving a counterintuitive difference between the technical (epidemiological and quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA)) and the lay assessment of E. coli O157 risk. This suggests that lay evaluations of E. coli O157 risk reflect intuitive and experience-based estimates of the risk rather than probabilistic estimates. A generally strong correspondence was found in terms of the rank order given to potential infection pathways, with environment and foodborne infection routes dominating when comparing public understanding with technical modelling results. Two general conclusions follow from the work. First, that integrative research incorporating both lay and technical views of risk is required in order that informed decisions can be made to handle or treat the risk by the groups concerned (e.g. the public, policy makers/risk managers, etc.). Second, when communicating risk, for example, through education programmes, it is important that this process is two-way with risk managers (e.g. including Food Standards Agency officials and communications team, public health infection control and environmental health officers) both sharing information with the public and stakeholder groups, as well as incorporating public knowledge, values and context (e.g. geographical location) into risk-management decisions. PMID:21624920

  2. A lay patient navigation training curriculum targeting disparities in cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Debbie Chatman; Williamson, Deborah; Cartmell, Kathleen; Jefferson, Melanie

    2011-12-01

    African-Americans experience a disproportionate share of thoracic cancer burden compared to Whites. Low socioeconomic status (SES) and race are factors in low clinical trial enrollment, accounting for the disparities between African-Americans and Whites. Less than 3% of newly diagnosed cancer patients enroll in clinical trials, and of that number, only 10% represent ethnic minorities. The value of clinical trials research is not generalizable without sufficient representation by ethnic minorities. Patient navigation, an intervention designed to ensure timely and efficient access to healthcare, may improve clinical trial enrollment among African-Americans in lung and esophageal trials by influencing a patient's perception of clinical trials. The lack of navigation programs and training may negatively influence standardization of navigation techniques. The purpose of this project was to deliver and evaluate an evidence-based navigation-training curriculum for "lay" navigators. The primary outcomes measured were confidence in the role as navigator, understanding a navigator's role, and knowledge and perception of clinical trials. The results revealed overall confidence in the role as lay navigators increased from pre-to-post test. Lessons learned included the need for preparatory classes to build the navigator's confidence, and additional training components in death and dying. A larger study is warranted to confirm the findings. PMID:23061182

  3. A circuit model of the temporal pattern generator of Caenorhabditis egg-laying behavior

    E-print Network

    Schafer, William R.

    A circuit model of the temporal pattern generator of Caenorhabditis egg-laying behavior stochastic equations can be used to simulate the time course of egg-laying according to our circuit model: p0 of egg-laying events. 1 #12;2 PARAMETERS 2 2 Parameters The constant probability p0 characterizes

  4. March/April 2001 Deprived or Depredated? Egg Laying Rates in Oregon

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    March/April 2001 Deprived or Depredated? Egg Laying Rates in Oregon Honey Locator Bee Sting Advice from 2.69 million in 1999 to 2.63 million (2% decrease) in 2000. Egg Laying Rates in Oregon Dr. Michael Associ- ation) describes the rate at which queens lay eggs during the year in Oregon. I borrowed

  5. Serotonin Modulates Locomotory Behavior and Coordinates Egg-Laying and Movement in

    E-print Network

    Schafer, William R.

    Serotonin Modulates Locomotory Behavior and Coordinates Egg-Laying and Movement in Caenorhabditis, serotonin has been shown to mod- ulate the temporal pattern of egg-laying behavior. Here we show with locomotion and for coordinating loco- motive behavior with egg-laying. Using an automated tracking system

  6. FMRFamide neuropeptides and acetylcholine synergistically inhibit egg-laying by C. elegans

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, H. Robert

    FMRFamide neuropeptides and acetylcholine synergistically inhibit egg-laying by C. elegans Niels Ringstad & H Robert Horvitz Egg-laying behavior of the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite is regulated by G protein signaling pathways. Here we show that the egg laying­defective mutant egl-6(n592) carries

  7. C. elegans Egg-laying Detection and Behavior Study Using Image Analysis

    E-print Network

    Cosman, Pamela C.

    1 C. elegans Egg-laying Detection and Behavior Study Using Image Analysis Wei Geng Department-0349, USA. E-mail:wschafer@ucsd.edu #12;2 Egg-laying is an important phase of the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Previous studies examined egg-laying events manually. This paper presents

  8. Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game

    E-print Network

    Scholl, Brian

    Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 1 The Blame Game: Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness Margaret A. Martinez Senior Thesis in Psychology Advisor: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema April 19, 2010 #12;Lay causal theories and familiarity with mental illness 2 Abstract The present study

  9. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castańeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2014-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented. PMID:21986244

  10. New pipe-lay method proposed for under water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-31

    The ''ice-hole bottom pull'' technique of pipelaying, developed by Polar Gas Ltd. for the laying of pipe across M'Clure Strait between Melville and Victoria Islands, Can., since the ice at some points is too thick to allow installation of a continuous trench, is described in detail, including the drilling of holes 2 km apart and insulating them to prevent refreezing; pulling the pipe from hole to hole via a series of increasingly heavy cables; undersea welding of the pipe after it is pulled into place; and the need to lay pipe in a tunnel at least 45 m below the sea bottom near shore and in other areas subject to ice scour, where the pipe could be damaged by exceptionally thick ice.

  11. 52. Photocopied August 1978. LAYING THE CORNER STONE (FIRST PREMOULDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopied August 1978. LAYING THE CORNER STONE (FIRST PRE-MOULDED CONCRETE BLOCK) OF THE POWER HOUSE, SEPTEMBER 10, 1900. THE BLOCK IS BEING PLACED ON ONE OF THE MONOLITHIC TAIL RACE (TAIL PIT) BASES. VON SCHON MAY BE THE THIRD PERSON FROM THE RIGHT IN THE CENTER OF THE PICTURE (IN THE GRAY SUIT). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  12. Mars Surface Exploration Technology Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Rodriguez, G.

    1996-01-01

    Exploration of Mars is a major thrust of NASA. Some of the important goals of this exploration are (1) the search for life and understanding of evolution of the planet, (2) the discovery of accessible water, (3) understanding how the climate has changed, and (4) developing an inventory of useful resources, as a precursor to human exploration.

  13. Potential zoonotic pathways of Salmonella enteritidis in laying farms.

    PubMed

    El-Tras, Wael F; Tayel, Ahmed A; Samir, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a communicable zoonotic bacterium. The present investigation was done to evaluate the potential occurrence of Salmonella Enteritidis in laying hen farms and its contamination pathways. Samples were collected from 10 laying hen farms located in the Delta of Egypt. Cloacal swabs (n=300), eggshell swabs (n=400), and hand swabs from egg packagers (n=38) were collected. Pools of ovary and oviduct were obtained from 150 hens; all samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Results indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis may initially occupy in ovary, oviduct, and cloaca. The risk for eggshell contamination is highly impending from laying hen flocks infected with Salmonella Enteritidis with percentage of >30%. Farms having eggshell contamination percentage of >60% with Salmonella Enteritidis provided a high risk for packagers' hand contamination. Questionnaire of egg packagers specified that seven out of the eight smoker packagers suffered from repeated Salmonellosis. Thus, smoking during egg packing process could be considered as an exposure factor to contract the infection via hand-cigarette-mouth route. PMID:20020813

  14. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    PubMed

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. PMID:26240390

  15. From dose rate to websites: making measurements accessible, understandable and helpful to the lay public.

    PubMed

    Zähringer, M; Luff, R; Schiesewitz, M; Burbeck, S; Högg, R

    2014-08-01

    The key role of public information in emergency preparedness has more recently been corroborated by the experience of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP. Information should meet quality criteria such as openness, accessibility and authenticity. Existing information portals of radiation monitoring networks were frequently used even in Europe, although there was no imminent radiation risk. BfS responded by increasing the polling frequency, publishing current data not validated, refurbishing the website of the BfS 'odlinfo.bfs.de' and adding explanatory text. Public feedback served as a valuable input for improving the site's design. Additional services were implemented for developers of smart phone apps. Websites similar to 'ODLInfo' are available both on European and international levels. NGOs and grass root projects established platforms for uploading and visualising private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 March 2011. The BfS site is compared with other platforms. Government information has to compete with non-official sources. Options on information strategies are discussed. PMID:24993007

  16. From dose rate to websites: making measurements accessible, understandable and helpful to the lay public.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Zähringer M; Luff R; Schiesewitz M; Burbeck S; Högg R

    2014-08-01

    The key role of public information in emergency preparedness has more recently been corroborated by the experience of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP. Information should meet quality criteria such as openness, accessibility and authenticity. Existing information portals of radiation monitoring networks were frequently used even in Europe, although there was no imminent radiation risk. BfS responded by increasing the polling frequency, publishing current data not validated, refurbishing the website of the BfS 'odlinfo.bfs.de' and adding explanatory text. Public feedback served as a valuable input for improving the site's design. Additional services were implemented for developers of smart phone apps. Websites similar to 'ODLInfo' are available both on European and international levels. NGOs and grass root projects established platforms for uploading and visualising private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 March 2011. The BfS site is compared with other platforms. Government information has to compete with non-official sources. Options on information strategies are discussed.

  17. CONTROLLING EGG CONTAMINATION BY UNDERSTANDING SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS INFECTIONS IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, public health authorities have reported the transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers of internally contaminated eggs produced by infected hens. Egg contamination is both a cause of food-borne human illness and a principal diagnostic criterion for identifying in...

  18. Differential gene expression in pre-laying and laying period ovaries of Sichuan White geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Ding, N; Han, Q; Zhao, X Z; Li, Q; Li, J; Zhang, H F; Gao, G L; Luo, Y; Xie, Y H; Su, J; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    Geese are an economically important poultry species worldwide. Their superior meat production performance and meat qual-ity make them a popular food. However, they are not bred worldwide because their poor laying capacity increases farming costs. To gain a global view of the genes that are differentially expressed between pre-laying (P) and laying (L) periods and to develop a database for further studies, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of ovarian tissue collected from Anser cygnoides. In total, 30,151,422 raw reads, with an average length of 151 bp and a total length of 4,552,864,722 bp, were obtained. After primers and adaptors were removed, 19,167,132 clean reads, with an average length of 134.5 bp and a total length of 2,577,297,281 bp, were obtained, among which 1,268,906,694 bp and 1,308,390,587 bp were from L and P ovarian tissue, respectively. The 16,605 assembled sequences were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases and assigning gene ontology (GO) terms. Of these, 511 as-sembled sequences were considered differentially expressed based on the 2-fold method, among which 396 were assigned at least one GO term. Digital expression analysis using the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes annotation identified 121 genes that were differ-entially expressed in the P vs L periods. Five of these are of special interest for further investigation of their roles in determining high re-productive performance. This study provides valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering genes determining high egg-laying performance and for future functional genomics analysis of geese. PMID:26125885

  19. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Frito Lay's Electric Delivery Trucks (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 medium-duty Smith Newton electric vehicles (EVs) and 10 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Frito Lay North America in the Seattle, Washington, area. Launched in late 2013, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data, such as fuel economy and maintenance costs, to better understand how to optimize the use of such vehicles in a large-scale commercial operation. In addition to the on-road portion of this evaluation, NREL is analyzing charging data to support total cost of ownership estimations and investigations into smart charging opportunities. NREL is also performing a battery life degradation analysis to quantify battery pack health, track battery performance over time, and determine how various drive cycles and battery charging protocols impact battery life.

  20. A culture of genius: how an organization's lay theory shapes people's cognition, affect, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary C; Dweck, Carol S

    2010-03-01

    Traditionally, researchers have conceptualized implicit theories as individual differences-lay theories that vary between people. This article, however, investigates the consequences of organization-level implicit theories of intelligence. In five studies, the authors examine how an organization's fixed (entity) or malleable (incremental) theory of intelligence affects people's inferences about what is valued, their self- and social judgments, and their behavioral decisions. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors find that people systematically shift their self-presentations when motivated to join an entity or incremental organization. People present their "smarts" to the entity environment and their "motivation" to the incremental environment. In Studies 3a and 4, they show downstream consequences of these inferences for participants' self-concepts and their hiring decisions. In Study 3b, they demonstrate that the effects are not due to simple priming. The implications for understanding how environments shape cognition and behavior and, more generally, for implicit theories research are discussed. PMID:19826076

  1. A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.

    PubMed

    Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A

    2013-02-01

    Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks. PMID:23300320

  2. Exploring Mayan Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Jeff D.; Powers, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an exploration activity involving Mayan numerals, which can be adapted by teachers at various levels to help students better understand the concept of place value and appreciate contributions to mathematics made by an indigenous Central American culture.

  3. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the bacteriology of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems using Hy-Line W-37 white and Hy-Line brown laying hens. On sampling days for Experiment 1, 2, and 3, twenty eggs were collected from each p...

  4. Ampliative Understanding 

    E-print Network

    Whalen, Alex

    2012-08-31

    The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop and defend an account of understanding, which I call ampliative understanding. I will begin by defending the claim that understanding has final value as a cognitive achievement. From there, I...

  5. Egg-laying demand induces aversion of ultraviolet light in Drosophila females

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Edward Y.; Guntur, Ananya R.; He, Ruo; Stern, Ulrich; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Summary Drosophila melanogaster females are highly selective about the chemosensory quality of their egg-laying sites [1–6], an important trait that promotes the survival and fitness of their offspring. How egg-laying females respond to ultraviolet light (UV) is not known, however. UV is a well-documented phototactic cue for adult Drosophila [7–13], but it is an aversive cue for larvae [14–17]. Here, we show that female flies exhibit UV aversion in response to their egg-laying demand. First, females exhibit egg-laying aversion of UV: they prefer to lay eggs on dark sites when choosing between UV-illuminated and dark sites. Second, they also exhibit movement aversion of UV: positional tracking of single females suggests that egg-laying demand increases their tendency to turn away from UV. Genetic manipulations of the retina suggest that egg-laying and movement aversion of UV are both mediated by the inner (R7) and not the outer (R1-6) photoreceptors. Finally, we show that the Dm8 amacrine neurons, a synaptic target of R7 photoreceptors and a mediator of UV spectral preference [12], are dispensable for egg-laying aversion but essential for movement aversion of UV. This study suggests egg-laying demand can temporarily convert UV into an aversive cue for female Drosophila, and that R7 photoreceptors recruit different downstream targets to control different egg-laying-induced behavioral modifications. PMID:25455037

  6. Mass depopulation of laying hens in whole barns with liquid carbon dioxide: evaluation of welfare impact.

    PubMed

    Turner, P V; Kloeze, H; Dam, A; Ward, D; Leung, N; Brown, E E L; Whiteman, A; Chiappetta, M E; Hunter, D B

    2012-07-01

    Appropriate emergency disaster preparedness is a key priority for agricultural agencies to allow effective response to serious avian disease outbreaks. There is a need to develop rapid, humane, and safe depopulation techniques for poultry that are widely applicable across a range of farm settings. Whole barn depopulation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been investigated as a humane and efficient means of killing large numbers of birds in the event of a reportable disease outbreak. It has also been considered as a method for depopulating barns containing end-of-lay hens, particularly when there is limited local slaughter and rendering capacity. Determining the best method of humanely killing large flocks of birds remains problematic and is being investigated by a coordinated international effort. While whole barn depopulation using CO(2) inhalation has been explored, physiologic responses of chickens have not been characterized in field settings and assessment of animal welfare is hampered without this information. In this study, 12 cull laying hens were surgically instrumented with telemetry transmitters to record electroencephalographs, electrocardiographs, body temperature, and activity during 2 large-scale field CO(2) euthanasia trials of end-of-lay hens. The day following surgery, instrumented hens were placed in barns with other birds, barns were sealed, and animals were killed by CO(2) inhalation delivered via a specially designed liquid CO(2) manifold. Instrumented birds were monitored by infrared thermography, and ambient temperature, CO(2), and O(2) concentrations were recorded. Results from these studies indicate that instrumented hens lost consciousness within 2 min of CO(2) levels reaching 18 to 20%. Mild to moderate head shaking, gasping, and 1 to 2 clonic muscle contractions were noted in hens before unconsciousness; however, brain death followed rapidly (<5 min). Evaluation of welfare costs and benefits suggest clear advantages over catching and transporting cull hens for slaughter. The financial costs with this method are greater, however, than those estimated for traditional slaughter techniques. Results of these studies are being used to develop national protocols for whole barn depopulation of hens by CO(2) inhalation. PMID:22700499

  7. No reductions and some improvements in South African lay HIV/AIDS counsellors' motivational interviewing competence one year after brief training.

    PubMed

    Evangeli, Michael; Longley, Michael; Swartz, Leslie

    2011-03-01

    In South Africa, lay HIV/AIDS counsellors are trained in both client-centred and more directive, health-advising techniques. Both approaches are limited in facilitating health behaviour when clients are ambivalent. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counselling approach that develops the client's intrinsic motivation to change. Evangeli et al. evaluated a 12-hour course of MI delivered to 17 lay HIV/AIDS counsellors in Western Cape Province, South Africa. There was a marked change from MI non-adherent practice to more MI adherent practice at the end of the training. Few counsellors, however, reached the level of beginning proficiency in MI. The current study was a one-year follow-up of MI competence in the same cohort of lay HIV counsellors. Ten counsellors participated. Results confirmed that changes in lay HIV counsellors' level of MI competence as a result of a brief MI course were maintained over a one-year period and in some cases were enhanced. MI competence was independent of self-report and demographic factors. As in Evangeli et al., the majority of counsellors did not attain beginning proficiency level. Reasons for the findings are explored, including consideration of baseline level of counselling, characteristics of the training and individual motivation. Ideas for future research are outlined. PMID:21347889

  8. Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

  9. Growing Fixed With Age: Lay Theories of Malleability Are Target Age-Specific.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Lassetter, Bethany

    2015-11-01

    Beliefs about whether people can change ("lay theories" of malleability) are known to have wide-ranging effects on social motivation, cognition, and judgment. Yet rather than holding an overarching belief that people can or cannot change, perceivers may hold independent beliefs about whether different people are malleable-that is, lay theories may be target-specific. Seven studies demonstrate that lay theories are target-specific with respect to age: Perceivers hold distinct, uncorrelated lay theories of people at different ages, and younger targets are considered to be more malleable than older targets. Both forms of target-specificity are consequential, as target age-specific lay theories predict policy support for learning-based senior services and the rehabilitation of old and young drug users. The implications of target age-specific lay theories for a number of psychological processes, the social psychology of aging, and theoretical frameworks of malleability beliefs are discussed. PMID:26351273

  10. What do lay people want to know about the disposal of nuclear waste? A mental model approach to the design and development of an online risk communication.

    PubMed

    Skarlatidou, A; Cheng, T; Haklay, M

    2012-09-01

    Public participation requires the involvement of lay people in the decision-making processes of issues that concern them. It is currently practiced in a variety of domains, such as transport and environmental planning. Communicating risks can be a complex task, as there may be significant differences between the risk perceptions of experts and those of lay people. Among the plethora of problems that require public involvement is the site selection of a nuclear waste disposal site in the United Kingdom, which is discussed in this article. Previous ineffective attempts to locate a site provide evidence that the problem has a strong social dimension, and studies ascribe public opposition to a loss of public trust in governmental agencies and decisionmakers, and to a lack of public understanding of nuclear waste issues. Although the mental models approach has been successfully used in the effective communication of such risks as climate change, no attempt has been made to follow a prescriptive mental model approach to develop risk communication messages that inform lay people about nuclear waste disposal. After interviewing 20 lay people and 5 experts, we construct and compare their corresponding mental models to reveal any gaps and misconceptions. The mental models approach is further applied here to identify lay people's requirements regarding what they want to know about nuclear waste, and how this information should be presented so that it is easily understood. This article further describes how the mental models approach was used in the subsequent development of an online information system for the site selection of a nuclear waste repository in the United Kingdom, which is considered essential for the improvement of public understanding and the reestablishment of trust. PMID:22324812

  11. Are vaccination programmes delivered by lay health workers cost-effective? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A recently updated Cochrane systematic review on the effects of lay or community health workers (LHWs) in primary and community health care concluded that LHW interventions could lead to promising benefits in the promotion of childhood vaccination uptake. However, understanding of the costs and cost-effectiveness of involving LHWs in vaccination programmes remains poor. This paper reviews the costs and cost-effectiveness of vaccination programme interventions involving LHWs. Methods Articles were retrieved if the title, keywords or abstract included terms related to 'lay health workers', 'vaccination' and 'economics'. Reference lists of studies assessed for inclusion were also searched and attempts were made to contact authors of all studies included in the Cochrane review. Studies were included after assessing eligibility of the full-text article. The included studies were then reviewed against a set of background and technical characteristics. Results Of the 2616 records identified, only three studies fully met the inclusion criteria, while an additional 11 were retained as they included some cost data. Methodologically, the studies were strong but did not adequately address affordability and sustainability and were also highly heterogeneous in terms of settings and LHW outcomes, limiting their comparability. There were insufficient data to allow any conclusions to be drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of LHW interventions to promote vaccination uptake. Studies focused largely on health outcomes and did illustrate to some extent how the institutional characteristics of communities, such as governance and sources of financial support, influence sustainability. Conclusion The included studies suggest that conventional economic evaluations, particularly cost-effectiveness analyses, generally focus too narrowly on health outcomes, especially in the context of vaccination promotion and delivery at the primary health care level by LHWs. Further studies on the costs and cost-effectiveness of vaccination programmes involving LHWs should be conducted, and these studies should adopt a broader and more holistic approach. PMID:19887002

  12. Understanding language

    E-print Network

    Pettit, Dean R. (Dean Reid), 1967-

    2003-01-01

    My dissertation concerns the nature of linguistic understanding. A standard view about linguistic understanding is that it is a propositional knowledge state. The following is an instance of this view: given a speaker S ...

  13. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2006 draws upon available information from literature, industry and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analysis of the mineral industry based upon these data.

  14. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  15. 'Health is not a man's domain': lay accounts of gender difference in life-expectancy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Rytkönen, Marja

    2008-11-01

    The substantial gender difference in life-expectancy is among the key characteristics of current health crisis in Russia. Despite a relatively large body of epidemiological literature on gender difference, there is little empirical research on the gendered meanings of health among Russian lay people. This study aims to enhance understanding of gendered meanings of health by analysing lay accounts of the gender gap in life-expectancy on the basis of 29 interviews with Russians aged 15-81. The analysis showed that gender difference was largely attributed to structural conditions and changes in Russian society and, to a lesser extent, to behavioural factors. Another important conclusion drawn from the analysis was that talk about gender included very few alternatives to conventional gender relations, or negotiation of their effects on health and illness. We interpret these findings to reflect, first, the culturally weak role of the individual in Russian discourses of health that are still largely focused on the role of government as primarily responsible for public health. Secondly, it seems that there are few alternatives to conventional discourses of gender in post-Soviet Russia; the gender relations in people's understanding appear to be static and persistent despite recent profound social changes. PMID:18564970

  16. Activating Lay Health Influencers to Promote Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Hall, John R.; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z.; Lando, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay “health influencers,” on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Methods Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. Results In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants’ prior intervention experience, 80–86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71–79% reported ?1 in the past 30. Conclusions Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation. PMID:24636035

  17. Cave spiders choose optimal environmental factors with respect to the generated entropy when laying their cocoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Lepore, Emiliano; Ventola, Luigi; Asinari, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a suitable area to spiders where to lay eggs is promoted in terms of Darwinian fitness. Despite its importance, the underlying factors behind this key decision are generally poorly understood. Here, we designed a multidisciplinary study based both on in-field data and laboratory experiments focusing on the European cave spider Meta menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) and aiming at understanding the selective forces driving the female in the choice of the depositional area. Our in-field data analysis demonstrated a major role of air velocity and distance from the cave entrance within a particular cave in driving the female choice. This has been interpreted using a model based on the Entropy Generation Minimization - EGM - method, without invoking best fit parameters and thanks to independent lab experiments, thus demonstrating that the female chooses the depositional area according to minimal level of thermo-fluid-dynamic irreversibility. This methodology may pave the way to a novel approach in understanding evolutionary strategies for other living organisms.

