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Sample records for exploring strongly correlated

  1. What Is Strong Correlation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    Interpretation of correlation is often based on rules of thumb in which some boundary values are given to help decide whether correlation is non-important, weak, strong or very strong. This article shows that such rules of thumb may do more harm than good, and instead of supporting interpretation of correlation--which is their aim--they teach a…

  2. Strongly-correlated heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Electronic phase behavior in correlated-electron systems is a fundamental problem of condensed matter physics. The change in the phase behavior near surfaces and interfaces, i.e., {\\em electronic reconstruction}, is therefore the fundamental issue of the correlated-electron surface or interface science. In addition to basic science, understanding of such a phase behavior is of crucial importance for potential devices exploiting the novel properties of the correlated systems. In this article, we present a general overview of the field, and then discuss the recent theoretical progress mainly focusing on the correlation effects. We illustrate the general concept of {\\em electronic reconstruction} by studying model heterostructures consisting of strongly-correlated systems. Future directions for research are also discussed.

  3. Strongly correlated electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, K.; Albers, R.; Balatsky, A.; Bishop, A.; Bonca, J.; Gubernatis, J.; Gulasci, M.; Silver, R.; Trugman, S.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year project. Novel electronic materials characterized by strong electronic correlations display a number of unexpected, often extraordinary, properties. These are likely to play a major role in purpose-specific high-technology electronic materials of the future developed for electronic, magnetic, and optical applications. This project sought to develop predictive control of the novel properties by formulating, solving and applying many-body models for the underlying microscopic physics. This predictive control required the development of new analytical and numerical many-body techniques and strategies for materials of varying strengths of interactions, dimensionality and geometry. Results are compared with experiment on classes of novel materials, and the robust techniques are used to predict additional properties and motivate key additional experiments.

  4. Strongly correlated surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Victor A.

    Everything has an edge. However trivial, this phrase has dominated theoretical condensed matter in the past half a decade. Prior to that, questions involving the edge considered to be more of an engineering problem rather than a one of fundamental science: it seemed self-evident that every edge is different. However, recent advances proved that many surface properties enjoy a certain universality, and moreover, are 'topologically' protected. In this thesis I discuss a selected range of problems that bring together topological properties of surface states and strong interactions. Strong interactions alone can lead to a wide spectrum of emergent phenomena: from high temperature superconductivity to unconventional magnetic ordering; interactions can change the properties of particles, from heavy electrons to fractional charges. It is a unique challenge to bring these two topics together. The thesis begins by describing a family of methods and models with interactions so high that electrons effectively disappear as particles and new bound states arise. By invoking the AdS/CFT correspondence we can mimic the physical systems of interest as living on the surface of a higher dimensional universe with a black hole. In a specific example we investigate the properties of the surface states and find helical spin structure of emerged particles. The thesis proceeds from helical particles on the surface of black hole to a surface of samarium hexaboride: an f-electron material with localized magnetic moments at every site. Interactions between electrons in the bulk lead to insulating behavior, but the surfaces found to be conducting. This observation motivated an extensive research: weather the origin of conduction is of a topological nature. Among our main results, we confirm theoretically the topological properties of SmB6; introduce a new framework to address similar questions for this type of insulators, called Kondo insulators. Most notably we introduce the idea of Kondo

  5. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  6. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  7. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  8. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  9. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  10. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations. PMID:27279218

  11. Strongly correlated quantum spin liquid in herbertsmithite

    SciTech Connect

    Shaginyan, V. R.; Popov, K. G.; Khodel, V. A.

    2013-05-15

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing and fundamental systems in physics. We show that the herbertsmithite ZnCu{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}Cl{sub 2} can be regarded as a new type of strongly correlated electrical insulator that possesses properties of heavy-fermion metals with one exception: it resists the flow of electric charge. We demonstrate that herbertsmithite's low-temperature properties are defined by a strongly correlated quantum spin liquid made with hypothetic particles such as fermionic spinons that carry spin 1/2 and no charge. Our calculations of its thermodynamic and relaxation properties are in good agreement with recent experimental facts and allow us to reveal their scaling behavior, which strongly resembles that observed in heavy-fermion metals. Analysis of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility of strongly correlated Fermi systems suggests that there exist at least two types of its scaling.

  12. Norman Rostoker and strongly correlated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimaru, Setsuo

    2016-03-01

    If Norman were alive and attended this symposium, he might have quipped: "Setsuo! What are you talking about! A plasma is, after all, a strongly correlated object, and there is nothing so special about it!" "Yes, Norman, you are so correct! A statistical system consisting of mutually non-interacting and thus uncorrelated particles may be an "ideal-gas" system from a physics teacher's pedagogical point of view, but real systems do consist of mutually interacting and thus strongly correlated particles; a plasma is definitely one of them.Here, in the memory of Professor Rostoker's outstanding contributions to strongly correlated plasmas for the past 60 years, we wish to survey on "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by a Strongly Correlated Plasma" and "Multi-particle Correlation, Equations of State, and Phase Diagrams" in what follows.

  13. Strong correlation in Kohn-Sham DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malet Giralt, Francesc; Mirtschink, André; Cremon, Jonas; Mendl, Christian; Giesbertz, Klaas; Reimann, Stephanie; Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Mathematical Physics, Lund University Collaboration; Mathematics Department, Technische Universität München Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The knowledge on the strong-interacting limit of density functional theory can be used to construct exchange- correlation functionals able to address strongly-correlated systems without introducing any symmetry breaking. We report calculations on semiconductor nanostructures and one-dimensional models for chemical systems, showing that this approach yields quantitatively good results in both the weakly- and the strongly-correlated regimes, with a numerical cost much lower than the traditional wavefunction methods. This work has been supported by a VIDI grant of the NWO and a Marie Curie grant within the FP7 programme.

  14. Simulating strongly correlated electrons with a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John E.

    2013-05-28

    The quantum many-body physics of strongly-correlated fermions is studied in a degenerate, strongly- interacting atomic Fermi gas, first realized by our group with DOE support in 2002. This system, which exhibits strong spin pairing, is now widely studied and provides an important paradigm for testing predictions based on state-of-the-art many-body theory in fields ranging from nuclear matter to high temperature superfluidity and superconductivity. As the system is strongly interacting, both the superfluid and the normal fluid are nontrivial and of great interest. A central part of our program on Fermi gases is the connection between the study of thermodynamics, supported by DOE and the study of hydrodynamic transport, supported by NSF. This connection is especially interesting in view of a recent conjecture from the string theory community on the concept of nearly perfect normal fluids, which exhibit a minimum ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in strongly-interacting, scale-invariant systems.

  15. Strong diquark correlations inside the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segovia, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics is thought to be the relativistic quantum field theory that describes the strong interaction of the Standard Model. This interaction produces mesons but it is also able to generate quark-quark (diquark) correlations inside baryons. In this work, we employ a continuum approach to QCD based on Dyson-Schwinger equations to calculate the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and analyze in a deeper way the consequences of having strong diquark correlations. Comparison with the experimental data reveals that the presence of strong diquark correlations within the proton is sufficient to understand empirical extractions of the flavour-separated form factors. The explained reduction of the ratios F1d/F1u and F2d/F2u at high Q2 in the quark-diquark picture are responsible of the precocious scaling of the F2p/F1p observed experimentally.

  16. Controlling strongly correlated dust clusters with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Hauke; Ludwig, Patrick; Bonitz, Michael; Schablinski, Jan; Block, Dietmar; Schella, André; Melzer, André

    2014-09-01

    Lasers have been used extensively to manipulate matter in a controlled way - from single atoms and molecules up to macroscopic materials. They are particularly valuable for the analysis and control of mesoscopic systems such as few-particle clusters. Here we report on recent work on finite size complex (dusty) plasma systems. These are unusual types of clusters with a very strong inter-particle interaction so that, at room temperature, they are practically in their ground state. Lasers are employed as a tool to achieve excited states and phase transitions. The most attractive feature of dusty plasmas is that they allow for a precise diagnostic with single-particle resolution. From such measurements, the structural properties of finite two-dimensional (2D) clusters and three-dimensional (3D) spherical crystals in nearly harmonic traps—so-called Yukawa balls—have been explored in great detail. Their structural features—the shell compositions and the order within the shells—have been investigated and good agreement to theoretical predictions was found. Open questions on the agenda are the excitation behaviour, the structural changes and phase transitions that occur at elevated temperature. Here we report on recent experimental results where laser heating methods were further improved and applied to finite 2D and 3D dust clusters. Comparing to simulations, we demonstrate that laser heating indeed allows to increase the temperature in a controlled manner. For the analysis of thermodynamic properties and phase transitions in these finite systems, we present theoretical and experimental results on the basis of the instantaneous normal modes, pair distribution function and the recently introduced centre-two-particle correlation function.

  17. Strong correlations in gravity and biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, Dmitry

    The unifying theme of this dissertation is the use of correlations. In the first part (chapter 2), we investigate correlations in quantum field theories in de Sitter space. In the second part (chapters 3,4,5), we use correlations to investigate a theoretical proposal that real (observed in nature) transcriptional networks of biological organisms are operating at a critical point in their phase diagram. In chapter 2 we study the infrared dependence of correlators in various external backgrounds. Using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism we calculate loop corrections to the correlators in the case of the Poincare patch and the complete de Sitter space. In the case of the Poincare patch, the loop correction modifies the behavior of the correlator at large distances. In the case of the complete de Sitter space, the loop correction has a strong dependence on the infrared cutoff in the past. It grows linearly with time, suggesting that at some point the correlations become strong and break the symmetry of the classical background. In chapter 3 we derive the signatures of critical behavior in a model organism, the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster. They are: strong correlations in the fluctuations of different genes, a slowing of dynamics, long range correlations in space, and departures from a Gaussian distribution of these fluctuations. We argue that these signatures are observed experimentally. In chapter 4 we construct an effective theory for the zero mode in this system. This theory is different from the standard Landau-Ginsburg description. It contains gauge fields (the result of the broken translational symmetry inside the cell), which produce observable contributions to the two-point function of the order parameter. We show that the behavior of the two-point function for the network of N genes is described by the action of a relativistic particle moving on the surface of the N - 1 dimensional sphere. We derive a theoretical bound on the decay of the correlations and

  18. Dynamical simulations of strongly correlated electron materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Joel; Barros, Kipton; Batista, Cristian; Chern, Gia-Wei; Kotliar, Gabriel

    We present a formulation of quantum molecular dynamics that includes electron correlation effects via the Gutzwiller method. Our new scheme enables the study of the dynamical behavior of atoms and molecules with strong electron interactions. The Gutzwiller approach goes beyond the conventional mean-field treatment of the intra-atomic electron repulsion and captures crucial correlation effects such as band narrowing and electron localization. We use Gutzwiller quantum molecular dynamics to investigate the Mott transition in the liquid phase of a single-band metal and uncover intriguing structural and transport properties of the atoms.

  19. Strong correlation induced charge localization in antiferromagnets

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Qi, Yang; Tian, Chushun; Weng, Zheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The fate of a hole injected in an antiferromagnet is an outstanding issue of strongly correlated physics. It provides important insights into doped Mott insulators closely related to high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we report a systematic numerical study of t-J ladder systems based on the density matrix renormalization group. It reveals a surprising result for the single hole's motion in an otherwise well-understood undoped system. Specifically, we find that the common belief of quasiparticle picture is invalidated by the self-localization of the doped hole. In contrast to Anderson localization caused by disorders, the charge localization discovered here is an entirely new phenomenon purely of strong correlation origin. It results from destructive quantum interference of novel signs picked up by the hole, and since the same effect is of a generic feature of doped Mott physics, our findings unveil a new paradigm which may go beyond the single hole doped system. PMID:24002668

  20. Gutzwiller approximation in strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhua

    Gutzwiller wave function is an important theoretical technique for treating local electron-electron correlations nonperturbatively in condensed matter and materials physics. It is concerned with calculating variationally the ground state wave function by projecting out multi-occupation configurations that are energetically costly. The projection can be carried out analytically in the Gutzwiller approximation that offers an approximate way of calculating expectation values in the Gutzwiller projected wave function. This approach has proven to be very successful in strongly correlated systems such as the high temperature cuprate superconductors, the sodium cobaltates, and the heavy fermion compounds. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that strongly correlated systems have a strong propensity towards forming inhomogeneous electronic states with spatially periodic superstrutural modulations. A good example is the commonly observed stripes and checkerboard states in high- Tc superconductors under a variety of conditions where superconductivity is weakened. There exists currently a real challenge and demand for new theoretical ideas and approaches that treats strongly correlated inhomogeneous electronic states, which is the subject matter of this thesis. This thesis contains four parts. In the first part of the thesis, the Gutzwiller approach is formulated in the grand canonical ensemble where, for the first time, a spatially (and spin) unrestricted Gutzwiller approximation (SUGA) is developed for studying inhomogeneous (both ordered and disordered) quantum electronic states in strongly correlated electron systems. The second part of the thesis applies the SUGA to the t-J model for doped Mott insulators which led to the discovery of checkerboard-like inhomogeneous electronic states competing with d-wave superconductivity, consistent with experimental observations made on several families of high-Tc superconductors. In the third part of the thesis, new

  1. Strong correlations in actinide redox reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, S. E.; Marston, J. B.

    2011-02-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions of the redox couples An(VI)/An(V), An(V)/An(IV), and An(IV)/An(III), where An is an element in the family of early actinides (U, Np, and Pu), as well as Am(VI)/Am(V) and Am(V)/Am(III), are modeled by combining density functional theory with a generalized Anderson impurity model that accounts for the strong correlations between the 5f electrons. Diagonalization of the Anderson impurity model yields improved estimates for the redox potentials and the propensity of the actinide complexes to disproportionate.

  2. The thermoelectric properties of strongly correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianwei

    Strongly correlated systems are among the most interesting and complicated systems in physics. Large Seebeck coefficients are found in some of these systems, which highlight the possibility for thermoelectric applications. In this thesis, we study the thermoelectric properties of these strongly correlated systems with various methods. We derived analytic formulas for the resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of the periodic Anderson model based on the dynamic mean field theory. These formulas were possible as the self energy of the single impurity Anderson model could be given by an analytic ansatz derived from experiments and numerical calculations instead of complicated numerical calculations. The results show good agreement with the experimental data of rare-earth compound in a restricted temperature range. These formulas help to understand the properties of periodic Anderson model. Based on the study of rare-earth compounds, we proposed a design for the thermoelectric meta-material. This manmade material is made of quantum dots linked by conducting linkers. The quantum dots act as the rare-earth atoms with heavier mass. We set up a model similar to the periodic Anderson model for this new material. The new model was studied with the perturbation theory for energy bands. The dynamic mean field theory with numerical renormalization group as the impurity solver was used to study the transport properties. With these studies, we confirmed the improved thermoelectric properties of the designed material.

  3. Efimov correlations in strongly interacting Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Barth, Marcus

    A series of recent hallmark experiments have demonstrated that Bose gases can be created in the strongly interacting unitary limit in the non-degenerate high-temperature regime. These systems display the three-body Efimov effect, which poses a theoretical challenge to compute observables including these relevant three-body correlations. In this talk, I shall present our results for the virial coefficients, the contact parameters, and the momentum distribution of a strongly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas obtained by means of a virial expansion up to third order in the fugacity, which takes into account three-body correlations exactly. Our results characterize the non-degenerate regime of the interacting Bose gas, where the thermal wavelength is smaller than the interparticle spacing but the scattering length may be arbitrarily large. In addition, we provide a calculation of the momentum distribution at unitarity, which displays a universal high-momentum tail with a log-periodic momentum dependence - a direct signature of Efimov physics. In particular, we provide a quantitative description of the momentum distribution at high momentum as measured by the JILA group [Makotyn et al., Nat. Phys. 10, 116 (2014)]. Our results allow the spectroscopy of Efimov states at unitarity.

  4. Electrodynamics of strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dordevic, Sasa V.

    2002-09-01

    In this thesis we study a variety of condensed matter systems with strongly correlated electrons, i.e. systems in which the electron-electron interactions cannot be ignored like in conventional metals, (gold, aluminum, copper, etc.). Infrared spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool for studying such systems. The latter experimental technique probes all excitations is solids that have a dipole moment associated with them, such as gap excitations, interband transitions, phonons, polarons, magnons etc. Strong electron correlations lead to a variety of interesting physical phenomena at low temperatures. In copper ox ides superconductivity sets in below an unprecedently high critical temperature, Tc. The mechanism of this unusual phenomenon is still unclear. In this thesis we discuss energy scales from which the superconducting condensate is collected and the response of cuprates to an external magnetic field applied parallel to the CuO2 planes. In so-called heavy fermion metals a coherent ground state develops at low temperatures where the electrons appear to have large effective mass, typically 50--1,000 free electron masses. We show that magnetic interactions play an important role for the mass renormalization in heavy fermion metals. In transition metal dichalcogenides reduced dimensionality of the electron gas leads to significant anisotropy of the electron-phonon interaction.

  5. Strong electron correlation and nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Haranath

    2012-07-01

    Based on experimental and theoretical research during the last decade, giant optical nonlinearities found in Mott-Hubbard insulators like Sr2CuO3,Ca2CuO3, Nickel halides ([Ni(chxn)2X]X2 where X = Br, Cl and `chxn' refers to cyclohexanediamine) are presented. These materials are reported to be potential materials for all optical switching devices. The occurrence of nearly degenerate lowest one- and two-photon states, strong Coulomb correlation and strong dipole coupling between the one- and two-photon states are believed to be the reason for such colossal optical nonlinearities in these systems. In some of these materials (at least), the two photon state is below the one-photon state. This leads to the possibility that such material can be excited to the lowest optical state by shinning laser of suitable wavelength, the populations thus generated decays to the two-photon state at ultrafast short time. Thus nonlinear measurements can be made from an excited state (we call as excited state nonlinear optical properties). One dimensional strongly correlated materials are predicted to have several orders-of-magnitude larger excited state optical non-linearities in comparison to that from the ground state, in the wavelength region suitable for terahertz communications. A large number of measurable nonlinear optical properties like Two Photon absorption, Photo induced absorption, Third Harmonic generation, Stimulated Raman Scattering are obtained theoretically and compared with available experimental observations. Then a large number excited state nonlinear optical properties are predicted which are experimentally measurable. We emphasize that the mechanism of nonlinear optics in one dimensional Mott-Hubbard insulators is different from that of the π-conjugated polymers — in the former spin excitation play an important role. We argue from detailed understanding of nonlinear optics of π-conjugated systems that some features in the Third Harmonic Generation

  6. Transient Heat Conduction in Strongly Correlated Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghjayan, Rita; Luniewski, Arthur; Walczak, Kamil; Nanoscale Physics Division Team

    2015-03-01

    We analyze heat transport carried by electrons via quantum dots, modeled as strongly-correlated systems with discrete spectrum of available energy levels, which couple to two heat reservoirs of different temperatures. Our computational method for the electronic heat flux is based on the density matrix formalism, while the transition rates between particular quantum states are determined within the Fermi's golden rule. By taking into consideration the non-steady-state solutions for probabilities, we examine the influence of initial conductions and contact-induced time delays onto the rapid thermal switching response of the quantum system under investigation. Specifically, we use several different models for quantum dot, where the Zeeman splitting, Coulomb blockade, and the concept of dark-state are explicitly included. A special attention is devoted to thermal memory effects and the relationship between all the quantum transport expressions and the hyperbolic Cattaneo-Vernotte equation. This research is supported by Pace University Start-up Grant.

  7. Emergent quasicrystals in strongly correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, Eran; Nussinov, Zohar

    2016-07-01

    Commensurability is of paramount importance in numerous strongly interacting electronic systems. In the fractional quantum Hall effect, a rich cascade of increasingly narrow plateaux appear at larger denominator filling fractions. Rich commensurate structures also emerge, at certain filling fractions, in high temperature superconductors and other electronic systems. A natural question concerns the character of these and other electronic systems at irrational filling fractions. Here we demonstrate that quasicrystalline structures naturally emerge in these situations, and trigger behaviors not typically expected of periodic systems. We first show that irrationally filled quantum Hall systems cross over into quasiperiodically ordered configuration in the thin-torus limit. Using known properties of quasicrystals, we argue that these states are unstable against the effects of disorder, in agreement with the existence of quantum Hall plateaux. We then study analogous physical situations in a system of cold Rydberg atoms placed on an optical lattice. Such an experimental setup is generally disorder free, and can therefore be used to detect the emergent quasicrystals we predict. We discuss similar situations in the Falicov-Kimball model, where known exact results can be used to establish quasicrystalline structures in one and two dimensions. We briefly speculate on possible relations between our theoretical findings and the existence of glassy dynamics and other features of strongly correlated electronic systems.

  8. Cooperative phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkašovský, Pavol

    2010-10-01

    In this review we present results of our theoretical study of cooperative phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems obtained within various generalizations of the Falicov-Kimball model. The primary goal of this study was to identify crucial interactions that lead to the stabilization of the specific cooperative phenomenon, and then try to elaborate its comprehensive microscopic description. The main attention is devoted to a discussion of valence and metal-insulator transitions, formation of charge and spin ordering, electronic ferroelectricity, itinerant ferromagmetism and mechanisms leading to their stabilization. Among the major mechanisms we examine the effect of local and nonlocal Coulomb interaction between localized and itinerant electrons, local and nonlocal hybridization, long-range and correlated hopping of itinerant electrons and spin-dependent interaction between localized and itinerant electrons, both for zero and nonzero temperatures, as well as for doped and undoped systems. Finally, the relevance of resultant solutions for a description of rare-earth and transition-metal compounds is discussed.

  9. Predictive Capability for Strongly Correlated Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cyrus Umrigar

    2012-05-09

    Diffusion Monte Carlo methods can give highly accurate results for correlated systems, provided that well optimized trial wave functions with accurate nodal surfaces are employed. The Cornell team developed powerful methods for optimizing all the parameters within a multi-determinant Slater-Jastrow form of the wave function. These include the Jastrow parameters within a flexible electron-electron-nucleus form of the Jastrow function, the parameters multiplying the configuration state functions, the orbital parameters and the basis exponents. The method optimizes a linear combination of the energy and the variance of the local energy. The optimal parameters are found iteratively by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix in the space spanned by the wave function and its first-order derivatives, making use of a strong zero-variance principle. It is highly robust, has become the method of choice for correlated wave function optimization and has been adopted by other QMC groups. This optimization method was used on the first-row atoms and homonuclear diatomic molecules, demonstrating that molecular well depths can be obtained with near chemical accuracy quite systematically at the diffusion Monte Carlo level for these systems. In addition the complete ground-state potential energy curve of the C{sub 2} molecule up to the dissociation limit was obtained, and, size consistency and broken spin-symmetry issues in quantum Monte Carlo calculations were studied. The method was used with a eight-electrons-in-eight-orbitals complete active space CAS(8,8) wave function to study the relative energies of the monocyclic and bicyclic forms of m-benzyne. The DMC calculations show that the monocyclic structure is lower in energy than the bicyclic structure by 1.92 kcal/ mole, which is in excellent agreement with the best coupled cluster results (CCSD(T)) and in disagreement with the CCSD results. QMC methods have for the most part been used only for ground states of a given symmetry. We

  10. Emergent behavior in strongly correlated electron systems.

    PubMed

    Pines, David

    2016-09-01

    I describe early work on strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) from the perspective of a theoretical physicist who, while a participant in their reductionist top-down beginnings, is now part of the paradigm change to a bottom-up 'emergent' approach with its focus on using phenomenology to find the organizing principles responsible for their emergent behavior disclosed by experiment-and only then constructing microscopic models that incorporate these. After considering the organizing principles responsible for the emergence of plasmons, quasiparticles, and conventional superconductivity in SCES, I consider their application to three of SCES's sister systems, the helium liquids, nuclei, and the nuclear matter found in neutron stars. I note some recent applications of the random phase approximation and examine briefly the role that paradigm change is playing in two central problems in our field: understanding the emergence and subsequent behavior of heavy electrons in Kondo lattice materials; and finding the mechanism for the unconventional superconductivity found in heavy electron, organic, cuprate, and iron-based materials. PMID:27484183

  11. Emergent behavior in strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pines, David

    2016-09-01

    I describe early work on strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) from the perspective of a theoretical physicist who, while a participant in their reductionist top-down beginnings, is now part of the paradigm change to a bottom-up ‘emergent’ approach with its focus on using phenomenology to find the organizing principles responsible for their emergent behavior disclosed by experiment—and only then constructing microscopic models that incorporate these. After considering the organizing principles responsible for the emergence of plasmons, quasiparticles, and conventional superconductivity in SCES, I consider their application to three of SCES’s sister systems, the helium liquids, nuclei, and the nuclear matter found in neutron stars. I note some recent applications of the random phase approximation and examine briefly the role that paradigm change is playing in two central problems in our field: understanding the emergence and subsequent behavior of heavy electrons in Kondo lattice materials; and finding the mechanism for the unconventional superconductivity found in heavy electron, organic, cuprate, and iron-based materials.

  12. Efimov correlations in strongly interacting Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Marcus; Hofmann, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    We compute the virial coefficients, the contact parameters, and the momentum distribution of a strongly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas by means of a virial expansion up to third order in the fugacity, which takes into account three-body correlations exactly. Our results characterize the nondegenerate regime of the interacting Bose gas, where the thermal wavelength is smaller than the interparticle spacing but the scattering length may be arbitrarily large. We observe a rapid variation of the third virial coefficient as the scattering length is tuned across the three-atom and the atom-dimer thresholds. The momentum distribution at unitarity displays a universal high-momentum tail with a log-periodic momentum dependence, which is a direct signature of Efimov physics. We provide a quantitative description of the momentum distribution at high momentum as measured by P. Makotyn et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 116 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2850], and our calculations indicate that the lowest trimer state might not be occupied in the experiment. Our results allow for a spectroscopy of Efimov states in the unitary limit.

  13. Strong Community, Deep Learning: Exploring the Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Carole; Ramondt, Leonie; Smiley, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    This explores the constructivist understanding that shared practitioner research in collaborative online spaces leads to deeper learning. The research was developed within the context of building the National College of School Leaderships (NCSLs) online learning communities. A community and a learning scale, both emerging through grounded…

  14. Complexity in Strongly Correlated Electronic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dagotto, Elbio R

    2005-01-01

    A wide variety of experimental results and theoretical investigations in recent years have convincingly demonstrated that several transition metal oxides and other materials have dominant states that are not spatially homogeneous. This occurs in cases in which several physical interactions - spin, charge, lattice, and/or orbital - are simultaneously active. This phenomenon causes interesting effects, such as colossal magnetoresistance, and it also appears crucial to understand the high-temperature superconductors. The spontaneous emergence of electronic nanometer-scale structures in transition metal oxides, and the existence of many competing states, are properties often associated with complex matter where nonlinearities dominate, such as soft materials and biological systems. This electronic complexity could have potential consequences for applications of correlated electronic materials, because not only charge (semiconducting electronic), or charge and spin (spintronics) are of relevance, but in addition the lattice and orbital degrees of freedom are active, leading to giant responses to small perturbations. Moreover, several metallic and insulating phases compete, increasing the potential for novel behavior.

  15. Competing Orders in Strongly Correlated Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Ganesh

    Systems with competing orders are of great interest in condensed matter physics. When two phases have comparable energies, novel interplay effects such can be induced by tuning an appropriate parameter. In this thesis, we study two problems of competing orders - (i) ultracold atom gases with competing superfluidity and Charge Density Wave (CDW) orders, and (ii) low dimensional antiferromagnets with Neel order competing against various disordered ground states. In the first part of the thesis, we study the attractive Hubbard model which could soon be realized in ultracold atom experiments. Close to half-filling, the superfluid ground state competes with a low-lying CDW phase. We study the collective excitations of the superfluid using the Generalized Random Phase Approximation (GRPA) and strong-coupling spin wave analysis. The competing CDW phase manifests as a roton-like excitation. We characterize the collective mode spectrum, setting benchmarks for experiments. We drive competition between orders by imposing superfluid flow. Superflow leads to various instabilities: in particular, we find a dynamical instability associated with CDW order. We also find a novel dynamical incommensurate instability analogous to exciton condensation in semiconductors. In the second part, inspired by experiments on Bi3Mn 4O12(NO3)(BMNO), we first study the interlayer dimer state in spin-S bilayer antiferromagnets. At a critical bilayer coupling strength, condensation of triplet excitations leads to Neel order. In describing this transition, bond operator mean field theory suffers from systematic deviations. We bridge these deviations by taking into account corrections arising from higher spin excitations. The interlayer dimer state shows a field induced Neel transition, as seen in BMNO. Our results are relevant to the quantitative modelling of spin-S dimerized systems. We then study the J1 - J2 model on the honeycomb lattice with frustrating next-nearest neighbour exchange. For J2 >J1

  16. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study on Strongly Correlated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang

    Strongly correlated electrons and spin-orbit interaction have been the two major research directions of condensed matter physics in recent years. The discovery of high temperature superconductors in 1986 not only brought excitement into the field but also challenged our theory on quantum materials. After almost three decades of extensive study, the underlying mechanism of high temperature superconductivity is still not fully understood, the reason for which is mainly a poor understanding of strongly correlated systems. The phase diagram of cuprate superconductors has become more complicated throughout the years as multiple novel electronic phases have been discovered, while few of them are fully understood. Topological insulators are a newly discovered family of materials bearing topological non-trivial quantum states as a result of spin-orbit coupling. The theoretically predicted topological Kondo insulators as strongly correlated systems with strong spin-orbital coupling make an ideal playground to test our theory of quantum materials. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is a powerful technique to explore new phenomena in materials with exotic electronic states due to its high spacial resolution and high sensitivity to low energy electronic structures. Moreover, as a surface-sensitive technique, STM is an ideal tool to investigate the electronic properties of topological and non-topological surface states. In this thesis, I will describe experiments we performed on high temperature superconductors and topological Kondo insulators using STM. First, I will describe our experiments on a Bi-based high temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CuO6+delta. The quasiparticle interference technique uncovers a Fermi surface reconstruction. We also discovered the coexistence of Bogoliubov quasiparticle and pseudogap state at the antinodes. Afterwards, I will discuss our discovery of d-form factor density wave in the same material, showing the omnipresence of d form factor density

  17. Probing 1D super-strongly correlated dipolar quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citro, R.; de Palo, S.; Orignac, E.; Pedri, P.; Chiofalo, M.-L.

