Science.gov

Sample records for exploring scientific datasets

  1. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  2. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; de Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  3. Dataset of Scientific Inquiry Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Choo-Yee; Ho, Chiung Ching

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the dataset collected from student interactions with INQPRO, a computer-based scientific inquiry learning environment. The dataset contains records of 100 students and is divided into two portions. The first portion comprises (1) "raw log data", capturing the student's name, interfaces visited, the interface…

  4. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  5. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  6. Asteroids in the EXPLORE II Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoll, S.; Mallen-Ornelas, G.; Holman, M.

    2005-12-01

    The inner asteroid belt holds information about the solar system's history and future. The currently accepted theory of planet formation is that smaller rocky bodies collided and formed the planets of the inner solar system, and asteroids are relics of this past. Furthermore, near Earth objects that could potentially collide with us usually originate in the main belt. Determining the size distribution of the main-belt asteroids is key to unlocking the processes of planet formation and possible problems with near Earth objects. Here the EXtra Solar PLanet Occultation(EXPLORE) II data taken with the CFH12K mosaic CCD prime focus camera on the CFHT 3.6-m telescope are used to find the size distribution of main belt asteroids. The EXPLORE Project is an extrasolar planet detection survey that focuses on one patch of the sky per observing run. The resultant data have more observations per asteroid than any preceding deep asteroid search. Here a pipeline is presented to find the asteroids in this dataset, along with the other four EXPLORE datasets. This is done by processing the data with an image subtraction package called ISIS (Alard et al. 1997) and custom masking using IRAF. Asteroids are found using SExtractor (Bertin et al. 1996) and a set of custom C programs that detects moving objects in a series of images. Then light curves are created for each asteroid found. Sizes can be estimated based on the absolute magnitudes of the asteroids. We present absolute magnitudes and preliminary size distribution for the >52 asteroids found thus far. This Research was made possible by the NSF and SAO REU Program.

  7. Using bitmap index for interactive exploration of large datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Koegler, Wendy; Chen, Jacqueline; Shoshani, Arie

    2003-04-24

    Many scientific applications generate large spatio-temporal datasets. A common way of exploring these datasets is to identify and track regions of interest. Usually these regions are defined as contiguous sets of points whose attributes satisfy some user defined conditions, e.g. high temperature regions in a combustion simulation. At each time step, the regions of interest may be identified by first searching for all points that satisfy the conditions and then grouping the points into connected regions. To speed up this process, the searching step may use a tree based indexing scheme, such as a kd-tree or an octree. However, these indices are efficient only if the searches are limited to one or a small number of selected attributes. Scientific datasets often contain hundreds of attributes and scientists frequently study these attributes incomplex combinations, e.g. finding regions of high temperature yet low shear rate and pressure. Bitmap indexing is an efficient method for searching on multiple criteria simultaneously. We apply a bitmap compression scheme to reduce the size of the indices. In addition, we show that the compressed bitmaps can be used efficiently to perform the region growing and the region tracking operations. Analyses show that our approach scales well and our tests on two datasets from simulation of the auto ignition process show impressive performance.

  8. REX: response exploration for neuroimaging datasets.

    PubMed

    Duff, Eugene P; Cunnington, Ross; Egan, Gary F

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies produce large and complex datasets. The challenge of comprehensively analysing the recorded dynamics remains an important field of research. The whole-brain linear modelling of hypothesised response dynamics and experimental effects must utilise simple basis sets, which may not detect unexpected or complex signal effects. These unmodelled effects can influence statistical mapping results, and provide important additional clues to the underlying neural dynamics. They can be detected via exploration of the raw signal, however this can be difficult. Specialised visualisation tools are required to manage the huge number of voxels, events and scans. Many effects can be occluded by noise in individual voxel time-series. This paper describes a visualisation framework developed for the assessment of entire neuroimaging datasets. While currently available tools tend to be tied to a specific model of experimental effects, this framework includes a novel metadata schema that enables the rapid selection and processing of responses based on easily-adjusted classifications of scans, brain regions, and events. Flexible event-related averaging and process pipelining capabilities enable users to investigate the effects of preprocessing algorithms and to visualise power spectra and other transformations of the data. The framework has been implemented as a MATLAB package, REX (Response Exploration), which has been utilised within our lab and is now publicly available for download. Its interface enables the real-time control of data selection and processing, for very rapid visualisation. The concepts outlined in this paper have general applicability, and could provide significant further functionality to neuroimaging databasing and process pipeline environments. PMID:17985253

  9. Interactive exploration of implicit and explicit relations in faceted datasets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Collins, Christopher; Chevalier, Fanny; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2013-12-01

    Many datasets, such as scientific literature collections, contain multiple heterogeneous facets which derive implicit relations, as well as explicit relational references between data items. The exploration of this data is challenging not only because of large data scales but also the complexity of resource structures and semantics. In this paper, we present PivotSlice, an interactive visualization technique which provides efficient faceted browsing as well as flexible capabilities to discover data relationships. With the metaphor of direct manipulation, PivotSlice allows the user to visually and logically construct a series of dynamic queries over the data, based on a multi-focus and multi-scale tabular view that subdivides the entire dataset into several meaningful parts with customized semantics. PivotSlice further facilitates the visual exploration and sensemaking process through features including live search and integration of online data, graphical interaction histories and smoothly animated visual state transitions. We evaluated PivotSlice through a qualitative lab study with university researchers and report the findings from our observations and interviews. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of PivotSlice using a scenario of exploring a repository of information visualization literature. PMID:24051774

  10. Advanced Aerobots for Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Raymond, Carol A.; Matthews, Janet B.; Nicaise, Fabien; Jones, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    The Picosat and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Systems Engineering (PAUSE) project is developing balloon-borne instrumentation systems as aerobots for scientific exploration of remote planets and for diverse terrestrial purposes that can include scientific exploration, mapping, and military surveillance. The underlying concept of balloon-borne gondolas housing outer-space-qualified scientific instruments and associated data-processing and radio-communication equipment is not new. Instead, the novelty lies in numerous design details that, taken together, make a PAUSE aerobot smaller, less expensive, and less massive, relative to prior aerobots developed for similar purposes: Whereas the gondola (including the instrumentation system housed in it) of a typical prior aerobot has a mass of hundreds of kilograms, the mass of the gondola (with instrumentation system) of a PAUSE aerobot is a few kilograms.

  11. Automatic run-time provenance capture for scientific dataset generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, J.; Slaughter, P.

    2008-12-01

    Provenance---the directed graph of a dataset's processing history---is difficult to capture effectively. Human- generated provenance, as narrative metadata, is labor-intensive and thus often incorrect, incomplete, or simply not recorded. Workflow systems capture some provenance implicitly in workflow specifications, but these systems are not ubiquitous or standardized, and a workflow specification may not capture all of the factors involved in a dataset's production. System audit trails capture potentially all processing activities, but not the relationships between them. We describe a system that transparently (i.e., without any modification to science codes) and automatically (i.e. without any human intervention) captures the low-level interactions (files read/written, parameters accessed, etc.) between scientific processes, and then synthesizes these relationships into a provenance graph. This system---the Earth System Science Server (ES3)---is sufficiently general that it can accommodate any combination of stand-alone programs, interpreted codes (e.g. IDL), and command- language scripts. Provenance in ES3 can be published in well-defined XML formats (including formats suitable for graphical visualization), and queried to determine the ancestors or descendants of any specific data file or process invocation. We demonstrate how ES3 can be used to capture the provenance of a large operational ocean color dataset.

  12. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets.

    PubMed

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug-drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called 'AnnSim' that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1-1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:25725057

  13. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug–drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called ‘AnnSim’ that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1–1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:25725057

  14. The Role of Datasets on Scientific Influence within Conflict Research

    PubMed Central

    Van Holt, Tracy; Johnson, Jeffery C.; Moates, Shiloh; Carley, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    We inductively tested if a coherent field of inquiry in human conflict research emerged in an analysis of published research involving “conflict” in the Web of Science (WoS) over a 66-year period (1945–2011). We created a citation network that linked the 62,504 WoS records and their cited literature. We performed a critical path analysis (CPA), a specialized social network analysis on this citation network (~1.5 million works), to highlight the main contributions in conflict research and to test if research on conflict has in fact evolved to represent a coherent field of inquiry. Out of this vast dataset, 49 academic works were highlighted by the CPA suggesting a coherent field of inquiry; which means that researchers in the field acknowledge seminal contributions and share a common knowledge base. Other conflict concepts that were also analyzed—such as interpersonal conflict or conflict among pharmaceuticals, for example, did not form their own CP. A single path formed, meaning that there was a cohesive set of ideas that built upon previous research. This is in contrast to a main path analysis of conflict from 1957–1971 where ideas didn’t persist in that multiple paths existed and died or emerged reflecting lack of scientific coherence (Carley, Hummon, and Harty, 1993). The critical path consisted of a number of key features: 1) Concepts that built throughout include the notion that resource availability drives conflict, which emerged in the 1960s-1990s and continued on until 2011. More recent intrastate studies that focused on inequalities emerged from interstate studies on the democracy of peace earlier on the path. 2) Recent research on the path focused on forecasting conflict, which depends on well-developed metrics and theories to model. 3) We used keyword analysis to independently show how the CP was topically linked (i.e., through democracy, modeling, resources, and geography). Publically available conflict datasets developed early on helped

  15. The Role of Datasets on Scientific Influence within Conflict Research.

    PubMed

    Van Holt, Tracy; Johnson, Jeffery C; Moates, Shiloh; Carley, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    We inductively tested if a coherent field of inquiry in human conflict research emerged in an analysis of published research involving "conflict" in the Web of Science (WoS) over a 66-year period (1945-2011). We created a citation network that linked the 62,504 WoS records and their cited literature. We performed a critical path analysis (CPA), a specialized social network analysis on this citation network (~1.5 million works), to highlight the main contributions in conflict research and to test if research on conflict has in fact evolved to represent a coherent field of inquiry. Out of this vast dataset, 49 academic works were highlighted by the CPA suggesting a coherent field of inquiry; which means that researchers in the field acknowledge seminal contributions and share a common knowledge base. Other conflict concepts that were also analyzed-such as interpersonal conflict or conflict among pharmaceuticals, for example, did not form their own CP. A single path formed, meaning that there was a cohesive set of ideas that built upon previous research. This is in contrast to a main path analysis of conflict from 1957-1971 where ideas didn't persist in that multiple paths existed and died or emerged reflecting lack of scientific coherence (Carley, Hummon, and Harty, 1993). The critical path consisted of a number of key features: 1) Concepts that built throughout include the notion that resource availability drives conflict, which emerged in the 1960s-1990s and continued on until 2011. More recent intrastate studies that focused on inequalities emerged from interstate studies on the democracy of peace earlier on the path. 2) Recent research on the path focused on forecasting conflict, which depends on well-developed metrics and theories to model. 3) We used keyword analysis to independently show how the CP was topically linked (i.e., through democracy, modeling, resources, and geography). Publically available conflict datasets developed early on helped shape the

  16. Scientific Datasets: Discovery and Aggregation for Semantic Interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, L. A.; Scott, S.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Duerr, R.

    2015-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges that interdisciplinary researchers face is finding suitable datasets in order to advance their science; this problem remains consistent across multiple disciplines. A surprising number of scientists, when asked what tool they use for data discovery, reply "Google", which is an acceptable solution in some cases but not even Google can find -or cares to compile- all the data that's relevant for science and particularly geo sciences. If a dataset is not discoverable through a well known search provider it will remain dark data to the scientific world.For the past year, BCube, an EarthCube Building Block project, has been developing, testing and deploying a technology stack capable of data discovery at web-scale using the ultimate dataset: The Internet. This stack has 2 principal components, a web-scale crawling infrastructure and a semantic aggregator. The web-crawler is a modified version of Apache Nutch (the originator of Hadoop and other big data technologies) that has been improved and tailored for data and data service discovery. The second component is semantic aggregation, carried out by a python-based workflow that extracts valuable metadata and stores it in the form of triples through the use semantic technologies.While implementing the BCube stack we have run into several challenges such as a) scaling the project to cover big portions of the Internet at a reasonable cost, b) making sense of very diverse and non-homogeneous data, and lastly, c) extracting facts about these datasets using semantic technologies in order to make them usable for the geosciences community. Despite all these challenges we have proven that we can discover and characterize data that otherwise would have remained in the dark corners of the Internet. Having all this data indexed and 'triplelized' will enable scientists to access a trove of information relevant to their work in a more natural way. An important characteristic of the BCube stack is that all

  17. ESTATE: Strategy for Exploring Labeled Spatial Datasets Using Association Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, Tomasz F.; Salazar, Josue; Ding, Wei; White, Denis

    We propose an association analysis-based strategy for exploration of multi-attribute spatial datasets possessing naturally arising classification. Proposed strategy, ESTATE (Exploring Spatial daTa Association patTErns), inverts such classification by interpreting different classes found in the dataset in terms of sets of discriminative patterns of its attributes. It consists of several core steps including discriminative data mining, similarity between transactional patterns, and visualization. An algorithm for calculating similarity measure between patterns is the major original contribution that facilitates summarization of discovered information and makes the entire framework practical for real life applications. Detailed description of the ESTATE framework is followed by its application to the domain of ecology using a dataset that fuses the information on geographical distribution of biodiversity of bird species across the contiguous United States with distributions of 32 environmental variables across the same area.

  18. Clementine: Anticipated scientific datasets from the Moon and Geographos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Clementine spacecraft mission is designed to test the performance of new lightweight and low-power detectors developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A secondary objective of the mission is to acquire useful scientific data, principally of the Moon and the near-Earth asteroid Geographos. The spacecraft will be in an elliptical polar orbit about the Moon for about 2 months beginning in February of 1994 and it will fly by Geographos on August 31. Clementine will carry seven detectors each weighing less than about 1 kg: two Star Trackers wide-angle uv/vis wide-angle Short Wavelength IR (SWIR) Long-Wavelength IR (LWIR) and LIDAR (Laser Image Detection And Ranging) narrow-angle imaging and ranging. Additional presentations about the mission detectors and related science issues are in this volume. If fully successful Clementine will return about 3 million lunar images, a dataset with nearly as many bits of data (uncompressed) as the first cycle of Magellan and more than 5000 images of Geographos. The complete and efficient analysis of such large data sets requires systematic processing efforts. Described below are concepts for two such efforts for the Clementine mission: global multispectral imaging of the Moon and videos of the Geographos flyby. Other anticipated datasets for which systematic processing might be desirable include multispectral observations of Earth; LIDAR altimetry of the Moon with high-resolution imaging along each ground track; high-resolution LIDAR color along each lunar ground track which could be used to identify potential titanium-rich deposits at scales of a few meters; and thermal IR imaging along each lunar ground track (including nighttime observations near the poles).

  19. Gathering and Exploring Scientific Knowledge in Pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Pedro; Nunes, Tiago; Campos, David; Furlong, Laura Ines; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Sanz, Ferran; Carrascosa, Maria Carmen; Mestres, Jordi; Kors, Jan; Singh, Bharat; van Mulligen, Erik; Van der Lei, Johan; Diallo, Gayo; Avillach, Paul; Ahlberg, Ernst; Boyer, Scott; Diaz, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance plays a key role in the healthcare domain through the assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in the human organism. However, technological advances in this field have been slowing down over the last decade due to miscellaneous legal, ethical and methodological constraints. Pharmaceutical companies started to realize that collaborative and integrative approaches boost current drug research and development processes. Hence, new strategies are required to connect researchers, datasets, biomedical knowledge and analysis algorithms, allowing them to fully exploit the true value behind state-of-the-art pharmacovigilance efforts. This manuscript introduces a new platform directed towards pharmacovigilance knowledge providers. This system, based on a service-oriented architecture, adopts a plugin-based approach to solve fundamental pharmacovigilance software challenges. With the wealth of collected clinical and pharmaceutical data, it is now possible to connect knowledge providers’ analysis and exploration algorithms with real data. As a result, new strategies allow a faster identification of high-risk interactions between marketed drugs and adverse events, and enable the automated uncovering of scientific evidence behind them. With this architecture, the pharmacovigilance field has a new platform to coordinate large-scale drug evaluation efforts in a unique ecosystem, publicly available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/euadr/. PMID:24349421

  20. Gathering and exploring scientific knowledge in pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Pedro; Nunes, Tiago; Campos, David; Furlong, Laura Ines; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Sanz, Ferran; Carrascosa, Maria Carmen; Mestres, Jordi; Kors, Jan; Singh, Bharat; van Mulligen, Erik; Van der Lei, Johan; Diallo, Gayo; Avillach, Paul; Ahlberg, Ernst; Boyer, Scott; Diaz, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance plays a key role in the healthcare domain through the assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in the human organism. However, technological advances in this field have been slowing down over the last decade due to miscellaneous legal, ethical and methodological constraints. Pharmaceutical companies started to realize that collaborative and integrative approaches boost current drug research and development processes. Hence, new strategies are required to connect researchers, datasets, biomedical knowledge and analysis algorithms, allowing them to fully exploit the true value behind state-of-the-art pharmacovigilance efforts. This manuscript introduces a new platform directed towards pharmacovigilance knowledge providers. This system, based on a service-oriented architecture, adopts a plugin-based approach to solve fundamental pharmacovigilance software challenges. With the wealth of collected clinical and pharmaceutical data, it is now possible to connect knowledge providers' analysis and exploration algorithms with real data. As a result, new strategies allow a faster identification of high-risk interactions between marketed drugs and adverse events, and enable the automated uncovering of scientific evidence behind them. With this architecture, the pharmacovigilance field has a new platform to coordinate large-scale drug evaluation efforts in a unique ecosystem, publicly available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/euadr/. PMID:24349421

  1. The Scientific Exploration of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Fredric W.

    2014-12-01

    Part I. Views of Venus, from the Beginning to the Present Day: 1. The dawn of Venus exploration; 2. Mariner and Venera; 3. Pioneer Venus and Vega: orbiters, balloons and multi-probes; 4. Images of the surface; 5. The forgotten world; 6. Earth-based astronomy delivers a breakthrough; 7. Can't stop now; 8. Europe and Japan join in: Venus Express and Akatsuki; Part II. The Motivation to Continue the Quest: 9. Origin and evolution: the solid planet; 10. Atmosphere and ocean; 11. A volcanic world; 12. The mysterious clouds; 13. Superwinds and polar vortices; 14. The climate on Venus, past, present and future; 15. Could there be life on Venus?; Part III. Plans and Visions for the Future: 16. Solar system exploration; 17. Coming soon to a planet near you: planned Venus missions; 18. Towards the horizon: advanced technology; 19. Beyond the horizon: human expeditions; Epilogue; Appendix A. Chronology of space missions to Venus; Appendix B. Data about Venus.

  2. Smallsats, Cubesats and Scientific Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Smallsats (including Cubesats) have taken off in the aerospace research community - moving beyond simple tools for undergraduate and graduate students and into the mainstream of science research. Cubesats started the "smallsat" trend back in the late 1990's early 2000's, with the first Cubesats launching in 2003. NASA anticipates a number of future benefits from small satellite missions, including lower costs, more rapid development, higher risk tolerance, and lower barriers to entry for universities and small businesses. The Agency's Space Technology Mission Directorate is currently addressing technology gaps in small satellite platforms, while the Science Mission Directorate pursues miniaturization of science instruments. Launch opportunities are managed through the Cubesat Launch Initiative, and the Agency manages these projects as sub-orbital payloads with little program overhead. In this session we bring together scientists and technologists to discuss the current state of the smallsat field. We explore ideas for new investments, new instruments, or new applications that NASA should be investing in to expand the utility of smallsats. We discuss the status of a NASA-directed NRC study on the utility of small satellites. Looking to the future, what does NASA need to invest in now, to enable high impact ("decadal survey" level) science with smallsats? How do we push the envelope? We anticipate smallsats will contribute significantly to a more robust exploration and science program for NASA and the country.

  3. Scientific Balloons for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Yavrouian, Andre; Nott, Julian; Baines, Kevin; Limaye, Sanjay; Wilson, Colin; Kerzhanovich, Viktor; Voss, Paul; Hall, Jeffery

    Almost 30 years ago, two balloons were successfully deployed into the atmosphere of Venus as an element of the VeGa - Venus Halley mission conducted by the Soviet Union. As interest in further Venus exploration grows among the established planetary exploration agencies - in Europe, Japan, Russia and the United States, use of balloons is emerging as an essential part of that investigative program. Venus balloons have been proposed in NASA’s Discovery program and ESA’s cosmic vision program and are a key element in NASA’s strategic plan for Venus exploration. At JPL, the focus for the last decade has been on the development of a 7m diameter superpressure pressure(twice that of VeGa) capable of carrying a 100 kg payload (14 times that of VeGA balloons), operating for more than 30 days (15 times the 2 day flight duration of the VeGa balloons) and transmitting up to 20 Mbit of data (300 times that of VeGa balloons). This new generation of balloons must tolerate day night transitions on Venus as well as extended exposure to the sulfuric acid environment. These constant altitude balloons operating at an altitude of about 55 km on Venus where temperatures are benign can also deploy sondes to sound the atmosphere beneath the probe and deliver deep sondes equipped to survive and operate down to the surface. The technology for these balloons is now maturing rapidly and we are now looking forward to the prospects for altitude control balloons that can cycle repeatedly through the Venus cloud region. One concept, which has been used for tropospheric profiling in Antarctica, is the pumped-helium balloon, with heritage to the anchor balloon, and would be best adapted for flight above the 55 km level. Phase change balloons, which use the atmosphere as a heat engine, can be used to investigate the lower cloud region down to 30 km. Progress in components for high temperature operation may also enable investigation of the deep atmosphere of Venus with metal-based balloons.

  4. EpiExplorer: live exploration and global analysis of large epigenomic datasets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Epigenome mapping consortia are generating resources of tremendous value for studying epigenetic regulation. To maximize their utility and impact, new tools are needed that facilitate interactive analysis of epigenome datasets. Here we describe EpiExplorer, a web tool for exploring genome and epigenome data on a genomic scale. We demonstrate EpiExplorer's utility by describing a hypothesis-generating analysis of DNA hydroxymethylation in relation to public reference maps of the human epigenome. All EpiExplorer analyses are performed dynamically within seconds, using an efficient and versatile text indexing scheme that we introduce to bioinformatics. EpiExplorer is available at http://epiexplorer.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:23034089

  5. EpiExplorer: live exploration and global analysis of large epigenomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Halachev, Konstantin; Bast, Hannah; Albrecht, Felipe; Lengauer, Thomas; Bock, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Epigenome mapping consortia are generating resources of tremendous value for studying epigenetic regulation. To maximize their utility and impact, new tools are needed that facilitate interactive analysis of epigenome datasets. Here we describe EpiExplorer, a web tool for exploring genome and epigenome data on a genomic scale. We demonstrate EpiExplorer's utility by describing a hypothesis-generating analysis of DNA hydroxymethylation in relation to public reference maps of the human epigenome. All EpiExplorer analyses are performed dynamically within seconds, using an efficient and versatile text indexing scheme that we introduce to bioinformatics. EpiExplorer is available at http://epiexplorer.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:23034089

  6. Unified Access Architecture for Large-Scale Scientific Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Risav

    2014-05-01

    Data-intensive sciences have to deploy diverse large scale database technologies for data analytics as scientists have now been dealing with much larger volume than ever before. While array databases have bridged many gaps between the needs of data-intensive research fields and DBMS technologies (Zhang 2011), invocation of other big data tools accompanying these databases is still manual and separate the database management's interface. We identify this as an architectural challenge that will increasingly complicate the user's work flow owing to the growing number of useful but isolated and niche database tools. Such use of data analysis tools in effect leaves the burden on the user's end to synchronize the results from other data manipulation analysis tools with the database management system. To this end, we propose a unified access interface for using big data tools within large scale scientific array database using the database queries themselves to embed foreign routines belonging to the big data tools. Such an invocation of foreign data manipulation routines inside a query into a database can be made possible through a user-defined function (UDF). UDFs that allow such levels of freedom as to call modules from another language and interface back and forth between the query body and the side-loaded functions would be needed for this purpose. For the purpose of this research we attempt coupling of four widely used tools Hadoop (hadoop1), Matlab (matlab1), R (r1) and ScaLAPACK (scalapack1) with UDF feature of rasdaman (Baumann 98), an array-based data manager, for investigating this concept. The native array data model used by an array-based data manager provides compact data storage and high performance operations on ordered data such as spatial data, temporal data, and matrix-based data for linear algebra operations (scidbusr1). Performances issues arising due to coupling of tools with different paradigms, niche functionalities, separate processes and output

  7. Let's Find out! Preschoolers as Scientific Explorers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Scientific Explorers both tall and small, ask questions about objects, living things, and events that interest or puzzle them. They seek answers by examining the world in specific ways that allow them to understand more about it. Young children are often described as natural scientists. They earn this description because they engage in many of the…

  8. Salt Crystals: Exploring the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John; Villanueva, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students apply the scientific method as they explore each step of crystal growing. Students select variables, record daily observations, and participate in discussions about the differences in crystal formation. Crystal recipe and procedures are provided. (DDR)

  9. Knowledge Discovery Workflows in the Exploration of Complex Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Laurino, Omar; Massaro, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    The massive amount of data produced by the recent multi-wavelength large-area surveys has spurred the growth of unprecedentedly massive and complex astronomical datasets that are proving the traditional data analysis techniques more and more inadequate. Knowledge discovery techniques, while relatively new to astronomy, have been successfully applied in several other quantitative disciplines for the determination of patterns in extremely complex datasets. The concerted use of different unsupervised and supervised machine learning techniques, in particular, can be a powerful approach to answer specific questions involving high-dimensional datasets and degenerate observables. In this paper I will present CLaSPS, a data-driven methodology for the discovery of patterns in high-dimensional astronomical datasets based on the combination of clustering techniques and pattern recognition algorithms. I shall also describe the result of the application of CLaSPS to a sample of a peculiar class of AGNs, the blazars.

  10. Apollo scientific exploration of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental dichotomy of space exploration, unmanned versus manned projects, is discussed from an historical perspective. The integration of science into Apollo operations is examined with attention given to landing sites, extending the missions, and crew selection. A Science Working Group composed of scientists and Manned Spacecraft Center flight planners was formed in an attempt to produce the most scientific information possible within those operational limits that were considered absolutely inviolable.