  18. Diversity and Explorations Program at Harvard Divinity School

    E-print Network

    Schrag, Daniel

    Ex 2014: Three days exploring everything Harvard Divinity School has to offer. And it's on us. Div'll find information about how to apply at www.hds.harvard.edu/divex. To learn more, please contact us into careers as lay and ordained ministers in Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, Buddhist, Muslim, and other

  19. Biomorphic Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

  20. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2008 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry, and presents analyses of exploration activities by the mineral industry based upon these data.

  1. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Vasil, R.L.; Nolting, A.

    2011-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2010 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry.

  2. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Bourget, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2009 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on industry exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities by the mineral industry based upon these data.

  3. Evaluation of guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Cheng

    2005-11-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate guar meal as a source of prebiotic galactomannans for laying hens. In the 1st experiment, late phase laying hens were fed diets with 0, 5, 10% guar meal (GM) for 56 days or 15% GM for 28 days then switched...

  4. Dynamic simulation and tension compensation research on subsea umbilical cable laying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Guojun; Zhu, Shaohua; Liu, Jun; Fang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liquan

    2013-12-01

    For studying the dynamic performance of subsea umbilical cable laying system and achieving the goal of cable tension and laying speed control, the rigid finite element method is used to discrete and transform the system into a rigid-flexible coupling multi-body system which consists of rigid elements and spring-damping elements. The mathematical model of subsea umbilical cable laying system kinematic chain is presented with the second order Lagrange equation in the joint coordinate system, and dynamic modeling and simulation is performed with ADAMS. The dynamic analysis is conducted assuming the following three statuses: ideal laying, practical laying under wave disturbance, and practical laying with tension compensation. Results show that motion disturbances of the laying budge under sea waves, especially with heaving and pitching, will cause relatively serious fluctuations in cable tension and laying speed. Tension compensation, i.e., active back tension torque control can restrict continuous tension increasing or decreasing effectively and rapidly, thus avoiding cable breach or buckling.

  5. Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Prediction of feather damage in laying hens using optical flows and Markov models Hyoung-joo Lee1, and 2 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK Feather pecking in laying hens of production as well as welfare issues for the damaged birds. Damaging outbreaks of feather pecking

  6. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  7. THE QUARTERLY REVIEW COMMUNAL EGG-LAYING IN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS

    E-print Network

    Keogh, Scott

    THE QUARTERLY REVIEW of Biology COMMUNAL EGG-LAYING IN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS: EVOLUTIONARY reptiles lay their eggs together in the most suitable sites, but it is difficult to account, occurring in insects, mollusks, fish, amphib- ians, reptiles, and birds, just to name a few. While some

  8. ASA Lay Language Papers 162nd Acoustical Society of America Meeting

    E-print Network

    ASA Lay Language Papers 162nd Acoustical Society of America Meeting [ Lay Language Paper Index ­ jcollis@mines.edu Colorado School of Mines 1500 Illinois St. Golden, CO 80401 Popular version of paper 4a of colder water at the surface. The low surface temperature causes sound to bend upward and reflect off

  9. Lay Persons' Versus Psychologists' Judgments of Psychologically Aggressive Actions by a Husband and Wife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follingstad, Diane R.; Helff, Cynthia M.; Binford, Robin V.; Runge, Margaret M.; White, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    Literature assessing knowledge of and attitudes toward social issues has demonstrated that mental health professionals and lay persons often differ greatly. To add to the normative information in the field of psychological abuse and to determine whether the differences previously found between mental health professionals and lay persons extend to…

  10. Effects of repeated oral corticosterone administration on performance and stress parameters of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of repeated stress during rearing on performance and physiology of laying hens was studied using a corticosterone (Cort) model. 240 Hisex laying hens were reared in environmentally controlled battery cages. At 7, 11, and 15 wk of age they were exposed for 1 wk to the following treatments...

  11. Evaluation of Yeast Cell Wall on Early Production Laying Hen Performance 

    E-print Network

    Hashim, Mohammed Malik Hashim 1981-

    2012-11-08

    he influence of two levels of yeast cell wall on phase one laying hen performance was investigated in this study. A total of 75 Lohmann W-36 replacement pullets, 17-weeks-old, were distributed among 75 laying hen cages (1 bird per pen). A total of 3...

  12. Effects of organic selenium and zinc on the aging process of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to determine whether supplementing the diets of post-molted hens with organic selenium (Se) (Sel-Plex®) and/or organic Zinc (Zn) (Bio-Plex®) could improve laying hen performance. Prior to molting, 120-78 wk old laying hens were separated into four treatment groups of ...

  13. Solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

  14. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  15. Exploration Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  16. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Rapstine, T.D.; Lee, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2011 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. This summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents surveys returned by companies primarily focused on precious (gold, platinum-group metals and silver) and base (copper, lead, nickel and zinc) metals.

  17. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2007 draws upon available information from industry, literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analysis of the mineral industry based upon these data.

  18. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2005 draws upon available information from literature, industry and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. It provides data on exploration budgets by global region and mineral commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analysis of the mineral industry based on these data.

  19. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient content. PMID:26286995

  20. Developing lay health worker policy in South Africa: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past half decade South Africa has been developing, implementing and redeveloping its Lay Health Worker (LHW) policies. Research during this period has highlighted challenges with LHW programme implementation. These challenges have included an increased burden of care for female LHWs. The aim of this study was to explore contemporary LHW policy development processes and the extent to which issues of gender are taken up within this process. Methods The study adopted a qualitative approach to exploring policy development from the perspective of policy actors. Eleven policy actors (policy makers and policy commentators) were interviewed individually. Data from the interviews were analysed thematically. Results Considerations of LHW working conditions drove policy redevelopment. From the interviews it seems that gender as an issue never reached the policy making agenda. Although there was strong recognition that the working conditions of LHWs needed to be improved, poor working conditions were not necessarily seen as a gender concern. Our data suggests that in the process of defining the problem which the redeveloped policy had to address, gender was not included. There was no group or body who brought the issue of gender to the attention of policy developers. As such the issue of gender never entered the policy debates. These debates focused on whether it was appropriate to have LHWs, what LHW programme model should be adopted and whether or not LHWs should be incorporated into the formal health system. Conclusion LHW policy redevelopment focused on resolving issues of LHW working conditions through an active process involving many actors and strong debates. Within this process the issue of gender had no champion and never reached the LHW policy agenda. Future research may consider how to incorporate the voices of ordinary women into the policy making process. PMID:22410185

  1. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches.

    PubMed

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

  2. Stress Detection and Classification of Laying Hens by Sound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonguk; Noh, Byeongjoon; Jang, Suin; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Chang, Hong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Stress adversely affects the wellbeing of commercial chickens, and comes with an economic cost to the industry that cannot be ignored. In this paper, we first develop an inexpensive and non-invasive, automatic online-monitoring prototype that uses sound data to notify producers of a stressful situation in a commercial poultry facility. The proposed system is structured hierarchically with three binary-classifier support vector machines. First, it selects an optimal acoustic feature subset from the sound emitted by the laying hens. The detection and classification module detects the stress from changes in the sound and classifies it into subsidiary sound types, such as physical stress from changes in temperature, and mental stress from fear. Finally, an experimental evaluation was performed using real sound data from an audio-surveillance system. The accuracy in detecting stress approached 96.2%, and the classification model was validated, confirming that the average classification accuracy was 96.7%, and that its recall and precision measures were satisfactory. PMID:25656176

  3. Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, Elaine L.; Ritchie, Timothy D.; Igou, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well-understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (n = 189) freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others). In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (n = 249) rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (n = 242), participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4A (n = 38) and 4B (n = 102), participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance) during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modeling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer. PMID:25741302

  4. Thoughts on medication and psychoanalysis: a lay analyst's view.

    PubMed

    Olesker, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    The issues involved in split analytic treatments-where a second person manages the patient's medication-are discussed from the point of view of a developmentalist and lay analyst. Case material is presented to illustrate the interplay of medication with other elements of the psychoanalytic situation. Medication and its effects, it is argued, should be accorded no special status apart from other interventions and enactments in an analysis. Some see medication and psychoanalysis as parallel processes, two separate and unintegrated theoretical systems, and recommend shifting back and forth between models of the mind or becoming "bilingual"; against this view, it is argued that anything the analyst does will affect the patient's thoughts, fantasies, and even physiology in individual ways, and only attention to analytic material can reveal what an intervention means in a specific case. Success in split treatment depends on a collaborative therapeutic alliance among patient, analyst, and consultant. Because there is as yet no theory that bridges psychoanalysis and psychopharmacology, analysts must talk of these matters as incompletely synthesized and regard them as part of the challenges that make psychoanalysis the exciting, impossible profession it is. PMID:17009654

  5. Guidelines for rescue training of the lay public.

    PubMed

    Abrams, J I; Pretto, E A; Angus, D; Safar, P

    1993-01-01

    The fundamental goal of emergency medical response in disaster is to save lives and reduce injury and permanent disability. It has been observed that urgent emergency medical care of seriously injured earthquake casualties trapped under building rubble, cannot be provided unless the victims have been extricated and transported to medical facilities by friends or relatives, or are accessible to field rescue and medical teams. Equally important is the fact that extrication of seriously injured, trapped victims by laypersons is hazardous, unless the following conditions are met: 1) the rescuer has basic knowledge of extrication, and; 2) there is early application of effective life-supporting first-aid (LSFA) and/or advanced trauma life support (ATLS) at the scene. Time is the critical factor in such an effort. In previous studies of death and dying in earthquakes, it was noted that extrication of trapped victims will be attempted by survivors. Therefore, it is suggested that citizens living in regions of high seismic risk and trained in basic search and rescue and in LSFA are the most immediate resource for early response after an earthquake. An accompanying paper addresses the issue of citizen LSFA training. This paper focuses on the basic concepts of search and rescue training for the lay public. PMID:10155459

  6. Egg mercury levels decline with the laying sequence in charadriiformes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.H. )

    1992-05-01

    Whereas pollutants do not differ in concentration among eggs of one clutch in some bird species, in gulls, terns and grebes several organochlorines show intraclutch variation: Concentrations increase with the laying sequence. Heavy metals, however, are not so intensively studied with respect to intraclutch variation. In contrast to lead and cadmium, mercury is accumulated in great quantities in eggs. Variation in mercury levels between the eggs of one clutch were low compared to interclutch variability in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Peregrine (Falco peregrinus). In gulls, however, intraclutch variation was significant and characterized by higher mercury levels in the first than in subsequently laid eggs, which is the opposite to the trend in organochlorine levels. In this paper, the author reports on investigations of intraclutch variation in mercury levels in three Charadriiform-species, Herring Gull, Common Tern and Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus). The results confirm those previously reported in gulls and point to the importance of the egg in reducing the females' mercury burden. 23 refs, 2 tabs.

  7. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    PubMed Central

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

  8. a patch, it is advantageous for her to lay male-destined eggs if she has only

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    a patch, it is advantageous for her to lay male-destined eggs if she has only a few eggs to lay and there are many female-destined eggs present because her male offspring would then experience less competition for mates. However, if she has many eggs to lay, it would be disadvantageous if she laid too many male

  9. Understanding Youth 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    To help young people become useful and responsible citizens, you must understand their needs and interests. All young people share certain needs, desires, interests, values, strengths and weaknesses that affect their behavior. This publications...

  10. Understanding Flu

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bonny McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone seems ... make sure you understand all the talk about bird (avian) flu and pandemics. The flu season in ...

  11. A mixed-methods assessment of the experiences of lay mental health workers in postearthquake Haiti.

    PubMed

    James, Leah Emily; Noel, John Roger; Roche Jean Pierre, Yves Merry

    2014-03-01

    A mixed-methodological study conducted in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake assessed experiences of 8 lay mental health workers (earthquake survivors themselves) implementing a psychosocial intervention for residents of camps for displaced people in Port-au-Prince. Quantitative results revealed decreased posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, consistently high compassion satisfaction, low burnout, moderate secondary trauma, and high levels of posttraumatic growth measured over 18 months. Qualitative accounts from lay mental health workers revealed enhanced sense of self-worth, purpose, social connection, and satisfaction associated with helping others. Results support the viability of utilizing local lay disaster survivors as implementers of psychosocial intervention. PMID:24826931

  12. Displacement of death in public space by lay people using the automated external defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen; Crosbie, Brian; Harrison-Paul, Russell

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports on a study where a technology, the Automated External Defibrillator (AED), enables a socially troubling death in public space to be moved to a more acceptable location. This was a qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews with lay (non-medical) people, in a variety of locations, who had been trained to use an AED. The AED, and its use by lay people, means that the time and place of death from heart attack can be changed from a location like a railway station or shopping centre to the ambulance or hospital. Thus the lay people involved can act as what Timmermans (1999) terms 'death brokers'. PMID:19969500

  13. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students and offered…

  14. Collective Mathematical Understanding as Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lyndon; Towers, Jo; Pirie, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of mathematical understanding, and offers a response to the question raised by Martin (2001) at the Annual Meeting of the Psychology of Mathematics Education Group (North American Chapter) about the possibility for and nature of collective mathematical understanding. In referring to collective mathematical…

  15. Youth Exploring Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Diane

    2008-04-01

    This session features Youth Exploring Science (YES), Saint Louis Science Center's nationally recognized work-based teen development program. In YES, underserved audiences develop interest and understanding in physics through design engineering projects. I will discuss breaking down barriers, helping youth develop skills, and partnering with community organizations, universities and engineering firms.

  16. Exploring Global Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needler, Toby; Goodman, Bonnie

    The eight units in this volume are designed for use by an art teacher/specialist. Thematic ideas are presented, while skills, techniques, and materials are not dictated. The lessons encourage students to compare and contrast cultures, understand their own cultural experiences, and explore differences and commonalities among cultures. The materials…

  17. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  18. Exploring Racism through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

  19. Men's understanding of their violence towards women 

    E-print Network

    Seddon, Beth

    This briefing reports on a study in Australian that explored men's experience and understanding of their violence towards their female partners. The study aimed to gain a fuller understanding of men's perspectives with a ...

  20. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

  1. Embodied understanding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner. PMID:26175701

  2. EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING

    E-print Network

    EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING The Potential of Resin Transfer Molding................................................................5..........................................................................................................10 Resin Transfer Molding Technology

  3. A circuit model of the temporal pattern generator of Caenorhabditis egg-laying behavior

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Mi; Schafer, William R.; Breitling, Rainer

    2010-06-07

    for the time constant of the inactive phase. Together they form an integrated circuit that drives the clustered egg-laying pattern. Conclusions The detailed predictions derived from this model can now be tested by straightforward validation experiments....

  4. Architectural Judgements and Their Causes in Finnish and British Architects and Lay People 

    E-print Network

    Willis, Kirsti Kaarina

    2008-06-27

    studies are mixed, but they indicate that architectural knowledge and cultural factors effect architectural judgements. The present study therefore concentrates on two variables: Nationality (British and Finnish) and professionality (architects and lay...

  5. Intervention development for enhanced lay palliative caregiver support - the use of focus groups.

    PubMed

    Hudson, P; Aranda, S; McMurray, N

    2002-12-01

    Caring for a family member or friend dying of cancer can be extremely stressful. Past research identified that lay caregivers frequently report unmet needs related to guidance and support to assist them to provide care. This study sought to extend prior needs-based research towards the development of a new nursing intervention focused on the guidance and support provided to persons caring for a relative or friend dying of cancer. Focus groups were conducted with current lay caregivers, bereaved lay caregivers and palliative care nurses. The findings endorsed the applicability of previous caregiver need research to the Australian context. Participants revealed that caregivers were commonly unprepared for their role and desired much more guidance and support from health professionals. Importantly, the research provided the essential ingredients for the future development of a new intervention aimed at augmenting home lay palliative caregiver guidance and support. PMID:12492463

  6. Collective Mathematical Understanding as an Improvisational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lyndon C.; Towers, Jo

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of mathematical understanding, and offers a response to the question raised by Martin (2001) at PME-NA about the possibility for and nature of collective mathematical understanding. In referring to collective mathematical understanding we point to the kinds of learning and understanding we may see occurring when…

  7. Exploration Geochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closs, L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    Contributions in mineral-deposit model formulation, geochemical exploration in glaciated and arid environments, analytical and sampling problems, and bibliographic research were made in symposia held and proceedings volumes published during 1982. Highlights of these symposia and proceedings and comments on trends in exploration geochemistry are…

  8. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 27 percent in 2003 from the 2002 budget, according to the Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes after five years of declining spending for mineral exploration.

  9. Understanding Artworlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Clover, Faith

    This curriculum unit consists of four lessons that are designed to broaden students' understanding of art and culture; each lesson can stand alone or be used in conjunction with the others. The introduction offers a conceptual framework of the Artworlds unit, which takes an inquiry-based approach. The unit's first lesson, "Worlds within Worlds,"…

  10. Understanding Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Val

    This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…

  11. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrab?áková, Petra; Voslá?ová, Eva; Bedá?ová, Iveta; Pišt?ková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  12. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community based intervention in three sites in India. This paper describes how the intervention was developed systematically, following the MRC framework for the development of complex interventions. Methods We reviewed the lierature on the burden of schizophrenia and the treatment gap in low and middle income countries and the evidence for community based treatments, and identified intervention components. We then evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of this package of care through formative case studies with individuals with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers and piloted its delivery with 30 families. Results Based on the reviews, our intervention comprised five components (psycho-education; adherence management; rehabilitation; referral to community agencies; and health promotion) to be delivered by trained lay health workers supervised by specialists. The intervention underwent a number of changes as a result of formative and pilot work. While all the components were acceptable and most were feasible, experiences of stigma and discrimination were inadequately addressed; some participants feared that delivery of care at home would lead to illness disclosure; some participants and providers did not understand how the intervention related to usual care; some families were unwilling to participate; and there were delivery problems, for example, in meeting the targeted number of sessions. Participants found delivery by health workers acceptable, and expected them to have knowledge about the subject matter. Some had expectations regarding their demographic and personal characteristics, for example, preferring only females or those who are understanding/friendly. New components to address stigma were then added to the intervention, the collaborative nature of service provision was strengthened, a multi-level supervision system was developed, and delivery of components was made more flexible. Criteria were evolved for the selection and training of the health workers based on participants' expectations. Conclusions A multi-component community based intervention, targeting multiple outcomes, and delivered by trained lay health workers, supervised by mental health specialists, is an acceptable and feasible intervention for treating schizophrenia in India. PMID:22340662

  13. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  14. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ? 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  15. Understanding hospitality.

    PubMed

    Patten, C S

    1994-03-01

    Bridging patient/"customer" issues and business aspects can be aided through developing a specific nursing basis for hospitality. The ancient practice of hospitality has evolved into three distinct levels: public, personal and therapeutic. Understanding these levels is helpful in integrating various dimensions of guest relations programs in hospitals into a more comprehensive vision. Hospitality issues must become a greater part of today's nursing management. PMID:8134046

  16. Effect of yeast with bacteriocin from rumen bacteria on laying performance, blood biochemistry, faecal microbiota and egg quality of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, H T; Shih, W Y; Chen, S W; Wang, S Y

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 (albusin B) on physiological state and production performance of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 26-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn (Hyline) laying hens were assigned into five groups including: (i) control group, (ii) yeast control (YC), (iii) 0.125% yeast with bacteriocin (0.125B), (iv) 0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (0.25B) and (v) 0.5% yeast with bacteriocin (0.5B). All supplements were added to the experimental diets of the hens from 26 to 46 weeks of age. Samples were collected every 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein for blood biochemical parameters assay, and faecal samples were collected by swab for the microbiota test. The egg production performance was recorded daily, and fresh eggs were collected for quality test. The blood biochemical assay results indicated that the addition of yeast with bacteriocin decreased the AST (aspartate aminotransferase) activity and it also affects the lactate concentration in laying hen blood. The result of egg quality indicated that yeast with bacteriocin supplementation had no effect on the mass of yolk and the strength of eggshell, but it had positive effect on the laying performance under hot environment. Low concentration bacteriocin (0.125B) supplementation could decrease total yolk cholesterol. The faecal microbiota result indicated that the supplementation of bacteriocin increased the lactobacilli counts. The yeast with bacteriocin supplementation significantly decreased the clostridia counts under hot environment condition, especially in hens receiving 0.25B. Combining the data from clinic chemistry, faecal microbiota, egg production and egg quality, the 0.25B supplementation may result in the best physiological parameter and egg production performance of laying hen. PMID:25404002

  17. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. I: egg laying, and use of veranda and outdoor area.

    PubMed

    Steenfeldt, S; Nielsen, B L

    2015-09-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on egg production, laying behaviour and use of veranda and outdoor area are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens per trough, drinker, perch and nest space. In a fourth treatment, access to the top tier was blocked reducing vertical, trough and perch access at the lowest stocking density (treatment D6x). In all other aspects than stocking density, the experiment followed the EU regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Laying percentage was significantly lower (P<0.05) in D12 compared with the other stocking densities (90.6% v. 94.3% (± 0.7)), most likely due to the concomitant reduction in nest space and drinker availability per hen. No systematic effects of density were found on other laying variables (egg weight, eggs laid outside nests, aviary side preferences). Number of hens using the veranda increased with stocking density. Hens primarily used the range near the house (within 50 m) and hens kept at the lowest stocking density and the smallest group size appeared to use the outdoor area more extensively, based on an assessment of vegetation cover (P<0.05). For the measures reported here, the welfare consequences of increased stocking density were assessed to be minor; additional results are reported in the associated article (Steenfeldt and Nielsen, 2015). PMID:25990512

  18. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  19. Exploring Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    With a temperature higher than the inside of your oven and atmospheric pressure equal to that a kilometer under the ocean, the surface of Venus is one of the most hostile environments in the solar system, and Venus exploration presents a challenge to technology. This lecture presents mission trade-offs and discusses a proposed mission concept for rover and aircraft based exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus. Several approaches to the technology, electronics, mechanical parts, and power systems, are discussed.