    2009-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) dipolar quantum gases are characterized by a very special condition where super-strong correlations occur to significantly affect the static and dynamical low-energy behavior. This behavior is accurately described by the Luttinger Liquid theory with parameter K < 1. Dipolar Bose gases are routinely studied in laboratory with Chromium atoms. On the other hand, 1D realizations with molecular quantum gases can be at reach of current experimental expertises, allowing to explore such extreme quantum degenerate conditions which are the bottom line for designing technological devices. Aim of the present contribution is to focus on the possible probes expected to signal the reach of Luttinger-Liquid behavior in 1D dipolar gases.

  18. Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…

  19. Nonperturbative stochastic dynamics driven by strongly correlated colored noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Jun; Li, Rui; You, J. Q.; Yu, Ting

    2015-02-01

    We propose a quantum model consisting of two remote qubits interacting with two correlated colored noises and establish an exact stochastic Schrödinger equation for this open quantum system. It is shown that the quantum dynamics of the qubit system is profoundly modulated by the mutual correlation between baths and the bath memory capability through dissipation and fluctuation. We report a physical effect on generating inner correlation and entanglement of two distant qubits arising from the strong bath-bath correlation.

  20. Density Functional Model for Nondynamic and Strong Correlation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jing; Proynov, Emil

    2016-01-12

    A single-term density functional model for the left-right nondynamic/strong electron correlation is presented based on single-determinant Kohn-Sham density functional theory. It is derived from modeling the adiabatic connection for kinetic correlation energy based on physical arguments, with the correlation potential energy based on the Becke'13 model ( Becke, A.D. J. Chem. Phys . 2013 , 138 , 074109 ). This functional satisfies some known scaling relationships for correlation functionals. The fractional spin error is further reduced substantially with a new density-functional correction. Preliminary tests with self-consistent-field implementation show that the model, with only three empirical parameters, recovers the majority of left-right nondynamic/strong correlation upon bond dissociation and performs reasonably well for atomization energies and singlet-triplet energy splittings. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of developing DFT functionals for nondynamic and strong correlation within the single-determinant KS scheme. PMID:26636190

  1. Thermoelectric figure of merit of strongly correlated superlattice semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, W.; Bedell, K.S.

    1999-06-01

    The Anderson lattice Hamiltonian was solved using the slave-boson mean-field approximation to get the energy bands of a strongly correlated semiconductor. The transport properties were calculated in the relaxation-time approximation, and the thermoelectric figure of merit was obtained for the strongly correlated semiconductor and a variety of superlattice structures. We found that at room temperature the dimensionless quantity ZT, thermoelectric figure of merit multiplied by temperature, can reach nearly 1.4 for a quantum wire lattice structure. We believe that it may be possible to find high values of the figure of merit for strongly correlated superlattice semiconductors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Strong correlations generically protect d -wave superconductivity against disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shao; Dobrosavljević, V.; Miranda, E.

    2016-05-01

    We address the question of why strongly correlated d -wave superconductors, such as the cuprates, prove to be surprisingly robust against the introduction of nonmagnetic impurities. We show that, very generally, both the pair-breaking and the normal state transport scattering rates are significantly suppressed by strong correlations effects arising in the proximity to a Mott insulating state. We also show that the correlation-renormalized scattering amplitude is generically enhanced in the forward direction, an effect which was previously often ascribed to the specific scattering by charged impurities outside the copper-oxide planes.

  3. Size effects on thermoelectricity in a strongly correlated oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Siemons, Wolter; McGuire, Michael A; Ramesh, R.; Yadav, A.K.; Wu, Vincent; Vailionis, Arturas; Majumdar, Arunava

    2012-01-01

    We investigated size effects on thermoelectricity in thin films of a strongly correlated layered cobaltate. At room temperature, the thermopower is independent of thickness down to 6 nm. This unusual behavior is inconsistent with the Fuchs-Sondheimer theory, which is used to describe conventional metals and semiconductors, and is attributed to the strong electron correlations in this material. On the other hand, the resistivity increases below a critical thickness of {approx}30 nm, as expected. The temperature-dependent thermopower is similar for different thicknesses but the resistivity shows systematic changes with thickness. Our experiments highlight the differences in thermoelectric behavior of strongly correlated and uncorrelated systems when subjected to finite-size effects. We use the atomic-limit Hubbard model at the high-temperature limit to explain our observations. These findings provide new insights into decoupling electrical conductivity and thermopower in correlated systems.

  4. Shot noise measurement in a strongly correlated material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Panpan; Hardy, Will; Cho, Ethan; Cybart, Shane; Dynes, Robert; Natelson, Douglas

    In strongly correlated materials, the motion of an electron is strongly affected by interactions with other electrons, leading to many interesting phenomena including metal-insulator transitions, colossal magnetoresistance, and high temperature superconductivity. Shot noise is one experimental probe for electronic correlations beyond simple electronic transport. Shot noise, which originates from the discrete nature of the charge-carrying particles, can be strongly affected by electronic correlations. Here we report initial shot noise measurements in tunnel junctions prepared from a YBa2Cu3O7-x film sample, with nanoscale junctions written by focused helium ion beam. We will discuss a comparison of the shot noise between the YBCO film sample and standard tunnel junctions, as a function of temperature and bias, and the implications of these results.

  5. Numerical simulations of strongly correlated electron and spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changlani, Hitesh Jaiprakash

    Developing analytical and numerical tools for strongly correlated systems is a central challenge for the condensed matter physics community. In the absence of exact solutions and controlled analytical approximations, numerical techniques have often contributed to our understanding of these systems. Exact Diagonalization (ED) requires the storage of at least two vectors the size of the Hilbert space under consideration (which grows exponentially with system size) which makes it affordable only for small systems. The Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) uses an intelligent Hilbert space truncation procedure to significantly reduce this cost, but in its present formulation is limited to quasi-1D systems. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) maps the Schrodinger equation to the diffusion equation (in imaginary time) and only samples the eigenvector over time, thereby avoiding the memory limitation. However, the stochasticity involved in the method gives rise to the "sign problem" characteristic of fermion and frustrated spin systems. The first part of this thesis is an effort to make progress in the development of a numerical technique which overcomes the above mentioned problems. We consider novel variational wavefunctions, christened "Correlator Product States" (CPS), that have a general functional form which hopes to capture essential correlations in the ground states of spin and fermion systems in any dimension. We also consider a recent proposal to modify projector (Green's Function) Quantum Monte Carlo to ameliorate the sign problem for realistic and model Hamiltonians (such as the Hubbard model). This exploration led to our own set of improvements, primarily a semistochastic formulation of projector Quantum Monte Carlo. Despite their limitations, existing numerical techniques can yield physical insights into a wide variety of problems. The second part of this thesis considers one such numerical technique - DMRG - and adapts it to study the Heisenberg antiferromagnet

  6. Higher order correlation beams in atmosphere under strong turbulence conditions.

    PubMed

    Avetisyan, H; Monken, C H

    2016-02-01

    Higher order correlation beams, that is, two-photon beams obtained from the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by Hermite-Gauss or Laguerre-Gauss beams of any order, can be used to encode information in many modes, opening the possibility of quantum communication with large alphabets. In this paper we calculate, analytically, the fourth-order correlation function for the Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss coherent and partially coherent correlation beams propagating through a strong turbulent medium. We show that fourth-order correlation functions for correlation beams have, under certain conditions, expressions similar to those of intensities of classical beams and are degraded by turbulence in a similar way as the classical beams. Our results can be useful in establishing limits for the use of two-photon beams in quantum communications with larger alphabets under atmospheric turbulence. PMID:26906808

  7. Multitask spectral clustering by exploring intertask correlation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ma, Zhigang; Yang, Yi; Nie, Feiping; Shen, Heng Tao

    2015-05-01

    Clustering, as one of the most classical research problems in pattern recognition and data mining, has been widely explored and applied to various applications. Due to the rapid evolution of data on the Web, more emerging challenges have been posed on traditional clustering techniques: 1) correlations among related clustering tasks and/or within individual task are not well captured; 2) the problem of clustering out-of-sample data is seldom considered; and 3) the discriminative property of cluster label matrix is not well explored. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering model, namely multitask spectral clustering (MTSC), to cope with the above challenges. Specifically, two types of correlations are well considered: 1) intertask clustering correlation, which refers the relations among different clustering tasks and 2) intratask learning correlation, which enables the processes of learning cluster labels and learning mapping function to reinforce each other. We incorporate a novel l2,p -norm regularizer to control the coherence of all the tasks based on an assumption that related tasks should share a common low-dimensional representation. Moreover, for each individual task, an explicit mapping function is simultaneously learnt for predicting cluster labels by mapping features to the cluster label matrix. Meanwhile, we show that the learning process can naturally incorporate discriminative information to further improve clustering performance. We explore and discuss the relationships between our proposed model and several representative clustering techniques, including spectral clustering, k -means and discriminative k -means. Extensive experiments on various real-world datasets illustrate the advantage of the proposed MTSC model compared to state-of-the-art clustering approaches. PMID:25252288

  8. Density functional theory for strongly-correlated ultracold dipolar gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malet Giralt, Francesc; Reimann, Stephanie; Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Lund University Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    We address quasi-one-dimensional strongly-correlated dipolar ultracold gases by means of density functional theory. We make use of an approximation for the Hartree-exchange-correlation that has been shown to be very accurate for electronic systems with coulombic interactions. We show that this approach allows to treat systems with very large particle numbers at relatively low computational cost. This work has been supported by a VIDI grant of the NWO and a Marie Curie grant within the FP7 programme.

  9. Exact Kohn-Sham potential of strongly correlated finite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helbig, N.; Rubio, A.

    2009-12-14

    The dissociation of molecules, even the most simple hydrogen molecule, cannot be described accurately within density functional theory because none of the currently available functionals accounts for strong on-site correlation. This problem led to a discussion of properties that the local Kohn-Sham potential has to satisfy in order to correctly describe strongly correlated systems. We derive an analytic expression for the nontrivial form of the Kohn-Sham potential in between the two fragments for the dissociation of a single bond. We show that the numerical calculations for a one-dimensional two-electron model system indeed approach and reach this limit. It is shown that the functional form of the potential is universal, i.e., independent of the details of the two fragments.

  10. Separation of strong (bond-breaking) from weak (dynamical) correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzelnigg, Werner

    2012-06-01

    A CC (coupled-cluster) ansatz based on a GVB (generalized valence bond) or an APSG (antisymmetrized product of strongly orthogonal geminals) reference function arises naturally if one tries to treat strong correlations exactly (to infinite order), and weak correlations by TCC (traditional coupled cluster) theory. This ansatz is proposed as an alternative to MC-CC (multi-configuration coupled cluster) theory. One uses especially that APSG and GVB are of CC type, but allow to combine separability with the variation principle. The energy and the stationarity conditions are formulated in terms of spinfree density cumulants. The replacement operators corresponding to the APSG ansatz generate a Lie algebra which is a subalgebra of that of all replacement operators.

  11. Single Spin Asymmetry in Strongly Correlated Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Musulmanbekov, G.

    2007-06-13

    The Single Transverse - Spin Asymmetry (SSA) is analysed in the framework of the Strongly Correlated Quark Model proposed by author, where the proton spin emerges from the orbital momenta of quark and qluon condensates circulating around the valence quarks. It is shown that dominating factors of appearance of SSA are the orbiting around the valence quarks sea quark and qluon condensates and spin dependent quark-quark cross sections.

  12. Colloquium: Transport in strongly correlated two dimensional electron fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, B.; Kravchenko, S. V.; Kivelson, S. A.; Gao, X. P. A.

    2010-04-01

    An overview of the measured transport properties of the two dimensional electron fluids in high mobility semiconductor devices with low electron densities is presented as well as some of the theories that have been proposed to account for them. Many features of the observations are not easily reconciled with a description based on the well understood physics of weakly interacting quasiparticles in a disordered medium. Rather, they reflect new physics associated with strong correlation effects, which warrant further study.

  13. Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T. Pak, A.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Turnbull, D.; Döppner, T.; Fletcher, L.; Galtier, E.; Hastings, J.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Chapman, D. A.; Falcone, R. W.; Fortmann, C.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.; White, T. G.; Neumayer, P.; Vorberger, J.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ∼3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9 keV created by molybdenum He-α emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4Å{sup −1}. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 was dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covered a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The meeting welcomed to Cambridge 657 participants from 23 countries, who presented 127 talks (including 16 plenary, 57 invited, and 54 contributed) and 736 posters in 40 sessions over five full days of meetings. This proceedings volume contains papers reporting on the science presented at the meeting. This work deepens our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. Strongly correlated systems are known for their remarkable array of emergent phenomena: the traditional subjects of superconductivity, magnetism and metal-insulator transitions have been joined by non-Fermi liquid phenomena, topologically protected quantum states, atomic and photonic gases, and quantum phase transitions. These are some of the most challenging and interesting phenomena in science. As well as the science driver, there is underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion

  15. Phase transition transistors based on strongly-correlated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Masaki

    2013-03-01

    The field-effect transistor (FET) provides electrical switching functions through linear control of the number of charges at a channel surface by external voltage. Controlling electronic phases of condensed matters in a FET geometry has long been a central issue of physical science. In particular, FET based on a strongly correlated material, namely ``Mott transistor,'' has attracted considerable interest, because it potentially provides gigantic and diverse electronic responses due to a strong interplay between charge, spin, orbital and lattice. We have investigated electric-field effects on such materials aiming at novel physical phenomena and electronic functions originating from strong correlation effects. Here we demonstrate electrical switching of bulk state of matter over the first-order metal-insulator transition. We fabricated FETs based on VO2 with use of a recently developed electric-double-layer transistor technique, and found that the electrostatically induced carriers at a channel surface drive all preexisting localized carriers of 1022 cm-3 even inside a bulk to motion, leading to bulk carrier delocalization beyond the electrostatic screening length. This non-local switching of bulk phases is achieved with just around 1 V, and moreover, a novel non-volatile memory like character emerges in a voltage-sweep measurement. These observations are apparently distinct from those of conventional FETs based on band insulators, capturing the essential feature of collective interactions in strongly correlated materials. This work was done in collaboration with K. Shibuya, D. Okuyama, T. Hatano, S. Ono, M. Kawasaki, Y. Iwasa, and Y. Tokura. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSAP) through its ``Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program).''

  16. Quadratic Fermi node in a 3D strongly correlated semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Nakayama, M.; Chen, R.; Ishikawa, J. J.; Moon, E.-G.; Yamamoto, T.; Ota, Y.; Malaeb, W.; Kanai, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Ishida, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Matsunami, M.; Kimura, S.; Inami, N.; Ono, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Nakatsuji, S.; Balents, L.; Shin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Strong spin-orbit coupling fosters exotic electronic states such as topological insulators and superconductors, but the combination of strong spin-orbit and strong electron-electron interactions is just beginning to be understood. Central to this emerging area are the 5d transition metal iridium oxides. Here, in the pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7, we identify a non-trivial state with a single-point Fermi node protected by cubic and time-reversal symmetries, using a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Owing to its quadratic dispersion, the unique coincidence of four degenerate states at the Fermi energy, and strong Coulomb interactions, non-Fermi liquid behaviour is predicted, for which we observe some evidence. Our discovery implies that Pr2Ir2O7 is a parent state that can be manipulated to produce other strongly correlated topological phases, such as topological Mott insulator, Weyl semimetal, and quantum spin and anomalous Hall states.

  17. Quadratic Fermi node in a 3D strongly correlated semimetal

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kondo, Takeshi; Nakayama, M.; Chen, R.; Ishikawa, J. J.; Moon, E. -G.; Yamamoto, T.; Ota, Y.; Malaeb, W.; Kanai, H.; Nakashima, Y.; et al

    2015-12-07

    We report that strong spin–orbit coupling fosters exotic electronic states such as topological insulators and superconductors, but the combination of strong spin–orbit and strong electron–electron interactions is just beginning to be understood. Central to this emerging area are the 5d transition metal iridium oxides. Here, in the pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7, we identify a non-trivial state with a single-point Fermi node protected by cubic and time-reversal symmetries, using a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Owing to its quadratic dispersion, the unique coincidence of four degenerate states at the Fermi energy, and strong Coulomb interactions, non-Fermi liquid behaviour ismore » predicted, for which we observe some evidence. Lastly, our discovery implies that Pr2Ir2O7 is a parent state that can be manipulated to produce other strongly correlated topological phases, such as topological Mott insulator, Weyl semimetal, and quantum spin and anomalous Hall states.« less

  18. Quadratic Fermi node in a 3D strongly correlated semimetal

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Takeshi; Nakayama, M.; Chen, R.; Ishikawa, J. J.; Moon, E. -G.; Yamamoto, T.; Ota, Y.; Malaeb, W.; Kanai, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Ishida, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Matsunami, M.; Kimura, S.; Inami, N.; Ono, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Nakatsuji, S.; Balents, L.; Shin, S.

    2015-12-07

    We report that strong spin–orbit coupling fosters exotic electronic states such as topological insulators and superconductors, but the combination of strong spin–orbit and strong electron–electron interactions is just beginning to be understood. Central to this emerging area are the 5d transition metal iridium oxides. Here, in the pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7, we identify a non-trivial state with a single-point Fermi node protected by cubic and time-reversal symmetries, using a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Owing to its quadratic dispersion, the unique coincidence of four degenerate states at the Fermi energy, and strong Coulomb interactions, non-Fermi liquid behaviour is predicted, for which we observe some evidence. Lastly, our discovery implies that Pr2Ir2O7 is a parent state that can be manipulated to produce other strongly correlated topological phases, such as topological Mott insulator, Weyl semimetal, and quantum spin and anomalous Hall states.

  19. Quadratic Fermi node in a 3D strongly correlated semimetal

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takeshi; Nakayama, M.; Chen, R.; Ishikawa, J. J.; Moon, E.-G.; Yamamoto, T.; Ota, Y.; Malaeb, W.; Kanai, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Ishida, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Matsunami, M.; Kimura, S.; Inami, N.; Ono, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Nakatsuji, S.; Balents, L.; Shin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Strong spin–orbit coupling fosters exotic electronic states such as topological insulators and superconductors, but the combination of strong spin–orbit and strong electron–electron interactions is just beginning to be understood. Central to this emerging area are the 5d transition metal iridium oxides. Here, in the pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7, we identify a non-trivial state with a single-point Fermi node protected by cubic and time-reversal symmetries, using a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Owing to its quadratic dispersion, the unique coincidence of four degenerate states at the Fermi energy, and strong Coulomb interactions, non-Fermi liquid behaviour is predicted, for which we observe some evidence. Our discovery implies that Pr2Ir2O7 is a parent state that can be manipulated to produce other strongly correlated topological phases, such as topological Mott insulator, Weyl semimetal, and quantum spin and anomalous Hall states. PMID:26640114

  20. Quadratic Fermi node in a 3D strongly correlated semimetal.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Nakayama, M; Chen, R; Ishikawa, J J; Moon, E-G; Yamamoto, T; Ota, Y; Malaeb, W; Kanai, H; Nakashima, Y; Ishida, Y; Yoshida, R; Yamamoto, H; Matsunami, M; Kimura, S; Inami, N; Ono, K; Kumigashira, H; Nakatsuji, S; Balents, L; Shin, S

    2015-01-01

    Strong spin-orbit coupling fosters exotic electronic states such as topological insulators and superconductors, but the combination of strong spin-orbit and strong electron-electron interactions is just beginning to be understood. Central to this emerging area are the 5d transition metal iridium oxides. Here, in the pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7, we identify a non-trivial state with a single-point Fermi node protected by cubic and time-reversal symmetries, using a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Owing to its quadratic dispersion, the unique coincidence of four degenerate states at the Fermi energy, and strong Coulomb interactions, non-Fermi liquid behaviour is predicted, for which we observe some evidence. Our discovery implies that Pr2Ir2O7 is a parent state that can be manipulated to produce other strongly correlated topological phases, such as topological Mott insulator, Weyl semimetal, and quantum spin and anomalous Hall states. PMID:26640114

  1. Robust mesoscopic superposition of strongly correlated ultracold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hallwood, David W.; Ernst, Thomas; Brand, Joachim

    2010-12-15

    We propose a scheme to create coherent superpositions of annular flow of strongly interacting bosonic atoms in a one-dimensional ring trap. The nonrotating ground state is coupled to a vortex state with mesoscopic angular momentum by means of a narrow potential barrier and an applied phase that originates from either rotation or a synthetic magnetic field. We show that superposition states in the Tonks-Girardeau regime are robust against single-particle loss due to the effects of strong correlations. The coupling between the mesoscopically distinct states scales much more favorably with particle number than in schemes relying on weak interactions, thus making particle numbers of hundreds or thousands feasible. Coherent oscillations induced by time variation of parameters may serve as a 'smoking gun' signature for detecting superposition states.

  2. Charge density waves in strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Choe, Jesse; Morosan, E.

    2016-08-01

    Strong electron correlations are at the heart of many physical phenomena of current interest to the condensed matter community. Here we present a survey of the mechanisms underlying such correlations in charge density wave (CDW) systems, including the current theoretical understanding and experimental evidence for CDW transitions. The focus is on emergent phenomena that result as CDWs interact with other charge or spin states, such as magnetism and superconductivity. In addition to reviewing the CDW mechanisms in 1D, 2D, and 3D systems, we pay particular attention to the prevalence of this state in two particular classes of compounds, the high temperature superconductors (cuprates) and the layered transition metal dichalcogenides. The possibilities for quantum criticality resulting from the competition between magnetic fluctuations and electronic instabilities (CDW, unconventional superconductivity) are also discussed.

  3. Charge density waves in strongly correlated electron systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Choe, Jesse; Morosan, E

    2016-08-01

    Strong electron correlations are at the heart of many physical phenomena of current interest to the condensed matter community. Here we present a survey of the mechanisms underlying such correlations in charge density wave (CDW) systems, including the current theoretical understanding and experimental evidence for CDW transitions. The focus is on emergent phenomena that result as CDWs interact with other charge or spin states, such as magnetism and superconductivity. In addition to reviewing the CDW mechanisms in 1D, 2D, and 3D systems, we pay particular attention to the prevalence of this state in two particular classes of compounds, the high temperature superconductors (cuprates) and the layered transition metal dichalcogenides. The possibilities for quantum criticality resulting from the competition between magnetic fluctuations and electronic instabilities (CDW, unconventional superconductivity) are also discussed. PMID:27376547

  4. Strongly correlated Fermi Bose mixtures in disordered optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Ahufinger, V.; Kantian, A.; Zakrzewski, J.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate theoretically the low-temperature physics of a two-component ultracold mixture of bosons and fermions in disordered optical lattices. We focus on the strongly correlated regime. We show that, under specific conditions, composite fermions, made of one fermion plus one bosonic hole, form. The composite picture is used to derive an effective Hamiltonian whose parameters can be controlled via the boson-boson and the boson-fermion interactions, the tunnelling terms and the inhomogeneities. We finally investigate the quantum phase diagram of the composite fermions and show that it corresponds to the formation of Fermi glasses, spin glasses and quantum percolation regimes.

  5. Hydrodynamic Coulomb drag of strongly correlated electron liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolov, S. S.; Levchenko, A.; Andreev, A. V.

    2014-03-01

    We develop a theory of Coulomb drag in ultraclean double layers with strongly correlated carriers. In the regime where the equilibration length of the electron liquid is shorter than the interlayer spacing the main contribution to the Coulomb drag arises from hydrodynamic density fluctuations. The latter consist of plasmons driven by fluctuating longitudinal stresses, and diffusive modes caused by temperature fluctuations and thermal expansion of the electron liquid. We express the drag resistivity in terms of the kinetic coefficients of the electron fluid. Our results are nonperturbative in interaction strength and do not assume Fermi-liquid behavior of the electron liquid.

  6. Debye Shielding and Particle Correlations in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Otani, N.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1997-02-01

    A particle-in-cell simulation method is shown effective in modeling strongly coupled plasmas, exhibiting good energy conservation properties and good resolution of the dust-particle interaction. For coupling parameters of order unity, the simulation dust particles exhibit Debye shielding on the spatial scale of the dust Debye length. When initialized with a large coupling parameter, the dust particles do not organize themselves into a crystalline structure as expected, but instead are scattered by the presence of substantial electrostatic wave activity. Liquid-like or crystal-like correlations among the dust particles occur only when annealing is imposed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Quantum phase transition in strongly correlated many-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Wenlong

    The past decade has seen a substantial rejuvenation of interest in the study of quantum phase transitions (QPTs), driven by experimental advance on the cuprate superconductors, the heavy fermion materials, organic conductors, Quantum Hall effect, Fe-As based superconductors and other related compounds. It is clear that strong electronic interactions play a crucial role in the systems of current interest, and simple paradigms for the behavior of such systems near quantum critical points remain unclear. Furthermore, the rapid progress in Feshbach resonance and optical lattice provides a flexible platform to study QPT. Quantum Phase Transition (QPT) describes the non-analytic behaviors of the ground-state properties in a many-body system by varying a physical parameter at absolute zero temperature - such as magnetic field or pressure, driven by quantum fluctuations. Such quantum phase transitions can be first-order phase transition or continuous. The phase transition is usually accompanied by a qualitative change in the nature of the correlations in the ground state, and describing this change shall clearly be one of our major interests. We address this issue from three prospects in a few strong correlated many-body systems in this thesis, i.e., identifying the ordered phases, studying the properties of different phases, characterizing the QPT points. In chapter 1, we give an introduction to QPT, and take one-dimensional XXZ model as an example to illustrate the QPT therein. Through this simple example, we would show that when the tunable parameter is varied, the system evolves into different phases, across two quantum QPT points. The distinct phases exhibit very different behaviors. Also a schematic phase diagram is appended. In chapter 2, we are engaged in research on ordered phases. Originating in the work of Landau and Ginzburg on second-order phase transition, the spontaneous symmetry breaking induces nonzero expectation of field operator, e.g., magnetization M

  8. Strong correlation effects in theoretical STM studies of magnetic adatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hung T.; dos Santos Dias, Manuel; Liebsch, Ansgar; Lounis, Samir

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical study for the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) spectra of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures, incorporating strong correlation effects. As concrete examples, we study Co and Mn adatoms on the Cu(111) surface, which are expected to represent the opposite limits of Kondo physics and local moment behavior, using a combination of density functional theory and both quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization impurity solvers. We examine in detail the effects of temperature T , correlation strength U , and impurity d electron occupancy Nd on the local density of states. We also study the effective coherence energy scale, i.e., the Kondo temperature TK, which can be extracted from the STM spectra. Theoretical STM spectra are computed as a function of STM tip position relative to each adatom. Because of the multiorbital nature of the adatoms, the STM spectra are shown to consist of a complicated superposition of orbital contributions, with different orbital symmetries, self-energies, and Kondo temperatures. For a Mn adatom, which is close to half-filling, the STM spectra are featureless near the Fermi level. On the other hand, the quasiparticle peak for a Co adatom gives rise to strongly position-dependent Fano line shapes.

  9. LDA+DMFT Approach to Materials with Strong Electronic Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Held, K; Nekrasov, I A; Keller, G; Eyert, V; Blumer, N; McMahan, A K; Scalettar, R T; Pruschke, T; Anisimov, V I; Volhardt, D

    2001-12-02

    LDA+DMFT is a novel computational technique for ab initio investigations of real materials with strongly correlated electrons, such as transition metals and their oxides. It combines the strength of conventional band structure theory in the local density approximation (LDA) with a modern many-body approach, the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). In the last few years LDA+DMFT has proved to be a powerful tool for the realistic modeling of strongly correlated electronic systems. In this paper the basic ideas and the set-up of the LDA+DMFT(X) approach, where X is the method used to solve the DMFT equations, are discussed. Results obtained with X=QMC (quantum Monte Carlo) and X=NCA (non-crossing approximation) are presented and compared. By means of the model system La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} we show that the method X matters qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, they discuss recent results on the Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition in the transition metal oxide V{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the {alpha}-{gamma} transition in the 4f-electron system Ce.

  10. Role of Strong Correlations in Disproportionation of Aqueous Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Steven E.

    2005-03-01

    We study the role of strong electronic correlations in the disproportionation of aqueous actinide complexes An(aq) and AnO2(aq) where An = U, Np, and Pu. Correlations are expected to be important due to the localized nature of the actinide 5f orbitals. We first confirm that relativisitic DFTootnotetextADF2004.01, SCMhttp://www.scm.com, Theoretical Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit., despite yielding reasonable geometries and bond lengths, fails to reproduceootnotetextP. J. Hay, R. L. Martin, and G. Schreckenbach, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 6259 (2000). experimentally observed degeneracies of the redox potentialsootnotetextD. L. Clark in Los Alamos Science No. 26 Vol. II (2000).. By using a continuum model for the water beyond the first solvation sphere we are able to construct and diagonalize reduced Hubbard-like models of the actinide complexes, and incorporate the missing physics of strong intra-atomic Coulomb repulsionootnotetextM. X. LaBute et al., J. Chem. Phys. 116, 3681 (2002). ootnotetextD. V. Efremov et al., cond-mat/0303414http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/?0303414; E. Runge et al., cond-mat/0402124http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/?0402124..

  11. Beyond Particles: Unparticles in Strongly Correlated Electron Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Philip W.