  11. Manned flight and planetary scientific exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Christian; Moreau, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Human explorers had a fundamental role in the success of the APOLLO moon programme, they were at the same time the indispensable pilots, scientific operators and on the last missions lead scientists. Since, man did not either return to the moon or land on Mars but manned operation centres on the earth are now conducting extensive telescience on both celestial bodies. Manned flights to moon, Mars and asteroids are however still on the agenda and even if the main drive of these projects is outside science, it is to the planetary scientists to both prepare the data bases necessary for these flights and to ensure that the scientific advantage of conducting research in real time and in situ is exploited to the maximum. The current manned flight programme in Europe concentrates on the use of the International Space Station, the scientific activities can be roughly divided between the pressurized payloads and the external payloads. Technology developments occur also in parallel and prepare new exploration techniques. The current planning leads to exploitation up to 2020 but the space agencies study further extensions, the date of 2028 having already been considered. The relation of these programmes to future manned planetary exploration will be described both from the science and development point of view. The complementary role of astronauts and ground operation centres will be described on the basis of the current experience of operation centres managing the International Space Station. Finally, the NASA ORION project of exploration in the solar system will be described with emphasis on its current European participations. The science opportunities presented by independent ventures as Inspiration Mars or Mars One will be presented.

  12. Exploring HPCS Languages in Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Richard F; Alam, Sadaf R; de Almeida, Valmor F; Bernholdt, David E; Elwasif, Wael R; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Poole, Stephen W; Shet, Aniruddha G

    2008-01-01

    As computers scale up dramatically to tens and hundreds of thousands of cores, develop deeper computational and memory hierarchies, and increased heterogeneity, developers of scientific software are increasingly challenged to express complex parallel simulations effectively and efficiently. In this paper, we explore the three languages developed under the DARPA High-Productivity Computing Systems (HPCS) program to help address these concerns: Chapel, Fortress, and X10. These languages provide a variety of features not found in currently popular HPC programming environments and make it easier to express powerful computational constructs, leading to new ways of thinking about parallel programming. Though the languages and their implementations are not yet mature enough for a comprehensive evaluation, we discuss some of the important features, and provide examples of how they can be used in scientific computing. We believe that these characteristics will be important to the future of high-performance scientific computing, whether the ultimate language of choice is one of the HPCS languages or something else.

  13. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  14. Techniques for Exploring Cluster Compressed Geospatial-Temporal Satellite Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, John M.

    NASA satellite data products are part of the recent big data explosion. An example of this are the individual physically referenced and processed footprints of data from the AIRS satellite (L2 Data Product), Each 2.3 MB data file covers a 6 minute period. Daily data volumes are 0.552GB/day and the collection of data products now spans over a decade. This research addressed NASA's L3Q Data Products. NASA has developed the L3Q Entropy Constrained Vector Quantization (ECVQ) cluster compressed dataset to provide a compact representation of the detailed data that retains much of the original multi-variate, altitudinally indexed information content summarized to a 5° x 5° Earth grid cell over a period of one month. The monthly summary files are- roughly 5.5MB in size, so the compression factor is about 3000 to 1. These multivariate L3Q monthly summaries differ from the NASA's L3 products which contain univariate statistics (means and standard deviations) for 1 x 1 degree earth grid cells. In this research, I developed techniques to support hierarchical cluster analysis over multiple months of L3Q (ECVQ) cluster compressed multivariate data. I then developed new visualizations for the sets of multi-variate altitudinally indexed physical data vectors resulting from hierarchical clustering of the earth grid cells and their associated compression vectors. These techniques and visualizations allowed new, computationally feasible analysis and interaction with these datasets. The methods are potentially relevant to other ECVQ compressed multivariate data sets. Specifically, I examined techniques to approximate the full distance matrix that is traditionally used in hierarchical clustering. I addressed the computational challenge of producing the distance matrix in a reasonable time by reducing the problem via an adapted method of cluster exemplars. These techniques enable practical hierarchical clustering of multiple months of data (granules), without losing the granule level

  15. Scientific rationale for Saturn's in situ exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.; Fletcher, L. N.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Wurz, P.; Cavalié, T.; Coustenis, A.; Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Helled, R.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Morse, A. D.; Nettelmann, N.; Marty, B.; Rousselot, P.; Venot, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Waite, J. H.; Reh, K. R.; Simon, A. A.; Atreya, S.; André, N.; Blanc, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Fischer, G.; Geppert, W. D.; Guillot, T.; Hedman, M. M.; Hueso, R.; Lellouch, E.; Lunine, J. I.; Murray, C. D.; O`Donoghue, J.; Rengel, M.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Schmider, F.-X.; Spiga, A.; Spilker, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ali-Dib, M.; Altwegg, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Bouquet, A.; Briois, C.; Fouchet, T.; Guerlet, S.; Kostiuk, T.; Lebleu, D.; Moreno, R.; Orton, G. S.; Poncy, J.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing observations meet some limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements is illustrated by the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as the determination of the noble gases' abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. This paper describes the main scientific goals to be addressed by the future in situ exploration of Saturn placing the Galileo probe exploration of Jupiter in a broader context and before the future probe exploration of the more remote ice giants. In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere addresses two broad themes that are discussed throughout this paper: first, the formation history of our solar system and second, the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. In this context, we detail the reasons why measurements of Saturn's bulk elemental and isotopic composition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula. We also show that the in situ measurement of CO (or any other disequilibrium species that is depleted by reaction with water) in Saturn's upper troposphere may help constraining its bulk O/H ratio. We compare predictions of Jupiter and Saturn's bulk compositions from different formation scenarios, and highlight the key measurements required to distinguish competing theories to shed light on giant planet formation as a common process in planetary systems with potential applications to most extrasolar systems. In situ measurements of Saturn's stratospheric and tropospheric dynamics, chemistry and cloud-forming processes will provide access to phenomena unreachable to remote sensing studies. Different mission architectures are envisaged, which would benefit from strong international collaborations, all based on an entry probe that would descend

  16. Ice-Penetrating Robot for Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Carsey, Frank; French, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    The cryo-hydro integrated robotic penetrator system (CHIRPS) is a partially developed instrumentation system that includes a probe designed to deeply penetrate the European ice sheet in a search for signs of life. The CHIRPS could also be used on Earth for similar exploration of the polar ice caps especially at Lake Vostok in Antarctica. The CHIRPS probe advances downward by a combination of simple melting of ice (typically for upper, non-compacted layers of an ice sheet) or by a combination of melting of ice and pumping of meltwater (typically, for deeper, compacted layers). The heat and electric power for melting, pumping, and operating all of the onboard instrumentation and electronic circuitry are supplied by radioisotope power sources (RPSs) and thermoelectric converters energized by the RPSs. The instrumentation and electronic circuitry includes miniature guidance and control sensors and an advanced autonomous control system that has fault-management capabilities. The CHIRPS probe is about 1 m long and 15 cm in diameter. The RPSs generate a total thermal power of 1.8 kW. Initially, as this power melts the surrounding ice, a meltwater jacket about 1 mm thick forms around the probe. The center of gravity of the probe is well forward (down), so that the probe is vertically stabilized like a pendulum. Heat is circulated to the nose by means of miniature pumps and heat pipes. The probe melts ice to advance in a step-wise manner: Heat is applied to the nose to open up a melt void, then heat is applied to the side to allow the probe to slip down into the melt void. The melt void behind the probe is allowed to re-freeze. Four quadrant heaters on the nose and another four quadrant heaters on the rear (upper) surface of the probe are individually controllable for steering: Turning on two adjacent nose heaters on the nose and two adjacent heaters on the opposite side at the rear causes melt voids to form on opposing sides, such that the probe descends at an angle from

  17. SciSpark's SRDD : A Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset for Multidimensional Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamuttam, R. S.; Wilson, B. D.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; McGibbney, L. J.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We have developed SciSpark, a robust Big Data framework, that extends ApacheTM Spark for scaling scientific computations. Apache Spark improves the map-reduce implementation in ApacheTM Hadoop for parallel computing on a cluster, by emphasizing in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and relying on lazy evaluation. Central to Spark is the Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD), an in-memory distributed data structure that extends the functional paradigm provided by the Scala programming language. However, RDDs are ideal for tabular or unstructured data, and not for highly dimensional data. The SciSpark project introduces the Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset (sRDD), a distributed-computing array structure which supports iterative scientific algorithms for multidimensional data. SciSpark processes data stored in NetCDF and HDF files by partitioning them across time or space and distributing the partitions among a cluster of compute nodes. We show usability and extensibility of SciSpark by implementing distributed algorithms for geospatial operations on large collections of multi-dimensional grids. In particular we address the problem of scaling an automated method for finding Mesoscale Convective Complexes. SciSpark provides a tensor interface to support the pluggability of different matrix libraries. We evaluate performance of the various matrix libraries in distributed pipelines, such as Nd4jTM and BreezeTM. We detail the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from model grids. These

  18. Sciologer: Visualizing and Exploring Scientific Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bales, Michael Eliot

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognized need to increase interdisciplinary collaboration, there are few information resources available to provide researchers with an overview of scientific communities--topics under investigation by various groups, and patterns of collaboration among groups. The tools that are available are designed for expert social network…

  19. NOAA Ocean Exploration 2003: A Scientific Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    A little over three years ago, a panel of leading ocean scientists, explorers, and educators developed a national strategy for ocean exploration. Their report, "Discovering Earth's Final Frontier: A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration," opened the door to a new way of thinking about ocean exploration and inspired the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to embark on a mission to expand knowledge and appreciation of the ocean. This year, in collaboration with over 100 partners including university, international, federal, state and tribal science agencies, private research and outreach organizations, civic groups, aquariums and museums, NOAA engaged in major multidisciplinary expeditions and multiple projects around the world aimed at mapping the ocean in new ways, understanding ocean interactions, developing sensors and tools, and reaching out in new ways to stakeholders to communicate findings. Expeditions and projects undertaken this year continued to build on inaugural work in 2001 and 2002 and continue to set a precedent for high quality discovery-based ocean research and exploration. This presentation will focus on expedition highlights and future program directions.

  20. Exploring Careers. Scientific and Technical Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, published in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  1. Reconstruction and exploration of virtual middle-ear models derived from micro-CT datasets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong H.; Chan, Sonny; Salisbury, Curt; Kim, Namkeun; Salisbury, Kenneth; Puria, Sunil; Blevins, Nikolas H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Middle-ear anatomy is integrally linked to both its normal function and its response to disease processes. Micro-CT imaging provides an opportunity to capture high-resolution anatomical data in a relatively quick and non-destructive manner. However, to optimally extract functionally relevant details, an intuitive means of reconstructing and interacting with these data is needed. Materials and methods A micro-CT scanner was used to obtain high-resolution scans of freshly explanted human temporal bones. An advanced volume renderer was adapted to enable real-time reconstruction, display, and manipulation of these volumetric datasets. A custom-designed user interface provided for semi-automated threshold segmentation. A 6-degrees-of-freedom navigation device was designed and fabricated to enable exploration of the 3D space in a manner intuitive to those comfortable with the use of a surgical microscope. Standard haptic devices were also incorporated to assist in navigation and exploration. Results Our visualization workstation could be adapted to allow for the effective exploration of middle-ear micro-CT datasets. Functionally significant anatomical details could be recognized and objective data could be extracted. Conclusions We have developed an intuitive, rapid, and effective means of exploring otological micro-CT datasets. This system may provide a foundation for additional work based on middle-ear anatomical data. PMID:20100558

  2. Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise: The Scientific Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Carl

    1973-01-01

    Presents examples which illustrate the importance of space exploration in diverse aspects of scientific knowledge. Indicates that human beings are today not wise enough to anticipate the practical benefits of planetary studies. (CC)

  3. Scientific objectives of human exploration of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    While human exploration of Mars is unlikely to be undertaken for science reasons alone, science will be the main beneficiary. A wide range of science problems can be addressed at Mars. The planet formed in a different part of the solar system from the Earth and retains clues concerning compositional and environmental conditions in that part of the solar system when the planets formed. Mars has had a long and complex history that has involved almost as wide a range of processes as occurred on Earth. Elucidation of this history will require a comprehensive program of field mapping, geophysical sounding, in situ analyses, and return of samples to Earth that are representative of the planet's diversity. The origin and evolution of the Mars' atmosphere are very different from the Earth's, Mars having experienced major secular and cyclical changes in climate. Clues as to precisely how the atmosphere has evolved are embedded in its present chemistry, possibly in surface sinks of former atmosphere-forming volatiles, and in the various products of interaction between the atmosphere and surface. The present atmosphere also provides a means of testing general circulation models applicable to all planets. Although life is unlikely to be still extant on Mars, life may have started early in the planet's history. A major goal of any future exploration will, therefore, be to search for evidence of indigenous life.

  4. Future scientific exploration of Taurus-Littrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 site was surveyed with great skill and the collected samples have been studied thoroughly (but not completely) in the 20 years since. Ironically, the success of the field and sample studies makes the site an excellent candidate for a return mission. Rather than solving all the problems, the Apollo 17 mission provided a set of sophisticated questions that can be answered only by returning to the site and exploring further. This paper addresses the major unsolved problems in lunar science and points out the units at the Apollo 17 site that are most suitable for addressing each problem. It then discusses how crucial data can be obtained by robotic rovers and human field work. I conclude that, in general, the most important information can be obtained only by human exploration. The paper ends with some guesses about what we could have learned at the Apollo 17 site from a fairly sophisticated rover capable of in situ analyses, instead of sending people.

  5. Scientific preparations for lunar exploration with the European Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Houdou, B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Lunar missions and new scientific results in multiple disciplines have shown that working and operating in the complex lunar environment and exploiting the Moon as a platform for scientific research and further exploration poses major challenges. Underlying these challenges are fundamental scientific unknowns regarding the Moon's surface, its environment, the effects of this environment and the availability of potential resources. The European Lunar Lander is a mission proposed by the European Space Agency to prepare for future exploration. The mission provides an opportunity to address some of these key unknowns and provide information of importance for future exploration activities. Areas of particular interest for investigation on the Lunar Lander include the integrated plasma, dust, charge and radiation environment and its effects, the properties of lunar dust and its physical effects on systems and physiological effects on humans, the availability, distribution and potential application of in situ resources for future exploration. A model payload has then been derived, taking these objectives to account and considering potential payloads proposed through a request for information, and the mission's boundary conditions. While exploration preparation has driven the definition there is a significant synergy with investigations associated with fundamental scientific questions. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission, which emphasise human exploration preparatory science and introduces the model scientific payload considered as part of the on-going mission studies, in advance of a formal instrument selection.

  6. Future Visions for Scientific Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, James

    2005-01-01

    Today, humans explore deep-space locations such as Mars, asteroids, and beyond, vicariously here on Earth, with noteworthy success. However, to achieve the revolutionary breakthroughs that have punctuated the history of science since the dawn of the Space Age has always required humans as "the discoverers," as Daniel Boorstin contends in this book of the same name. During Apollo 17, human explorers on the lunar surface discovered the "genesis rock," orange glass, and humans in space revamped the optically crippled Hubble Space Telescope to enable some of the greatest astronomical discoveries of all time. Science-driven human exploration is about developing the opportunities for such events, perhaps associated with challenging problems such as whether we can identify life beyond Earth within the universe. At issue, however, is how to safely insert humans and the spaceflight systems required to allow humans to operate as they do best in the hostile environment of deep space. The first issue is minimizing the problems associated with human adaptation to the most challenging aspects of deep space space radiation and microgravity (or non-Earth gravity). One solution path is to develop technologies that allow for minimization of the exposure time of people to deep space, as was accomplished in Apollo. For a mission to the planet Mars, this might entail new technological solutions for in-space propulsion that would make possible time-minimized transfers to and from Mars. The problem of rapid, reliable in-space transportation is challenged by the celestial mechanics of moving in space and the so-called "rocket equation." To travel to Mars from Earth in less than the time fuel-minimizing trajectories allow (i.e., Hohmann transfers) requires an exponential increase in the amount of fuel. Thus, month-long transits would require a mass of fuel as large as the dry mass of the ISS, assuming the existence of continuous acceleration engines. This raises the largest technological

  7. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26356902

  8. The Nature and Assessment of Scientific Explorations in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, J. R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The development of scientific explorations in schools and a framework for their assessment within the context of Britain's Graded Assessment in Science Project (GASP) scheme is described. The criteria for assessing the planning, implementing, concluding, and evaluating of explorations are provided. (KR)

  9. Evaluating Techniques for Interactive Exploration and Visualization of Large Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boch, T.; Pineau, F.-X.; Blegean, J.

    2015-09-01

    As large surveys of hundreds millions of objects are common, helping users locating their data subset of interest through interactive exploration and visualization is becoming a challenge of major concern. In this paper, we present two prototypes we developed to tackle this issue. Using Datavore and D3, we developed a pure-Javascript SPLOM (scatter plot matrix) visualizer taking a VOTable as an input. Linked views allow one to distinguish correlations between displayed attributes. This approach works well until 50k-100k objects, but does not scale beyond because of browsers limitations. For larger datasets, we adapted the Nanocubes datastructure initially created by AT&T Research for interactive visualization of spatial-temporal datasets. Our version, developed in Java, allows fast interactive visualization of a catalogue with hundred million rows for a few attributes. HiPS (Hierarchical Progressive Surveys) heatmaps are dynamically generated according to selected criteria and displayed in Aladin Lite. Eventually, we will discuss the benefits and limitations of these approaches, explore possible improvements and describe how these techniques might be integrated in existing CDS services.

  10. Internet Activities Using Scientific Data. A Self-Guided Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froseth, Stan; Poppe, Barbara

    This guide is intended for the secondary school teacher (especially math or science) or the student who wants to access and learn about scientific data on the Internet. It is organized as a self-guided exploration. Nine exercises enable the user to access and analyze on-line information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration…

  11. Language, Space, Time: Anthropological Tools and Scientific Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, Roxana

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the importance of social science disciplines in the scientific exploration of Mars. The importance of language, workspace, and time differences are reviewed. It would appear that the social scientist perspective in developing a completely new workspace, keeping track of new vocabulary and the different time zones (i.e., terrestrial and Martian) was useful.

  12. Adventures in supercomputing: Scientific exploration in an era of change

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, E.; Helland, B.; Summers, B.

    1997-11-01

    Students deserve the opportunity to explore the world of science surrounding them. Therefore it is important that scientific exploration and investigation be a part of each student`s educational career. The Department of Energy`s Adventures in Superconducting (AiS) takes students beyond mere scientific literacy to a rich embodiment of scientific exploration. AiS provides today`s science and math students with a greater opportunity to investigate science problems, propose solutions, explore different methods of solving the problem, organize their work into a technical paper, and present their results. Students learn at different rates in different ways. Science classes with students having varying learning styles and levels of achievement have always been a challenge for teachers. The AiS {open_quotes}hands-on, minds-on{close_quotes} project-based method of teaching science meets the challenge of this diversity heads on! AiS uses the development of student chosen projects as the means of achieving a lifelong enthusiasm for scientific proficiency. One goal of AiS is to emulate the research that takes place in the everyday environment of scientists. Students work in teams and often collaborate with students nationwide. With the help of mentors from the academic and scientific community, students pose a problem in science, investigate possible solutions, design a mathematical and computational model for the problem, exercise the model to achieve results, and evaluate the implications of the results. The students then have the opportunity to present the project to their peers, teachers, and scientists. Using this inquiry-based technique, students learn more than science skills, they learn to reason and think -- going well beyond the National Science Education Standard. The teacher becomes a resource person actively working together with the students in their quest for scientific knowledge.

  13. The Remote NetCDF Invocation (RNI) middleware platform. Making Scientific Datasets Available for Ubiquitous Computing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, S. T.; Garcia, J. H.; Fox, P.; West, P.

    2007-12-01

    Large holding of NetCDF data, such as in the Earth System Grid (ESG) or the Community Spectro-Polarimetric Analysis Center (CSAC) are vast repositories of data, making it if not impossible, but impractical for users to download and replicate the complete database. Furthermore, each individual dataset is a combination of hundreds of individual NetCDF files. Therefore requesting such dataset for analysis is an expensive transaction for individuals seeking ubiquitous computing. Since the current state of networks can provide for access to individual pieces of the dataset with enough reliability and speed, we seek a solution that will avoid the bulk download of the dataset required a priori, and will instead request needed portions of the dataset just-in-time. In order to achieve this, we modify the NetCDF C library to execute Remote NetCDF Invocation (RNI), that is, to operate on remote dataset, over HTTPS and gsiFTP protocols, individual NetCDF Application Programming Interface (API) calls as if they were local. This mechanism resembles the well known Remote Procedure Call (RPC) yet it radically differs on the binding between local and remote operations. Our design is based on the extensibility mechanism provided by the popular OPeNDAP Back-End Server (BES) middleware platform with Globus GridFTP and Apache modules acting as the proxy transport mechanism (binding) between the local and remote transactions. This paper describes the architecture as well as how we address the technical challenges for the complete system.

  14. enRoute: dynamic path extraction from biological pathway maps for exploring heterogeneous experimental datasets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Jointly analyzing biological pathway maps and experimental data is critical for understanding how biological processes work in different conditions and why different samples exhibit certain characteristics. This joint analysis, however, poses a significant challenge for visualization. Current techniques are either well suited to visualize large amounts of pathway node attributes, or to represent the topology of the pathway well, but do not accomplish both at the same time. To address this we introduce enRoute, a technique that enables analysts to specify a path of interest in a pathway, extract this path into a separate, linked view, and show detailed experimental data associated with the nodes of this extracted path right next to it. This juxtaposition of the extracted path and the experimental data allows analysts to simultaneously investigate large amounts of potentially heterogeneous data, thereby solving the problem of joint analysis of topology and node attributes. As this approach does not modify the layout of pathway maps, it is compatible with arbitrary graph layouts, including those of hand-crafted, image-based pathway maps. We demonstrate the technique in context of pathways from the KEGG and the Wikipathways databases. We apply experimental data from two public databases, the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) that both contain a wide variety of genomic datasets for a large number of samples. In addition, we make use of a smaller dataset of hepatocellular carcinoma and common xenograft models. To verify the utility of enRoute, domain experts conducted two case studies where they explore data from the CCLE and the hepatocellular carcinoma datasets in the context of relevant pathways. PMID:24564375

  15. Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. W.; Hobbie, J. E.; Baker, A.; Clarke, G.; Doran, P. T.; Karl, D.; Methe, B.; Miller, H.; Mukasa, S. B.; Race, M.; Vincent, W.; Walton, D.; Uhle, M.

    2007-12-01

    Antarctica is renowned for its extreme cold; yet surprisingly, there is liquid water at the base of the Antarctic ice sheet several kilometers beneath the surface. The exploration of these subglacial aquatic environments is in its initial stages, and many fundamental questions about these environments can only be answered by entering and sampling the water. Accordingly, the management of subglacial aquatic environments requires responsible environmental stewardship while allowing field research. As of early 2007, no one has yet drilled into a lake but entry within the next one or two years is likely. Thus, the challenge is to determine the best way of drilling into, extensively sampling, and monitoring these environments. While general guidelines for research in Antarctica are provided in the Antarctic Treaty, currently no clear protocols or standards for minimizing contamination have been established. At the request of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Research Council convened a committee to develop a set of environmental and scientific protection standards needed to responsibly explore the subglacial lake environments in Antarctica. Specifically, the committee was asked to define levels of cleanliness for equipment or devices entering subglacial aquatic environments, develop a sound scientific basis for contamination standards, and recommend the next steps needed to define an overall exploration strategy. This talk will present the findings of that committee. The committee included U.S. and international scientists, and gathered information from the global scientific community. Although a U.S. scientific advisory body produced this study, the committee hopes that its multinational makeup will be recognized and that the recommendations in this report will serve as a basis for broad international discussion about environmental stewardship for the exploration of subglacial aquatic environments.

  16. Mars scientific exploration roving vehicles and drilling equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Kenji; Kojima, Masaki; Kinkori, Shuuzou; Suzuki, Manji; Kawashima, Nobuki; Nakatani, Ichirou

    1991-07-01

    Running gears for the Mars scientific exploration roving vehicles and the drilling equipment for the vehicles used to conduct underground exploration are studied. Review results on moving, driving, and running system for the vehicle are presented. For the driving system, comparison between conventional wheel system and crawler system are shown in a comprehensive table, and measures for failures are suggested. As for the development of the drilling equipment, the following items are presented: (1) methods of underground exploration; (2) methods of drilling (core boring and auger boring); (3) specifications for and the results of trial production of the experimental boring machine; (4) results of experimental boring machine operation on a simulated Mars surface; and (5) excavating capability of the experimental boring machine.

  17. Exploring Cloud Computing for Large-scale Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Guang; Han, Binh; Yin, Jian; Gorton, Ian

    2013-06-27

    This paper explores cloud computing for large-scale data-intensive scientific applications. Cloud computing is attractive because it provides hardware and software resources on-demand, which relieves the burden of acquiring and maintaining a huge amount of resources that may be used only once by a scientific application. However, unlike typical commercial applications that often just requires a moderate amount of ordinary resources, large-scale scientific applications often need to process enormous amount of data in the terabyte or even petabyte range and require special high performance hardware with low latency connections to complete computation in a reasonable amount of time. To address these challenges, we build an infrastructure that can dynamically select high performance computing hardware across institutions and dynamically adapt the computation to the selected resources to achieve high performance. We have also demonstrated the effectiveness of our infrastructure by building a system biology application and an uncertainty quantification application for carbon sequestration, which can efficiently utilize data and computation resources across several institutions.