  20. Postsynaptic ERG potassium channels limit muscle excitability to allow distinct egg-laying behavior states in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kevin M.; Koelle, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    C. elegans regulates egg laying by alternating between an inactive phase and a serotonin-triggered active phase. We found that the conserved ERG potassium channel UNC-103 enables this two-state behavior by limiting excitability of the egg-laying muscles. Using both high-speed video recording and calcium imaging of egg-laying muscles in behaving animals, we found that the muscles appear to be excited at a particular phase of each locomotor body bend. During the inactive phase, this rhythmic excitation infrequently evokes calcium transients or contraction of the egg-laying muscles. During the serotonin-triggered active phase, however, these muscles are more excitable and each body bend is accompanied by a calcium transient that drives twitching or full contraction of the egg-laying muscles. We found that ERG null mutants lay eggs too frequently, and that ERG function is necessary and sufficient in the egg-laying muscles to limit egg laying. ERG K+ channels localize to postsynaptic sites in the egg-laying muscle, and mutants lacking ERG have more frequent calcium transients and contractions of the egg-laying muscles even during the inactive phase. Thus ERG channels set postsynaptic excitability at a threshold so that further adjustments of excitability by serotonin generate two distinct behavioral states. PMID:23303953

  1. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165�������������������������������°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250���������������¢�������������������������������� of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the ���������������¢��������������������������������center���������������¢������������������������������� of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165�������������������������������°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  2. Evaluation of Hand Lay-Up and Resin Transfer Molding in Composite Wind Turbine Blade Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    CAIRNS,DOUGLAS S.; SHRAMSTAD,JON D.

    2000-06-01

    The majority of the wind turbine blade industry currently uses low cost hand lay-up manufacturing techniques to process composite blades. While there are benefits to the hand lay-up process, drawbacks inherent to this process along with advantages of other techniques suggest that better manufacturing alternatives may be available. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was identified as a processing alternative and shows promise in addressing the shortcomings of hand lay-up. This report details a comparison of the RTM process to hand lay-up of composite wind turbine blade structures. Several lay-up schedules and critical turbine blade structures were chosen for comparison of their properties resulting from RTM and hand lay-up processing. The geometries investigated were flat plate, thin and thick flanged T-stiffener, I-beam, and root connection joint. It was found that the manufacturing process played an important role in laminate thickness, fiber volume, and weight for the geometries investigated. RTM was found to reduce thickness and weight and increase fiber volumes for all substructures. RTM resulted in tighter material transition radii and eliminated the need for most secondary bonding operations. These results would significantly reduce the weight of wind turbine blades. Hand lay-up was consistently slower in fabrication times for the structures investigated. A comparison of mechanical properties showed no significant differences after employing fiber volume normalization techniques to account for geometry differences resulting from varying fiber volumes. The current root specimen design does not show significant mechanical property differences according to process and exceeds all static and fatigue requirements.

  3. Motivation to dust-bathe of laying hens housed in cages and in aviaries.

    PubMed

    Colson, S; Arnould, C; Michel, V

    2007-03-01

    New housing systems for commercial egg production, furnished cages and non-cage systems, should improve the welfare of laying hens. In particular, thanks to the presence of a litter area, these new housing systems are thought to satisfy the dust-bathing motivation of hens more than in conventional cages, in which no litter area is present. However, although apparently obvious, there is no concrete evidence that non-cage systems, particularly aviaries, satisfy hens' motivation to dust-bathe and thus improve hens' welfare in terms of dust-bathing behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare hens' dust-bathing motivation when housed for a long time under similar conditions to commercial conditions in laying aviaries (with litter) and in conventional cages (without litter). Three treatments were compared: hens reared in floor pens then housed in conventional cages, hens reared in furnished floor pens then housed in a laying aviary, and hens reared in rearing aviaries then housed in a laying aviary. All three treatments provided access to litter during the rearing period. After transfer to the laying systems, access to litter was maintained for the aviary hens but stopped for the cage hens. Twelve groups of four hens per treatment were tested 36 to 43 weeks after transfer. The hens were placed in sawdust-filled testing arenas, and latency to dust-bathe, duration and number of dust baths, and number of hens dust-bathing were recorded. Latency to dust-bathe was shorter, dust baths were longer and more numerous and more hens dust-bathed among cage hens than among aviary hens. Our results indicate that hens' motivation to dust-bathe was more satisfied in laying aviaries than in conventional cages. Thus, laying aviaries improve hens' welfare in term of dust-bathing behaviour compared with conventional cages. PMID:22444341

  4. Teacher-as-researcher: Making a difference through laying a solid foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiesimama, Jane Tambuomi

    An educator's determination to make a difference in the lives of her students birthed this inquiry. It is a qualitative study with the use of descriptive statistics in summarizing the survey data. The inquiry is an interweaving of the narrative inquiry method and reflective practice. The study hinges on the works of two great scholars: John Dewey, a philosopher, and Joseph Schwab, a curriculum theorist and scientist. It is all about helping students lay a solid foundation in science so that they may have a thorough understanding of the subject matter and be able to compete with their counterparts nationally and globally. The construction of the solid foundation will include foundational terms in science and their meanings, and the utilization of the SQ4R (a modification of the original SQ3R) study strategies. Other construction materials, as reflected in the voices of the students were discovered, in the study and have added some insight and richness to the study. The intent of this study is to stimulate the interest of fellow educators to examine the ideas shared in this inquiry, and to see how they can find parallel ways to meet the needs of their students. The special needs of our students differ from one classroom to the next. Among the teachers one could also observe a variety of teaching strategies and styles. My hope is for educators who will come across this study, to adopt the findings of this inquiry and adapt them to suit their needs and the needs of their students. The revision process by fellow educators could give birth to a new idea which is what scientific inquiry is all about.

  5. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

  6. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

  7. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

  8. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

  9. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is limited to those opinions or inferences which are rationally based on the perception of the witness and helpful to a clear understanding of the witness' testimony or the determination of a fact in...

  10. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  11. Understanding resilience

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J.; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathé, Aleksander A.

    2013-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences. PMID:23422934

  12. Understanding Ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole. PMID:21829307

  13. What is healthy food? Objective nutrient profile scores and subjective lay evaluations in comparison.

    PubMed

    Bucher, T; Müller, B; Siegrist, M

    2015-12-01

    To date, it is unclear how consumers evaluate the healthiness of individual foods and meals and how consumers' perceptions are related to expert opinions. This knowledge is essential for efficient communication of nutrition information with the goal of promoting healthy eating. This study used the fake food buffet method to investigate health perceptions of selected meals and of 54 individual foods and beverages. Lay consumers' subjective healthiness evaluations of meals and foods were compared to objective nutrient profile scores, which were previously shown to correlate highly with expert opinions. The results show that nutrition profile scores and lay evaluations were highly correlated, which indicates that lay people used similar criteria as experts to evaluate the healthiness of foods. However, lay consumers tended to neglect the amount of saturated fat, protein and sodium for their judgments. Also, it was found that while lay consumers were quite able to evaluate single food products, they had difficulties in evaluating entire meals. Future interventions should focus particularly on educating the consumer about the negative effects of diets high in salt and saturated fat and they should improve the consumer's abilities to evaluate entire meals. PMID:26256557

  14. The external costs of nuclear power: Ex ante damages and lay risks

    SciTech Connect

    Krupnick, A.J.; Markandya, A.; Nickell, E.

    1993-12-01

    Interest has been growing in embedding the external costs of fuel cycles resulting in electricity generation into prices. In any attempt to internalize these costs for the nuclear cycle, the remost but real possibilities of accidents and the wide gap between lay perceptions and expert assessments of such risks must be taken into account. This paper discusses this including the following topics: An expected utility model of power plant operations/accident risks; simulation; comparison of experts versus lay risks; comparison of experts versus lay risk literature; simulation of expert versus lay risks. Current practice in estimating the damages from accidents at nuclear power plants appear to ignore significant features of the problem from the perspective of economic analysis. Individual aversion to risk, the exante perspective in decision making under uncertainty, and lay risk perception are all conceptually important elements of a damage estimate that accords with observation of behavior and the theory that underlies it but that are ignored by common practice. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Understanding disgust.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Hanah A; Anderson, Adam K

    2012-03-01

    Disgust is characterized by a remarkably diverse set of stimulus triggers, ranging from extremely concrete (bad tastes and disease vectors) to extremely abstract (moral transgressions and those who commit them). This diversity may reflect an expansion of the role of disgust over evolutionary time, from an origin in defending the body against toxicity and disease, through defense against other threats to biological fitness (e.g., incest), to involvement in the selection of suitable interaction partners, by motivating the rejection of individuals who violate social and moral norms. The anterior insula, and to a lesser extent the basal ganglia, are implicated in toxicity- and disease-related forms of disgust, although we argue that insular activation is not exclusive to disgust. It remains unclear whether moral disgust is associated with insular activity. Disgust offers cognitive neuroscientists a unique opportunity to study how an evolutionarily ancient response rooted in the chemical senses has expanded into a uniquely human social cognitive domain; many interesting research avenues remain to be explored. PMID:22256964

  16. ESA strategic planning for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, B.; Reiter, T.; Sourgens, E.

    2014-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is pursuing an independent strategic planning process for consolidating a destination driven (LEO, Moon, Mars) space exploration strategy. ESA's space exploration strategy is driven by the goals to maximise knowledge gain and to contribute to economic growth. International cooperation is a key pillar of ESA's strategy as it is considered both, an enabler for achieving common goals and a benefit, opening new perspective for addressing future challenges. The achievement of ESA's space exploration strategy is enabled through international partnerships. The interagency coordination process conducted within the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) plays an important role in laying the foundations for future partnerships. It has achieved so far the development of a common vision for space exploration, a common plan for implementing the vision in the form of the Global Exploration Roadmap, as well as a common approach for articulating the value of global space exploration. ESA has been a strong promoter and supporter of the interagency coordination process conducted within ISECG and thanks to its unique expertise in international cooperation the Agency has contributed to its success.

  17. Exploring Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among apparently…

  18. Parameter Estimation of Fiber Lay-down in Nonwoven Production - An Occupation Time Approach-

    E-print Network

    Bock, Wolfgang; Liyanage, Uditha Prabhath

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the parameter estimation of the fiber lay-down process in the production of nonwovens. The parameter estimation is based on the mass per unit area data, which is available at least on an industrial scale. We introduce a stochastic model to represent the fiber lay-down and through the model's parameters we characterize this fiber lay-down. Based on the occupation time, which is the equivalent quantity for the mass per unit area in the context of stochastic dynamical systems, an optimization procedure is formulated that estimates the parameters of the model. The optimization procedure is tested using occupation time data given by Monte-Carlo simulations. The feasibility of the optimization procedure on an industrial level is tested using the fiber paths simulated by the industrial software FYDIST.

  19. Individual birds advance offspring hatching in response to increased temperature after the start of laying.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Oscar

    2012-11-01

    In seasonally reproducing organisms, timing reproduction to match food availability is key to individual fitness. Ambient temperature functions as an important cue for the timing of the food peak in temperate-zone birds. After laying start, individual birds may still improve synchrony between offspring hatching and food availability by adjusting the onset of incubation to most up-to-date cues about the development of the food source. However, it is unknown whether individuals respond to changes in temperature after the onset of laying, and whether individuals adjust incubation onset independent of clutch size. Here, I show in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) that experimental heating of nestboxes in the laying phase resulted in increased duration of nocturnal incubation bouts prior to clutch completion, leading to earlier hatching of eggs and increased hatching asynchrony. Experimental heating did not affect the number of laying gaps, egg volume and clutch size, nor were any carry-over effects on offspring detected. These results are best explained as a response to increased temperature acting as a cue for an advanced food-peak, rather than a relief of energetic constraints, because improved energetic conditions would not favour more hatching asynchrony. Other benefits cannot be excluded, since increased laying-phase incubation under warmer conditions may also help maintain egg viability. This study is the first to show that temperature has a causal effect on the time between clutch completion and hatching of the first offspring, indicating that behavioural adjustment to climate change can continue after laying start. PMID:22569557

  20. Evaluation of West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, L. W.; Henderson, J. C.; Elmore, M. R.

    2002-02-25

    The primary objective of the task summarized in this paper was to demonstrate a methodology for evaluating alternative strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Lay-up is defined as the period between operational use of tanks for waste storage and final closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to separate the environmental impact statement (EIS) for completion of closure of the WVDP into two separate EISs. The first EIS will cover only waste management and decontamination. DOE expects to complete this EIS in about 18 months. The second EIS will cover final decommissioning and closure and may take up to five years to complete. This approach has been proposed to expedite continued management of the waste and decontamination activities in advance of the final EIS and its associated Record of Decision on final site closure. Final closure of the WVDP site may take 10 to 15 years; therefore, the tanks need to be placed in a safe, stable condition with minimum surveillance during an extended lay-up period. The methodology developed for ranking the potential strategies for lay-up of the WVDP tanks can be used to provide a basis for a decision on the preferred path forward. The methodology is also applicable to determining preferred lay-up approaches at other DOE sites. Some of the alternative strategies identified for the WVDP should also be considered for implementation at the other DOE sites. Each site has unique characteristics that would require unique considerations for lay-up.

  1. "I can't understand your information sheet, doc!" Readability of limited-reach media materials for the lay population.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Waletha; Scarbecz, Mark; Lewis, Maurice W; Ross, Judith; Himel, Van

    2013-01-01

    Patients are provided limited-reach media materials, such as information sheets and pamphlets, as reinforcement of information when the oral healthcare professional is no longer face-to-face. Patients are more likely to use the printed information if text complexity and reader's ability match, or if their need to know the content provokes an urge to read. A number of researchers have developed readability tests. This study used the Fry Readability Graph to plot the results of three independent raters' averages of the number of sentences and the words (syllables) of continuous (prose) and non-continuous (matrix-style) pre-selected passages from several reputable sources. These limited-reach materials are frequently used in academic institutions' community engagement efforts. Several of the limited-reach materials we studied were ranked above the fifth-grade reading level, so consideration must be given to future distribution of these documents in communities where the average reading proficiency is lower. Several limitations, such as the quality of illustrations and measuring the reading level of individuals, were not investigated and must be considered as the authors continue to distribute literature in certain urban and suburban locales. This study is the genesis of an academic institution's community engagement efforts to provide information to clinicians and improve its outreach distribution of limited-reach media for patients who have varying levels of general and health literacy backgrounds. PMID:24611219

  2. De novo lipogenesis and lipolysis activities in normal (Dw) and dwarf (dw) White Leghorn laying hens.

    PubMed

    Burghelle-Mayeur, C; Tixier-Boichard, M; Merat, P; Demarne, Y

    1989-01-01

    1. In vitro activities of glucose oxidation, de novo lipogenesis and lipolysis were compared in normal (Dw) and dwarf (dw) laying hens. 2. Dwarfism reduced the hepatic glucose oxidation while de novo lipogenesis was not altered. As liver weight was depressed, total liver lipogenesis capacity was probably reduced by dwarfism. 3. As compared to normal hens, de novo lipogenesis and basal or stimulated lipolysis were lower in dwarf adipose tissue while its lipid content was enhanced in dwarfs. 4. Results suggest that in laying hens dwarfism reduces the adipose tissue lipid mobilization but probably also the liver de novo lipogenesis. PMID:2680251

  3. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later). PMID:22351262

  4. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Ionosphere-Thermosphere Understanding through Remote Sensing from Space (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    The ionosphere and thermosphere (IT) system was among the first fields explored at the beginning of the space age. Much progress in understanding the system has been made over the ensuing decades, so much so that the vernacular has evolved from 'IT Exploration' to 'Space Weather'. This evolution is largely a consequence of the recognition that space weather can seriously compromise a host of technological systems in space and on the ground. Societal demands for forecasting space weather place extraordinary requirements on both observational capabilities and detailed understanding. Important challenges remain to be addressed in order to approach a level of capability similar to that of tropospheric weather. These include understanding of the IT response to forcing from solar radiation and solar wind, to forcing from lower altitude processes, understanding of the internal processes that constitute the responses, and identification of the causes of long-term climate change. A systematic approach for meeting many of the challenges has been laid out in the Solar and Space Physics 2012 Decadal Survey. Several space missions have been recommended for implementation in the latter part of the decade. However, near term opportunities to lay the foundation for these missions come with the selection by NASA of ICON and GOLD. Their operational periods are expected to overlap with each other as well as with complementary missions from other agencies, such as SSULI, SSUSI, and COSMIC. Remote sensing instrumentation on these missions fulfills a uniquely important role. From low earth orbit, limb imagers deliver altitude profiles of composition, temperature and winds on local and regional scales. Earth disk imagers from a high altitude perspective not only provide context for local observations, but also column measurements of the O/N2 ratio and temperature. The O/N2 ratio has proven to be an exceptionally useful diagnostic of IT dynamics, especially when paired with independent wind and temperature observations. Selected applications will be presented that demonstrate how remote sensing can be combined with models to yield the requisite understanding of IT processes. Extension of such techniques to the upcoming missions will be explored.

  6. Children's Understanding of Drivers' Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, Hugh C.; Thomson, James A.; Tolmie, Andrew K.; Whelan, Kirstie M.; Morrison, Sheila; Sarvary, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    To become more skilled as pedestrians, children need to acquire a view of the traffic environment as one in which road users are active agents with different intentions and objectives. This paper describes a simulation study designed to explore children's understanding of drivers' intentions. It also investigated the effect of training children's…

  7. Growing Understanding of Undergraduate Mathematics: A Good Frame Produces Better Tomatoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bill

    2011-01-01

    I lay a new theoretical framework across my own lecturing in order to understand what is happening. On the one hand, this is a test of the framework. On the other, I gain insights into both better practices and better course design. The framework constructs undergraduate teaching as the interaction between the discipline and the university…

  8. A phenomenographic study of the ways of understanding conditional and repetition structures in computer programming languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucks, Gregory Warren

    Computers have become an integral part of how engineers complete their work, allowing them to collect and analyze data, model potential solutions and aiding in production through automation and robotics. In addition, computers are essential elements of the products themselves, from tennis shoes to construction materials. An understanding of how computers function, both at the hardware and software level, is essential for the next generation of engineers. Despite the need for engineers to develop a strong background in computing, little opportunity is given for engineering students to develop these skills. Learning to program is widely seen as a difficult task, requiring students to develop not only an understanding of specific concepts, but also a way of thinking. In addition, students are forced to learn a new tool, in the form of the programming environment employed, along with these concepts and thought processes. Because of this, many students will not develop a sufficient proficiency in programming, even after progressing through the traditional introductory programming sequence. This is a significant problem, especially in the engineering disciplines, where very few students receive more than one or two semesters' worth of instruction in an already crowded engineering curriculum. To address these issues, new pedagogical techniques must be investigated in an effort to enhance the ability of engineering students to develop strong computing skills. However, these efforts are hindered by the lack of published assessment instruments available for probing an individual's understanding of programming concepts across programming languages. Traditionally, programming knowledge has been assessed by producing written code in a specific language. This can be an effective method, but does not lend itself well to comparing the pedagogical impact of different programming environments, languages or paradigms. This dissertation presents a phenomenographic research study exploring the different ways of understanding held by individuals of two programming concepts: conditional structures and repetition structures. This work lays the foundation for the development of language independent assessment instruments, which can ultimately be used to assess the pedagogical implications of various programming environments.

  9. Social support during delivery in rural central Ghana: a mixed methods study of women's preferences for and against inclusion of a lay companion in the delivery room.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Amir; Mustafa, Aesha; Emil, Sarah A V; Amekah, Ebenezer; Engmann, Cyril; Adanu, Richard; Moyer, Cheryl A

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to explore pregnant women's attitudes towards the inclusion of a lay companion as a source of social support during labour and delivery in rural central Ghana. Quantitative demographic and pregnancy-related data were collected from 50 pregnant women presenting for antenatal care at a rural district hospital and analysed using STATA/IC 11.1. Qualitative attitudinal questions were collected from the same women through semi-structured interviews; data were analysed using NVivo 9.0. Twenty-nine out of 50 women (58%) preferred to have a lay companion during facility-based labour and delivery, whereas 21 (42%) preferred to deliver alone with the nurses in a facility. Women desiring a companion were younger, had more antenatal care visits, had greater educational attainment and were likely to be experiencing their first delivery. Women varied in the type of companion they prefer (male partner vs female relative). What was expected in terms of social support differed based upon the type of companion. Male companions were expected to provide emotional support and to 'witness her pain'. Female companions were expected to provide emotional support as well as instrumental, informational and appraisal support. Three qualitative themes were identified that run counter to the inclusion of a lay helper: fear of an evil-spirited companion, a companion not being necessary or helpful, and being 'too shy' of a companion. This research challenges the assumption of a unilateral desire for social support during labour and delivery, and suggests that women differ in the type of companion and type of support they prefer during facility deliveries. Future research is needed to determine the direction of the relationship--whether women desire certain types of support and thus choose companions they believe can meet those needs, or whether women desire a certain companion and adjust their expectations accordingly. PMID:23965280

  10. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are two linked disorders in humans. This study examined if excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. One hundred 63-week-old laying hens were randomly divided into two treatments, i.e., fed with a regular diet (control...

  11. Frequency and persistence of fecal shedding following exposure of laying hens to different oral doses of Salmonella enteritidi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections of egg-laying poultry with Salmonella enteritidis and the associated transmission of illness to consumers of contaminated eggs has been a prominent international public health concern for many years. Testing and risk reduction programs for laying flocks have been implemented in many natio...

  12. Family Caregivers as Lay Trainers: Perceptions of Learning and the Relationship between Life Experience and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceiçăo, Simone C.O.; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Colby, Holly; Gordon, John

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an initiative to train lay people, predominantly parents of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN), to teach "Bridge to Independence"--a care coordination curriculum--to other family caregivers of CYSHCN. Using a model based on Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation, the goal…

  13. Oviposition site choice under conflicting risks demonstrates that aquatic predators drive terrestrial egg-laying.

    PubMed

    Touchon, Justin C; Worley, Julie L

    2015-06-01

    Laying eggs out of water was crucial to the transition to land and has evolved repeatedly in multiple animal phyla. However, testing hypotheses about this transition has been difficult because extant species only breed in one environment. The pantless treefrog, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, makes such tests possible because they lay both aquatic and arboreal eggs. Here, we test the oviposition site choices of D. ebraccatus under conflicting risks of arboreal egg desiccation and aquatic egg predation, thereby estimating the relative importance of each selective agent on reproduction. We also measured discrimination between habitats with and without predators and development of naturally laid aquatic and arboreal eggs. Aquatic embryos in nature developed faster than arboreal embryos, implying no cost to aquatic egg laying. In choice tests, D. ebraccatus avoided habitats with fish, showing that they can detect aquatic egg predators. Most importantly, D. ebraccatus laid most eggs in the water when faced with only desiccation risk, but switched to laying eggs arboreally when desiccation risk and aquatic predators were both present. This provides the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that aquatic predation risk influences non-aquatic oviposition and strongly supports the hypothesis that it was a driver of the evolution of terrestrial reproduction. PMID:25948689

  14. Microbiological differences between laying hen strains housed in various production systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sister flocks of three strains of laying hens were housed in conventional cage, free range, and cage free production systems. All flocks were located on a single, commercial-style research facility and provided the same dietary and lighting regimens. Once a season, a sample of shell eggs was asept...

  15. SPINY LOBSTERS SNIFF BY FLICKING When spiny lobsters sniff out the lay of the

    E-print Network

    Koehl, Mimi

    Inside JEB iii SPINY LOBSTERS SNIFF BY FLICKING When spiny lobsters sniff out the lay of the land from the University of California, Berkeley, spiny lobsters `sniff' by rapidly flicking to diffuse through to the aesthetascs' scent receptors, allowing the lobsters to take a good sniff at any

  16. Lay Presidents in Jesuit Higher Education: Examining a Culture of Companionship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephanie Rossiter

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006 there has been a notable increase in the number of American Jesuit colleges and universities selecting non-Jesuit leaders to serve in the position of president. These "lay" presidents (i.e., not ordained priests) now comprise approximately one-third of all chief executives in Jesuit institutions, giving rise to questions about…

  17. Changes in Pituitary Somatotroph and Lactotroph Distribution in Laying and Incubating Turkey Hens

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    Changes in Pituitary Somatotroph and Lactotroph Distribution in Laying and Incubating Turkey Hens Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 Accepted May 21, 1996 Turkey be- havior, and hyperprolactinemia. Although remarkable changes occur in hormonal profiles as turkey

  18. Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

  19. INTRODUCTION: CURRENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR INDUCED MOLTING IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced molting to revive the productivity of aging laying flocks has been widely practiced by the commercial egg industry in the United States for many years. Recently, the induction of molting by feed deprivation has been the focus of vigorous criticism on the basis of both animal welfare implicat...