    2015-07-01

    I am concerned in these lectures with the breakdown of the particle concept in strongly correlated electron matter. I first show that the standard procedure for counting particles, namely Luttinger's theorem, breaks down anytime polelike excitations are replaced by ones that have a divergent self-energy. Such a breakdown obtains in electronic systems whose pole-like excitations do not extend to the edge of the Brillouin zone, as in Fermi arcs in the cuprates. Since any non-trivial infrared dynamics in strongly correlated electron matter must be controlled by a critical fixed point, unparticles are the natural candidate to explain the presence of charged degrees of freedom that have no particle content. The continuous mass formulation of unparticles is recast as an action in anti de Sitter space. Such an action serves as the generating functional for the propagator. This mapping fixes the scaling dimension of the unparticle to be d_U = d/2 + √ {d^2 + 4/2} and ensures that the corresponding propagator has zeros with d the spacetime dimension of the unparticle field. The general dynamical mechanism by which bulk operators, such as the Pauli term, couple to the scaling dimension of the boundary operator and thereby lead to a vanishing of the spectral weight at zero energy is reviewed in the context of unparticles and zeros. The analogue of the BCS gap equations with unparticles indicates that the transition temperature increases as the attractive interaction strength decreases, indicating that unparticles are highly susceptible to a superconducting instability.

  12. Spike Triggered Covariance in Strongly Correlated Gaussian Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Aljadeff, Johnatan; Segev, Ronen; Berry, Michael J.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological systems perform computations on inputs that have very large dimensionality. Determining the relevant input combinations for a particular computation is often key to understanding its function. A common way to find the relevant input dimensions is to examine the difference in variance between the input distribution and the distribution of inputs associated with certain outputs. In systems neuroscience, the corresponding method is known as spike-triggered covariance (STC). This method has been highly successful in characterizing relevant input dimensions for neurons in a variety of sensory systems. So far, most studies used the STC method with weakly correlated Gaussian inputs. However, it is also important to use this method with inputs that have long range correlations typical of the natural sensory environment. In such cases, the stimulus covariance matrix has one (or more) outstanding eigenvalues that cannot be easily equalized because of sampling variability. Such outstanding modes interfere with analyses of statistical significance of candidate input dimensions that modulate neuronal outputs. In many cases, these modes obscure the significant dimensions. We show that the sensitivity of the STC method in the regime of strongly correlated inputs can be improved by an order of magnitude or more. This can be done by evaluating the significance of dimensions in the subspace orthogonal to the outstanding mode(s). Analyzing the responses of retinal ganglion cells probed with Gaussian noise, we find that taking into account outstanding modes is crucial for recovering relevant input dimensions for these neurons. PMID:24039563

  13. Atom chip microscopy: A novel probe for strongly correlated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lev, Benjamin L

    2011-11-03

    Improved measurements of strongly correlated systems will enable the predicative design of the next generation of supermaterials. In this program, we are harnessing recent advances in the quantum manipulation of ultracold atomic gases to expand our ability to probe these technologically important materials in heretofore unexplored regions of temperature, resolution, and sensitivity parameter space. We are working to demonstrate the use of atom chips to enable single-shot, large area detection of magnetic flux at the 10^-7 flux quantum level and below. By harnessing the extreme sensitivity of atomic clocks and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) to external perturbations, the cryogenic atom chip technology developed here will provide a magnetic flux detection capability that surpasses other techniques---such as scanning SQUIDs---by a factor of 10--1000. We are testing the utility of this technique by using rubidium BECs to image the magnetic fields emanating from charge transport and magnetic domain percolation in strongly correlated materials as they undergo temperature-tuned metal--to--insulator phase transitions. Cryogenic atom chip microscopy introduces three very important features to the toolbox of high-resolution, strongly correlated material microscopy: simultaneous detection of magnetic and electric fields (down to the sub-single electron charge level); no invasive large magnetic fields or gradients; simultaneous micro- and macroscopic spatial resolution; freedom from 1/f flicker noise at low frequencies; and, perhaps most importantly, the complete decoupling of probe and sample temperatures. The first of these features will play an important role in studying the interplay between magnetic and electric domain structure. The last two are crucial for low frequency magnetic noise detection in, e.g., the cuprate pseudogap region and for precision measurements of transport in the high temperature, technologically relevant regime inaccessible to other techniques

  14. Thermoelectric performance of strongly correlated quantum impurity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edward; Segal, Dvira

    2015-09-01

    We derive asymptotically exact expressions for the thermopower and figure of merit of a quantum impurity connecting two noninteracting leads in the linear response regime where the chemical potential and temperature differences between the leads are small. Based on sum rules for the single-particle impurity spectral function, these expressions become exact at high temperatures as well as in the very strongly correlated regime, where the impurity Coulomb repulsion is much larger than the temperature. Although modest interactions impede thermoelectric performance, a very large Coulomb scale restores the optimal transport properties of noninteracting electrons, albeit renormalized to account for the absence of double occupancy in the impurity. As with noninteracting electrons, the electronic contribution to the figure of merit is limited only by the spectral broadening that arises from the coupling between the impurity and the leads.

  15. Cumulant t-expansion for strongly correlated fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    A systematic nonperturbative scheme is implemented to calculate the ground state energy for a wide class of strongly correlated fermion models. The scheme includes: (a) a method of automatic calculations of the cumulants of the model Hamiltonian, (b) a method of the ground state energy calculation from these cumulants using the t-expansion proposed by Horn and Weinstein (1984) [9] with new procedure of its extrapolation to t → ∞. As an example of application of the scheme all cumulants up to the 8-th order for spinless fermion model are calculated exactly, and converging sequences of approximations to the ground state energy are obtained for one-, two- and three-dimensional versions of the model.

  16. Simulating strongly correlated multiparticle systems in a truncated Hilbert space

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Thomas; Hallwood, David W.; Gulliksen, Jake; Brand, Joachim; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2011-08-15

    Representing a strongly interacting multiparticle wave function in a finite product basis leads to errors. Simple rescaling of the contact interaction can preserve the low-lying energy spectrum and long-wavelength structure of wave functions in one-dimensional systems and thus correct for the basis set truncation error. The analytic form of the rescaling is found for a two-particle system where the rescaling is exact. A detailed comparison between finite Hilbert space calculations and exact results for up to five particles show that rescaling can significantly improve the accuracy of numerical calculations in various external potentials. In addition to ground-state energies, the low-lying excitation spectrum, density profile, and correlation functions are studied. The results give a promising outlook for numerical simulations of trapped ultracold atoms.

  17. Strong Electronic Correlations in LixZnPc Organic Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filibian, M.; Carretta, P.; Mozzati, M. C.; Ghigna, P.; Zoppellaro, G.; Ruben, M.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetization measurements show that bulk LixZnPc are strongly correlated one-dimensional metals. The temperature dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 and of the static uniform susceptibility χS on approaching room temperature are characteristic of a Fermi liquid. Moreover, while for x≃2 the electrons are delocalized down to low temperature, for x→4 a tendency towards localization is noticed upon cooling, yielding an increase both in 1/T1 and χs. The x dependence of the effective density of states at the Fermi level D(EF) displays a sharp enhancement for x≃2, at the half filling of the ZnPc lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals. This suggests that LixZnPc is on the edge of a metal-insulator transition where enhanced superconducting fluctuations could develop

  18. Actinides in Solution: Disproportionation, Strong Correlations, and Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Brad; Horowitz, Steven

    2010-03-01

    Plutonium in acid solutions can be found in oxidation states III through VI. There is a striking near perfect degeneracy of the reduction-oxidation (redox) potentials, each being about 1 volt. Neptunium is the only other element that approaches this degree of degeneracy. One consequence of the redox degeneracy is a marked tendency of plutonium ions to disproportionate; up to four different oxidation states can coexist simultaneously in the same solution, greatly complicating the environmental chemistry of the element. While the degeneracy could simply be a coincidence, it could also be the manifestation of a higher-level organizing principle at work. Other systems that exhibit disproportionation raise the possibility of an emergent negative-U attractive interaction. The hypothesis is tested by combining first-principles relativistic density-functional calculations using the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) package with exact diagonalizations of Hubbard-like models of the strong correlations between the actinide 5f electrons.

  19. Mottness-induced healing in strongly correlated superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S.; Dobrosavljević, V.; Miranda, E.

    2014-03-01

    We study impurity healing effects in models of strongly correlated superconductors. We show that in general both the range and the amplitude of the spatial variations caused by nonmagnetic impurities are significantly suppressed in the superconducting as well as in the normal states. We explicitly quantify the weights of the local and the non-local responses to inhomogeneities and show that the former are overwhelmingly dominant over the latter. We find that the local response is characterized by a well-defined healing length scale, which is restricted to only a few lattice spacings over a significant range of dopings in the vicinity of the Mott insulating state. We demonstrate that this healing effect is ultimately due to the suppression of charge fluctuations induced by Mottness. We also define and solve analytically a simplified yet accurate model of healing, within which we obtain simple expressions for quantities of direct experimental relevance, such as the healing length.

  20. Mottness-induced healing in strongly correlated superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shao; Miranda, E.; Dobrosavljevic, V.

    2015-01-01

    We study impurity healing effects in models of strongly correlated superconductors. We show that in general both the range and the amplitude of the spatial variations caused by nonmagnetic impurities are significantly suppressed in the superconducting as well as in the normal states. We explicitly quantify the weights of the local and the nonlocal responses to inhomogeneities and show that the former are overwhelmingly dominant over the latter. We find that the local response is characterized by a well-defined healing length scale, which is restricted to only a few lattice spacings over a significant range of dopings in the vicinity of the Mott insulating state. We demonstrate that this healing effect is ultimately due to the suppression of charge fluctuations induced by Mottness. We also define and solve analytically a simplified yet accurate model of healing, within which we obtain simple expressions for quantities of direct experimental relevance.

  1. Andreev bound state at a strongly correlated oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanglei; Tomczyk, Michelle; Tacla, Alexandre; Daley, Andrew; Lu, Shicheng; Veazey, Josh; Huang, Mengchen; Irvin, Patrick; Ryu, Sangwoo; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Pekker, David; Levy, Jeremy

    Strongly correlated electrons at oxide interfaces give rise to a set of novel physics phenomena including superconductivity and magnetism. At the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interface, signatures of strong electron pairing persist even for conditions where superconductivity is suppressed. Meanwhile, an Andreev bound state (ABS) is a single quasiparticle excitation that mediates pair transport in confined superconductor-normal systems. Here we report a transition from pair resonant transport to ABS in sketched single electron transistors at the LAO/STO interface. This transition is consistent with a change of electron-electron interaction from attractive to repulsive, occurring at or near the Lifshitz transition. Such new electronically tunable electron-electron interaction may be useful for quantum simulation and engineering of novel quantum states in oxide materials. We gratefully acknowledge support from AFOSR FA9550-10-1-0524 (JL, CBE), AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0057 (JL, CBE, AD), NSF DMR-1104191 (JL), ONR N00014-15-1-2847 (JL).

  2. Weak-coupling superconductivity in a strongly correlated iron pnictide

    PubMed Central

    Charnukha, A.; Post, K. W.; Thirupathaiah, S.; Pröpper, D.; Wurmehl, S.; Roslova, M.; Morozov, I.; Büchner, B.; Yaresko, A. N.; Boris, A. V.; Borisenko, S. V.; Basov, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-based superconductors have been found to exhibit an intimate interplay of orbital, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom, dramatically affecting their low-energy electronic properties, including superconductivity. Albeit the precise pairing mechanism remains unidentified, several candidate interactions have been suggested to mediate the superconducting pairing, both in the orbital and in the spin channel. Here, we employ optical spectroscopy (OS), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), ab initio band-structure, and Eliashberg calculations to show that nearly optimally doped NaFe0.978Co0.022As exhibits some of the strongest orbitally selective electronic correlations in the family of iron pnictides. Unexpectedly, we find that the mass enhancement of itinerant charge carriers in the strongly correlated band is dramatically reduced near the Γ point and attribute this effect to orbital mixing induced by pronounced spin-orbit coupling. Embracing the true band structure allows us to describe all low-energy electronic properties obtained in our experiments with remarkable consistency and demonstrate that superconductivity in this material is rather weak and mediated by spin fluctuations. PMID:26729630

  3. Weak-coupling superconductivity in a strongly correlated iron pnictide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnukha, Aliaksei

    Iron-based superconductors have been found to exhibit an intimate interplay of orbital, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom, dramatically affecting their low-energy electronic properties, including superconductivity. Albeit the precise pairing mechanism remains unidentified, several candidate interactions have been suggested to mediate the superconducting pairing, both in the orbital and in the spin channel. Here, we employ optical spectroscopy (OS), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, ab initio band-structure, and Eliashberg calculations to show that nearly optimally doped NaFe0.978Co0.022As exhibits some of the strongest orbitally selective electronic correlations in the family of iron pnictides. Unexpectedly, we find that the mass enhancement of itinerant charge carriers in the strongly correlated band is dramatically reduced near the Γ point and attribute this effect to orbital mixing induced by pronounced spin-orbit coupling. Embracing the true band structure allows us to describe all low-energy electronic properties obtained in our experiments with remarkable consistency and demonstrate that superconductivity in this material is rather weak and mediated by spin fluctuations. A. Charnukha acknowledges financial support by the Alexander von Humboldt foundation.

  4. Weak-coupling superconductivity in a strongly correlated iron pnictide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnukha, A.; Post, K. W.; Thirupathaiah, S.; Pröpper, D.; Wurmehl, S.; Roslova, M.; Morozov, I.; Büchner, B.; Yaresko, A. N.; Boris, A. V.; Borisenko, S. V.; Basov, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-based superconductors have been found to exhibit an intimate interplay of orbital, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom, dramatically affecting their low-energy electronic properties, including superconductivity. Albeit the precise pairing mechanism remains unidentified, several candidate interactions have been suggested to mediate the superconducting pairing, both in the orbital and in the spin channel. Here, we employ optical spectroscopy (OS), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), ab initio band-structure, and Eliashberg calculations to show that nearly optimally doped NaFe0.978Co0.022As exhibits some of the strongest orbitally selective electronic correlations in the family of iron pnictides. Unexpectedly, we find that the mass enhancement of itinerant charge carriers in the strongly correlated band is dramatically reduced near the Γ point and attribute this effect to orbital mixing induced by pronounced spin-orbit coupling. Embracing the true band structure allows us to describe all low-energy electronic properties obtained in our experiments with remarkable consistency and demonstrate that superconductivity in this material is rather weak and mediated by spin fluctuations.

  5. PREFACE: Introduction to Strongly Correlated Electrons in New Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2003-09-01

    The discovery of new natural and artificial materials has revolutionized condensed matter physics and our views on the role of correlations between electrons. Novel properties such as high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance discovered in these materials have overturned our conventional representations of condensed matter physics and pushed us to reconsider many well-established concepts. For example, we must treat the Coulomb interaction between electrons far beyond perturbation theory; we must recall long-forgotten ideas of electronic phase separation introduced originally by Nagaev in the 1960s; we must reconsider the role of electron--phonon and electron--magnon interactions, orbital degrees of freedom, the Rashba effect and many other aspects of condensed matter physics that are becoming increasingly important. In many novel materials, such as the two-dimensional electron gas, the energy associated with the Coulomb interaction is typically of the order of (or even larger than) the kinetic energy of electrons or the Fermi energy. Therefore perturbation theory and associated renormalization group methods are not applicable to these situations and we may expect to find a novel state of matter associated with correlation effects. It is worth mentioning the known examples of these states proposed recently, such as marginal Fermi liquids, novel metal--insulator phase transitions in the two-dimensional electron gas associated with new metallic and insulating states, structured liquids, microscopic electronic phase separations, stripes, strings, polarons and others. The discussion of these states is now on the frontier of modern condensed matter physics and is partially covered in this special issue. The demand to treat the Coulomb interaction properly has stimulated a development of many-body theory, which considers correlations as fully as possible. Strong correlations may play an important role in the dynamics of the electronic system. In a

  6. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 was dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covered a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The meeting welcomed to Cambridge 657 participants from 23 countries, who presented 127 talks (including 16 plenary, 57 invited, and 54 contributed) and 736 posters in 40 sessions over five full days of meetings. This proceedings volume contains papers reporting on the science presented at the meeting. This work deepens our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. Strongly correlated systems are known for their remarkable array of emergent phenomena: the traditional subjects of superconductivity, magnetism and metal-insulator transitions have been joined by non-Fermi liquid phenomena, topologically protected quantum states, atomic and photonic gases, and quantum phase transitions. These are some of the most challenging and interesting phenomena in science. As well as the science driver, there is underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion

  7. 3He Films as Model Strongly Correlated Fermion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, Michael; Casey, Andrew; Nyeki, Jan; Cowan, Brian; Saunders, John

    2006-09-07

    Helium films on graphite are atomically layered. This allows a wide variety of studies of strong correlations in two dimensions with density as a continuously tunable parameter. Studies of a monolayer of 3He adsorbed on graphite plated by a bi-layer of HD find a divergence of effective mass with increasing density, corresponding to a Mott-Hubbard transition between a 2D Fermi liquid and a quantum spin liquid phase. While the Fermi liquid survives in 2D, non-Fermi liquid features remain at finite T, recent theories find that this correction arises from the spin component of the backscattering amplitude. In another experiment a 3He film is grown on graphite plated by a bi-layer of 3He. The first 3He layer only solidifies in the presence of an overlayer. However in the regime in which the system comprises a 3He fluid bilayer, we observe a striking maximum in the temperature dependence of both heat capacity and magnetization. This feature is driven towards T = 0 with increasing film coverage, suggestive of a quantum critical point. Well below the maximum a linear temperature dependence of the heat capacity is recovered; the coverage dependence of the effective mass identifies a (bandwidth driven) Mott-Hubbard transition at 9.8 nm-2.

  8. Un-Fermi Liquids: Unparticles in Strongly Correlated Electron Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley, Brandon; Phillips, Philip; Hutasoit, Jimmy

    2014-03-01

    Since any non-trivial infrared dynamics in strongly correlated electron matter must be controlled by a critical fixed point, we argue that the form of the single-particle propagator can be deduced simply by imposing scale invariance. As a consequence, the unparticle picture proposed by Georgi is the natural candidate to describe such dynamics. Unparticle stuff is scale-invariant matter with no particular mass. Scale invariance dictates that the propagator has an algebraic form which can admit zeros and hence is a candidate to explain the ubiquitous pseudogap state of the cuprates. The non-perturbative electronic state formed out of unparticles we refer to as an un-Fermi liquid. We show that the underlying action of the continuous mass formulation of unparticles can be recast as an action in anti de Sitter space which serves as the generating functional for the propagator. We find that this mapping fixes the scaling dimension of the unparticle to be dU = d / 2 +√{d2 + 4 } / 2 and ensures that the corresponding propagator has zeros with d the spacetime dimension of the unparticle field. This work was funded by NSF DMR-1104909, DMR-1005536 and DMR-0820404.

  9. Strongly correlated quantum transport out-of-equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Prasenjit

    The revolutionary advances in nanotechnology and nanofabrication have facilitated the precise control and manipulation of mesoscopic systems where quantum effects are pronounced. Quantum devices with tunable gates have made it possible to access regimes far beyond the purview of linear response theory. In particular, the influence of strong voltage and thermal biases has led to the observation of novel phenomena where the non-equilibrium characteristics of the system are of paramount importance. We study transport through quantum-impurity systems in the regime of strong correlations and determine the effects of large temperature and potential gradients on its many-body physics. In Part I of this thesis we focus on the steady-state dynamics of the system, a commonly encountered experimental scenario. For a system consisting of several leads composed of non-interacting electrons, each individually coupled to a quantum impurity with interactions and maintained at different chemical potentials, we reformulate the system in terms of an effective-equilibrium density matrix. This density matrix has a simple Boltzmann-like form in terms of the system's Lippmann-Schwinger (scattering) operators. We elaborate the conditions for this description to be valid based on the microscopic Hamiltonian of the system. We then prove the equivalence of physical observables computed using this formulation with corresponding expressions in the Schwinger-Keldysh approach and provide a dictionary between Green's functions in either scheme. An imaginary-time functional integral framework to compute finite temperature Green's functions is proposed and used to develop a novel perturbative expansion in the interaction strength which is exact in all other system parameters. We use these tools to study the fate of the Abrikosov-Suhl regime on the Kondo-correlated quantum dot due to the effects of bias and external magnetic fields. Next, we expand the domain of this formalism to additionally

  10. Dynamical conductivity of strongly correlated electron systems at oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, Daniel Gerald

    The Mott metal-insulator transition (MIT) in transition-metal complex oxides results from strong electron-electron interactions and is accompanied by a rich spectrum of phenomena, including magnetic, charge, and orbital ordering, superconductivity, structural distortions, polarons, and very high-density 2-dimensional interface electron liquids. Recent advances in oxide heteroepitaxy allow interface control as a promising new approach to tuning the exotic properties of materials near the quantum critical point, with potential application to technologies including phase-change electronics, high power transistors, and sensors. The dynamical conductivity of oxide heterostructures is measured using a combination of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dc magnetotransport. The rare-earth nickelates RNiO3 (R = La, Nd...) exhibit a temperature and bandwidth controlled MIT in bulk. Measurements of the Drude response in epitaxial thin films provide quantification of the strain-dependent mass enhancement in the metallic phase due to strong correlations. Reduction of LaNiO 3 film thickness leads to additional mass renormalization attributed to structural distortions at the heteroepitaxial interface, and an MIT is observed depending on the interfacing materials in coherent perovskite heterostructures. The rare-earth titanates RTiO3 exhibit a bandwidth and band filling controlled Mott MIT. Furthermore, the heterointerface between Mott insulating GdTiO3 and band insulating SrTiO3 exhibits a 2-dimensional itinerant electron liquid, with extremely high sheet densities of 3 x 1014 cm-2. The dynamical conductivity of the interface electrons is analyzed in terms of subband-dependent electron mobility and the established large polaron dynamics in bulk SrTiO3. Additional confinement of the electron liquids is achieved by decreasing the SrTiO3 layer thickness, with attendant increase in the dynamical mass. Taking the confinement to its extreme

  11. Un-Fermi liquids: Unparticles in strongly correlated electron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Philip W.; Langley, Brandon W.; Hutasoit, Jimmy A.

    2013-09-01

    Since any nontrivial infrared dynamics in strongly correlated electron matter must be controlled by a critical fixed point, we argue that the form of the single-particle propagator can be deduced simply by imposing scale invariance. As a consequence, the unparticle picture proposed by Georgi is the natural candidate to describe such dynamics. Unparticle stuff is scale-invariant matter with no particular mass. Scale invariance dictates that the propagator has an algebraic form which can admit zeros and hence is a candidate to explain the ubiquitous pseudogap state of the cuprates. We refer to the nonperturbative electronic state formed out of unparticles as an un-Fermi liquid. We show that the underlying action of the continuous mass formulation of unparticles can be recast as an action in anti-de Sitter space which serves as the generating functional for the propagator. We find that this mapping fixes the scaling dimension of the unparticle to be dU=d/2+d2+4/2 and ensures that the corresponding propagator has zeros with d the space-time dimension of the unparticle field. Should d=2+1, unparticles acquire the nontrivial phase 2πdU upon interchange. Because dU is noninteger and in general not half integer, clockwise and counterclockwise interchange of unparticles do not lead to the same phase and time-reversal symmetry is broken spontaneously as reported in numerous experiments in the pseudogap phase of the cuprates. The possible relevance of this mechanism to such experiments is discussed. We then formulate the analogous BCS gap using unparticles and find that in contrast to the Fermi-liquid case, the transition temperature increases as the attractive interaction strength decreases, indicating that unparticles are highly susceptible to a superconducting instability.

  12. Far East: Offshore exploration and development continues strong

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    New fields are being added even while recent finds are brought on using floating production systems and gas pipelines. Intensive workover/redrilling continues in older onshore provinces. The paper discusses exploration, development, drilling and production in China, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Pakistan, Myanmar, Brunei, and the Philippines, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mongolia, and Taiwan are briefly mentioned.

  13. Weak pairwise correlations imply strongly correlated network states in a neural population

    PubMed Central

    Schneidman, Elad; Berry, Michael J.; Segev, Ronen; Bialek, William

    2006-01-01

    Biological networks have so many possible states that exhaustive sampling is impossible. Successful analysis thus depends on simplifying hypotheses, but experiments on many systems hint that complicated, higher-order interactions among large groups of elements have an important role. Here we show, in the vertebrate retina, that weak correlations between pairs of neurons coexist with strongly collective behaviour in the responses of ten or more neurons. We find that this collective behaviour is described quantitatively by models that capture the observed pairwise correlations but assume no higher-order interactions. These maximum entropy models are equivalent to Ising models, and predict that larger networks are completely dominated by correlation effects. This suggests that the neural code has associative or error-correcting properties, and we provide preliminary evidence for such behaviour. As a first test for the generality of these ideas, we show that similar results are obtained from networks of cultured cortical neurons. PMID:16625187

  14. Exploring Correlation Coefficients with Golf Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationships between several pairs of statistics kept on professional golfers on the PGA tour. Specifically, two measures related to the player's ability to drive the ball are compared as are two measures related to the player's ability to putt. An additional analysis is made between one statistic related to putting and…

  15. Computational studies of model disordered and strongly correlated electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johri, Sonika

    The theory of non-interacting electrons in perfect crystals was completed soon after the advent of quantum mechanics. Though capable of describing electron behaviour in most simple solid state physics systems, this approach falls woefully short of describing condensed matter systems of interest today, and designing the quantum devices of the future. The reason is that nature is never free of disorder, and emergent properties arising from interactions can be clearly seen in the pure, low-dimensional materials that can be engineered today. In this thesis, I address some salient problems in disordered and correlated electronic systems using modern numerical techniques like sparse matrix diagonalization, density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), and large disorder renormalization group (LDRG) methods. The pioneering work of P. W. Anderson, in 1958, led to an understanding of how an electron can stop diffusing and become localized in a region of space when a crystal is sufficiently disordered. Thus disorder can lead to metal-insulator transitions, for instance, in doped semiconductors. Theoretical research on the Anderson disorder model since then has mostly focused on the localization-delocalization phase transition. The localized phase in itself was not thought to exhibit any interesting physics. Our work has uncovered a new singularity in the disorder-averaged inverse participation ratio of wavefunctions within the localized phase, arising from resonant states. The effects of system size, dimension and disorder distribution on the singularity have been studied. A novel wavefunction-based LDRG technique has been designed for the Anderson model which captures the singular behaviour. While localization is well established for a single electron in a disordered potential, the situation is less clear in the case of many interacting particles. Most studies of a many-body localized phase are restricted to a system which is isolated from its environment. Such a condition

  16. The Event Horizon Telescope: exploring strong gravity and accretion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Dexter, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global sub-millimetre wavelength very long baseline interferometry array, is now resolving the innermost regions around the supermassive black holes Sgr A* and M87. Using black hole images from both simple geometric models and relativistic magnetohydrodynamical accretion flow simulations, we perform a variety of experiments to assess the promise of the EHT for studying strong gravity and accretion physics during the stages of its development. We find that (1) the addition of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array along with upgraded instrumentation in the `Complete' stage of the EHT allow detection of the photon ring, a signature of Kerr strong gravity, for predicted values of its total flux; (2) the inclusion of coherently averaged closure phases in our analysis dramatically improves the precision of even the current array, allowing (3) significantly tighter constraints on plausible accretion models and (4) detections of structural variability at the levels predicted by the models. While observations at 345 GHz circumvent problems due to interstellar electron scattering in line of sight to the galactic centre, short baselines provided by CARMA (Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy) and/or the LMT could be required in order to constrain the overall shape of the accretion flow. Given the systematic uncertainties in the underlying models, using the full complement of two observing frequencies (230 and 345 GHz) and sources (Sgr A* and M87) may be critical for achieving transformative science with the EHT experiment.

  17. Two-particle photoemission from strongly correlated systems: A dynamical mean-field approach

    SciTech Connect

    Napitu, B. D.; Berakdar, J.

    2010-05-15

    We study theoretically the simultaneous photoinduced two-particle excitations of strongly correlated systems on the basis of the Hubbard model. Under certain conditions specified in this work, the corresponding transition probability is related to the two-particle spectral function which we calculate using three different methods: the dynamical mean-field theory combined with quantum Monte Carlo technique, the first-order perturbation theory and the ladder approximations. The results are analyzed and compared for systems at the verge of the metal-insulator transitions. The dependencies on the electronic correlation strength and on doping are explored. In addition, the account for the orbital degeneracy allows an insight into the influence of interband correlations on the two-particle excitations. A suitable experimental realization is discussed.

  18. Hybrid exchange-correlation energy functionals for strongly correlated electrons: Applications to transition-metal monoxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Fabien; Blaha, Peter; Schwarz, Karlheinz; Novák, Pavel

    2006-10-01

    For the treatment of strongly correlated electrons, the corresponding Hartree-Fock exchange energy is used instead of the local density approximation (LDA) or generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional, as suggested recently [P. Novák , Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 563 (2006)]. If this is done only inside the atomic spheres, using an augmented plane wave scheme, a significant simplification and reduction of computational cost is achieved with respect to the usual but costly implementation of the Hartree-Fock formalism in solids. Starting from this, we construct exchange-correlation energy functionals of the hybrid form like B3PW91, PBE0, etc. These functionals are tested on the transition-metal monoxides MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO, and the results are compared with the LDA, GGA, LDA+U , and experimental ones. The results show that the proposed method, which does not contain any system-dependent input parameter, gives results comparable or superior to the ones obtained with LDA+U which is designed to improve significantly over the LDA and GGA results for systems containing strongly correlated electrons. The computational efficiency, similar to the LDA+U one, and accuracy of the proposed method show that it represents a very good alternative to LDA+U .