  18. An interactive, multi-touch videowall for scientific data exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blower, Jon; Griffiths, Guy; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Lusher, Scott; Styles, Jon

    2014-05-01

    The use of videowalls for scientific data exploration is rising as hardware becomes cheaper and the availability of software and multimedia content grows. Most videowalls are used primarily for outreach and communication purposes, but there is increasing interest in using large display screens to support exploratory visualization as an integral part of scientific research. In this PICO presentation we will present a brief overview of a new videowall system at the University of Reading, which is designed specifically to support interactive, exploratory visualization activities in climate science and Earth Observation. The videowall consists of eight 42-inch full-HD screens (in 4x2 formation), giving a total resolution of about 16 megapixels. The display is managed by a videowall controller, which can direct video to the screen from up to four external laptops, a purpose-built graphics workstation, or any combination thereof. A multi-touch overlay provides the capability for the user to interact directly with the data. There are many ways to use the videowall, and a key technical challenge is to make the most of the touch capabilities - touch has the potential to greatly reduce the learning curve in interactive data exploration, but most software is not yet designed for this purpose. In the PICO we will present an overview of some ways in which the wall can be employed in science, seeking feedback and discussion from the community. The system was inspired by an existing and highly-successful system (known as the "Collaboratorium") at the Netherlands e-Science Center (NLeSC). We will demonstrate how we have adapted NLeSC's visualization software to our system for touch-enabled multi-screen climate data exploration.

  19. Computing Spatial Distance Histograms for Large Scientific Datasets On-the-Fly

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Grupcev, Vladimir; Yuan, Yongke; Huang, Jin; Shen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on an important query in scientific simulation data analysis: the Spatial Distance Histogram (SDH). The computation time of an SDH query using brute force method is quadratic. Often, such queries are executed continuously over certain time periods, increasing the computation time. We propose highly efficient approximate algorithm to compute SDH over consecutive time periods with provable error bounds. The key idea of our algorithm is to derive statistical distribution of distances from the spatial and temporal characteristics of particles. Upon organizing the data into a Quad-tree based structure, the spatiotemporal characteristics of particles in each node of the tree are acquired to determine the particles’ spatial distribution as well as their temporal locality in consecutive time periods. We report our efforts in implementing and optimizing the above algorithm in Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) as means to further improve the efficiency. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm is backed by mathematical analysis and results of extensive experiments using data generated from real simulation studies. PMID:25264418

  20. Initial explorations of ARM processors for scientific computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2014-06-01

    Power efficiency is becoming an ever more important metric for both high performance and high throughput computing. Over the course of next decade it is expected that flops/watt will be a major driver for the evolution of computer architecture. Servers with large numbers of ARM processors, already ubiquitous in mobile computing, are a promising alternative to traditional x86-64 computing. We present the results of our initial investigations into the use of ARM processors for scientific computing applications. In particular we report the results from our work with a current generation ARMv7 development board to explore ARM-specific issues regarding the software development environment, operating system, performance benchmarks and issues for porting High Energy Physics software.

  1. Automatic Flushing Toilets: An Entertaining Platform for Exploring Scientific Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, Brian S.

    2011-03-01

    It is often challenging, especially at the beginning of a course, to find good examples where students can actively explore and grapple with the methods of science. We want them to learn the connection between observation, theory, prediction, evidence, and falsification, but to really accomplish this we need platforms for which the students are able to design and implement experiments, and we need to be able to see the results of those experiments relatively quickly. There are some nice ideas using games and simple demonstrations and labs.2,3 I have found an example that is both entertaining for the students and rich enough in behavior to be an ideal platform for introducing scientific thinking: the automatic flushing toilet (Fig. 1).

  2. Case-History Explorations of Scientifically Significant Earth-System Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. K.; Walker, C. S.; Mayhew, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing case histories of recent and ancient natural disasters to provide students a means of learning fundamental earth system science and applying their new understanding to mitigating disasters in the future. We distinguish case histories from case studies in that they investigate real problems that are likely to recur, as opposed to hypothetical but realistic problem scenarios. Students explore the scientific and societal conditions that caused or fueled a disaster; investigate whether the outcome might have been different under different conditions; explore how the disaster has shaped our scientific and societal understanding of such events; and propose appropriate responses and preparation measures for future events. Each case history allows for multiple directions of investigation by individuals or teams. The case histories incorporate actual datasets used by scientists to analyze the event, in addition to analysis tools such as GIS, Excel, and Google Earth. These classroom resources are appropriate for undergraduate earth system majors from first year to third year. We have completed and are field testing case histories for the 1994 M6.7 Northridge earthquake and the Super Tornado Outbreak of 1974, as well as other notable tornado outbreaks. Additionally, we are developing case histories for the 1700 Cascadia mega-tsunami and the 2005 Hurricane Katrina. Research studies of each of these events have resulted in significant changes to our understanding of the earth processes that caused them, and have spawned renewed interest in hazard mitigation. Each case history also incorporates the human element, presented from both a scientific and eyewitness perspective. Field testing includes evaluation of scientific accuracy, usability and pedagogical effectiveness, as described in the DLESE peer-review-system criteria (www.dlese-project.org/review_criteria.html) by field testers and external technical experts.

  3. Access and scientific exploitation of planetary plasma datasets with the CDPP/AMDA web-based tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    The field of planetary sciences has greatly expanded in recent years with space missions orbiting around most of the planets of our Solar System. The growing amount and wealth of data available make it difficult for scientists to exploit data coming from many sources that can initially be heterogeneous in their organization, description and format. It is an important objective of the Europlanet-RI (supported by EU within FP7) to add value to space missions by significantly contributing to the effective scientific exploitation of collected data; to enable space researchers to take full advantage of the potential value of data sets. To this end and to enhance the science return from space missions, innovative tools have to be developed and offered to the community. AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis, http://cdpp-amda.cesr.fr/) is a web-based facility developed at CDPP Toulouse in France (http://cdpp.cesr.fr) for on line analysis of space physics data (heliosphere, magnetospheres, planetary environments) coming from either its local database or distant ones. AMDA has been recently integrated as a service to the scientific community for the Plasma Physics thematic node of the Europlanet-RI IDIS (Integrated and Distributed Information Service, http://www.europlanet-idis.fi/) activities, in close cooperation with IWF Graz (http://europlanet-plasmanode.oeaw.ac.at/index.php?id=9). We will report the status of our current technical and scientific efforts to integrate in the local database of AMDA various planetary plasma datasets (at Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth and Moon, Jupiter, Saturn) from heterogeneous sources, including NASA/Planetary Data System (http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/). We will also present our prototype Virtual Observatory activities to connect the AMDA tool to the IVOA Aladin astrophysical tool to enable pluridisciplinary studies of giant planet auroral emissions. This presentation will be done on behalf of the CDPP Team and Europlanet-RI IDIS plasma node

  4. Dame:. a Web Oriented Infrastructure for Scientific Data Mining and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Longo, G.; Garofalo, M.; Nocella, A.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, many scientific areas share the same broad requirements of being able to deal with massive and distributed datasets while, when possible, being integrated with services and applications. In order to solve the growing gap between the incremental generation of data and our understanding of it, it is required to know how to access, retrieve, analyze, mine and integrate data from disparate sources. One of the fundamental aspects of any new generation of data mining software tool or package which really wants to become a service for the community is the possibility to use it within complex workflows which each user can fine tune in order to match the specific demands of his scientific goal. These workflows need often to access different resources (data, providers, computing facilities and packages) and require a strict interoperability on (at least) the client side. The project DAME (DAta Mining & Exploration) arises from these requirements by providing a distributed WEB-based data mining infrastructure specialized on Massive Data Sets exploration with Soft Computing and machine learning methods. It results as a multi-disciplinary platform-independent tool perfectly compliant with modern KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases) requirements and Information & Communication Technology trends.

  5. Supporting exploration and collaboration in scientific workflow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, L.; Kooper, R.; Bajcsy, P.; Myers, J.

    2007-12-01

    As the amount of observation data captured everyday increases, running scientific workflows will soon become a fundamental step of scientific inquiry. Current scientific workflow systems offer ways to link together data, software and computational resources, but often accomplish this by requiring a deep understanding of the system with a steep learning curve. Thus, there is a need to lower user adoption barriers for workflow systems and improve the plug-and-play functionality of these systems. We created a system that allows the user to easily create and share workflows, data and algorithms. Our goal of lowering user adoption barriers is to support discoveries and to provide means for conducting research more efficiently. Current paradigms for workflow creation focus on the visual programming using a graph based metaphor. This can be a powerful metaphor in the hands of expert users, but can become daunting when graphs become large, the steps in the graph include engineering level steps such as loading and visualizing data, and the users are not very familiar with all the possible tools available. We present a different method of workflow creation that co- exists with the standard graph based editors. The method builds on exploratory interface using a macro- recording style, and focuses on the data being analyzed during the step by step creation of the workflow. Instead of storing data in system specific data structures, the use of more flexible open standards that are platform independent would create systems that are easier to extend and that provide a simple interface for external applications to query and analyze the data and metadata produced. We have explored and implemented a system that stores workflows and related metadata using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) metadata model and that is build on top of the Tupelo data and metadata archiving system. The scientific workflow system connects to shared content repositories, where users can easily share

  6. Earth Exploration Toolbook Workshops: Helping Teachers and Students Analyze Web-based Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, C.; Ledley, T.; Dahlman, L.; Haddad, N.

    2007-12-01

    One of the challenges faced by Earth science teachers, particularly in K-12 settings, is that of connecting scientific research to classroom experiences. Helping teachers and students analyze Web-based scientific data is one way to bring scientific research to the classroom. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) was developed as an online resource to accomplish precisely that. The EET consists of chapters containing step-by-step instructions for accessing Web-based scientific data and for using a software analysis tool to explore issues or concepts in science, technology, and mathematics. For example, in one EET chapter, users download Earthquake data from the USGS and bring it into a geographic information system (GIS), analyzing factors affecting the distribution of earthquakes. The goal of the EET Workshops project is to provide professional development that enables teachers to incorporate Web-based scientific data and analysis tools in ways that meet their curricular needs. In the EET Workshops project, Earth science teachers participate in a pair of workshops that are conducted in a combined teleconference and Web-conference format. In the first workshop, the EET Data Analysis Workshop, participants are introduced to the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). They also walk through an Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) chapter and discuss ways to use Earth science datasets and tools with their students. In a follow-up second workshop, the EET Implementation Workshop, teachers share how they used these materials in the classroom by describing the projects and activities that they carried out with students. The EET Workshops project offers unique and effective professional development. Participants work at their own Internet-connected computers, and dial into a toll-free group teleconference for step-by-step facilitation and interaction. They also receive support via Elluminate, a Web

  7. The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment: A Multi-dimensional Scientific Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.; Domenico, B.; Murray, D.; Marlino, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) is an online learning environment designed to help undergraduate students understand fundamental Earth system science concepts. The guiding principle of the VGEE is the importance of hands-on interaction with scientific visualization and data. The VGEE consists of four elements: 1) an online, inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration; 2) a suite of El Nino-related data sets adapted for student use; 3) a learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool; and 4) a set of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts). There are two key innovations featured in this interactive poster session. One is the integration of concept models and the visualization tool. Concept models are simple, interactive, Java-based illustrations of fundamental physical principles. We developed eight concept models and integrated them into the visualization tool to enable students to probe data. The ability to probe data using a concept model addresses the common problem of transfer: the difficulty students have in applying theoretical knowledge to everyday phenomenon. The other innovation is a visualization environment and data that are discoverable in digital libraries, and installed, configured, and used for investigations over the web. By collaborating with the Integrated Data Viewer developers, we were able to embed a web-launchable visualization tool and access to distributed data sets into the online curricula. The Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Distributed Services (THREDDS) project is working to provide catalogs of datasets that can be used in new VGEE curricula under development. By cataloging this curricula in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE), learners and educators can discover the data and visualization tool within a framework that guides their use.

  8. Scientific exploration of near-Earth objects via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Jones, T. D.; Adamo, D. R.; Morrison, D. D.; Lemke, L. G.; Gonzales, A. A.; Gershman, R.; Sweetser, T. H.; Johnson, L. L.; Lu, E.

    2009-01-01

    A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA’s Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth- Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs using the CEV would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  9. Small Explorer for Advanced Missions - cubesat for scientific mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-04-01

    A class of nanosatellites is defined by the cubesat standard, primarily setting the interface to the launcher, which allows standardizing cubesat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. The majority of cubesats have been launched are demonstration or educational missions. For scientific and other advanced missions to fully realize the potential offered by the low cost nanosatellites, there are challenges related to limitations of the existing cubesat platforms and to the availability of small yet sufficiently sensitive sensors. The new project SEAM (Small Explorer for Advanced Missions) was selected for realization in frames of FP-7 European program to develop a set of improved critical subsystems and to construct a prototype nanosatellite in the 3U cubesat envelope for electromagnetic measurements in low Earth orbit. The SEAM consortium will develop and demonstrate in flight for the first time the concept of an electromagnetically clean nanosatellite with precision attitude determination, flexible autonomous data acquisition system, high-bandwidth telemetry and an integrated solution for ground control and data handling. As the first demonstration, the satellite is planned to perform the Space Weather (SW) mission using novel miniature electric and magnetic sensors, able to provide science-grade measurements. To enable sensitive magnetic measurements onboard, the sensors must be deployed on booms to bring them away from the spacecraft body. Also other thorough yet efficient procedures will be developed to provide electromagnetic cleanliness (EMC) of the spacecraft. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  10. Crew Roles and Interactions in Scientific Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human spaceflight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future spaceflight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future spaceflights.

  11. Crew roles and interactions in scientific space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-10-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members' training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human space flight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future space flight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future space flights.

  12. A Physics MOSAIC: Scientific Skills and Explorations for Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, S.; Clements, C.; Erickson, P. J.; Rogers, A.

    2010-12-01

    MOSAIC unit begins with a series of activities and lessons designed to take advantage of the large data sets MOSAIC is collecting all the time to teach students about measurement, uncertainty, and data analysis. The curriculum develops an intuitive approach to thinking about numbers in science, focusing on both implicit and explicit expressions of uncertainty. Our teaching unit concludes with a final research project to provide students with the opportunity to pursue an area of interest within mesospheric ozone. This project is conceived in such a way that it can be as self-directed as a teacher or student needs. Given current concern for the state of our atmosphere and ozone, MOSAIC provides a unique opportunity for student engagement in an area of scientific research that has not been extensively explored. MOSAIC data can be compared with online resources for other atmospheric, astronomical, or geophysical data, and have been analyzed for the effects of such variables as seasonal and solar flux variations, lunar phases, shuttle and rocket launches, and sudden stratospheric warming events.

  13. Exploration of Korean Students' Scientific Imagination Using the Scientific Imagination Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mun, Jiyeong; Mun, Kongju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We…

  14. Exploration of Korean Students' Scientific Imagination Using the Scientific Imagination Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Jiyeong; Mun, Kongju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-09-01

    This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We identified three conceptual components of scientific imagination, which were composed of (1) scientific sensitivity, (2) scientific creativity, and (3) scientific productivity. We administered SII to 662 students (4th-8th grades) and confirmed validity and reliability using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach α coefficient. The characteristics of Korean elementary and secondary students' overall scientific imagination and difference across gender and grade level are discussed in the results section.

  15. Hands-on and Online: Scientific Explorations through Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawn, Mary V.; Carrico, Pauline; Charuk, Ken; Stote, Kim S.; Lawrence, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments are often considered the defining characteristic of science courses. Such activities provide students with real-world contexts for applying scientific concepts, while also allowing them to develop scientific ways of thinking and promoting an interest in science. In recent years, an increasing number of campuses have moved…

  16. Exploring genome-wide datasets of MHC class II antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Bakker, Jeroen M; Paul, Petra; Neefjes, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    MHC class II molecules (MHCII) are critical for presenting antigens to CD4(+) T-cells. They control ignition of CD4(+) T cells and are as such involved in most auto-immune diseases. To define proteins and pathways controlling MHCII antigen presentation and expression, we performed a genome-wide flow cytometry based RNAi screen. Hits were subsequently classified by two screens that monitored the intracellular distribution and transcription of MHCII. This multi-dimensional approach allowed subclassification of hits into functional groups as a first step to defining new pathways controlling MHCII antigen presentation. The datasets from this screen are used as a template for several follow-up studies. This overview focuses on how data from genome-wide screens can be used for target-lead finding, data mining, systems biology and systematic cell biology. PMID:23137594

  17. A Dataset of Metaphors from the Italian Literature: Exploring Psycholinguistic Variables and the Role of Context

    PubMed Central

    Bambini, Valentina; Resta, Donatella; Grimaldi, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Defining the specific role of the factors that affect metaphor processing is a fundamental step for fully understanding figurative language comprehension, either in discourse and conversation or in reading poems and novels. This study extends the currently available materials on everyday metaphorical expressions by providing the first dataset of metaphors extracted from literary texts and scored for the major psycholinguistic variables, considering also the effect of context. A set of 115 Italian literary metaphors presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and a subset of 65 literary metaphors embedded in their original texts (Experiment 2) were rated on several dimensions (word and phrase frequency, readability, cloze probability, familiarity, concreteness, difficulty and meaningfulness). Overall, literary metaphors scored around medium-low values on all dimensions in both experiments. Collected data were subjected to correlation analysis, which showed the presence of a strong cluster of variables—mainly familiarity, difficulty, and meaningfulness—when literary metaphor were presented in isolation. A weaker cluster was observed when literary metaphors were presented in the original contexts, with familiarity no longer correlating with meaningfulness. Context manipulation influenced familiarity, concreteness and difficulty ratings, which were lower in context than out of context, while meaningfulness increased. Throughout the different dimensions, the literary context seems to promote a global interpretative activity that enhances the open-endedness of the metaphor as a semantic structure constantly open to all possible interpretations intended by the author and driven by the text. This dataset will be useful for the design of future experimental studies both on literary metaphor and on the role of context in figurative meaning, combining ecological validity and aesthetic aspects of language. PMID:25244522

  18. A dataset of metaphors from the italian literature: exploring psycholinguistic variables and the role of context.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Valentina; Resta, Donatella; Grimaldi, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Defining the specific role of the factors that affect metaphor processing is a fundamental step for fully understanding figurative language comprehension, either in discourse and conversation or in reading poems and novels. This study extends the currently available materials on everyday metaphorical expressions by providing the first dataset of metaphors extracted from literary texts and scored for the major psycholinguistic variables, considering also the effect of context. A set of 115 Italian literary metaphors presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and a subset of 65 literary metaphors embedded in their original texts (Experiment 2) were rated on several dimensions (word and phrase frequency, readability, cloze probability, familiarity, concreteness, difficulty and meaningfulness). Overall, literary metaphors scored around medium-low values on all dimensions in both experiments. Collected data were subjected to correlation analysis, which showed the presence of a strong cluster of variables-mainly familiarity, difficulty, and meaningfulness-when literary metaphor were presented in isolation. A weaker cluster was observed when literary metaphors were presented in the original contexts, with familiarity no longer correlating with meaningfulness. Context manipulation influenced familiarity, concreteness and difficulty ratings, which were lower in context than out of context, while meaningfulness increased. Throughout the different dimensions, the literary context seems to promote a global interpretative activity that enhances the open-endedness of the metaphor as a semantic structure constantly open to all possible interpretations intended by the author and driven by the text. This dataset will be useful for the design of future experimental studies both on literary metaphor and on the role of context in figurative meaning, combining ecological validity and aesthetic aspects of language. PMID:25244522

  19. Exploring frontiers of the deep biosphere through scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; D'Hondt, S.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first deep biosphere-dedicated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 using the US drill ship JOIDES Resolution in 2002, scientific ocean drilling has offered unique opportunities to expand our knowledge of the nature and extent of the deep biosphere. The latest estimate of the global subseafloor microbial biomass is ~1029cells, accounting for 4 Gt of carbon and ~1% of the Earth's total living biomass. The subseafloor microbial communities are evolutionarily diverse and their metabolic rates are extraordinarily slow. Nevertheless, accumulating activity most likely plays a significant role in elemental cycles over geological time. In 2010, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329, the JOIDES Resolutionexplored the deep biosphere in the open-ocean South Pacific Gyre—the largest oligotrophic province on our planet. During Expedition 329, relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and significantly low biomass of microbial populations were observed in the entire sediment column, indicating that (i) there is no limit to life in open-ocean sediment and (ii) a significant amount of oxygen reaches through the sediment to the upper oceanic crust. This "deep aerobic biosphere" inhabits the sediment throughout up to ~37 percent of the world's oceans. The remaining ~63 percent of the oceans is comprised of higher productivity areas that contain the "deep anaerobic biosphere". In 2012, during IODP Expedition 337, the Japanese drill ship Chikyu explored coal-bearing sediments down to 2,466 meters below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Geochemical and microbiological analyses consistently showed the occurrence of methane-producing communities associated with the coal beds. Cell concentrations in deep sediments were notably lower than those expected from the global regression line, implying that the bottom of the deep biosphere is approached in these beds. Taxonomic composition of the deep coal-bearing communities profoundly

  20. Exploring scientific creativity of eleventh-grade students in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia-Chi

    2002-04-01

    Although most researchers focus on scientists' creativity, students' scientific creativity should be considered, especially for high school and college students. It is generally assumed that most professional creators in science emerge from amateur creators. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between students' scientific creativity and selected variables including creativity, problem finding, formulating hypotheses, science achievement, the nature of science, and attitudes toward science for finding significant predictors of eleventh grade students' scientific creativity. A total of 130 male eleventh-grade students in three biology classes participated in this study. The main instruments included the Test of Divergent Thinking (TDT) for creativity measurement, the Creativity Rating Scale (CRS) and the Creative Activities and Accomplishments Check Lists (CAACL ) for measurement of scientific creativity, the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS) for measurement of the nature of science, and the Science Attitude Inventory II (SAI II) for measurement of attitudes toward science. In addition, two instruments on measuring students' abilities of problem finding and abilities of formulating hypotheses were developed by the researcher in this study. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and stepwise multiple regressions. The major findings suggested the following: (1) students' scientific creativity significantly correlated with some of selected variables such as attitudes toward science, problem finding, formulating hypotheses, the nature of science, resistance to closure, originality, and elaboration; (2) four significant predictors including attitudes toward science, problem finding, resistance to closure, and originality accounted for 48% of the variance of students' scientific creativity; (3) there were big differences between students with a higher and a lower degree of scientific

  1. EEGVIS: A MATLAB Toolbox for Browsing, Exploring, and Viewing Large Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Kay A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in data monitoring and sensor technology have accelerated the acquisition of very large data sets. Streaming data sets from instrumentation such as multi-channel EEG recording usually must undergo substantial pre-processing and artifact removal. Even when using automated procedures, most scientists engage in laborious manual examination and processing to assure high quality data and to indentify interesting or problematic data segments. Researchers also do not have a convenient method of method of visually assessing the effects of applying any stage in a processing pipeline. EEGVIS is a MATLAB toolbox that allows users to quickly explore multi-channel EEG and other large array-based data sets using multi-scale drill-down techniques. Customizable summary views reveal potentially interesting sections of data, which users can explore further by clicking to examine using detailed viewing components. The viewer and a companion browser are built on our MoBBED framework, which has a library of modular viewing components that can be mixed and matched to best reveal structure. Users can easily create new viewers for their specific data without any programming during the exploration process. These viewers automatically support pan, zoom, resizing of individual components, and cursor exploration. The toolbox can be used directly in MATLAB at any stage in a processing pipeline, as a plug-in for EEGLAB, or as a standalone precompiled application without MATLAB running. EEGVIS and its supporting packages are freely available under the GNU general public license at http://visual.cs.utsa.edu/eegvis. PMID:22654753

  2. The USA National Phenology Network's National Phenology Database: a multi-taxa, continental-scale dataset for scientific inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA-NPN, is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. As of August 2012, participants in the USA-NPN national-scale, multi-taxa phenology observation program Nature's Notebook had contributed over 1.3 million observation records (encompassing four and three years of observations for plants and for animals, respectively). Data are freely available www.usanpn.org/results/data, and include FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. Quality assurance and quality control, and metadata data associated with field observations (e.g., effort and method reporting, site and organism condition) are also documented. Data are also available for exploration, visualization and preliminary analysis at www.usanpn.org/results/visualizations. Participants in Nature's Notebook, who include both professional and volunteer scientists, follow vetted protocols that employ phenological "status" monitoring rather than "event" monitoring: when sampling, observers indicate the status of each phenophase (e.g., "breaking leaf buds" or "active individuals"). This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring (including estimation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and phenophase duration) and is especially well-suited for integrated multi-taxa monitoring. Further, protocols and a user interface to facilitate the description of development or abundance data (e.g., tree canopy development, animal abundance) create a robust ecological dataset. We demonstrate several types of questions that can be addressed with this observing

  3. Hot Salsa: A Laboratory Exercise Exploring the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levri, Edward P.; Levri, Maureen A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise on spicy food and body temperature that introduces the scientific method to introductory biology students. Suggests that when students perform their own experiments which they have developed, it helps with their understanding of and confidence in doing science. (Author/SOE)

  4. Interactive exploration of integrated biological datasets using context-sensitive workflows

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Fabian; Rittweger, Martin; Taubert, Jan; Lysenko, Artem; Rawlings, Christopher; Guthke, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Network inference utilizes experimental high-throughput data for the reconstruction of molecular interaction networks where new relationships between the network entities can be predicted. Despite the increasing amount of experimental data, the parameters of each modeling technique cannot be optimized based on the experimental data alone, but needs to be qualitatively assessed if the components of the resulting network describe the experimental setting. Candidate list prioritization and validation builds upon data integration and data visualization. The application of tools supporting this procedure is limited to the exploration of smaller information networks because the display and interpretation of large amounts of information is challenging regarding the computational effort and the users' experience. The Ondex software framework was extended with customizable context-sensitive menus which allow additional integration and data analysis options for a selected set of candidates during interactive data exploration. We provide new functionalities for on-the-fly data integration using InterProScan, PubMed Central literature search, and sequence-based homology search. We applied the Ondex system to the integration of publicly available data for Aspergillus nidulans and analyzed transcriptome data. We demonstrate the advantages of our approach by proposing new hypotheses for the functional annotation of specific genes of differentially expressed fungal gene clusters. Our extension of the Ondex framework makes it possible to overcome the separation between data integration and interactive analysis. More specifically, computationally demanding calculations can be performed on selected sub-networks without losing any information from the whole network. Furthermore, our extensions allow for direct access to online biological databases which helps to keep the integrated information up-to-date. PMID:24600467

  5. NASA's Mars Exploration Program: Scientific Strategy 1996 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, J. B.; McCleese, D. J.