  20. Laying the Foundation for Successful Team Performance Trajectories: The Roles of Team Charters and Performance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, John E.; Rapp, Tammy L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influences of team charters and performance strategies on the performance trajectories of 32 teams of master's of business administration students competing in a business strategy simulation over time. The authors extended existing theory on team development by demonstrating that devoting time to laying a foundation for…

  1. Improvement of Rural Children's Asthma Self-Management by Lay Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Sharon D.; Fouladi, Rachel T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present analysis is to examine changes in rural children's asthma self-management after they received lay health educator (LHE)-delivered classes. Methods: Elementary schools were randomly assigned to the treatment or attention-control condition and their participating students received either asthma education or…

  2. Formation and Uses of Lay Advisory Groups for the Humanities. Project Report No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, Miriam M.

    Based on the experiences of several community colleges, this report examines successful and unsuccessful strategies utilized in the formation of lay advisory committees for the humanities. The report first presents brief descriptions of successful committee organization efforts at five institutions: Clark College (Vancouver, WA), Brevard Community…

  3. Identification and validation of competencies for use in objective structured clinical examinations for lay caregivers.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Danielle L; Heermann, Judith A; Eilers, June

    2005-01-01

    Cancer care has shifted from the traditional hospital to alternative settings, thus requiring lay individuals to assume increased direct care responsibility. Cooperative Care is an example of an alternative acute care delivery model where a family member or a friend is responsible for care previously provided by healthcare professionals. The success of alternative models is dependent on effective educational programs with clearly defined expectations and methods for evaluating caregiver competence. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) provide a standardized approach to evaluating caregiver performance in a simulated situation. The purpose of the first phase of this instrument development project was to identify and validate competencies for inclusion in OSCEs to be used with lay caregivers in preparation for Cooperative Care. The study included multiple methods of data collection: analysis of documents, viewing videos, observation with note taking, and a focus group session. All classes and materials provided for lay caregivers were reviewed. Core content domains and competencies were identified and used to develop OSCEs. A focus group of healthcare providers responsible for the education and care of patients and their caregivers validated the competencies embedded within the OSCEs. This study demonstrated the efficacy of the approach used for the identification and validation of competencies for lay caregivers. PMID:15681983

  4. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter among caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of five trials, laying hens (56-72 wk-of-age) were challenged orally, intracolonally, and intravaginally with Salmonella and Campylobacter. One wk post inoculation, challenged hens (n=3) were commingled with non-challenged hens (n=12) in conventional wire cages, on all wire slats, or on all...

  5. Salmonella Enteritidis Deposition inside Eggs after Experimental Infection of Laying Hens with Different Oral Doses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to risk reduction and testing programs for commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk reduction requires a detailed und...

  6. Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems B. Huber-Eicher* , F advantages over battery cages. However, pecking the feathers of conspeci®cs remains a serious problem with small groups, it has been shown that feather pecking and foraging behaviour are related and that both

  7. The prevalence of feather pecking and development in commercial ocks of laying hens

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    The prevalence of feather pecking and development in commercial Żocks of laying hens B. Huber-3052 Zollikofen, Switzerland Accepted 3 May 2001 Abstract Feather pecking and cannibalism remain of feather pecking under commercial conditions. A recent epidemiological survey estimated it to be 37

  8. RRI Internal Technical Report Library ref no. MWA Digital Receiver: Backplane circuit and PCB lay-

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    RRI Internal Technical Report ­ Library ref no. MWA Digital Receiver: Backplane circuit and PCB lay, Bangalore, India 560080 Date: September 11, 2008, (v1.0) Class: MWA: Digital Receiver Abstract This report gives the circuit schematic and PCB layout of the Backplane designed for the MWA Digital Receiver. 1

  9. Strain variations in behavioral traits under heat stress in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress is a problem for welfare of animals including laying hens. This study examined whether hens’ responses and adaptation to heat stress are affected by their genetic strain. Ninety 28-week-old White Leghorns from two strains were used: DeKalb XL (DXL), a line of hens individually selected ...

  10. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  11. Lay Referral Patterns Involved in Cardiac Treatment Decision Making among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Amey, Cheryl H.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Muldoon, Susan B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined age and contextually related factors that are influential in lay referral patterns during cardiac treatment decision making. Design and Methods: A complementary design was used. The Myocardial Infarction (MI) Onset Study identified demographic correlates of who sought medical care for 1,388 MI (heart attack) survivors.…

  12. WWLL global lightning detection system: Regional validation study in Erin H. Lay,1,2

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Jeremy N.

    WWLL global lightning detection system: Regional validation study in Brazil Erin H. Lay,1,2 Robert] An experimental lightning detection network, the World Wide Lightning Location network (WWLL), is being developed. This paper provides a ``worst case'' analysis of WWLL location accuracy in Brazil where the VLF lightning

  13. Effect of passage through laying hens on organ invasiveness and phenotypic heterogeneity of Salmonella enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horizontal transmission within and between flocks is an important aspect of the epidemiology of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in poultry. Previously, a series of passages through infected laying hens increased the frequency at which an SE isolate was deposited inside eggs. The present study evaluated ...

  14. Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...

  15. Trench Protection and Principles of Pipe Laying. Instructor Manual. Trainee Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This packet contains the instructor and trainee manuals for a course dealing with trench protection and principles of pipe laying. Part 1 is the instructor guide for an 80-hour course--12 classroom hours and 68 hours of hands-on exercises. Contents are as follows: a course outline; course schedule; equipment list; material and equipment checklist;…

  16. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. PLAN AND SECTIONS. GRATECOVERED TRENCHES LAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. PLAN AND SECTIONS. GRATE-COVERED TRENCHES LAY ALONG FLOOR FROM EAST TO WEST AND AROUND MAIN COMPRESSORS. LOCKER ROOM AT NORTHEAST CORNER. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-643-A-3, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0643-00-486-101269, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Medicinal Plant Knowledge Among Lay People in Five Eastern Tibet Villages

    E-print Network

    Law, Wayne

    with highly formalised medicinal systems there often remains a layer of folk medicinal knowledge and practicesMedicinal Plant Knowledge Among Lay People in Five Eastern Tibet Villages Anja Byg & Jan Salick of China, were interviewed about their knowledge of a number of medicinal plants and their uses

  18. Children's Perceptions of Health and Illness: Images and Lay Concepts in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piko, Bettina F.; Bak, Judit

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research into children's concepts of illness, many basic questions still remain. This study aims to describe 8- to 11-year olds' lay beliefs of health, illness, health promotion and disease prevention. Children responded to open-ended questions about health and illness by drawing and writing their responses. Two primary…

  19. A singular perturbation method for parametric investigation on J-lay installation of deepwater pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Duan, Meng-lan; Li, Hai-ming; Zhang, Qing-yuan

    2013-12-01

    The maximum bending moment or curvature in the neighborhood of the touch down point (TDP) and the maximum tension at the top are two key parameters to be controlled during deepwater J-lay installation in order to ensure the safety of the pipe-laying operation and the normal operation of the pipelines. In this paper, the non-linear governing differential equation for getting the two parameters during J-lay installation is proposed and solved by use of singular perturbation technique, from which the asymptotic expression of stiffened catenary is obtained and the theoretical expression of its static geometric configuration as well as axial tension and bending moment is derived. Finite element results are applied to verify this method. Parametric investigation is conducted to analyze the influences of the seabed slope, unit weight, flexural stiffness, water depth, and the pipe-laying tower angle on the maximum tension and moment of pipeline by this method, and the results show how to control the installation process by changing individual parameters.

  20. Older Men's Lay Definitions of Successful Aging over Time: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Robert B.; Swift, Audrey U.; Bayomi, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "successful aging" has become widely accepted in gerontology, yet continues to have no common underlying definition. Researchers have increasingly looked to older individuals for their lay definitions of successful aging. The present analysis is based on responses to five questionnaires administered to surviving participants of the…

  1. Using Explicit Teaching to Improve How Bioscience Students Write to the Lay Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Hryciw, Deanne H.; Poronnik, Philip; Moni, Karen B.

    2007-01-01

    The media role model was recently developed to frame how science faculty members can teach their students to write more effectively to lay audiences (14). An Opinion Editorial (Op-Ed) was introduced as a novel assignment for final-year physiology and pharmacology undergraduates. This second phase of this study, reported here, demonstrated the…

  2. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the intr...

  3. Salmonella Enteritidis deposition in eggs after experimental infection of laying hens with different oral doses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to SE testing and control programs in commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk reduction requires a detailed and...

  4. Treatment Adherence in a Lay Health Adviser Intervention to Treat Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, N. E.; Ferketich, A. K.; Paskett, E. D.; Wewers, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lay health advisers (LHAs) are increasingly used to deliver tobacco dependence treatment, especially with low-socioeconomic status (SES) populations. More information is needed about treatment adherence to help interpret mixed evidence of LHA intervention effectiveness. This study examined adherence to behavioral counseling and nicotine patches in…

  5. Measurement of Ammonia Emissions from Laying Hen Houses , Y. Liang2

    E-print Network

    Kentucky, University of

    Measurement of Ammonia Emissions from Laying Hen Houses H. Xin1 , Y. Liang2 , R.S. Gates3 , E. F the sustainability of the animal industry. This paper describes measurement and some preliminary results of ammonia ammonia (NH3) emission factors for poultry confinement facilities for representative housing types, manure

  6. AIR QUALITY AND HEN HEALTH STATUS IN THREE TYPES OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HEN HOUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field observational study, three types of laying-hen houses, i.e., high-rise (HR), manure-belt (MB), and cage-free floor-raised (FR), were monitored for environmental temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric ammonia (NH3) during winter and summer conditions in Io...

  7. Are genetic differences in foraging behaviour of laying hen chicks paralleled by hybrid-specic

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Are genetic differences in foraging behaviour of laying hen chicks paralleled by hybrid behaviour found earlier, we hypothesised that genetically determined differences in foraging behaviour could the hypothesis put forward that genetic differences in foraging behaviour could be the basis for the genetic in

  8. Climate change, migratory connectivity and changes in laying date and clutch size of the pied flycatcher

    E-print Network

    Laaksonen, Toni

    Climate change, migratory connectivity and changes in laying date and clutch size of the pied., Ahola, M., Eeva, T., Va¨isa¨nen, R. A. and Lehikoinen, E. 2006. Climate change, migratory connectivity Ficedula hypoleuca Pallas, and analysed whether potential changes were explained by changes in climatic

  9. A Support System for Revising Titles to Stimulate the Lay Reader's Interest in Technical Achievements

    E-print Network

    revi- sion wizard". The wizard provides a guid- ance on revising draft title to compose a title meeting phrases. In order to test the effect of our title revision wizard, we conducted a questionnaire sur- vey on the effect of the titles with or with- out using the wizard on the interest of lay readers. The survey showed

  10. Risk Factors Associated With Salmonella in Laying Hen Farms: Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Denagamage, Thomas; Jayarao, Bhushan; Patterson, Paul; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs is associated with various management and environmental factors. Foodborne outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced back to consumption of Salmonella-contaminated shell eggs. In the present study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify and provide an evidence-based overview of potential risk factors of Salmonella contamination of laying hens, layer premises, and shell eggs. This systematic literature search was conducted using AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, and PubMed databases. Observational studies that identified risk factors for Salmonella contamination of layer flocks and shell eggs were selected, and best evidence was synthesized to summarize the results. Altogether, 13 cross-sectional studies and four longitudinal studies published in English were included in the review. Evidence scores were assigned based on the study design and quality of the study to grade the evidence level. The strength of association of a risk factor was determined according to the odds ratios. In this systematic review, the presence of previous Salmonella infection, absence of cleaning and disinfection, presence of rodents, induced molting, larger flock size (>30,000 hens), multiage management, cage housing systems, in-line egg processing, rearing pullets on the floor, pests with access to feed prior to movement to the feed trough, visitors allowed in the layer houses, and trucks near farms and air inlets were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of laying hen premises, whereas high level of manure contamination, middle and late phase of production, high degree of egg-handling equipment contamination, flock size of >30,000, and egg production rate of >96% were identified as the risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination of shell eggs. These risk factors demonstrated strong to moderate evidence of association with Salmonella contamination of laying hens and shell eggs. Eggshells testing positive for Salmonella were 59 times higher when fecal samples were positive and nine times higher when floor dust samples were positive. Risk factors associated with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in laying hens were flock size, housing system, and farms with hens of different ages. As a summary, this systematic review demonstrated that Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs in layer production systems is multifactorial. This study provides a knowledge base for the implementation of targeted intervention strategies to control Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs. PMID:26473681

  11. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before 16 weeks of age. The measures outlined in this review may be useful for improving the welfare of pullets and adult laying hens. PMID:26009752

  12. Soft Perches in an Aviary System Reduce Incidence of Keel Bone Damage in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Ariane; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra; Schrader, Lars; Toscano, Michael J.; Würbel, Hanno; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White) and brown laying hens (ISA Brown) kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems. PMID:25811980

  13. Hermeneutics: an exploration.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Maura

    2004-01-01

    The terms 'hermeneutics' and 'phenomenology' are often used interchangeably in the literature, which can result in confusion for the reader. In this article, Maura Dowling traces the relationship between these two philosophies and explains the various terms used when describing the different schools of phenomenology. The association between positivism and descriptive phenomenology is mapped. The origin of hermeneutics is traced, and the role of Gadamer in developing the work of Heidegger is explored. Gadamer's belief in the importance of pre-understanding or prejudice is found to be central to hermeneutics. Furthermore, the role of the researcher in the hermeneutic circle is explained. Finally, the need for nurse researchers to explore clearly the philosophical underpinnings of hermeneutics is argued. PMID:15227897

  14. Asteroid and comet exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.; Alfven, H.; Fitzgerald, R.

    1973-01-01

    Exploration of Venus, Mars, and the Moon have had two major scientific objectives. One was to clarify the processes which control planetary evolution. The fulfillment of this purpose, although far from complete, was eminently successful in generating entirely new perspectives on the growth and differentiation of earth. The second objective, particularly prominent in the planning of the lunar exploration, was to augment the understanding of the virtually unknown preplanetary history of the solar system. This would include the fundamental questions of the origin, emplacement, and state of matter gathered around the sun and some planets. Preplanetary history also inquires into the problems of fractionation, condensation, and non-gravitation aggregation of circumsolar and circumplanetary matter.

  15. Initial Teacher Training: Understanding "Race," Diversity and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant; Rhamie, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    There is little research which has explored how students on Initial Teacher Training (ITT) courses understand and conceptualise discourses of "race," diversity and inclusion. This article will focus on student understandings of racialised identities; it will explore the discourses by which students understand what it means to be White…

  16. UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING: Semantics, Computation, and Cognition

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING: Semantics, Computation, and Cognition William J. Rapaport Department.3 A COMPUTATIONAL MIND. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 2 SEMANTICS AS CORRESPONDENCE. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 19 2.2 TARSKIAN SEMANTICS. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 23 2

  17. “It Is Like That, We Didn't Understand Each Other”: Exploring the Influence of Patient-Provider Interactions on Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Service Use in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Birdthistle, Isolde; Mshana, Gerry; Michael, Denna; Urassa, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between patients and service providers frequently influence uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa, but this process has not been examined in depth. This study explores how patient-provider relations influence PMTCT service use in four government facilities in Kisesa, Tanzania. Qualitative data were collected in 2012 through participatory group activities with community members (3 male, 3 female groups), in-depth interviews with 21 women who delivered recently (16 HIV-positive), 9 health providers, and observations in antenatal clinics. Data were transcribed, translated into English and analysed with NVIVO9 using an adapted theoretical model of patient-centred care. Three themes emerged: decision-making processes, trust, and features of care. There were few examples of shared decision-making, with a power imbalance in favour of providers, although they offered substantial psycho-social support. Unclear communication by providers, and patients not asking questions, resulted in missed services. Omission of pre-HIV test counselling was often noted, influencing women's ability to opt-out of HIV testing. Trust in providers was limited by confidentiality concerns, and some HIV-positive women were anxious about referrals to other facilities after establishing trust in their original provider. Good care was recounted by some women, but many (HIV-positive and negative) described disrespectful staff including discrimination of HIV-positive patients and scolding, particularly during delivery; exacerbated by lack of materials (gloves, sheets) and associated costs, which frustrated staff. Experienced or anticipated negative staff behaviour influenced adherence to subsequent PMTCT components. Findings revealed a pivotal role for patient-provider relations in PMTCT service use. Disrespectful treatment and lack of informed consent for HIV testing require urgent attention by PMTCT programme managers. Strategies should address staff behaviour, emphasizing ethical standards and communication, and empower patients to seek information about available services. Optimising provider-patient relations can improve uptake of maternal health services more broadly, and ART adherence. PMID:25180575

  18. Data exploration systems for databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Richard J.; Hield, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Data exploration systems apply machine learning techniques, multivariate statistical methods, information theory, and database theory to databases to identify significant relationships among the data and summarize information. The result of applying data exploration systems should be a better understanding of the structure of the data and a perspective of the data enabling an analyst to form hypotheses for interpreting the data. This paper argues that data exploration systems need a minimum amount of domain knowledge to guide both the statistical strategy and the interpretation of the resulting patterns discovered by these systems.

  19. Effects of nutrient dilution and nonstarch polysaccharide concentration in rearing and laying diets on eating behavior and feather damage of rearing and laying hens.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2009-04-01

    An experiment was conducted with 768 non-cage-housed ISA Brown pullets, of which 576 hens were followed during the laying period, to investigate the separate effects of dietary energy dilution and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) concentration (oat hulls as NSP source) on eating behavior and feather damage. Day-old pullets were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments according to a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (3 dilution and 2 NSP levels), with 8 replicates (pens) per treatment. At 17 wk of age, pens with hens were allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments according to a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (4 dilution and 2 NSP levels), with 6 replicates per treatment. Compared with 0% dilution level, feed intake of laying hens of 10, 15, and 20% dilution levels increased by 8.4% (9.5 g/hen per d), 16.5% (18.1 g/hen per d), and 20.9% (23.6 g/hen per d), respectively. The ME(n) intake was similar for all dilution levels. Hens fed standard-NSP laying diets had similar insoluble NSP intake for all dilution levels (9.3 g/hen per d). Insoluble NSP intake of hens fed high-NSP laying diets increased from 15.6 g/hen per day (0% dilution) to 18.9 g/hen per day (20% dilution). Providing high- vs. standard-NSP layer diet decreased relative proventriculus contents (1.1 vs. 0.3 g/kg of BW) and increased empty gizzard weight (14.3 vs. 24.4 g/kg of BW). Hens that were fed standard-NSP diets had more feather damage compared with hens fed high-NSP diets (0.58 vs. 0.30 arbitrary units). Increasing the insoluble NSP intake resulted in decreased proventricular weight and increased gizzard weight and its contents, which are indicators of improved functioning of the gut, thereby linearly reducing feather damage. Providing diluted rearing diets increased feed intake from the first weeks of life onwards. It was hypothesized that pullets were increasingly "imprinted" on feed as pecking substrate if dilution level increased. This may decrease feather pecking and could explain the improved feather condition at 49 wk of age when 15% diluted rearing diet was fed. PMID:19276419

  20. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  1. 46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-50 Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying...

  2. 46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-50 Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying...

  3. 46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-50 Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying...

  4. 46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-50 Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying...

  5. 46 CFR 32.55-50 - Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying date...EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Ventilation and Venting § 32.55-50 Ventilation of tankships that have a keel laying...

  6. Understanding Soil Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Daniel D., Jr.; Markewitz, Daniel

    2001-06-01

    Across the world, soils are managed with an intensity and at a geographic scale never before attempted, yet we know remarkably little about how and why managed soils change through time. Understanding Soil Change explores a legacy of soil change in southeastern North America, from the acidic soils of primary hardwood forests that covered the region until about 1800, through the marked transformations affected by long-cultivated cotton, to contemporary soils of rapidly growing and intensively managed pine forests. These well documented records significantly enrich the science of ecology and pedology, and provide valuable lessons for land management throughout the world. The book calls for the establishment of a global network of soil-ecosystem studies, like the invaluable Calhoun study on which the book is based, to provide further information on sustainable land management, vital as human demands on soil continue to increase.

  7. Laying the groundwork for NEON's continental-scale ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, G.; Denslow, M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designed to examine a suite of ecological issues. Field-collected data from 96 terrestrial and aquatic sites across the U.S. will be combined with remotely sensed data and existing continental-scale data sets. Field collections will include a range of physical and biological types, including soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, precipitation, plants, animals, insects, and microbes as well as biological sub-samples such as leaf material, blood and tissue samples, and DNA extracts. Initial data analyses and identifications of approximately 175,000 samples per year will occur at numerous external laboratories when all sites are fully staffed in 2017. Additionally, NEON will archive biotic and abiotic specimens at collections facilities where they will be curated and available for additional analyses by the scientific community. The number of archived specimens is currently estimated to exceed 130,000 per year by 2017. We will detail how NEON is addressing the complexities and challenges around this set of analyses and specimens and how the resulting high-quality data can impact ecological understanding. The raw data returned from external laboratories that is quality checked and served by NEON will be the foundation for many NEON data products. For example, sequence-quality nucleic acids extracted from surface waters, benthic biofilms, and soil samples will be building blocks for data products on microbial diversity. The raw sequence data will also be available for uses such as evolutionary investigations, and the extracts will be archived so others can acquire them for additional research. Currently, NEON is establishing contracts for the analysis and archiving of field-collected samples through 2017. During this period, NEON will gather information on the progress and success of this large-scale effort in order to determine the most effective course to pursue with external facilities. Two areas that NEON already knows to evaluate are the need for geographic expertise in taxonomic identifications and the capacity necessary to handle the volume of samples. NEON is also addressing challenges associated with external entities and the logistics of sample movement, data formatting, data ingestion, and reporting. For example, NEON is considering tools, such as web APIs, which could allow efficient transfer of data from external facilities. Having a standard format in place for that data will be critical to transfer success and quality assessment. NEON is also working on the implementation of quality control measures for diverse analytical and taxonomic processes across laboratories, and is developing an external audit process. Additionally, given NEON's open access approach, the Network is focused on selecting a sample identification protocol that aids in tracking samples with more involved analytical needs and also allows maximum utility for the scientific community. Given the complex nature and breadth of the project, NEON will be developing novel sample management systems as well as metadata schemas. These efforts insure integrity and quality from field to external facility to archive for each sample taken, providing high-quality data now and confidence in future research stemming from raw data generated by NEON and its collection specimens.