  19. Electron spectroscopy studies of strongly correlated vanadium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Sung-Kwan

    The electronic structure of strongly correlated vanadium compounds has been investigated using electron spectroscopy as the main experimental tool. The underlying theme of the thesis is to examine exotic ground states and phase transitions which result from the competition between localized and delocalized characters of 3d electrons, the interactions among different degrees of freedom, and the effect of confining geometries such as low-dimensionality and geometrical frustration. (V1-xMx) 2O3 (M=Cr, Ti) is a paradigm Mott-Hubbard (MH) metal-insulator transition system. High-photon-energy bulk-sensitive photoemission spectroscopy (PES) shows a prominent quasi-particle (QP) peak at the Fermi energy ( EF) in the paramagnetic metal phase. The peak is in a good general agreement with theoretical predictions from the local density approximation of band theory combined with dynamical mean-field theory (LDA+DMFT). This is the first observation of such a QP peak after continuing efforts for more than 20 years. The observation was enabled by using a new bulk-sensitive PES technique. PES spectra of the PI Phase (V0.972Cr0.028 )2O3, taken at unusually high temperatures ( T) up to 800 K, show that with increasing T the MH gap is filled by a transfer of incoherent spectral weight from the high binding energy region, in qualitative agreement with high-T LDA+DMFT calculations. This reveals an important yet often-ignored aspect of the Mott insulator in contrast to the behavior of a band insulator, where increasing T creates electron-hole excitations across a rigid gap. Angle-resolved PES (ARPES) spectra of quasi-one-dimensional beta'-Cu xV2O5 (x = 0.33 - 0.65) and BaVS3 in the metallic phase show dispersing bands along, but not perpendicular to the chain direction. No distinct Fermi edge is observed even in the metallic phase spectra of either material. For beta'-Cu xV2O5 we infer that electrons are distributed in a 1:2 ratio into two of the three species of vanadium oxide chains

  20. Exploring the neural correlates of visual creativity

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Sook-Lei; Dandekar, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Although creativity has been called the most important of all human resources, its neural basis is still unclear. In the current study, we used fMRI to measure neural activity in participants solving a visuospatial creativity problem that involves divergent thinking and has been considered a canonical right hemisphere task. As hypothesized, both the visual creativity task and the control task as compared to rest activated a variety of areas including the posterior parietal cortex bilaterally and motor regions, which are known to be involved in visuospatial rotation of objects. However, directly comparing the two tasks indicated that the creative task more strongly activated left hemisphere regions including the posterior parietal cortex, the premotor cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial PFC. These results demonstrate that even in a task that is specialized to the right hemisphere, robust parallel activity in the left hemisphere supports creative processing. Furthermore, the results support the notion that higher motor planning may be a general component of creative improvisation and that such goal-directed planning of novel solutions may be organized top-down by the left DLPFC and by working memory processing in the medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:22349801

  1. Strong Country Level Correlation between Syphilis and HSV-2 Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Chris Richard; Tsoumanis, Achilleas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Syphilis is curable but Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is not. As a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not HSV-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national STI screening and treatment capacity. If the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential STI treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both HSV-2 and syphilis. Methods. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between national antenatal syphilis prevalence and HSV-2 prevalence in women in two time periods: 1990–1999 and 2008. Adjustments were performed for the laboratory syphilis testing algorithm used and the prevalence of circumcision. Results. The prevalence of syphilis was positively correlated with that of HSV-2 for both time periods (adjusted correlations, 20–24-year-olds: 1990–99: R2 = 0.54, P < 0.001; 2008: R2 = 0.41, P < 0.001 and 40–44-year-olds: 1990–99: R2 = 0.42, P < 0.001; 2008: R2 = 0.49, P < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is positively correlated. This could be due to a common set of risk factors underpinning both STIs. PMID:27069710

  2. Rydberg-atom formation in strongly correlated ultracold plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bannasch, G.; Pohl, T.

    2011-11-15

    In plasmas at very low temperatures, the formation of neutral atoms is dominated by collisional three-body recombination, owing to the strong {approx}T{sup -9/2} scaling of the corresponding recombination rate with the electron temperature T. While this law is well established at high temperatures, the unphysical divergence as T{yields}0 clearly suggests a breakdown in the low-temperature regime. Here, we present a combined molecular dynamics Monte Carlo study of electron-ion recombination over a wide range of temperatures and densities. Our results reproduce the known behavior of the recombination rate at high temperatures, but reveal significant deviations with decreasing temperature. We discuss the fate of the kinetic bottleneck and resolve the divergence problem as the plasma enters the ultracold, strongly coupled domain.

  3. On the phase-correlation and phase-fluctuation dynamics of a strongly excited Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, Roger R.; Sakhel, Asaad R.; Ghassib, Humam B.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is explored in the wake of a violent excitation caused by a strong time-dependent deformation of a trapping potential under the action of an intense stirring laser. The system is a two-dimensional BEC confined to a power-law trap with hard-wall boundaries. The stirring agent is a moving red-detuned laser potential. The time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation is solved numerically by the split-step Crank-Nicolson method in real time. The phase correlations and phase fluctuations are examined as functions of time to demonstrate the evolving properties of a strongly-excited BEC. Of special significance is the occurrence of spatial fluctuations while the condensate is being excited. These oscillations arise from stirrer-induced density fluctuations. While the stirrer is inside the trap, a reduction in phase coherence occurs, which is attributed to phase fluctuations.

  4. Fluid Dynamics and Viscosity in Strongly Correlated Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    We review the modern view of fluid dynamics as an effective low-energy, long-wavelength theory of many-body systems at finite temperature. We introduce the concept of a nearly perfect fluid, defined by a ratio η/s of shear viscosity to entropy density of order ℏ/kB or less. Nearly perfect fluids exhibit hydrodynamic behavior at all distances down to the microscopic length scale of the fluid. We summarize arguments that suggest that there is fundamental limit to fluidity, and we review the current experimental situation of measurements of η/s in strongly coupled quantum fluids.

  5. Can strong correlations be experimentally revealed for Ҡ -mesons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2014-11-01

    In 1964 the physicists John St. Bell working at CERN took the 1935-idea of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen seriously and found that all theories based on local realism have to satisfy a certain inequality, nowadays dubbed Bell's inequality. Experiments with ordinary matter systems or light show violations of Bell's inequality favouring the quantum theory though a loophole free experiment has not yet been performed. This contribution presents an experimentally feasible Bell inequality for systems at higher energy scales, i.e. entangled neutral Ҡ -meson pairs that are typically produced in Φ -mesons decays or proton-antiproton annihilation processes. Strong requirements have to be overcome in order to achieve a conclusive tests, such a proposal was recently published. Surprisingly, this new Bell inequality reveals new features for weakly decaying particles, in particular, a strong sensitivity to the combined charge-conjugation-parity (CP) symmetry. Here-with, a puzzling relation between a symmetry breaking for mesons and Bell's inequality—which is a necessary and sufficient condition for the security of quantum cryptography protocols— is established. This becomes the more important since CP symmetry is related to the cosmological question why the antimatter disappeared after the Big Bang.

  6. An organizing principle for two-dimensional strongly correlated superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Fratino, L; Sémon, P; Sordi, G; Tremblay, A-M S

    2016-01-01

    Superconductivity in the cuprates exhibits many unusual features. We study the two-dimensional Hubbard model with plaquette dynamical mean-field theory to address these unusual features and relate them to other normal-state phenomena, such as the pseudogap. Previous studies with this method found that upon doping the Mott insulator at low temperature a pseudogap phase appears. The low-temperature transition between that phase and the correlated metal at higher doping is first-order. A series of crossovers emerge along the Widom line extension of that first-order transition in the supercritical region. Here we show that the highly asymmetric dome of the dynamical mean-field superconducting transition temperature , the maximum of the condensation energy as a function of doping, the correlation between maximum and normal-state scattering rate, the change from potential-energy driven to kinetic-energy driven pairing mechanisms can all be understood as remnants of the normal state first-order transition and its associated crossovers that also act as an organizing principle for the superconducting state. PMID:26964524

  7. An organizing principle for two-dimensional strongly correlated superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratino, L.; Sémon, P.; Sordi, G.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Superconductivity in the cuprates exhibits many unusual features. We study the two-dimensional Hubbard model with plaquette dynamical mean-field theory to address these unusual features and relate them to other normal-state phenomena, such as the pseudogap. Previous studies with this method found that upon doping the Mott insulator at low temperature a pseudogap phase appears. The low-temperature transition between that phase and the correlated metal at higher doping is first-order. A series of crossovers emerge along the Widom line extension of that first-order transition in the supercritical region. Here we show that the highly asymmetric dome of the dynamical mean-field superconducting transition temperature , the maximum of the condensation energy as a function of doping, the correlation between maximum and normal-state scattering rate, the change from potential-energy driven to kinetic-energy driven pairing mechanisms can all be understood as remnants of the normal state first-order transition and its associated crossovers that also act as an organizing principle for the superconducting state.

  8. Signals of strong electronic correlation in ion scattering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetto, F.; Gonzalez, C.; Goldberg, E. C.

    2016-05-01

    Previous measurements of neutral atom fractions for S r+ scattered by gold polycrystalline surfaces show a singular dependence with the target temperature. There is still not a theoretical model that can properly describe the magnitude and the temperature dependence of the neutralization probabilities found. Here, we applied a first-principles quantum-mechanical theoretical formalism to describe the time-dependent scattering process. Three different electronic correlation approaches consistent with the system analyzed are used: (i) the spinless approach, where two charge channels are considered (S r0 and S r+ ) and the spin degeneration is neglected; (ii) the infinite-U approach, with the same charge channels (S r0 and S r+ ) but considering the spin degeneration; and (iii) the finite-U approach, where the first ionization and second ionization energy levels are considered very, but finitely, separated. Neutral fraction magnitudes and temperature dependence are better described by the finite-U approach, indicating that e -correlation plays a significant role in charge-transfer processes. However, none of them is able to explain the nonmonotonous temperature dependence experimentally obtained. Here, we suggest that small changes in the surface work function introduced by the target heating, and possibly not detected by experimental standard methods, could be responsible for that singular behavior. Additionally, we apply the same theoretical model using the infinite-U approximation for the Mg-Au system, obtaining an excellent description of the experimental neutral fractions measured.

  9. An organizing principle for two-dimensional strongly correlated superconductivity

    PubMed Central

    Fratino, L.; Sémon, P.; Sordi, G.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Superconductivity in the cuprates exhibits many unusual features. We study the two-dimensional Hubbard model with plaquette dynamical mean-field theory to address these unusual features and relate them to other normal-state phenomena, such as the pseudogap. Previous studies with this method found that upon doping the Mott insulator at low temperature a pseudogap phase appears. The low-temperature transition between that phase and the correlated metal at higher doping is first-order. A series of crossovers emerge along the Widom line extension of that first-order transition in the supercritical region. Here we show that the highly asymmetric dome of the dynamical mean-field superconducting transition temperature , the maximum of the condensation energy as a function of doping, the correlation between maximum and normal-state scattering rate, the change from potential-energy driven to kinetic-energy driven pairing mechanisms can all be understood as remnants of the normal state first-order transition and its associated crossovers that also act as an organizing principle for the superconducting state. PMID:26964524

  10. Periodic trend and fluctuations: The case of strong correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Osman C.; Paradisi, Paolo; Grigolini, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    We study the effects of an external periodic perturbation on a Poisson rate process, with special attention to the perturbation-induced sojourn-time patterns. We show that these patterns correspond to turning a memory-less sequence into a sequence with memory. The memory effects are stronger the slower the perturbation. The adoption of a de-trending technique, applied with no caution, might generate the impression that no fluctuation-periodicity correlation exists. We find that this is due to the fact that the perturbation-induced memory is a global property and that the result of a local in time analysis would not find any memory effect, insofar as the process under study is locally a Poisson process. We find that an efficient way to detect this memory effect is to analyze the moduli of the de-trended sequence. We turn the sequence to analyze into a diffusion process, and we evaluate the Shannon entropy of the resulting diffusion process. We find that both the original sequence and the suitably processed de-trended sequence yield the same dependence of entropy on time, namely, an initial scaling larger than ordinary scaling, and a sequel of weak oscillations, which are a clear signature of the external perturbation, in both cases. This is a clear indication of the fluctuation-periodicity correlation.

  11. Strongly correlated electron materials. I. Theory of the quasiparticle structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Aguilar, F.; Costa-Quintana, J.; Puig-Puig, L. )

    1993-07-01

    In this paper we give a method for analyzing the renormalized electronic structure of the Hubbard systems. The first step is the determination of effective interactions from the random-phase approximation (RPA) and from an extended RPA (ERPA) that introduces vertex effects within the bubble polarization. The second step is the determination of the density of states deduced from the spectral functions. Its analysis leads us to conclude that these systems can exhibit three types of resonances in their electronic structures: the lower-, middle-, and upper-energy resonances. Furthermore, we analyze the conditions for which there is only one type of resonance and the causes that lead to the disappearance of the heavy-fermion state. We finally introduce the RPA and ERPA effective interactions within the strong-coupling theory and we give the conditions for obtaining coupling and superconductivity.

  12. Excitonic condensation in systems of strongly correlated electrons.

    PubMed

    Kuneš, Jan

    2015-08-26

    The idea of exciton condensation in solids was introduced in the 1960s with the analogy of superconductivity in mind. While exciton supercurrents have been realised only in artificial quantum-well structures so far, the application of the concept of excitonic condensation to bulk solids leads to a rich spectrum of thermodynamic phases with diverse physical properties. In this review we discuss recent developments in the theory of exciton condensation in systems described by Hubbard-type models. In particular, we focus on the connections to their various strong-coupling limits that have been studied in other contexts, e.g. cold atoms physics. One of our goals is to provide a 'dictionary' that would allow the reader to efficiently combine results obtained in these different fields. PMID:26218828

  13. Excitonic condensation in systems of strongly correlated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneš, Jan

    2015-08-01

    The idea of exciton condensation in solids was introduced in the 1960s with the analogy of superconductivity in mind. While exciton supercurrents have been realised only in artificial quantum-well structures so far, the application of the concept of excitonic condensation to bulk solids leads to a rich spectrum of thermodynamic phases with diverse physical properties. In this review we discuss recent developments in the theory of exciton condensation in systems described by Hubbard-type models. In particular, we focus on the connections to their various strong-coupling limits that have been studied in other contexts, e.g. cold atoms physics. One of our goals is to provide a ‘dictionary’ that would allow the reader to efficiently combine results obtained in these different fields.

  14. Residues of correlators in the strongly coupled N=4 plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Amado, Irene; Landsteiner, Karl; Montero, Sergio; Hoyos, Carlos

    2008-03-15

    Quasinormal modes of asymptotically AdS black holes can be interpreted as poles of retarded correlators in the dual gauge theory. To determine the response of the system to small external perturbations it is not enough to know the location of the poles: one also needs to know the residues. We compute them for R-charge currents and find that they are complex except for the hydrodynamic mode, whose residue is purely imaginary. For different quasinormal modes the residue grows with momentum q, whereas for the hydrodynamic mode it behaves as a damped oscillation with distinct zeroes at finite q. Similar to collective excitations at weak coupling the hydrodynamic mode decouples at short wavelengths. Knowledge of the residues allows as well to define the time scale {tau}{sub H} from when on the system enters the hydrodynamic regime, restricting the validity of hydrodynamic simulations to times t>{tau}{sub H}.

  15. Thermopower of strongly correlated T-shaped double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Krzysztof P.; Weymann, Ireneusz

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically study the thermoelectric transport properties of correlated T-shaped double quantum dots. The calculations are performed with the aid of the numerical renormalization group method. When each of the dots is occupied by a single electron, the system exhibits the two-stage Kondo effect. We identify the signatures of the two-stage screening in transport coefficients such as electrical and heat conductances, Seebeck coefficient, thermoelectric figure of merit, and the power factor. It is shown that the thermopower exhibits maxima for temperatures corresponding to the second stage of screening. Moreover, the normalized heat conductance and the electrical conductance are found to fulfill a modified Wiedemann-Franz law, which however becomes violated when the system is in the weak coupling regime. In addition, we also analyze the effects of external magnetic field, which gives rise to the occurrence of finite spin polarization of the conductance and a significant spin thermopower.

  16. Strong correlation effects in a two-dimensional Bose gas with quartic dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radić, Juraj; Natu, Stefan S.; Galitski, Victor

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by the fundamental question of the fate of interacting bosons in flat bands, we consider a two-dimensional Bose gas at zero temperature with an underlying quartic single-particle dispersion in one spatial direction. This type of band structure can be realized using the NIST scheme of spin-orbit coupling [Y.-J. Lin, K. Jiménez-Garcia, and I. B. Spielman, Nature (London) 471, 83 (2011), 10.1038/nature09887], in the regime where the lower-band dispersion has the form ɛk˜kx4/4 +ky2+... , or using the shaken lattice scheme of Parker et al. [C. V. Parker, L.-C. Ha, and C. Chin, Nat. Phys. 9, 769 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2789]. We numerically compare the ground-state energies of the mean-field Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and various trial wave functions, where bosons avoid each other at short distances. We discover that, at low densities, several types of strongly correlated states have an energy per particle (ɛ ), which scales with density (n ) as ɛ ˜n4 /3 , in contrast to ɛ ˜n for the weakly interacting Bose gas. These competing states include a Wigner crystal, quasicondensates described in terms of properly symmetrized fermionic states, and variational wave functions of Jastrow type. We find that one of the latter has the lowest energy among the states we consider. This Jastrow-type state has a strongly reduced, but finite, condensate fraction, and true off-diagonal long-range order, which suggests that the ground state of interacting bosons with quartic dispersion is a strongly correlated condensate reminiscent of superfluid helium-4. Our results show that even for weakly interacting bosons in higher dimensions, one can explore the crossover from a weakly coupled BEC to a strongly correlated condensate by simply tuning the single-particle dispersion or density.

  17. Exploration of Strongly Coupled Plasma Dynamics and Equilibrium Using the Particle-in-Cell Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Genoni, T. C.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Campbell, R. B.

    2008-03-01

    Particle-based numerical simulations are required to study the dynamics and evolution of inhomogeneous nonequilibrium multispecies strongly coupled plasmas. Molecular dynamics (MD) and particle-in-cell (PIC) techniques and been compared previously [K. Y. Sanbonmatsu, et al., J. Phys. IV (France) 10, Pr5-259 (2000)], with the PIC methodology demonstrating the capability of improved accuracy over the MD simulations at high resolution. However, the PIC simulations were significantly slower, limiting their utility. Here we explore several schemes to improve the computational speed of such calculations including non-iterative, implicit EM field solvers and subgrid models. The simulations are compared directly with the results of Sanbonmatsu, et al., and a new theoretical analysis of the hypernetted chain model where all inter-species correlations are retained [V. Schwarz, et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 47, 324 (2007)].

  18. Construction of exchange-correlation functionals through interpolation between the non-interacting and the strong-correlation limit.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongxi; Bahmann, Hilke; Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2015-09-28

    Drawing on the adiabatic connection of density functional theory, exchange-correlation functionals of Kohn-Sham density functional theory are constructed which interpolate between the extreme limits of the electron-electron interaction strength. The first limit is the non-interacting one, where there is only exchange. The second limit is the strong correlated one, characterized as the minimum of the electron-electron repulsion energy. The exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit is approximated through a model for the exchange-correlation hole that is referred to as nonlocal-radius model [L. O. Wagner and P. Gori-Giorgi, Phys. Rev. A 90, 052512 (2014)]. Using the non-interacting and strong-correlated extremes, various interpolation schemes are presented that yield new approximations to the adiabatic connection and thus to the exchange-correlation energy. Some of them rely on empiricism while others do not. Several of the proposed approximations yield the exact exchange-correlation energy for one-electron systems where local and semi-local approximations often fail badly. Other proposed approximations generalize existing global hybrids by using a fraction of the exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit to replace an equal fraction of the semi-local approximation to the exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit. The performance of the proposed approximations is evaluated for molecular atomization energies, total atomic energies, and ionization potentials. PMID:26428992

  19. Construction of exchange-correlation functionals through interpolation between the non-interacting and the strong-correlation limit

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yongxi; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Bahmann, Hilke

    2015-09-28

    Drawing on the adiabatic connection of density functional theory, exchange-correlation functionals of Kohn-Sham density functional theory are constructed which interpolate between the extreme limits of the electron-electron interaction strength. The first limit is the non-interacting one, where there is only exchange. The second limit is the strong correlated one, characterized as the minimum of the electron-electron repulsion energy. The exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit is approximated through a model for the exchange-correlation hole that is referred to as nonlocal-radius model [L. O. Wagner and P. Gori-Giorgi, Phys. Rev. A 90, 052512 (2014)]. Using the non-interacting and strong-correlated extremes, various interpolation schemes are presented that yield new approximations to the adiabatic connection and thus to the exchange-correlation energy. Some of them rely on empiricism while others do not. Several of the proposed approximations yield the exact exchange-correlation energy for one-electron systems where local and semi-local approximations often fail badly. Other proposed approximations generalize existing global hybrids by using a fraction of the exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit to replace an equal fraction of the semi-local approximation to the exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit. The performance of the proposed approximations is evaluated for molecular atomization energies, total atomic energies, and ionization potentials.

  20. Observation of Pairing Correlations in Strongly Localized Amorphous Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. D., Jr.; Valles, J. M., Jr.; Yin, Aijun; Xu, J. M.

    2007-03-01

    We have measured the Superconductor to Insulator Transition (SIT) as a function of thickness at dilution refrigerator temperatures in ultrathin Bi/Sb films perforated with a regular honeycomb array of holes separated by 100 nm. The presence of these perforations profoundly influences the character of the transition. In particular, on the insulating side of the SIT, the resistance as a function of temperature, R(T), rises monotonically and becomes activated below 1K. Closer to the SIT, a minimum develops in the R(T) suggestive of strong superconducting fluctuations and the onset of Cooper pairing. Simultaneously, the perpendicular field magnetoresistance begins to oscillate with a period that corresponds to the superconducting flux quantum. Yet thicker films exhibit a relatively broad R(T) transition toward a zero resistance state. This behavior constitutes direct evidence that the superconducting ground state of this amorphous film system emerges from an insulating state containing localized Cooper pairs. This work has been supported by the NSF through DMR-0203608, and DMR-0605797, AFRL, and ONR.

  1. Simulation of Strongly Correlated Quantum Many-Body Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ersen

    In this thesis, we address the problem of solving for the properties of interacting quantum many-body systems in thermal equilibrium. The complexity of this problem increases exponentially with system size, limiting exact numerical simulations to very small systems. To tackle more complex systems, one needs to use heuristic algorithms that approximate solutions to these systems. Belief propagation is one such algorithm that we discuss in chapters 2 and 3. Using belief propagation, we demonstrate that it is possible to solve for static properties of highly correlated quantum many-body systems for certain geometries at all temperatures. In chapter 4, we generalize the multiscale renormalization ansatz to the anyonic setting to solve for the ground state properties of anyonic quantum many-body systems. The algorithms we present in chapters 2, 3, and 4 are very successful in certain settings, but they are not applicable to the most general quantum mechanical systems. For this, we propose using quantum computers as we discuss in chapter 5. The dimension reduction algorithm we consider in chapter 5 enables us to prepare thermal states of any quantum many-body system on a quantum computer faster than any previously known algorithm. Using these thermal states as the initialization of a quantum computer, one can study both static and dynamic properties of quantum systems without any memory overhead.

  2. Solving strongly correlated electron models on a quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecker, Dave; Hastings, Matthew B.; Wiebe, Nathan; Clark, Bryan K.; Nayak, Chetan; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    One of the main applications of future quantum computers will be the simulation of quantum models. While the evolution of a quantum state under a Hamiltonian is straightforward (if sometimes expensive), using quantum computers to determine the ground-state phase diagram of a quantum model and the properties of its phases is more involved. Using the Hubbard model as a prototypical example, we here show all the steps necessary to determine its phase diagram and ground-state properties on a quantum computer. In particular, we discuss strategies for efficiently determining and preparing the ground state of the Hubbard model starting from various mean-field states with broken symmetry. We present an efficient procedure to prepare arbitrary Slater determinants as initial states and present the complete set of quantum circuits needed to evolve from these to the ground state of the Hubbard model. We show that, using efficient nesting of the various terms, each time step in the evolution can be performed with just O (N ) gates and O (logN ) circuit depth. We give explicit circuits to measure arbitrary local observables and static and dynamic correlation functions, in both the time and the frequency domains. We further present efficient nondestructive approaches to measurement that avoid the need to reprepare the ground state after each measurement and that quadratically reduce the measurement error.

  3. Static and dynamic variational principles for strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthoff, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The equilibrium state of a system consisting of a large number of strongly interacting electrons can be characterized by its density operator. This gives a direct access to the ground-state energy or, at finite temperatures, to the free energy of the system as well as to other static physical quantities. Elementary excitations of the system, on the other hand, are described within the language of Green's functions, i.e. time- or frequency-dependent dynamic quantities which give a direct access to the linear response of the system subjected to a weak time-dependent external perturbation. A typical example is angle-revolved photoemission spectroscopy which is linked to the single-electron Green's function. Since usually both, the static as well as the dynamic physical quantities, cannot be obtained exactly for lattice fermion models like the Hubbard model, one has to resort to approximations. Opposed to more ad hoc treatments, variational principles promise to provide consistent and controlled approximations. Here, the Ritz principle and a generalized version of the Ritz principle at finite temperatures for the static case on the one hand and a dynamical variational principle for the single-electron Green's function or the self-energy on the other hand are introduced, discussed in detail and compared to each other to show up conceptual similarities and differences. In particular, the construction recipe for non-perturbative dynamic approximations is taken over from the construction of static mean-field theory based on the generalized Ritz principle. Within the two different frameworks, it is shown which types of approximations are accessible, and their respective weaknesses and strengths are worked out. Static Hartree-Fock theory as well as dynamical mean-field theory are found as the prototypical approximations.

  4. Self-consistent field model for strong electrostatic correlations and inhomogeneous dielectric media

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Manman Xu, Zhenli

    2014-12-28

    Electrostatic correlations and variable permittivity of electrolytes are essential for exploring many chemical and physical properties of interfaces in aqueous solutions. We propose a continuum electrostatic model for the treatment of these effects in the framework of the self-consistent field theory. The model incorporates a space- or field-dependent dielectric permittivity and an excluded ion-size effect for the correlation energy. This results in a self-energy modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck or Poisson-Boltzmann equation together with state equations for the self energy and the dielectric function. We show that the ionic size is of significant importance in predicting a finite self energy for an ion in an inhomogeneous medium. Asymptotic approximation is proposed for the solution of a generalized Debye-Hückel equation, which has been shown to capture the ionic correlation and dielectric self energy. Through simulating ionic distribution surrounding a macroion, the modified self-consistent field model is shown to agree with particle-based Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical results for symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes demonstrate that the model is able to predict the charge inversion at high correlation regime in the presence of multivalent interfacial ions which is beyond the mean-field theory and also show strong effect to double layer structure due to the space- or field-dependent dielectric permittivity.

  5. Phase Transition in strongly-correlated VO2: Time-domainAssignment of Cause and Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalleri, A.; Dekorsy, Th.; Chong, H.H.; Kieffer, J.C.; Schoenlein, R.W.

    2004-07-22

    We establish time-domain hierarchy between structural andelectronic effects in the strongly correlated system VO2. Theinsulator-to-metal transition is driven directly by structural changerather than by electron-electron correlations.

  6. Strongly correlated plexcitonics: evolution of the Fano resonance in the presence of Kondo correlations.

    PubMed

    Goker, A

    2015-05-01

    We study the optical absorption of a system consisting of a diatomic molecule that exhibits strong electron correlations coupled to metal nanoparticles possessing plasmon resonances by invoking the time-dependent non-crossing approximation. We investigate the evolution of the Fano resonance arising from the plasmon-exciton coupling when both atoms are Coulomb blockaded. We found that the Fano resonance rapidly dwindles as the ambient temperature exceeds the Kondo temperature of the singly occupied discrete state with higher energy and vanishes entirely at elevated temperatures. Our results show that even boosting the plasmon-exciton coupling above this temperature scale fails to revive the Fano resonance. We propose a microscopic model that accounts for these results. We suggest that a possible remedy for observation of the Fano resonance at high ambient temperatures is to position the singly occupied discrete state with the higher energy as close as possible to the Fermi level of the contacts while keeping the emitter resonance constant to prevent the merger of the Fano and plasmon resonances. PMID:25858207

  7. Focus on strongly correlated quantum fluids: from ultracold quantum gases to QCD plasmas Focus on strongly correlated quantum fluids: from ultracold quantum gases to QCD plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Allan; Carr, Lincoln D.; Schaefer, Thomas; Steinberg, Peter; Thomas, John E.

    2013-04-01

    off a flurry of interest in holography as a toolkit for studying strongly-correlated many-body systems more generally. Holography also allows us to use results from quantum fluids to study classical and quantum gravity; for example, the phase structure of a quantum many-body system translates into a rich classification of black holes in the dual space-time. Given both the rapid progress in applied holography and the exciting developments in ultracold quantum gases and QCD plasmas discussed above, the time is ripe for new collaborations across traditional lines of specialization. This focus issue explores the convergence between three heretofore separate areas of physics. Over forty research groups have contributed original work, and there will be a review article which complements these advances, overviewing them and presenting them in the context of all three fields and their interconnections. The review concludes with a list of open questions. This sets the tone for the present focus issue; namely, interdisciplinary dialog, openness, innovation, and possibility, an emphasis for which New Journal of Physics, an open-access journal of the highest quality, is especially fitted.

  8. Multidimensional Correlates of Individual Variability in Play and Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship between play and environmental and biological factors and individual differences. Explores correlates of morbidity, nutrition, and caregiving environments on toddlers' play sophistication in Egypt. Suggests that variability in children's object versus social play may be a function of the goodness of fit between child and…

  9. NUANCE: Naturalistic University of Alberta Nonlinear Correlation Explorer.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris

    2006-02-01

    In this article, we describe the Naturalistic University of Alberta Nonlinear Correlation Explorer (NUANCE), a computer program for data exploration and analysis. NUANCE is specialized for finding nonlinear relations between any number of predictors and a dependent value to be predicted. It searches the space of possible relations between the predictors and the dependent value by using natural selection to evolve equations that maximize the correlation between their output and the dependent value. In this article, we introduce the program, describe how to use it, and provide illustrative examples. NUANCE is written in Java, which runs on most computer platforms. We have contributed NUANCE to the archival Web site of the Psychonomic Society (www.psychonomic.org/archive), from which it may be freely downloaded. PMID:16817509

  10. Correlated multielectron systems in strong laser fields: A multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach

    SciTech Connect

    Caillat, J.; Scrinzi, A.; Koch, O.; Kreuzer, W.