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a roadmap to the next ~20 years of Mars exploration from the NASA viewpoint. The design of the newly restructured strategy is attentive to risks and a major attempt to instill resiliency in the program.

  6. An Imaging Laser Altimeter for Lunar Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to laser altimetry is offered by the development of micro-lasers and pixilated detectors that enable very high resolution measurement of topography and relatively wide swath observations. An imaging altimeter with a 8x8 array detector working at a probability of less than a single photon/shot could map the Moon or similar sized body in approximately 2 years and provide 5 meter horizontal resolution topography and a 10 centimeter vertical accuracy. In addition, it would provide surface roughness and surface slopes on similar length scales of 5 meters and be able to address a range of problems for which topography or lunar shape is important at the decimeter level. This includes the topography of the polar regions, where ice is thought to have been identified, and also the cratering history of the Moon which could be assessed with a dataset of uniform quality and high resolution.

  7. MilxXplore: a web-based system to explore large imaging datasets

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeat, P; Dore, V; Villemagne, V L; Rowe, C C; Salvado, O; Fripp, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective As large-scale medical imaging studies are becoming more common, there is an increasing reliance on automated software to extract quantitative information from these images. As the size of the cohorts keeps increasing with large studies, there is a also a need for tools that allow results from automated image processing and analysis to be presented in a way that enables fast and efficient quality checking, tagging and reporting on cases in which automatic processing failed or was problematic. Materials and methods MilxXplore is an open source visualization platform, which provides an interface to navigate and explore imaging data in a web browser, giving the end user the opportunity to perform quality control and reporting in a user friendly, collaborative and efficient way. Discussion Compared to existing software solutions that often provide an overview of the results at the subject's level, MilxXplore pools the results of individual subjects and time points together, allowing easy and efficient navigation and browsing through the different acquisitions of a subject over time, and comparing the results against the rest of the population. Conclusions MilxXplore is fast, flexible and allows remote quality checks of processed imaging data, facilitating data sharing and collaboration across multiple locations, and can be easily integrated into a cloud computing pipeline. With the growing trend of open data and open science, such a tool will become increasingly important to share and publish results of imaging analysis. PMID:23775173

  8. Interactive Exploration, Analysis, and Visualization of Complex Phenome-Genome Datasets with ASPIREdb.

    PubMed

    Tan, Powell Patrick Cheng; Rogic, Sanja; Zoubarev, Anton; McDonald, Cameron; Lui, Frances; Charathsandran, Gayathiri; Jacobson, Matthew; Belmadani, Manuel; Leong, Justin; Van Rossum, Thea; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Qiao, Ying; Calli, Kristina; Liu, Xudong; Hudson, Melissa; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica; Lewis, Me Suzanne; Pavlidis, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Identifying variants causal for complex genetic disorders is challenging. With the advent of whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing, computational tools are needed to explore and analyze the list of variants for further validation. Correlating genetic variants with subject phenotype is crucial for the interpretation of the disease-causing mutations. Often such work is done by teams of researchers who need to share information and coordinate activities. To this end, we have developed a powerful, easy to use Web application, ASPIREdb, which allows researchers to search, organize, analyze, and visualize variants and phenotypes associated with a set of human subjects. Investigators can annotate variants using publicly available reference databases and build powerful queries to identify subjects or variants of interest. Functional information and phenotypic associations of these genes are made accessible as well. Burden analysis and additional reporting tools allow investigation of variant properties and phenotype characteristics. Projects can be shared, allowing researchers to work collaboratively to build queries and annotate the data. We demonstrate ASPIREdb's functionality using publicly available data sets, showing how the software can be used to accomplish goals that might otherwise require specialized bioinformatics expertise. ASPIREdb is available at http://aspiredb.chibi.ubc.ca. PMID:27158917

  9. Mars scientific investigations as a precursor for human exploration.

    PubMed

    Ahlf, P; Cantwell, E; Ostrach, L; Pline, A

    2000-01-01

    In the past two years, NASA has begun to develop and implement plans for investigations on robotic Mars missions which are focused toward returning data critical for planning human missions to Mars. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions will mark the first time that experiments dedicated to preparation for human exploration will be carried out. Investigations on these missions and future missions range from characterization of the physical and chemical environment of Mars, to predicting the response of biology to the Mars environment. Planning for such missions must take into account existing data from previous Mars missions which were not necessarily focused on human exploration preparation. At the same time, plans for near term missions by the international community must be considered to avoid duplication of effort. This paper reviews data requirements for human exploration and applicability of existing data. It will also describe current plans for investigations and place them within the context of related international activities. PMID:11708369

  10. Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

  11. Automatic Flushing Toilets: An Entertaining Platform for Exploring Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blais, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    It is often challenging, especially at the beginning of a course, to find good examples where students can actively explore and grapple with the methods of science. We want them to learn the connection between observation, theory, prediction, evidence, and falsification, but to really accomplish this we need platforms for which the students are…

  12. Mars scientific investigations as a precursor for human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, P.; Cantwell, E.; Ostrach, L.; Pline, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the past two years, NASA has begun to develop and implement plans for investigations on robotic Mars missions which are focused toward returning data critical for planning human missions to Mars. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions will mark the first time that experiments dedicated to preparation for human exploration will be carried out. Investigations on these missions and future missions range from characterization of the physical and chemical environment of Mars, to predicting the response of biology to the Mars environment. Planning for such missions must take into account existing data from previous Mars missions which were not necessarily focused on human exploration preparation. At the same time, plans for near term missions by the international community must be considered to avoid duplication of effort. This paper reviews data requirements for human exploration and applicability of existing data. It will also describe current plans for investigations and place them within the context of related international activities. c 2000 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Resource-Rich, Scientifically Compelling Exploration Zone for Human Missions at Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    2015-10-01

    The Deuteronilus Mensae region of Mars is promising as a potential landing site for human exploration because it contains vast, readily accessible deposits of water ice in a setting of key scientific importance.

  14. Scientific objectives of the Solar Mesosphere Explorer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. E.; Barth, C. A.; Hansen, E. R.; Hord, C. W.; Lawrence, G. M.; Mount, G. H.; Rottman, G. J.; Rusch, D. W.; Stewart, A. I.; Thomas, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the NASA Solar Mesosphere Explorer mission which will study mesospheric ozone and the processes which form and destroy it, measure the ozone density and its altitude distribution from 30 to 80 km, monitor incoming solar UV radiation, and provide a rigorous test of the photochemical equilibrium theory of the mesospheric oxygen-hydrogen system. Five instruments will be carried on the polar-orbiting spacecraft: UV ozone, IR airglow, and visible NO2 programmable Ebert-Fastie spectrometers, a four-channel IR radiometer, and a solar UV spectrometer. Atmospheric measurements will be made of the mesospheric and stratospheric ozone density distribution, water vapor density distribution, temperature profile, ozone photolysis rate, and NO2 density distribution. In addition, the solar UV monitor will measure both the 0.2-0.31 micron spectral region and the Lyman-alpha (0.1216 micron) contribution to the solar irradiance.

  15. Ares V: Application to Solar System Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Spilker, Thomas; Reh, Kim; Smith, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The development of the Ares V launch vehicle will provide levels of performance unseen since the days of Apollo. This capability, like the Saturn V before it, is being developed primarily for crewed lunar missions. However, the tremendous jump in performance offered by the Ares V launch system has tremendous potential for the furtherance of robotic solar system exploration missions as well. Preliminary performance assessments indicate that Ares V could deliver 5 times the payload to Mars as compared to the most capable US expendable launch vehicle available today. Beyond Mars, the outer planets offer a number of high-priority investigations with compelling science. Presently, missions to these destinations are only achievable using indirect flights with gravity assist trajectories and, in many cases, suffer from long flight times. An Ares V with an upper stage could capture these missions using direct flights with shorter interplanetary transfer times that would enable extensive in situ investigations and possibly the return of samples to Earth. This paper lays out an estimate of Ares V performance for moderate and high C3 missions, and goes on to discuss a range of revolutionary mission concepts that could be enabled by this significant in-crease in launch capability.

  16. Handwritten mathematical symbols dataset.

    PubMed

    Chajri, Yassine; Bouikhalene, Belaid

    2016-06-01

    Due to the technological advances in recent years, paper scientific documents are used less and less. Thus, the trend in the scientific community to use digital documents has increased considerably. Among these documents, there are scientific documents and more specifically mathematics documents. In this context, we present our own dataset of handwritten mathematical symbols composed of 10,379 images. This dataset gathers Arabic characters, Latin characters, Arabic numerals, Latin numerals, arithmetic operators, set-symbols, comparison symbols, delimiters, etc. PMID:27006975

  17. Handwritten mathematical symbols dataset

    PubMed Central

    Chajri, Yassine; Bouikhalene, Belaid

    2016-01-01

    Due to the technological advances in recent years, paper scientific documents are used less and less. Thus, the trend in the scientific community to use digital documents has increased considerably. Among these documents, there are scientific documents and more specifically mathematics documents. In this context, we present our own dataset of handwritten mathematical symbols composed of 10,379 images. This dataset gathers Arabic characters, Latin characters, Arabic numerals, Latin numerals, arithmetic operators, set-symbols, comparison symbols, delimiters, etc. PMID:27006975

  18. Towards AN Integrated Scientific and Social Case for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I. A.

    2004-06-01

    I will argue that an ambitious programme of human space exploration, involving a return to the Moon, and eventually human missions to Mars, will add greatly to human knowledge. Gathering such knowledge is the primary aim of science, but science’s compartmentalisation into isolated academic disciplines tends to obscure the overall strength of the scientific case. Any consideration of the scientific arguments for human space exploration must therefore take a holistic view, and integrate the potential benefits over the entire spectrum of human knowledge. Moreover, science is only one thread in a much larger overall case for human space exploration. Other threads include economic, industrial, educational, geopolitical and cultural benefits. Any responsibly formulated public space policy must weigh all of these factors before deciding whether or not an investment in human space activities is scientifically and socially desirable.

  19. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-10-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them experiment, science fair, and hypothesis, is used to probe the students' knowledge structures. Students from grades four, five, and eight, as well as first-year college students were tested to reveal their knowledge structures relating to the scientific method. Younger students were found to have a naïve view of the science process with little understanding of how science relates to the real world. However, students' conceptions about the scientific process appear to be malleable, with science fairs a potentially strong influencer. The strength of associations between words is observed to change from grade to grade, with younger students placing science fair near the center of their knowledge structure regarding the scientific method, whereas older students conceptualize the scientific method around experiment.

  20. Access and scientific exploitation of planetary plasma datasets with the CDPP/AMDA web-based facility in relation to the Europlanet-RI IDIS plasma node activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, N.; Cecconi, B.; Renard, B.; Budnik, E.; Genot, V.; Jacquey, C.; Hitier, R.; Bourrel, N.; Gangloff, M.; Pallier, E.; Bouchemit, M.; Besson, B.; Topf, F.; Baumjohann, W.; Khodachenko, M.; Rucker, H.; Zhang, T.

    2012-09-01

    The field of planetary sciences has greatly expanded in recent years with space missions orbiting around most of the planets of our Solar System. The growing amount and wealth of data available make it difficult for scientists to exploit data coming from many sources that can initially be heterogeneous in their organization, description and format. It is an important objective of the Europlanet-RI and IMPEx projects (supported by EU within FP7) to add value to space missions by significantly contributing to the effective scientific exploitation of collected data; to enable space researchers to take full advantage of the potential value of data sets. To this end and to enhance the science return from space missions, innovative tools have to be developed and offered to the community. AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis, http://cdpp-amda.cesr.fr/) is a web-based facility developed at CDPP Toulouse in France (http://cdpp.cesr.fr) for on line analysis of space physics data (heliosphere, magnetospheres, planetary environments) coming from either its local database or distant ones. AMDA has been recently integrated as a service to the scientific community for the Plasma Physics thematic node of the Europlanet-RI IDIS (Integrated and Distributed Information Service, http://www.europlanet-idis.fi/) activities, in close cooperation with IWF Graz (http://europlanetplasmanode. oeaw.ac.at/index.php?id=9). We will report the status of our current technical and scientific efforts to integrate in the local database of AMDA various planetary plasma datasets (at Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth and moon, Jupiter, Saturn) from heterogeneous sources, including NASA/Planetary Data System (http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/). We will also present our prototype Virtual Observatory activities to connect the AMDA tool to the IVOA Aladin astrophysical tool to enable pluridisciplinary studies of giant planet auroral emissions.

  1. Access and scientific exploitation of planetary plasma datasets with the CDPP/AMDA web-based facility in relation to the Europlanet-RI IDIS plasma node activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, B.; Budnik, E.; André, N.; Genot, V. N.; Jacquey, C.; Cecconi, B.; Fedorov, A.; Hitier, R.; Bourrel, N.; Gangloff, M.; Pallier, E.; Bouchemit, M.; Besson, B.; Topf, F.; Baumjohann, W.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Rucker, H. O.; Zhang, T.

    2011-12-01

    The field of planetary sciences has greatly expanded in recent years with space missions orbiting around most of the planets of our Solar System. The growing amount and wealth of data available make it difficult for scientists to exploit data coming from many sources that can initially be heterogeneous in their organization, description and format. It is an important objective of the Europlanet-RI and IMPEx projects (supported by EU within FP7) to add value to space missions by significantly contributing to the effective scientific exploitation of collected data; to enable space researchers to take full advantage of the potential value of data sets. To this end and to enhance the science return from space missions, innovative tools have to be developed and offered to the community. AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis, http://cdpp-amda.cesr.fr/) is a web-based facility developed at CDPP Toulouse in France (http://cdpp.cesr.fr) for on line analysis of space physics data (heliosphere, magnetospheres, planetary environments) coming from either its local database or distant ones. AMDA has been recently integrated as a service to the scientific community for the Plasma Physics thematic node of the Europlanet-RI IDIS (Integrated and Distributed Information Service, http://www.europlanet-idis.fi/) activities, in close cooperation with IWF Graz (http://europlanet-plasmanode.oeaw.ac.at/index.php?id=9). We will report the status of our current technical and scientific efforts to integrate in the local database of AMDA various planetary plasma datasets (at Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth and moon, Jupiter, Saturn) from heterogeneous sources, including NASA/Planetary Data System (http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/).

  2. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

  3. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-01-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them "experiment," "science fair," and "hypothesis," is used to probe the students' knowledge structures.…

  4. Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) Experiences with Scientific Language and Inquiry within a Real Life Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algee, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on…

  5. The Texture of Educational Inquiry: An Exploration of George Herbert Mead's Concept of the Scientific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzosa, Susan Douglas

    1984-01-01

    Explores the implications of Mead's philosophic social psychology for current disputes concerning the nature of the scientific in educational studies. Mead's contextualization of the knower and the known are found to be compatible with a contemporary critique of positivist paradigms and a critical reconceptualization of educational inquiry.…

  6. The Academy's Zeitgeist--Standards of Scientific Investigation: Exploring the Impact of Scholarly Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Fauske, Janice

    2006-01-01

    The academy's zeitgeist--standards of scientic investigation--has recently come to the fore in the national arena as the dominant moral and intellectual framework for educational research. In this article, we explore the re-emergence of standards of scientific investigation as a significant shaping force in education and the scholarly culture,…

  7. Scientific exploration of lunar surface using a rover in Japanese future lunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kubota, T.; Okada, T.; Saiki, K.; Kuroda, Y.; Kunii, Y.; Shibamura, E.; Akiyama, N.; Ohtake, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Higa, M.; Hirata, N.; Sugihara, T.; Haruyama, J.; Otake, H.; Yoshioka, N.; Terazono, J.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Kodama, S.; Rover Group in Japan

    A new lunar mission (SELENE-B) including a lander is now in consideration in Japan. The mission will follow up SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer, a global remote sensing mission of the moon in 2004). Scientific investigation plans using a rover are proposed: exploration of a crater central peak to discover subsurface materials and exploration of the polar region to discover the trapped ice. We have already developed a 5-wheel engineering-model rover, Micro5, which has a long manipulator with a camera on top. The rover can climb over 15cm steps and rocks by a new suspension system PEGASUS.

  8. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo, D.; Jones, T.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a near-Earth object (NEO) has been previously analyzed several times in the past. A more in depth feasibility study has been sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the ability of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to support a mission to a NEO. The national mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day mission, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO.

  9. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten

  10. Scientific Goals and Objectives for the Human Exploration of Mars: 1. Biology and Atmosphere/Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, J. B.; Anbar, A. D.; Beaty, D. W.; Bell, M. S.; Clancy, R. T.; Cockell, C. S.; Connerney, J. E.; Doran, P. T.; Delory, G.; Dickson, J. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Eppler, D. B.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Head, J. W.; Helper, M.; Gruener, J. E.; Heldmann, J.; Hipkin, V.; Lane, M. D.; Levy, J.; Moersch, J.; Ori, G. G.; Peach, L.; Poulet, F.

    2008-01-01

    To prepare for the exploration of Mars by humans, as outlined in the new national vision for Space Exploration (VSE), the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG), chartered by NASA's Mars Exploration Program (MEP), formed a Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), in March 2007. HEM-SAG was chartered to develop the scientific goals and objectives for the human exploration of Mars based on the Mars Scientific Goals, Objectives, Investigations, and Priorities.1 The HEM-SAG is one of several humans to Mars scientific, engineering and mission architecture studies chartered in 2007 to support NASA s plans for the human exploration of Mars. The HEM-SAG is composed of about 30 Mars scientists representing the disciplines of Mars biology, climate/atmosphere, geology and geophysics from the U.S., Canada, England, France, Italy and Spain. MEPAG selected Drs. James B. Garvin (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) and Joel S. Levine (NASA Langley Research Center) to serve as HEMSAG co-chairs. The HEM-SAG team conducted 20 telecons and convened three face-to-face meetings from March through October 2007. The management of MEP and MEPAG were briefed on the HEM-SAG interim findings in May. The HEM-SAG final report was presented on-line to the full MEPAG membership and was presented at the MEPAG meeting on February 20-21, 2008. This presentation will outline the HEM-SAG biology and climate/atmosphere goals and objectives. A companion paper will outline the HEM-SAG geology and geophysics goals and objectives.

  11. Exploring multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices in two elementary classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Elizabeth Rowland

    This study explored the voices of children in a changing world with evolving needs and new opportunities. The workplaces of rapidly moving capitalist societies value creativity, collaboration, and critical thinking skills which are of growing importance and manifesting themselves in modern K-12 science classroom cultures (Gee, 2000; New London Group, 2000). This study explored issues of multiliteracies and student voice set within the context of teaching and learning in 4th and 5th grade science classrooms. The purpose of the study was to ascertain what and how multiliteracies and scientific practices (NGSS Lead States, 2013c) are implemented, explore how multiliteracies influence students' voices, and investigate teacher and student perceptions of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices. Grounded in a constructivist framework, a multiple case study was employed in two elementary classrooms. Through observations, student focus groups and interviews, and teacher interviews, a detailed narrative was created to describe a range of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices that occurred with the science classroom context. Using grounded theory analysis, data were coded and analyzed to reveal emergent themes. Data analysis revealed that these two classrooms were enriched with multiliteracies that serve metaphorically as breeding grounds for student voice. In the modern classroom, defined as a space where information is instantly accessible through the Internet, multiliteracies can be developed through inquiry-based, collaborative, and technology-rich experiences. Scientific literacy, cultivated through student communication and collaboration, is arguably a multiliteracy that has not been considered in the literature, and should be, as an integral component of overall individual literacy in the 21st century. Findings revealed four themes. Three themes suggest that teachers address several modes of multiliteracies in science, but identify

  12. The ISECG Science White Paper - A Scientific Perspective on the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, David B.; Worms, Jean-Claude; Spiero, Francois; Schlutz, Juergen; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As an element of this continued road mapping effort, the ISECG agencies are therefore soliciting input and coordinated discussion with the scientific community to better articulate and promote the scientific opportunities of the proposed mission themes. An improved understanding of the scientific drivers and the requirements to address priority science questions associated with the exploration destinations (Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, Mars and its moons) as well as the preparatory activities in cis-lunar space is beneficial to optimize the partnership of robotic assets and human presence beyond low Earth orbit. The interaction has resulted in the development of a Science White Paper to: • Identify and highlight the scientific opportunities in early exploration missions as the GER reference architecture matures, • Communicate overarching science themes and their relevance in the GER destinations, • Ensure international science communities' perspectives inform the future evolution of mission concepts considered in the GER The paper aims to capture the opportunities offered by the missions in the GER for a broad range of scientific disciplines. These include planetary and space sciences, astrobiology, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and Earth science. The paper is structured around grand science themes that draw together and connect research in the various disciplines, and it will focus on

  13. PARLO: PArallel Run-Time Layout Optimization for Scientific Data Explorations with Heterogeneous Access Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Zhenhuan; Boyuka, David; Zou, X; Liu, Gary; Podhorszki, Norbert; Klasky, Scott A; Ma, Xiaosong; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2013-01-01

    Download Citation Email Print Request Permissions Save to Project The size and scope of cutting-edge scientific simulations are growing much faster than the I/O and storage capabilities of their run-time environments. The growing gap is exacerbated by exploratory, data-intensive analytics, such as querying simulation data with multivariate, spatio-temporal constraints, which induces heterogeneous access patterns that stress the performance of the underlying storage system. Previous work addresses data layout and indexing techniques to improve query performance for a single access pattern, which is not sufficient for complex analytics jobs. We present PARLO a parallel run-time layout optimization framework, to achieve multi-level data layout optimization for scientific applications at run-time before data is written to storage. The layout schemes optimize for heterogeneous access patterns with user-specified priorities. PARLO is integrated with ADIOS, a high-performance parallel I/O middleware for large-scale HPC applications, to achieve user-transparent, light-weight layout optimization for scientific datasets. It offers simple XML-based configuration for users to achieve flexible layout optimization without the need to modify or recompile application codes. Experiments show that PARLO improves performance by 2 to 26 times for queries with heterogeneous access patterns compared to state-of-the-art scientific database management systems. Compared to traditional post-processing approaches, its underlying run-time layout optimization achieves a 56% savings in processing time and a reduction in storage overhead of up to 50%. PARLO also exhibits a low run-time resource requirement, while also limiting the performance impact on running applications to a reasonable level.

  14. A sophisticated lander for scientific exploration of Mars: scientific objectives and implementation of the Mars-96 Small Station.

    PubMed

    Linkin, V; Harri, A M; Lipatov, A; Belostotskaja, K; Derbunovich, B; Ekonomov, A; Khloustova, L; Kremnev, R; Makarov, V; Martinov, B; Nenarokov, D; Prostov, M; Pustovalov, A; Shustko, G; Jarvinen, I; Kivilinna, H; Korpela, S; Kumpulainen, K; Lehto, A; Pellinen, R; Pirjola, R; Riihela, P; Salminen, A; Schmidt, W; McKay, C P

    1998-01-01

    A mission to Mars including two Small Stations, two Penetrators and an Orbiter was launched at Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on 16 November 1996. This was called the Mars-96 mission. The Small Stations were expected to land in September 1997 (Ls approximately 178 degrees), nominally to Amazonis-Arcadia region on locations (33 N, 169.4 W) and (37.6 N, 161.9 W). The fourth stage of the Mars-96 launcher malfunctioned and hence the mission was lost. However, the state of the art concept of the Small Station can be applied to future Martian lander missions. Also, from the manufacturing and performance point of view, the Mars-96 Small Station could be built as such at low cost, and be fairly easily accommodated on almost any forthcoming Martian mission. This is primarily due to the very simple interface between the Small Station and the spacecraft. The Small Station is a sophisticated piece of equipment. With the total available power of approximately 400 mW the Station successfully supports an ambitious scientific program. The Station accommodates a panoramic camera, an alpha-proton-x-ray spectrometer, a seismometer, a magnetometer, an oxidant instrument, equipment for meteorological observations, and sensors for atmospheric measurement during the descent phase, including images taken by a descent phase camera. The total mass of the Small Station with payload on the Martian surface, including the airbags, is only 32 kg. Lander observations on the surface of Mars combined with data from Orbiter instruments will shed light on the contemporary Mars and its evolution. As in the Mars-96 mission, specific science goals could be exploration of the interior and surface of Mars, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere, the role of water and other materials containing volatiles and in situ studies of the atmospheric boundary layer processes. To achieve the scientific goals of the mission the lander should carry a versatile set of instruments. The Small Station

  15. Back to the Moon: The scientific rationale for resuming lunar surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I. A.; Anand, M.; Cockell, C. S.; Falcke, H.; Green, D. A.; Jaumann, R.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar geological record has much to tell us about the earliest history of the Solar System, the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and the near-Earth cosmic environment throughout Solar System history. In addition, the lunar surface offers outstanding opportunities for research in astronomy, astrobiology, fundamental physics, life sciences and human physiology and medicine. This paper provides an interdisciplinary review of outstanding lunar science objectives in all of these different areas. It is concluded that addressing them satisfactorily will require an end to the 40-year hiatus of lunar surface exploration, and the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the surface of the Moon. Some of these objectives can be achieved robotically (e.g., through targeted sample return, the deployment of geophysical networks, and the placing of antennas on the lunar surface to form radio telescopes). However, in the longer term, most of these scientific objectives would benefit significantly from renewed human operations on the lunar surface. For these reasons it is highly desirable that current plans for renewed robotic surface exploration of the Moon are developed in the context of a future human lunar exploration programme, such as that proposed by the recently formulated Global Exploration Roadmap.

  16. The Earth Exploration Toolbook: Making Diverse Earth Science Datasets Available and Usable by Space and Earth Science Researchers and Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; Dahlman, L.