  8. Identification of Laying-Related SNP Markers in Geese Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, ShiGang; Chu, WeiWei; Zhang, LiFan; Han, HouMing; Zhao, RongXue; Wu, Wei; Zhu, JiangNing; Dodson, Michael V.; Wei, Wei; Liu, HongLin; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Laying performance is an important economical trait of goose production. As laying performance is of low heritability, it is of significance to develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy for this trait. Definition of sequence variation related to the target trait is a prerequisite of quantitating MAS, but little is presently known about the goose genome, which greatly hinders the identification of genetic markers for the laying traits of geese. Recently developed restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is a possible approach for discerning large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and reducing the complexity of a genome without having reference genomic information available. In the present study, we developed a pooled RAD sequencing strategy for detecting geese laying-related SNP. Two DNA pools were constructed, each consisting of equal amounts of genomic DNA from 10 individuals with either high estimated breeding value (HEBV) or low estimated breeding value (LEBV). A total of 139,013 SNP were obtained from 42,291,356 sequences, of which 18,771,943 were for LEBV and 23,519,413 were for HEBV cohorts. Fifty-five SNP which had different allelic frequencies in the two DNA pools were further validated by individual-based AS-PCR genotyping in the LEBV and HEBV cohorts. Ten out of 55 SNP exhibited distinct allele distributions in these two cohorts. These 10 SNP were further genotyped in a goose population of 492 geese to verify the association with egg numbers. The result showed that 8 of 10 SNP were associated with egg numbers. Additionally, liner regression analysis revealed that SNP Record-111407, 106975 and 112359 were involved in a multiplegene network affecting laying performance. We used IPCR to extend the unknown regions flanking the candidate RAD tags. The obtained sequences were subjected to BLAST to retrieve the orthologous genes in either ducks or chickens. Five novel genes were cloned for geese which harbored the candidate laying-related SNP, including membrane associated guanylate kinase (MAGI-1), KIAA1462, Rho GTPase activating protein 21 (ARHGAP21), acyl-CoA synthetase family member 2 (ACSF2), astrotactin 2 (ASTN2). Collectively, our data suggests that 8 SNP and 5 genes might be promising candidate markers or targets for marker-assisted selection of egg numbers in geese. PMID:26181055

  9. From "Birth of a Nation" to "Pearl Harbor": The Influence of a Movie's Perspective on Students' Historical Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Richard J.; Meyerson, Peter

    What and how do students learn from motion pictures, and how does this knowledge interact with the history they learn in school? This is a complex problem-space and one that has seen little empirical research. To lay the groundwork for exploring these questions, a pilot study utilized a qualitative methodology in which high school students viewed…

  10. Understanding Venus to understand the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.

    2012-12-01

    Despite having almost the same size and bulk composition as the Earth, Venus possesses an extreme climate with a surface pressure of 90 bars and temperatures of 740 K. At visible wavelengths the Venus disk appears covered by thick clouds.The core atmospheric processes of Venus and the Earth are similar, despite the different, extraordinary paths they took since their simultaneous formation in the solar system's habitable zone. There are several indications that the composition of the Venus atmosphere has undergone large changes, such as an early runaway climate, and it is likely that the planet has lost a large amount of water through dissociation in the upper atmosphere due to ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent escape of hydrogen. SO2 is thought to originate from volcanism. H2O and SO2 react to form H2SO4 which condenses to form clouds. In past centuries, astronomers and explorers including Captain James Cook observed transits to measure the scale of the solar system. On 5-6 June 2012 we observed the last transit of Venus in this century. Close to the ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by a thin arc of light, called the aureole. We have shown that the deviation due to refraction and the luminosity of the aureole are related to the local density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer. As different portions of the arc can yield different values of these parameters, the rare transit event thus provides a unique insight of the Venus mesosphere. The polar region, significantly brighter in initial phases due to larger scale height of the polar mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by about 15deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Detailed comparative climatology of Venus, an Earth-size planet and understanding why it evolved so differently in its history is crucial to assert the long term evolution of our own planet. Exploring Venus' atmosphere also helps characterize the variety of Earth-size planets near their habitable zone to be discovered around other stars.he atmospheric arc, or aureole, seen from the DST/Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at ~8.5 minutes prior to first contact (NSO/Arcetri)

  11. [Exploring Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Brandi

    2004-01-01

    This summer I have been working with the N.A.S.A. Project at Cuyahoga Community College (Tri-C) under the title of Exploring Aeronautics Project Leader. The class that I have worked with is comprised of students that will enter the eighth grade in the fall of 2004. The program primarily focuses upon math proficiency and individualized class projects. My duties have encompassed both realms. During the first 2-3 weeks of my internship, I worked at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) researching, organizing, and compiling information for weekly Scholastic Challenges and the Super Scholastic Challenge. I was able to complete an overview of Scholastic Challenge and staff responsibilities regarding the competition; a proposal for an interactive learning system, Quizdom; a schedule for challenge equipment, as well as a schedule listing submission deadlines for the staff. Also included in my tasks, during these first 2-3 weeks, were assisting Tammy Allen and Candice Thomas with the student application review and interview processes for student applicants. For the student and parent orientation, I was assigned publications and other varying tasks to complete before the start of the program. Upon the commencement of the program, I changed location from NASA GRC to Tri-C Metro Campus, where student classes for the Cleveland site are held. During the duration of the program, I work with the instructor for the Exploring Aeronautics class, kkkk, assisting in classroom management, daily attendance, curriculum, project building, and other tasks as needed. These tasks include the conducting of the weekly competition, known as Scholastic Challenge. As a Project Leader, I am also responsible for one subject area of the Scholastic Challenge aspect of the N.A.S.A. Project curriculum. Each week I have to prepare a mission that the participants will take home the following Monday and at least 10 questions that will be included in the pool of questions used for the Scholastic Challenge competition on Thursdays. For at least one of these competitions, I must compile all mission and question information submitted by the staff, distribute missions to the students, and enter questions into Jeopardy formatted PowerPoint presentation. Unique to the N.A.S.A. Project are its Saturday sessions and opportunities for field trips. As a Project Leader, I am required to attend all field trips and Saturday sessions held for participants and their parent(s)/guardian(s). The Saturday sessions do not require my assistance because they are facilitated by a contracting company, Imhotep. This leaves my duties to observation unless instructed otherwise.

  12. An evaluation of training for lay providers in the use of Motivational Interviewing to promote academic achievement among urban youth

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a Motivational Interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban low-income and minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of training in MI. Two, two-hour booster sessions plus five, two- hour weekly group supervision sessions were conducted with lay advisors over a period of seven months. One-hundred percent of lay advisors (n =17) participated in all training, booster sessions and assessments. Seventy-one percent of lay advisors (n=12) completed all group supervision sessions and submitted tapes for review. MI training was associated with increased knowledge of MI principles among lay service providers; increased proficiency in responding to simulated clients in an MI consistent style; increased use of MI adherent behaviors in sessions with real clients and maintenance of high motivation to use MI from pretest to posttest. Although lay advisors increased their knowledge of MI, further training is required for advisors to increase competence in delivering MI. Overall, Implications for using MI in the context of school-based settings is discussed. PMID:26356248

  13. Beyond a Shadow of a Doubt? Experts, Lay Knowledge, and the Role of Radiography in the Diagnosis of Silicosis in Britain, c. 1919–1945

    PubMed Central

    Melling, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Summary The history of silicosis provides an important chapter in the history of occupational and environmental health. Recent historical scholarship has drawn attention to the importance of patient attitudes, popular protests, and compensation claims in the formation of a "lay epidemiology" of such a disease, frequently challenging the scientific orthodoxies devised by large corporations and medical specialists. Surprisingly little research has been undertaken on the United Kingdom, which provided much of the early expertise and medical research in respiratory diseases among industrial workers. This article examines the introduction of a particular technique, x-radiography, and its use by radiologists and others in debates on the causes and consequences of silica inhalation by the laboring population in Britain during the early decades of the twentieth century. In contrast to some recent interpretations, and also to the narrative of progress that practitioner historians have developed since the 1940s, this article suggests that the use of this technology was contested for much of this period and the interpretation of X-rays remained disputed and uncertain into the 1950s. The article also questions recent accounts of lay epidemiology as an adequate model for understanding the progress of such innovations in medical history. PMID:21037398

  14. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Videnska, Petra; Rahman, Md Masudur; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Krizek, Ivan; Smole-Mozina, Sonja; Kovac, Jasna; Szmolka, Ama; Nagy, Bela; Sedlar, Karel; Cejkova, Darina; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B) in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A) and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products. PMID:25329397

  15. Perceived Incidence and Importance of Lay-Ideas on Ionizing Radiation: Results of a Delphi-Study among Radiation-Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eijkelhof, H. M. C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described are lay-ideas which may exist about ionizing radiation, the importance of these ideas for risk management, and the relationships between various lay-ideas. Lay-ideas were used to gain a better insight into the problems of learning about ionizing radiation and to construct appropriate teaching materials and strategies. (KR)

  16. Project Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  17. Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Isidore

    1984-01-01

    Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo…

  18. Exploring Metric Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.

    2006-07-31

    Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

  19. Embryo Development inside Female Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale) Prior to Egg Laying

    PubMed Central

    Charney, Noah D.; Castorino, John J.; Dobro, Megan J.; Steely, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The length of embryo retention prior to oviposition is a critical evolutionary trait. In all oviparous salamanders, which include the vast majority of species in the order, fertilization is thought to occur at the time of egg laying. Embryos then enter the first cleavage stage several hours after being deposited. This pattern holds for previously studied individuals in the Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale complex. Here, we document an instance in which a female Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale was carrying embryos internally that had already reached stage 10 of development. Development likely began several days prior to the start of migration to the breeding pond. This is the first such record for any egg-laying salamander, and suggests a degree of plasticity in the timing of fertilization and development not previously recognized. Further work is needed to ascertain the prevalence, mechanics, and evolutionary significance of this phenomenon. PMID:24651275

  20. A company I can trust? Organizational lay theories moderate stereotype threat for women.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Katherine T U; Murphy, Mary C

    2015-02-01

    Women remain under-represented in the leadership of corporate America. According to stereotype threat theory, this under-representation may persist because women are concerned about being stereotyped in business settings. Three studies investigated whether an entity (fixed), compared with an incremental (malleable), organizational lay theory is threatening for women evaluating a consulting company. Men and women viewed a company mission statement or website containing an entity or incremental theory. Results revealed that women--more so than men--trusted the entity company less than the incremental company. Furthermore, only women's mistrust of the entity company was driven by their expectations about being stereotyped by its management. Notably, when combined with high or low representations of female employees, only organizational lay theories predicted trust. Finally, people's--particularly women's--mistrust of the entity company led them to disengage more before interacting with a representative. Implications for women's experiences and outcomes in workplace settings are discussed. PMID:25534242

  1. Video calls from lay bystanders to dispatch centers - risk assessment of information security

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Video calls from mobile phones can improve communication during medical emergencies. Lay bystanders can be instructed and supervised by health professionals at Emergency Medical Communication Centers. Before implementation of video mobile calls in emergencies, issues of information security should be addressed. Methods Information security was assessed for risk, based on the information security standard ISO/IEC 27005:2008. A multi-professional team used structured brainstorming to find threats to the information security aspects confidentiality, quality, integrity, and availability. Results Twenty security threats of different risk levels were identified and analyzed. Solutions were proposed to reduce the risk level. Conclusions Given proper implementation, we found no risks to information security that would advocate against the use of video calls between lay bystanders and Emergency Medical Communication Centers. The identified threats should be used as input to formal requirements when planning and implementing video calls from mobile phones for these call centers. PMID:21958387

  2. Enabling lay providers to conduct CBT for older adults: key steps for expanding treatment capacity.

    PubMed

    Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Wilson, Nancy L; Amspoker, Amber B; Wagener, Paula D; Calleo, Jessica S; Diefenbach, Gretchen; Hopko, Derek; Cully, Jeffrey A; Teng, Ellen; Rhoades, Howard M; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2015-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine advocates the examination of innovative models of care to expand mental health services available for older adults. This article describes training and supervision procedures in a recent clinical trial of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) delivered by bachelor-level lay providers (BLPs) and to Ph.D.-level expert providers (PLPs). Supervision and training differences, ratings by treatment integrity raters (TIRs), treatment characteristics, and patient perceptions between BLPs and PLPs are examined. The training and supervision procedures for BLPs led to comparable integrity ratings, patient perceptions, and treatment characteristics compared with PLPs. These results support this training protocol as a model for future implementation and effectiveness trials of CBT for late-life GAD, with treatment delivered by lay providers supervised by a licensed provider in other practice settings. PMID:26327929

  3. [Effect of the lighting regimen during the raising of breeding and market laying hens].

    PubMed

    Kovachishki, Kh; Stoianov, P

    1987-01-01

    Studied was the effect of illumination intensity on the physiologic state of the body, growth and development, egg laying capacity and the economic effectiveness in the raising of growing stock laying hens and adult ones in three-tier cell batteries of the BKM-3 and BHK-H types. The content of hemoglobin, total protein, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and erythrocyte count. Determined was also the content of some fat-soluble vitamins in the liver as well as the glycogen level in the liver and muscles and the amount of blood sugar. Certain changes were established in the investigated hematologic and biochemical indices along with the rise of effectiveness in using an illumination programme of low light intensity with regard to the type of birds mentioned above. PMID:3617483

  4. Naphthalene distribution in tissues of laying pullets, swine, and dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Eisele, G.R.

    1985-04-01

    Previous studies showed that higher-order animals can accumulate the entire range of hydrocarbons to which they are exposed through their food source. The purpose of the present studies was to obtain baseline data on the uptake and distribution of naphthalene in food-producing animals (laying pullets, swine, and dairy cattle) and the retention of this toxicant in consumable products (meats, eggs, and milk).

  5. Optimization of Composite Material System and Lay-up to Achieve Minimum Weight Pressure Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Haris Hameed; Wang, Gang; Dar, Uzair Ahmed; Zhang, Weihong

    2013-10-01

    The use of composite pressure vessels particularly in the aerospace industry is escalating rapidly because of their superiority in directional strength and colossal weight advantage. The present work elucidates the procedure to optimize the lay-up for composite pressure vessel using finite element analysis and calculate the relative weight saving compared with the reference metallic pressure vessel. The determination of proper fiber orientation and laminate thickness is very important to decrease manufacturing difficulties and increase structural efficiency. In the present work different lay-up sequences for laminates including, cross-ply [ 0 m /90 n ] s , angle-ply [ ±?] ns , [ 90/±?] ns and [ 0/±?] ns , are analyzed. The lay-up sequence, orientation and laminate thickness (number of layers) are optimized for three candidate composite materials S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy and Carbon/epoxy. Finite element analysis of composite pressure vessel is performed by using commercial finite element code ANSYS and utilizing the capabilities of ANSYS Parametric Design Language and Design Optimization module to automate the process of optimization. For verification, a code is developed in MATLAB based on classical lamination theory; incorporating Tsai-Wu failure criterion for first-ply failure (FPF). The results of the MATLAB code shows its effectiveness in theoretical prediction of first-ply failure strengths of laminated composite pressure vessels and close agreement with the FEA results. The optimization results shows that for all the composite material systems considered, the angle-ply [ ±?] ns is the optimum lay-up. For given fixed ply thickness the total thickness of laminate is obtained resulting in factor of safety slightly higher than two. Both Carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy resulted in approximately same laminate thickness and considerable percentage of weight saving, but S-glass/epoxy resulted in weight increment.

  6. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2014-12-01

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the introduction, transmission, and persistence of foodborne pathogens in poultry. The animal welfare implications of different types of housing for laying hens have been widely discussed in recent years, but the food safety consequences of these production systems remain incompletely understood. The present study assessed the effects of 2 different housing systems (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas) on the horizontal transmission of experimentally introduced Salmonella Enteritidis infection within groups of laying hens. In each of 2 trials, 136 hens were distributed among cages of both housing systems and approximately one-third of the hens in each cage were orally inoculated with doses of 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis (phage type 13a in one trial and phage type 4 in the other). At regular intervals through 23 d postinoculation, cloacal swabs were collected from all hens (inoculated and uninoculated) and cultured for Salmonella Enteritidis. Horizontal contact transmission of infection was observed for both Salmonella Enteritidis strains, reaching peak prevalence values of 27.1% of uninoculated hens in conventional cages and 22.7% in enriched cages. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the overall frequencies of horizontal Salmonella Enteritidis transmission were evident between the 2 types of housing. These results suggest that opportunities for Salmonella Enteritidis infection to spread horizontally throughout laying flocks may be similar in conventional and enriched cage-based production systems. PMID:25306464

  7. 135. ARAII SLI decontamination and lay down building (ARA614) north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    135. ARA-II SL-I decontamination and lay down building (ARA-614) north, south, east, and west elevations, floor plan, and detail of doors. F.C. Torkelson Company 842-area/SL-1-614-A-1. Date: September 1960. Ineel index code no. 070-0614-00-851-150061. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 134. ARAII SL1 decontamination and lay down building (ARA614) erected ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. ARA-II SL-1 decontamination and lay down building (ARA-614) erected after accidental explosion of SL-1 reactor. Shows vicinity map, index of related drawings, plot plan and other detail. F.C. Torkelson Company 842-area/SL-1-101-U-2. Date: September 1962. Ineel index code no. 070-0101-65-851-150713. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. An empirical test of the relative validity of expert and lay judgments of risk.

    PubMed

    Wright, George; Bolger, Fergus; Rowe, Gene

    2002-12-01

    This article investigates how accurately experts (underwriters) and lay persons (university students) judge the risks posed by life-threatening events Only one prior study (Slovic, Fischhoff, & Lichtenstein, 1985) has previously investigated the veracity of expert versus lay judgments of the magnitude of risk. In that study, a heterogeneous grouping of 15 experts was found to judge, using marginal estimations, a variety of risks as closer to the true annual frequencies of death than convenience samples of the lay population. In this study, we use a larger, homogenous sample of experts performing an ecologically valid task. We also ask our respondents to assess frequencies and relative frequencies directly, rather than ask for a "risk" estimate--a response mode subject to possible qualitative attributions-as was done in the Slovic et al. study. Although we find that the experts outperformed lay persons on a number of measures, the differences are small, and both groups showed similar global biases in terms of: (1) overestimating the likelihood of dying from a condition (marginal probability) and of dying from a condition given that it happens to you (conditional probability), and (2) underestimating the ratios of marginal and conditional likelihoods between pairs of potentially lethal events. In spite of these scaling problems, both groups showed quite good performance in ordering the lethal events in terms of marginal and conditional likelihoods. We discuss the nature of expertise using a framework developed by Bolger and Wright (1994), and consider whether the commonsense assumption of the superiority of expert risk assessors in making magnitude judgments of risk is, in fact, sensible. PMID:12530782

  10. Restriction of cadmium transfer to eggs from laying hens exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shin; Okabe, Masashi; Emoto, Tadasu

    1997-09-01

    The transfer of Cd to eggs of white Leghorn laying hens has been shown to be restricted. After Cd was injected ip into laying hens, the Cd concentrations in the blood, livers, ovaries, and eggs were measured, Although the Cd concentrations in the maternal blood and livers increased remarkably at certain levels of administrations, the Cd concentration in the yolks of eggs was not significantly increased, and was less than 0.04 {mu}g/g wet weight. After egg production stopped in the highest injected group (7.5 mg Cd/kg), Cd in the yolks of eggs had an accumulated range of 0.02-0.03 {mu}g/g wet weight. This was despite the high Cd accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, the Cd concentration in the follicle walls of the ovary increased and was 13- to 52-fold higher than in the follicle yolks. An additional experiment was conducted in order to estimate whether hatching success is affected by the Cd in the laid eggs of Cd-injected laying hens, The ratio of hatching success in the 0.3 or 1.2 {mu}g Cd/egg-injected groups was similar to that in the saline- injected group, indicating that a small amount of Cd in the eggs might exert no marked influence on the hatching success. In conclusion, Cd transfer from laying hen to eggs was restricted after the maternal bird was exposed to Cd. Furthermore, Cd accumulates in the follicle walls of ovary. These results suggest that the follicle walls might play a role in protecting the follicle yolks against Cd toxicity. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Children's Understanding of the Ulysses Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Katherine S.; Keil, Frank C.; Bloom, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Two studies explored children's understanding of how the presence of conflicting mental states in a single mind can lead people to act so as to subvert their own desires. Study 1 analyzed explanations by children (4-7 years) and adults of behaviors arising from this sort of "Ulysses conflict" and compared them with their understanding of…

  12. David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Hope

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

  13. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110?g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a ‘zeolite diet’ (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p?Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg. PMID:22676421

  14. A comparison of lay-beliefs about autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Buck, Claire

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of the two studies was to compare lay beliefs regarding the aetiology and treatment of autism (study 1) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (study 2). It was hypothesised that beliefs about autism would be based primarily on a biomedical theory while beliefs regarding OCD primarily on psychological notions of cause and cure. Parents' interviews were conducted in study 1 and revealed that, as hypothesised, parents hold predominantly biomedical views about autism. Participants (n = 92) completed both questionnaires that involved rating a range of theories of aetiology and treatment approaches for each disorder. Statistical analysis confirmed that lay beliefs about autism were primarily biomedical and beliefs about OCD were primarily psychological. Multiple regression analyses indicated that a range of individual difference factors (religiousness, interest in mental illness, age and knowledge of autism) predicted beliefs about the importance of some of the five factors derived from factor analysis of belief statements. The relevance of investigating lay beliefs of aetiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders for clinical practice is also highlighted. PMID:14727695

  15. Randomized controlled trial of a lay-facilitated angina management programme

    PubMed Central

    Furze, Gill; Cox, Helen; Morton, Veronica; Chuang, Ling-Hsiang; Lewin, Robert JP; Nelson, Pauline; Carty, Richard; Norris, Heather; Patel, Nicky; Elton, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aims This article reports a randomized controlled trial of lay-facilitated angina management (registered trial acronym: LAMP). Background Previously, a nurse-facilitated angina programme was shown to reduce angina while increasing physical activity, however most people with angina do not receive a cardiac rehabilitation or self-management programme. Lay people are increasingly being trained to facilitate self-management programmes. Design A randomized controlled trial comparing a lay-facilitated angina management programme with routine care from an angina nurse specialist. Methods Participants with new stable angina were randomized to the angina management programme (intervention: 70 participants) or advice from an angina nurse specialist (control: 72 participants). Primary outcome was angina frequency at 6 months; secondary outcomes at 3 and 6 months included: risk factors, physical functioning, anxiety, depression, angina misconceptions and cost utility. Follow-up was complete in March 2009. Analysis was by intention-to-treat; blind to group allocation. Results There was no important difference in angina frequency at 6 months. Secondary outcomes, assessed by either linear or logistic regression models, demonstrated important differences favouring the intervention group, at 3 months for: Anxiety, angina misconceptions and for exercise report; and at 6 months for: Anxiety; Depression; and angina misconceptions. The intervention was considered cost-effective. Conclusion The angina management programme produced some superior benefits when compared to advice from a specialist nurse. PMID:22229483

  16. The residue levels of narasin in eggs of laying hens fed with unmedicated and medicated feed.

    PubMed

    Rokka, Mervi; Eerola, Susanna; Perttilä, Ulla; Rossow, Laila; Venäläinen, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Valaja, Jarmo; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Laying hens were fed contaminated feed containing narasin 2.5 mg/kg for 21 days followed by a 7 day withdrawal period, hens in the control group were fed unmedicated feed. Eggs were collected during trial days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and after the withdrawal period of 7 days. The concentration of narasin in yolks and egg whites was analyzed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Narasin was found to accumulate in yolks, where the narasin concentration increased during the treatment. The concentration of narasin varied from 5.9 to 13.8 microg/kg (mean 10.6 microg/kg) in yolks after 21 day feeding periods. The concentrations of narasin ranged from < 0.9 to 1.4 microg/kg after the withdrawal period. Narasin residues were not found in egg whites of the laying hens fed contaminated feed nor in either yolks or egg whites of the laying hens fed unmedicated feed. The effect of cooking was also tested on the amount of narasin residues in eggs. Cooking for 10 min did not significantly influence the narasin residues in eggs. Traces of lasalocid were also found in the yolks. The traces of lasalocid are attributable to an accidental contamination of the feed during its manufacture. PMID:15538711

  17. Egg corticosterone: a noninvasive measure of stress in egg-laying birds.

    PubMed

    Royo, Felix; Mayo, Susan; Carlsson, Hans-Erik; Hau, Jann

    2008-12-01

    Quantitative measures of corticosteroids in biological samples that can be obtained noninvasively, such as saliva, feces, and body hair, have important potential as contributing elements in assessing the quality of captive environments and the severity of experimental procedures. Egg-laying chickens may be of particular interest because the corticosterone contents of the egg may have potential as a convenient measure of preceding adrenocortical activity. To develop methods to reliably quantify corticosterone content in the egg white and yolk, corticosterone content in eggs from 15 egg-laying chickens housed in single production cages were compared with that of eggs from 15 sister chickens, group housed in 1450 cm2 cages equipped with bedding, straw nests, sand baths, and perches. Approximately 80% of the total amount of corticosterone in the eggs was found in the yolk, and there was a positive correlation between yolk corticosterone concentration and total egg corticosterone (r = 0.90, n = 30, P < .001). The egg white contained approximately 20% of the total amount of corticosterone, but there was no correlation between concentrations in the white and the total corticosterone content of the eggs (r = 0.003). There was no difference in the white and yolk corticosterone concentrations or total egg corticosterone between singly housed and group-housed egg-laying hens. Quantitative analyses of corticosterone concentration in eggs may assist when analyzing the stressfulness of experimental procedures and major changes to the birds' environment that affect the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:19216258

  18. Influence of laying on lead accumulation in bone of mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Paired mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were given No. 4 lead shot, and bone lead concentrations were compared in drakes and in laying and nonlaying hens. Lead accumulation was significantly greater in bones with a high medullary content (femur and sternum) compared with bones with a lower medullary content (ulna-radius or wingbones). In dosed groups, hens always contained higher bone lead residues than drakes. After dosage with one shot (approximately 200 mg lead), lead in femurs of laying hens averaged 488.4 ppm compared with 113.6 ppm in nonlaying hens. Femurs of drakes averaged 9.4 ppm lead. Dosage with the second lead shot did not result in further accumulation of bone lead in hens, but increased bone lead concentrations threefold in drakes, suggesting that saturation levels for bone lead had already been reached in the hens after ingestion of one shot. There was no demonstrable relationship between egg production and bone lead residues. The high lead residues, found in medullary bones of laying hens indicate that sex and physiological condition are major factors influencing lead absorption by bone.