    2005-01-01

    The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach for the description of correlated few-electron dynamics in the presence of strong laser fields is introduced and a comprehensive description of the method is given. Total ionization and electron spectra for the ground and first excited ionic channels are calculated for one-dimensional model systems with up to six active electrons. Strong correlation effects are found in the shape of photoelectron peaks and the dependence of ionization on molecule size.

  11. Communication: A Jastrow factor coupled cluster theory for weak and strong electron correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Neuscamman, Eric

    2013-11-14

    We present a Jastrow-factor-inspired variant of coupled cluster theory that accurately describes both weak and strong electron correlation. Compatibility with quantum Monte Carlo allows for variational energy evaluations and an antisymmetric geminal power reference, two features not present in traditional coupled cluster that facilitate a nearly exact description of the strong electron correlations in minimal-basis N{sub 2} bond breaking. In double-ζ treatments of the HF and H{sub 2}O bond dissociations, where both weak and strong correlations are important, this polynomial cost method proves more accurate than either traditional coupled cluster or complete active space perturbation theory. These preliminary successes suggest a deep connection between the ways in which cluster operators and Jastrow factors encode correlation.

  12. CeRu4Sn6: a strongly correlated material with nontrivial topology

    PubMed Central

    Sundermann, Martin; Strigari, Fabio; Willers, Thomas; Winkler, Hannes; Prokofiev, Andrey; Ablett, James M.; Rueff, Jean-Pascal; Schmitz, Detlef; Weschke, Eugen; Sala, Marco Moretti; Al-Zein, Ali; Tanaka, Arata; Haverkort, Maurits W.; Kasinathan, Deepa; Tjeng, Liu Hao; Paschen, Silke; Severing, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Topological insulators form a novel state of matter that provides new opportunities to create unique quantum phenomena. While the materials used so far are based on semiconductors, recent theoretical studies predict that also strongly correlated systems can show non-trivial topological properties, thereby allowing even the emergence of surface phenomena that are not possible with topological band insulators. From a practical point of view, it is also expected that strong correlations will reduce the disturbing impact of defects or impurities, and at the same increase the Fermi velocities of the topological surface states. The challenge is now to discover such correlated materials. Here, using advanced x-ray spectroscopies in combination with band structure calculations, we infer that CeRu4Sn6 is a strongly correlated material with non-trivial topology. PMID:26658647

  13. Phase diagram of the strongly correlated Kane-Mele-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, Abolhassan; Mashkoori, Mahdi; Hosseini, Mehdi

    2012-05-01

    The phase diagram of the strongly correlated Hubbard model with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling on the honeycomb lattice is explored here. We obtain the low-energy effective model describing the spin degree of freedom. The resulting model is then studied by the Schwinger boson and Schwinger fermion approaches. The Schwinger boson method elucidates the boundary between the spin liquid phase and the magnetically ordered phases, Neel order, and incommensurate Neel order. Increasing the strength of the spin-orbit coupling is shown to narrow the width of the spin liquid region. The Schwinger fermion approach sheds further light on the nature of the spin liquid phase. We obtained three different candidates for the spin liquid phase within the mean-field approximation, namely, the gapless spin liquid, topological Mott insulator (fractionalized topological insulator), and chiral spin liquid phases. However, we argue that the gauge fluctuations and the instanton effect may suppress the first two spin liquids, while the chiral spin liquid is stable against gauge fluctuations due to its nontrivial topology.

  14. Competing ground states of strongly correlated bosons in the Harper-Hofstadter-Mott model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natu, Stefan S.; Mueller, Erich J.; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-06-01

    Using an efficient cluster approach, we study the physics of two-dimensional lattice bosons in a strong magnetic field in the regime where the tunneling is much weaker than the on-site interaction strength. We study both the dilute, hard-core bosons at filling factors much smaller than unity occupation per site and the physics in the vicinity of the superfluid-Mott lobes as the density is tuned away from unity. For hard-core bosons, we carry out extensive numerics for a fixed flux per plaquette ϕ =1 /5 and ϕ =1 /3 . At large flux, the lowest-energy state is a strongly correlated superfluid, analogous to He-4, in which the order parameter is dramatically suppressed, but nonzero. At filling factors ν =1 /2 ,1 , we find competing incompressible states which are metastable. These appear to be commensurate density wave states. For small flux, the situation is reversed and the ground state at ν =1 /2 is an incompressible density wave solid. Here, we find a metastable lattice supersolid phase, where superfluidity and density wave order coexist. We then perform careful numerical studies of the physics near the vicinity of the Mott lobes for ϕ =1 /2 and ϕ =1 /4 . At ϕ =1 /2 , the superfluid ground state has commensurate density wave order. At ϕ =1 /4 , incompressible phases appear outside the Mott lobes at densities n =1.125 and n =1.25 , corresponding to filling fractions ν =1 /2 and 1, respectively. These phases, which are absent in single-site mean-field theory, are metastable and have slightly higher energy than the superfluid, but the energy difference between them shrinks rapidly with increasing cluster size, suggestive of an incompressible ground state. We thus explore the interplay between Mott physics, magnetic Landau levels, and superfluidity, finding a rich phase diagram of competing compressible and incompressible states.

  15. A Strong Pair Correlation Bound Implies the CLT for Sinai Billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenlund, Mikko

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the possibility of proving the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) for Dynamical Systems using only information on pair correlations. A strong bound on multiple correlations is known to imply the CLT (Chernov and Markarian in Chaotic Billiards, 2006). In Chernov's paper (J. Stat. Phys. 122(6), 2006), such a bound is derived for dynamically Hölder continuous observables of dispersing Billiards. Here we weaken the regularity assumption and subsequently show that the bound on multiple correlations follows directly from the bound on pair correlations. Thus, a strong bound on pair correlations alone implies the CLT, for a wider class of observables. The result is extended to Anosov diffeomorphisms in any dimension. Some non-invertible maps are also considered.

  16. Time-dependent many-variable variational Monte Carlo method for nonequilibrium strongly correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ido, Kota; Ohgoe, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    We develop a time-dependent variational Monte Carlo (t-VMC) method for quantum dynamics of strongly correlated electrons. The t-VMC method has been recently applied to bosonic systems and quantum spin systems. Here we propose a time-dependent trial wave function with many variational parameters, which is suitable for nonequilibrium strongly correlated electron systems. As the trial state, we adopt the generalized pair-product wave function with correlation factors and quantum-number projections. This trial wave function has been proven to accurately describe ground states of strongly correlated electron systems. To show the accuracy and efficiency of our trial wave function in nonequilibrium states as well, we present our benchmark results for relaxation dynamics during and after interaction quench protocols of fermionic Hubbard models. We find that our trial wave function well reproduces the exact results for the time evolution of physical quantities such as energy, momentum distribution, spin structure factor, and superconducting correlations. These results show that the t-VMC with our trial wave function offers an efficient and accurate way to study challenging problems of nonequilibrium dynamics in strongly correlated electron systems.

  17. Analytical theory of strongly correlated Wigner crystals in the lowest Landau level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Jun-Won; Jain, Jainendra K.; Park, Kwon

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present an analytical theory of strongly correlated Wigner crystals (WCs) in the lowest Landau level (LLL) by constructing an approximate, but accurate effective two-body interaction for composite fermions (CFs) participating in the WCs. This requires integrating out the degrees of freedom of all surrounding CFs, which we accomplish analytically by approximating their wave functions by delta functions. This method produces energies of various strongly correlated WCs that are in excellent agreement with those obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation of the full CF crystal wave functions. We compute the compressibility of the strongly correlated WCs in the LLL and predict discontinuous changes at the phase boundaries separating different crystal phases.

  18. Semiclassical solitons in strongly correlated systems of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Demler, Eugene; Maltsev, Andrei

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Dynamics of their formation in strongly correlated systems of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices. > Regime of very strong interactions between atoms, the so-called hard core bosons regime. > Character of soliton excitations is dramatically different from the usual Gross-Pitaevskii regime. - Abstract: We investigate theoretically soliton excitations and dynamics of their formation in strongly correlated systems of ultracold bosonic atoms in two and three dimensional optical lattices. We derive equations of nonlinear hydrodynamics in the regime of strong interactions and incommensurate fillings, when atoms can be treated as hard core bosons. When parameters change in one direction only we obtain Korteweg-de Vries type equation away from half-filling and modified KdV equation at half-filling. We apply this general analysis to a problem of the decay of the density step. We consider stability of one dimensional solutions to transverse fluctuations. Our results are also relevant for understanding nonequilibrium dynamics of lattice spin models.

  19. Multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree approach for electron-nuclear correlation in strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jhala, Chirag; Lein, Manfred

    2010-06-15

    The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree approach is applied to study the electron-nuclear correlation in the dynamics of molecules subject to strong external laser fields, using the example of a model hydrogen molecular ion. The ground state of the system is well described by as few as two single-particle functions per degree of freedom. A significantly larger but moderate number of configurations is required to predict laser-induced fragmentation probabilities and high-order harmonic generation spectra accurately, showing that the correlation between electronic and nuclear degree of freedom is strongly increased by the presence of the laser field.

  20. Collective modes in strongly correlated yukawa liquids: waves in dusty plasmas.

    PubMed

    Kalman, G; Rosenberg, M; DeWitt, H E

    2000-06-26

    We determine the collective mode structure of a strongly correlated Yukawa fluid, with the purpose of analyzing wave propagation in a strongly coupled dusty plasma. We identify a longitudinal plasmon and a transverse shear mode. The dispersion is characterized by a low- k acoustic behavior, a frequency maximum well below the plasma frequency, and a high- k merging of the two modes around the Einstein frequency of localized oscillations. The damping effect of collisions between neutrals and dust grains is estimated. PMID:10991116

  1. First-principles calculation of atomic forces and structural distortions in strongly correlated materials.

    PubMed

    Leonov, I; Anisimov, V I; Vollhardt, D

    2014-04-11

    We introduce a novel computational approach for the investigation of complex correlated electron materials which makes it possible to evaluate interatomic forces and, thereby, determine atomic displacements and structural transformations induced by electronic correlations. It combines ab initio band structure and dynamical mean-field theory and is implemented with the linear-response formalism regarding atomic displacements. We apply this new technique to explore structural transitions of prototypical correlated systems such as elemental hydrogen, SrVO3, and KCuF3. PMID:24765993

  2. Effect of strong electron correlation on the efficiency of photosynthetic light harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Mazziotti, David A.

    2012-08-21

    Research into the efficiency of photosynthetic light harvesting has focused on two factors: (1) entanglement of chromophores, and (2) environmental noise. While chromophores are conjugated {pi}-bonding molecules with strongly correlated electrons, previous models have treated this correlation implicitly without a mathematical variable to gauge correlation-enhanced efficiency. Here we generalize the single-electron/exciton models to a multi-electron/exciton model that explicitly shows the effects of enhanced electron correlation within chromophores on the efficiency of energy transfer. The model provides more detailed insight into the interplay of electron correlation within chromophores and electron entanglement between chromophores. Exploiting this interplay is assisting in the design of new energy-efficient materials, which are just beginning to emerge.

  3. Photoresponse of a strongly correlated material determined by scanning photocurrent microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasırga, T. Serkan; Sun, Dong; Park, Jae H.; Coy, Jim M.; Fei, Zaiyao; Xu, Xiaodong; Cobden, David H.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of a current by light is a key process in optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. In band semiconductors, depletion fields associated with interfaces separate long-lived photo-induced carriers. However, in systems with strong electron-electron and electron-phonon correlations it is unclear what physics will dominate the photoresponse. Here, we investigate photocurrent in VO2, an exemplary strongly correlated material known for its dramatic metal-insulator transition at Tc ~ 68 °C, which could be useful for optoelectronic detection and switching up to ultraviolet wavelengths. Using scanning photocurrent microscopy on individual suspended VO2 nanobeams we observe a photoresponse peaked at the metal-insulator boundary but extending throughout both insulating and metallic phases. We determine that the response is photothermal, implying efficient carrier relaxation to a local equilibrium in a manner consistent with strong correlations. Temperature-dependent measurements reveal subtle phase changes within the insulating state. We further demonstrate switching of the photocurrent by optical control of the metal-insulator boundary arrangement. Our work shows the value of applying scanning photocurrent microscopy to nanoscale crystals in the investigation of strongly correlated materials, and the results are relevant for designing and controlling optoelectronic devices employing such materials.

  4. Paradoxical probabilistic behavior for strongly correlated many-body classical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, Max; Tsallis, Constantino

    2015-09-01

    Using a simple probabilistic model, we illustrate that a small part of a strongly correlated many-body classical system can show a paradoxical behavior, namely asymptotic stochastic independence. We consider a triangular array such that each row is a list of n strongly correlated random variables. The correlations are preserved even when n → ∞, since the standard central limit theorem does not hold for this array. We show that, if we choose a fixed number m < n of random variables of the nth row and trace over the other n - m variables, and then consider n → ∞, the m chosen ones can, paradoxically, turn out to be independent. However, the scenario can be different if m increases with n. Finally, we suggest a possible experimental verification of our results near criticality of a second-order phase transition.

  5. A model of dopant diffusion through a strongly correlated p-n junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieteska, Jedrzej; Brierley, Richard; Guzman-Verri, Gian; Moller, Gunnar; Littlewood, Peter; Littlewood group Collaboration

    The diffusion of charged ions in a solid depends on an equation of state that balances diffusive and screened electrostatic forces, and is well understood in the case of conventional semiconductors and metals. In the case of a strongly-correlated material, the physics is different, and expected to be relevant, for example, in Li-ion battery cathodes. We propose a model of dopant ion motion through a strongly correlated p-n junction. Our approach is to consider diffusive (Nernst-Planck) dynamics of dopants under screened electrostatic interactions computed within a mean-field (Thomas-Fermi) approximation. Dopant profiles as function of time are calculated for a p-n junction held at constant voltage. In the case where filling levels are near a correlation-induced gap, Mott insulating regions can form at the p-n interface and their dynamics is studied.

  6. Strongly correlated states of trapped ultracold fermions in deformed Landau levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrello, M.; Rizzi, M.; Roncaglia, M.; Trombettoni, A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the strongly correlated regime of a two-component trapped ultracold fermionic gas in a synthetic non-Abelian U (2 ) gauge potential, that consists of both a magnetic field and a homogeneous spin-orbit coupling. This gauge potential deforms the Landau levels (LLs) with respect to the Abelian case and exchanges their ordering as a function of the spin-orbit coupling. In view of experimental realizations, we show that a harmonic potential combined with a Zeeman term gives rise to an angular momentum term, which can be used to test the stability of the correlated states obtained through interactions. We derive the Haldane pseudopotentials (HPs) describing the interspecies contact interaction within a lowest LL approximation. Unlike ordinary fractional quantum Hall systems and ultracold bosons with short-range interactions in the same gauge potential, the HPs for sufficiently strong non-Abelian fields show an unconventional nonmonotonic behavior in the relative angular momentum. Exploiting this property, we study the occurrence of new incompressible ground states as a function of the total angular momentum. In the first deformed Landau level (DLL) we obtain Laughlin and Jain states. Instead, in the second DLL three classes of stabilized states appear: Laughlin states, a series of intermediate strongly correlated states, and finally vortices of the integer quantum Hall state. Remarkably, in the intermediate regime, the nonmonotonic HPs of the second DLL induce two-particle correlations which are reminiscent of paired states such as the Haffnian state. Via exact diagonalization in the disk geometry, we compute experimentally relevant observables such as density profiles and correlations, and we study the entanglement spectra as a further tool to characterize the obtained strongly correlated states.

  7. Observation of universal strong orbital-dependent correlation effects in iron chalcogenides

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yi, M.; Liu, Z. -K.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, R.; Zhu, J. -X.; Lee, J. J.; Moore, R. G.; Schmitt, F. T.; Li, W.; Riggs, S. C.; et al

    2015-07-23

    Establishing the appropriate theoretical framework for unconventional superconductivity in the iron-based materials requires correct understanding of both the electron correlation strength and the role of Fermi surfaces. This fundamental issue becomes especially relevant with the discovery of the iron chalcogenide superconductors. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure three representative iron chalcogenides, FeTe0.56Se0.44, monolayer FeSe grown on SrTiO3 and K0.76Fe1.72Se2. We show that these superconductors are all strongly correlated, with an orbital-selective strong renormalization in the dxy bands despite having drastically different Fermi surface topologies. Furthermore, raising temperature brings all three compounds from a metallic state to a phasemore » where the dxy orbital loses all spectral weight while other orbitals remain itinerant. As a result, these observations establish that iron chalcogenides display universal orbital-selective strong correlations that are insensitive to the Fermi surface topology, and are close to an orbital-selective Mott phase, hence placing strong constraints for theoretical understanding of iron-based superconductors.« less

  8. Observation of universal strong orbital-dependent correlation effects in iron chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, M.; Liu, Z. -K.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, R.; Zhu, J. -X.; Lee, J. J.; Moore, R. G.; Schmitt, F. T.; Li, W.; Riggs, S. C.; Chu, J. -H.; Lv, B.; Hu, J.; Hashimoto, M.; Mo, S. -K.; Hussain, Z.; Mao, Z. Q.; Chu, C. W.; Fisher, I. R.; Si, Q.; Shen, Z. -X.; Lu, D. H.

    2015-07-23

    Establishing the appropriate theoretical framework for unconventional superconductivity in the iron-based materials requires correct understanding of both the electron correlation strength and the role of Fermi surfaces. This fundamental issue becomes especially relevant with the discovery of the iron chalcogenide superconductors. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure three representative iron chalcogenides, FeTe0.56Se0.44, monolayer FeSe grown on SrTiO3 and K0.76Fe1.72Se2. We show that these superconductors are all strongly correlated, with an orbital-selective strong renormalization in the dxy bands despite having drastically different Fermi surface topologies. Furthermore, raising temperature brings all three compounds from a metallic state to a phase where the dxy orbital loses all spectral weight while other orbitals remain itinerant. As a result, these observations establish that iron chalcogenides display universal orbital-selective strong correlations that are insensitive to the Fermi surface topology, and are close to an orbital-selective Mott phase, hence placing strong constraints for theoretical understanding of iron-based superconductors.

  9. Many-electron expansion: A density functional hierarchy for strongly correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianyu; de Silva, Piotr; van Aggelen, Helen; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2016-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is the de facto method for the electronic structure of weakly correlated systems. But for strongly correlated materials, common density functional approximations break down. Here, we derive a many-electron expansion (MEE) in DFT that accounts for successive one-, two-, three-, ... particle interactions within the system. To compute the correction terms, the density is first decomposed into a sum of localized, nodeless one-electron densities (ρi). These one-electron densities are used to construct relevant two- (ρi+ρj ), three- (ρi+ρj+ρk ), ... electron densities. Numerically exact results for these few-particle densities can then be used to correct an approximate density functional via any of several many-body expansions. We show that the resulting hierarchy gives accurate results for several important model systems: the Hubbard and Peierls-Hubbard models in 1D and the pure Hubbard model in 2D. We further show that the method is numerically convergent for strongly correlated systems: applying successively higher order corrections leads to systematic improvement of the results. MEE thus provides a hierarchy of density functional approximations that applies to both weakly and strongly correlated systems.

  10. ARPES Study on the Strongly Correlated Iron Chalcogenides Fe1+ySexTe1-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongkai

    2014-03-01

    The level of electronic correlation has been one of the key questions in understanding the nature of iron-based superconductivity. Using Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES), we systematically investigated the correlation level in the iron chalcogenide family Fe1+ySexTe1-x. For the parent compound Fe1.02Te, we discovered ``peak-dip-hump'' spectra with heavily renormalized quasiparticles in the low temperature antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, characteristic of coherent polarons seen in other correlated materials with complex electronic and lattice interactions. As the temperature (or Se ratio x) increases and Fe1.02SexTe1-x is in the paramagnetic (PM) phase, we observed dissociation behavior of polarons, suggestive of connection between the weakening electron-phonon coupling and AFM. Further increase of x leads to an incoherent to coherent crossover in the electronic structure, indicating a reduction in the electronic correlation as the superconductivity emerges. Furthermore, the reduction of the electronic correlation in Fe1+ySexTe1-x evolves in an orbital-dependent way, where the dxy orbital is influenced most significantly. At the other end of the phase diagram (FeSe) where the single crystal is not stable, we have studied the MBE-grown thin film which also reveals orbital-dependent strong correlation in the electronic structure. Our findings provide a quantitative comprehension on the correlation level and its evolution on the phase diagram of Fe1+ySexTe1-x. We discuss the physical scenarios leading to strong correlations and its connection to superconductivity.

  11. Transitions between strongly correlated and random steady-states for catalytic CO-oxidation on surfaces at high-pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-02

    We explore simple lattice-gas reaction models for CO-oxidation on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of surface adsorption sites. The models are motivated by studies of CO-oxidation on RuO2(110) at high-pressures. Although adspecies interactions are neglected, the effective absence of adspecies diffusion results in kinetically-induced spatial correlations. A transition occurs from a random mainly CO-populated steady-state at high CO-partial pressure pCO, to a strongly-correlated near-O-covered steady-state for low pCO as noted. In addition, we identify a second transition to a random near-O-covered steady-state at very low pCO.

  12. Transitions between strongly correlated and random steady-states for catalytic CO-oxidation on surfaces at high-pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-02

    We explore simple lattice-gas reaction models for CO-oxidation on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of surface adsorption sites. The models are motivated by studies of CO-oxidation on RuO2(110) at high-pressures. Although adspecies interactions are neglected, the effective absence of adspecies diffusion results in kinetically-induced spatial correlations. A transition occurs from a random mainly CO-populated steady-state at high CO-partial pressure pCO, to a strongly-correlated near-O-covered steady-state for low pCO as noted. In addition, we identify a second transition to a random near-O-covered steady-state at very low pCO.

  13. Collective Modes in Strongly Correlated Yukawa Liquids: Waves in Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kalman, G.; Rosenberg, M.; DeWitt, H. E.

    2000-06-26

    We determine the collective mode structure of a strongly correlated Yukawa fluid, with the purpose of analyzing wave propagation in a strongly coupled dusty plasma. We identify a longitudinal plasmon and a transverse shear mode. The dispersion is characterized by a low-k acoustic behavior, a frequency maximum well below the plasma frequency, and a high-k merging of the two modes around the Einstein frequency of localized oscillations. The damping effect of collisions between neutrals and dust grains is estimated. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Principle of Maximum Entanglement Entropy and Local Physics of Strongly Correlated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lanatà, Nicola; Strand, Hugo U. R.; Yao, Yongxin; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    We argue that, because of quantum entanglement, the local physics of strongly correlated materials at zero temperature is described in a very good approximation by a simple generalized Gibbs distribution, which depends on a relatively small number of local quantum thermodynamical potentials. We demonstrate that our statement is exact in certain limits and present numerical calculations of the iron compounds FeSe and FeTe and of the elemental cerium by employing the Gutzwiller approximation that strongly support our theory in general.

  15. Strongly correlated states of a small cold-atom cloud from geometric gauge fields

    SciTech Connect

    Julia-Diaz, B.; Dagnino, D.; Barberan, N.; Guenter, K. J.; Dalibard, J.; Grass, T.; Lewenstein, M.

    2011-11-15

    Using exact diagonalization for a small system of cold bosonic atoms, we analyze the emergence of strongly correlated states in the presence of an artificial magnetic field. This gauge field is generated by a laser beam that couples two internal atomic states, and it is related to Berry's geometrical phase that emerges when an atom follows adiabatically one of the two eigenstates of the atom-laser coupling. Our approach allows us to go beyond the adiabatic approximation, and to characterize the generalized Laughlin wave functions that appear in the strong magnetic-field limit.

  16. Energy deposition of heavy ions in the regime of strong beam-plasma correlations.

    PubMed

    Gericke, D O; Schlanges, M

    2003-03-01

    The energy loss of highly charged ions in dense plasmas is investigated. The applied model includes strong beam-plasma correlation via a quantum T-matrix treatment of the cross sections. Dynamic screening effects are modeled by using a Debye-like potential with a velocity dependent screening length that guarantees the known low and high beam velocity limits. It is shown that this phenomenological model is in good agreement with simulation data up to very high beam-plasma coupling. An analysis of the stopping process shows considerably longer ranges and a less localized energy deposition if strong coupling is treated properly. PMID:12689203

  17. Comparison between theory and experiment for universal thermodynamics of a homogeneous, strongly correlated Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D.

    2011-06-15

    We compare the theoretical predictions for universal thermodynamics of a homogeneous, strongly correlated Fermi gas with the latest experimental measurements reported by the ENS group [S. Nascimbene et al., Nature (London) 463, 1057 (2010)] and the Tokyo group [M. Horikoshi et al., Science 327, 442 (2010)]. The theoretical results are obtained using two diagrammatic theories, together with a virial expansion theory combined with a Pade approximation. We find good agreement between theory and experiment. In particular, the virial expansion, using a Pade approximation up to third order, describes the experimental results extremely well down to the superfluid transition temperature, T{sub c{approx}}0.16T{sub F}, where T{sub F} is the Fermi temperature. The comparison in this work complements our previous comparative study on the universal thermodynamics of a strongly correlated but trapped Fermi gas. The comparison also raises interesting issues about the unitary entropy and the applicability of the Pade approximation.

  18. Strongly coupled phase transition in ferroelectric/correlated electron oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lu; Seok Choi, Woo; Jeen, Hyoungjeen; Egami, Takeshi; Nyung Lee, Ho

    2012-07-01

    We fabricated ultrathin ferroelectric/correlated electron oxide heterostructures composed of the ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 and the correlated electron oxide (CEO) La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 on SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser epitaxy. The hole accumulation in the ultrathin CEO layer was substantially modified by heterostructuring with the ferroelectric layer, resulting in an insulator-metal transition. In particular, our thickness dependent study showed that drastic changes in transport and magnetic properties were strongly coupled to the modulation of charge carriers by ferroelectric field effect, which was confined to the vicinity of the interface. Thus, our results provide crucial evidence that strong ferroelectric field effect control can be achieved in ultrathin (10 nm) heterostructures, yielding at least a 100 000-fold change in resistivity.

  19. Deterministic conversion between memory and threshold resistive switching via tuning the strong electron correlation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hai Yang; Li, Yong Feng; Lin, Wei Nan; Wang, Yu Zhan; Gao, Xing Yu; Wu, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Intensive investigations have been launched worldwide on the resistive switching (RS) phenomena in transition metal oxides due to both fascinating science and potential applications in next generation nonvolatile resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. It is noteworthy that most of these oxides are strongly correlated electron systems, and their electronic properties are critically affected by the electron-electron interactions. Here, using NiO as an example, we show that rationally adjusting the stoichiometry and the associated defect characteristics enables controlled room temperature conversions between two distinct RS modes, i.e., nonvolatile memory switching and volatile threshold switching, within a single device. Moreover, from first-principles calculations and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies, we found that the strong electron correlations and the exchange interactions between Ni and O orbitals play deterministic roles in the RS operations. PMID:22679556

  20. Higher-order local and non-local correlations for 1D strongly interacting Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandani, EJKP; Römer, Rudolf A.; Tan, Shina; Guan, Xi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    The correlation function is an important quantity in the physics of ultracold quantum gases because it provides information about the quantum many-body wave function beyond the simple density profile. In this paper we first study the M-body local correlation functions, g M , of the one-dimensional (1D) strongly repulsive Bose gas within the Lieb–Liniger model using the analytical method proposed by Gangardt and Shlyapnikov (2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 010401; 2003 New J. Phys. 5 79). In the strong repulsion regime the 1D Bose gas at low temperatures is equivalent to a gas of ideal particles obeying the non-mutual generalized exclusion statistics with a statistical parameter α =1-2/γ , i.e. the quasimomenta of N strongly interacting bosons map to the momenta of N free fermions via {k}i≈ α {k}iF with i=1,\\ldots ,N. Here γ is the dimensionless interaction strength within the Lieb–Liniger model. We rigorously prove that such a statistical parameter α solely determines the sub-leading order contribution to the M-body local correlation function of the gas at strong but finite interaction strengths. We explicitly calculate the correlation functions g M in terms of γ and α at zero, low, and intermediate temperatures. For M = 2 and 3 our results reproduce the known expressions for g 2 and g 3 with sub-leading terms (see for instance (Vadim et al 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 051604(R); Kormos et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 210404; Wang et al 2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 043634). We also express the leading order of the short distance non-local correlation functions < {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}1)\\cdots {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}M){{\\Psi }}({y}M)\\cdots {{\\Psi }}({y}1)> of the strongly repulsive Bose gas in terms of the wave function of M bosons at zero collision energy and zero total momentum. Here {{\\Psi }}(x) is the boson annihilation operator. These general formulas of the higher-order local and non-local correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas provide new insights into the

  1. A statistical analysis on the correlation between LF signal disturbances and strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Molchanov, Oleg; Hayakawa, Masashi; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Schwingenschuh, Konrad

    2010-05-01

    Data of seven years observations in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky are used for further statistical study on the correlation between disturbances in subionospheric LF signal and strong earthquakes. Nighttime difference amplitude and phase of the signal 40 kHz from JJY transmitter in Japan are analysed. It is found that anomalies of LF signal are observed in 15-20 % cases for earthquakes with М=5.5-6.5. The signal behavior about the date of nine the strongest earthquakes with М≥7, which occurred in the wave path sensitivity zone during 2000-2008, is analysed in detail. Clear anomalies in amplitude and phase of the signal are observed in five cases for quiet geomagnetic conditions. In two cases earthquakes were preceded by strong geomagnetic activity which could obscure effect from earthquakes. These results confirm our previous statistical works and testify the efficiency of VLF/LF radio signal method for strong earthquakes forecast.