    2004-12-01

    As research programs have become more interdisciplinary in nature it has become necessary for scientists to include data in their analysis that would traditionally fall outside their discipline of expertise. In the same way decision makers, who must deal with questions of an interdisciplinary nature, need to work with data from a wide range of disciplines, many of which are beyond their expertise. The question is how can these datasets and the software needed to access and analyze them become more easily available and usable by interdisciplinary research scientists and decision makers. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, serc.carleton.edu/eet) was developed for the educational community; however, it has much broader applications. The EET chapters provide step-by-step instructions for using specific Earth science datasets and software tools, walking users through interesting examples that explore issues or concepts in Earth system science. These chapters can provide research scientists and decision makers with enough experience using particular datasets and data analysis tools outside of their area of expertise that they can then use the datasets and/or tools to address questions suggested by their research or societal needs. The EET team also facilitates the effective use of EET chapters through our 2-hour telecon-online workshops. During each workshop participants are walked through a specific chapter by and EET team member. After the workshop participants are in a better position to use the data and tool effectively. In this presentation we will demonstrate how the EET chapters can be useful to researchers and decision makers, and solicit input as to how to make this tool even more useful to these communities.

  17. Segmentation of Unstructured Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Smitha

    1996-01-01

    Datasets generated by computer simulations and experiments in Computational Fluid Dynamics tend to be extremely large and complex. It is difficult to visualize these datasets using standard techniques like Volume Rendering and Ray Casting. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This thesis explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and from Finite Element Analysis.

  18. Mission to the Moon: Europe's priorities for the scientific exploration and utilisation of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battrick, Bruce; Barron, C.

    1992-06-01

    A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefitting from a lunar base (Moon studies, astronomy, fusion, life sciences, etc.). Scientific issues were divided into three main areas: science of the Moon, including all investigations concerning the Moon as a planetary body; science from the Moon, using the Moon as a platform and therefore including observatories in the broadest sense; science on the Moon, including not only questions relating to human activities in space, but also the development of artificial ecosystems beyond the Earth. Science of the Moon focuses on geographical, geochemical and geological observations of the Earth-Moon system. Science from the Moon takes advantage of the stable lunar ground, its atmosphere free sky and, on the far side, its radio quiet environment. The Moon provides an attractive platform for the observation and study of the Universe. Two techniques that can make unique cause of the lunar platform are ultraviolet to submillimeter interferometric imaging, and very low frequency astronomy. One of the goals of life sciences studies (Science on the Moon) is obviously to provide the prerequisite information for establishing a manned lunar base. This includes studies of human physiology under reduced gravity, radiation protection and life support systems, and feasibility studies based on existing hardware. The overall recommendations are essentially to set up specific study teams for those fields judged to be the most promising for Europe, with the aim of providing more detailed scientific and technological specifications. It is also suggested that the scope of the overall study activities be expanded in order to derive mission scenarios for a viable ESA lunar exploration program and to consider economic, legal and policy matters

  19. A TT&C Performance Simulator for Space Exploration and Scientific Satellites - Architecture and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donà, G.; Faletra, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the TT&C performance simulator toolkit developed internally at Thales Alenia Space Italia (TAS-I) to support the design of TT&C subsystems for space exploration and scientific satellites. The simulator has a modular architecture and has been designed using a model-based approach using standard engineering tools such as MATLAB/SIMULINK and mission analysis tools (e.g. STK). The simulator is easily reconfigurable to fit different types of satellites, different mission requirements and different scenarios parameters. This paper provides a brief description of the simulator architecture together with two examples of applications used to demonstrate some of the simulator’s capabilities.

  20. Proteus - An experimenter's view. [of spacecraft carrying exchangable Explorer scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific experiments package to be carried by the Proteus system takes the form of an Instrument Load carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle, and there mated to a Proteus spacecraft with the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System. The Proteus system extends to ground support equipment, development tools, and communications, as well as the orbiting satellites. It is expected that Proteus will be able to triple the number of Explorer missions while staying within the current budgetary allocation for such missions. The Proteus spacecraft encompasses a system interface assembly plug, a data handling module, remote interface units, and a power distribution module.

  1. iSBatch: a batch-processing platform for data analysis and exploration of live-cell single-molecule microscopy images and other hierarchical datasets.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Victor E A; Punter, Christiaan M; Ghodke, Harshad; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2015-10-01

    Recent technical advances have made it possible to visualize single molecules inside live cells. Microscopes with single-molecule sensitivity enable the imaging of low-abundance proteins, allowing for a quantitative characterization of molecular properties. Such data sets contain information on a wide spectrum of important molecular properties, with different aspects highlighted in different imaging strategies. The time-lapsed acquisition of images provides information on protein dynamics over long time scales, giving insight into expression dynamics and localization properties. Rapid burst imaging reveals properties of individual molecules in real-time, informing on their diffusion characteristics, binding dynamics and stoichiometries within complexes. This richness of information, however, adds significant complexity to analysis protocols. In general, large datasets of images must be collected and processed in order to produce statistically robust results and identify rare events. More importantly, as live-cell single-molecule measurements remain on the cutting edge of imaging, few protocols for analysis have been established and thus analysis strategies often need to be explored for each individual scenario. Existing analysis packages are geared towards either single-cell imaging data or in vitro single-molecule data and typically operate with highly specific algorithms developed for particular situations. Our tool, iSBatch, instead allows users to exploit the inherent flexibility of the popular open-source package ImageJ, providing a hierarchical framework in which existing plugins or custom macros may be executed over entire datasets or portions thereof. This strategy affords users freedom to explore new analysis protocols within large imaging datasets, while maintaining hierarchical relationships between experiments, samples, fields of view, cells, and individual molecules. PMID:26198886

  2. Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algee, Lisa M.

    English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on student learning and science teaching for ELL. A qualitative, case study was used to explore students' learning experiences. Data from multiple sources was collected: student interviews, science letters, an assessment in another context, field-notes, student presentations, inquiry assessment, instructional group conversations, parent interviews, parent letters, parent homework, teacher-researcher evaluation, teacher-researcher reflective journal, and student ratings of learning activities. These data sources informed the following research questions: (1) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL use of scientific language? (2) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL understanding of scientific inquiry and their motivation to learn? (3) What are parents' funds of knowledge about the local ecology and does this inform students' experiences in the science project? All data sources concerning students were analyzed for similar patterns and trends and triangulation was sought through the use of these data sources. The remaining data sources concerning the teacher-researcher were used to inform and assess whether the pedagogical and research practices were in alignment with the proposed theoretical framework. Data sources concerning parental participation accessed funds of knowledge, which informed the curriculum in order to create continuity and connections between home and school. To ensure accuracy in the researchers' interpretations of student and parent responses during interviews, member checking was employed. The findings

  3. In Situ Resource Utilization Technologies for Enhancing and Expanding Mars Scientific and Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Finn, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Mars exploration program are to collect data for planetary science in a quest to answer questions related to Origins, to search for evidence of extinct and extant life, and to expand the human presence in the solar system. The public and political engagement that is critical for support of a Mars exploration program is based on all of these objectives. In order to retain and to build public and political support, it is important for NASA to have an integrated Mars exploration plan, not separate robotic and human plans that exist in parallel or in sequence. The resolutions stemming from the current architectural review and prioritization of payloads may be pivotal in determining whether NASA will have such a unified plan and retain public support. There are several potential scientific and technological links between the robotic-only missions that have been flown and planned to date, and the combined robotic and human missions that will come in the future. Taking advantage of and leveraging those links are central to the idea of a unified Mars exploration plan. One such link is in situ resource utilization (ISRU) as an enabling technology to provide consumables such as fuels, oxygen, sweep and utility gases from the Mars atmosphere.

  4. In Situ Resource Utilization Technologies for Enhancing and Expanding Mars Scientific and Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Finn, J. E.

    2000-07-01

    The primary objectives of the Mars exploration program are to collect data for planetary science in a quest to answer questions related to Origins, to search for evidence of extinct and extant life, and to expand the human presence in the solar system. The public and political engagement that is critical for support of a Mars exploration program is based on all of these objectives. In order to retain and to build public and political support, it is important for NASA to have an integrated Mars exploration plan, not separate robotic and human plans that exist in parallel or in sequence. The resolutions stemming from the current architectural review and prioritization of payloads may be pivotal in determining whether NASA will have such a unified plan and retain public support. There are several potential scientific and technological links between the robotic-only missions that have been flown and planned to date, and the combined robotic and human missions that will come in the future. Taking advantage of and leveraging those links are central to the idea of a unified Mars exploration plan. One such link is in situ resource utilization (ISRU) as an enabling technology to provide consumables such as fuels, oxygen, sweep and utility gases from the Mars atmosphere.

  5. Lunar scout missions: Galileo encounter results and application to scientific problems and exploration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Belton, M.; Greeley, R.; Pieters, C.; Mcewen, A.; Neukum, G.; Mccord, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Missions (payload: x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, high-resolution stereocamera, neutron spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, imaging spectrometer, gravity experiment) will provide a global data set for the chemistry, mineralogy, geology, topography, and gravity of the Moon. These data will in turn provide an important baseline for the further scientific exploration of the Moon by all-purpose landers and micro-rovers, and sample return missions from sites shown to be of primary interest from the global orbital data. These data would clearly provide the basis for intelligent selection of sites for the establishment of lunar base sites for long-term scientific and resource exploration and engineering studies. The two recent Galileo encounters with the Moon (December, 1990 and December, 1992) illustrate how modern technology can be applied to significant lunar problems. We emphasize the regional results of the Galileo SSI to show the promise of geologic unit definition and characterization as an example of what can be done with the global coverage to be obtained by the Lunar Scout Missions.

  6. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-12-01

    The scientific discovery process can be advanced by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally, it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. We have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC); the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In this paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.

  7. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-01-01

    The advance of the scientific discovery process is accomplished by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally,more » it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. Moreover we have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In our paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.« less

  8. Digital terrain model reconstruction and preliminary scientific exploration planning of the Chang'E 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Ren, X.; Mu, L.; Wang, F.; Wang, W.; Zhang, X.; Li, C.

    2014-04-01

    At 13:11 (GMT) December 14, 2013 Chang'e 3 (CE-3) successfully landed at 19.51° W, 44.12° N northwestern Mare Imbrium on the Moon, making it China's first planetary mission to land on a celestial body other than Earth. CE-3 explore comprises a lander and a rover. It carries eight scientific instruments onboard, including the descent camera on the lander, and the panoramic camera on the rover. These cameras imaged the topographic features around the landing site. This paper mainly presents the digital terrain model reconstruction techniques for the panoramic camera. Image pairs obtained during the first lunar day are used to reconstructed 3D Digital Terrain Models of 0.02 m resolution near observation points E and S3. The maps have been extensively used to support Yutu operations and strategic planning of the mission. The preliminary scientific exploration planning of the Yutu rover for the second lunar day has been made.

  9. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-01-01

    The advance of the scientific discovery process is accomplished by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally, it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. Moreover we have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In our paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.

  10. Virtual Exploration and Comparison of Linear Mastoid Drilling Trajectories with True-Color Volume Rendering and the Visible Ear Dataset

    PubMed Central

    KAHRS, Lueder A.; LABADIE, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides instructions for a virtual exploration and self-study of surgical approaches within the temporal bone. Linear drilling trajectories in the sense of keyhole accesses are compared with free true-color rendering techniques to introduce and evaluate new otologic approaches. On the basis of free cyro-histology image data from a temporal bone six different drill canals are presented. Such a virtual method has the potential to be a first step of investigation of new surgical approaches before moving to cadaver testing. PMID:23400159

  11. Lidar and the mobile Scene Modeler (mSM) as scientific tools for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Barfoot, Timothy D.; Ghafoor, Nadeem; Izawa, Matt; Banerjee, Neil; Jasiobedzki, Piotr; Tripp, Jeff; Richards, Robert; Auclair, Simon; Sapers, Haley; Thomson, Laura; Flemming, Roberta

    2010-03-01

    With the continued success of the Mars Exploration Rovers and the return of humans to the Moon within the next decade, a considerable amount of research is being done on the technologies required to provide surface mobility and the tools required to provide scientific capability. Here, we explore the utility of lidar and the mobile Scene Modeler (mSM) - which is based on a stereo camera system - as scientific tools. Both of these technologies have been, or are being considered for, technological applications such as autonomous satellite rendezvous and rover navigation. We carried out a series of field tests at the 23 km diameter, 39 Ma, Haughton impact structure located on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic. Several sites of geological interest were investigated, including polygonal terrain, gullies and channels, slump/collapse features, impact melt breccia hills, and a site of impact-associated hydrothermal mineralization. These field tests show that lidar and mSM provide a superior visual record of the terrain, from the regional (km) to outcrop (m to cm) scale and in 3-D, as compared to standard digital photography. Thus, a key strength of these technologies is in situ reconnaissance and documentation. Lidar scans also provide a wealth of geometric and structural information about a site, accomplishing the equivalent of weeks to months of manual surveying and with much greater accuracy than traditional tools, making this extremely useful for planetary exploration missions. An unexpected result of these field tests is the potential for lidar and mSM to provide qualitative, and potentially quantitative, composition information about a site. Given the high probability of lidar and mSM being used on future lunar missions, we suggest that it would be beneficial to further investigate the potential for these technologies to be used as science tools.

  12. Exploring teachers' informal formative assessment practices and students' understanding in the context of scientific inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araceli Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Furtak, Erin Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual structures, and social processes). We describe the informal assessment practices as ESRU cycles - the teacher Elicits a question; the Student responds; the teacher Recognizes the student's response; and then Uses the information collected to support student learning. By tracking the strategies teachers used in terms of ESRU cycles, we were able to capture differences in assessment practices across the three teachers during the implementation of four investigations of a physical science unit on buoyancy. Furthermore, based on information collected in a three-question embedded assessment administered to assess students' learning, we linked students' level of performance to the teachers' informal assessment practices. We found that the teacher who more frequently used complete ESRU cycles had students with higher performance on the embedded assessment as compared with the other two teachers. We conclude that the ESRU model is a useful way of capturing differences in teachers' informal assessment practices. Furthermore, the study suggests that effective informal formative assessment practices may be associated with student learning in scientific inquiry classrooms.

  13. Combining ECS Exploration and Scientific Interest: The Case of the Demarara Plateau Offshore French Guiana (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, W. R.; Loncke, L.; Loubrieu, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French national program for the extension of the continental shelf, EXTRAPLAC, started in 2002 with funding from the French Government. It is let by Ifremer, with as principle partners the SHOM (Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Navy), IPEV (French Polar Institute) and IFP Energies Nouvelles. Its aim is to make submissions for extended continental shelf beyond 200 nm to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Nine submissions, of which 3 are joint with neighboring states, have been made thus far, concerning areas off metropolitan France and its overseas territories. In total, over 360 days of ship time was needed to explore these vast and dispersed areas, in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. The data collected include multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection and some rock sampling. In this presentation we will describe how the EXTRAPLAC cruise offshore French Guiana (GUYAPLAC, R/V L'Atalante, 2003) let to new scientific results for this transform type margin, in particular in the area of the Demerara Plateau. These include the discovery of gigantic submarine land slides in the subsurface, and associated fluid escape features on the seafloor. A scientific collaboration between the EXTRAPLAC team and academia let to a follow-up cruise proposal to further explore this unique continental margin: The IGUANES cruise, let by the University of Perpignan, took place in April/May 2013, using a higher resolution multibeam echosounder, high resolution seismic reflection and sediment cores. In particular we were able to confirm and better map significant submarine landslide scarps, aligned pockmark fields and sediment waves that likely associated with strong bottom currents and/or the submarine landslides. We will also briefly describe some of the highlight results of other ECS related cruises to show how the EXTRAPLAC program has resulted in new knowledge in remote frontier areas that had very

  14. An Interactive Virtual 3D Tool for Scientific Exploration of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traxler, Christoph; Hesina, Gerd; Gupta, Sanjeev; Paar, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present an interactive 3D visualization tool for scientific analysis and planning of planetary missions. At the moment scientists have to look at individual camera images separately. There is no tool to combine them in three dimensions and look at them seamlessly as a geologist would do (by walking backwards and forwards resulting in different scales). For this reason a virtual 3D reconstruction of the terrain that can be interactively explored is necessary. Such a reconstruction has to consider multiple scales ranging from orbital image data to close-up surface image data from rover cameras. The 3D viewer allows seamless zooming between these various scales, giving scientists the possibility to relate small surface features (e.g. rock outcrops) to larger geological contexts. For a reliable geologic assessment a realistic surface rendering is important. Therefore the material properties of the rock surfaces will be considered for real-time rendering. This is achieved by an appropriate Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) estimated from the image data. The BRDF is implemented to run on the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) to enable realistic real-time rendering, which allows a naturalistic perception for scientific analysis. Another important aspect for realism is the consideration of natural lighting conditions, which means skylight to illuminate the reconstructed scene. In our case we provide skylights from Mars and Earth, which allows switching between these two modes of illumination. This gives geologists the opportunity to perceive rock outcrops from Mars as they would appear on Earth facilitating scientific assessment. Besides viewing the virtual reconstruction on multiple scales, scientists can also perform various measurements, i.e. geo-coordinates of a selected point or distance between two surface points. Rover or other models can be placed into the scene and snapped onto certain location of the terrain. These are

  15. Using the mystery box as a means to explore the scientific method in an undergraduate lecture setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, H. M.; Cook, G. W.

    2015-12-01

    The mystery box is a well-known and well-loved teaching tool designed to encourage students to engage in making observations in order to draw conclusions. We have adapted this exercise, normally used in laboratory settings, for use in a lecture setting in introductory earth science classes. We have tied it to the scientific method such that students are engaging in mystery-box- based inquiry while exploring the steps of the scientific method. It is used in conjunction with a PowerPoint presentation that illustrates and discusses the steps and process integral to the scientific method, which is fundamental to science. Students are encouraged to explore the formal and informal use of the scientific method throughout their educational careers and in their daily lives. Furthermore, students are challenged to analyze the necessity of the scientific method as means for conducting scientific inquiry and exploring the results of such inquiry. A follow-up assignment to the activity asks students to evaluate the efficacy of the activity and associated PowerPoint and discussion. Students consistently report having enjoyed and learned from the process.

  16. Building the Next Generation of Scientific Explorers through Active Engagement with STEM Experts and International Space Station Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.; Stefanov, W. L.; Rampe, E.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity for all. These experts can share the benefits and utilization of resources from the International Space Station (ISS) while sharing and "translating" exciting science being conducted by professional scientists. Active engagement with these STEM experts involves students in the journey of science and exploration in an enthralling and understandable manner. This active engagement, connecting classrooms with scientific experts, helps inspire and build the next generation of scientific explorers in academia, private industry, and government.

  17. Exploring group dynamics for integrating scientific and experiential knowledge in Community Advisory Boards for HIV research.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rogério M; Spector, Anya Y; Valera, Pamela A

    2011-08-01

    To demonstrate how Community Advisory Boards (CABs) can best integrate community perspectives with scientific knowledge and involve community in disseminating HIV knowledge, this paper provides a case study exploring the structure and dynamic process of a "Community Collaborative Board" (CCB). We use the term CCB to emphasize collaboration over advisement. The CCB membership, structure, and dynamics are informed by theory and research. The CCB is affiliated with Columbia University School of Social Work and its original membership included 30 members. CCB was built using six systematized steps meant to engage members in procedural and substantive research roles: (1) engaging membership; (2) developing relationships; (3) exchanging information; (4) negotiation and decision-making; (5) retaining membership; and (6) studying dynamic process. This model requires that all meetings be audio-taped to capture CCB dynamics. Using transcribed meeting data, we have identified group dynamics that help the CCB accomplish its objectives: (1) dialectic process helps exchange of information; (2) mutual support helps members work together despite social and professional differences; and (3) problem solving helps members achieve consensus. These dynamics also help members attain knowledge about HIV treatment and prevention and disseminate HIV-related knowledge. CABs can be purposeful in their use of group dynamics, narrow the knowledge gap between researchers and community partners, prepare members for procedural and substantive research roles, and retain community partners. PMID:21390878

  18. Exploring group dynamics for integrating scientific and experiential knowledge in Community Advisory Boards for HIV research

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Spector, Anya Y.; Valera, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate how Community Advisory Boards (CABs) can best integrate community perspectives with scientific knowledge and involve community in disseminating HIV knowledge, this paper provides a case study exploring the structure and dynamic process of a “Community Collaborative Board” (CCB). We use the term CCB to emphasize collaboration over advisement. The CCB membership, structure and dynamics are informed by theory and research. The CCB is affiliated with Columbia University School of Social Work and its original membership included 30 members. CCB was built using six systematized steps meant to engage members in procedural and substantive research roles. Steps: (1) Engaging membership, (2) Developing relationships, (3) Exchanging information, (4) Negotiation and decision-making, (5) Retaining membership, and (6) Studying dynamic process. This model requires that all meetings be audio-taped to capture CCB dynamics. Using transcribed meeting data, we have identified group dynamics that help the CCB accomplish its objectives: 1) dialectic process helps exchange of information; 2) mutual support helps members work together despite social and professional differences; and 3) problem solving helps members achieve consensus. These dynamics also help members attain knowledge about HIV treatment and prevention and disseminate HIV-related knowledge. CABs can be purposeful in their use of group dynamics, narrow the knowledge gap between researchers and community partners, prepare members for procedural and substantive research roles, and retain community partners. PMID:21390878

  19. Does Anyone Really Know Anything? An Exploration of Constructivist Meaning and Identity in the Tension between Scientific and Religious Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the tension created by religion and science in one student's understanding of knowledge and truth by exploring two questions: "How do individuals accommodate their religious beliefs with their understanding of science?" and "How does religious knowledge interact with scientific knowledge to construct meaning?" A…

  20. A Network Mission: Completing the Scientific Foundation for the Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    W. B. Banerdt

    2000-01-01

    Despite recent setbacks and vacillations in the Mars Surveyor Program, in many respects the exploration of Mars has historically followed a relatively logical path. Early fly-bys provided brief glimpses of the planet and paved the way for the initial orbital reconnaissance of Mariner 9. The Viking orbiters completed the initial survey, while the Viking landers provided our first close-up look at the surface. Essentially, Mars Pathfinder served a similar role, giving a brief look at another place on the surface. And finally, Mars Global Surveyor (and the up-coming orbital mission in 2001) are taking the next step in providing in-depth, global observations of many of the fundamental characteristics of the planet, as well as selected high-resolution views of the surface. With this last step we are well on our way to acquiring the global scientific context that is necessary both for understanding Mars in general, its origin and evolution, and for use as a basis to plan and execute the next level of focused investigations. However, even with the successful completion of these missions this context will be incomplete. Whereas we now know a great deal about the surface of Mars in a global sense, we know very little about its interior, even at depths of only a meter or so. Also, as most of this information has been acquire by remote sensing, we still lack much of the bridging knowledge between the global view and the processes and character of the surface environments themselves. Thus, in many ways we lack sufficient fundamental understanding to intelligently cast the critical investigations into important questions of the origins and evolution of Mars in general, and in particular, life. The next step in building our understanding of Mars has been identified by several previous groups who were charged with creating a strategy for Mars exploration (e.g., COMPLEX, MarSWG, Planetary Roadmap Team). This is a so-called "network" mission, which places a large number of science

  1. Cell-Phone Use and Cancer: A Case Study Exploring the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon Parrilla, Wilma V.

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an introductory nonmajors biology course, this case study presents students with a series of short news stories describing a scientific study of cell-phone use and its health effects. Students read the news stories and then the scientific paper they are based on, comparing the information presented by the news media to the information…

  2. Exploring the Assessment of and Relationship between Elementary Students' Scientific Creativity and Science Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kuay-Keng; Lin, Shu-Fen; Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) develop and validate instruments to assess elementary students' scientific creativity and science inquiry, (b) investigate the relationship between the two competencies, and (c) compare the two competencies among different grade level students. The scientific creativity test was composed of 7 open-ended items…

  3. Exploring "The World around Us" in a Community of Scientific Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Lynda; Compton, Kirsty; Clarke, Linda; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    The primary Communities of Scientific Enquiry project is one element of the outreach work in Science in Society in Biomedical Sciences in partnership with the School of Education at the University of Ulster. The project aims to develop scientific understanding and skills at key stage 2 and is a response to several contemporary issues in primary…

  4. Exploring Turkish Upper Primary Level Science Textbooks' Coverage of Scientific Literacy Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakici, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Since the 1970s, scientific literacy has been a major goal of national educational systems throughout the world, and thus reform movements in science education call for all students to be scientifically literate. Despite some good curricular changes and developments across the globe, much remains to be achieved. Given that…

  5. Exploring teachers' learning: A teacher's experiences integrating scientific modeling in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Maza, Mirta Elizabeth

    This study, a narrative inquiry into the teaching of models and modeling in an elementary science classroom, explores a teacher's growth in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) as she implemented a novel curriculum adapted from the MoDeLS (Modeling Designs for the Learning of Science) project. The purpose of the study was to explore, from the teacher's point of view, the pedagogical and conceptual changes she underwent while implementing a model-based approach in her classroom. The study summarizes the teacher's experiences, her decisions about teaching, her understanding of how her choices and practices influenced her content knowledge (CK), her PCK, and her motivations for changing her teaching. During the three years of the project I collected data from four science units (Astronomy, Animal Science, Electricity, and Light). Each of the units were observed and videotaped and Ms. Delaney (pseudonym), the classroom teacher, audio-recorded her practices every day. I observed and analyzed classroom videotapes in order to explore how Ms. Delaney's modeling practices unfolded and changed in her classroom and how her PCK on modeling developed. I analyzed professional development activities and informal interviews conducted during and after the units. Subsequently I interviewed Ms. Delaney about these issues using open-ended questions and video clips of her classroom practices. Three aspects of models and modeling expressed in the MoDeLS project were taken into account as I developed categories of analysis: a) models have purpose; b) models have limitations; and c) models change. These categories and the codes proposed were revised and refined while analyzing the data. The findings from the interview analyses and the classroom practices showed that Ms. Delaney developed new CK around models and modeling throughout the three years she was involved in the project. She adapted some of the proposed strategies from the MoDeLS project and adopted them in her curriculum in ways

  6. Asthma in the community: Designing instruction to help students explore scientific dilemmas that impact their lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Erika Dawn

    School science instruction that connects to students' diverse home, cultural, or linguistic experiences can encourage lifelong participation in the scientific dilemmas that impact students' lives. This dissertation seeks effective ways to support high school students as they learn complex science topics and use their knowledge to transform their personal and community environments. Applying the knowledge integration perspective, I collaborated with education, science, and community partners to design a technology enhanced science module, Improving Your Community's Asthma Problem. This exemplar community science curriculum afforded students the opportunity to (a) investigate a local community health issue, (b) interact with relevant evidence related to physiology, clinical management, and environmental risks, and (c) construct an integrated understanding of the asthma problem in their community. To identify effective instructional scaffolds that engage students in the knowledge integration process and prepare them to participate in community science, I conducted 2 years of research that included 5 schools, 10 teachers, and over 500 students. This dissertation reports on four studies that analyzed student responses on pre-, post-, and embedded assessments. Researching across four design stages, the iterative design study investigated how to best embed the visualizations of the physiological processes breathing, asthma attack, and the allergic immune response in an inquiry activity and informed evidence-based revisions to the module. The evaluation study investigated the impact of this revised Asthma module across multiple classrooms and differences in students' prior knowledge. Combining evidence of student learning from the iterative and evaluation studies with classroom observations and teacher interviews, the longitudinal study explored the impact of teacher practices on student learning in years 1 and 2. In the final chapter, I studied how the Asthma module and

  7. The MOMENT Magnetic-Mapping Mission: A Nanosatellite for the Scientific Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagleson, S.; Mauthe, S.; Sarda, K.; Spencer, H.; Zee, R. E.; Arkani-Hammed, J.