  19. Composite lay-up process with application of elements of augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák-Marcin?in, Jozef; Barna, Jozef; Janák, Miroslav; Fe?ová, Veronika; Nováková-Marcin?inová, L'udmila

    2012-03-01

    This article deals with virtual tools based on principles of open source philosophy in implementation area of composite lay-up technology. It describes virtual software and hardware elements that are necessary for work in augmented reality environment. In the beginning it focuses on general problems of applications of virtual components and in composite lay-up process. It clarifies the fundamental philosophy of new created application and the process called visual scripting that was used for program development. Further it provides closer view on particular logical sections, where necessary data are harvested and compared with values from virtual arrays. Also the new device is described with adjustment of operating desk, what enables detailed control of any realized manufacturing process. This positioning table can determine and set the position of the working plane using the commands in computer interface or manual changes. Information about exact position of individual layers are obtained in real time thanks to the built-in sensors. One of them manages the data change of the desk position (X, Y, Z), other checks the rotation around main axis situated in the center of the table. New software consists of 4 main logical areas with data packets comming from internal computer components as well as from external devices. In the end the displaying section is able to realize the movement process of virtual item (composite layer) according to its trajectory. Article presents new attitude in realization of composite lay-up process. Finally it deals with possible future improvements and other application possibilities.

  20. Terminally ill patients' and lay-carers' perceptions and experiences of community-based services.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, N J; Payne, S A; Wiles, R A

    1999-02-01

    This paper reports on terminally ill patients' and their lay-carers' perceptions and experiences of community-based services. It forms part of a larger investigation which examined the extent of service provision and any perceived gaps and problems from the perspectives of both clients and providers of community-based assistance for the terminally ill. The participants were nine terminally ill patients and 12 lay-carers receiving community nursing care. Fifteen face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit their experiences and perceptions of the care being provided. Qualitative, thematic analysis was carried out on the audio-taped interviews. On the whole, respondents reported a high level of satisfaction and appreciation for the help provided. Several areas appeared more problematic, however, and warrant further consideration. These include perceptions of health professionals, particularly their role domains, power and expertise, and some of the practical disadvantages and problems faced by some patients and their families. These are illustrated and the implications for dying patients, their lay-carers and community-based health professionals are discussed. PMID:10197949

  1. Mapping species distributions: A comparison of skilled naturalist and lay citizen science recording.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, René; Anderson, Helen; Robinson, Annie; Sharma, Nirwan; Mellish, Chris; Roberts, Stuart; Darvill, Ben; Siddharthan, Advaith

    2015-11-01

    To assess the ability of traditional biological recording schemes and lay citizen science approaches to gather data on species distributions and changes therein, we examined bumblebee records from the UK's national repository (National Biodiversity Network) and from BeeWatch. The two recording approaches revealed similar relative abundances of bumblebee species but different geographical distributions. For the widespread common carder (Bombus pascuorum), traditional recording scheme data were patchy, both spatially and temporally, reflecting active record centre rather than species distribution. Lay citizen science records displayed more extensive geographic coverage, reflecting human population density, thus offering better opportunities to account for recording effort. For the rapidly spreading tree bumblebee (Bombus hypnorum), both recording approaches revealed similar distributions due to a dedicated mapping project which overcame the patchy nature of naturalist records. We recommend, where possible, complementing skilled naturalist recording with lay citizen science programmes to obtain a nation-wide capability, and stress the need for timely uploading of data to the national repository. PMID:26508346

  2. Analogies, metaphors, and wondering about the future: Lay sense-making around synthetic meat.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Afrodita; Gaspar, Rui; Rutsaert, Pieter; Seibt, Beate; Fletcher, David; Verbeke, Wim; Barnett, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Drawing on social representations theory, we explore how the public make sense of the unfamiliar, taking as the example a novel technology: synthetic meat. Data from an online deliberation study and eighteen focus groups in Belgium, Portugal and the UK indicated that the various strategies of sense-making afforded different levels of critical thinking about synthetic meat. Anchoring to genetic modification, metaphors like 'Frankenfoods' and commonplaces like 'playing God' closed off debates around potential applications of synthetic meat, whereas asking factual and rhetorical questions about it, weighing up pragmatically its risks and benefits, and envisaging changing current mentalities or behaviours in order to adapt to scientific developments enabled a consideration of synthetic meat's possible implications for agriculture, environment, and society. We suggest that research on public understanding of technology should cultivate a climate of active thinking and should encourage questioning during the process of sense-making to try to reduce unhelpful anchoring. PMID:24553438

  3. Effects of beak trimming and cage design on laying hen performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Guesdon, V; Ahmed, A M H; Mallet, S; Faure, J M; Nys, Y

    2006-02-01

    1. Conventional cages are to be replaced by furnished cages or aviary systems to improve the welfare of hens. We compared the performance and egg quality of hens reared in two designs of furnished cages and of two standard cages. We also explored the consequences of the absence of beak trimming when using these designs. 2. Hens (2028) were housed from 18 to 70 weeks of age in 108 standard cages at 6 per cage (60 cmx63.5 cm), in 96 cages at 5 per cage (59.5 cmx55.5 cm) or in two designs of furnished cage at 15 per cage (24 F15M cages and 36 F15P cages made by two manufacturers) which contained equipment varying in size and location (nests, dust baths and perches). Half of the hens were beak-trimmed in each design. 3. Mortality was low in beak-trimmed hens (<5%) but was unacceptably high in non-beak-trimmed hens due to cannibalism (>40%, 516 hens). Mortality was worse in standard cages than in furnished cages. Consequently, hen-housed egg production was significantly lowered in non-beak-trimmed hens. 4. Egg laying in beak-trimmed hens reared in furnished cages occurred mainly in the nest (80 and 84.8% in F15M and F15P) but also in the dust bath (13.3 and 9.4% in F15M and F15P) and in other parts of the cage (6.7 and 5.8% in F15M and F15P). 5. The total percentage of broken (visual observation) and hair-cracked eggs (candling) was high in the furnished cage designs (15.4 and 19.6% in F15M and F15P, respectively) compared with standard cage designs (8.1 and 12.2% in S6 and S5). This was mainly due to hair-cracked eggs, the highest percentages occurring in the nests, especially in the design with a narrow nest and no egg saver (11.1% in F15M compared to 17.6% in F15P) as a consequence of egg accumulation in the cradle and relatively low frequency of manual egg collection. 6. Eggshell quality (index and breaking strength) was only slightly influenced by cage effects so differences in egg breakage were attributable to impacts related to cage design. 7. It is concluded that beak trimming remains the most effective way to prevent cannibalism, although furnished cages with a large group of hens slightly reduced the incidence, and that further development and optimisation of furnished cages is needed to reach egg quality similar to standard cages. PMID:16546790

  4. EXPLORING TOGETHER ESA Space Exploration Strategy

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    EXPLORING TOGETHER ESA Space Exploration Strategy #12;2 European Space Agency From the beginnings, and cooperates in the human exploration of space. Space is a key asset for Europe, providing essential.com/europeanspaceagency #12;4 A shared journey of space exploration Whenever you start a voyage, your final destination shapes

  5. Carry-over of melamine from feed to eggs and body tissues of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dong, X F; Liu, S Y; Tong, J M; Zhang, Q

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the carry-over of melamine from feed into eggs and body tissues of laying hens. In the first experiment, laying hens were supplied with feed added at 0, 1, 2, 5, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of melamine for 21 days followed by a depletion period to observe the residues of melamine in eggs. In a second experiment, laying hens were allocated 0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) melamine to determine levels of melamine in body tissues. Melamine and cyanuric acid were simultaneously analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the diet as well as in eggs and body tissue. In the first experiment, melamine appeared in the egg within 24 h after first ingestion of the melamine at 5, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1). Melamine concentration in egg reached a maximum of 2.34 mg kg(-1) within 17 days after exposure of 100 mg kg(-1) melamine, and the carry-over rate for melamine from feed to the eggs was 1.21%. In the second experiment, melamine was detected in tissues within 3 days after exposure; the maximum concentration of melamine residues occurred in the 100 mg kg(-1) group and was as follows: egg (1.83) > kidney (1.21) > breast muscle (0.86) > liver (0.70) > serum (0.42). The melamine level in egg albumen was about twice that of egg yolk. Melamine levels in laying hens decreased rapidly with withdrawal from feed, but melamine only declined to undetectable levels in the egg at day 6 and in tissues at day 4 after last ingestion of 100 mg kg(-1). It can be concluded that a pathway exists for the transmission of melamine from feed to egg and body tissues and the carry-over rate of melamine is low, and that melamine is not metabolized into cyanuric acid in laying hens. A positive relationship exists between exposure levels and eggs or tissues, but no direct relationship between the exposure time and measured levels of melamine in eggs and tissues. The current Chinese limit for melamine in feed and feed material of 2.5 mg kg(-1) established on 8 June 2009 is sufficient to ensure that levels in eggs, breast muscle, liver as well as kidney will not exceed the limit of 2.5 mg kg(-1) in foods other than infant formula introduced by many countries including China. PMID:20730647

  6. Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations. PMID:25239534

  7. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Heerkens, Jasper L T; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-09-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage housing systems known as aviaries. Factors tested included type of system flooring, degree of red mite infestation, and access to free-range areas. Information on housing characteristics, management, and performance in Belgian aviaries (N=47 flocks) were obtained from a questionnaire, farm records, and farm visits. Plumage condition and pecking wounds were scored in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old hens per flock. Associations between plumage condition, wounds, performance, mortality, and possible risk factors were investigated using a linear model with a stepwise model selection procedure. Many flocks exhibited a poor plumage condition and a high prevalence of wounds, with considerable variation between flocks. Better plumage condition was found in wire mesh aviaries (P<0.001), in aviaries with no red mite infestation (P=0.004), and in free-range systems (P=0.011) compared to plastic slatted aviaries, in houses with red mite infestations, and those without a free-range area. Furthermore, hens in aviaries with wire mesh flooring had fewer wounds on the back (P=0.006) and vent (P=0.009), reduced mortality (P=0.003), and a better laying performance (P=0.013) as compared to hens in aviaries with plastic slatted flooring. Flocks with better feather cover had lower levels of mortality (P<0.001). Red mite infestations were more common in plastic slatted aviaries (P=0.043). Other risk factors associated with plumage condition were genotype, number of diet changes, and the presence of nest perches. Wire mesh flooring in particular seems to have several health, welfare, and performance benefits in comparison to plastic slats, possibly related to decreased feather pecking, better hygiene, and fewer red mite infestations. This suggests that adjustments to the aviary housing design may further improve laying hen welfare and performance. PMID:26188031

  8. High fiber low energy diet for molt induction in laying hens: the impact of alfalfa on physiology, immunology and behavior 

    E-print Network

    Dunkley, Claudia Sharene

    2009-05-15

    Feed withdrawal is commonly used by commercial egg producers to induce molt and stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles in their flocks. However, the practice can compromise the welfare of the birds by elevating stress, ...

  9. Influences of Egg Laying Behavior on Pathogenic Infection of Amphibian Eggs Joseph M. Kiesecker; Andrew R. Blaustein

    E-print Network

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    Influences of Egg Laying Behavior on Pathogenic Infection of Amphibian Eggs Joseph M. Kiesecker. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/journals/black.html. Each copy of any

  10. NASA establishes office of exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new Office of Exploration that will coordinate agency activities that would “expand the human presence beyond Earth,” particularly to the moon and Mars.Sally K. Ride is serving as the office's acting assistant administrator until mid August. Ride, the first U.S. woman in space, has been in charge of a NASA study to determine a possible new major space goal for the United States. Her study group recently identified four major areas for concentrated examination as possible initiatives for a new national space objective: intensive study of Earth systems for better understanding of how to protect Earth's environment,a stepped-up robotic program to explore the planets, moons, and other solar system bodies,the establishment of a scientific base and a permanent human presence on the moon, andintensive exploration of Mars by robot, followed by human exploration of the planet.

  11. The reading room: Exploring the use of literature as a strategy for integrating threshold concepts into nursing curricula.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret; Lasater, Kathie; Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Levett-Jones, Tracy

    2015-11-01

    In addition to acquiring a solid foundation of clinical knowledge and skills, nursing students making the transition from lay person to health professional must adopt new conceptual understandings and values, while at the same time reflecting on and relinquishing ill-fitting attitudes and biases. This paper presents creative teaching ideas that utilise published narratives and explores the place of these narratives in teaching threshold concepts to nursing students. Appreciating nuance, symbolism and deeper layers of meaning in a well-drawn story can promote emotional engagement and cause learners to care deeply about an issue. Moreover, aesthetic learning, through the use of novels, memoirs and picture books, invites learners to enter into imagined worlds and can stimulate creative and critical thinking. This approach can also be a vehicle for transformative learning and for enhancing students' understanding and internalisation of threshold concepts that are integral to nursing. Guided engagement with the story by an effective educator can help learners to examine taken-for-granted assumptions, differentiate personal from professional values, remember the link between the story and the threshold concept and re-examine their own perspectives; this can result in transformative learning. In this paper, we show how threshold concepts can be introduced and discussed with nursing students via guided engagement with specific literature, so as to prompt meaningful internalised learning. PMID:26310934

  12. 'The family is part of the treatment really': a qualitative exploration of collective health narratives in families.

    PubMed

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Griffiths, Frances; Hodson, Jean

    2011-07-01

    Clinicians are increasingly asking questions about family history to inform decision making, but the quality of decisions rests on the quality of information provided by the patient. In families with genetically transmitted diseases, research has found a strong collective understanding of inheritance and risk, developed through constant communication between family members. Here, we explore whether there are similar processes in families with more common conditions like heart disease, asthma or osteo-arthritis. From in-depth interviews with lay people, we found that families created a culture of 'health talk', especially between sisters. Caring for other family members was demonstrated through sharing vital health information; on the other hand care could be shown by not worrying family members by talking about possibly inherited illness. Patterns of inheritance and health were talked about in participants' families (resemblance, similar conditions and affected body areas). From these, a picture developed of what the family was 'like' in health terms. Overall, experiential knowledge and family narrative was interwoven with expert discourse to form a complex understanding of medical family histories. PMID:21169209

  13. Understanding Tablet Use: A Multi-Method Exploration Hendrik Muller

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    York, NY 10011 United States hendrikm@google.com Jennifer L. Gove Google, Inc. 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View, CA 94043 United States jgove@google.com John S. Webb Google, Inc. 76 9th Ave New York, NY 10011 United States jwebb@google.com ABSTRACT Tablet ownership has grown rapidly over the last

  14. Understanding Bereavement in a Christian University: A Qualitative Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Andrea C.; Gewecke, Rachelle; Cupit, Illene N.; Fox, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study, based on ecological systems theory, examined the college student bereavement experience in a Christian university. Undergraduate students (N = 127) from a small Christian university provided answers to open-ended questions about their experiences regarding college following a death loss. Results indicate that students…

  15. How Young Children Understand Electric Circuits: Prediction, Explanation and Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glauert, Esme Bridget

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study of young children's views about electric circuits. Twenty-eight children aged 5 and 6 years were interviewed. They were shown examples of circuits and asked to predict whether they would work and explain why. They were then invited to try out some of the circuit examples or make circuits of their own…

  16. What Lives Where & Why? Understanding Biodiversity through Geospatial Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautmann, Nancy M.; Makinster, James G.; Batek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Using an interactive map-based PDF, students learn key concepts related to biodiversity while developing data-analysis and critical-thinking skills. The Bird Island lesson provides students with experience in translating geospatial data into bar graphs, then interpreting these graphs to compare biodiversity across ecoregions on a fictional island.…

  17. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

  18. New opportunities revealed by biotechnological explorations of extremophiles

    E-print Network

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    New opportunities revealed by biotechnological explorations of extremophiles Mircea Podar1 and Anna understanding of biochemistry, biology and evolution. As more new extremophiles are brought into laboratory new opportunities for the biotechnological exploration of extremophiles. Addresses 1 Metagenomica, San

  19. Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Tamara Bianca; Körbes, Júlia Horn; Granich, Juliana; Senter, Malena; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Intensive production of confined laying hens affects their welfare and increases the risk of epidemics. Ectoparasites as hematophagous and feather mites cause low productivity and decreased egg quality. This study aimed to determine the diversity of mites captured with traps in different commercial systems of laying hens (Gallus gallus L.) (Phasianidae) in Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samplings were conducted from August 2013 to August 2014, totaling 21 sampling events in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A1, 2, 3), semiautomatic systems (S1, 2), and free-range system (FR). A total of 9981 mites belonging to 21 families, 31 genera, and 35 species were found. Acaridae, Caligonellidae, and Cheyletidae showed the highest richness with four species each. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin, 1877) (Analgidae) was the most abundant ectoparasite species with 1328 specimens and was present in all commercial laying hen systems. No hematophagous mites were found. Cheyletus malaccensis(Cheyletidae) (3503), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Phytoseiidae) (304), and Blattisocius keegani (Blattisocidae) (181) were the predators present in all systems. The similarity with control system (S1-without pesticide) was low (36.5 %) when compared to all other commercial laying hen systems, and it had the highest richness. In FR, low populations of mites and highest diversity were observed. The commercial laying hen system and the management influence the mite fauna in poultry farms. PMID:26446089

  20. Understanding Co-Development of Conceptual and Epistemic Understanding through Modeling Practices with Mobile Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Suna; Han, Yuhwha; Paik, Seoung-Hey

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores how engaging in modeling practice, along with argumentation, leverages students' epistemic and conceptual understanding in an afterschool science/math class of 16 tenth graders. The study also explores how students used mobile Internet phones (smart phones) productively to support modeling practices. As the modeling…

  1. Astrobiology and Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, D. H.; Bullock, M. A.

    2005-12-01

    Venus has not traditionally been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. We propose that Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. 1) Putting Earth life in context: Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. For example, active volcanism is most likely responsible for maintaining the global cloud cover (Bullock and Grinspoon, 2001). Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. 2) The possibility of extant life: Venus almost surely once had warm oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial life. Life, once established in the early oceans of Venus, may have migrated to the clouds which, on present day Venus, may represent a habitable niche. Though highly acidic, this aqueous environment enjoys moderate temperatures, surroundings far from chemical equilibrium, and potentially useful radiation fluxes. Observations of unusual chemistry in the clouds, and particle populations that are not well characterized, suggest that this environment must be explored much more fully before biology can be ruled out. A sulfur-based metabolism for cloud-based life on Venus has recently been proposed (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2004). While speculative, these arguments, along with the discovery of terrestrial extremophile organisms that might survive in the Venusian clouds, establish the credibility of astrobiological exploration of Venus. Arguments for the possible existence of life on Mars or Europa are, by convention and repetition, seen as more mainstream than arguments for life elsewhere, but their logical status is no different from the plausibility arguments for life on Venus. 3) Rare planetary properties of astrobiological interest: All of our ideas about extraterrestrial biochemistry are, of necessity, extrapolations from the single example of life which we have been able to study. Our planetary exploration, with an increasing focus on Astrobiology, is designed to 'follow the water'. This is a reasonable strategy but it is based, at best, on an educated guess about life's universals. If we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Bullock, M.A. and D.H. Grinspoon (2001) Icarus, 150, 19-37 Schulze-Makuch, D.H. Grinspoon., O. Abbas, L.N. Irwin and M. Bullock. (2004) . Astrobiology, 4, 11-18.