  2. Exact results in a slave boson saddle point approach for a strongly correlated electron model

    SciTech Connect

    Fresard, Raymond; Kopp, Thilo

    2008-08-15

    We revisit the Kotliar-Ruckenstein (KR) slave boson saddle point evaluation for a two-site correlated electron model. As the model can be solved analytically, it is possible to compare the KR saddle point results with the exact many-particle levels. The considered two-site cluster mimics an infinite-U single-impurity Anderson model with a nearest-neighbor Coulomb interaction: one site is strongly correlated with an infinite local Coulomb repulsion, which hybridizes with the second site, on which the local Coulomb repulsion vanishes. Making use of the flexibility of the representation, we introduce appropriate weight factors in the KR saddle point scheme. Ground-state and all excitation levels agree with the exact diagonalization results. Thermodynamics and correlation functions may be recovered in a suitably renormalized saddle point evaluation.

  3. Witnessing the formation and relaxation of dressed quasi-particles in a strongly correlated electron system.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Fabio; De Filippis, Giulio; Cataudella, Vittorio; Esposito, Martina; Vergara, Ignacio; Cilento, Federico; Sindici, Enrico; Amaricci, Adriano; Giannetti, Claudio; Prabhakaran, Dharmalingam; Wall, Simon; Perucchi, Andrea; Dal Conte, Stefano; Cerullo, Giulio; Capone, Massimo; Mishchenko, Andrey; Grüninger, Markus; Nagaosa, Naoto; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Fausti, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The non-equilibrium approach to correlated electron systems is often based on the paradigm that different degrees of freedom interact on different timescales. In this context, photo-excitation is treated as an impulsive injection of electronic energy that is transferred to other degrees of freedom only at later times. Here, by studying the ultrafast dynamics of quasi-particles in an archetypal strongly correlated charge-transfer insulator (La2CuO(4+δ)), we show that the interaction between electrons and bosons manifests itself directly in the photo-excitation processes of a correlated material. With the aid of a general theoretical framework (Hubbard-Holstein Hamiltonian), we reveal that sub-gap excitation pilots the formation of itinerant quasi-particles, which are suddenly dressed by an ultrafast reaction of the bosonic field. PMID:25290587

  4. Witnessing the formation and relaxation of dressed quasi-particles in a strongly correlated electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelli, Fabio; de Filippis, Giulio; Cataudella, Vittorio; Esposito, Martina; Vergara, Ignacio; Cilento, Federico; Sindici, Enrico; Amaricci, Adriano; Giannetti, Claudio; Prabhakaran, Dharmalingam; Wall, Simon; Perucchi, Andrea; Dal Conte, Stefano; Cerullo, Giulio; Capone, Massimo; Mishchenko, Andrey; Grüninger, Markus; Nagaosa, Naoto; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Fausti, Daniele

    2014-10-01

    The non-equilibrium approach to correlated electron systems is often based on the paradigm that different degrees of freedom interact on different timescales. In this context, photo-excitation is treated as an impulsive injection of electronic energy that is transferred to other degrees of freedom only at later times. Here, by studying the ultrafast dynamics of quasi-particles in an archetypal strongly correlated charge-transfer insulator (La2CuO4+δ), we show that the interaction between electrons and bosons manifests itself directly in the photo-excitation processes of a correlated material. With the aid of a general theoretical framework (Hubbard-Holstein Hamiltonian), we reveal that sub-gap excitation pilots the formation of itinerant quasi-particles, which are suddenly dressed by an ultrafast reaction of the bosonic field.

  5. Strong electron correlation in UO2(-): a photoelectron spectroscopy and relativistic quantum chemistry study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Li; Su, Jing; Jian, Tian; Lopez, Gary V; Hu, Han-Shi; Cao, Guo-Jin; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    The electronic structures of actinide systems are extremely complicated and pose considerable challenges both experimentally and theoretically because of significant electron correlation and relativistic effects. Here we report an investigation of the electronic structure and chemical bonding of uranium dioxides, UO2(-) and UO2, using photoelectron spectroscopy and relativistic quantum chemistry. The electron affinity of UO2 is measured to be 1.159(20) eV. Intense detachment bands are observed from the UO2(-) low-lying (7sσg)(2)(5fϕu)(1) orbitals and the more deeply bound O2p-based molecular orbitals which are separated by a large energy gap from the U-based orbitals. Surprisingly, numerous weak photodetachment transitions are observed in the gap region due to extensive two-electron transitions, suggesting strong electron correlations among the (7sσg)(2)(5fϕu)(1) electrons in UO2(-) and the (7sσg)(1)(5fϕu)(1) electrons in UO2. These observations are interpreted using multi-reference ab initio calculations with inclusion of spin-orbit coupling. The strong electron correlations and spin-orbit couplings generate orders-of-magnitude more detachment transitions from UO2(-) than expected on the basis of the Koopmans' theorem. The current experimental data on UO2(-) provide a long-sought opportunity to arbitrating various relativistic quantum chemistry methods aimed at handling systems with strong electron correlations. PMID:24606360

  6. A Statistical Correlation Between Low L-shell Electrons Measured by NOAA Satellites and Strong Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidani, C.

    2015-12-01

    More than 11 years of the Medium Energy Protons Electrons Detector data from the NOAA polar orbiting satellites were analyzed. Significant electron counting rate fluctuations were evidenced during geomagnetic quiet periods by using a set of adiabatic coordinates. Electron counting rates were compared to earthquakes by defining a seismic event L-shell obtained radially projecting the epicenter geographical positions to a given altitude. Counting rate fluctuations were grouped in every satellite semi-orbit together with strong seismic events and these were chosen with the L-shell coordinates close to each other. Electron data from July 1998 to December 2011 were compared for nearly 1,800 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than or equal to 6, occurring worldwide. When considering 30 - 100 keV energy channels by the vertical NOAA telescopes and earthquake epicenter projections at altitudes greater that 1,300 km, a 4 sigma correlation appeared where time of particle precipitations Tpp occurred 2 - 3 hour prior time of large seismic events Teq. This was in physical agreement with different correlation times obtained from past studies that considered particles with greater energies. The correlation suggested a 4-8 hour advance in preparedness of strong earthquakes influencing the ionosphere. Considering this strong correlation between earthquakes and electron rate fluctuations, and the hypothesis that such fluctuations originated with magnetic disturbances generated underground, a small scale experiment with low cost at ground level is advisable. Plans exists to perform one or more unconventional experiments around an earthquake affected area by private investor in Italy.

  7. Recent progress on correlated electron systems with strong spin–orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Robert; Kin-Ho Lee, Eric; Yang, Bohm-Jung; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of novel quantum ground states in correlated electron systems with strong spin–orbit coupling has been a recent subject of intensive studies. While it has been realized that spin–orbit coupling can provide non-trivial band topology in weakly interacting electron systems, as in topological insulators and semi-metals, the role of electron–electron interaction in strongly spin–orbit coupled systems has not been fully understood. The availability of new materials with significant electron correlation and strong spin–orbit coupling now makes such investigations possible. Many of these materials contain 5d or 4d transition metal elements; the prominent examples are iridium oxides or iridates. In this review, we succinctly discuss recent theoretical and experimental progress on this subject. After providing a brief overview, we focus on pyrochlore iridates and three-dimensional honeycomb iridates. In pyrochlore iridates, we discuss the quantum criticality of the bulk and surface states, and the relevance of the surface/boundary states in a number of topological and magnetic ground states, both in the bulk and thin film configurations. Experimental signatures of these boundary and bulk states are discussed. Domain wall formation and strongly-direction-dependent magneto-transport are also discussed. In regard to the three-dimensional honeycomb iridates, we consider possible quantum spin liquid phases and unusual magnetic orders in theoretical models with strongly bond-dependent interactions. These theoretical ideas and results are discussed in light of recent resonant x-ray scattering experiments on three-dimensional honeycomb iridates. We also contrast these results with the situation in two-dimensional honeycomb iridates. We conclude with the outlook on other related systems.

  8. Recent progress on correlated electron systems with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Robert; Kin-Ho Lee, Eric; Yang, Bohm-Jung; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of novel quantum ground states in correlated electron systems with strong spin-orbit coupling has been a recent subject of intensive studies. While it has been realized that spin-orbit coupling can provide non-trivial band topology in weakly interacting electron systems, as in topological insulators and semi-metals, the role of electron-electron interaction in strongly spin-orbit coupled systems has not been fully understood. The availability of new materials with significant electron correlation and strong spin-orbit coupling now makes such investigations possible. Many of these materials contain 5d or 4d transition metal elements; the prominent examples are iridium oxides or iridates. In this review, we succinctly discuss recent theoretical and experimental progress on this subject. After providing a brief overview, we focus on pyrochlore iridates and three-dimensional honeycomb iridates. In pyrochlore iridates, we discuss the quantum criticality of the bulk and surface states, and the relevance of the surface/boundary states in a number of topological and magnetic ground states, both in the bulk and thin film configurations. Experimental signatures of these boundary and bulk states are discussed. Domain wall formation and strongly-direction-dependent magneto-transport are also discussed. In regard to the three-dimensional honeycomb iridates, we consider possible quantum spin liquid phases and unusual magnetic orders in theoretical models with strongly bond-dependent interactions. These theoretical ideas and results are discussed in light of recent resonant x-ray scattering experiments on three-dimensional honeycomb iridates. We also contrast these results with the situation in two-dimensional honeycomb iridates. We conclude with the outlook on other related systems. PMID:27540689

  9. Quasiparticles of strongly correlated Fermi liquids at high temperatures and in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shaginyan, V. R.

    2011-08-15

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing, best experimentally studied and fundamental systems in physics. There is, however, lack of theoretical understanding in this field of physics. The ideas based on the concepts like Kondo lattice and involving quantum and thermal fluctuations at a quantum critical point have been used to explain the unusual physics. Alas, being suggested to describe one property, these approaches fail to explain the others. This means a real crisis in theory suggesting that there is a hidden fundamental law of nature. It turns out that the hidden fundamental law is well forgotten old one directly related to the Landau-Migdal quasiparticles, while the basic properties and the scaling behavior of the strongly correlated systems can be described within the framework of the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). The phase transition comprises the extended quasiparticle paradigm that allows us to explain the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in these systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Our observations are in good agreement with experimental facts and show that FCQPT is responsible for the observed NFL behavior and quasiparticles survive both high temperatures and high magnetic fields.

  10. One-electron reduced density matrices of strongly correlated harmonium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2015-03-21

    Explicit asymptotic expressions are derived for the reduced one-electron density matrices (the 1-matrices) of strongly correlated two- and three-electron harmonium atoms in the ground and first excited states. These expressions, which are valid at the limit of small confinement strength ω, yield electron densities and kinetic energies in agreement with the published values. In addition, they reveal the ω{sup 5/6} asymptotic scaling of the exchange components of the electron-electron repulsion energies that differs from the ω{sup 2/3} scaling of their Coulomb and correlation counterparts. The natural orbitals of the totally symmetric ground state of the two-electron harmonium atom are found to possess collective occupancies that follow a mixed power/Gaussian dependence on the angular momentum in variance with the simple power-law prediction of Hill’s asymptotics. Providing rigorous constraints on energies as functionals of 1-matrices, these results are expected to facilitate development of approximate implementations of the density matrix functional theory and ensure their proper description of strongly correlated systems.

  11. The quest for stiff, strong and tough hybrid materials: an exhaustive exploration

    PubMed Central

    Barthelat, F.; Mirkhalaf, M.

    2013-01-01

    How to arrange soft materials with strong but brittle reinforcements to achieve attractive combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness is an ongoing and fascinating question in engineering and biological materials science. Recent advances in topology optimization and bioinspiration have brought interesting answers to this question, but they provide only small windows into the vast design space associated with this problem. Here, we take a more global approach in which we assess the mechanical performance of thousands of possible microstructures. This exhaustive exploration gives a global picture of structure–property relationships and guarantees that global optima can be found. Landscapes of optimum solutions for different combinations of desired properties can also be created, revealing the robustness of each of the solutions. Interestingly, while some of the major hybrid designs used in engineering are absent from the set of solutions, the microstructures emerging from this process are reminiscent of materials, such as bone, nacre or spider silk. PMID:24068176

  12. Information geometry with correlated data: Bayesian explorations of cosmological predictions for the microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Katherine; de Bernardis, Francesco; Niemack, Michael; Sethna, James

    We developed a new, generalized fitting algorithm for miltiparameter models which incorporates varying and correlated errors. This was combined with geometrical methods of sampling to explore model prediction space, notably to plot geodesics and determine the size and edges of the model manifold. We illustrate this using the microwave background spectra for all possible universes, as described by the standard Λ-cold dark matter (Λ-CDM) cosmological model. In this case, the predicted data are fluctuations and highly correlated with varying errors, resulting in a manifold with a varying metric (as the natural metric to use is given by the Fisher information matrix). Furthermore, the model manifold shares the hyperribbon structure seen in other models, with the edges forming a strongly distorted image of a hypercube. Practical applications of such an analysis include optimizing experimental instrumentation designed to test more detailed cosmological theories. Funding supported in part by NSERC.

  13. Liquid ground state, gap, and excited states of a strongly correlated spin chain.

    PubMed

    Lesanovsky, Igor

    2012-03-01

    We present an exact solution of an experimentally realizable and strongly interacting one-dimensional spin system which is a limiting case of a quantum Ising model with long range interaction in a transverse and longitudinal field. Pronounced quantum fluctuations lead to a strongly correlated liquid ground state. For open boundary conditions the ground state manifold consists of four degenerate sectors whose quantum numbers are determined by the orientation of the edge spins. Explicit expressions for the entanglement properties, the exact excitation gap, as well as the exact wave functions for a couple of excited states are analytically derived and discussed. We outline how this system can be experimentally realized in a lattice gas of Rydberg atoms. PMID:22463419

  14. Disorder-induced localization in a strongly correlated atomic Hubbard gas.

    PubMed

    Kondov, S S; McGehee, W R; Xu, W; DeMarco, B

    2015-02-27

    We observe the emergence of a disorder-induced insulating state in a strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas trapped in an optical lattice. This closed quantum system, free of a thermal reservoir, realizes the disordered Fermi-Hubbard model, which is a minimal model for strongly correlated electronic solids. We observe disorder-induced localization of a metallic state through measurements of mass transport. By varying the lattice potential depth, we detect interaction-driven delocalization of the disordered insulating state. We also measure localization that persists as the temperature of the gas is raised. These behaviors are consistent with many-body localization, which is a novel paradigm for understanding localization in interacting quantum systems at nonzero temperature. PMID:25768762

  15. Strong Expression of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 by Renal Cell Carcinoma Correlates with Advanced Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wehler, Thomas C.; Graf, Claudine; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Brenner, Walburgis; Schadt, Jörg; Gockel, Ines; Berger, Martin R.; Thüroff, Joachim W.; Galle, Peter R.; Moehler, Markus; Schimanski, Carl C.

    2008-01-01

    Diverse chemokines and their receptors have been associated with tumor growth, tumor dissemination, and local immune escape. In different tumor entities, the level of chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression has been linked with tumor progression and decreased survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of CXCR4 expression on the progression of human renal cell carcinoma. CXCR4 expression of renal cell carcinoma was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 113 patients. Intensity of CXCR4 expression was correlated with both tumor and patient characteristics. Human renal cell carcinoma revealed variable intensities of CXCR4 expression. Strong CXCR4 expression of renal cell carcinoma was significantly associated with advanced T-status (P = .039), tumor dedifferentiation (P = .0005), and low hemoglobin (P = .039). In summary, strong CXCR4 expression was significantly associated with advanced dedifferentiated renal cell carcinoma. PMID:19266088

  16. Understanding Strongly Correlated Materials thru Theory Algorithms and High Performance Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotliar, Gabriel

    A long standing challenge in condensed matter physics is the prediction of physical properties of materials starting from first principles. In the past two decades, substantial advances have taken place in this area. The combination of modern implementations of electronic structure methods in conjunction with Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT), in combination with advanced impurity solvers, modern computer codes and massively parallel computers, are giving new system specific insights into the properties of strongly correlated electron systems enable the calculations of experimentally measurable correlation functions. The predictions of this ''theoretical spectroscopy'' can be directly compared with experimental results. In this talk I will briefly outline the state of the art of the methodology, and illustrate it with an example the origin of the solid state anomalies of elemental Plutonium.

  17. Strong enhancing effect of correlations of photon trajectories on laser beam scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumak, O. O.; Baskov, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    To provide a detailed description of the dynamics of laser beam propagation in the atmosphere we use the method of the photon distribution function in the phase space, which reduces the analysis to consideration of photon trajectories and their correlations. The scintillation index σ2 is calculated for the range of moderate and strong turbulence, which is the most challenging for analytical consideration. The considerable growth of σ2 (by two to three times) found for moderate turbulence is shown to be due to correlations between photon trajectories. Our calculations demonstrate that the maximum of σ2 can be considerably decreased by an increase of the source aperture or the use of the fast phase diffuser.

  18. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  19. Lattice anharmonicity and thermal properties of strongly correlated Fe1- x Co x Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povzner, A. A.; Nogovitsyna, T. A.; Filanovich, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The temperature dependences of the thermal and elastic properties of strongly correlated metal alloys Fe1- x Co x Si ( x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) with different atomic chiralities have been calculated in the framework of the self-consistent thermodynamic model taking into account the influence of lattice anharmonicity. The lattice contributions to the heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient of the alloys have been determined using the experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the invar effect in the thermal expansion of the lattice observed in the magnetically ordered region of Fe0.7Co0.3Si and Fe0.5Co0.5Si is not related to the lattice anharmonicity, even though its appearance correlates with variations in the atomic chirality.

  20. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Yan, F; Niu, L L; Chen, Q N; Zheng, H R; Li, J Y

    2016-03-24

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery. PMID:26972797

  1. Finite-temperature properties of strongly correlated fermions in the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baoming; Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Rigol, Marcos

    2013-09-01

    We study finite-temperature properties of strongly interacting fermions in the honeycomb lattice using numerical linked-cluster expansions and determinantal quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We analyze a number of thermodynamic quantities, including the entropy, the specific heat, uniform and staggered spin susceptibilities, short-range spin correlations, and the double occupancy at and away from half filling. We examine the viability of adiabatic cooling by increasing the interaction strength for homogeneous as well as for trapped systems. For the homogeneous case, this process is found to be more efficient at finite doping than at half filling. That, in turn, leads to an efficient adiabatic cooling in the presence of a trap, which, starting with even relatively high entropies, can drive the system to have a Mott insulating phase with substantial antiferromagnetic correlations.

  2. γ-Mn at the border between weak and strong correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Marco, I.; Minár, J.; Braun, J.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Grechnev, A.; Ebert, H.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Eriksson, O.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the role of magnetic fluctuations in the spectral properties of paramagnetic γ-Mn. Two methods are employed. The Local Density Approximation plus Dynamical Mean-Field Theory together with the numerically exact quantum Monte-Carlo solver is used as a reference for the spectral properties. Then the same scheme is used with the computationally less demanding perturbative spin-polarized fluctuation-exchange solver in combination with the Disordered Local Moment approach, and photoemission spectra are calculated within the one-step model. It is shown that the formation of local magnetic moments in γ-Mn is very sensitive to the value of Hund's exchange parameter. Comparison with the experimental photoemission spectra demonstrates that γ-Mn is a strongly correlated system, with the Hubbard band formation, which cannot be described by the perturbative approach. However, minor change of parameters would transform it into a weakly correlated system.

  3. Nonthermal fixed points: effective weak coupling for strongly correlated systems far from equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Berges, Jürgen; Rothkopf, Alexander; Schmidt, Jonas

    2008-07-25

    Strongly correlated systems far from equilibrium can exhibit scaling solutions with a dynamically generated weak coupling. We show this by investigating isolated systems described by relativistic quantum field theories for initial conditions leading to nonequilibrium instabilities, such as parametric resonance or spinodal decomposition. The nonthermal fixed points prevent fast thermalization if classical-statistical fluctuations dominate over quantum fluctuations. We comment on the possible significance of these results for the heating of the early Universe after inflation and the question of fast thermalization in heavy-ion collision experiments. PMID:18764319

  4. Role of Strong Correlation in the Recent Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy Experiments on Cuprate Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yunoki, S.; Dagotto, Elbio R; Sorella, S.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by recent photoemission experiments on cuprates, the low-lying excitations of a strongly correlated superconducting state are studied numerically. It is observed that along the nodal direction these low-lying one-particle excitations show a linear momentum dependence for a wide range of excitation energies and, thus, they do not present a kinklike structure. The nodal Fermi velocity vF, as well as other observables, are systematically evaluated directly from the calculated dispersions, and they are found to compare well with experiments. It is argued that the parameter dependence of v{sub F} is quantitatively explained by a simple picture of a renormalized Fermi velocity.

  5. Suppression of correlated electron escape in double ionization in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Prauzner-Bechcicki, Jakub S.; Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the Pauli exclusion principle on double ionization of He atoms by strong, linearly polarized laser pulses is analyzed. We show that correlated electron escape, with electron momenta symmetric with respect to the field polarization axis, is suppressed if atoms are initially prepared in the metastable state S3 . The effect is a consequence of selection rules for the transition to the appropriate outgoing two-electron states. We illustrate the suppression in numerical calculations of electron and ion momentum distributions within a reduced dimensionality model.

  6. Path-Integral Renormalization Group Method for Numerical Study of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Masatoshi; Kashima, Tsuyoshi

    2000-09-01

    A numerical algorithm for studying strongly correlated electron systems is proposed. The groundstate wavefunction is projected out after a numerical renormalization procedure in the path integral formalism. The wavefunction is expressed from the optimized linear combination of retained states in the truncated Hilbert space with a numerically chosen basis. This algorithm does not suffer from the negative sign problem and can be applied to any type of Hamiltonian in any dimension. The efficiency is tested in examples of the Hubbard model where the basis of Slater determinants is numerically optimized. We show results on fast convergence and accuracy achieved with a small number of retained states.

  7. Communication: Two-determinant mixing with a strong-correlation density functional.

    PubMed

    Becke, Axel D

    2013-07-14

    In recent papers [A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 074109 (2013); ibid. 138, 161101 (2013)], a density functional for strong correlations in quantum chemistry was introduced. The functional is designed to capture molecular dissociation limits using symmetry-restricted orbitals. Here we demonstrate that the functional describes, with good accuracy, two-determinant multi-reference states. The examples of this work involve 50∕50 mixing of symmetry-equivalent Slater determinants at avoided crossings. We employ exactly-computed exchange and fractional spin-orbital occupancies. The connection with dissociated systems and single-determinant reference states is explained. PMID:23862918

  8. Effects of the orbital self-interaction in both strongly and weakly correlated systems.

    PubMed

    Tablero, C

    2009-02-01

    The orbital occupation, which is the centerpiece of both self-interaction and several metal-insulator transition analyses, as well as of the local density or generalized gradient approximation with a Hubbard term, is not well defined, in the sense that it is partially ambiguous. A general treatment can be applied to both strongly and weakly correlated systems. When it is applied to an intermediate- and partially filled band within of the host semiconductor gap whose width is less than the semiconductor gap, the original single band can either split as in a Mott transition or not. The former situation is usual and almost always generalized. However the latter also takes place and results from a dilution effect of the self-interaction where a large orbital correlation is reduced if there are other orbital contributions with lower self-interaction in the band. The key is in the choice of the subspace of correlated orbitals. This effect can neither be ignored nor discarded for those systems where there is a substantial mix of states. Examples of these behaviors will be presented and compared to other results. Moreover, the combination of different Hubbard terms acting on different atomic state subspaces can also be used to correct the spurious self-interaction of the bands and the gap underestimation. The relationship between these terms applied to different subspaces of correlated electrons will be presented. PMID:19206991

  9. SISGR: Atom chip microscopy: A novel probe for strongly correlated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lev, Benjamin L.

    2014-05-31

    Microscopy techniques co-opted from nonlinear optics and high energy physics have complemented solid-state probes in elucidating the order manifest in condensed matter materials. Up until now, however, no attempts have been made to use modern techniques of ultracold atomic physics to directly explore properties of strongly correlated or topologically protected materials. Our current program is focused on introducing a novel magnetic field microscopy technique into the toolbox of imaging probes. Our prior DOE ESPM program funded the development of a novel instrument using a dilute gas Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) as a scanning probe capable of measuring tiny magnetic (and electric) DC and AC fields above materials. We successfully built the world's first “scanning cryogenic atom chip microscope” [1], and we now are in the process of characterizing its performance before using the instrument to take the first wide-area images of transport flow within unconventional superconductors, pnictides and oxide interfaces (LAO/STO), topological insulators, and colossal magnetoresistive manganites. We will do so at temperatures outside the capability of scanning SQUIDs, with ~10x better resolution and without 1/f-noise. A notable goal will be to measure the surface-to-bulk conductivity ratio in topological insulators in a relatively model-independent fashion [2]. We have completed the construction of this magnetic microscope, shown in Figure 1. The instrument uses atom chips—substrates supporting micron-sized current-carrying wires that create magnetic microtraps near surfaces for ultracold thermal gases and BECs—to enable single-shot and raster-scanned large-field-of-view detection of magnetic fields. The fields emanating from electronic transport may be detected at the 10-7 flux quantum (Φ0) level and below (see Fig. 2); that is, few to sub-micron resolution of sub-nanotesla fields over single-shot, millimeter-long detection lengths. By harnessing the extreme

  10. Strongly correlated valence electrons and core-level chemical bonding of Lithium at terapascal pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Anguang; Zhang, Fan

    2015-03-01

    As the simplest pure metal, lithium exhibits some novel properties on electrical conductivity and crystal structures under high pressure. All-electron density functional theory simulations, recently developed by using the linear combination of localized Slater atomic orbitals, revealed that the bandwidth of its valence bands remains almost unchanged within about 3.5 eV even up to a terapascal pressure range. This indicates that the development from delocalized to strongly correlated electronic systems takes place under compression, resulting in metal-semiconductor and superconductivity transitions together with a sequence of new high-pressure crystal phases, discovered experimentally. In contrast to the valence bands, the core-level bands become broadening up to about 10 eV at terapascal pressures. It means the transformation from chemical non-bonding to bonding for core electrons. Thus, dense lithium under compression can be characterized as core-level chemical bonding and a completely new class of strongly correlated materials with narrow bands filled in s-electron shells only.

  11. Effects of pd-hybridization in strongly correlated insulator FeSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povzner, A. A.; Volkov, A. G.; Nogovitsyna, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the hybridization effects in the system of the strongly correlated d-electrons and the nearly free p-electrons. It has been established that there is the hybridization of the spin states of electrons in addition to the hybridization of p- and d-states of different atoms. This leads to the formation of four energy bands - spin-symmetrized and spin-antisymmetrized of singlets of A- and B-states. It has been shown that the increase of the temperature leads to a change of the number of d-like states, gaps into hybridization spectra of spin-antisymmetrized and spin-symmetrized states, and to the shift of these spectra relative to each other. Numerical analysis performed on an example of strongly correlated semiconductor iron monosilicide. The semi-quantitative description of the electronic and magnetic properties of this compound has been obtained. In particular, we obtained the disappearance of the semiconducting gap at 90 K and the values of temperatures corresponding to the features of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility.

  12. Femtosecond switching of magnetism via strongly correlated spin-charge quantum excitations.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianqi; Patz, Aaron; Mouchliadis, Leonidas; Yan, Jiaqiang; Lograsso, Thomas A; Perakis, Ilias E; Wang, Jigang

    2013-04-01

    The technological demand to push the gigahertz (10(9) hertz) switching speed limit of today's magnetic memory and logic devices into the terahertz (10(12) hertz) regime underlies the entire field of spin-electronics and integrated multi-functional devices. This challenge is met by all-optical magnetic switching based on coherent spin manipulation. By analogy to femtosecond chemistry and photosynthetic dynamics--in which photoproducts of chemical and biochemical reactions can be influenced by creating suitable superpositions of molecular states--femtosecond-laser-excited coherence between electronic states can switch magnetic order by 'suddenly' breaking the delicate balance between competing phases of correlated materials: for example, manganites exhibiting colossal magneto-resistance suitable for applications. Here we show femtosecond (10(-15) seconds) photo-induced switching from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, by observing the establishment (within about 120 femtoseconds) of a huge temperature-dependent magnetization with photo-excitation threshold behaviour absent in the optical reflectivity. The development of ferromagnetic correlations during the femtosecond laser pulse reveals an initial quantum coherent regime of magnetism, distinguished from the picosecond (10(-12) seconds) lattice-heating regime characterized by phase separation without threshold behaviour. Our simulations reproduce the nonlinear femtosecond spin generation and underpin fast quantum spin-flip fluctuations correlated with coherent superpositions of electronic states to initiate local ferromagnetic correlations. These results merge two fields, femtosecond magnetism in metals and band insulators, and non-equilibrium phase transitions of strongly correlated electrons, in which local interactions exceeding the kinetic energy produce a complex balance of competing orders. PMID:23552945

  13. Effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect in strongly correlated oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuegang; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaoshan; Hong, Xia

    We present a systematic study of the effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect modulation of various strongly correlated oxide materials. We have fabricated high quality epitaxial heterostructures composed of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate and a correlated oxide channel, including Sm0.5Nd0.5NiO3 (SNNO), La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), SNNO/LSMO bilayers, and NiCo2O4 (NCO). The Hall effect measurements reveal a carrier density of ~4 holes/u.c. (0.4 cm2V-1s-1) for SNNO to ~2 holes/u.c. (27 cm2V-1s-1) for NCO. We find the magnitude of the field effect is closely related to both the intrinsic carrier density and carrier mobility of the channel material. For devices employing the SNNO/LSMO bilayer channel, we believe the charge transfer between the two correlated oxides play an important role in the observed resistance modulation. The screening capacitor of the channel materials and the interfacial defect states also have significant impact on the retention characteristics of the field effect. Our study reveals the critical role of charge in determining the interfacial coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic oxides, and has important implications in developing ferroelectric-controlled Mott memory devices.