    2008-08-01

    MOMENT (Magnetic Observations of Mars Enabled by Nanosatellite Technology) is a nanosatellite that will obtain high-resolution maps of remnant magnetic fields present in the southern highlands of Mars. A European-developed magnetometer accurate to bet- ter than 0.5 nT and employed in a highly elliptical orbit with a relatively low, 100 km night-side, periapsis will provide much greater spatial resolution and delineation of local magnetic anomalies than is available from the initial surveys performed by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). During the aerobraking phase of the MGS mission, low-altitude measurements were corrupted by solar wind because they were acquired under sunlit conditions where solar winds interacted with the crustal magnetic fields. During the mapping phase of the mission, spatial resolution was limited to about 400 km. Both of these issues will be overcome by MOMENT's low-altitude, night-side, observing strategy. The resulting magnetic-field maps, for the key areas of interest, will allow detailed studies of regional tectonics and the history of the planet's now- inactive core dynamo. MOMENT's design is based on the Space Flight Laboratory's Generic Nanosatellite Bus (GNB), which is also being developed for the BRITE space-astronomy and CanX-4&5 formation- flight missions. Nominally a 30 x 30 x 30 cm cube on the order of 10 kg mass, MOMENT uses as much GNB technology as possible to provide a rapid and cost-effective mission. The implementation of the mission requires payload space on a larger carrier spacecraft and the use of existing and future Martian communication relays for the transfer of information to and from Earth, necessitating a high level of international co-operation. MOMENT is otherwise fully independent and autonomous, even during scientific operations. This paper describes the conceptual (Canadian Space Agency funded) MOMENT mission and presents a strong case for the use of nanosatellite technology as a relatively simple and cost

  8. Exploring Elongation-Inclination Relationships in Datasets from Plutons and Remagnetized Sediments: Examples from the North Cascades and the Blue Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tectonic applications of paleomagnetism rely upon establishment of paleohorizontal at the time of magnetization. Paleohorizontal can be established in sedimentary rocks and volcanics, but is poorly constrained in plutonic rocks and areas that have experienced regional remagnetizations. This study will explore another latitudinal-dependent property of the geomagnetic field- elongation of elliptical distributions of directional data- to evaluate whether the combination of elongation and inclination can be used to constrain effects of tilt or other paleohorizontal uncertainties in paleomagnetic datasets. This work is inspired by the application of the E-I relationship proposed by Tauxe and Kent (2004) to evaluate effects of inclination error in sedimentary rocks. The first example is from the Blue Mountains of eastern OR. Remagnetized Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks (Hillhouse et al, 1982, Harbert et al, 1995, Housen, 2007, Kalk, 2008) have magnetizations that match those of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous plutons (Wilson and Cox, 1980, Housen, 2007). Directions from 64 sites of these rocks yields a mean of D = 33°, I = 64°, k= 26, α95 = 3.7°. The E-I method can be used to determine the effects of calculated paleohorizontal errors by finding an optimal paleohorizontal error that results in the best agreement between E and I for a set of data. For the Blue Mountains rocks, the optimal E-I relationship yields a corrected inclination of I = 65° (+7°/-4°), and estimated paleolatitude of 47°N (42° to 57°). The second example is from the Cretaceous Mt Stuart batholith in the North Cascades of central WA- these 95-88 Ma plutonic rocks have well defined magnetizations (Housen et al, 2003). Directions from 89 samples have a mean of D = 350°, I=44°, k=50, α95 = 2.1°. The E-I relationship suggests a corrected mean inclination of I=46° (+12°/-3°), and estimated paleolatitude of 27°N (25° to 39°). For the Blue Mountains, this comparison indicates that the

  9. Asthma in the Community: Designing Instruction to Help Students Explore Scientific Dilemmas that Impact Their Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Erika Dawn

    2009-01-01

    School science instruction that connects to students' diverse home, cultural, or linguistic experiences can encourage lifelong participation in the scientific dilemmas that impact students' lives. This dissertation seeks effective ways to support high school students as they learn complex science topics and use their knowledge to transform their…

  10. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  11. Making Meaning of Scientific Practices: Exploring the Pathways and Variations of Classrooms Engaging in Science Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Mon-Lin Monica

    2013-01-01

    A focus of reforms in standards, learning environments, teacher preparation programs and professional development is to support teachers' and students' engagement with scientific practices such as argumentation, modeling and generating explanations for real-world phenomena (NRC, 2011). Engaging in these practices in authentic ways…

  12. Exploring Student Identity in an Intercultural Web-Assisted Scientific Inquiry Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yingjie; Hannafin, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study based on Gee's (2001) identity theory examined and compared how American and Chinese middle school students develop identities towards science, culture and technology in an intercultural web-assisted scientific inquiry project. Through analysis of online discussions, videoconferences, interviews, surveys and fieldnotes, we…

  13. Computer Series, 52: Scientific Exploration with a Microcomputer: Simulations for Nonscientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, David M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two simulations, written for Apple II microcomputers, focusing on scientific methodology. The first is based on the tendency of colloidal iron in high concentrations to stick to fish gills and cause breathing difficulties. The second, modeled after the dioxin controversy, examines a hypothetical chemical thought to cause cancer. (JN)

  14. The Earth Exploration Toolbook and DLESE Data Services Workshops: Facilitating the Use of Geoscience Data to Convey Scientific Concepts to Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; Dahlman, L.; McAuliffe, C.; Domenico, B.; Taber, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Although Earth science data and tools are officially freely available to the public, specific data are generally difficult to find, and are often provided in formats that are difficult to use. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, http://serc.carleton.edu/eet) and DLESE (Digital Library for Earth Systems Education) Data Services (http://www.dlese.org/cms/dataservices/) projects are working to facilitate the use of these data and analysis tools by teachers and students, and can serve as mechanisms, facilitated by eGY, for extending the reach of data resulting from the various I*Y scientific efforts. The EET gives educators and students an easy way to learn how to use Earth science data and data analysis tools for learning. Modules (called chapters) in the EET provide step-by-step instructions for accessing and analyzing Earth science datasets within the context of compelling case studies. Each chapter also provides pedagogical information to help the teacher use the data with their students. To introduce datasets and analysis tools to teachers, and to encourage them to use them with their students, the EET team provides telecon-online teacher professional development workshops. During these workshops teachers are guided through the use of a specific EET chapter. When a workshop is complete, participants have the software and data they have worked with installed and available on their own computers. We have run 17 of these workshops reaching over 230 teachers. New EET chapters can be developed through the use of an EET chapter template. The template provides a mechanism by which those outside the project can make their datasets and data analysis tools more accessible to teachers and students, and assures that new chapters are consistent with the EET format and that users have access to the support they need. The development of new EET chapters is facilitated through the DLESE Data Services Workshops. During these workshops data providers, tool developers, scientists

  15. Dynamics Explorer 2: Continued FPI and NACS instrument data analysis and associated scientific activity at the University of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Alan; Killeen, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    The grant entitled 'Dynamics Explorer 2 - continued FPI and NACS instrument data analysis and associated scientific activity at the University of Michigan' is a continuation of a grant that began with instrument development for the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite. Over the years, many publications and presentations at scientific meetings have occurred under the aegis of this grant. This present report details the progress that has been made in the final three years of the grant. In these last 4 years of the grant 26 papers have been published or are in press and about 10 more are in preparation or have been submitted. A large number of presentations have been made in the same time span: 36 are listed in Appendix 2. Evidence of the high educational utility of this research is indicated by the list of Ph. D. and M. S. theses that have been completed in the last 3 years that have involved work connected with NAG5-465. The structure of this report is as follows: a brief synopsis of the aims of the grant NAG5-465 is given in the next section; then there is a summary of the scientific accomplishments that have occurred over the grant period; last, we make some brief concluding remarks. Reprints of articles that have recently appeared in refereed journals are appended to the end of this document.

  16. Exploring prospective secondary science teachers' understandings of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics concepts using computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Mustafa

    The primary objective of this case study was to examine prospective secondary science teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics. A computer simulation of basic Mendelian inheritance processes (Catlab) was used in combination with small-group discussions and other instructional scaffolds to enhance prospective science teachers' understandings. The theoretical background for this research is derived from a social constructivist perspective. Structuring scientific inquiry as investigation to develop explanations presents meaningful context for the enhancement of inquiry abilities and understanding of the science content. The context of the study was a teaching and learning course focused on inquiry and technology. Twelve prospective science teachers participated in this study. Multiple data sources included pre- and post-module questionnaires of participants' view of scientific inquiry, pre-posttests of understandings of Mendelian concepts, inquiry project reports, class presentations, process videotapes of participants interacting with the simulation, and semi-structured interviews. Seven selected prospective science teachers participated in in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that while studying important concepts in science, carefully designed inquiry experiences can help prospective science teachers to develop an understanding about the types of questions scientists in that field ask, the methodological and epistemological issues that constrain their pursuit of answers to those questions, and the ways in which they construct and share their explanations. Key findings included prospective teachers' initial limited abilities to create evidence-based arguments, their hesitancy to include inquiry in their future teaching, and the impact of collaboration on thinking. Prior to this experience the prospective teachers held uninformed views of scientific inquiry. After the module, participants demonstrated extended expertise in

  17. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program: Exploring challenges, creating opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepic, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program offers researchers access to the world's largest collection of aerospace information. An overview of Program activities, products and services, and new directions is presented. The R&D information cycle is outlined and specific examples of the NASA STI Program in practice are given. Domestic and international operations and technology transfer activities are reviewed and an agenda for the STI Program NASA-wide is presented. Finally, the incorporation of Total Quality Management and evaluation metrics into the STI Program is discussed.

  18. Using a Modeling Approach To Explore Scientific Epistemology with High School Biology Students. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Jennifer

    This paper describes a study of high school students' participation in the construction and revision of explanatory models as they attempted to account for a variety of inheritance phenomena observed in computer-generated "fruit flies". Throughout the course students were encouraged to explore epistemological issues related to the assessment and…

  19. The Nature of What Teachers Know: Exploring Teacher Knowledge through Novel Scientific Metaphors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jill Voorhies

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores the nature of what teachers know by examining trends in teacher knowledge research, specifically the use of conventional metaphors to describe teacher knowledge. Contending that conventional metaphors fail to acknowledge the complex and multidimensional nature of teacher knowledge, the author argues that novel metaphors should…

  20. Exploring the Use of a Cartoon as a Learner Scaffold in the Planning of Scientific Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh

    2012-01-01

    Despite curriculum imperatives, in South Africa and worldwide, for learners to have more autonomy in investigations, they remain largely teacher controlled with learners having only limited opportunities in planning. This design-based study explored how a cartoon can be employed in a Grade 9 Natural Sciences class in prompting learners to plan…

  1. Exploring the first scientific observations of lunar eclipses made in Siam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Orchiston, Darunee Lingling; George, Martin; Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2016-04-01

    The first great ruler to encourage the adoption of Western culture and technology throughout Siam (present-day Thailand) was King Narai, who also had a passion for astronomy. He showed this by encouraging French and other Jesuit missionaries, some with astronomical interests and training, to settle in Siam from the early 1660s. One of these was Father Antoine Thomas, and he was the first European known to have carried out scientific astronomical observations from Siam when he determined the latitude of Ayutthaya in 1681 and the following year observed the total lunar eclipse of 22 February. A later lunar eclipse also has an important place in the history of Thai astronomy. In 1685 a delegation of French missionary-astronomers settled in Ayutthaya, and on 10-11 December 1685 they joined King Narai and his court astrologers and observed a lunar eclipse from the King's 'country retreat' near Lop Buri. This event so impressed the King that he approved the erection of a large modern well-equipped astronomical observatory at Lop Buri. Construction of Wat San Paulo Observatory - as it was known - began in 1686 and was completed in 1687. In this paper we examine these two lunar eclipses and their association with the development of scientific astronomy in Siam.

  2. MiniGhost : a miniapp for exploring boundary exchange strategies using stencil computations in scientific parallel computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Richard Frederick; Heroux, Michael Allen; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2012-04-01

    A broad range of scientific computation involves the use of difference stencils. In a parallel computing environment, this computation is typically implemented by decomposing the spacial domain, inducing a 'halo exchange' of process-owned boundary data. This approach adheres to the Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) model. Because commonly available architectures provide strong inter-node bandwidth relative to latency costs, many codes 'bulk up' these messages by aggregating data into a message as a means of reducing the number of messages. A renewed focus on non-traditional architectures and architecture features provides new opportunities for exploring alternatives to this programming approach. In this report we describe miniGhost, a 'miniapp' designed for exploration of the capabilities of current as well as emerging and future architectures within the context of these sorts of applications. MiniGhost joins the suite of miniapps developed as part of the Mantevo project.

  3. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  4. International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million

  5. Key Recent Scientific Results from the Opportunity Rover's Exploration of Cape Tribulation, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Crumpler, L. S.; McLennan, S. M.; Farrand, W. H.; Jolliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Opportunity Rover is in its 11th year of exploration, currently exploring the Cape Tribulation rim segment of the ~22 km wide Noachian Endeavour Crater and its tilted and fractured outcrops. A key target for Opportunity's measurements has been the Spirit of Saint Louis crater (SoSL), which is ~25 m wide, oval in plan view, shallow, flat-floored, and has a slightly raised rim. SoSL crater is surrounded by an apron of bright, polygonally-shaped outcrops and is superimposed on a gentle swale in Cape Tribulation. Rocks in a thin reddish zone on the rim are enriched in hematite, Si, and Ge, and depleted in Fe, relative to surrounding rocks. Apron rocks include an outcrop also enriched in Si and Ge, and slightly depleted in Fe. In general rocks in the crater and apron have elevated S levels relative to Shoemaker formation breccias, tracking values observed in the Cook Haven (gentle swale superimposed on Murray Ridge and site of Opportunity's 5th winter site) and the Hueytown fracture (running perpendicular to Cape Tribulation) outcrops. SoSL crater lies just to the west of Marathon Valley, a key target for exploration by Opportunity because five separate CRISM observations indicate the presence of Fe/Mg smectites on the upper valley floor. Opportunity data show that low relief, relatively bright, wind-scoured outcrops dominate the valley floor where not covered by scree and soil shed from surrounding walls. Initial reconnaissance shows that the outcrops are breccias with compositions similar to the typical SoSL crater apron and floor rocks, although only the very upper portion of the valley has been explored as of August 2015. Pervasive but modest aqueous alteration of Endeavour's rim is implied by the combination of CRISM and Opportunity data, providing insight into early aqueous processes dominated in this location by relatively low water to rock ratios, and at least in part associated with enhanced fluid flow along fractures.

  6. Exploring access to scientific literature using content-based image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    The number of articles published in the scientific medical literature is continuously increasing, and Web access to the journals is becoming common. Databases such as SPIE Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, indices such as PubMed, and search engines such as Google provide the user with sophisticated full-text search capabilities. However, information in images and graphs within these articles is entirely disregarded. In this paper, we quantify the potential impact of using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) to access this non-text data. Based on the Journal Citations Report (JCR), the journal Radiology was selected for this study. In 2005, 734 articles were published electronically in this journal. This included 2,587 figures, which yields a rate of 3.52 figures per article. Furthermore, 56.4% of these figures are composed of several individual panels, i.e. the figure combines different images and/or graphs. According to the Image Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (ImageCLEF), the error rate of automatic identification of medical images is about 15%. Therefore, it is expected that, by applying ImageCLEF-like techniques, already 95.5% of articles could be retrieved by means of CBIR. The challenge for CBIR in scientific literature, however, is the use of local texture properties to analyze individual image panels in composite illustrations. Using local features for content-based image representation, 8.81 images per article are available, and the predicted correctness rate may increase to 98.3%. From this study, we conclude that CBIR may have a high impact in medical literature research and suggest that additional research in this area is warranted.

  7. Key Recent Scientific Results from the Opportunity Rover's Exploration of Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Crumpler, L.; McLennan, S.; Farrand, W. H.; Joliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Opportunity Rover is currently in its 11th year of operations, exploring the rim of the approximately 22 km wide Noachian-age Endeavour Crater. Opportunity spent its 5th winter season in Cook Haven, a gentle swale along Murray Ridge. Two small rocks serendipitously overturned by rover wheel motions show evidence for aqueous precipitation of sulfates, and interaction with a strong oxidant (e.g., O2) to form a thin, high valence state Mn oxide coating. After the winter, Opportunity headed south to Cape Tribulation and explored Shoemaker formation impact breccias, finding numerous Ca-sulfate veins cutting across outcrops. A key target for Opportunity's measurements has been the Spirit of Saint Louis crater (SoSL), which is approximately 25 m wide, oval in plan view, shallow, flat-floored, and has a slightly raised rim. SoSL crater is surrounded by an apron of bright, polygonally-shaped outcrops and is superimposed on a gentle swale in Cape Tribulation. Rocks in a thin reddish zone on the rim are enriched in hematite, Si, and Ge, and depleted in Fe, relative to surrounding rocks. Apron rocks include an outcrop also enriched in Si and Ge, and slightly depleted in Fe. In general rocks in the crater and apron have elevated S relative to Shoemaker formation breccias, tracking values observed in the Cook Haven and the Hueytown (fracture running perpendicular to Cape Tribulation) outcrops. SoSL crater lies just to the west of Marathon Valley, a key target for exploration by Opportunity because five separate CRISM observations indicate the presence of Fe/Mg smectites on the upper valley floor. Opportunity data show that low relief, relatively bright polygonal outcrops dominate the valley floor where not covered by scree and soil shed from surrounding walls. Initial reconnaissance shows that the outcrops are breccias with compositions similar to the typical SoSL crater apron and floor rocks, although only the very upper portion of the valley has been explored as of August

  8. Limited By Cost: The Case Against Humans In The Scientific Exploration Of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Andrew J.

    2001-11-01

    Human space flight represents a heady mix of bravery and drama which can be inspirational to nations and to humankind but at huge economic cost. Due to the current high launch costs only a handful of people have ventured beyond low Earth orbit and walked on the Moon, propelled by aspirations related more to the Cold War than to science. Problems with reusable launch vehicle development mean that severe launch cost limitations will exist for some time. Meanwhile, cheaper robotic probes have visited all the planets except Pluto, flown by comets, landed on Mars, Venus and an asteroid, have probed Jupiter's atmosphere and studied the Universe beyond our own solar system with telescopes. Using these data we are determining mankind's place in the Universe. Public interest in the historic Eros landing eclipsed a simultaneous space walk at the fledgling International Space Station and the Mars Pathfinder landing generated hundreds of millions of website hits in a few days. Given the fact that hundreds of Mars missions could be flown for the still-escalating cost of the International Space Station, the unsuitability of human bodies for deep space exploration, and the advances in 3-d and virtual reality techniques, we discuss whether human exploration needs a place in a realistic, useful and inspirational space programme.

  9. Scientific Investigations To Prepare For The Potential Human Exploration Of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Lindsay; Beaty, David; Whitley, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    In order for human missions to the martian system to be successful and safe, we need a certain minimum set of knowledge. Comparison of what we need to know with what we already know defines what we refer to as "Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs)". The SKG list needs to be the driving force behind the robotic precursor program. The Mars SKG list was first constructed by the Precursor Strategy Analysis Group (P-SAG) in 2012. It consisted of 17 SKGs that could be addressed by about 60 gap-filling activities (GFA). These GFAs were split into three groups based on where and how they could be carried out: requires a Mars flight/mission, addressed on Earth, or technology demonstration. Those GFAs that require a Mars mission were incorporated into the revision of the 2012 Goals Document of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) as "investigations" under Goal IV: Prepare for Human Exploration. In 2015, MEPAG updated the Goals Document, and comparison of the 2012 and 2015 versions shows that significant and encouraging overall progress has been made on a number of the investigations. We note three specific kinds of changes: 1) Complete retirement of several investigations, 2) Decreased investigation priority based on partial progress, and 3) Addition of a few new investigations. Some of these changes are detailed below: Retired: • Simultaneous spectra of solar energetic particles in space and ion the surface • Spectra of galactic cosmic rays on the surface • Trace gas abundances • Determine traction/cohesion in martian regolith • Determine vertical variation in regolith • High spatial resolution maps of mineral composition and abundance • High spatial resolution maps of subsurface ice depth and concentration Decreased Priority: • Making long-term measurements of winds and wind directions (improvements in EDL technologies have decreased the importance of this measurement) • Profile the near-surface winds (improvements in EDL technologies have

  10. Earth Camp: Exploring Earth Change through the Use of Satellite Images and Scientific Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldridge, A.; Buxner, S.; Crown, D. A.; Colodner, D.; Orchard, A.; King, B.; Schwartz, K.; Prescott, A.; Prietto, J.; Titcomb, A.

    2014-07-01

    Earth Camp is a NASA-funded program that gives students and teachers opportunities to explore local, regional, and global earth change through a combination of hands-on investigations and the use of satellite images. Each summer, 20 middle school and 20 high school students participate in a two-week leadership program investigating contemporary issues (e.g., changes in river sheds, water quality, and land use management) through hands-on investigations, analyzing remote sensing data, and working with experts. Each year, 20 teachers participate in a year-long professional development program that includes monthly workshops, field investigations on Mt. Lemmon in Tucson, Arizona, and a week-long summer design workshop. Teachers conduct investigations of authentic questions using satellite images and create posters to present results of their study of earth change. In addition, teachers design lesson plans to expand their students' ability to investigate earth change with 21st Century tools. Lessons can be used as classroom exercises or for after-school club programs. Independent evaluation has been an integral part of program development and delivery for all three audiences, enabling the program staff and participants to reflect on and continually improve their practice and learning over the three-year period.

  11. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H.; Duffield, W.A.; Janik, C.J.

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  12. Scalable Machine Learning for Massive Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2014-01-01

    We present the ability to perform data mining and machine learning operations on a catalog of half a billion astronomical objects. This is the result of the combination of robust, highly accurate machine learning algorithms with linear scalability that renders the applications of these algorithms to massive astronomical data tractable. We demonstrate the core algorithms kernel density estimation, K-means clustering, linear regression, nearest neighbors, random forest and gradient-boosted decision tree, singular value decomposition, support vector machine, and two-point correlation function. Each of these is relevant for astronomical applications such as finding novel astrophysical objects, characterizing artifacts in data, object classification (including for rare objects), object distances, finding the important features describing objects, density estimation of distributions, probabilistic quantities, and exploring the unknown structure of new data. The software, Skytree Server, runs on any UNIX-based machine, a virtual machine, or cloud-based and distributed systems including Hadoop. We have integrated it on the cloud computing system of the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), creating the world's first cloud computing data mining system for astronomy. We demonstrate results showing the scaling of each of our major algorithms on large astronomical datasets, including the full 470,992,970 objects of the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog. We demonstrate the ability to find outliers in the full 2MASS dataset utilizing multiple methods, e.g., nearest neighbors, and the local outlier factor. 2MASS is used as a proof-of-concept dataset due to its convenience and availability. These results are of interest to any astronomical project with large and/or complex datasets that wishes to extract the full scientific value from its data.

  13. Scalable Machine Learning for Massive Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Gray, A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the ability to perform data mining and machine learning operations on a catalog of half a billion astronomical objects. This is the result of the combination of robust, highly accurate machine learning algorithms with linear scalability that renders the applications of these algorithms to massive astronomical data tractable. We demonstrate the core algorithms kernel density estimation, K-means clustering, linear regression, nearest neighbors, random forest and gradient-boosted decision tree, singular value decomposition, support vector machine, and two-point correlation function. Each of these is relevant for astronomical applications such as finding novel astrophysical objects, characterizing artifacts in data, object classification (including for rare objects), object distances, finding the important features describing objects, density estimation of distributions, probabilistic quantities, and exploring the unknown structure of new data. The software, Skytree Server, runs on any UNIX-based machine, a virtual machine, or cloud-based and distributed systems including Hadoop. We have integrated it on the cloud computing system of the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), creating the world's first cloud computing data mining system for astronomy. We demonstrate results showing the scaling of each of our major algorithms on large astronomical datasets, including the full 470,992,970 objects of the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog. We demonstrate the ability to find outliers in the full 2MASS dataset utilizing multiple methods, e.g., nearest neighbors. This is likely of particular interest to the radio astronomy community given, for example, that survey projects contain groups dedicated to this topic. 2MASS is used as a proof-of-concept dataset due to its convenience and availability. These results are of interest to any astronomical project with large and/or complex

  14. Opportunities and Challenges in Scientific Exploration of Both Titan and Enceladus by a Single Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Strange, N. J.