  2. Astrobiology and Venus exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Bullock, Mark A.

    For hundreds of years prior to the space age, Venus was considered among the most likely homes for extraterrestrial life. Since planetary exploration began, Venus has not been considered a promising target for Astrobiological exploration. However, Venus should be central to such an exploration program for several reasons. At present Venus is the only other Earth-sized terrestrial planet that we know of, and certainly the only one we will have the opportunity to explore in the foreseeable future. Understanding the divergence of Earth and Venus is central to understanding the limits of habitability in the inner regions of habitable zones around solar-type stars. Thus Venus presents us with a unique opportunity for putting the bulk properties, evolution and ongoing geochemical processes of Earth in a wider context. Many geological and meteorological processes otherwise active only on Earth at present are currently active on Venus. Active volcanism most likely affects the climate and chemical equilibrium state of the atmosphere and surface, and maintains the global cloud cover. Further, if we think beyond the specifics of a particular chemical system required to build complexity and heredity, we can ask what general properties a planet must possess in order to be considered a possible candidate for life. The answers might include an atmosphere with signs of flagrant chemical disequilibrium and active, internally driven cycling of volatile elements between the surface, atmosphere and interior. At present, the two planets we know of which possess these characteristics are Earth and Venus. Venus almost surely once had warm, habitable oceans. The evaporation of these oceans, and subsequent escape of hydrogen, most likely resulted in an oxygenated atmosphere. The duration of this phase is poorly understood, but during this time the terrestrial planets were not isolated. Rather, due to frequent impact transport, they represented a continuous environment for early microbial life. Life, once established in the early oceans of Venus, may have migrated to the clouds which, on present day Venus, may represent a habitable niche. Though highly acidic, this aqueous environment enjoys moderate temperatures, surroundings far from chemical equilibrium, and potentially useful radiation fluxes. Observations of unusual chemistry in the clouds, and particle populations that are not well characterized, suggest that this environment must be explored much more fully before biology can be ruled out. A sulfur-based metabolism for cloud-based life on Venus has recently been proposed (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2004). While speculative, these arguments, along with the discovery of terrestrial extremophile organisms that point toward the plausibility of survival in the Venusian clouds, establish the credibility of astrobiological exploration of Venus. Arguments for the possible existence of life on Mars or Europa are, by convention and repetition, seen as more mainstream than arguments for life elsewhere, but their logical status is similar to plausibility arguments for life on Venus. With the launch of COROT in 2006 and Kepler in 2008 the demographics of Earth-sized planets in our galaxy should finally become known. Future plans for a Terrestrial Planet Finder or Darwin-type space-based spectrograph should provide the capability of studying the atmospheric composition and other properties of terrestrial planets. One of the prime rationales for building such instruments is the possibility of identifying habitable planets or providing more generalized observational constraints on the habitable zones of stellar systems. Given the prevalence of CO2 dominated atmospheres in our own solar system, it is quite likely that a large fraction of these will be Venus-like in composition and evolutionary history. We will be observing these planets at random times in their evolution. In analogy with our own solar system, it is just as likely that we will find representatives of early Venus and early Earth type planets from the first 2 billion years of their evolution as i

  3. Error Matters: An Initial Exploration of Elementary School Children's

    E-print Network

    Klahr, David

    Error Matters: An Initial Exploration of Elementary School Children's Understanding of Experimental outcomes. But little is known about children's under- standing of the causes and consequences use that frame- work to guide an empirical assessment of elementary school children's understanding

  4. Isolation of Salmonella enterica in laying-hen flocks and assessment of eggshell contamination in France.

    PubMed

    Chemaly, Marianne; Huneau-Salaün, Adeline; Labbe, Annie; Houdayer, Catherine; Petetin, Isabelle; Fravalo, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    The present investigation was conducted in conjunction with the European Union baseline study for the estimation of Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen flocks. It aimed at evaluating eggshell contamination in farms positive for Salmonella, characterizing the genetic patterns of Salmonella strains and identifying the factors associated with Salmonella contamination of eggshells. For this purpose, a total of 4,200 eggs were collected from 28 positive flocks and analyzed according to draft Annex D of International Organization for Standardization Method 6579. Molecular characterization of the Salmonella strains was obtained by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method with two restriction enzymes, XbaI and BlnI. The relationship between the presence of Salmonella on eggshells and rearing practices was studied by using multiple correspondence analysis. Results showed that 39.3% of the positive flocks had at least one positive eggshell, with a total of 1.05% of eggshells testing positive for Salmonella. We detected the same serovars on samples taken from the farm and from eggshells within a given flock, with isolates sharing the same genetic pattern in 7 of 11 flocks. Eggshells tested positive for Salmonella in flocks (i) located where delivery trucks pass near air entrances of the poultry house, (ii) with high holding capacity (>30,000 laying hens), and (iii) with more than five positive samples coming from the farm environment, as well as in cases of flocks with a maximum egg-laying rate of >96% and in cases where farmers worked in other animal production. This study provided valuable information that could be used for risk management and risk assessment studies. PMID:19833029

  5. Characterization of Salmonella from Commercial Egg-Laying Hen Farms in a Central Region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Roy; Fandińo, Clemencia; Donado, Pilar; Guzmán, Libia; Verjan, Noel

    2015-03-01

    Salmonellosis affects humans more frequently than any other foodborne disease, and it causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry. A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in laying hen farms in the Tolima region of Colombia. Fifteen egg-laying hen farms were sampled, and a total of 589 samples were cultured to isolate Salmonella spp. A total of 14 isolates of Salmonella spp. were recovered from five farms, resulting in a prevalence of 33.33% (95%, confidence interval = 14%-53%) at the farm level. Salmonella spp. were recovered from eggshells (57.15%, n = 8), feed (28.57%, n = 4), and environmental samples (14.29%, n = 2). Farm practices, such as the milling of feed (odds ratio [OR] = 24) and the storage of eggs in the henhouses (OR = 11.25), in addition to the feed type (OR = 7.64) and the use of bamboo for construction of the facility (OR = 5.24), were identified as risk factors for Salmonella spp. The 14 isolates were identified as Salmonella Enteritidis (n = 6) and Salmonella Shannon (n = 8), and both serovars were resistant to a number of antibiotics. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis presented three different XbaI macrorestriction patterns. The Salmonella Enteritidis isolates all presented a single pattern, whereas the Salmonella Shannon isolates were grouped into two distinct patterns. The results indicate that Salmonella spp. could be recovered from various sources at laying hen farms, and eggshell contamination is a particular concern. PMID:26292535

  6. Explorations in Chaos Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Armando; Bixler, David

    2012-03-01

    Chaos Theory is an interesting and important branch of physics. Many physical systems, such as weather or fluid flow, exhibit chaotic behavior. Experiments in simple mechanical or electrical systems, as well as simple simulations can be used as methods of studying chaos. Using a mechanical method, we connected a speaker and to a frequency modulator to bounce a table tennis ball. We recorded the ball's motion at different frequencies using a video camera. Using Tracker software we observed it's position versus it's velocity in order to analyze its chaotic behavior. For a simple simulation, we used the visual-based programming in LabView to examine chaotic behavior produced by some non-linear differential equations. Results from both the mechanical system and the simulations will be discussed. For future work, we plan to continue to explore some chaotic simulations and perform a sequence of experiments with an electrical system. Exploring these nonlinear chaotic systems can help us to better understand and model many phenomena found in nature.

  7. Effects of drinking water treatment on susceptibility of laying hens to Salmonella enteritidis during forced molt.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Byrd, J A; Moore, R W; Ricke, S C; Nisbet, D J

    2005-02-01

    Feed deprivation is used in the layer industry to induce molting and stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles in laying hens. Unfortunately, the stress involved increases susceptibility to Salmonella enteritidis (SE), the risk of SE-positive eggs, and incidence of SE in internal organs. Leghorn hens over 50 wk of age were divided into 4 treatment groups of 12 hens each in experiment 1 and 3 treatment groups of 12 hens in experiments 2 and 3; hens were placed in individual laying hen cages. Treatment groups were 1) nonmolted (NM) and received feed and distilled water for 9 d, 2) force molted by feed removal for 9 d and received distilled water, 3) force molted by feed removal for 9 d and received 0.5% lactic acid (LA) in distilled water. An additional group (4) in experiment 1 only was force molted by feed removal for 9 d and received 0.5% acetic acid in distilled water. Seven days before feed removal hens were exposed to an 8L:16D photoperiod, which was continued throughout the experiment. Individual hens among all treatments were challenged orally with 10(4) SE on d 4 of feed removal. When compared with the NM treatments, weight losses were significantly higher in the M treatments, regardless of water treatments. When compared with NM treatments, crop pH was significantly higher in the M treatment receiving distilled water. Crop pH was reduced to that of the NM controls by 0.5% acetic acid in the drinking water. No consistent significant changes were observed for volatile fatty acids. The number of hens positive for SE in crop and ceca after culture and the number of SE per crop and per gram of cecal contents were higher in the M treatments, when compared with the NM treatments, but there was no effect of addition of either of the acids to the drinking water. Additional research using different acid treatment regimens may provide a tool for reducing the incidence of SE in eggs and internal organs during and following molting of laying hens. PMID:15742955

  8. Influence of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bin; Zhang, Yuan-shu; Ma, Zi-li; Zheng, Liu-hai; Li, Shuang-jie; Dou, Xin-hong; Gong, Jian-sen; Miao, Jin-feng

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens. Green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to a free range group and two caged groups, one with low-density and the other with high-density housing. Each group was further divided into control (C) and taurine treatment (T) groups. All hens were fed the same basic diet except that the T groups' diet was supplemented with 0.1% taurine. The experiment lasted 15 d. Survival rates, laying rates, daily feed consumption, and daily weight gain were recorded. Histological changes, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation and anti-oxidation levels were determined. The results show that dietary taurine supplementation and reduced housing density significantly attenuated pathophysiological changes in the oviduct. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) DNA binding activity increased significantly in the high-density housing group compared with the two other housing groups and was reduced by taurine supplementation. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA expression in the high-density and low-density C and T groups increased significantly. In the free range and low-density groups, dietary taurine significantly reduced the expression of TNF-? mRNA. Supplementation with taurine decreased interferon-? (IFN-?) mRNA expression significantly in the low-density groups. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) mRNA expression was significantly higher in caged hens. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in the high-density C group than in the free range and low-density C groups. Supplementation with taurine decreased IL-10 mRNA expression significantly in the high-density group and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the free range hens. We conclude that taurine has important protective effects against oviduct damage. Reducing housing density also results in less oxidative stress, less inflammatory cell infiltration, and lower levels of inflammatory mediators in the oviduct. Therefore, both dietary taurine and reduced housing density can ameliorate oviduct injury, enhance oviduct health, and promote egg production in laying hens. PMID:26055907

  9. Influence of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens*

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Bin; Zhang, Yuan-shu; Ma, Zi-li; Zheng, Liu-hai; Li, Shuang-jie; Dou, Xin-hong; Gong, Jian-sen; Miao, Jin-feng

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens. Green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to a free range group and two caged groups, one with low-density and the other with high-density housing. Each group was further divided into control (C) and taurine treatment (T) groups. All hens were fed the same basic diet except that the T groups’ diet was supplemented with 0.1% taurine. The experiment lasted 15 d. Survival rates, laying rates, daily feed consumption, and daily weight gain were recorded. Histological changes, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation and anti-oxidation levels were determined. The results show that dietary taurine supplementation and reduced housing density significantly attenuated pathophysiological changes in the oviduct. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) DNA binding activity increased significantly in the high-density housing group compared with the two other housing groups and was reduced by taurine supplementation. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA expression in the high-density and low-density C and T groups increased significantly. In the free range and low-density groups, dietary taurine significantly reduced the expression of TNF-? mRNA. Supplementation with taurine decreased interferon-? (IFN-?) mRNA expression significantly in the low-density groups. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) mRNA expression was significantly higher in caged hens. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in the high-density C group than in the free range and low-density C groups. Supplementation with taurine decreased IL-10 mRNA expression significantly in the high-density group and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the free range hens. We conclude that taurine has important protective effects against oviduct damage. Reducing housing density also results in less oxidative stress, less inflammatory cell infiltration, and lower levels of inflammatory mediators in the oviduct. Therefore, both dietary taurine and reduced housing density can ameliorate oviduct injury, enhance oviduct health, and promote egg production in laying hens. PMID:26055907

  10. Venus Exploration opportunities within NASA's Solar System Exploration roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor; Thompson, Thomas; Cutts, James; Robinson, James

    2006-01-01

    Science goals to understand the origin, history and environment of Venus have been driving international space exploration missions for over 40 years. Past missions include the Magellan and Pioneer-Venus missions by the US; the Venera program by the USSR; and the Vega missions through international cooperation. Furthermore, the US National Research Council (NRC), in the 2003 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Decadal Survey, identified Venus as a high priority target, thus demonstrating a continuing interest in Earth's sister planet. In response to the NRC recommendation, the 2005 NASA SSE Roadmap included a number of potential Venus missions arching through all mission classes from small Discovery, to medium New Frontiers and to large Flagship class missions. While missions in all of these classes could be designed as orbiters with remote sensing capabilities, the desire for scientific advancements beyond our current knowledge - including what we expect to learn from the ongoing ESA Venus Express mission - point to in-situ exploration of Venus.

  11. Gender Differences in Lay Knowledge of Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms Among Community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Adults - DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in lay knowledge of type 2 diabetes symptoms among community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. Design and Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of 904 adults (172 Caucasians, 248 Latinos, 234 Koreans, and 250 Filipinos) without diabetes at community events, community clinics, churches, and online in the San Francisco Bay Area and San Diego from August to December 2013. Participants were asked to describe in their own words signs and/or symptoms of diabetes. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association of lay symptom knowledge with gender after controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Overall, the average age of the sample populations was 44 (SD ±16.1) years, 36% were male, and 58% were married. Increased thirst/dry mouth following increased urinary frequency/color/odor and increased fatigue/lethargy/low energy were the most frequently reported signs and symptoms (19.8%, 15.4%, and 13.6%, respectively). After controlling for known confounding factors, women were 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.3, P = .004) times more likely than men to report at least 1 diabetes symptom. However, this gender difference in knowledge of diabetes signs and symptoms did not significantly differ across Caucasians, Latinos, Filipinos, and Korean Americans (P = .87). Conclusion The findings underscore the importance of improving public knowledge and awareness of signs and symptoms of diabetes, particularly in men. PMID:25227121

  12. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Musgrove, M T; Richardson, L J; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2011-07-01

    These studies evaluated the bacterial level of unwashed and washed shell eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens. Hy-Line W-36 White and Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems. On the sampling days for experiments 1, 2, and 3, 20 eggs were collected from each pen for bacterial analyses. Ten of the eggs collected from each pen were washed for 1 min with a commercial egg-washing solution, whereas the remaining 10 eggs were unwashed before sampling the eggshell and shell membranes for aerobic bacteria and coliforms (experiment 1 only). In experiment 1, the aerobic plate counts (APC) of unwashed eggs produced in the shavings, slats, and caged-housing systems were 4.0, 3.6, and 3.1 log(10) cfu/mL of rinsate, respectively. Washing eggs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC by 1.6 log(10) cfu/mL and reduced the prevalence of coliforms by 12%. In experiment 2, unwashed eggs produced by hens in triple-deck cages from 57 to 62 wk (previously housed on shavings, slats, and cages) did not differ, with APC ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 log(10) cfu/mL. Washing eggs continued to significantly reduce APC to below 0.2 log(10) cfu/mL. In experiment 3, the APC for unwashed eggs were within 0.4 log below the APC attained for unwashed eggs in experiment 1, although hen density was 28% of that used in experiment 1. Washing eggs further lowered the APC to 0.4 to 0.7 log(10) cfu/mL, a 2.7-log reduction. These results indicate that shell bacterial levels are similar after washing for eggs from hens housed in these caged and cage-free environments. However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages). PMID:21673176

  13. UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING: SYNTACTIC SEMANTICS AND COMPUTATIONAL COGNITION

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING: SYNTACTIC SEMANTICS AND COMPUTATIONAL COGNITION William J. Rapaport what we knew all along: syntax by itself is not sufficient for semantics. (Does anyone actually deny, in the sense of formal symbols, is really the same as semantic content, in the sense of meanings, thought

  14. Interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities among lay people.

    PubMed

    Seewooruttun, Leila; Scior, Katrina

    2014-12-01

    Despite policies aimed at ensuring equal rights and maximising respect and social inclusion for people with intellectual disabilities, in their daily lives many continue to face negative attitudes and discrimination within society. Misconceptions about what it means to have an intellectual disability and about the capabilities of people with intellectual disabilities appear widespread, and may contribute to prejudice and discrimination. This review provides a summary and evaluation of empirical interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and targeting negative attitudes towards this population among lay people of working age. An electronic search using PsycINFO, Web of Science and PubMed identified 22 English language studies published between 1990 and early 2014 that reported a specific intervention with a lay population sample. The majority of studies reported promising outcomes, particularly those aimed at increasing knowledge of intellectual disability through education. Support for the positive influence of contact with people with intellectual disabilities was demonstrated across several interventions. Interventions delivered at least partly by individuals with intellectual disabilities, and educational interventions appear to hold the most promise. The evidence is limited though by the weaknesses of measurement tools employed. PMID:25213473

  15. Structural dynamics of shroudless, hollow fan blades with composite in-lays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, R. A.; Hirschbein, M. S.; Chamis, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Structural and dynamic analyses are presented for a shroudless, hollow titanium fan blade proposed for future use in aircraft turbine engines. The blade was modeled and analyzed using the composite blade structural analysis computer program (COBSTRAN); an integrated program consisting of mesh generators, composite mechanics codes, NASTRAN, and pre- and post-processors. Vibration and impact analyses are presented. The vibration analysis was conducted with COBSTRAN. Results show the effect of the centrifugal force field on frequencies, twist, and blade camber. Bird impact analysis was performed with the multi-mode blade impact computer program. This program uses the geometric model and modal analysis from the COBSTRAN vibration analysis to determine the gross impact response of the fan blades to bird strikes. The structural performance of this blade is also compared to a blade of similar design but with composite in-lays on the outer surface. Results show that the composite in-lays can be selected (designed) to substantially modify the mechanical performance of the shroudless, hollow fan blade.

  16. Rapid Identification of Paragonimiasis Foci by Lay Informants in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Odermatt, Peter; Veasna, Duong; Zhang, Wei; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Phrommala, Souraxay; Habe, Shigehisa; Barennes, Hubert; Strobel, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a food-borne trematodiasis leading to lung disease. Worldwide, an estimated 21 million people are infected. Foci of ongoing transmission remain often unnoticed. We evaluated a simple questionnaire approach using lay-informants at the village level to identify paragonimiasis foci and suspected paragonimiasis cases. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was carried out in an endemic area of Lao People's Democratic Republic. Leaders of 49 remote villages in northern Vientiane Province were asked to notify suspected paragonimiasis patients using a four-item questionnaire sent through administrative channels: persons responding positively for having chronic cough (more than 3 weeks) and/or blood in sputum with or without fever. We validated the village leaders' reports in ten representative villages with a door-to-door survey. We examined three sputa of suspected patients for the presence of Paragonimus eggs and acid fast bacilli. 91.8% of village leaders participated and notified a total of 220 suspected patients; 76.2% were eventually confirmed; an additional 138 suspected cases were found in the survey. Sensitivity of village leaders' notice for “chronic cough” and “blood in sputum” was 100%; “blood in sputum” alone reached a sensitivity of 85.7%. Significance Our approach led to the identification of three previously unknown foci of transmission. A rapid and simple lay-informant questionnaire approach is a promising low-cost community diagnostic tool of paragonimiasis control programs. PMID:19771150

  17. Corticosterone regulation of ovarian follicular development is dependent on the energy status of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yan; Song, Qun-Qing; Guo, Ying-Ying; Jiao, Hong-Chao; Song, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids participate in the arousal of stress responses and trigger physiological adjustments that shift energy away from reproduction toward survival. Ovarian follicular development in avians is accompanied by the supply of yolk precursors, which are mainly synthesized in the liver. Therefore, we hypothesized energy status and hepatic lipogenesis are involved in the induction of reproductive disorders by glucocorticoids in laying hens. The results show that corticosterone decreased the laying performance by suppressing follicular development in energy-deficit state, rather than in energy-sufficient state. In corticosterone-treated hens, the suppressed follicular development was associated with the reduced availability of yolk precursor, indicated by the plasma concentration of VLDL and vitellogenin and the decreased proportion of yolk-targeted VLDL (VLDLy). Corticosterone decreased the expression of apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein VLDL-II in the liver. A drop in VLDL receptor content and an increase in the expression of tight junction proteins occludin and claudin1 were also observed in hierarchical follicles. The results suggest corticosterone-suppressed follicular development is energy dependent. The decreased apolipoprotein synthesis and VLDLy secretion by liver are responsible for the decreased availability of circulating yolk precursor, and the upregulation of occludin and claudin expression further prevents yolk deposition into oocytes. PMID:23599356

  18. Synthesis of functional xLayMn/KIT-6 and features in hot coal gas desulphurization.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong; Zhang, Fengmei; Zhang, Zhaofei; Liu, Bingsi

    2015-08-28

    To enhance the stability of sorbents during continuous desulphurization-regeneration cycles, KIT-6 with 3D pore channels was used as a support for the sorbents. A series of mesoporous xLayMn/KIT-6 sorbents with different La/Mn atomic ratios were fabricated using a sol-gel method and their desulphurization properties of hot coal gas were investigated at 700-850 °C. 3La97Mn/KIT-6 performed the best at 800 °C with a breakthrough sulphur capacity of 11.56 g sulphur per 100 g sorbent. The eight successive desulphurization (800 °C)-regeneration (600 °C) cycles revealed that 3La97Mn/KIT-6 with endurable regeneration abilities could retain 80% of the initial sulphur capacity. It indicated a better desulphurization performance compared to pure 3La97Mn and 3La97Mn/MCM-41. The fresh and used xLayMn/KIT-6 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, HRTEM, XPS and H2-TPR techniques. The XRD patterns and HRTEM images of fresh and used 3La97Mn/KIT-6 verified that the utilization of KIT-6 effectively suppressed the aggregation of Mn2O3 particles and improved the stability of the sorbent. PMID:26204251

  19. Posthumous Reproduction (PHR) in Israel: Policy Rationales Versus Lay People's Concerns, a Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Hashiloni-Dolev, Yael

    2015-12-01

    Israeli policy concerning PHR has been decided upon in an expertocratic manner, leaving the voice of the public unheard. Based on 26 semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 Jewish-Israeli young couples, this preliminary study provides the first empirical data regarding lay attitudes toward PHR in Israel. Findings suggest major dissimilarities between the policy and lay people's wishes and rationales. While policy is built on the "presumed wish" assumption, supposing all men living in a loving relationship wish to have their partner carry their child post-mortem, this was empirically unsupported. However, the findings suggest that many interviewees were willing to defer to their surviving spouse's wishes to have their post-mortem child, sometimes even against their own wish, indicating a support for presumed consent. Respecting the wishes of the dead, a dominant argument in the bioethical discussion in Israel and beyond, was mainly irrelevant to informants, whereas interviewees considered the future child's welfare, a concern overlooked by Israeli policy. Likewise, while posthumous grandparenthood is on the rise in Israel, it clearly contradicts the wishes of the majority of this study's informants. Nonetheless, existing policy is not expected to raise any opposition, due to the extreme liberalism of the participants and their support of reproductive autonomy. PMID:25819926

  20. Corticosterone metabolites in laying hen droppings-Effects of fiber enrichment, genotype, and daily variations.

    PubMed

    Alm, M; Holm, L; Tauson, R; Wall, H

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest and concern for animal welfare in commercial poultry production. To evaluate stress and welfare in an objective and noninvasive way, fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in droppings can be analyzed. However, the influence of diet, genotype, and daily variations in FCM and production of droppings in laying hens has been poorly investigated. This study examined the effect of insoluble fiber by adding 3% ground straw pellets to the feed to Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) hens housed in furnished cages between 20 and 40 wk of age. In total, 960 hens were included in the study. Droppings were collected 4 times per day for 3 consecutive days and analyzed by corticosterone immunoassay. Biological validation confirmed the ability of the assay to detect changes in FCM levels. Inclusion of straw pellets in the feed increased FCM concentration in both hen genotypes and increased excretion rate of FCM in LB hens. The LB hens also produced greater amounts of droppings than LSL hens. Both FCM levels and production of droppings varied during the day, although no distinct diurnal rhythm was found. These findings demonstrate that when using FCM to evaluate stress and welfare in laying hens, many factors (e.g., diet, genotype used, and so on) need to be taken into account to allow accurate interpretation of the results. In addition, under certain conditions, excretion rate of FCM might be more appropriate to use compared with FCM concentration. PMID:25125557

  1. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens.