  14. Cage correlation and diffusion in strongly coupled three-dimensional Yukawa systems in magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Dzhumagulova, K N; Masheyeva, R U; Ott, T; Hartmann, P; Ramazanov, T S; Bonitz, M; Donkó, Z

    2016-06-01

    The influence of an external homogeneous magnetic field on the quasilocalization of the particles-characterized quantitatively by cage correlation functions-in strongly coupled three-dimensional Yukawa systems is investigated via molecular dynamics computer simulations over a wide domain of the system parameters (coupling and screening strengths, and magnetic field). The caging time is found to be enhanced by the magnetic field B. The anisotropic migration of the particles in the presence of magnetic field is quantified via computing directional correlation functions, which indicate a more significant increase of localization in the direction perpendicular to B, while a moderate increase is also found along the B field lines. Associating the particles' escapes from the cages with jumps of a characteristic length, a connection is found with the diffusion process: the diffusion coefficients derived from the decay time of the directional correlation functions in both the directions perpendicular to and parallel with B are in very good agreement with respective diffusion coefficients values obtained from their usual computation based on the mean-squared displacement of the particles. PMID:27415379

  15. Cage correlation and diffusion in strongly coupled three-dimensional Yukawa systems in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Masheyeva, R. U.; Ott, T.; Hartmann, P.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Bonitz, M.; Donkó, Z.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of an external homogeneous magnetic field on the quasilocalization of the particles—characterized quantitatively by cage correlation functions—in strongly coupled three-dimensional Yukawa systems is investigated via molecular dynamics computer simulations over a wide domain of the system parameters (coupling and screening strengths, and magnetic field). The caging time is found to be enhanced by the magnetic field B . The anisotropic migration of the particles in the presence of magnetic field is quantified via computing directional correlation functions, which indicate a more significant increase of localization in the direction perpendicular to B , while a moderate increase is also found along the B field lines. Associating the particles' escapes from the cages with jumps of a characteristic length, a connection is found with the diffusion process: the diffusion coefficients derived from the decay time of the directional correlation functions in both the directions perpendicular to and parallel with B are in very good agreement with respective diffusion coefficients values obtained from their usual computation based on the mean-squared displacement of the particles.

  16. Interfaces between strongly correlated oxides: controlling charge transfer and induced magnetism by hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibes, Manuel

    At interfaces between conventional materials, band bending and alignment are controlled by differences in electrochemical potential. Applying this concept to oxides in which interfaces can be polar and cations may adopt a mixed valence has led to the discovery of novel two-dimensional states between simple band insulators such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. However, many oxides have a more complex electronic structure, with charge, orbital and/or spin orders arising from correlations between transition metal and oxygen ions. Strong correlations thus offer a rich playground to engineer functional interfaces but their compatibility with the classical band alignment picture remains an open question. In this talk we will show that beyond differences in electron affinities and polar effects, a key parameter determining charge transfer at correlated oxide interfaces is the energy required to alter the covalence of the metal-oxygen bond. Using the perovskite nickelate (RNiO3) family as a template, we have probed charge reconstruction at interfaces with gadolinium titanate GdTiO3 using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We show that the charge transfer is thwarted by hybridization effects tuned by the rare-earth (R) size. Charge transfer results in an induced ferromagnetic-like state in the nickelate (observed by XMCD), exemplifying the potential of correlated interfaces to design novel phases. Further, our work clarifies strategies to engineer two-dimensional systems through the control of both doping and covalence. Work supported by ERC CoG MINT #615759.

  17. Strongly Correlated Quantum Gases Trapped in 3D Spin-Dependent Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarco, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Optical lattices have emerged as ideal systems for exploring Hubbard model physics, since the equivalent of material parameters such as the ratio of tunneling to interaction energy are easily and widely tunable. In this talk I will discuss our recent measurements using novel lattice potentials to realize more complex Hubbard models for bosonic 87 Rb atoms. In these experiments, we adjust the polarization of the lattice laser beams to realize fully three-dimensional, spin-dependent cubic optical lattices. We demonstrate that atoms can be trapped in combinations of spin states for which superfluid and Mott-insulator phases exist simultaneously in the lattice. We also co-trap states that experience a strong lattice potential and no lattice potential whatsoever. I will discuss recent measurements revealing a mechanism similar to Kapitza resistance that leads to thermal decoupling in this latter combination. The implications for sympathetic cooling and thermometry using species-dependent lattices will be outlined.

  18. Strong electron correlation in the decomposition reaction of dioxetanone with implications for firefly bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Greenman, Loren; Mazziotti, David A

    2010-10-28

    Dioxetanone, a key component of the bioluminescence of firefly luciferin, is itself a chemiluminescent molecule due to two conical intersections on its decomposition reaction surface. While recent calculations of firefly luciferin have employed four electrons in four active orbitals [(4,4)] for the dioxetanone moiety, a study of dioxetanone [F. Liu et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6181 (2009)] indicates that a much larger active space is required. Using a variational calculation of the two-electron reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) [D. A. Mazziotti, Acc. Chem. Res. 39, 207 (2006)], we present the ground-state potential energy surface as a function of active spaces from (4,4) to (20,17) to determine the number of molecular orbitals required for a correct treatment of the strong electron correlation near the conical intersections. Because the 2-RDM method replaces exponentially scaling diagonalizations with polynomially scaling semidefinite optimizations, we readily computed large (18,15) and (20,17) active spaces that are inaccessible to traditional wave function methods. Convergence of the electron correlation with active-space size was measured with complementary RDM-based metrics, the von Neumann entropy of the one-electron RDM as well as the Frobenius and infinity norms of the cumulant 2-RDM. Results show that the electron correlation is not correctly described until the (14,12) active space with small variations present through the (20,17) space. Specifically, for active spaces smaller than (14,12), we demonstrate that at the first conical intersection, the electron in the σ(∗) orbital of the oxygen-oxygen bond is substantially undercorrelated with the electron of the σ orbital and overcorrelated with the electron of the carbonyl oxygen's p orbital. Based on these results, we estimate that in contrast to previous treatments, an accurate calculation of the strong electron correlation in firefly luciferin requires an active space of 28 electrons in 25 orbitals

  19. Adaptation of the Landau-Migdal quasiparticle pattern to strongly correlated Fermi systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khodel, V. A.; Clark, J. W.; Zverev, M. V.

    2011-09-15

    A quasiparticle pattern advanced in Landau's first article on Fermi-liquid theory is adapted to elucidate the properties of a class of strongly correlated Fermi systems characterized by a Lifshitz phase diagram featuring a quantum critical point (QCP) where the density of states diverges. The necessary condition for stability of the Landau Fermi-Liquid state is shown to break down in such systems, triggering a cascade of topological phase transitions that lead, without symmetry violation, to states with multi-connected Fermi surfaces. The end point of this evolution is found to be an exceptional state whose spectrum of single-particle excitations exhibits a completely flat portion at zero temperature. Analysis of the evolution of the temperature dependence of the single-particle spectrum yields results that provide a natural explanation of classical behavior of this class of Fermi systems in the QCP region.

  20. Variational cluster approach for strongly correlated lattice bosons in the superfluid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, Michael; Arrigoni, Enrico; Linden, Wolfgang von der

    2011-04-01

    We extend the variational cluster approach to deal with strongly correlated lattice bosons in the superfluid phase. To this end, we reformulate the approach within a pseudoparticle formalism, whereby cluster excitations are described by particlelike excitations. The approximation amounts to solving a multicomponent noninteracting bosonic system by means of a multimode Bogoliubov approximation. A source-and-drain term is introduced in order to break U(1) symmetry at the cluster level. We provide an expression for the grand potential, the single-particle normal and anomalous Green's functions, the condensate density, and other static quantities. As a first nontrivial application of the method we choose the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model and evaluate results in both the Mott and the superfluid phases. Our results show an excellent agreement with quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  1. Hot electron transport in a strongly correlated transition-metal oxide

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Kumari Gaurav; Yajima, Takeaki; Parui, Subir; Kemper, Alexander F.; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.; Banerjee, Tamalika

    2013-01-01

    Oxide heterointerfaces are ideal for investigating strong correlation effects to electron transport, relevant for oxide-electronics. Using hot-electrons, we probe electron transport perpendicular to the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO)- Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) interface and find the characteristic hot-electron attenuation length in LSMO to be 1.48 ± 0.10 unit cells (u.c.) at −1.9 V, increasing to 2.02 ± 0.16 u.c. at −1.3 V at room temperature. Theoretical analysis of this energy dispersion reveals the dominance of electron-electron and polaron scattering. Direct visualization of the local electron transport shows different transmission at the terraces and at the step-edges. PMID:23429420

  2. Pseudogap formation and quantum phase transition in strongly-correlated electron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Chyh-Hong

    2014-11-15

    Pseudogap formation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in strongly-correlated superconductors, for example cuprates, heavy-fermion superconductors, and iron pnictides. As the system is cooled, an energy gap opens in the excitation spectrum before entering the superconducting phase. The origin of formation and the relevancy to the superconductivity remain unclear, which is the most challenging problem in condensed matter physics. Here, using the cuprate as a model, we demonstrate that the formation of pseudogap is due to a massive gauge interaction between electrons, where the mass of the gauge boson, determining the interaction length scale, is the consequence of the remnant antiferromagnetic fluctuation inherited from the parent compounds. Extracting from experimental data, we predict that there is a quantum phase transition belonging to the 2D XY universality class at the critical doping where pseudogap transition vanishes.

  3. Counting of fermions and spins in strongly correlated systems in and out of thermal equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Braungardt, Sibylle; Rodriguez, Mirta; Glauber, Roy J.; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2011-01-15

    Atom counting theory can be used to study the role of thermal noise in quantum phase transitions and to monitor the dynamics of a quantum system. We illustrate this for a strongly correlated fermionic system, which is equivalent to an anisotropic quantum XY chain in a transverse field and can be realized with cold fermionic atoms in an optical lattice. We analyze the counting statistics across the phase diagram in the presence of thermal fluctuations and during its thermalization when the system is coupled to a heat bath. At zero temperature, the quantum phase transition is reflected in the cumulants of the counting distribution. We find that the signatures of the crossover remain visible at low temperature and are obscured with increasing thermal fluctuations. We find that the same quantities may be used to scan the dynamics during the thermalization of the system.

  4. Nonadiabatic creation of macroscopic superpositions with strongly correlated one-dimensional bosons in a ring trap

    SciTech Connect

    Schenke, C.; Minguzzi, A.; Hekking, F. W. J.

    2011-11-15

    We consider a strongly interacting quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas on a tight ring trap subjected to a localized barrier potential. We explore the possibility of forming a macroscopic superposition of a rotating and a nonrotating state under nonequilibrium conditions, achieved by a sudden quench of the barrier velocity. Using an exact solution for the dynamical evolution in the impenetrable-boson (Tonks-Girardeau) limit, we find an expression for the many-body wave function corresponding to a superposition state. The superposition is formed when the barrier velocity is tuned close to multiples of an integer or half-integer number of Coriolis flux quanta. As a consequence of the strong interactions, we find that (i) the state of the system can be mapped onto a macroscopic superposition of two Fermi spheres rather than two macroscopically occupied single-particle states as in a weakly interacting gas, and (ii) the barrier velocity should be larger than the sound velocity to better discriminate the two components of the superposition.

  5. Virial expansion for a strongly correlated Fermi system and its application to ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xia-Ji

    2013-03-01

    A strongly correlated Fermi system plays a fundamental role in very different areas of physics, from neutron stars, quark-gluon plasmas, to high temperature superconductors. Despite the broad applicability, it is notoriously difficult to be understood theoretically because of the absence of a small interaction parameter. Recent achievements of ultracold trapped Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance have ushered in enormous changes. The unprecedented control of interaction, geometry and purity in these novel systems has led to many exciting experimental results, which are to be urgently understood at both low and finite temperatures. Here we review the latest developments of virial expansion for a strongly correlated Fermi gas and their applications on ultracold trapped Fermi atoms. We show remarkable, quantitative agreements between virial predictions and various recent experimental measurements at about the Fermi degenerate temperature. For equations of state, we discuss a practical way of determining high-order virial coefficients and use it to calculate accurately the long-sought third-order virial coefficient, which is now verified firmly in experiments at ENS and MIT. We discuss also virial expansion of a new many-body parameter-Tan’s contact. We then turn to less widely discussed issues of dynamical properties. For dynamic structure factors, the virial prediction agrees well with the measurement at the Swinburne University of Technology. For single-particle spectral functions, we show that the expansion up to the second order accounts for the main feature of momentum-resolved rf-spectroscopy for a resonantly interacting Fermi gas, as recently reported by JILA. In the near future, more practical applications with virial expansion are possible, owing to the ever-growing power in computation.

  6. Exploring underwater target detection by imaging polarimetry and correlation techniques.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, M; Delrot, P; Leonard, I; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C; Dogariu, A

    2013-02-10

    Underwater target detection is investigated by combining active polarization imaging and optical correlation-based approaches. Experiments were conducted in a glass tank filled with tap water with diluted milk or seawater and containing targets of arbitrary polarimetric responses. We found that target estimation obtained by imaging with two orthogonal polarization states always improves detection performances when correlation is used as detection criterion. This experimental study illustrates the potential of polarization imaging for underwater target detection and opens interesting perspectives for the development of underwater imaging systems. PMID:23400061

  7. Universality of Non-equilibrium Fluctuations in Strongly Correlated Quantum Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, Meydi; Arakawa, Tomonori; Hata, Tokuro; Fujiwara, Ryo; Delagrange, Raphaelle; Deblock, Richard; Sakano, Rui; Oguri, Akira; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    In a quantum dot, Kondo effect occurs when the spin of the confined electron is entangled with the electrons of the leads forming locally a strongly correlated Fermi-liquid. Our experiments were performed in such a dot formed in a single carbon nanotube, where Kondo effect with different symmetry groups, namely SU(2) and SU(4), shows up. In the latter case, as spin and orbital degrees of freedom are degenerate, two channels contribute to transport and Kondo resonance emerges for odd and even number of electrons. With our sample it was possible to investigate both symmetries near the unitary limit. In the Kondo regime, strong interaction creates a peculiar two-particle scattering which appears as an effective charge e* for the quasi-particles. We have extracted the signature of this effective charge in the shot noise for both symmetry in good agreement with theory. This result demonstrates that theory of the Kondo effect can be safely extended out of equilibrium even in the unconventional SU(4) symmetry.

  8. Strongly Correlated Superconductivity close to a Mott transition in orbitally degenerate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, Massimo; Fabrizio, Michele; Castellani, Claudio; Tosatti, Erio

    2004-03-01

    Recently a novel strongly correlated superconductivity (SCS) scenario has been proposed [1] which deals with the question whether and under which conditions Cooper-pairing may get enhanced by strong electron repulsion close to a Mott transition. The core of the SCS proposal is that the effective repulsion between quasiparticles vanishes close to the Mott transition, whereas any pairing attraction will remain unrenormalized if it acts inside the spin channel. This scenario was originally demonstrated through a Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT) solution of a model for doped fullerenes, but it is believed to be far more general. Very recently, a twofold orbitally degenerate model with inverted Hund rule exchange has been proposed as a new candidate for SCS [2]. We report fresh DMFT work that fully confirms this expectation, and provides an extremely appealing phase diagram, where superconductivity arises by doping the Mott insulator, out of an unstable a pseudogapped metal, very much as it happens in cuprates. [1] M. Capone, M. Fabrizio, C. Castellani, and E. Tosatti, Science 296, 2364 (2002). [2] M. Fabrizio, A.F. Ho, L. De Leo, and G. Santoro, Phys. Rev. Lett., to appear; L. De Leo and M. Fabrizio, unpublished.

  9. Signatures of strong correlation effects in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies on cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wan-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Ju; Lee, Ting-Kuo

    2016-08-01

    Recently, spin excitations in doped cuprates have been measured using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. The paramagnon dispersions show the large hardening effect in the electron-doped systems and seemingly doping independence in the hole-doped systems, with the energy scales comparable to that of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) magnons. This anomalous hardening effect and the lack of softening were partially explained by using the strong-coupling t -J model but with a three-site term [Nat. Commun. 5, 3314 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms4314], although the hardening effect is already present even without the latter. By considering the t -t'-t''-J model and using the slave-boson mean-field theory, we obtain, via the spin-spin susceptibility, the spin excitations in qualitative agreement with the experiments. The doping-dependent bandwidth due to the strong correlation physics is the origin of the hardening effect. We also show that dispersions in the AFM regime, different from those in the paramagnetic (PM) regime, hardly vary with dopant density. These excitations are mainly collective in nature instead of particle-hole-like. We further discuss the interplay and different contributions of these two kinds of excitations in the PM phase and show that the dominance of the collective excitation increases with decreasing dopant concentrations.

  10. Spin-pseudospin textures in a strongly correlated bilayer quantum Hall system near ν=1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Rene; Bourassa, Jerome; Roostaei, Bahman; Fertig, Herb A.; Mullen, Kieran

    2006-03-01

    Recent experiments on strongly correlated bilayer quantum Hall systems [1,2] strongly suggest that contrary to the usual assumption, the electron spin degree of freedom is not completely frozen either in the quantum Hall or the compressibles states that occur near filling factor ν=1. These experiments imply that the quasiparticles near ν=1 could have both spin and pseudospin textures i.e. they could be CP3 skyrmions. Assuming that these skyrmions crystallize at very low temperature, we use a microscopic unrestricted Hartree-Fock calculation to compute the energy of these excitations as well as the number of flipped spins and pseudospins for various values of the separation between the well and of potential biais. We compare our results to previous calculations based on a field-theoretical description and discuss their relevance for the experiments of Refs. [1,2].(1) I. B. Spielman, L. A. Tracy, J. P. Eisenstein, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 76803 (2005). (2) N. Kumada, K. Muraki, K. Hashimoto, and Y. Hirayama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 96802 (2005).

  11. Concepts relating magnetic interactions, intertwined electronic orders, and strongly correlated superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Davis, J C Séamus; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2013-10-29

    Unconventional superconductivity (SC) is said to occur when Cooper pair formation is dominated by repulsive electron-electron interactions, so that the symmetry of the pair wave function is other than an isotropic s-wave. The strong, on-site, repulsive electron-electron interactions that are the proximate cause of such SC are more typically drivers of commensurate magnetism. Indeed, it is the suppression of commensurate antiferromagnetism (AF) that usually allows this type of unconventional superconductivity to emerge. Importantly, however, intervening between these AF and SC phases, intertwined electronic ordered phases (IP) of an unexpected nature are frequently discovered. For this reason, it has been extremely difficult to distinguish the microscopic essence of the correlated superconductivity from the often spectacular phenomenology of the IPs. Here we introduce a model conceptual framework within which to understand the relationship between AF electron-electron interactions, IPs, and correlated SC. We demonstrate its effectiveness in simultaneously explaining the consequences of AF interactions for the copper-based, iron-based, and heavy-fermion superconductors, as well as for their quite distinct IPs. PMID:24114268

  12. Molecular bonding with the RPAx: From weak dispersion forces to strong correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonna, Nicola; Hellgren, Maria; de Gironcoli, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. B 90, 125102 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.125102], we showed that the random phase approximation with exchange (RPAx) gives accurate total energies for a diverse set of systems including the high and low density regime of the homogeneous electron gas, the N2 molecule, and the H2 molecule at dissociation. In this paper, we present results for the van der Waals bonded Ar2 and Kr2 dimers and demonstrate that the RPAx gives superior dispersion forces as compared to the RPA. We then show that this improved description is crucial for the bond formation of the Mg2 molecule. In addition, the RPAx performs better for the Be2 dissociation curve at large nuclear separation but, similar to the RPA, fails around equilibrium due to the build up of a large repulsion hump. For the strongly correlated LiH molecule at dissociation we have also calculated the RPAx potential and find that the correlation peak at the bond midpoint is overestimated as compared to the RPA and the exact result. The step feature is missing and hence the delocalization error is comparable to the RPA. This is further illustrated by a smooth energy versus fractional charge curve and a poor description of the LiH dipole moment at dissociation.

  13. Using the GVB Ansatz to develop ensemble DFT method for describing multiple strongly correlated electron pairs.

    PubMed

    Filatov, Michael; Martínez, Todd J; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-08-21

    Ensemble density functional theory (DFT) furnishes a rigorous theoretical framework for describing the non-dynamic electron correlation arising from (near) degeneracy of several electronic configurations. Ensemble DFT naturally leads to fractional occupation numbers (FONs) for several Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals, which thereby become variational parameters of the methodology. The currently available implementation of ensemble DFT in the form of the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced KS (REKS) method was originally designed for systems with only two fractionally occupied KS orbitals, which was sufficient to accurately describe dissociation of a single chemical bond or the singlet ground state of biradicaloid species. To extend applicability of the method to systems with several dissociating bonds or to polyradical species, more fractionally occupied orbitals must be included in the ensemble description. Here we investigate a possibility of developing the extended REKS methodology with the help of the generalized valence bond (GVB) wavefunction theory. The use of GVB enables one to derive a simple and physically transparent energy expression depending explicitly on the FONs of several KS orbitals. In this way, a version of the REKS method with four electrons in four fractionally occupied orbitals is derived and its accuracy in the calculation of various types of strongly correlated molecules is investigated. We propose a possible scheme to ameliorate the partial size-inconsistency that results from perfect spin-pairing. We conjecture that perfect pairing natural orbital (NO) functionals of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT) should also display partial size-inconsistency. PMID:26947515

  14. Strong correlations in Kondo topological insulators: Two-dimensional heavy fermions, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolic, Predrag

    Samarium hexaboride (SmB6) is a candidate topological insulator with strong electron correlations. Empowered by the time-reversal (TR) symmetry and topology, the low-energy surface states of hybridized samarium's d and f orbitals can exhibit a rich two-dimensional heavy-fermion phenomenology. This talk will survey several interesting possibilities for correlated surface states, which depend on microscopic surface conditions. A pronounced participation of the f orbitals is expected to create a heavy-fermion Dirac metal, possibly unstable to spin density waves, superconductivity, or exotic Mott insulators (e.g. algebraic and non-Abelian spin liquids). The opposite limit of ``localized magnetic moments'' can produce a non-Fermi liquid of d electrons that exhibits two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics. Ultrathin films made from topological Kondo insulators can host lattices of SU(2) vortices, which need not break the TR symmetry. Landau-Ginzburg theory and numerical model calculations reveal the nature and stability of such vortex lattices, while field theory arguments predict that their quantum melting could yield novel incompressible quantum liquids with non-Abelian fractional excitations.

  15. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Elise R.; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon. PMID:26619199

  16. Concepts relating magnetic interactions, intertwined electronic orders, and strongly correlated superconductivity

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. C. Séamus; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional superconductivity (SC) is said to occur when Cooper pair formation is dominated by repulsive electron–electron interactions, so that the symmetry of the pair wave function is other than an isotropic s-wave. The strong, on-site, repulsive electron–electron interactions that are the proximate cause of such SC are more typically drivers of commensurate magnetism. Indeed, it is the suppression of commensurate antiferromagnetism (AF) that usually allows this type of unconventional superconductivity to emerge. Importantly, however, intervening between these AF and SC phases, intertwined electronic ordered phases (IP) of an unexpected nature are frequently discovered. For this reason, it has been extremely difficult to distinguish the microscopic essence of the correlated superconductivity from the often spectacular phenomenology of the IPs. Here we introduce a model conceptual framework within which to understand the relationship between AF electron–electron interactions, IPs, and correlated SC. We demonstrate its effectiveness in simultaneously explaining the consequences of AF interactions for the copper-based, iron-based, and heavy-fermion superconductors, as well as for their quite distinct IPs. PMID:24114268

  17. Extended self-energy functional approach for strongly correlated lattice bosons in the superfluid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Arrigoni, Enrico; Knap, Michael; Linden, Wolfgang von der

    2011-07-01

    Among the various numerical techniques to study the physics of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems, the self-energy functional approach (SFA) has become increasingly important. In its previous form, however, SFA is not applicable to Bose-Einstein condensation or superfluidity. In this paper, we show how to overcome this shortcoming. To this end, we identify an appropriate quantity, which we term D, that represents the correlation correction of the condensate order parameter, as it does the self-energy for Green's function. An appropriate functional is derived, which is stationary at the exact physical realization of D and of the self-energy. Its derivation is based on a functional-integral representation of the grand potential followed by an appropriate sequence of Legendre transformations. The approach is not perturbative and, therefore, applicable to a wide range of models with local interactions. We show that the variational cluster approach based on the extended self-energy functional is equivalent to the ''pseudoparticle'' approach proposed in Phys. Rev. B 83, 134507 (2011). We present results for the superfluid density in the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, which shows a remarkable agreement with those of quantum-Monte-Carlo calculations.

  18. Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

    PubMed

    Morton, Elise R; Lynch, Joshua; Froment, Alain; Lafosse, Sophie; Heyer, Evelyne; Przeworski, Molly; Blekhman, Ran; Ségurel, Laure

    2015-11-01

    The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon. PMID:26619199

  19. LaFe0.6Sb2: Strongly to weakly correlated system with Ni doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misuraca, J. C.; Simonson, J. W.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Puri, A.; Orvis, T.; Greene, L. H.; Aronson, M. C.

    2014-03-01

    Since the discovery of superconducting Ca1-xLaxFeAs2 with a Tc of 34 K, there has been an increasing interest in growing 112 iron pnictides in the search for high Tc superconductivity. We have grown large single crystals of LaFe0.6Sb2, which form in a tetragonal 112 structure with a significant amount of Fe vacancies, confirmed via single crystal x-ray diffraction. We present a doping study utilizing Ni which replaces both the Fe and vacancies while transforming the material from strongly to weakly correlated, as determined by low temperature heat capacity measurements. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ of the undoped crystal is 50 mJ/mol Fe K2, indicating a large mass enhancement, while LaNiSb2 is 5 mJ/mol Ni K2 with no vacancies and up to 18% interstitial Ni according to energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. When doping LaFeSb2 with Ni, γ remains constant when normalized per transition metal, possibly indicating a constant density of states. A divergence appears in C/T vs. T2 once the vacancies are filled, at 89% Ni, and the divergence remains until the LaNiSb2 sample, which is a weakly correlated 1 K superconductor. We acknowledge funding via an NSSEFF from the Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and via ICAM from the NSF International Materials Institute Award: DMR-0844115.

  20. Entropy excess in strongly correlated Fermi systems near a quantum critical point

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.W.; Zverev, M.V.; Khodel, V.A.

    2012-12-15

    A system of interacting, identical fermions described by standard Landau Fermi-liquid (FL) theory can experience a rearrangement of its Fermi surface if the correlations grow sufficiently strong, as occurs at a quantum critical point where the effective mass diverges. As yet, this phenomenon defies full understanding, but salient aspects of the non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior observed beyond the quantum critical point are still accessible within the general framework of the Landau quasiparticle picture. Self-consistent solutions of the coupled Landau equations for the quasiparticle momentum distribution n(p) and quasiparticle energy spectrum {epsilon}(p) are shown to exist in two distinct classes, depending on coupling strength and on whether the quasiparticle interaction is regular or singular at zero momentum transfer. One class of solutions maintains the idempotency condition n{sup 2}(p)=n(p) of standard FL theory at zero temperature T while adding pockets to the Fermi surface. The other solutions are characterized by a swelling of the Fermi surface and a flattening of the spectrum {epsilon}(p) over a range of momenta in which the quasiparticle occupancies lie between 0 and 1 even at T=0. The latter, non-idempotent solution is revealed by analysis of a Poincare mapping associated with the fundamental Landau equation connecting n(p) and {epsilon}(p) and validated by solution of a variational condition that yields the symmetry-preserving ground state. Significantly, this extraordinary solution carries the burden of a large temperature-dependent excess entropy down to very low temperatures, threatening violation of the Nernst Theorem. It is argued that certain low-temperature phase transitions, notably those involving Cooper-pair formation, offer effective mechanisms for shedding the entropy excess. Available measurements in heavy-fermion compounds provide concrete support for such a scenario. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extension of Landau

  1. Exploring linguistic correlates of social anxiety in romantic stories.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Katya C; Gordon, Elizabeth A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-09-01

    The current study used computerized linguistic analysis of stories about either going on a date or taking a walk down a street to examine linguistic correlates of social anxiety in a sample of undergraduate students. In general, linguistic analysis revealed associations of social anxiety with several linguistic variables, including negative emotion, affect, and anxiety words. Participants higher in social anxiety wrote fewer affect words. The relationship between social anxiety and anxiety words depended on gender, whereas the relationship between social anxiety and negative emotion words depended on both gender and the nature of primes (supraliminal vs. subliminal) received. Overall, our findings highlight the potential utility and benefits of using linguistic analysis as another source of information about how individuals higher in social anxiety process romantic stimuli. PMID:27216791

  2. Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of C-QED Arrays in Strong Correlation Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin-Ding; Li, Zhi-Hang; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Recently increasing interests are attracted in the physics of controlled arrays of nonlinear cavity resonators because of the rapid experimental progress achieved in cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). For a driven-dissipative two-dimentional planar C-QED array, standard Markov master equation is generally used to study the dynamics of this system. However, when in the case that the on-site photon-photon interaction enters strong correlation regime, standard Markov master equation may lead to incorrect results. In this paper we study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a two-dimentional C-QED array, which is homogeneously pumped by an external pulse, at the same time dissipation exits. We study the evolution of the average photon number of a single cavity by deriving a modified master equation to. In comparison with the standard master equation, the numerical result obtained by our newly derived master equation shows significant difference for the non-equilibrium dynamics of the system.

  3. Spin state ordering of strongly correlating LaCoO3 induced at ultrahigh magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Akihiko; Nomura, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Sato, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    Magnetization measurements of LaCoO3 have been carried out up to 133 T, generated with a destructive pulse magnet at a wide temperature range from 2 to 120 K. A novel magnetic transition was found at B >100 T and T >T*=32 ±5 K, which is characterized by its transition field increasing with increasing temperature. At T strong correlation of spin states among cobalt sites should have triggered the emergence of the ordered phases in LaCoO3 at high magnetic fields.