    2008-12-01

    In 2007 NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), in efforts to start an outer solar system flagship mission in the near future, commissioned studies of mission concepts for four high-priority outer solar system destinations: Europa, the Jovian system, Titan, and Enceladus. Follow-on studies begun in 2008, jointly conducted with ESA and incorporating the selection of the LaPlace and TandEM Cosmic Vision study proposals, combine the Europa and Jupiter system mission concepts into a single mission, and the Titan and Enceladus mission concepts, along with related Saturn system science, into a single mission. The 2007 studies of Titan and Enceladus missions allowed each mission concept to focus on a single destination. The 2008 study must address both Titan and Enceladus exploration with a single mission. This raises significant challenges to mission designers but also presents opportunities. Challenges stem from Titan's and Enceladus' very different locations within Saturn's gravity well, and from the different natures of the two satellites. With current or even envisioned propulsion systems, delta-V requirements prohibit a spacecraft that inserts into orbit at one from subsequently escaping and inserting into orbit at the other. Missions that perform interlaced flybys of the two bodies are limited to relatively high flyby speeds. "Pumping down" flyby speeds at one of them terminates, at least temporarily, flybys of the other, and for Enceladus requires significant time and delta-V. But despite their obvious differences, such as Titan's thick and Enceladus' almost non-existent atmospheres, a science payload designed for Titan can perform excellent science at Enceladus as well. It might be possible to have a single mission target separate orbiters to the two destinations, but this architecture would likely require a launch vehicle significantly larger than is required for a mission that orbits only one body. This paper will discuss these challenges and opportunities.

  15. Exploring the Philosophical Underpinnings of Research: Relating Ontology and Epistemology to the Methodology and Methods of the Scientific, Interpretive, and Critical Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotland, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the philosophical underpinnings of three major educational research paradigms: scientific, interpretive, and critical. The aim was to outline and explore the interrelationships between each paradigm's ontology, epistemology, methodology and methods. This paper reveals and then discusses some of the underlying assumptions of…

  16. Unifying the integration, analysis and interpretation of multi-omic datasets: exploration of the disease networks of Obstructive Nephropathy in children.

    PubMed

    Moulos, Panagiotis; Valavanis, Ioannis; Klein, Julie; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Schanstra, Joost; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis

    2011-01-01

    The wealth of data amassed by the utilization of various high-throughput techniques, in various layers of molecular dissection, stresses the critical role of the unification of the computational methodologies applied in biological data handling, storage, analysis and visualization. In this article, a generic workflow is showcased in a multi-omic dataset that is used to study Obstructive Nephropathy (ON) in children, integrating microarray data from several biological layers (transcriptomic, post-transcriptomic, proteomic). The workflow exploits raw measurements and through several analytical stages (preprocessing, statistical and functional), which entail various parsing steps, reaches the visualization stage of the heterogeneous, broader, molecular interacting network derived. This network, where the interconnected entities are exploiting the knowledge stored in public repositories, represents a systems level interpretation of the pathological state probed. PMID:22255147

  17. Exploring the Impacts of Cognitive and Metacognitive Prompting on Students' Scientific Inquiry Practices Within an E-Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Yu-Ting

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the effects of metacognitive and cognitive prompting on the scientific inquiry practices of students with various levels of initial metacognition. Two junior high school classes participated in this study. One class, the experimental group (n = 26), which received an inquiry-based curriculum with a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts, was compared to the other class, the comparison group (n = 25), which received only cognitive prompts in the same curriculum. Data sources included a test of inquiry practices, a questionnaire of metacognition, and worksheets. The results showed that the mixed cognitive and metacognitive prompts had significant impacts on the students' inquiry practices, especially their planning and analyzing abilities. Furthermore, the mixed prompts appeared to have a differential effect on those students with lower level metacognition, who showed significant improvement in their inquiry abilities. A combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts during an inquiry cycle was found to promote students' inquiry practices.

  18. Final Scientific / Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Exploration Program, Truckhaven Area, Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Layman Energy Associates, Inc.

    2006-08-15

    With financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Layman Energy Associates, Inc. (LEA) has completed a program of geothermal exploration at the Truckhaven area in Imperial County, California. The exploratory work conducted by LEA included the following activities: compilation of public domain resource data (wells, seismic data, geologic maps); detailed field geologic mapping at the project site; acquisition and interpretation of remote sensing imagery such as aerial and satellite photographs; acquisition, quality control and interpretation of gravity data; and acquisition, quality control and interpretation of resistivity data using state of the art magnetotelluric (MT) methods. The results of this exploratory program have allowed LEA to develop a structural and hydrologic interpretation of the Truckhaven geothermal resource which can be used to guide subsequent exploratory drilling and resource development. Of primary significance, is the identification of an 8 kilometer-long, WNW-trending zone of low resistivity associated with geothermal activity in nearby wells. The long axis of this low resistivity zone is inferred to mark a zone of faulting which likely provides the primary control on the distribution of geothermal resources in the Truckhaven area. Abundant cross-faults cutting the main WNW-trending zone in its western half may indicate elevated fracture permeability in this region, possibly associated with thermal upwelling and higher resource temperatures. Regional groundwater flow is inferred to push thermal fluids from west to east along the trend of the main low resistivity zone, with resource temperatures likely declining from west to east away from the inferred upwelling zone. Resistivity mapping and well data have also shown that within the WNW-trending low resistivity zone, the thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary section above granite basement ranges from 1,900–2,600 meters. Well data indicates the lower part of this

  19. Exploring teachers' beliefs and knowledge about scientific inquiry and the nature of science: A collaborative action research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Xavier Eric

    Science curriculum reform goals espouse the need to foster and support the development of scientific literacy in students. Two critical goals of scientific literacy are students' engagement in, and developing more realistic conceptions about scientific inquiry (SI) and the nature of science (NOS). In order to promote the learning of these curriculum emphases, teachers themselves must possess beliefs and knowledge supportive of them. Collaborative action research is a viable form of curriculum and teacher development that can be used to support teachers in developing the requisite beliefs and knowledge that can promote these scientific literacy goals. This research study used a collective case study methodology to describe and interpret the views and actions of four teachers participating in a collaborative action research project. I explored the teachers' SI and NOS views throughout the project as they investigated ideas and theories, critically examined their current curricular practice, and implemented and reflected on these modified curricular practices. By the end of the research study, all participants had uniquely augmented their understanding of SI and NOS. The participants were better able to provide explanatory depth to some SI and NOS ideas; however, specific belief revision with respect to SI and NOS ideas was nominal. Furthermore, their idealized action research plans were not implemented to the extent that they were planned. Explanations for these findings include: impact of significant past educational experiences, prior understanding of SI and NOS, depth of content and pedagogical content knowledge of the discipline, and institutional and instructional constraints. Nonetheless, through participation in the collaborative action research process, the teachers developed professionally, personally, and socially. They identified many positive outcomes from participating in a collaborative action research project; however, they espoused constraints to

  20. Exploring Science in the Studio: NSF-Funded Initiatives to Increase Scientific Literacy in Undergraduate Art and Design Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The project Exploring Science in the Studio at California College of the Arts (CCA), one of the oldest and most influential art and design schools in the country, pursues ways to enable undergraduate students to become scientifically literate problem-solvers in a variety of careers and to give content and context to their creative practices. The two main branches of this National Science Foundation-funded project are a series of courses called Science in the Studio (SitS) and the design of the Mobile Units for Science Exploration (MUSE) system, which allow instructors to bring science equipment directly into the studios. Ongoing since 2010, each fall semester a series of interdisciplinary SitS courses are offered in the college's principal areas of study (architecture, design, fine arts, humanities and sciences, and diversity studies) thematically linked by Earth and environmental science topics such as water, waste, and sustainability. Each course receives funding to embed guest scientists from other colleges and universities, industry, or agriculture directly into the studio courses. These scientists worked in tandem with the studio faculty and gave lectures, led field trips, conducted studio visits, and advised the students' creative endeavors, culminating in an annual SitS exhibition of student work. The MUSE system, of fillable carts and a storage and display unit, was designed by undergraduate students in a Furniture studio who explored, experimented, and researched various ways science materials and equipment are stored, collected, and displayed, for use in the current and future science and studio curricula at CCA. Sustainable practices and "smart design" underpinned all of the work completed in the studio. The materials selected for the new Science Collection at CCA include environmental monitoring equipment and test kits, a weather station, a stream table, a rock and fossil collection, and a vertebrate skull collection. The SitS courses and MUSE system

  1. Phylogenomic analysis of EST datasets.

    PubMed

    Peregrín-Alvarez, José M; Parkinson, John

    2009-01-01

    To date the genomes of over 600 organisms have been generated of which 100 are from eukaryotes. Together with partial genome data for an additional 700 eukaryotic organisms, these exceptional sequence resources offer new opportunities to explore phylogenetic relationships and species diversity. The identification of highly diverse sequences specific to an EST-based sequence dataset offers insights into the extent of genetic novelty within that dataset. Sequences that are only shared with other related species from the same taxon might represent genes associated with taxon-specific innovations. On the other hand, sequences that are highly conserved across many other species offer valuable resources for performing more in-depth phylogenetic analyses. In the following chapter, we guide the reader through the process of examining their sequence datasets in the context of phylogenetic relationships. Performed across large-scale datasets, such analyses are termed Phylogenomics. Two complementary approaches are described, both based on the use of BLAST similarity metrics. The first uses an established Java tool - SimiTri - to visualize sequence similarity relationships between the EST dataset and three user-defined datasets. The second focuses on the use of phylogenetic profiles to identify groups of taxonomically related sequences. PMID:19277568

  2. Exploring what stabilizes teachers' attention and responsiveness to the substance of students' scientific thinking in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Jennifer

    Teachers' attention and responsiveness to the substance of students' disciplinary thinking is critical for promoting students' disciplinary engagement and learning, yet such attention is rare and fleeting in American classrooms. In this dissertation, I aim to learn more from teachers who do attend and respond to students' scientific ideas while teaching. I explore the classroom practices of three focal teachers in a professional development program who consistently place students' ideas at the core of their instruction with an eye toward the following research question: What might stabilize teachers' attention and responsiveness to the substance of students' scientific thinking during sustained classroom episodes? Examining three episodes from each teacher, I identify aspects within these episodes that are salient to the teachers and plausibly interrelated with their attention and responsiveness to student thinking. My primary data chapters include analyses of specific pairs of episodes that speak to my broader research question as well as other relevant topics in the literature on attending and responding to student thinking. The first data chapter makes the case that professional development efforts aimed at supporting responsiveness to student thinking primarily help teachers within planned discussions or progressions, but struggle to help teachers adapt their ongoing instruction in response to unexpected directions from students. I examine two episodes in which the discussions that emerged were not preplanned but rather emergent from students' contributions, with an eye toward what initiated and sustained teachers' responsiveness. The second data chapter contributes to discussions on what constitutes favorable change in attending and responding to the substance of student thinking, emphasizing the importance of disciplinary-specific considerations. Finally, I draw on the entire data set in noting specific commonalities within and across teachers, suggesting two

  3. Exploring Spatial Patterns of Pan-European Hydrological Signatures and their Links With Catchment Characteristics by Taking Advantage of Large Open Datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuentz, A.; Arheimer, B.; Hirpa, Y. H.; Wagener, T.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing availability of open hydrological and physiographic data over large spatial domains opens the door for a more thorough investigation of dominant flow generating mechanisms across scales using a large number of catchments. This study aims at exploring and understanding the physical controls on spatial patterns of pan-European flow signatures. This understanding will ultimately enhance our ability to predict hydrological variables in ungauged catchments. In this study, similarities in signatures are explored and compared to similarities in catchment characteristics to distinguish coherence in spatial patterns. In total, some 50 characteristics variables (physical, human alteration and climate) have been computed for more than 1500 stream gauges across Europe. For the same gauges, 15 selected signatures have been calculated for different time-periods (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 years) of continuous daily flow measurements. Relationships between characteristics and signatures are subsequently explored through correlation analyses to find the best explanatory variables for each signature and to build regression models for predictions in ungauged basins. Significant relationships are observed between some signatures and predictors like land-use area percentages (agriculture, open areas), topography and climatic indices. Two types of classification (based on catchment characteristics or flow signatures) are applied and the obtained patterns are compared. Regression models are built for each class and compared to the general models built without classification. Attention is drawn to human alteration when looking at outliers or differences between modeled and observed patterns. Finally, the regression models are applied for 35 000 watersheds, mostly ungauged, across Europe (on average 250 km2) to create a map of flow regimes across the European continent. Dominant flow generating processes are analyzed for each class to understand the spatial pattern.

  4. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  5. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  6. Exploring recent and projected climate change in a steep monsoonal catchment in the middle Himalaya through innovative synthesis of local observations, gridded datasets and community engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Pritchard, Davis; Tiwari, Prakash; Fowler, Hayley; Kumaun, Bhagwati

    2016-04-01

    Under the auspices of an "Innovation Partnerships" programme research exchange grant jointly funded by the India Department of Science and Technology and the British Council, Kumaun University and Newcastle University have been collaboratively exploring the recorded historical and projected future climate change implications for a case study catchment, the Ramgad river, in the Kumaon Lesser Himalaya (Uttarakhand state, India). This work weaves together diverse research strands with the aim of producing a coherent thorough characterisation of the impacts of recent/on-going and likely climate evolution on local communities. Participatory research activities in multiple villages in the case study catchment have yielded a consistent narrative of changes posed by the increasingly erratic monsoonal rainfall as well as upward displacement and replacement crops in their historical elevation ranges due to temperature change. Multi-decadal climate records from both local observations and global meteorological records reveal a more complex picture with strong seasonal asymmetry of changes in both temperature and precipitation: a) trend analysis shows mild weakening of the early phase (May, July) but strengthen in the later stages (August, September); b) temperature trends show much stronger warming in late winter and early spring (February to April) than the rest of the year with additional asymmetry in both sign and magnitude of change between individual components (Tmax, Tmin) of the diurnal temperature cycle. On-going research seeks to associate this asymmetry with causal mechanisms (cloud radiative effect, atmospheric circulation). Analysis of historical records will provide the basis for validation and assessment of individual regional climate model projections from the CORDEX South Asia domain ensemble. For the terraced agricultural communities of the Kumaon Himalaya, the most directly consequential effects of climate variability and change are impacts on crop yields

  7. Where Do the Sand-Dust Storms Come From?: Conversations with Specialists from the Exploring Sand-Dust Storms Scientific Expedition Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shixin, Liu

    2004-01-01

    This article relates the different views from specialists of the scientific expedition team for the exploration of the origin of sand-dust storms. They observed and examined on-site the ecological environment of places of origin for sand-dust storms, and tried to find out causes of sand-dust storm and what harm it can cause in the hope of…

  8. Exploring the Impacts of Cognitive and Metacognitive Prompting on Students' Scientific Inquiry Practices within an E-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effects of metacognitive and cognitive prompting on the scientific inquiry practices of students with various levels of initial metacognition. Two junior high school classes participated in this study. One class, the experimental group (n?=?26), which received an inquiry-based curriculum with a combination of cognitive and…

  9. Exploring the Potential of Using Stories about Diverse Scientists and Reflective Activities to Enrich Primary Students' Images of Scientists and Scientific Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the potential of using stories about diverse scientists to broaden primary students' images of scientists and scientific work. Stories featuring scientists from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds (i.e., physical ability, gender, ethnicity) were presented to 11 grade one students over a 15-week…

  10. Scientific Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  11. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  12. Preparing Precipitation Data Access, Value-added Services and Scientific Exploration Tools for the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Kempler, S. J.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation or google: NASA PDISC), located at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC), is home of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. For over 15 years, the GES DISC has served not only TRMM, but also other space-based, airborne-based, field campaign and ground-based precipitation data products to the precipitation community and other disciplinary communities as well. The TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products are the most popular products in the TRMM product family in terms of data download and access through Mirador, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) and other services. The next generation of TMPA, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) to be released in 2014 after the launch of GPM, will be significantly improved in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. To better serve the user community, we are preparing data services and samples are listed below. To enable scientific exploration of Earth science data products without going through complicated and often time consuming processes, such as data downloading, data processing, etc., the GES DISC has developed Giovanni in consultation with members of the user community, requesting quick search, subset, analysis and display capabilities for their specific data of interest. For example, the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS, http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/) has proven extremely popular, especially as additional datasets have been added upon request. Giovanni will continue to evolve to accommodate GPM data and the multi-sensor data inter-comparisons that will be sure to follow. Additional PDISC tool and service capabilities being adapted for GPM data include: An on-line PDISC Portal (includes user guide, etc

  13. Scientific results and lessons learned from an integrated crewed Mars exploration simulation at the Rio Tinto Mars analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgel, Csilla; Kereszturi, Ákos; Váczi, Tamás; Groemer, Gernot; Sattler, Birgit

    2014-02-01

    Between 15 and 25 April 2011 in the framework of the PolAres programme of the Austrian Space Forum, a five-day field test of the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator was conducted at the Rio Tinto Mars-analogue site in southern Spain. The field crew was supported by a full-scale Mission Control Center (MCC) in Innsbruck, Austria. The field telemetry data were relayed to the MCC, enabling a Remote Science Support (RSS) team to study field data in near-real-time and adjust the flight planning in a flexible manner. We report on the experiences in the field of robotics, geophysics (Ground Penetrating Radar) and geology as well as life sciences in a simulated spaceflight operational environment. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) maps had been prepared using Google Earth and aerial images. The Rio Tinto mining area offers an excellent location for Mars analogue simulations. It is recognised as a terrestrial Mars analogue site because of the presence of jarosite and related sulphates, which have been identified by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity" in the El Capitan region of Meridiani Planum on Mars. The acidic, high ferric-sulphate content water of Rio Tinto is also considered as a possible analogue in astrobiology regarding the analysis of ferric sulphate related biochemical pathways and produced biomarkers. During our Mars simulation, 18 different types of soil and rock samples were collected by the spacesuit tester. The Raman results confirm the presence of minerals expected, such as jarosite, different Fe oxides and oxi-hydroxides, pyrite and complex Mg and Ca sulphates. Eight science experiments were conducted in the field. In this contribution first we list the important findings during the management and realisation of tests, and also a first summary of the scientific results. Based on these experiences suggestions for future analogue work are also summarised. We finish with recommendations for future field missions, including the preparation of the experiments

  14. Fixing Dataset Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Three current search engines are queried for ozone data at the GES DISC. The results range from sub-optimal to counter-intuitive. We propose a method to fix dataset search by implementing a robust relevancy ranking scheme. The relevancy ranking scheme is based on several heuristics culled from more than 20 years of helping users select datasets.

  15. Student-Centered Use of Case Studies Incorporating Oral and Writing Skills to Explore Scientific Ethical Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Ingrid; Padilla, Adriana; Maldonado, Atenaida; Negretti, Solymar

    2009-01-01

    For many years, ethical misconduct has been long endured and difficult to address in the scientific community. To educate students about ethical misconduct in science, case studies were used in an ethics discussion board for a class group project. The objectives aimed to (i) familiarize students with the term "ethical misconduct", particularly in…

  16. Elementary School Students' Emotions When Exploring an Authentic Socio-Scientific Issue through the Use of Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaou, Chr. Th.; Evagorou, M.; Lymbouridou, Chr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the belief that emotions are important in the learning process, research in the area of emotions and learning, especially in science, is scant. Modelling and SSI argumentation have shared with respect to the emphasis in recent science standards reports as core scientific practices that need to be part of science teaching and learning. Even…

  17. Students' Meaning-Making of Socio-Scientific Issues in Computer Mediated Settings: Exploring Learning through Interaction Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furberg, Anniken; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study concerning secondary school students' meaning-making of socio-scientific issues in Information and Communication Technology-mediated settings. Our theoretical argument has as its point of departure the analytical distinction between "doing science" and "doing school," as two different forms of classroom activity. In…

  18. Exploring the potential of using stories about diverse scientists and reflective activities to enrich primary students' images of scientists and scientific work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the potential of using stories about diverse scientists to broaden primary students' images of scientists and scientific work. Stories featuring scientists from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds (i.e., physical ability, gender, ethnicity) were presented to 11 grade one students over a 15 -week period. My analysis of pre-and post audio-taped interview transcripts, draw-a-scientist-tests (Chambers 1983), participant observations and student work suggest that the stories about scientists and follow-up reflective activities provided resources for students that helped them: (a) acquire images of scientists from less dominant socio-cultural backgrounds; (b) enrich their views of scientific work from predominantly hands-on/activity-oriented views to ones that includes cognitive and positive affective dimensions. One of the limitations of using stories as a tool to extend students' thinking about science is highlighted in a case study of a student who expresses resistance to some of the counter-stereotypic images presented in the stories. I also present two additional case studies that illustrate how shifts in student' views of the nature of scientific work can change their interest in future participation in scientific work.

  19. NATIONAL HYDROGRAPHY DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is a feature-based database that interconnects and uniquely identifies the stream segments or reaches that comprise the nations surface water drainage system. It is based initially on the content of the U.S. Geological Survey 1:100,000-scal...

  20. NATIONAL HYDROGRAPHY DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is a comprehensive set of digital spatial data that contains information about surface water features such as lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, springs and wells. Within the NHD, surface water features are combined to fo...

  1. NATIONAL ELEVATION DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) has been developed by merging the highest-resolution, best-quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital ...

  2. NATIONAL ELEVATION DATASET HILLSHADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) has been developed bymerging the highest-resolution, best-quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital E...

  3. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century

    PubMed Central

    HICKMAN, CLARE

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper — the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter’s Earl’s Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner’s house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces. PMID:26052165

  4. Changes in orthodontic treatment modalities in the past 20 years: exploring the link between technology and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Bradley, T Gerard

    2013-01-01

    STATEMENT OF THE ISSUE: Is there a link between the many perceived advances in orthodontic techniques/therapy and science in the past 20 years? The purpose of this paper is to take five topics and match the perceptions with the scientific evidence. The variety of appliances and the swings in treatment philosophy have been dramatic, including the swing from extraction to non-extraction therapy, the introduction of space-age wires, appliances that grow mandibles, the introduction and extraordinary growth of Invisalign, and reduced friction brackets to reduce treatment time, all with claims by manufacturers of better results than ever before. The focus is on faster treatment, reduced visits/appointments and superior results. Most of these 'advancements' represent what has been the 'juggernaut of technology'. Five questions are posed, and an evidence-based approach is used to critically examine the literature in these selected topics. PMID:23729055

  5. [The coast of Northeast Brazil as a Darwinian scientific object: the explorations of John Casper Branner, 1899-1911].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Almir Leal

    2014-01-01

    John Casper Branner, a US geologist, had a long history of research in Brazil. The article analyzes his exploration of the geology of the coast of Northeast Brazil during the Branner-Agassiz (1899) and Stanford (1911) expeditions. In the findings from both voyages, Branner characterized the geomorphology of sedimentary basins, sandstone reefs, and coral reefs from a Darwinian evolutionary perspective, blending natural history's model of field research with the practices of modern biology and dynamic geology. He based his interpretation of the evolution of the geological formation on physical and chemical factors. Zoological studies identified the place of evolutionary variation and adaptations of isolated marine species as an auxiliary factor in natural selection. PMID:25338034

  6. Data Integration for Heterogenous Datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract More and more, the needs of data analysts are requiring the use of data outside the control of their own organizations. The increasing amount of data available on the Web, the new technologies for linking data across datasets, and the increasing need to integrate structured and unstructured data are all driving this trend. In this article, we provide a technical overview of the emerging “broad data” area, in which the variety of heterogeneous data being used, rather than the scale of the data being analyzed, is the limiting factor in data analysis efforts. The article explores some of the emerging themes in data discovery, data integration, linked data, and the combination of structured and unstructured data. PMID:25553272

  7. The 3D widgets for exploratory scientific visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, Kenneth P.; Meyer, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used to simulate flows of fluids like air or water around such objects as airplanes and automobiles. These techniques usually generate very large amounts of numerical data which are difficult to understand without using graphical scientific visualization techniques. There are a number of commercial scientific visualization applications available today which allow scientists to control visualization tools via textual and/or 2D user interfaces. However, these user interfaces are often difficult to use. We believe that 3D direct-manipulation techniques for interactively controlling visualization tools will provide opportunities for powerful and useful interfaces with which scientists can more effectively explore their datasets. A few systems have been developed which use these techniques. In this paper, we will present a variety of 3D interaction techniques for manipulating parameters of visualization tools used to explore CFD datasets, and discuss in detail various techniques for positioning tools in a 3D scene.

  8. The Path from Large Earth Science Datasets to Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data (GES) and Information Services Center (DISC) is one of the major Science Mission Directorate (SMD) for archiving and distribution of Earth Science remote sensing data, products and services. This virtual portal provides convenient access to Atmospheric Composition and Dynamics, Hydrology, Precipitation, Ozone, and model derived datasets (generated by GSFC's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office), the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data products (both generated by GSFC's Hydrological Sciences Branch). This presentation demonstrates various tools and computational technologies developed in the GES DISC to manage the huge volume of data and products acquired from various missions and programs over the years. It explores approaches to archive, document, distribute, access and analyze Earth Science data and information as well as addresses the technical and scientific issues, governance and user support problem faced by scientists in need of multi-disciplinary datasets. It also discusses data and product metrics, user distribution profiles and lessons learned through interactions with the science communities around the world. Finally it demonstrates some of the most used data and product visualization and analyses tools developed and maintained by the GES DISC.

  9. Publicly Releasing a Large Simulation Dataset with NDS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbaum, Nathan

    2016-03-01

    Optimally, all publicly funded research should be accompanied by the tools, code, and data necessary to fully reproduce the analysis performed in journal articles describing the research. This ideal can be difficult to attain, particularly when dealing with large (>10 TB) simulation datasets. In this lightning talk, we describe the process of publicly releasing a large simulation dataset to accompany the submission of a journal article. The simulation was performed using Enzo, an open source, community-developed N-body/hydrodynamics code and was analyzed using a wide range of community- developed tools in the scientific Python ecosystem. Although the simulation was performed and analyzed using an ecosystem of sustainably developed tools, we enable sustainable science using our data by making it publicly available. Combining the data release with the NDS Labs infrastructure allows a substantial amount of added value, including web-based access to analysis and visualization using the yt analysis package through an IPython notebook interface. In addition, we are able to accompany the paper submission to the arXiv preprint server with links to the raw simulation data as well as interactive real-time data visualizations that readers can explore on their own or share with colleagues during journal club discussions. It is our hope that the value added by these services will substantially increase the impact and readership of the paper.