  2. Cascading costs of reproduction in female house wrens induced to lay larger clutches

    PubMed Central

    HODGES, C. J.; BOWERS, E. K.; THOMPSON, C. F.; SAKALUK, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    In many species, females produce fewer offspring than they are capable of rearing, possibly because increases in current reproductive effort come at the expense of a female’s own survival and future reproduction. To test this, we induced female house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) to lay more eggs than they normally would and assessed the potential costs of increasing cumulative investment in the three main components of the avian breeding cycle – egg laying, incubation, and nestling provisioning. Females with increased clutch sizes reared more offspring in the first brood than controls, but fledged a lower proportion of nestlings. Moreover, nestlings of experimental females were lighter than those of control females as brood size and pre-fledging mass were negatively correlated. In second broods of the season, when females were not manipulated, experimental females laid the same number of eggs as controls, but experienced an intra-seasonal cost through reduced hatchling survival and a lower number of young fledged. Offspring of control and experimental females were equally likely to recruit to the breeding population, although control females produced more recruits per egg laid. The reproductive success of recruits from broods of experimental and control females did not differ. The manipulation also induced inter-seasonal costs to future reproduction, as experimental females had lower fecundity than controls when breeding at least two years after having their reproductive effort experimentally increased. Finally, females producing the modal clutch size of seven eggs in their first broods had the highest lifetime number of fledglings. PMID:26012556

  3. Ivermectin Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, and Tissue/Egg Residue Profiles in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Laura; Dominguez, Paula; Farias, Cristina; Canton, Lucila; Virkel, Guillermo; Maté, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-12-01

    The goals were to determine the ivermectin (IVM) plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue and egg residue profiles, and in vitro metabolism in laying hens. Experiments conducted were (1) 8 hens were intravenously treated with IVM and blood samples taken; (2) 88 hens were treated with IVM administered daily in water (5 days) (40 were kept and their daily eggs collected; 48 were sacrificed in groups (n = 8) at different times and tissue samples taken and analyzed); (3) IVM biotransformation was studied in liver microsomes. Pharmacokinetic parameters were AUC = 85.1 ng·day/mL, Vdss = 4.43 L/kg, and T1/2el = 1.73 days. Low IVM tissue residues were quantified with the highest measured in liver and skin+fat. IVM residues were not found in egg white, but significant amounts were quantified in yolk. Residues measured in eggs were greater than some MRL values, suggesting that a withdrawal period would be necessary for eggs after IVM use in laying hens. PMID:26553292

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nest Usage Sensor to Detect Double Nest Occupations of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage “sensor”, based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  5. Short-term effects of lower oil dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen rations.

    PubMed

    Purdum, Sheila; Hanford, Kathy; Kreifels, Brett

    2014-10-01

    Extraction of oil from dried distillers grains has become a common practice among US ethanol producers. The valuable oil has been diverted to markets other than poultry feed, leaving new dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) products higher in fiber and purportedly lower in ME. This study compared 3 DDGS products with 10.3, 7.3, or 5.2% ether extract, respectively, with a corn-soy control ration in young Bovan laying hens for a feeding period from 20 to 33 wk of age. The DDGS was fed at the rate of 20% of the ration. Lower oil content of DDGS had no effect on short-term egg production parameters: feed intake, egg production, egg weight or mass, and hen weight gain. The diets containing lower fat DDGS (5.2%) did have reduced AME and kilocalories per day intake for laying hens. For each percent reduction in oil from a normal DDGS sample (10.3%) to medium oil (7.3%) DDGS, AME decreased 42.3 kcal/kg of diet. However, total kilocalories per day intake did sustain good egg production during this short trial. PMID:25071225

  6. How people explain their own and others’ behavior: a theory of lay causal explanations

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Gisela; Pfister, Hans-Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model is proposed that specifies lay causal theories of behavior; and supporting experimental evidence is presented. The model’s basic assumption is that different types of behavior trigger different hypotheses concerning the types of causes that may have brought about the behavior. Seven categories are distinguished that are assumed to serve as both behavior types and explanation types: goals, dispositions, temporary states such as emotions, intentional actions, outcomes, events, and stimulus attributes. The model specifies inference rules that lay people use when explaining behavior (actions are caused by goals; goals are caused by higher order goals or temporary states; temporary states are caused by dispositions, stimulus attributes, or events; outcomes are caused by actions, temporary states, dispositions, stimulus attributes, or events; events are caused by dispositions or preceding events). Two experiments are reported. Experiment 1 showed that free-response explanations followed the assumed inference rules. Experiment 2 demonstrated that explanations which match the inference rules are generated faster and more frequently than non-matching explanations. Together, the findings support models that incorporate knowledge-based aspects into the process of causal explanation. The results are discussed with respect to their implications for different stages of this process, such as the activation of causal hypotheses and their subsequent selection, as well as with respect to social influences on this process. PMID:25741306

  7. Understanding Co-development of Conceptual and Epistemic Understanding through Modeling Practices with Mobile Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Suna; Han, Yuhwha; Paik, Seoung-Hey

    2015-04-01

    The present study explores how engaging in modeling practice, along with argumentation, leverages students' epistemic and conceptual understanding in an afterschool science/math class of 16 tenth graders. The study also explores how students used mobile Internet phones (smart phones) productively to support modeling practices. As the modeling practices became more challenging, student discussion occurred more often, from what to model to providing explanations for the phenomenon. Students came to argue about evidence that supported their model and how the model could explain target and related phenomena. This finding adds to the literature that modeling practice can help students improve conceptual understanding of subject knowledge as well as epistemic understanding.

  8. Understanding Climate Service Science: Balancing Users' Needs with Providers' Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Roger B.; Bley, Dagmar; Manez, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Understanding Climate Service Science: Balancing Users' Needs with Providers' Capabilities The overall strategic objective of the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI)-Climate is to contribute to highly coordinated knowledge development by not only improving the scientific expertise on climate change risks and adaptation options, but also by connecting that knowledge with decision making. Understanding the nature and scope of those providing climate services and the services being provided and understanding user? needs and requirements is critical to realisation of this strategic objective. The main aim of the JPI-Climate Working Group 2 "Researching and advancing Climate Service Development" is to coordinate knowledge development and transfer to improve the climate (change) services to society and within Europe. In order to avoid duplication of efforts and picking on differences in the quality and nature of information being provided from country to country there is a need for a certain degree of consistency of approaches and quality assurance. The JPI-Climate will bring interaction between the emerging national and European climate services initiatives. Climate services produce strongly science-based client-oriented information. They should be built on a good understanding of the stakeholder needs, and provide easy access to up-to-date information and expertise regarding specific policy or research questions. It is evident from experience that such services need (and are perceived) to be salient, credible and legitimate from the perspective of the intended users and providers of those services, and within the supportive research community. Achieving this aim and developing and delivering the required services necessitates the engagement of the spectrum of users and providers, as well as researchers from the physical, natural, engineering, economics and social sciences - the science underpinning climate services. The JPI-Climate, Module 2 Fast Track Activities (FTAs) are exploring, mapping and analysing users' requirements and climate service providers within Europe. Such information does exist to some degree but are fragmented and relatively little is systematically documented or analysed. These FTAs include a number of national dialogues and will draw on existing information, including that being compiled through previous initiatives and various research projects. However the mapping within the FTAs goes beyond the existing inventories and will lay the ground for a mid- to long-term multidisciplinary research on the governance of CS. The FTAs are intended to identify research gaps and inform the development and delivery of the JPI-Climate strategic research agenda, including those components for the seasonal to decadal predictions, societal transformation and decision support tools. This initiative is a multi-year process of research and information exchange engaging climate service providers and users in Europe, at different levels (regional-national-international) in several loops of national and European dialogues. This presentation will provide some insights into the directions and initial outcomes of the FTAs and what these mean for the science underpinning climate services.

  9. Data Understanding Applied to Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray; Shilman, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore and develop software for supporting visualization and data analysis of search and optimization. Optimization is an ever-present problem in science. The theory of NP-completeness implies that the problems can only be resolved by increasingly smarter problem specific knowledge, possibly for use in some general purpose algorithms. Visualization and data analysis offers an opportunity to accelerate our understanding of key computational bottlenecks in optimization and to automatically tune aspects of the computation for specific problems. We will prototype systems to demonstrate how data understanding can be successfully applied to problems characteristic of NASA's key science optimization tasks, such as central tasks for parallel processing, spacecraft scheduling, and data transmission from a remote satellite.

  10. Understanding the theta aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fear, Robert; Milan, Steve; Carter, Jennifer; Maggiolo, Romain; Fazakerley, Andrew; Dandouras, Iannis; Mende, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The theta aurora, first observed by Dynamics Explorer in the 1980s, is a configuration of the Earth's aurora in which auroral emissions extend into and across the polar cap in the form of a transpolar arc. It is well established that the theta aurora occurs predominantly when the interplanetary magnetic field has a northward component, but over the last thirty years various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this intriguing phenomenon. In the last couple of years, a range of evidence has accumulated which strongly suggests that the transpolar arc is formed as proposed by Milan et al. (2005): magnetotail reconnection occurs during intervals of northward IMF, which results in a local "wedge" of closed magnetospheric flux that remains trapped in the magnetotail. Precipitation on these closed field lines results in the transpolar arc analogously to the formation of the aurora in the main oval. Evidence for magnetotail reconnection as the cause of the theta aurora includes the timescales necessary to influence the location at which the transpolar arc forms, and the presence of characteristic ionospheric flows which are excited by magnetotail reconnection and which are statistically associated with transpolar arcs (Fear & Milan, 2012a,b). Most recently, direct observation has been made of a localised wedge of closed magnetic flux, "trapped" in the lobe, which was observed to move back and forth in a manner which (to our knowledge) can only be explained by the magnetotail reconnection mechanism (Fear et al., 2014). In this talk, we summarise the evidence for the formation of the theta aurora by magnetotail reconnection, and discuss the remaining challenges in obtaining a comprehensive understanding of this spectacular phenomenon.

  11. An experimental study of the effects of surface lay orientations on initial surface damage in point contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Whitley, B. W.; Cusano, C.; Conry, T. F.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental investigation to determine the effects of surface roughness lay direction relative to the direction of motion on initial surface damage was conducted using a four-ball machine under both simple sliding and pure rolling point contact conditions. Surface topographies ranging from 0.11 micron to 0.73 micron rms roughness and 31.5 microns to 59.6 microns in wavelength were utilized in the experimental program. A lithium complex grease was used as the lubricant for all tests. The experimental results indicate that surfaces with transverse lay orientations cause more initial surface damage than surfaces with longitudinal lay orientations for relatively low ratios of film thickness-to-composite surface roughness, and low ratios of surface wavelength-to-contact radius.

  12. Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

    As early as 1609 Galileo's first telescope showed the Moon to be another world. The Moon has thus been the object of intense study not only since the 1960s but for at least the previous three and a half centuries. The first "race to the Moon" was not undertaken by American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts but by German and British selenographers in the nineteenth century, who mapped lunar detail so painstakingly that by 1878 - the year Julius Schmidt of the Athens Observatory published his great Moon map. In part, the reason for the long preoccupation with lunar surface details lay in the fact that the mapping of the Moon provided a form of therapy for astronomically inclined obsessive personalities. In part, too, it lay in the partiality of selenographers for the project - first systematically pursued by Johann Schroeter at the end of the eighteenth century - of discovering evidence of minor changes in the lunar surface. What became a Promethean quest for changes - veils, clouds, landslips, eruptions - was initially tied in with the theory that the lunar surface features had been formed by volcanic eruptions; however, it curiously survived the demise of the volcanic theory and still shows intermittent gasps of life in the largely amateur-driven search for transient lunar phenomena, or TLP. The long era of pre-Apollo lunar studies is a fascinating subject that has never been told in detail. Though there was a lapse of interest in the Moon in the immediate post-Apollo era, there has been a recent "return to the Moon" with the successful Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions. There is also growing evidence of a return of amateur observers to the Moon as an object worthy of their attentions. This is understandable inasmuch as the Moon remains the most accessible planetary realm; it is, moreover, the only alien world open to geological prospecting from the eyepiece of the backyard telescope. In that sense, this book is - like the Moon itself - both timely and timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

  13. Flexibility in Embodied Language Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Roel M.; Casasanto, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Do people use sensori-motor cortices to understand language? Here we review neurocognitive studies of language comprehension in healthy adults and evaluate their possible contributions to theories of language in the brain. We start by sketching the minimal predictions that an embodied theory of language understanding makes for empirical research, and then survey studies that have been offered as evidence for embodied semantic representations. We explore four debated issues: first, does activation of sensori-motor cortices during action language understanding imply that action semantics relies on mirror neurons? Second, what is the evidence that activity in sensori-motor cortices plays a functional role in understanding language? Third, to what extent do responses in perceptual and motor areas depend on the linguistic and extra-linguistic context? And finally, can embodied theories accommodate language about abstract concepts? Based on the available evidence, we conclude that sensori-motor cortices are activated during a variety of language comprehension tasks, for both concrete and abstract language. Yet, this activity depends on the context in which perception and action words are encountered. Although modality-specific cortical activity is not a sine qua non of language processing even for language about perception and action, sensori-motor regions of the brain appear to make functional contributions to the construction of meaning, and should therefore be incorporated into models of the neurocognitive architecture of language. PMID:21779264

  14. Assessing Models of Public Understanding In ELSI Outreach Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce V. Lewenstein, Ph.D.; Dominique Brossard, Ph.D.

    2006-03-01

    Advances in the science of genetics have implications for individuals and society, and have to be taken into account at the policy level. Studies of ethical, legal and social issues related to genomic research have therefore been integrated in the Human Genome Project (HGP) since the earliest days of the project. Since 1990, three to five percent of the HGP annual budget has been devoted to such studies, under the umbrella of the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) Programs of the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institute of Health, and of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE-ELSI budget has been used to fund a variety of projects that have aimed at ?promoting education and help guide the conduct of genetic research and the development of related medical and public policies? (HGP, 2003). As part of the educational component, a significant portion of DOE-ELSI funds have been dedicated to public outreach projects, with the underlying goal of promoting public awareness and ultimately public discussion of ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding availability of genetic information (Drell, 2002). The essential assumption behind these projects is that greater access to information will lead to more knowledge about ethical, legal and social issues, which in turn will lead to enhanced ability on the part of individuals and communities to deal with these issues when they encounter them. Over the same period of time, new concepts of ?public understanding of science? have emerged in the theoretical realm, moving from a ?deficit? or linear dissemination of popularization, to models stressing lay-knowledge, public engagement and public participation in science policy-making (Lewenstein, 2003). The present project uses the base of DOE-funded ELSI educational project to explore the ways that information about a new and emerging area of science that is intertwined with public issues has been used in educational public settings to affect public understanding of science. After a theoretical background discussion, our approach is three-fold. First, we will provide an overview, a ?map? of DOE-funded of outreach programs within the overall ELSI context to identify the importance of the educational component, and to present the criteria we used to select relevant and representative case studies. Second, we will document the history of the case studies. Finally, we will explore an intertwined set of research questions: (1) To identify what we can expect such projects to accomplish -in other words to determine the goals that can reasonably be achieved by different types of outreach, (2) To point out how the case study approach could be useful for DOE-ELSI outreach as a whole, and (3) To use the case study approach as a basis to test theoretical models of science outreach in order to assess to what extent those models accord with real world outreach activities. For this last goal, we aim at identifying what practices among ELSI outreach activities contribute most to dissemination, or to participation, in other words in which cases outreach materials spark action in terms of public participation in decisions about scientific issues.

  15. "I Finally Get It!": Developing Mathematical Understanding during Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Jennifer; Kajander, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A deep conceptual understanding of elementary mathematics as appropriate for teaching is increasingly thought to be an important aspect of elementary teacher capacity. This study explores preservice teachers' initial mathematical understandings and how these understandings developed during a mathematics methods course for upper elementary…

  16. Overview of a distributed parallel architecture for speech understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The complexity of the speech understanding task requires extensive computation. To improve the processing speed, methods are explored by which tasks involved in speech understanding can be structured for execution on a parallel processing system. An architecture is described in which a speech understanding system is decomposed into a series of distributed processing computation stations. 24 references.

  17. Effects of housing, perches, genetics, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on keel bone deformities in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Käppeli, S; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Fröhlich, E; Pfulg, A; Schäublin, H; Stoffel, M H

    2011-08-01

    Several studies have shown a high prevalence of keel bone deformities in commercial laying hens. The aim of this project was to assess the effects of perch material, a vitamin D feed additive (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3); HyD, DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland), and genetics on keel bone pathology. The study consisted of 2 experiments. In the first experiment, 4,000 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens were raised in aviary systems until 18 wk of age. Two factors were investigated: perch material (plastic or rubber-coated metal) and feed (with and without HyD). Afterward, the hens were moved to a layer house with 8 pens with 2 aviary systems. Daily feed consumption, egg production, mortality, and feather condition were evaluated. Every 6 wk, the keel bones of 10 randomly selected birds per pen were palpated and scored. In the second experiment, 2,000 Lohmann Brown (LB) hens and 2,000 Lohmann Brown parent stock (LBPS) hens were raised in a manner identical to the first experiment. During the laying period, the hens were kept in 24 identical floor pens but equipped with different perch material (plastic or rubber-coated metal). The same variables were investigated as in the first experiment. No keel bone deformities were found during the rearing period in either experiment. During the laying period, deformities gradually appeared and reached a prevalence of 35% in the first experiment and 43.8% in the second experiment at the age of 65 and 62 wk, respectively. In the first experiment, neither HyD nor the aviary system had any significant effect on the prevalence of keel bone deformities. In the second experiment, LBPS had significantly fewer moderate and severe deformities than LB, and rubber-coated metal perches were associated with a higher prevalence of keel bone deformities compared with plastic perches. The LBPS laid more but smaller eggs than the LB. Again, HyD did not affect the prevalence of keel bone deformities. However, the significant effect of breed affiliation strongly indicates a sizeable genetic component that may provide a basis for targeted selection. PMID:21753197

  18. Lay attitudes toward deception in medicine: Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Jonathan; Kahane, Guy; Maslen, Hannah; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is a lack of empirical data on lay attitudes toward different sorts of deception in medicine. However, lay attitudes toward deception should be taken into account when we consider whether deception is ever permissible in a medical context. The objective of this study was to examine lay attitudes of U.S. citizens toward different sorts of deception across different medical contexts. Methods: A one-time online survey was administered to U.S. users of the Amazon “Mechanical Turk” website. Participants were asked to answer questions regarding a series of vignettes depicting different sorts of deception in medical care, as well as a question regarding their general attitudes toward truth-telling. Results: Of the 200 respondents, the majority found the use of placebos in different contexts to be acceptable following partial disclosure but found it to be unacceptable if it involved outright lying. Also, 55.5% of respondents supported the use of sham surgery in clinical research, although 55% claimed that it would be unacceptable to deceive patients in this research, even if this would improve the quality of the data from the study. Respondents supported fully informing patients about distressing medical information in different contexts, especially when the patient is suffering from a chronic condition. In addition, 42.5% of respondents believed that it is worse to deceive someone by providing the person with false information than it is to do so by giving the person true information that is likely to lead them to form a false belief, without telling them other important information that shows it to be false. However, 41.5% believed that the two methods of deception were morally equivalent. Conclusions: Respondents believed that some forms of deception were acceptable in some circumstances. While the majority of our respondents opposed outright lying in medical contexts, they were prepared to support partial disclosure and the use of placebos when it is in the patient's interests or when it is what the person would want. These results support the position that physicians should be allowed a greater degree of authority to make a professional judgment about whether deception might be morally warranted by the circumstances, provided that it doesn't involve outright lying. PMID:26682239

  19. Arsenic in eggs and excreta of laying hens in Bangladesh: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Awal, M A; Majumder, Shankar; Mostofa, Mahbub; Khair, Abul; Islam, M Z; Rao, D Ramkishan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect arsenic concentrations in feed, well-water for drinking, eggs, and excreta of laying hens in arsenic-prone areas of Bangladesh and to assess the effect of arsenic-containing feed and well-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta of the same subject. One egg from each laying hen (n = 248) and its excreta, feed, and well-water for drinking were collected. Total arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, coupled with hydride generator. Effects of arsenic-containing feed and drinking-water on the accumulation of arsenic in eggs and excreta were analyzed by multivariate regression model, using Stata software. Mean arsenic concentrations in drinking-water, feed (dry weight [DW]), egg (wet weight [WW]), and excreta (DW) of hens were 77.3, 176.6, 19.2, and 1,439.9 ppb respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) positive correlations were found between the arsenic contents in eggs and drinking-water (r = 0.602), drinking-water and excreta (r = 0.716), feed and excreta (r = 0.402) as well as between the arsenic content in eggs and the age of the layer (r = 0.243). On an average, 55% and 82% of the total variation in arsenic contents of eggs and excreta respectively could be attributed to the variation in the geographic area, age, feed type, and arsenic contents of drinking-water and feed. For each week's increase in age of hens, arsenic content in eggs increased by 0.94%. For every 1% elevation of arsenic in drinking-water, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.41% and 0.44% respectively whereas for a 1% rise of arsenic in feed, arsenic in eggs and excreta increased by 0.40% and 0.52% respectively. These results provide evidence that, although high arsenic level prevails in well-water for drinking in Bangladesh, the arsenic shows low biological transmission capability from body to eggs and, thus, the value was below the maximum tolerable limit for humans. However, arsenic in drinking-water and/or feed makes a significant contribution to the arsenic accumulations in eggs and excreta of laying hens. PMID:23304904

  20. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Mesquita, Aline Lopes; de Paiva, Jaqueline Boldrin; Zotesso, Fábio; Berchieri Júnior, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to assess three commercial inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines allowed in Brazil. Four hundred white light variety commercial laying hens were obtained at one-day-of age. At eight weeks old, the birds were divided into four groups with one hundred animals each. Birds from three groups (V1, V2 and V3) received different intramuscular vaccines, followed by a booster dose at 16 weeks of age. Birds from another group (CG) were not vaccinated. When the laying hens were 20, 25 and 31 weeks old, 13 from each group were transferred to another room and were challenged by inoculating 2 mL neat culture of Salmonella Enteritidis. On the second day after each challenge, the caecal contents, spleen, liver and ovary of three birds from each group were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Twice a week a cloacal swab of each bird was taken and all eggs laid were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. After four consecutive negative cloacal swabs in all the groups, the birds were sacrificed so as to examine the liver, caecal contents and ovaries. Overall, the inactivated vaccine used in group V3 reduced Salmonella Enteritidis in the feces and eggs. A very small amount of Salmonella was found in the spleen, liver, ovary and caeca of the birds in the four groups during the whole experiment. In general, inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines was able to decrease the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the birds and in the eggs as well. Nevertheless, they must be associated with general hygiene and disinfection practices in poultry husbandry. PMID:24031235