  4. Multireference linearized coupled cluster theory for strongly correlated systems using matrix product states.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Alavi, Ali

    2015-09-14

    We propose a multireference linearized coupled cluster theory using matrix product states (MPSs-LCC) which provides remarkably accurate ground-state energies, at a computational cost that has the same scaling as multireference configuration interaction singles and doubles, for a wide variety of electronic Hamiltonians. These range from first-row dimers at equilibrium and stretched geometries to highly multireference systems such as the chromium dimer and lattice models such as periodic two-dimensional 1-band and 3-band Hubbard models. The MPS-LCC theory shows a speed up of several orders of magnitude over the usual Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm while delivering energies in excellent agreement with converged DMRG calculations. Also, in all the benchmark calculations presented here, MPS-LCC outperformed the commonly used multi-reference quantum chemistry methods in some cases giving energies in excess of an order of magnitude more accurate. As a size-extensive method that can treat large active spaces, MPS-LCC opens up the use of multireference quantum chemical techniques in strongly correlated ab initio Hamiltonians, including two- and three-dimensional solids. PMID:26374008

  5. Stability and magnetism of strongly correlated single-layer VS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Hennig, Richard G.

    2016-02-01

    Single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit a variety of atomic structures and associated exotic electronic and magnetic properties. Density-functional calculations using the LDA+U approximation show that single-layer VS2 is a strongly correlated material, where the stability, phonon spectra, and magnetic moments of the octahedral (1 T ) and the trigonal prismatic (2 H ) structures significantly depend on the effective Hubbard U parameter, Ueff. Comparison with the HSE06 hybrid density functional used as a benchmark indicates that Ueff=2.5 eV, which consistently shows that the 2 H structure is more stable than the 1 T structure and a ferromagnetic semiconductor. The magnetic moments are localized on the V atoms and coupled ferromagnetically due to the superexchange interactions mediated by the S atoms. Calculations of the magnetic anisotropy show an easy plane for the magnetic moment. Assuming a classical XY model with nearest neighbor coupling, we determine the critical temperature, Tc, for the Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition of 2 H single-layer VS2 to be about 90 K. Applying biaxial tensile strains can increase Tc. Using Wannier interpolation, we evaluate the Berry curvature and anomalous Hall conductivity of 2 H single-layer VS2. The coexistence of quasi-long-range ferromagnetic ordering and semiconducting behavior enables 2 H single-layer VS2 to be a promising candidate for spintronics applications.

  6. Strong electron correlation on the Fe3O4(0 0 1) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Henry; Elliott, Simon D.; Foster, Adam; Nieminen, R. M.

    2007-03-01

    Magnetite Fe3O4 is a fascinating material that still is not well understood and presents challenges for the state-of-the-art computational methods. This transition metal oxide undergoes a first-order metal-insulator transition at TV=120 K. The ferrimagnetic properties of Fe3O4 makes it a promising material for spintronic applications. We use a plane wave density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation adding a Hubbard-U parameter to describe properly the strongly correlated Fe--3d electrons. Based on previous results, we compute the surface structure, magnetic properties and electronic structure of several Fe3O4(0 0 1) surfaces with (√2x√2)R45^o reconstruction. The simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images of these surfaces are compared and discussed in the light of available experimental data. Finally, we analyze the possible existence of charge ordering on the Fe3O4(0 0 1) surface and the effect on the surface electronic structure with changing the value of the Hubbard-U parameter on the superficial Fe sites. H. Pinto, S. Elliott, J.Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 10427 (2006)

  7. Contraction of fermionic operator circuits and the simulation of strongly correlated fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Thomas; Pineda, Carlos; Eisert, Jens

    2009-10-01

    A fermionic operator circuit is a product of fermionic operators of usually different and partially overlapping support. Further elements of fermionic operator circuits (FOCs) are partial traces and partial projections. The presented framework allows for the introduction of fermionic versions of known qudit operator circuits (QUOC), important for the simulation of strongly correlated d -dimensional systems: the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansätze (MERA), tree tensor networks (TTN), projected entangled pair states (PEPS), or their infinite-size versions (iPEPS etc.). After the definition of a FOC, we present a method to contract it with the same computation and memory requirements as a corresponding QUOC, for which all fermionic operators are replaced by qudit operators of identical dimension. A given scheme for contracting the QUOC relates to an analogous scheme for the corresponding fermionic circuit, where additional marginal computational costs arise only from reordering of modes for operators occurring in intermediate stages of the contraction. Our result hence generalizes efficient schemes for the simulation of d -dimensional spin systems, as MERA, TTN, or PEPS to the fermionic case.

  8. Spin Correlations of Strongly Interacting Massive Fermion Pairs as a Test of Bell's Inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.; Saito, T.; Kuboki, H.; Sasano, M.; Yako, K.; Ikeda, T.; Itoh, K.; Kawabata, T.; Maeda, Y.; Suda, K.; Uesaka, T.; Matsui, N.; Satou, Y.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Sekiguchi, K.; Tamii, A.

    2006-10-13

    We report the results of the first-time test of the local hidden variable theories (Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) involving strongly interacting pairs of massive spin 1/2 hadrons from the decay of short-lived ({tau}<10{sup -21}sec) {sup 2}He spin-singlet state, populated in the nuclear reaction {sup 2}H+{sup 1}H{yields}{sup 2}He+n. The novel features of this experiment are (a) the use of an 'event body' detector of nearly 100% efficiency to prepare an unbiased sample and (b) a focal-plane polarimeter of full 2{pi} sr acceptance with a random 'post selection' of the reference axes. The spin-correlation function is deduced to be S{sub exp}({pi}/4)=2.83{+-}0.24{sub stat}{+-}0.07{sub sys}. This result is in agreement with nonlocal quantum mechanical prediction and it violates the Bell-CHSH inequality of vertical bar S vertical bar{<=}2 at a confidence level of 99.3%.

  9. Neuromimetic Circuits with Synaptic Devices Based on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Sieu D.; Shi, Jian; Meroz, Yasmine; Mahadevan, L.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2014-12-01

    Strongly correlated electron systems such as the rare-earth nickelates (R NiO3 , R denotes a rare-earth element) can exhibit synapselike continuous long-term potentiation and depression when gated with ionic liquids; exploiting the extreme sensitivity of coupled charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom to stoichiometry. We present experimental real-time, device-level classical conditioning and unlearning using nickelate-based synaptic devices in an electronic circuit compatible with both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We establish a physical model for the device behavior based on electric-field-driven coupled ionic-electronic diffusion that can be utilized for design of more complex systems. We use the model to simulate a variety of associate and nonassociative learning mechanisms, as well as a feedforward recurrent network for storing memory. Our circuit intuitively parallels biological neural architectures, and it can be readily generalized to other forms of cellular learning and extinction. The simulation of neural function with electronic device analogs may provide insight into biological processes such as decision making, learning, and adaptation, while facilitating advanced parallel information processing in hardware.

  10. Finite-Temperature Variational Monte Carlo Method for Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Kensaku; Ido, Kota; Misawa, Takahiro; Yamaji, Youhei; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-03-01

    A new computational method for finite-temperature properties of strongly correlated electrons is proposed by extending the variational Monte Carlo method originally developed for the ground state. The method is based on the path integral in the imaginary-time formulation, starting from the infinite-temperature state that is well approximated by a small number of certain random initial states. Lower temperatures are progressively reached by the imaginary-time evolution. The algorithm follows the framework of the quantum transfer matrix and finite-temperature Lanczos methods, but we extend them to treat much larger system sizes without the negative sign problem by optimizing the truncated Hilbert space on the basis of the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). This optimization algorithm is equivalent to the stochastic reconfiguration (SR) method that has been frequently used for the ground state to optimally truncate the Hilbert space. The obtained finite-temperature states allow an interpretation based on the thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state instead of the conventional canonical-ensemble average. Our method is tested for the one- and two-dimensional Hubbard models and its accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated.

  11. Multireference linearized coupled cluster theory for strongly correlated systems using matrix product states

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sandeep; Alavi, Ali

    2015-09-14

    We propose a multireference linearized coupled cluster theory using matrix product states (MPSs-LCC) which provides remarkably accurate ground-state energies, at a computational cost that has the same scaling as multireference configuration interaction singles and doubles, for a wide variety of electronic Hamiltonians. These range from first-row dimers at equilibrium and stretched geometries to highly multireference systems such as the chromium dimer and lattice models such as periodic two-dimensional 1-band and 3-band Hubbard models. The MPS-LCC theory shows a speed up of several orders of magnitude over the usual Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm while delivering energies in excellent agreement with converged DMRG calculations. Also, in all the benchmark calculations presented here, MPS-LCC outperformed the commonly used multi-reference quantum chemistry methods in some cases giving energies in excess of an order of magnitude more accurate. As a size-extensive method that can treat large active spaces, MPS-LCC opens up the use of multireference quantum chemical techniques in strongly correlated ab initio Hamiltonians, including two- and three-dimensional solids.

  12. Evidence for a New Intermediate Phase in a Strongly Correlated 2D System near Wigner Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuan; Qiu, Richard; Goble, Nicholas; Serafin, Alex; Yin, Liang; Xia, Jian-Sheng; Sullivan, Neil; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    How the two dimensional (2D) quantum Wigner crystal (WC) transforms into the metallic liquid phase remains an outstanding problem in physics. In theories considering the 2D WC to liquid transition in the clean limit, it was suggested that a number of intermediate phases might exist. We have studied the transformation between the metallic fluid phase and the low magnetic field reentrant insulating phase (RIP) which was interpreted as due to the WC [Qiu et al., PRL 108, 106404 (2012)], in a strongly correlated 2D hole system in GaAs quantum well with large interaction parameter rs (~20-30) and high mobility. Instead of a sharp transition, we found that increasing density (or lowering rs) drives the RIP into a state where the incipient RIP coexists with Fermi liquid. This apparent mixture phase intermediate between Fermi liquid and WC also exhibits a non-trivial temperature dependent resistivity behavior which can be qualitatively understood by the reversed melting of WC in the mixture, in analogy to the Pomeranchuk effect in the solid-liquid mixture of Helium-3. X.G. thanks NSF (DMR-0906415) for supporting work at CWRU. Experiments at the NHMFL High B/T Facility were supported by NSF Grant 0654118 and the State of Florida. L.P. thanks the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and NSF MRSEC (DMR-0819860) for support.

  13. Optical study of strained ultrathin films of strongly correlated LaNiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, M.K.; Yee, C.H.; Kareev, M; Smith, R.K.; Chapler, B.C.; Varela del Arco, Maria; Ryan, P.J.; Haule, K.; Chakalian, J.; Basov, D. N.

    2011-01-01

    An optical study of fully strained ultrathin LaNiO{sub 3} films is presented and compared with LDA + DMFT calculations. LaNiO{sub 3} films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} substrates which provide compressive and tensile strain, respectively. Optical conductivity data show a Drude peak with a spectral weight that is significantly reduced compared to that obtained from LDA calculations. The extended Drude analysis reveals the presence of a pseudogap around 80 meV for the film on SrTiO{sub 3} and near 40 meV, at low temperature only, for the film on LAO. An unusual temperature dependence of the optical conductivity is observed, with the Drude plasma frequency increasing by up to 20% at low temperature due to spectral weight transfer from bands lying 2-4 eV below the Fermi energy. Such a strong temperature dependence of the Drude spectral weight has previously been reported for correlated electron systems in which a phase transition is present. In LaNiO{sub 3}, however, no phase transition is observed.

  14. Exploring the miRNA Regulatory Network Using Evolutionary Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Obermayer, Benedikt; Levine, Erel

    2014-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs is a widespread and highly conserved phenomenon in metazoans, with several hundreds to thousands of conserved binding sites for each miRNA, and up to two thirds of all genes under miRNA regulation. At the same time, the effect of miRNA regulation on mRNA and protein levels is usually quite modest and associated phenotypes are often weak or subtle. This has given rise to the notion that the highly interconnected miRNA regulatory network exerts its function less through any individual link and more via collective effects that lead to a functional interdependence of network links. We present a Bayesian framework to quantify conservation of miRNA target sites using vertebrate whole-genome alignments. The increased statistical power of our phylogenetic model allows detection of evolutionary correlation in the conservation patterns of site pairs. Such correlations could result from collective functions in the regulatory network. For instance, co-conservation of target site pairs supports a selective benefit of combinatorial regulation by multiple miRNAs. We find that some miRNA families are under pronounced co-targeting constraints, indicating a high connectivity in the regulatory network, while others appear to function in a more isolated way. By analyzing coordinated targeting of different curated gene sets, we observe distinct evolutionary signatures for protein complexes and signaling pathways that could reflect differences in control strategies. Our method is easily scalable to analyze upcoming larger data sets, and readily adaptable to detect high-level selective constraints between other genomic loci. We thus provide a proof-of-principle method to understand regulatory networks from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:25299225

  15. Strong correlation of major earthquakes with solid-earth tides in part of the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; Perry, W.H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    East of the eastern American continental divide and south of lat. 42.5??N, moderate to large historic earthquakes correlate strongly with times of high and low solid-earth tides. This effect is most pronounced when solar declination lies between 17??N and 17??S. Significant correlation also exist between major earthquakes, time of day, lunar declinations, and lunar phase. -Authors

  16. On fermionic shadow wave functions for strongly correlated multi-reference systems based on a single Slater determinant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcavecchia, Francesco; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that extending the shadow wave function to fermionic systems facilitates to accurately calculate strongly correlated multi-reference systems such as the stretched {H}2 molecule. This development considerably extends the scope of electronic-structure calculations and enables to efficiently recover the static correlation energy using just a single Slater determinant.

  17. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems 2014 (SCES2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES) was held in Grenoble from the 7th to 11th of July on the campus of the University of Grenoble. It was a great privilege to have the conference in Grenoble after the series of meetings in Sendai (1992), San Diego (1993), Amsterdam (1994), Goa (1995), Zürich (1996), Paris (1998), Nagano (1999), Ann Arbor (2001), Krakow (2002), Karlsruhe (2004), Vienna (2005), Houston (2007), Buzios (2008), Santa Fe (2010), Cambridge (2011) and Tokyo (2013). Every three years, SCES joins the triennial conference on magnetism ICM. In 2015, ICM will take place in Barcelona. The meeting gathered an audience of 875 participants who actively interacted inside and outside of conference rooms. A large number of posters (530) was balanced with four parallel oral sessions which included 86 invited speakers and 141 short oral contributions. A useful arrangement was the possibility to put poster presentations on the website so participants could see them all through the conference week. Each morning two plenary sessions were held, ending on Friday with experimental and theoretical summaries delivered by Philipp Gegenwart (Augsburg) and Andrew Millis (Columbia). The plenary sessions were given by Gabriel Kotliar (Rutgers), Masashi Kawasaki (Tokyo), Jennifer Hoffman (Harvard), Mathias Vojta (Dresden), Ashvin Vishwanath (Berkeley), Andrea Cavalleri (Hamburg), Marc-Henri Julien (Grenoble), Neil Mathur (Cambridge), Giniyat Khaliullin (Stuttgart), and Toshiro Sakakibara (Tokyo). The parallel oral sessions were prepared by 40 symposium organizers selected by the chairman (Antoine Georges) and co-chairman (Kamran Behnia) of the Program Committee with the supplementary rule that speakers had not delivered an invited talk at the previous SCES conference held in 2013 in Tokyo. Special attention was given to help young researchers via grants to 40 overseas students. Perhaps due to the additional possibility of cheap

  18. Exploring the distant universe with cross-correlation statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Daniel J.

    Future cosmological surveys will require distance information for an extremely large number of galaxies in order to gain insight into the structure and history of our Universe. Current methods of obtaining accurate distance information such as measuring the redshifts of galaxies via spectroscopy are not feasible for such enormous datasets, mainly due to the long exposure times required. Photometric redshifts, where the redshift is measured using broadband imaging through only a few Filters, are a promising avenue of study, although there are inherent limitations to this method making them less understood than spectroscopic redshifts. Understanding these limitations and improving the calibration of photometric redshifts will be very important for future cosmological measurements. This thesis presents tests of a new technique for calibrating photometric redshifts that exploits the clustering of galaxies due to gravitational interaction. This cross-correlation technique uses the measured spatial clustering on the sky of a photometric sample that has only imaging information, with a spectroscopic sample that has secure and accurate redshifts. These tests shows that measurements of this clustering as a function of redshift can be used to accurately reconstruct the true redshift distribution of the photometric sample. In addition, this thesis shows how similar clustering measurements can be used to constrain the contamination of a high redshift candidate sample by low redshift interlopers. Finally it describes a new catalog that combines spectroscopic redshifts and deep photometry that can be used as a testbed for future photo-z studies.

  19. Investigating short-range magnetism in strongly correlated materials via magnetic pair distribution function analysis and ab initio theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandsen, Benjamin; Page, Katharine; Brunelli, Michela; Staunton, Julie; Billinge, Simon

    Short-range magnetic correlations are known to exist in a variety of strongly correlated electron systems, but our understanding of the role they play is challenged by the difficulty of experimentally probing such correlations. Magnetic pair distribution function (mPDF) analysis is a newly developed neutron total scattering method that can reveal short-range magnetic correlations directly in real space, and may therefore help ameliorate this difficulty. We present temperature-dependent mPDF measurements of the short-range magnetic correlations in the paramagnetic phase of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. We observe significant correlations on a ~1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range-ordered spin arrangement. With no free parameters, ab initio calculations using the self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory quantitatively reproduce the magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. These results yield valuable insight into the magnetic exchange in MnO and showcase the utility of the mPDF technique for studying magnetic properties of strongly correlated electron systems.

  20. External losses in photoemission from strongly correlated quasi-two-dimensional solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, L.; Lee, J. D.

    2001-09-01

    Expressions are derived for photoemission, which allow experimental electron energy loss data to be used for estimating losses in photoemission. The derivation builds on new results for dielectric response and mean free paths of strongly correlated systems of two-dimensional layers. Numerical evaluations are made for Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi2212) by using a parametrized loss function. The mean free path for Bi2212 is calculated and found to be substantially larger than obtained by Norman et al. [Phys. Rev. B 59, 11 191 (1999)] in a recent paper. The photocurrent is expressed as the convolution of the intrinsic approximation for the current from a specific two-dimensional layer with an effective loss function. This effective loss function is the same as the photocurrent from a core level stripped of the dipole matrix elements. The observed current is the sum of such currents from the first few layers. The correlation within one layer is considered as a purely two-dimensional (2D) problem separate from the embedding three-dimensional (3D) environment. When the contribution to the dielectric response from electrons moving in 3D is taken as diagonal in q space, its effect is just to replace bare Coulomb potentials in the (3D) coupling between the 2D layers with dynamically screened ones. The photoelectron from a specific CuO layer is found to excite low-energy acoustic plasmon modes due to the coupling between the CuO layers. These modes give rise to an asymmetric power-law broadening of the photocurrent an isolated two-dimensional layer would have given. We define an asymmetry index where a contribution from a Luttinger line shape is additive to the contribution from our broadening function. Already the loss effect considered here gives broadening comparable to what is observed experimentally. Our theory is not related to the loss mechanism recently discussed by Joynt [R. Joynt, Science 284, 777 (1999); R. Haslinger and R. Joynt, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 117

  1. Entropy excess in strongly correlated Fermi systems near a quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. W.; Zverev, M. V.; Khodel, V. A.

    2012-12-01

    A system of interacting, identical fermions described by standard Landau Fermi-liquid (FL) theory can experience a rearrangement of its Fermi surface if the correlations grow sufficiently strong, as occurs at a quantum critical point where the effective mass diverges. As yet, this phenomenon defies full understanding, but salient aspects of the non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior observed beyond the quantum critical point are still accessible within the general framework of the Landau quasiparticle picture. Self-consistent solutions of the coupled Landau equations for the quasiparticle momentum distribution n(p) and quasiparticle energy spectrum ɛ(p) are shown to exist in two distinct classes, depending on coupling strength and on whether the quasiparticle interaction is regular or singular at zero momentum transfer. One class of solutions maintains the idempotency condition n2(p)=n(p) of standard FL theory at zero temperature T while adding pockets to the Fermi surface. The other solutions are characterized by a swelling of the Fermi surface and a flattening of the spectrum ɛ(p) over a range of momenta in which the quasiparticle occupancies lie between 0 and 1 even at T=0. The latter, non-idempotent solution is revealed by analysis of a Poincaré mapping associated with the fundamental Landau equation connecting n(p) and ɛ(p) and validated by solution of a variational condition that yields the symmetry-preserving ground state. Significantly, this extraordinary solution carries the burden of a large temperature-dependent excess entropy down to very low temperatures, threatening violation of the Nernst Theorem. It is argued that certain low-temperature phase transitions, notably those involving Cooper-pair formation, offer effective mechanisms for shedding the entropy excess. Available measurements in heavy-fermion compounds provide concrete support for such a scenario.

  2. Competition between Kondo and RKKY correlations in the presence of strong randomness.

    PubMed

    Tran, Minh-Tien; Kim, Ki-Seok

    2011-10-26

    We propose that competition between Kondo and magnetic correlations results in a novel universality class for heavy fermion quantum criticality in the presence of strong randomness. Starting from an Anderson lattice model with disorder, we derive an effective local field theory in the dynamical mean-field theory approximation, where randomness is introduced into both hybridization and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions. Performing the saddle-point analysis in the U(1) slave-boson representation, we reveal its phase diagram which shows a quantum phase transition from a spin liquid state to a local Fermi liquid phase. In contrast with the clean limit case of the Anderson lattice model, the effective hybridization given by holon condensation turns out to vanish, resulting from the zero mean value of the hybridization coupling constant. However, we show that the holon density becomes finite when the variance of the hybridization is sufficiently larger than that of the RKKY coupling, giving rise to the Kondo effect. On the other hand, when the variance of the hybridization becomes smaller than that of the RKKY coupling, the Kondo effect disappears, resulting in a fully symmetric paramagnetic state, adiabatically connected to the spin liquid state of the disordered Heisenberg model. We investigate the quantum critical point beyond the mean-field approximation. Introducing quantum corrections fully self-consistently in the non-crossing approximation, we prove that the local charge susceptibility has exactly the same critical exponent as the local spin susceptibility, suggesting an enhanced symmetry at the local quantum critical point. This leads us to propose novel duality between the Kondo singlet phase and the critical local moment state beyond the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm. The Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson forbidden duality serves the mechanism of electron fractionalization in critical impurity dynamics, where such fractionalized excitations are

  3. L233P mutation of the Tax protein strongly correlated with leukemogenicity of bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Soma, Norihiko; Hirasawa, Shintaro; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Arakaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-27

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (P<0.01). It is also quite unlikely that viruses carrying the particular Tax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity. PMID:24139177

  4. Inner-shell photodetachment from a Si‑ negative ion: strong effect of many-electron correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrange-Kashenock, G.

    2016-06-01

    The first theoretical investigation of the inner-shell single-photodetachment from the Si‑ (1s22s22p63s23p3 4So) negative ion is presented. The partial and total cross sections, the photoelectron phaseshifts, and the parameters of angular anisotropy are calculated in the framework of the many-body theory for L-shell photodetachment from Si‑ ion in the experimentally accessible range of photon energies (7.5–14 Ry). Comparison is made between the calculations of the response of the ionic many-electron system Si‑ to an electromagnetic field at the different levels of approximation: the ‘frozen-field’ random phase approximation with exchange (RPAE), and the static relaxation approximation. The optimal analysis is made when the dynamic relaxation and polarization are included within the Dyson equation method (DEM) simultaneously with the RPAE corrections (the RPAE&DEM approach). It is predicted that the photoexcitation to a resonance state of complex ‘shape-Feschbach’ nature in the open p-shell reveals itself as a prominent resonance structure in the photodetachment cross sections in the energy range of the 2s and 2p inner shell thresholds similar to that in 1s inner-shell photodetachment from C‑ (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1379). The photodetachment dynamical characteristics clearly demonstrate the significance of all the considered many-electron correlations within the RPAE&DEM approach, however the total photodetachment cross section is dominated by a strong resonance peak just after the 2s threshold. Dynamical relaxation (screening) is identified as a decisive factor in the formation of this resonance.

  5. Emergent low temperature phases in strongly correlated multi-orbital and cold atom systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puetter, Christoph Minol

    This thesis considers various strongly correlated quantum phases in solid state and cold atom spin systems. In the first part we focus on phases emerging in multi-orbital materials. We study even-parity spin-triplet superconductivity originating from Hund's coupling between t2g orbitals and investigate the effect of spin-orbit interaction on spin-triplet and spin-singlet pairing. Various aspects of the pairing state are discussed against the backdrop of the spin-triplet superconductor Sr2RuO 4. Motivated by the remarkable phenomena observed in the bilayer compound Sr3Ru2O7, which point to the formation of an electronic nematic phase in the presence of critical fluctuations, we investigate how such a broken symmetry state emerges from electronic interactions. Since the broken x-y symmetry is revealed experimentally by applying a small in-plane magnetic field component, we examine nematic phases in a bilayer system and the role of the in-plane magnetic field using a phenomenological approach. In addition, we propose a microscopic mechanism for nematic phase formation specific to Sr3Ru2O7. The model is based on a realistic multi-orbital band structure and local and nearest neighbour interactions. Considering all t2g-orbital derived bands on an equal footing, we find a nematic quantum critical point and a nearby meta-nematic transition in the phase diagram. This finding harbours important implications for the phenomena observed in Sr3Ru2O7. The second part is devoted to the study of the anisotropic bilinear biquadratic spin-1 Heisenberg model, where the existence of an unusual direct phase transition between a spin-nematic phase and a dimerized valence bond solid phase in the quasi-1D limit was conjectured based on Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We establish the quasi-1D phase diagram using a large-N Schwinger boson approach and show that the phase transition is largely conventional except possibly at two particular points. We further discuss how to realize and to

  6. Ab initio optimization principle for the ground states of translationally invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Shi-Ju

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a simple and fundamental numeric scheme dubbed as ab initio optimization principle (AOP) is proposed for the ground states of translational invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models. The idea is to transform a nondeterministic-polynomial-hard ground-state simulation with infinite degrees of freedom into a single optimization problem of a local function with finite number of physical and ancillary degrees of freedom. This work contributes mainly in the following aspects: (1) AOP provides a simple and efficient scheme to simulate the ground state by solving a local optimization problem. Its solution contains two kinds of boundary states, one of which play the role of the entanglement bath that mimics the interactions between a supercell and the infinite environment, and the other gives the ground state in a tensor network (TN) form. (2) In the sense of TN, a novel decomposition named as tensor ring decomposition (TRD) is proposed to implement AOP. Instead of following the contraction-truncation scheme used by many existing TN-based algorithms, TRD solves the contraction of a uniform TN in an opposite way by encoding the contraction in a set of self-consistent equations that automatically reconstruct the whole TN, making the simulation simple and unified; (3) AOP inherits and develops the ideas of different well-established methods, including the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD), network contractor dynamics, density matrix embedding theory, etc., providing a unified perspective that is previously missing in this fields. (4) AOP as well as TRD give novel implications to existing TN-based algorithms: A modified iTEBD is suggested and the two-dimensional (2D) AOP is argued to be an intrinsic 2D extension of DMRG that is based on infinite projected entangled pair state. This paper is focused on one-dimensional quantum models to present AOP. The benchmark is given on a transverse Ising

  7. Strong scintillations in astrophysics. 4. Cross-correlation between different frequencies and finite bandwidth effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The cross correlation of the intensity fluctuations between different frequencies and finite bandwidth effects on the intensity correlations based on the Markov approximation were calculated. Results may be applied to quite general turbulence spectra for an extended turbulent medium. Calculations of the cross-correlation function and of finite bandwidth effects are explicitly carried out for both Gaussian and Kolmogorov turbulence spectra. The increases of the correlation scale of intensity fluctuations are different for these two spectra and the difference can be used to determine whether the interstellar turbulent medium has a Gaussian or a Kolmogorov spectrum.

  8. On-Orbit Thermal Performance and Model Correlation of the Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Keith

    1999-01-01

    The Fast Auroral SnapshoT explorer (FAST) spacecraft, the second of NASA's Small Explorer (SMEX) series of scientific satellites, was launched on August 21, 1996 by a Pegasus XL launch vehicle. Due to slightly higher than expected temperatures during early orbit operations, an extensive thermal model correlation effort was undertaken to understand and characterize FAST's thermal performance in order to properly orient the spacecraft's attitude during its mission. FAST's thermal design and the on-orbit thermal model correlation and resolution are described. Finally, the correlated model's predictions are compared with nine months of flight data.

  9. Exploring the behaviour of long gamma-ray bursts with intrinsic afterglow correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, Samantha

    2016-07-01

    We present a correlation observed in both the optical and X-ray afterglows of long duration Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs), between the initial luminosity (measured at restframe 200s) and average afterglow decay rate. This correlation does not depend on the presence of specific light curve features and is potentially applicable to all long GRB afterglows. We explore how the correlation parameters from the optical and X-ray bands relate to each other and to the prompt emission phase. We will also explore the implications and test if the observations are consistent with the expectations of the standard afterglow model.

  10. Strong orbital correlations in a Fe-substituted spin-glass-manganite

    SciTech Connect

    Granado, E.; Azimonte, C.; Souza, R.A.; Souza-Neto, N.M.; Urbano, R.R.; Perez, C.A.; Ramos, A.Y.; Lynn, J.W.; Bychkov, G.L.; Shiryaev, S.V.; Barilo, S.N.

    2005-08-01

    The compound La{sub 0.66}Ba{sub 0.40}Mn{sub 0.61}Fe{sub 0.33}O{sub 3} shows anisotropic magnetic correlations with no long-range order. Specific heat measurements suggest these correlations represent the bulk. Orbital correlations of Mn{sup 3+}e{sub g} electrons, surviving in an environment of largely disordered exchange interactions, are invoked to account for this magnetic state. These results argue in favor of a strain-field mechanism for orbital ordering in manganites.