  10. Genomics dataset of unidentified disclosed isolates.

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of DNA sequences is necessary for higher hierarchical classification of the organisms. It gives clues about the characteristics of organisms and their taxonomic position. This dataset is chosen to find complexities in the unidentified DNA in the disclosed patents. A total of 17 unidentified DNA sequences were thoroughly analyzed. The quick response codes were generated. AT/GC content of the DNA sequences analysis was carried out. The QR is helpful for quick identification of isolates. AT/GC content is helpful for studying their stability at different temperatures. Additionally, a dataset on cleavage code and enzyme code studied under the restriction digestion study, which helpful for performing studies using short DNA sequences was reported. The dataset disclosed here is the new revelatory data for exploration of unique DNA sequences for evaluation, identification, comparison and analysis. PMID:27408929

  11. Public Availability to ECS Collected Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, J. F.; Warnken, R.; McLean, S. J.; Lim, E.; Varner, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal nations have spent considerable resources exploring the limits of their extended continental shelf (ECS) beyond 200 nm. Although these studies are funded to fulfill requirements of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the investments are producing new data sets in frontier areas of Earth's oceans that will be used to understand, explore, and manage the seafloor and sub-seafloor for decades to come. Although many of these datasets are considered proprietary until a nation's potential ECS has become 'final and binding' an increasing amount of data are being released and utilized by the public. Data sets include multibeam, seismic reflection/refraction, bottom sampling, and geophysical data. The U.S. ECS Project, a multi-agency collaboration whose mission is to establish the full extent of the continental shelf of the United States consistent with international law, relies heavily on data and accurate, standard metadata. The United States has made it a priority to make available to the public all data collected with ECS-funding as quickly as possible. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) supports this objective by partnering with academia and other federal government mapping agencies to archive, inventory, and deliver marine mapping data in a coordinated, consistent manner. This includes ensuring quality, standard metadata and developing and maintaining data delivery capabilities built on modern digital data archives. Other countries, such as Ireland, have submitted their ECS data for public availability and many others have made pledges to participate in the future. The data services provided by NGDC support the U.S. ECS effort as well as many developing nation's ECS effort through the U.N. Environmental Program. Modern discovery, visualization, and delivery of scientific data and derived products that span national and international sources of data ensure the greatest re-use of data and

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    3) significant changes that have occurred in Antarctic exploration and research since World War II will be discussed at the end of this report. Subsequent Open-File Reports will provide a year-by-year documentation of USGS scientific activities and accomplishments in Antarctica beginning with the post-IGY, 1959-60 research team. One Open-File Report is planned to be written for each field-based season. For an example of the series format, see Open-File Reports 2006-1113 (Meunier, 2007a) and 2006-1114 (Meunier, 2007b). This report is a companion document to Open-File Report 2006-1116 (Meunier, 2007c). The USGS mapping and science programs in Antarctica are among the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). The 2005-06 field season is the 56th consecutive U.S. expedition in which USGS scientists have been participants, starting in 1946. USGS and the National Science Foundation (NSF) cooperation began with the establishment by NSF of the U.S. Antarctic (Research) Program [USA(R)P] in 1958-59 under Operation Deep Freeze IV (DF IV) and was given the responsibility for the principal coordination and management of all U.S. scientific activities in Antarctica in Deep Freeze 60 (DF 60) (1959-60). Financial support from NSF, mostly in the form of Memorandum of Understandings (MOUs) and Cooperative Agreements, extends back to this period and can be attributed to the need for accurate geologic, geophysical, and topographic base maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was driven by science and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support (Meunier, 1979 [2007], p. 38). The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, has, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some

  13. Magic Termites: Exploring Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Kristine; Henkel, Melissa; Lund, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the termite experiment is to walk students through the process of designing and conducting an experiment while allowing them to use inquiry-based methods to infer why, in this lab, termites follow the line of blue Bic or Paper Mate brand ballpoint pens. This experiment also reinforces the concept of observation versus inference…

  14. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses. PMID:23922450

  15. Artificial neural networks for small dataset analysis.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Antonello

    2015-05-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are usually considered as tools which can help to analyze cause-effect relationships in complex systems within a big-data framework. On the other hand, health sciences undergo complexity more than any other scientific discipline, and in this field large datasets are seldom available. In this situation, I show how a particular neural network tool, which is able to handle small datasets of experimental or observational data, can help in identifying the main causal factors leading to changes in some variable which summarizes the behaviour of a complex system, for instance the onset of a disease. A detailed description of the neural network tool is given and its application to a specific case study is shown. Recommendations for a correct use of this tool are also supplied. PMID:26101654

  16. Artificial neural networks for small dataset analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are usually considered as tools which can help to analyze cause-effect relationships in complex systems within a big-data framework. On the other hand, health sciences undergo complexity more than any other scientific discipline, and in this field large datasets are seldom available. In this situation, I show how a particular neural network tool, which is able to handle small datasets of experimental or observational data, can help in identifying the main causal factors leading to changes in some variable which summarizes the behaviour of a complex system, for instance the onset of a disease. A detailed description of the neural network tool is given and its application to a specific case study is shown. Recommendations for a correct use of this tool are also supplied. PMID:26101654

  17. Using a Constructed-Response Instrument to Explore the Effects of Item Position and Item Features on the Assessment of Students' Written Scientific Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H.; Opfer, John E.; Pearl, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    A large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice instruments (MCI). Constructed-response instruments (CRI), however, have invited much less scrutiny, perhaps because of their reputation for avoiding many of the documented biases of MCIs. In this study we explored whether known biases of MCIs—specifically item sequencing and surface feature effects—were also apparent in a CRI designed to assess students' understanding of evolutionary change using written explanation (Assessment of COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection [ACORNS]). We used three versions of the ACORNS CRI to investigate different aspects of assessment structure and their corresponding effect on inferences about student understanding. Our results identified several sources of (and solutions to) assessment bias in this practice-focused CRI. First, along the instrument item sequence, items with similar surface features produced greater sequencing effects than sequences of items with dissimilar surface features. Second, a counterbalanced design (i.e., Latin Square) mitigated this bias at the population level of analysis. Third, ACORNS response scores were highly correlated with student verbosity, despite verbosity being an intrinsically trivial aspect of explanation quality. Our results suggest that as assessments in science education shift toward the measurement of scientific practices (e.g., explanation), it is critical that biases inherent in these types of assessments be investigated empirically.

  18. Converting Static Image Datasets to Spiking Neuromorphic Datasets Using Saccades

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Garrick; Jayawant, Ajinkya; Cohen, Gregory K.; Thakor, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Creating datasets for Neuromorphic Vision is a challenging task. A lack of available recordings from Neuromorphic Vision sensors means that data must typically be recorded specifically for dataset creation rather than collecting and labeling existing data. The task is further complicated by a desire to simultaneously provide traditional frame-based recordings to allow for direct comparison with traditional Computer Vision algorithms. Here we propose a method for converting existing Computer Vision static image datasets into Neuromorphic Vision datasets using an actuated pan-tilt camera platform. Moving the sensor rather than the scene or image is a more biologically realistic approach to sensing and eliminates timing artifacts introduced by monitor updates when simulating motion on a computer monitor. We present conversion of two popular image datasets (MNIST and Caltech101) which have played important roles in the development of Computer Vision, and we provide performance metrics on these datasets using spike-based recognition algorithms. This work contributes datasets for future use in the field, as well as results from spike-based algorithms against which future works can compare. Furthermore, by converting datasets already popular in Computer Vision, we enable more direct comparison with frame-based approaches. PMID:26635513

  19. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  20. Providing Geographic Datasets as Linked Data in Sdi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietanen, E.; Lehto, L.; Latvala, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a prototype service to provide data from Web Feature Service (WFS) as linked data is implemented. At first, persistent and unique Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) are created to all spatial objects in the dataset. The objects are available from those URIs in Resource Description Framework (RDF) data format. Next, a Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontology is created to describe the dataset information content using the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) GeoSPARQL vocabulary. The existing data model is modified in order to take into account the linked data principles. The implemented service produces an HTTP response dynamically. The data for the response is first fetched from existing WFS. Then the Geographic Markup Language (GML) format output of the WFS is transformed on-the-fly to the RDF format. Content Negotiation is used to serve the data in different RDF serialization formats. This solution facilitates the use of a dataset in different applications without replicating the whole dataset. In addition, individual spatial objects in the dataset can be referred with URIs. Furthermore, the needed information content of the objects can be easily extracted from the RDF serializations available from those URIs. A solution for linking data objects to the dataset URI is also introduced by using the Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID). The dataset is divided to the subsets and each subset is given its persistent and unique URI. This enables the whole dataset to be explored with a web browser and all individual objects to be indexed by search engines.

  1. Historical Space Weather Datasets within NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, W. F.; Mabie, J. J.; Horan, K.; Clark, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is primarily responsible for scientific data stewardship of operational space weather data from NOAA's fleet of environmental satellites in geostationary and polar, low-earth orbits. In addition to this and as the former World Data Center for Solar Terrestrial Physics from 1957 to 2011 NGDC acquired a large variety of solar and space environmental data in differing formats including paper records and on film. Management of this heterogeneous collection of environmental data is a continued responsibility of NGDC as a participant in the new World Data System. Through the former NOAA Climate Data Modernization Program many of these records were converted to digital format and are readily available online. However, reduced funding and staff have put a strain on NGDC's ability to effectively steward these historical datasets, some of which are unique and, in particular cases, were the basis of fundamental scientific breakthroughs in our understanding of the near-earth space environment. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the historical space weather datasets which are currently managed by NGDC and discuss strategies for preserving these data during these fiscally stressing times.

  2. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  3. Development of a Comprehensive Plan for Scientific Research, Exploration, and Design: Creation of an Undergroung Radioactive Waste Isloation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2005-06-15

    ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available site characterization

  4. Efficient genotype compression and analysis of large genetic variation datasets

    PubMed Central

    Layer, Ryan M.; Kindlon, Neil; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Quinlan, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    Genotype Query Tools (GQT) is a new indexing strategy that expedites analyses of genome variation datasets in VCF format based on sample genotypes, phenotypes and relationships. GQT’s compressed genotype index minimizes decompression for analysis, and performance relative to existing methods improves with cohort size. We show substantial (up to 443 fold) performance gains over existing methods and demonstrate GQT’s utility for exploring massive datasets involving thousands to millions of genomes. PMID:26550772

  5. Bulk Data Movement for Climate Dataset: Efficient Data Transfer Management with Dynamic Transfer Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Alexander; Balman, Mehmet; Williams, Dean N.; Shoshani, Arie; Natarajan, Vijaya

    2010-07-16

    Many scientific applications and experiments, such as high energy and nuclear physics, astrophysics, climate observation and modeling, combustion, nano-scale material sciences, and computational biology, generate extreme volumes of data with a large number of files. These data sources are distributed among national and international data repositories, and are shared by large numbers of geographically distributed scientists. A large portion of data is frequently accessed, and a large volume of data is moved from one place to another for analysis and storage. One challenging issue in such efforts is the limited network capacity for moving large datasets to explore and manage. The Bulk Data Mover (BDM), a data transfer management tool in the Earth System Grid (ESG) community, has been managing the massive dataset transfers efficiently with the pre-configured transfer properties in the environment where the network bandwidth is limited. Dynamic transfer adjustment was studied to enhance the BDM to handle significant end-to-end performance changes in the dynamic network environment as well as to control the data transfers for the desired transfer performance. We describe the results from the BDM transfer management for the climate datasets. We also describe the transfer estimation model and results from the dynamic transfer adjustment.

  6. Detecting bimodality in astronomical datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashman, Keith A.; Bird, Christina M.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss statistical techniques for detecting and quantifying bimodality in astronomical datasets. We concentrate on the KMM algorithm, which estimates the statistical significance of bimodality in such datasets and objectively partitions data into subpopulations. By simulating bimodal distributions with a range of properties we investigate the sensitivity of KMM to datasets with varying characteristics. Our results facilitate the planning of optimal observing strategies for systems where bimodality is suspected. Mixture-modeling algorithms similar to the KMM algorithm have been used in previous studies to partition the stellar population of the Milky Way into subsystems. We illustrate the broad applicability of KMM by analyzing published data on globular cluster metallicity distributions, velocity distributions of galaxies in clusters, and burst durations of gamma-ray sources. FORTRAN code for the KMM algorithm and directions for its use are available from the authors upon request.

  7. ADAM: automated data management for research datasets

    PubMed Central

    Woodbridge, Mark; Tomlinson, Christopher D.; Butcher, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing repositories for experimental datasets typically capture snapshots of data acquired using a single experimental technique and often require manual population and continual curation. We present a storage system for heterogeneous research data that performs dynamic automated indexing to provide powerful search, discovery and collaboration features without the restrictions of a structured repository. ADAM is able to index many commonly used file formats generated by laboratory assays and therefore offers specific advantages to the experimental biology community. However, it is not domain specific and can promote sharing and re-use of working data across scientific disciplines. Availability and implementation: ADAM is implemented using Java and supported on Linux. It is open source under the GNU General Public License v3.0. Installation instructions, binary code, a demo system and virtual machine image and are available at http://www.imperial.ac.uk/bioinfsupport/resources/software/adam. Contact: m.woodbridge@imperial.ac.uk PMID:23109181

  8. Hydrologic information server for benchmark precipitation dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, John A.; McKee, Paul W.; Shelton, Gregory P.; Ramsey, Ryan W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will present the methodology and overall system development by which a benchmark dataset of precipitation information has been made available. Rainfall is the primary driver of the hydrologic cycle. High quality precipitation data is vital for hydrologic models, hydrometeorologic studies and climate analysis,and hydrologic time series observations are important to many water resources applications. Over the past two decades, with the advent of NEXRAD radar, science to measure and record rainfall has improved dramatically. However, much existing data has not been readily available for public access or transferable among the agricultural, engineering and scientific communities. This project takes advantage of the existing CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System ODM model and tools to bridge the gap between data storage and data access, providing an accepted standard interface for internet access to the largest time-series dataset of NEXRAD precipitation data ever assembled. This research effort has produced an operational data system to ingest, transform, load and then serve one of most important hydrologic variable sets.

  9. An evaluation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; El Saleous, N.; Hansen, M.C.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Justice, C.O.; Townshend, J.R.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the steps taken in the generation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset, and it documents an evaluation of the data product with respect to the original specifications and its usefulness in research and applications to date. The evaluation addresses data characterization, processing, compositing and handling issues. Examples of the main scientific outputs are presented and options for improved processing are outlined and prioritized. The dataset has made a significant contribution, and a strong recommendation is made for its reprocessing and continuation to produce a long-term record for global change research.

  10. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  11. Design of FastQuery: How to Generalize Indexing and Querying System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-04-18

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the-art index and query technologies such as FastBit are critical for facilitating interactive exploration of large datasets. These technologies rely on adding auxiliary information to existing datasets to accelerate query processing. To use these indices, we need to match the relational data model used by the indexing systems with the array data model used by most scientific data, and to provide an efficient input and output layer for reading and writing the indices. In this work, we present a flexible design that can be easily applied to most scientific data formats. We demonstrate this flexibility by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using simulation data from the particle accelerator and climate simulation communities. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the new design, we also present a detailed performance study using both synthetic and real scientific workloads.

  12. Exploring High School Students' Use of Theory and Evidence in an Everyday Context: The Role of Scientific Thinking in Environmental Science Decision-Making. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was…

  13. Exploring High School Students' Use of Theory and Evidence in an Everyday Context: The Role of Scientific Thinking in Environmental Science Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was…

  14. Exploring the Structural Relationships between High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Views and Their Utilization of Information Commitments toward Online Science Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the structural relationships between scientific epistemological views (SEVs) and information commitments (ICs) of high school students in Taiwan. Data were collected from 486 Taiwanese high school students via two self-reporting instruments: one was the SEV questionnaire, including five scales for…

  15. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific…

  16. Using Exoplanet Models to Explore NGSS and the Nature of Science and as a Tool for Understanding the Scientific Results from NIRCam/JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Higgins, Michelle L.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    2014-11-01

    Our Solar System is no longer unique. To date, about 1,800 planets are known to orbit over 1,100 other stars and nearly 50% are in multiple-planet systems. Planetary systems seem [to be] fairly common and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the Goldilocks Zone, suggesting there may be other habitable planets. To this end, characterizing the atmospheric chemistries of such planets is a major science goal of the NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.For NIRCam's E/PO program with the Girl Scouts of the USA, we have produced scale models and associated activities to compare the size, scale, and dynamics of the Solar System with several exoplanet systems. Our models illustrate the techniques used to investigate these systems: radial velocity, transits, direct observations, and gravitational microlensing. By comparing and contrasting these models, we place our Solar System in a more cosmic context and enable discussion of current questions within the scientific community: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Is our present definition of a planet a good definition in the context of other planetary systems? Are there other planets/moons that might harbor life as we know it?These models are appropriate for use in classrooms and conform to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include, for example, understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding the nature of scientific models.

  17. Can we really make a difference? Exploring pre-service teachers' experience with socio-scientific issues aiming for democratic participation in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kristin Leigh

    Responding to calls for an empirical glimpse into a socioscientific issues (SSI)-based curriculum that aims to promote democratic participation, enhance students' connections to science, and empower students for the betterment of society (Dos Santos, 2008; Sadler, Barab, & Scott, 2007; Tal & Kedmi, 2006; Fusco & Barton, 2001; Hodson, 2003), this critical case study of 24 pre-service teachers (PSTs) enrolled in a scientific inquiry course offers curricular suggestions to empower learners to connect with the dynamic and socially-mediated process of science. In effect, incorporating nature of science-focused and place-based inquiry into a collaboration between PSTs and scientists were essential elements in enhancing students' connections to and feelings of inclusion in SSI. Propelled beyond a deficit model of public participation in science, the PSTs did indeed experience a public debate model and in some cases a knowledge production model in their collaborative efforts with scientists (Callon, 1999; Pouliot, 2009). While all of the PSTs engaged in rich discussion of their perspectives with scientists to enhance the investigation of their inquiry, some experienced a redistribution of the roles of participation in the production of scientific knowledge that was integrated into the scientists' decision-making processes. The materialization of these models depended on the structures of the student-scientists collaboration and the ways in which these malleable structures were flexed and negotiated. In effect, this study contributes to the literature on the potentials of SSI by providing an example of an educational approach that engages learners in a community practice as active participants in decision-making processes regarding socio-scientific issues, as well as focuses on empowering learners to be involved in the generation of scientific knowledge that contributes to their community.

  18. Development of a SPARK Training Dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Amanda M.; Olson, Jarrod R.

    2015-03-01

    In its first five years, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) sponsored more than 400 undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral students in internships and research positions (Wyse 2012). In the past seven years, the NGSI program has, and continues to produce a large body of scientific, technical, and policy work in targeted core safeguards capabilities and human capital development activities. Not only does the NGSI program carry out activities across multiple disciplines, but also across all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/NNSA locations in the United States. However, products are not readily shared among disciplines and across locations, nor are they archived in a comprehensive library. Rather, knowledge of NGSI-produced literature is localized to the researchers, clients, and internal laboratory/facility publication systems such as the Electronic Records and Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). There is also no incorporated way of analyzing existing NGSI literature to determine whether the larger NGSI program is achieving its core safeguards capabilities and activities. A complete library of NGSI literature could prove beneficial to a cohesive, sustainable, and more economical NGSI program. The Safeguards Platform for Automated Retrieval of Knowledge (SPARK) has been developed to be a knowledge storage, retrieval, and analysis capability to capture safeguards knowledge to exist beyond the lifespan of NGSI. During the development process, it was necessary to build a SPARK training dataset (a corpus of documents) for initial entry into the system and for demonstration purposes. We manipulated these data to gain new information about the breadth of NGSI publications, and they evaluated the science-policy interface at PNNL as a practical demonstration of SPARK’s intended analysis capability. The analysis demonstration sought to answer the

  19. Source Detection with Interferometric Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Wayth, Randall B.; Macquart, Jean-Pierre R.; Tingay, Steven J.

    2012-04-01

    The detection of sources in interferometric radio data typically relies on extracting information from images, formed by Fourier transform of the underlying visibility dataset, and CLEANed of contaminating sidelobes through iterative deconvolution. Variable and transient radio sources span a large range of variability timescales, and their study has the potential to enhance our knowledge of the dynamic universe. Their detection and classification involve large data rates and non-stationary PSFs, commensal observing programs and ambitious science goals, and will demand a paradigm shift in the deployment of next-generation instruments. Optimal source detection and classification in real time requires efficient and automated algorithms. On short time-scales variability can be probed with an optimal matched filter detector applied directly to the visibility dataset. This paper shows the design of such a detector, and some preliminary detection performance results.

  20. Using Real Datasets for Interdisciplinary Business/Economics Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Rajni; Straight, Ronald L.

    2005-01-01

    The workplace's global and dynamic nature allows and requires improved approaches for providing business and economics education. In this article, the authors explore ways of enhancing students' understanding of course material by using nontraditional, real-world datasets of particular interest to them. Teaching at a historically Black university,…

  1. Advanced Subsetter Capabilities for Atmospheric Science Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, W. E.; Perez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Within the last three years, the NASA Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) has developed and deployed production provider-specific search and subset web applications for the CALIPSO, CERES, and TES missions. ASDC is now collaborating with the MOPITT science team to provide tailored subsetting for their level 2 satellite datasets leveraging the architecture of the recently deployed subsetting systems. This presentation explores the challenges encountered by the ASDC's development team and discusses solutions implemented for the following advanced subsetter capabilities: - On-the-fly conversion of subsetted HDF data granules to NetCDF - Generation of CF-Compliant subset results for non-gridded data (level2 swaths) - Parameter-specific filtering - Multi-dimensional spatial subsetting - Complex temporal subsetting (temporal filtering)

  2. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

  3. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  4. Provenance Challenges for Earth Science Dataset Publication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2011-01-01

    Modern science is increasingly dependent on computational analysis of very large data sets. Organizing, referencing, publishing those data has become a complex problem. Published research that depends on such data often fails to cite the data in sufficient detail to allow an independent scientist to reproduce the original experiments and analyses. This paper explores some of the challenges related to data identification, equivalence and reproducibility in the domain of data intensive scientific processing. It will use the example of Earth Science satellite data, but the challenges also apply to other domains.

  5. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  6. Exploring high school students' use of theory and evidence in an everyday context: the role of scientific thinking in environmental science decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was used to assess the participants' conceptual knowledge. The reasoning mode was assessed using a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Results showed that, although some weak to moderate associations were found between conceptual organization in memory and reasoning modes, the students' ability to incorporate theory and evidence was in general inadequate. It was also found that students' reasoning modes were consistent with their epistemological perspectives. Moreover, male and female students appear to have different reasoning approaches.

  7. The CMS dataset bookkeeping service

    SciTech Connect

    Afaq, Anzar,; Dolgert, Andrew; Guo, Yuyi; Jones, Chris; Kosyakov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Lueking, Lee; Riley, Dan; Sekhri, Vijay; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    The CMS Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) has been developed to catalog all CMS event data from Monte Carlo and Detector sources. It provides the ability to identify MC or trigger source, track data provenance, construct datasets for analysis, and discover interesting data. CMS requires processing and analysis activities at various service levels and the DBS system provides support for localized processing or private analysis, as well as global access for CMS users at large. Catalog entries can be moved among the various service levels with a simple set of migration tools, thus forming a loose federation of databases. DBS is available to CMS users via a Python API, Command Line, and a Discovery web page interfaces. The system is built as a multi-tier web application with Java servlets running under Tomcat, with connections via JDBC to Oracle or MySQL database backends. Clients connect to the service through HTTP or HTTPS with authentication provided by GRID certificates and authorization through VOMS. DBS is an integral part of the overall CMS Data Management and Workflow Management systems.

  8. Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K. Van, Jr.; Clair, Michael G., II; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Rebich, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Mississippi Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, and the Mississippi Automated Resource Information System developed a 1:24,000-scale Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, codes, names, and areas. The Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi provides a standard geographical framework for water-resources and selected land-resources planning. The original 8-digit subbasins (Hydrologic Unit Codes) were further subdivided into 10-digit watersheds (62.5 to 391 square miles (mi2)) and 12-digit subwatersheds (15.6 to 62.5 mi2) - the exceptions being the Delta part of Mississippi and the Mississippi River inside levees, which were subdivided into 10-digit watersheds only. Also, large water bodies in the Mississippi Sound along the coast were not delineated as small as a typical 12-digit subwatershed. All of the data - including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, subdivision codes and names, and drainage-area data - are stored in a Geographic Information System database, which are available at: http://ms.water.usgs.gov/. This map shows information on drainage and hydrography in the form of U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic unit boundaries for water-resource 2-digit regions, 4-digit subregions, 6-digit basins (formerly called accounting units), 8-digit subbasins (formerly called cataloging units), 10-digit watershed, and 12-digit subwatersheds in Mississippi. A description of the project study area, methods used in the development of watershed and subwatershed boundaries for Mississippi, and results are presented in Wilson and others (2008). The data presented in this map and by Wilson and others (2008) supersede the data presented for Mississippi by Seaber and others (1987) and U.S. Geological Survey (1977).

  9. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring: strategy and datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzle, Martin; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeff; Nussbaumer, Samuel; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce; Zemp, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Internationally coordinated monitoring of long-term glacier changes provide key indicator data about global climate change and began in the year 1894 as an internationally coordinated effort to establish standardized observations. Today, world-wide monitoring of glaciers and ice caps is embedded within the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as an important Essential Climate Variable (ECV). The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) was established in 1999 with the task of coordinating measurements and to ensure the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. The basic monitoring principles must be relevant, feasible, comprehensive and understandable to a wider scientific community as well as to policy makers and the general public. Data access has to be free and unrestricted, the quality of the standardized and calibrated data must be high and a combination of detailed process studies at selected field sites with global coverage by satellite remote sensing is envisaged. Recently a GTN-G Steering Committee was established to guide and advise the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. Several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types having different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. For world-wide inventories, data are now available through (a) the World Glacier Inventory containing tabular information of about 130,000 glaciers covering an area of around 240,000 km2, (b) the GLIMS-database containing digital outlines of around 118,000 glaciers with different time stamps and

  10. Scientific Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of fraud in the presentation of results of scientific research cites cases looks at variations in the degree of misrepresentation, kinds and intents of fraud, attention given by public agencies (National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Public Health Service), and differences between scientific and civil fraud. (MSE)